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Sample records for constant amplitude fatigue

  1. Standard practice for conducting force controlled constant amplitude axial fatigue tests of metallic materials

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the procedure for the performance of axial force controlled fatigue tests to obtain the fatigue strength of metallic materials in the fatigue regime where the strains are predominately elastic, both upon initial loading and throughout the test. This practice is limited to the fatigue testing of axial unnotched and notched specimens subjected to a constant amplitude, periodic forcing function in air at room temperature. This practice is not intended for application in axial fatigue tests of components or parts. Note 1-The following documents, although not directly referenced in the text, are considered important enough to be listed in this practice: E 739 Practice for Statistical Analysis of Linear or Linearized Stress-Life (S-N) and Strain-Life (-N) Fatigue Data STP 566 Handbook of Fatigue Testing STP 588 Manual on Statistical Planning and Analysis for Fatigue Experiments STP 731 Tables for Estimating Median Fatigue Limits

  2. Standard practice for verification of constant amplitude dynamic forces in an axial fatigue testing system

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers procedures for the dynamic verification of cyclic force amplitude control or measurement accuracy during constant amplitude testing in an axial fatigue testing system. It is based on the premise that force verification can be done with the use of a strain gaged elastic element. Use of this practice gives assurance that the accuracies of forces applied by the machine or dynamic force readings from the test machine, at the time of the test, after any user applied correction factors, fall within the limits recommended in Section 9. It does not address static accuracy which must first be addressed using Practices E 4 or equivalent. 1.2 Verification is specific to a particular test machine configuration and specimen. This standard is recommended to be used for each configuration of testing machine and specimen. Where dynamic correction factors are to be applied to test machine force readings in order to meet the accuracy recommended in Section 9, the verification is also specific to the c...

  3. Experimental examination for microcrack lifetime calculation under proportionally multiaxial fatigue loading with constant and variable amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savaidis, G.; Seeger, T.

    1994-01-01

    Basic experimental examinations were performed in the frame of this work, for determining the deformation and failure behaviour of metallic materials at multiaxially proportional fatigue loading with variable amplitudes, using the materials StE 460 and AlMg4.5Mn. With the help of deformation controlled, varying single stage Woehler tests with Hour-glass and thin-walled tube specimens, applying pure normal force, pure torsion and composed normal force and torsion, the cyclic deformation behaviour, incipient cracking and crack opening and crack growth behaviour of the materials was examined. (orig.) [de

  4. Study of stiffness and bearing capacity degradation of reinforced concrete beams under constant-amplitude fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fangping; Zhou, Jianting; Yan, Lei

    2018-01-01

    For a reinforced concrete beam subjected to fatigue loads, the structural stiffness and bearing capacity will gradually undergo irreversible degeneration, leading to damage. Moreover, there is an inherent relationship between the stiffness and bearing capacity degradation and fatigue damage. In this study, a series of fatigue tests are performed to examine the degradation law of the stiffness and bearing capacity. The results pertaining to the stiffness show that the stiffness degradation of a reinforced concrete beam exhibits a very clear monotonic decreasing "S" curve, i.e., the stiffness of the beam decreases significantly at the start of the fatigue loading, it undergoes a linear decline phase in the middle for a long loading period, and before the failure, the bearing capacity decreases drastically again. The relationship between the residual stiffness and residual bearing capacity is determined based on the assumption that the residual stiffness and residual bearing capacity depend on the same damage state, and then, the bearing capacity degradation model of the reinforced concrete beam is established based on the fatigue stiffness. Through the established model and under the premise of the known residual stiffness degradation law, the degradation law of the bearing capacity is determined by using at least one residual bearing capacity test data, for which the parameters of the stiffness degradation function are considered as material constants. The results of the bearing capacity show that the bearing capacity degradation of the reinforced concrete beam also exhibits a very clear monotonic decreasing "S" curve, which is consistent with the stiffness degradation process and in good agreement with the experiment. In this study, the stiffness and bearing capacity degradation expressions are used to quantitatively describe their occurrence in reinforced concrete beams. In particular, the expression of the bearing capacity degradation can mitigate numerous

  5. EFFECT OF STRAIN HARDENING ON FATIGUE CRACK CLOSURE IN ALUMINUM ALLOY UNDER CONSTANT AMPLITUDE WITH SINGLE OVERLOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirpesh Vikram

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study effect of strain hardening on crack closure has been examined with the help of experiments and finite element method on the side edge notched specimen of five different Aluminum alloy (3003 Al, 5052 Al, 6061 T6, 6063 T6, 6351 in mode I under constant amplitude fatigue loading with single overload using Abaqus® 6.10 which is very well accepted FEM application in research. Extended Finite Element Method Module has been used to determine effective stress intensity factor at the crack tip while propagation takes place. FEM results have given good agreement with experimental results. Regression analysis has also been done with SPSS® 16 and dependency of strain hardening coefficient on crack closure has analyzed. A generalized empirical formula has been developed based on strain hardening to calculate effective stress intensity range ratio and a modified Paris law has also been formulated for these aluminum alloy.

  6. A procedure to generate input data of cyclic softening and hardening for FEM analysis from constant strain amplitude fatigue tests in LCF regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarajaervi, U.; Cronvall, O.

    2007-03-01

    Fatigue is produced by cyclic application of stresses by mechanical or thermal loading. The metal subjected to fluctuating stress will fail at stresses much lower than those required to cause fracture in a single application of load. The key parameters are the range of stress variation and the number of its occurrences. Low-cycle fatigue, usually induced by mechanical and thermal loads, is distinguished from high-cycle fatigue, mainly associated with vibration or high number of small thermal fluctuations. Numerical models describing fatigue behaviour of austenitic stainless piping steels under cyclic loading and their applicability for modelling of low-cycle-fatigue are discussed in this report. In order to describe the cyclic behaviour of the material for analysis with finite element method (FEM) based analysis code ABAQUS, the test data, i.e. stress-strain curves, have to be processed. A code to process the data all through the test duration was developed within this study. A description of this code is given also in this report. Input data for ABAQUS was obtained to describe both kinematic and isotropic hardening properties. Further, by combining the result data for various strain amplitudes a mathematic expression was be created which allows defining a parameter surface for cyclic (i.e. isotropic) hardening. Input data for any strain amplitude within the range of minimum and maximum strain amplitudes of the test data can be assessed with the help of the developed 3D stress-strain surface presentation. The modelling of the fatigue induced initiation and growth of cracks was not considered in this study. On the other hand, a considerable part of the fatigue life of nuclear power plant (NPP) piping components is spent in the phase preceding the initiation and growth of cracks. (au)

  7. Multiaxial fatigue of cast aluminium EN AC-42000 T6 (G-AlSi7Mg0.3 T6 for automotive safety components under constant and variable amplitude loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Sonsino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the fatigue behaviour of EN AC-42000 T6 (A 356 T6, which is the most frequently used cast aluminium alloy for automotive safety components, especially under non-proportional constant and variable normal and shear stress amplitudes with changing principal stress directions, a poor level of knowledge was available. The reported investigations show that, under non-proportional normal and shear stresses, fatigue life is increased in contrast to ductile steels where life is reduced due to changing principal stress directions. This behaviour caused by the low ductility of this alloy (e < 10% compared to quenched and tempered steels suggests the application of the Normal (Principal Stress Hypothesis (NSH. For all of the investigated stress states under multiaxial constant and variable (Gaussian spectrum amplitudes without and with mean stresses, the NSH was able to depict the life increase by the non-proportionality and delivered, for most cases, conservative but non-exaggerated results.

  8. Behavior in fatigue of longitudinal welded joints of pipeline API 5L X-70 steel at constant and variable amplitude; Comportamento em fadiga de juntas soldadas longitudinais de aco para dutos API 5L X-70 em amplitude constante e variavel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltrao, Marcelo A.N.; Reis, Felippe T.C.; Castrodeza, Enrique M.; Bastian, Fernando L. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia

    2005-07-01

    The fatigue behavior of base metal, weld metal and heat affected zone of longitudinal welded joints of API 5L X-70 pipeline steel used in oil and gas transportation were studied. Fatigue tests were carried under load control for R = 0.1 and 0.5 with constant and variable amplitude, in this case with application of alternate tensile overloads (75 and 100% of maximum load) at 0,5 mm crack growth intervals. The fatigue tests results were obtained by a vs. N and da/dN vs. {delta}K curves. It can be inferred from a vs. N curves that the specimens submitted to R = 0.5 showed smaller fatigue lives than the ones under R = 0.1, with application of overloads or not. The da/dN vs. {delta}K curves exhibited the highest propagation rates for welded joints submitted to R = 0.5. The overloads promoted delay on crack growth at the three regions of the welded joints, the effect being more pronounced for R 0.1. However, for both R values, the effect of crack propagation delay with the overloads decreased with the increase of {delta}K value. (author)

  9. Fatigue Reliability under Multiple-Amplitude Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    A method to determine the fatigue of structures subjected to multiple-amplitude loads is presented. Unlike the more common cumulative damage methods, which are usually based on fatigue life data, the proposed method is based on tensile strength data. Assuming the Weibull distribution for the init...

  10. Variable amplitude fatigue, modelling and testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Thomas.

    1993-01-01

    Problems related to metal fatigue modelling and testing are here treated in four different papers. In the first paper different views of the subject are summarised in a literature survey. In the second paper a new model for fatigue life is investigated. Experimental results are established which are promising for further development of the mode. In the third paper a method is presented that generates a stochastic process, suitable to fatigue testing. The process is designed in order to resemble certain fatigue related features in service life processes. In the fourth paper fatigue problems in transport vibrations are treated

  11. Fatigue life assessment under multiaxial variable amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morilhat, P.; Kenmeugne, B.; Vidal-Salle, E.; Robert, J.L.

    1996-06-01

    A variable amplitude multiaxial fatigue life prediction method is presented in this paper. It is based on a stress as input data are the stress tensor histories which may be calculated by FEM analysis or measured directly on the structure during the service loading. The different steps of he method are first presented then its experimental validation is realized for log and finite fatigue lives through biaxial variable amplitude loading tests using cruciform steel samples. (authors). 9 refs., 7 figs

  12. Fatigue Crack Propagation Under Variable Amplitude Loading Analyses Based on Plastic Energy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane Maachou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasticity effects at the crack tip had been recognized as “motor” of crack propagation, the growth of cracks is related to the existence of a crack tip plastic zone, whose formation and intensification is accompanied by energy dissipation. In the actual state of knowledge fatigue crack propagation is modeled using crack closure concept. The fatigue crack growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable amplitude loading of the aluminum alloy 2024 T351 are analyzed using in terms energy parameters. In the case of VAL (variable amplitude loading tests, the evolution of the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is shown similar with that observed under constant amplitude loading. A linear relationship between the crack growth rate and the hysteretic energy dissipated per block is obtained at high growth rates. For lower growth rates values, the relationship between crack growth rate and hysteretic energy dissipated per block can represented by a power law. In this paper, an analysis of fatigue crack propagation under variable amplitude loading based on energetic approach is proposed.

  13. Fatigue behaviour of fiberglass wind turbine blade material under variable amplitude loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delft, D.R.V. Van; Winkel, G.D. de [Delft Univ. of Technology, STEVIN Lab., Delft (Netherlands); Joosse, P.A. [Stork Product Engineering b.v., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1996-09-01

    In the work presented here fatigue tests with the WISPER and WISPERX load sequence have been carried out and analysed. The test programme includes tests at low stress levels which results in fatigue lives of 50 millions of cycles. The results are compared with constant amplitude tests in the very high cycle range, carried out in a previous programme. The results are also compared with ECN results in the lower cycle range (on identical specimens). It appeared, that the difference between the fatigue life of the specimens tested with the WISPER and the WISPERX load sequence is larger than can be expected from the theoretical damage rates. Moreover, the slope of the S-N data differs from theoretical values obtained by using commonly applied design rules. (au)

  14. Interpreting Changes in Surface EMG Amplitude During High-Level Fatiguing Contractions of the Brachioradialis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lowery, M

    2001-01-01

    ... to estimate muscle fatigue. In this paper, theoretical relationships between surface EMG amplitude measures and mean motor unit firing rates and muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) are established...

  15. EMG amplitude, fatigue threshold, and time to task failure: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrary, J Matt; Ackermann, Bronwen J; Halaki, Mark

    2017-11-11

    Electromyographic (EMG) fatigue threshold (EMG FT ) is utilised as a correlate of critical power, torque, and force thresholds that establishes a theoretical exercise intensity-the power, torque, or force at which the rate of change of EMG amplitude (ΔEM¯G) is zero-below which neuromuscular fatigue is negligible and unpredictable. Recent studies demonstrating neuromuscular fatigue below critical thresholds raise questions about the construct validity of EMG FT . The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate the construct validity of EMGFT by aggregating ΔEM¯G and time to task failure (T lim ) data. Meta-analysis. Database search of MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Cochrane (inception - September 2016) conducted using terms relevant to EMG and muscle fatigue. Inclusion criteria were studies reporting agonist muscle EMG amplitude data during constant force voluntary isometric contractions taken to task failure. Linear and nonlinear regression models were used to relate ΔEM¯G and T lim data extracted from included studies. Regression analyses included data from 837 healthy adults from 43 studies. Relationships between ΔEM¯G and T lim were strong in both nonlinear (R 2 =0.65) and linear (R 2 =0.82) models. ΔEM¯G at EMG FT was significantly nonzero overall and in 3 of 5 cohorts in the nonlinear model (pEMG FT lacks face validity as currently calculated; models for more precise EMG FT calculation are proposed. A new framework for prediction of task failure using EMG amplitude data alone is presented. The ΔEM¯G vs. Tlim relationship remains consistent across sexes and force vs. position tasks. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue crack initiation of magnesium alloys under elastic stress amplitudes: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B. J.; Xu, D. K.; Wang, S. D.; Han, E. H.

    2017-12-01

    The most advantageous property of magnesium (Mg) alloys is their density, which is lower compared with traditional metallic materials. Mg alloys, considered the lightest metallic structural material among others, have great potential for applications as secondary load components in the transportation and aerospace industries. The fatigue evaluation of Mg alloys under elastic stress amplitudes is very important in ensuring their service safety and reliability. Given their hexagonal close packed structure, the fatigue crack initiation of Mg and its alloys is closely related to the deformation mechanisms of twinning and basal slips. However, for Mg alloys with shrinkage porosities and inclusions, fatigue cracks will preferentially initiate at these defects, remarkably reducing the fatigue lifetime. In this paper, some fundamental aspects about the fatigue crack initiation mechanisms of Mg alloys are reviewed, including the 3 followings: 1) Fatigue crack initiation of as-cast Mg alloys, 2) influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation of wrought Mg alloys, and 3) the effect of heat treatment on fatigue initiation mechanisms. Moreover, some unresolved issues and future target on the fatigue crack initiation mechanism of Mg alloys are also described.

  17. Fatigue Crack and Delamination Growth in Fibre Metal Laminates under Variable Amplitude Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, S.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents the investigation into the fatigue propagation and delamination growth of Fibre Metal Laminates under variable amplitude loading. As explained in the first chapter, the motivation of the research is twofold: first, to obtain a clear understanding and detailed characterization of

  18. The differential effects of fatigue on reflex response timing and amplitude in males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian D; Drouin, Joshua; Gansneder, Bruce M; Shultz, Sandra J

    2002-10-01

    We examined the effects of fatigue on patellar tendon reflex responses in males and females. A spring-loaded reflex hammer elicited a standardized tendon tap with the knee positioned in an isokinetic dynamometer and flexed to 85 degrees. We recorded vastus lateralis activity (SEMG) and knee extension force production at the distal tibia (force transducer). Reflex trials were performed before and after (immediate, 2, 4, and 6 min) an isokinetic fatigue protocol to 50% MVC (90 degrees /s). For each event, pre-motor time (PMT), electromechanical delay (EMD), and total motor time (TMT) were obtained, as well as EMG amplitude (EMG(amp)), time to peak EMG (EMG(tpk)), peak force amplitude (F(amp)), time to peak force (F(tpk)), EMG:force ratio (E:F), and rate of force production (F(rate)=N/ms). TMT increased significantly in females following fatigue, while males showed no change. The increased TMT was due to an increased EMD with fatigue, while PMT was unaffected. EMG(amp) and F(amp) were somewhat diminished in females yet significantly augmented in males following fatigue, likely accounting for the differential changes in EMD noted. Results suggest males and females may respond differently to isokinetic fatigue, with males having a greater capacity to compensate for contraction force failure when responding to mechanical perturbations.

  19. Fatigue Damage Evaluation of Friction Stir Spot Welded Cross-Tension Joints Under Repeated Two-Step Force Amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy-A-Ka, Sutep; Ogawa, Yuki; Akebono, Hiroyuki; Kato, Masahiko; Sugeta, Atsushi; Sun, Yufeng; Fujii, Hidetoshi

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates an approach to evaluate the fatigue damage of FSSW cross-tension specimens under two-step force amplitude conditions. In fatigue tests with repeated two-step force amplitude, the fatigue limit of the welded joint disappeared. However, the fatigue damage evaluation using the modified Miner's rule erred too much on the side of safety, as the modified Miner's rule tends to overestimate the damage by applied forces below the fatigue limit. Thus, it was determined that, within the testing conditions used in this study, the fatigue damage evaluation using Haibach's method yielded an accurate evaluation. In the case where significant plastic deformation caused by the applied force occurred near the welded zone, the cumulative fatigue damage value based on Miner's rule was often larger than unity. Therefore, it is important to consider a cumulative damage estimation that takes into account the effect of pre-strain from the high force amplitude.

  20. A New Method for Maintaining Constant Dither Amplitude in Low Frequency PWM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KANG, H.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various controls for fluid flow and pressure are now required in related industries, and the pulse width modulation (PWM and dithering techniques have become essential for the proportional control of solenoids. However, there is a fatal drawback when the dither current signals are generated as a by-product of low frequency PWM. That is, the average current and the dither amplitude in low frequency PWM cannot be controlled independently. Therefore, a new method for maintaining constant dither amplitudes is proposed in this paper. Throughout the mathematical analysis, the effect of PWM frequency and duty cycle on the average current and dither amplitude was investigated, and the analysis result was validated by electrical experiments. Based on the mathematical analysis, a new method that properly varies both the duty cycle and the PWM frequency to obtain the desired average current and constant dither amplitude was established and verified. This method requires only the calculations for determining the proper PWM frequency and duty cycle, so it is possible to improve the performance of a proportional solenoid valve without additional devices or cost.

  1. Flat-Cladding Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors for Large Strain Amplitude Fatigue Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xijia Gu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We have successfully developed a flat-cladding fiber Bragg grating sensor for large cyclic strain amplitude tests of up to ±8,000 με. The increased contact area between the flat-cladding fiber and substrate, together with the application of a new bonding process, has significantly increased the bonding strength. In the push-pull fatigue tests of an aluminum alloy, the plastic strain amplitudes measured by three optical fiber sensors differ only by 0.43% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±7,000 με and 1.9% at a cyclic strain amplitude of ±8,000 με. We also applied the sensor on an extruded magnesium alloy for evaluating the peculiar asymmetric hysteresis loops. The results obtained were in good agreement with those measured from the extensometer, a further validation of the sensor.

  2. Low cycle fatigue behavior of the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy under different strain amplitudes and strain rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Wang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low cycle fatigue behavior of extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy was investigated under uniaxial tension-compression at different strain amplitudes and strain rates. The results show that the extruded AZ80 magnesium alloy exhibits cyclic hardening at strain amplitudes ranging from 0.4% to 1.0%, the asymmetry of hysteresis loops becomes increasingly obvious when the strain amplitude increases. Higher strain rates correspond to higher stress amplitudes, high mean stresses and short fatigue life. {10–12} extension twins play a role in the cyclic deformation under higher strain amplitudes (0.8%, 1.0%. The relationship between total strain energy density and fatigue life can be described by the modified Morrow model. The effect of strain rate on the fatigue life can also be predicted by the model.

  3. Study the Cyclic Plasticity Behavior of 508 LAS under Constant, Variable and Grid-Load-Following Loading Cycles for Fatigue Evaluation of PWR Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barua, Bipul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Soppet, William K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report provides an update of an earlier assessment of environmentally assisted fatigue for components in light water reactors. This report is a deliverable in September 2016 under the work package for environmentally assisted fatigue under DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability program. In an April 2016 report, we presented a detailed thermal-mechanical stress analysis model for simulating the stress-strain state of a reactor pressure vessel and its nozzles under grid-load-following conditions. In this report, we provide stress-controlled fatigue test data for 508 LAS base metal alloy under different loading amplitudes (constant, variable, and random grid-load-following) and environmental conditions (in air or pressurized water reactor coolant water at 300°C). Also presented is a cyclic plasticity-based analytical model that can simultaneously capture the amplitude and time dependency of the component behavior under fatigue loading. Results related to both amplitude-dependent and amplitude-independent parameters are presented. The validation results for the analytical/mechanistic model are discussed. This report provides guidance for estimating time-dependent, amplitude-independent parameters related to material behavior under different service conditions. The developed mechanistic models and the reported material parameters can be used to conduct more accurate fatigue and ratcheting evaluation of reactor components.

  4. A time-to-amplitude converter with constant fraction timing discriminators for short time interval measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostamovaara, J.; Myllylae, R.

    1985-01-01

    The construction and the performance of a time-to-amplitude converter equipped with constant fraction discriminators is described. The TAC consists of digital and analog parts which are constructed on two printed circuit boards, both of which are located in a single width NIM module. The dead time of the TAC for a start pulse which is not followed by a stop pulse within the time range of the device (proportional100 ns) is only proportional100 ns, which enables one to avoid counting rate saturation even with a high random input signal rate. The differential and integral nonlinearities of the TAC are better than +-1.5% and 0.05%, respectively. The resolution for input timing pulses of constant shape is 20 ps (fwhm), and less than 10 ps (fwhm) with a modification in the digital part. The walk error of the constant fraction timing discriminators is presented and various parameters affecting it are discussed. The effect of the various disturbances in linearity caused by the fast ECL logic and their minimization are also discussed. The time-to-amplitude converter has been used in positron lifetime studies and for laser range finding. (orig.)

  5. Effect of Variable Amplitude Blocks' Ordering on the Functional Fatigue of Superelastic NiTi Wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soul, Hugo; Yawny, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Accumulation of superelastic cycles in NiTi uniaxial element generates changes on the stress-strain response. Basically, there is an uneven drop of martensitic transformation stress plateaus and an increase of residual strain. This evolution associated with deterioration of superelastic characteristics is referred to as "functional fatigue" and occurs due to irreversible microstructural changes taking place each time a material domain transforms. Unlike complete cycles, for which straining is continued up to elastic loading of martensite, partial cycles result in a differentiated evolution of those material portions affected by the transformation. It is then expected that the global stress-strain response would reflect the previous cycling history of the specimen. In the present work, the consequences of cycling of NiTi wires using blocks of different strain amplitudes interspersed in different sequences are analyzed. The effect of successive increasing, successive decreasing, and interleaved strain amplitudes on the evolution of the superelastic response is characterized. The feasibility of postulating a functional fatigue criterion similar to the Miner's cumulative damage law used in structural fatigue analysis is discussed. The relation of the observed stress-strain response with the transformational history of the specimen can be rationalized by considering that the stress-induced transformation proceeds via localized propagating fronts.

  6. Effects of fatiguing constant versus alternating intensity intermittent isometric muscle actions on maximal torque and neuromuscular responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C M; Housh, T J; Hill, E C; Cochrane, K C; Jenkins, N Dm; Schmidt, R J; Johnson, G O

    2016-12-14

    To determine the effects of constant versus alternating applications of torque during fatiguing, intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque and neuromuscular responses. Sixteen subjects performed two protocols, each consisting of 50 intermittent isometric muscle actions of the leg extensors with equal average load at a constant 60% MVIC or alternating 40 then 80% (40/80%) MVIC with a work-to-rest ratio of 6-s on and 2-s off. MVIC torque as well as electromyographic signals from the vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), and rectus femoris (RF) and mechanomyographic signals from the VL were recorded pretest, immediately posttest, and 5-min posttest. The results indicated that there were no time-related differences between the 60% MVIC and 40/80% MVIC protocols. The MVIC torque decreased posttest (22 to 26%) and remained depressed 5-min posttest (9%). There were decreases in electromyographic frequency (14 to 19%) and mechanomyographic frequency (23 to 24%) posttest that returned to pretest levels 5-min posttest. There were no changes in electromyographic amplitude and mechanomyogrpahic amplitude. These findings suggested that these neuromuscular parameters did not track the fatigue-induced changes in MVIC torque after 5-min of recovery.

  7. Prediction of composite fatigue life under variable amplitude loading using artificial neural network trained by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohman, Muhamad Nur; Hidayat, Mas Irfan P.; Purniawan, Agung

    2018-04-01

    Neural networks (NN) have been widely used in application of fatigue life prediction. In the use of fatigue life prediction for polymeric-base composite, development of NN model is necessary with respect to the limited fatigue data and applicable to be used to predict the fatigue life under varying stress amplitudes in the different stress ratios. In the present paper, Multilayer-Perceptrons (MLP) model of neural network is developed, and Genetic Algorithm was employed to optimize the respective weights of NN for prediction of polymeric-base composite materials under variable amplitude loading. From the simulation result obtained with two different composite systems, named E-glass fabrics/epoxy (layups [(±45)/(0)2]S), and E-glass/polyester (layups [90/0/±45/0]S), NN model were trained with fatigue data from two different stress ratios, which represent limited fatigue data, can be used to predict another four and seven stress ratios respectively, with high accuracy of fatigue life prediction. The accuracy of NN prediction were quantified with the small value of mean square error (MSE). When using 33% from the total fatigue data for training, the NN model able to produce high accuracy for all stress ratios. When using less fatigue data during training (22% from the total fatigue data), the NN model still able to produce high coefficient of determination between the prediction result compared with obtained by experiment.

  8. Thermally induced high frequency random amplitude fatigue damage at sharp notches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, M.W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using the SUPERSOMITE facility to investigate the initiation and growth of fatigue cracks at the tips of sharp surface notches subjected to random thermally-induced stress. The experimental situation is complex involving plasticity, random amplitude loading and heat transfer medium/surface coupling. Crack initiation and growth prediction have been considered using the Creager and Neuber methods to compute the strain ranges in the vicinity of the notch root. Good agreement has been obtained between the experimental results and theoretical predictions. The paper reports the results of the analysis of the notch behavior

  9. Uncertainty on Fatigue Damage Accumulation for Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented.......In the present paper stochastic models for fatigue damage accumulation for composite materials are presented based on public available constant and variable amplitude fatigue tests. The methods used for estimating the SN-curve and accumulated fatigue damage are presented....

  10. Variable amplitude fatigue analysis using surrogate models and exact XFEM reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pais, Matthew Jon

    Fatigue crack growth occurs as the result of repeated cyclic loading well below the stress levels which typically would cause failure. The number of cycles to failure for high-cycle fatigue is commonly of the order of 10 4--108 cycles to failure. Fatigue is characterized by a differential equation which gives the crack growth rate as a function of material properties and the stress intensity factor. Analytical relationships for the stress intensity factor are limited to simple geometries. A numerical method is commonly used to find the stress intensity factor for a given geometry under certain loading. The use of kriging to assist higher-order approximations is introduced. Here stress intensity factor data is fit using a surrogate. This surrogate is used to extrapolate for the purpose of integration, which enables larger step sizes to be taken without a loss in accuracy for the solution of the governing differential equation. Furthermore, it was observed that for the extended finite element method a small portion of the global stiffness matrix is changed as a result of crack growth. It is possible to use this small portion to save on both the assembly and solution of the resulting system of linear equations. This results in savings in both the assembly and factorization of the stiffness matrix for repeated simulations reducing the computational cost associated with numerical fatigue crack growth. The use of the XFEM reanalysis algorithm allow for the analysis of nonproportional mixed-mode variable amplitude loading upon an airplane wing to be considered. An airplane wing box was analyzed using AbaqusRTM. The Abaqus RTM stress solution was used in coordination with airplane flight data provided by the Air Force Research Laboratory. This stress history is converted into a cyclic loading history through the use of the rainflow counting method. The resulting analysis is one where approximately 30,000 cycles elapse. Due to the non-proportional loading, each cycle must

  11. Relationships between the mechanomyographic amplitude patterns of response and concentric isokinetic fatiguing tasks of the leg extensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Fry, Andrew C; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine possible correlations between the b terms (slopes) form the log-transformed mechanomyographic amplitude (MMG RMS )–force relationships and the fatigue index calculated from 50 maximal concentric contractions. Forty healthy subjects (age = 21 ± 2 yr) performed isometric ramp contractions from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction followed by a 50-repetition concentric fatigue protocol of the leg extensors, fatigue index (%) was calculated from the 50-repetitions. MMG was recorded during the ramp contractions from the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). The b terms (slopes) were calculated from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships. Correlations were performed comparing the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF with the fatigue index. Significant positive correlations were found among the b terms from the MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL (p = 0.007, r = 0.417) and RF (p = 0.014, r = 0.386) with the fatigue index. The b terms from the log-transformed MMG RMS –force relationships for the VL and RF may have reflected muscle fiber type composition and, thus, correlated with the fatigue index. This adds further support that the MMG RMS –force relationships may reflect muscle fiber type composition. (paper)

  12. Effect of Surface Impulsive Thermal Loads on Fatigue Behavior of Constant Volume Propulsion Engine Combustor Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Dongming

    2004-01-01

    .... In this study, a simulated engine test rig has been established to evaluate thermal fatigue behavior of a candidate engine combustor material, Haynes 188, under superimposed CO2 laser surface impulsive thermal loads (30 to 100 Hz...

  13. Dislocations structure in copper cyclically deformed in low amplitude of deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, L.C.R.

    1982-07-01

    The evolution of the dislocation structure during the fatigue life of copper, was observed. Fatigue tests were performed, in annealed polycristals, with constant plastic strain amplitude, and interrupted at different percentages of their fatigue lives. Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used for surface analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopy for structural observations. (E.G.) [pt

  14. Fatigue Properties of Plain Concrete under Triaxial Tension-Compression-Compression Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongfu Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue tests were performed on plain concrete under triaxial tension-compression-compression (T-C-C cyclic loading with constant and variable amplitude using a large multiaxial machine. Experimental results show that, under constant amplitude fatigue loads, the development of residual strain in the fatigue loading direction depends mostly on the lateral compressive stress ratio and is nearly independent of stress level. Under variable amplitude fatigue loads, the fatigue residual strain is related to the relative fatigue cycle and lateral compressive stress ratio but has little relationship with the loading process. To model this system, the relative residual strain was defined as the damage variant. Damage evolutions for plain concrete were established. In addition, fatigue damage analysis and predictions of fatigue remaining life were conducted. This work provides a reference for multistage fatigue testing and fatigue damage evaluation of plain concrete under multiaxial loads.

  15. A Modified Constant-Stress Coupon for Enhanced Natural Crack Start during Fatigue Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    has been pioneered by the Structural and Damage Mechanics Group, and which has recently been modified and ported to be used with the Abaqus finite...aerodynamics, structural dynamics testing, digital filtering of flight test data , nonlinear optimisation, and spectral analysis. His recent work has been...usage efficiency and to provide the necessary statistical data for accurate estimation of fatigue life, it was desirable to test many short cracks

  16. ``But I am constant as the North Star*'' - The Return of Polaris as a Low Amplitude Classical Cepheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. J.; Tracey, J. C.; Engle, S. G.; Guinan, E. F.

    2002-12-01

    * Julius Caesar, William Shakespeare Polaris ( ≈ +2.0 mag; B-V = +0.60; F7 Ib) is a low amplitude Classical Cepheid with a pulsation period of P = 3.97 days. Polaris is one of the nearest (dHipparcos = 132 +/- 8 pc) and brightest Cepheid. This Cepheid (Polaris A) is the luminous member of the multiple star system (ADS 1477). Over the last century amazing changing have been occurring for this famous star. The pulsation period has been increasing a rate of dP/dt = +3.2 sec/yr while the light amplitude has decreased from ~0.12 mag (1900s) to ~0.02 mag (early1990s). A recent summary and thorough discussion of Polaris's interesting properties are given by Evans et al. (2002, ApJ, 567, 1121). We have been carrying out photoelectric photometry of Polaris starting in early 2002. This photometry is a continuation of the work done on Polaris by Kamper and Fernie. Our observations were made to obtain new epochal light curves and accurate times of maximum light. We secured well defined 450 nm and 550 nm light curves from which we extracted accurate measures of light amplitudes of 0.033 +/- 0.004 mag and 0.028 +/- 0.003 mag, respectively. These light amplitudes are slightly larger than those observed during the early 1990s. So it appears that the century long decrease in the light amplitude has halted (or paused). Our time of maximum light was combined with previous timings and reaffirms the increase in period of +3.2 sec/yr. These observations lend strong support to overtone nature of Polaris's pulsations, whose transition from moderate to low amplitude pulsator will be discussed in more detail in this poster. In addition to the long-term secular increase in the Polaris's pulsation period, an analysis of the O-Cs indicates +/-0.25 day cyclic oscillations in the apparent period with time scale of 11-12 years. The nature of these period oscillations is being investigated and will be discussed. We gratefully acknowledge the support for this research from NSF/RUI Grant AST 00

  17. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  18. Movement-related cortical potential amplitude reduction after cycling exercise relates to the extent of neuromuscular fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme eSpring

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP, which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 seconds before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 minutes at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence.The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10±8% and the time trial (-21±9%. The voluntary activation level (VAL (-6±8% and -12±10%, peak twitch (Pt (-21±16% and -32±17% and paired stimuli (P100Hz (-7±11% and -12±13% were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100Hz (r=0.61, and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r=0.64.In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  19. Biaxial fatigue of metals the present understanding

    CERN Document Server

    Schijve, Jaap

    2016-01-01

    Problems of fatigue under multiaxial fatigue loads have been addressed in a very large number of research publications. The present publication is primarily a survey of biaxial fatigue under constant amplitude loading on metal specimens. It starts with the physical understanding of the fatigue phenomenon under biaxial fatigue loads. Various types of proportional and non-proportional biaxial fatigue loads and biaxial stress distributions in a material are specified. Attention is paid to the fatigue limit, crack nucleation, initial micro crack growth and subsequent macro-crack in different modes of crack growth. The interference between the upper and lower surfaces of a fatigue crack is discussed. Possibilities for predictions of biaxial fatigue properties are analysed with reference to the similarity concept. The significance of the present understanding for structural design problems is considered. The book is completed with a summary of major observations.

  20. Influence of fatigue–life data modelling on the estimated reliability of a structure subjected to a constant-amplitude loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes how a selected material’s fatigue–life-curve model influences the calculated reliability of a structure subjected to a dynamic loading. A uni-axially loaded structural beam with a fully-reversal constant loading amplitude was considered. The reliability for a certain number of cycles-to-failure was calculated as a cross-section of the probability distributions representing the load–amplitude scatter and the scatter of the material’s fatigue–life curve. The probability density function (PDF) of the loading amplitude was modelled by a uniform and a Gaussian PDF. The scattered fatigue–life curve was modelled by a conditional two-parametric Weibull’s PDF. Its parameters were estimated using two procedures: (i) a two-phase procedure and (ii) a direct procedure. Following the two-phase procedure a conditional PDF of the number of cycles-to-failure was estimated first and then converted into a corresponding conditional PDF of the stress amplitudes. In the direct procedure the conditional PDF of the stress amplitudes was modelled directly from the fatigue–life data. The two procedures were tested on 12 sets of simulated fatigue–life data and a set of experimental fatigue–life data. The two fatigue–life-curve models for the experimental data set were applied for calculating the reliability for the selected structural beam. - Highlights: • Fatigue–life curves and their scatter were estimated by two procedures. • Both procedures enable consideration of run-outs for estimating the fatigue–life curves. • Conditional PDF of stress amplitudes at particular number-of-cycles-to-failure was Weibull PDF. • Influence of the applied procedures to the reliability of the structural part was studied

  1. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  2. Generation of constant-amplitude radio-frequency sweeps at a tunnel junction for spin resonance STM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, William; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Baumann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    We describe the measurement and successful compensation of the radio-frequency transfer function of a scanning tunneling microscope over a wide frequency range (15.5–35.5 GHz) and with high dynamic range (>50 dB). The precise compensation of cabling resonances and attenuations is critical for the production of constant-voltage frequency sweeps for electric-field driven electron spin resonance (ESR) experiments. We also demonstrate that a well-calibrated tunnel junction voltage is necessary to avoid spurious ESR peaks that can arise due to a non-flat transfer function.

  3. Effect of residual stress induced by cold expansion on fatigue crack ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fatigue life and fatigue crack growth rate are controlled by stress ratio, stress level, orientation of crack, temper-ature, residual stress, corrosion, etc. The effects of residual stress on fatigue crack growth in aluminium (Al) alloy 2024-T351 by Mode I crack were investigated by applying constant amplitude cycles based on ...

  4. IEA Joint Action. Wind turbine fatigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maribo Pedersen, B. [ed.

    1996-09-01

    Fatigue research on wind turbine blade material has been an important issue over the years in many countries and in the E.U. As a result of the effort the knowledge on fatigue properties of fibre reinforced materials has been expanded enormously. Practical fatigue design properties are available for constant amplitude tests at ambient temperatures. A lack of knowledge can be shown in several other fields, such as variable amplitude and multi-axial testing and the influence of the environment and carbon fibres. Fatigue is seen as dominant for the blade design, improvements in both the load prediction and material fatigue properties should be strove for. In discussions with blade manufacturers and subsidy agencies (E.U. DGXII, NOVEM, ETSU, etc.) on the importance of continuous materials fatigue research the improvement in reliability should be stressed. (au)

  5. Fatique of Copper Polycrystals at Low Plastic Strain Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K. V.; Pedersen, Ole Bøcker

    1980-01-01

    Single crystals and polycrystals of pure copper were fatigued in tension-compression at constant low amplitudes of plastic strain and low cycling frequencies at room temperature in air. Surface patterns of persistent slip bands were quantitatively examined by optical microscopy. Bulk dislocation...

  6. Probabilistic Modelling of Fatigue Life of Composite Laminates Using Bayesian Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der

    2014-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates subjected to constant-amplitude or variable-amplitude loading is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configurations....... Model parameters are estimated by Bayesian inference. The reference data used consists of constant-amplitude fatigue test results for a multi-directional laminate subjected to seven different load ratios. The paper describes the modelling techniques and the parameter estimation procedure, supported...

  7. Stuy on Fatigue Life of Aluminum Alloy Considering Fretting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Maosheng; Zhao, Hongqiang; Wang, Yunxiang; Chen, Xiaofei; Fan, Jiali

    2018-01-01

    To study the influence of fretting on Aluminum Alloy, a global finite element model considering fretting was performed using the commercial code ABAQUS. With which a new model for predicting fretting fatigue life has been presented based on friction work. The rationality and effectiveness of the model were validated according to the contrast of experiment life and predicting life. At last influence factor on fretting fatigue life of aerial aluminum alloy was investigated with the model. The results revealed that fretting fatigue life decreased monotonously with the increasing of normal load and then became constant at higher pressures. At low normal load, fretting fatigue life was found to increase with increase in the pad radius. At high normal load, however, the fretting fatigue life remained almost unchanged with changes in the fretting pad radius. The bulk stress amplitude had the dominant effect on fretting fatigue life. The fretting fatigue life diminished as the bulk stress amplitude increased.

  8. An Exercise Model to Study Progressive Muscle Fatigue During Constant Work Rate Exercise on a Cycle Ergometer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fulco, Charles

    2003-01-01

    ... of the same muscles during the activity. However, conventional ergometric testing modes such as stationary cycling or treadmill exercise do not readily lend themselves to quantitating the progressive increase in muscle fatigue...

  9. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, J.A.; Vejrum, Tina

    1997-01-01

    on welded plate test specimens have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa.The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which correspond...... to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gage measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Farø Bridges in Denmark.The test series which have been carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fatigue test results and the fracture mechanics analysis indicate that the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results, which are unconservative. The validity of the results obtained from the linear fatigue damage...

  10. Fatigue de-bond growth in adhesively bonded single lap joints

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    life of adhesively bonded joints under both constant and variable amplitude fatigue loads. Keywords. ... This involves three stages such as crack initiation, crack propagation and final fail- ure. During crack ... growth rate curve was determined with this data and used for fatigue life prediction of single-lap joint specimens.

  11. Fatigue crack growth detect, assess, avoid

    CERN Document Server

    Richard, Hans Albert

    2016-01-01

    This book offers a concise introduction to fatigue crack growth, based on practical examples. It discusses the essential concepts of fracture mechanics, fatigue crack growth under constant and variable amplitude loading and the determination of the fracture-mechanical material parameters. The book also introduces the analytical and numerical simulation of fatigue crack growth as well as crack initiation. It concludes with a detailed description of several practical case studies and some exercises. The target group includes graduate students, researchers at universities and practicing engineers.

  12. On the high cycle fatigue behavior of a type 304L stainless steel at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Ludovic; Le Roux, Jean-Christophe; Taheri, Said

    2012-01-01

    An extensive study of the uniaxial cyclic material behavior of an AISI 304L austenitic stainless steel is proposed in the high cycle regime and in constant amplitude loadings. More particularly, the effect on the material behavior and lifetime of a mean axial stress is evaluated imposing either a stress or a strain amplitude. Almost no effect is observed on the stress fatigue curve while a reduction of about 30% is obtained on the strain fatigue curve in the endurance regime. It appears that a stress amplitude fatigue parameter or a Smith-Watson-Topper parameter predict accurately such differences based on the material behavior at maximum cyclic softening. (authors)

  13. Multiscale feature based analysis of surface EMG signals under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navaneethakrishna, M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an attempt has been made to differentiate sEMG signals under muscle fatigue and non-fatigue conditions using multiscale features. Signals are recorded from biceps brachii muscle of 50 normal adults during repetitive dynamic contractions. After prescribed preprocessing, each signal is divided into six segments out of which first and last segments are considered in this analysis. Multiscale RMS (MSRMS) and Multiscale Permutation Entropy (MSPE) are computed for each subject in the time scales ranging from 1 to 50. The median values of the MSRMS and MSPE are calculated for further analysis. The results show an increase in amplitude for sEMG signals under fatigue condition. MSRMS values are found to be significantly higher in fatigue. An approximately constant difference in MSRMS value between fatigue and non-fatigue condition is observed over the entire time scale with a negative slope. Further, the median of MSRMS values for each subject is able to distinguish fatigue and non-fatigue conditions. Similar analysis on MSPE showed significant difference between fatigue and non-fatigue cases and lower values of MSPE is observed in fatigue. It is also observed that the median value of MSRMS and MSPE are able to distinguish these conditions. t-test for MSRMS, MSPE and their median value show high statistical significance. It appears that this method of analysis can be used for clinical evaluation of muscles.

  14. Bayesian inference model for fatigue life of laminated composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Kiureghian, Armen Der; Berggreen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A probabilistic model for estimating the fatigue life of laminated composite plates is developed. The model is based on lamina-level input data, making it possible to predict fatigue properties for a wide range of laminate configurations. Model parameters are estimated by Bayesian inference....... The reference data used consists of constant-amplitude cycle test results for four laminates with different layup configurations. The paper describes the modeling techniques and the parameter estimation procedure, supported by an illustrative application....

  15. Partial Safety Factors for Fatigue Design of Wind Turbine Blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2010-01-01

    In the present paper calibration of partial safety factors for fatigue design of wind turbine blades is considered. The stochastic models for the physical uncertainties on the material properties are based on constant amplitude fatigue tests and the uncertainty on Miners rule for linear damage ac...... of the partial safety factors depending on the level of model and statistical uncertainty. This could be useful for manufactures that perform additional measurements or calculations in order to bring down the model and statistical uncertainties....

  16. Spectrum Fatigue of 7075-T651 Aluminum Alloy under Overloading and Underloading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-15

    up. On the ground, the lower wing skin of the aircraft is under compression . During flight, variable loads due to gust are superimposed on a mean...underload, stress ratio , and environment on fatigue crack growth. Fatigue crack growth tests were conducted with a 7075-T651 aluminum alloy under constant...amplitude, and over- and under-loading of two different stress ratios , 0.1 and 0.85, in vacuum, air and 1 percent NaCl solution. Under constant

  17. Fatigue Strength of Titanium Risers - Defect Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalola, Olusegun Tunde

    2001-07-01

    This study is centred on assessment of the fatigue strength of titanium fusion welds for deep-water riser's applications. Deep-water risers are subjected to significant fatigue loading. Relevant fatigue data for titanium fusion welds are very scarce. Hence there is a need for fatigue data and life prediction models for such weldments. The study has covered three topics: Fatigue testing, Fractography and defect assessment, and Fracture Mechanics modelling of fatigue crack growth. Two series of welded grade of titanium consisting of 14 specimens in each series were fatigue tested under constant amplitude loading. Prior to fatigue testing, strain gauge measurements of some specimens was conducted to enable the definition of stress range in the fatigue assessment procedure. The results were compared with finite solid element analysis and related to fatigue stresses in a riser pipe wall. Distribution and geometry of internal and surface defects both in the as-welded and in the post-weld machined conditions were assessed using fractography. This served as a tool to determine the fatigue initiation point in the welds. Fracture mechanics was applied to model fatigue strength of titanium welds with initiation from weld defects. Two different stress intensity factor formulations for embedded eccentrically placed cracks were used for analysis of elliptical cracks with the major axis parallel and close to one of the free surfaces. The methods were combined to give a satisfactory model for crack growth analysis. The model analyses crack growth of elliptical and semi-elliptical cracks in two directions, with updating of the crack geometry. Fatigue strength assessment was conducted using two crack growth models, the Paris-Erdogan relation with no threshold and the Donahue et al. relation with an implied threshold. The model was validated against experimental data, with a discussion on the choice of crack growth model. (author)

  18. Study of the behavior of welded assemblies subjected to cyclic loads of variable amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumier, A.

    1977-01-01

    The optimum design of structures subjected to variable loads requires the fatigue loading to be defined not only by the extreme stresses which can occur in the structure, but also by the distribution of the amplitudes of loadings. This emphasizes the importance of relations allowing the definition of permissible stresses under variable amplitude loading on the basis of permissible stresses under constant amplitude loading: such relations lead to a thorough use of the very numerous results acquired in classical fatigue testings. The statistical analysis of our tests results confirms, for four as welded joints, the good fit of theoretical values calculated on the basis of BIERETT's theory, so that this theory seems precise enough for calculations rules. However, the differences between theory and experiments, as well as regards the passage from classical fatigue to programmed fatigue, as for the definition of resistance of a welded joint on the basis of classes in classial fatigue, can reach as much as 30%. This lack of precision can be reduced by precise definition of joints classes, also defining permissible sizes of welds defects, on the one hand, and by the precise definition of a curve taking account of an influence of the severity of the notch effect of joints on the passage from classical fatigue to programmed fatigue, on the other hand. Our tests results, which were obtained on joints with very weak or very strong notches led to suggest such a curve

  19. Fatigue life of the casting-magnesium alloy AZ91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenmeier, G.; Mughrabi, H.; Holzwarth, B.; Hoeppel, H.W.; Ding, H.Z.

    2000-01-01

    The cyclic deformation behaviour of the die-casting magnesium alloy AZ91 was investigated at constant total strain amplitudes between 1.4 x 10 -3 and 2 x 10 -2 at room temperature (20 C) and at 130 C. At low total strain amplitudes, a weak cyclic softening at the beginning of the fatigue tests is followed by cyclic hardening, whereas at high total strain amplitudes a strong cyclic hardening occurs throughout. The fatigue lives at 130 C are slightly longer at high strain amplitudes but shorter at low strain amplitudes than at room temperature. The fatigue life data for both temperatures can be described well by the laws of Manson-Coffin and Basquin. The microstructural investigations performed show the strong influence of several microstructural features on the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. In order to understand the fatigue crack propagation behaviour, fatigue tests were interrupted at certain numbers of cycles in order to make replicas of the surface of the samples. It could be verified that crack propagation occurs mainly by the coalescence of smaller cracks. Furthermore, unloading tests, performed within a closed cycle, were carried out in order to capture the changes of stiffness (compliance) during a closed cycle with the aim to ascertain the damage evolution occurring during the fatigue tests and to determine the stresses at which the cracks open and close. Finally, two-step fatigue tests were carried out with the objective to quantify deviations from the linear damage rule (LDR) of Palmgren and Miner. The results obtained in this study will be used to formulate a microstructurally based life-prediction concept for single-step as well as for two-step fatigue loading. (orig.)

  20. High-speed Stochastic Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1990-01-01

    Good stochastic fatigue tests are difficult to perform. One of the major reasons is that ordinary servohydraulic loading systems realize the prescribed load history accurately at very low testing speeds only. If the speeds used for constant amplitude testing are applied to stochastic fatigue...... the analog control device remain as the basic control mechanism in the system, but distorting the input signal by computer in order to minimize the errors of the load history extremes. The principle proves to be very efficient to reduce all kinds of system errors and has shown to be able to increase...

  1. Fatigue in Steel Highway Bridges under Random Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Nielsen, Jette Andkjær

    1999-01-01

    have been carried through. The materials that have been used are either conventional structural steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 400-410 MPa or high-strength steel with a yield stress of f(y) similar to 810-840 MPa. The fatigue tests have been carried out using load histories, which...... correspond to one week's traffic loading, determined by means of strain gauge measurements on the orthotropic steel deck structure of the Faro Bridges in Denmark. The test series carried through show a significant difference between constant amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results. Both...... the fracture mechanics analysis and the fatigue test results indicate that Miner's rule, which is normally used in the design against fatigue in steel bridges, may give results that are unconservative. The validity. of the results obtained from Miner's rule will depend on the distribution of the load history...

  2. Piezoelectric Bolt Breakers and Bolt Fatigue Testers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Barengoltz, Jack; Heckman, Vanessa

    2008-01-01

    A proposed family of devices for inducing fatigue in bolts in order to break the bolts would incorporate piezoelectric actuators into resonant fixtures as in ultrasonic/ sonic drills/corers and similar devices described in numerous prior NASA Tech Briefs articles. These devices were originally intended primarily for use as safer, more-reliable, more-versatile alternatives to explosive bolts heretofore used to fasten spacecraft structures that must subsequently be separated from each other quickly on command during flight. On Earth, these devices could be used for accelerated fatigue testing of bolts. Fatigue theory suggests that a bolt subjected to both a constant-amplitude dynamic (that is, oscillatory) stress and a static tensile stress below the ultimate strength of the bolt material will fail faster than will a bolt subjected to only the dynamic stress. This suggestion would be applied in a device of the proposed type. The device would be designed so that the device and the bolt to be fatigue-tested or broken would be integral parts of an assembly (see figure). The static tension in the tightened bolt would apply not only the clamping force to hold the joined structures (if any) together but also the compression necessary for proper operation of the piezoelectric actuators as parts of a resonant structural assembly. The constant-amplitude dynamic stress would be applied to the bolt by driving the piezoelectric actuators with a sinusoidal voltage at the resonance frequency of longitudinal vibration of the assembly. The amplitude of the excitation would be made large enough so that the vibration would induce fatigue in the bolt within an acceptably short time. In the spacecraft applications or in similar terrestrial structural-separation applications, devices of the proposed type would offer several advantages over explosive bolts: Unlike explosive bolts, the proposed devices would be reusable, could be tested before final use, and would not be subject to

  3. Reinforcing Saccadic Amplitude Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paeye, Celine; Madelain, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    Saccadic endpoint variability is often viewed as the outcome of neural noise occurring during sensorimotor processing. However, part of this variability might result from operant learning. We tested this hypothesis by reinforcing dispersions of saccadic amplitude distributions, while maintaining constant their medians. In a first experiment we…

  4. Fatigue Properties of the Ultra-High Strength Steel TM210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Guang-Qiang; Kang, Xia; Zhao, Gui-Ping

    2017-09-09

    This paper presents the results of an experiment to investigate the high cycle fatigue properties of the ultra-high strength steel TM210A. A constant amplitude rotating bending fatigue experiment was performed at room temperature at stress ratio R = -1. In order to evaluate the notch effect, the fatigue experiment was carried out upon two sets of specimens, smooth and notched, respectively. In the experiment, the rotating bending fatigue life was tested using the group method, and the rotating bending fatigue limit was tested using the staircase method at 1 × 10⁷ cycles. A double weighted least square method was then used to fit the stress-life (S-N) curve. The S-N curves of the two sets of specimens were obtained and the morphologies of the fractures of the two sets of specimens were observed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the fatigue limit of the smooth specimen for rotating bending fatigue was 615 MPa; the ratio of the fatigue limit to tensile strength was 0.29, and the cracks initiated at the surface of the smooth specimen; while the fatigue limit of the notched specimen for rotating bending fatigue was 363 MPa, and the cracks initiated at the edge of the notch. The fatigue notch sensitivity index of the ultra-high strength maraging steel TM210A was 0.69.

  5. Fatigue crack growth in 2017A-T4 alloy subjected to proportional bending with torsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rozumek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of tests on the fatigue crack growth for a constant moment amplitude under combined bending with torsion in the aluminium alloy AW-2017A-T4. The tests were performed under different values of the load ratio R. Plane specimens with stress concentrators in form of the external one-sided sharp notch were tested. A non-uniform fatigue cracks growth on both lateral surfaces of specimens was observed during experimental tests. Fatigue cracks were developing in the specimens in two stages; quarter-elliptic edge cracks were observed at the beginning, then evolving into through cracks

  6. A large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Collins, William; Bennett, Caroline; Laflamme, Simon; Jo, Hongki

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel large-area strain sensing technology for monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The technology is based on a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), which serves as a flexible and large-area strain gauge. Previous experiments have verified the SEC’s capability to monitor low-cycle fatigue cracks experiencing large plastic deformation and large crack opening. Here an investigation into further extending the SEC’s capability for long-term monitoring of fatigue cracks in steel bridges subject to traffic loading, which experience smaller crack openings. It is proposed that the peak-to-peak amplitude (pk-pk amplitude) of the sensor’s capacitance measurement as the indicator of crack growth to achieve robustness against capacitance drift during long-term monitoring. Then a robust crack monitoring algorithm is developed to reliably identify the level of pk-pk amplitudes through frequency analysis, from which a crack growth index (CGI) is obtained for monitoring fatigue crack growth under various loading conditions. To generate representative fatigue cracks in a laboratory, loading protocols were designed based on constant ranges of stress intensity to limit plastic deformations at the crack tip. A series of small-scale fatigue tests were performed under the designed loading protocols with various stress intensity ratios. Test results under the realistic fatigue crack conditions demonstrated the proposed crack monitoring algorithm can generate robust CGIs which are positively correlated with crack lengths and independent from loading conditions.

  7. Surface Irregularity Factor as a Parameter to Evaluate the Fatigue Damage State of CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Zuluaga-Ramírez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an optical non-contact technique to evaluate the fatigue damage state of CFRP structures measuring the irregularity factor of the surface. This factor includes information about surface topology and can be measured easily on field, by techniques such as optical perfilometers. The surface irregularity factor has been correlated with stiffness degradation, which is a well-accepted parameter for the evaluation of the fatigue damage state of composite materials. Constant amplitude fatigue loads (CAL and realistic variable amplitude loads (VAL, representative of real in- flight conditions, have been applied to “dog bone” shaped tensile specimens. It has been shown that the measurement of the surface irregularity parameters can be applied to evaluate the damage state of a structure, and that it is independent of the type of fatigue load that has caused the damage. As a result, this measurement technique is applicable for a wide range of inspections of composite material structures, from pressurized tanks with constant amplitude loads, to variable amplitude loaded aeronautical structures such as wings and empennages, up to automotive and other industrial applications.

  8. Grain-boundary cavitation and migration during high temperature fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snowden, K.U.; Stathers, P.A.; Hughes, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies have been made of the grain-boundary phenomena (cavitation, grain-boundary migration, fractional density change) that occurred during high temperature fatigue tests on commercial purity copper and crystal bar zirconium. The tests were performed on sheet specimens in reverse plane bending at 16 Hz at constant strain amplitudes and under vacuum. The temperature ranges were 360 to 550 0 C for copper and 600 to 775 0 C for zirconium. The numbers of cavities per unit area were estimated at various stages of the fatigue life for copper and zirconium tested at a strain amplitude of +- 0.21%. Most cavities were nucleated during the first 10 to 20% of the fatigue life, when an orthogonal or 'square' grain structure was formed by grain-boundary migration. The rate of migration was highest during this period and the average migration distance was proportional to Nsup(α), where N is the number of strain cycles and α = 2/3. The fractional density change was proportional to N throughout the fatigue life. For zirconium, the temperature dependence of the rates of boundary migration and fractional density change exhibited two distinct regions, which were characterised by differences in apparent activation energy. However, in the case of copper, there was no evidence for a transition temperature. The variations of the fractional density change with N and with temperature were compared with those predicted by theories of high temperature fatigue. (author)

  9. Probabilistic Fatigue Damage Program (FATIG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, Constantine

    2012-01-01

    FATIG computes fatigue damage/fatigue life using the stress rms (root mean square) value, the total number of cycles, and S-N curve parameters. The damage is computed by the following methods: (a) traditional method using Miner s rule with stress cycles determined from a Rayleigh distribution up to 3*sigma; and (b) classical fatigue damage formula involving the Gamma function, which is derived from the integral version of Miner's rule. The integration is carried out over all stress amplitudes. This software solves the problem of probabilistic fatigue damage using the integral form of the Palmgren-Miner rule. The software computes fatigue life using an approach involving all stress amplitudes, up to N*sigma, as specified by the user. It can be used in the design of structural components subjected to random dynamic loading, or by any stress analyst with minimal training for fatigue life estimates of structural components.

  10. Aluminum/boron composite - fatigue life prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plumtree, A.; Glinka, G.

    2002-01-01

    The fatigue behaviour of a 6061-0 aluminum alloy reinforce with 0.25 volume fraction undirectional boron fibres of 100 μm diameter has been investigated. The specimens were tested under constant stress amplitude using a stress ratio (minimum/maximum stress) of 0.2 with the fibres oriented at an angle to the loading direction in order to study the matrix dominated fatigue behaviour. Two sets of data were obtained for unidirectional specimens tested with fibre to load axis angles of 200 and 450 A third set of data was obtained with V 45 angle-ply specimens. It is shown that a microstress/strain analysis in conjunction with a multiaxial fatigue parameter can be applied to successfully predict the fatigue lives of these boron reinforced aluminum alloy composites. The multiaxial parameter enables a generalized strain-life relationship to be determined using limited experimental data. Once this generalized relationship is known, the life of the composite cycled under different loads and load-fibre angles can be predicted. (author)

  11. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth rate of cryorolled Al 7075 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Prosenjit; Jayaganthan, R.; Chowdhury, T.; Singh, I.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → High cycle fatigue of cryorolled Al 7075 alloy has been investigated. → Cryorolled Al alloy showed significant enhancement in fatigue strength. → FCGR resistance of the ufg Al alloy is higher at higher values of applied stress. - Abstract: The effects of cryorolling (CR) on high cycle fatigue (HCF) and fatigue crack growth rate behaviour of Al 7075 alloy have been investigated in the present work. The Al 7075 alloy was rolled for different thickness reductions (40% and 70%) at cryogenic (liquid nitrogen) temperature and its tensile strength, fatigue life, and fatigue crack growth mechanism were studied by using tensile testing, constant amplitude stress controlled fatigue testing, and fatigue crack growth rate testing using load shedding (decreasing ΔK) technique. The microstructural characterization of the alloy was carried out by using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The cryorolled Al alloy after 70% thickness reduction exhibits ultrafine grain (ufg) structure as observed from its FESEM micrographs. The cryorolled Al 7075 alloys showed improved mechanical properties (Y.S, U.T.S, Impact energy and Fracture toughness are 430 Mpa, 530 Mpa, 21 J, 24 Mpa m 1/2 for 40CR alloy) as compared to the bulk 7075 Al alloy. It is due to suppression of dynamic recovery and accumulation of higher dislocations density in the cryorolled Al alloys. The cryorolled Al alloy investigated under HCF regime of intermediate to low plastic strain amplitudes has shown the significant enhancement in fatigue strength as compared to the coarse grained (CG) bulk alloy due to effective grain refinement. Fatigue crack growth (FCGR) resistance of the ufg Al alloy has been found be higher, especially at higher values of applied stress intensity factor ΔK The reasons behind such crack growth retardation is due to diffused crack branching mechanism, interaction between a propagating crack and the increased amount of grain boundaries (GB), and steps developed

  12. A Modified Fatigue Damage Model for High-Cycle Fatigue Life Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption of quasibrittle failure under high-cycle fatigue for the metal material, the damage constitutive equation and the modified damage evolution equation are obtained with continuum damage mechanics. Then, finite element method (FEM is used to describe the failure process of metal material. The increment of specimen’s life and damage state can be researched using damage mechanics-FEM. Finally, the lifetime of the specimen is got at the given stress level. The damage mechanics-FEM is inserted into ABAQUS with subroutine USDFLD and the Python language is used to simulate the fatigue process of titanium alloy specimens. The simulation results have a good agreement with the testing results under constant amplitude loading, which proves the accuracy of the method.

  13. Generation of Constant Life Diagram under Elevated Temperature Ratcheting of 316LN Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Aritra; Nagesha, A.; Sandhya, R.; Mathew, M. D.

    2016-04-01

    Combined influence of mean stress and stress amplitude on the cyclic life under elevated temperature (823-923 K) ratcheting of 316LN austenitic stainless steel is discussed. Constant life Haigh diagrams have been generated, using different combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. In the plastic domain, the allowable stress was found to increase or decrease with mean stress depending on the temperature and combination of mean stress - stress amplitude employed. Strong influence of dynamic strain aging (DSA) was found at 823 K which affected the mode of deformation of the material in comparison with 923 K. Failure mode expressed through a fracture mechanism map was found to change from fatigue to necking depending on the test temperature as well as combinations of mean stress and stress amplitude. Occurrence of DSA at 823 K proved to be beneficial by way of extending the safe zone of operation to higher R-ratios in comparison with 923 K.

  14. Contrasty Tests on Fatigue Properties of Aluminum Alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451 in Pooding Environment of Fuel Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Kuang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue properties in typical corrosion environments are the premise of fatigue life design for metallic structures in aircraft. Therefore, fatigue tests were performed on smooth and notched specimens subjected to constant amplitude loading in two environments of dry air and fuel tank ponding respectively to determine pure and corrosion fatigue properties of aluminum alloys 2E12-T3 and 7050-T7451. Corrosion fatigue properties in the two environments were analyzed and compared with each other, and the interaction mechanisms between corrosion and fatigue were deduced from fractographical studies by using scanning election microscope (SEM. It is showed that fuel tank ponding has a detrimental influence on fatigue properties and the adverse effect increases with the decreasing stress level. In addition, the notch of specimen enhances the severity of corrosion effects. Fatigue crack is easily initiate from the corrosion pits on the rough fatigue surface, and crack propagation is enhanced by the corrosion products and the hydrogen embrittlement effects at crack tips, thus the degradation of fatigue properties and the reduction of fatigue life are caused.

  15. Analysis of fatigue, fatique-crack propagation, and fracture data. [design of metallic aerospace structural components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaske, C. E.; Feddersen, C. E.; Davies, K. B.; Rice, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Analytical methods have been developed for consolidation of fatigue, fatigue-crack propagation, and fracture data for use in design of metallic aerospace structural components. To evaluate these methods, a comprehensive file of data on 2024 and 7075 aluminums, Ti-6A1-4V, and 300M and D6Ac steels was established. Data were obtained from both published literature and unpublished reports furnished by aerospace companies. Fatigue and fatigue-crack-propagation analyses were restricted to information obtained from constant-amplitude load or strain cycling of specimens in air at room temperature. Fracture toughness data were from tests of center-cracked tension panels, part-through crack specimens, and compact-tension specimens.

  16. Probabilistic fatigue life of balsa cored sandwich composites subjected to transverse shear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Berggreen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    shearproperties, for both static strength and fatigue failure, is higher than the variance normallyobserved in the properties for fiber-reinforced polymer composite laminates. This could be attributed to the fact that end-grain balsa wood is the product of a naturally occurringgrowth process, which cannot......A probabilistic fatigue life model for end-grain balsa cored sandwich composites subjectedto transverse shear is proposed. The model is calibrated to measured three-pointbending constant-amplitude fatigue test data using the maximum likelihood method. Some possible applications of the probabilistic...... model are obtaining characteristic S–Ncurves corresponding to a given survival probability, and calibrating partial safety factorsfor material fatigue. The latter is demonstrated by a calibration performed using reliability analysis with the first-order reliability method. The measured variance in balsa...

  17. Study on crack propagation in tubular joints under compressive fatigue loadings

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Claire; Nussbaumer, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Large scale tubular truss beams, approximately of 9 m long and 2 m high, were tested under constant amplitude fatigue loading. The beams were made out of circular hollow sections of steel S355, welded to form a uni-planar truss with K-joints, in a shape common to bridge construction. The main goal of these tests was to focus on the fatigue behavior of the joints loaded in compression that is with chord in compression, one diagonal in compression and the remaining diagonal in tension. The test...

  18. Quantitative Acoustic Emission Fatigue Crack Characterization in Structural Steel and Weld

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adutwum Marfo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue crack growth characteristics of structural steel and weld connections are analyzed using quantitative acoustic emission (AE technique. This was experimentally investigated by three-point bending testing of specimens under low cycle constant amplitude loading using the wavelet packet analysis. The crack growth sequence, that is, initiation, crack propagation, and fracture, is extracted from their corresponding frequency feature bands, respectively. The results obtained proved to be superior to qualitative AE analysis and the traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics for fatigue crack characterization in structural steel and welds.

  19. Effect of residual stress and surface roughness on the fatigue behaviour of aluminium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smaga, M; Eifler, D

    2010-01-01

    In this investigation the fatigue properties of specimens manufactured with different turning parameters were investigated in stress-controlled constant amplitude tests at ambient temperature. The change of feed rate and depth of cut lead to a change in the near surface microstructure. Hence the fatigue properties were influenced significantly due to different surface roughness and surface residual stress resulting from the unequal turning processes. The cyclic deformation behaviour of AMC225xe is characterised by pronounced initial cyclic hardening. Continuous load increase tests allow a reliable estimation of the endurance limit of AMC225xe with one single specimen on the basis of cyclic deformation, temperature and electrical resistance data.

  20. Aluminum 7075-T6 fatigue data generation and probabilistic life prediction formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemna, John G.

    1998-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. The life extension of aging fleet aircraft requires an assessment of the safe-life remaining after refurbishment. Risk can be estimated by conventional deterministic fatigue analysis coupled with a subjective factor of safety. Alternatively, risk can be quantitatively and objectively predicted by probabilistic analysis. In this investigation, a general probabilistic life formulation is specialized for constant amplitude, fully reverse...

  1. Fatigue behavior of ADI: Some specific features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svejcar, J.; Vechet, S.; Pokluda, J. [Technical Univ. of Brno (Czech Republic). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The paper summarizes the results of fatigue tests on austempered ductile iron. Attention is mainly focused on the effect of graphite on crack propagation and on some irregularities exhibited by ADI and other ductile irons, e.g., some specific features of fatigue fracture (especially the occurrence of fatigue striations on intergranular facets), decrease of fatigue limit with increasing UTS, and anomalous dependence of loading cycle amplitude on mean cycle stress.

  2. Quality and fatigue characteristics relation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Trško

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper will explore the mutual correlation of fatigue characteristics ((Kath, σc, ac = f (Rm of five structural steels tested at highfrequency loading based on tests (f ≈ 20 kHz, T = 20 ± 10 °C, R = -1. Different fatigue resistance parameters have different meanings and misunderstanding can lead to significant quality problems in component operation. Consequently, it is necessary to completely understand the relations between the two most important fatigue characteristics which are fatigue limit σc and the threshold value of the stress intensity factor amplitudeKath and how they act with changing of steel ultimate tensile strength.

  3. Fatigue Evaluation Algorithms: Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Passipoularidis, Vaggelis; Brøndsted, Povl

    A progressive damage fatigue simulator for variable amplitude loads named FADAS is discussed in this work. FADAS (Fatigue Damage Simulator) performs ply by ply stress analysis using classical lamination theory and implements adequate stiffness discount tactics based on the failure criterion of Puck...... series can be simulated. The predictions are validated against fatigue life data both from repeated block tests at a single stress ratio as well as against spectral fatigue using the WISPER, WISPERX and NEW WISPER load sequences on a Glass/Epoxy multidirectional laminate typical of a wind turbine rotor...... blade construction. Two versions of the algorithm, the one using single-step and the other using incremental application of each load cycle (in case of ply failure) are implemented and compared. Simulation results confirm the ability of the algorithm to take into account load sequence effects...

  4. Fatigue evaluation algorithms: Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passipoularidis, V.A.; Broendsted, P.

    2009-11-15

    A progressive damage fatigue simulator for variable amplitude loads named FADAS is discussed in this work. FADAS (Fatigue Damage Simulator) performs ply by ply stress analysis using classical lamination theory and implements adequate stiffness discount tactics based on the failure criterion of Puck, to model the degradation caused by failure events in ply level. Residual strength is incorporated as fatigue damage accumulation metric. Once the typical fatigue and static properties of the constitutive ply are determined,the performance of an arbitrary lay-up under uniaxial and/or multiaxial load time series can be simulated. The predictions are validated against fatigue life data both from repeated block tests at a single stress ratio as well as against spectral fatigue using the WISPER, WISPERX and NEW WISPER load sequences on a Glass/Epoxy multidirectional laminate typical of a wind turbine rotor blade construction. Two versions of the algorithm, the one using single-step and the other using incremental application of each load cycle (in case of ply failure) are implemented and compared. Simulation results confirm the ability of the algorithm to take into account load sequence effects. In general, FADAS performs well in predicting life under both spectral and block loading fatigue. (author)

  5. Fatigue crack growth in fiber-metal laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, YuE; Xia, ZhongChun; Xiong, XiaoFeng

    2014-01-01

    Fiber-metal laminates (FMLs) consist of three layers of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 and two layers of glass/epoxy prepreg, and it (it means FMLs) is laminated by Al alloy and fiber alternatively. Fatigue crack growth rates in notched fiber-metal laminates under constant amplitude fatigue loading were studied experimentally and numerically and were compared with them in monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. It is shown that the fatigue life of FMLs is about 17 times longer than monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plate; and crack growth rates in FMLs panels remain constant mostly even when the crack is long, unlike in the monolithic 2024-T3 Al alloy plates. The formula to calculate bridge stress profiles of FMLs was derived based on the fracture theory. A program by Matlab was developed to calculate the distribution of bridge stress in FMLs, and then fatigue growth lives were obtained. Finite element models of FMLs were built and meshed finely to analyze the stress distributions. Both results were compared with the experimental results. They agree well with each other.

  6. Transition amplitudes within the stochastic quantization scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueffel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum mechanical transition amplitudes are calculated within the stochastic quantization scheme for the free nonrelativistic particle, the harmonic oscillator and the nonrelativistic particle in a constant magnetic field; we close with free Grassmann quantum mechanics. (authors)

  7. Fatigue 󈨛. Volume 1,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    Growth of Small Fatigue 261 Cracks in Copper at Room and Cryogenic Temperatures - I.B. KWON , J. WEERTMAN AND M.E. FINE -ehaviour of Short Cracks in a...Cycli Strai Amplitudes. 0 4 . /2 < 0.3 [maximum stress < 60% oy ] Upon cycling, short cracks initiated in the soft (115 HV) precipitate-free...THE INITIATION AND GROWTH OF SMALL FATIGUE CRACKS IN COPPER AT ROOM AND CRYOGENIC TEMPERATURES I. B. Kwon , J. Weertman and M. E. Fine * The

  8. Controlling fatigue crack paths for crack surface marking and growth investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While it is well known that fatigue crack growth in metals that display confined slip, such as high strength aluminium alloys, develop crack paths that are responsive to the loading direction and the local microstructural orientation, it is less well known that such paths are also responsive to the loading history. In these materials, certain loading sequences can produce highly directional slip bands ahead of the crack tip and by adjusting the sequence of loads, distinct fracture surface features or progression marks, even at very small crack depths can result. Investigating the path a crack selects in fatigue testing when particular combinations of constant and variable amplitude load sequences are applied is providing insight into crack growth. Further, it is possible to design load sequences that allow very small amounts of crack growth to be measured, at very small crack sizes, well below the conventional crack growth threshold in the aluminium alloy discussed here. This paper reports on observations of the crack path phenomenon and a novel test loading method for measuring crack growth rates for very small crack depths in aluminium alloy 7050-T7451 (an important aircraft primary structural material. The aim of this work was to firstly generate short- crack constant amplitude growth data and secondly, through the careful manipulation of the applied loading, to achieve a greater understanding of the mechanisms of fatigue crack growth in the material being investigated. A particular focus of this work is the identification of the possible sources of crack growth retardation and closure in these small cracks. Interpreting these results suggests a possible mechanism for why small fatigue crack growth through this material under variable amplitude loading is faster than predicted from models based on constant amplitude data alone.

  9. Fatigue technology assessment and strategies for fatigue avoidance in marine structures. Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanoglu, Cuneyt C.

    This report provides an up-to-date assessment of fatigue technology, directed specifically toward the marine industry. A comprehensive overview of fatigue analysis and design, a global review of fatigue including rules and regulations and current practices, and a fatigue analysis and design criteria are provided as a general guideline to fatigue assessment. A detailed discussion of all fatigue parameters is grouped under three analysis blocks: fatigue stress model, covering environmental forces, structure response and loading, stress response amplitude operations (RAO's) and hot-spot stresses; fatigue stress history model covering long-term distribution of environmental loading; and fatigue resistance of structures and damage assessment methodologies. The analyses and design parameters that affect fatigue assessment are discussed together with uncertainties and research gaps, to provide a basis for developing strategies for fatigue avoidance. Additional in-depth discussions of wave environment, stress concentration factors, etc. are presented in the appendixes. Assessment of fatigue technology, fatigue stress models, fatigue stress history models, fatigue resistance, fatigue parameters, and fatigue avoidance strategies.

  10. Finite Amplitude Ocean Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    plitude waves and finite amplitude waves. This article provides a brief introduction to finite amplitude wave theories. Some of the general characteristics of waves as well as the importance of finite amplitude wave theories are touched upon. 2. Small Amplitude Waves. The topmost and the lowest levels of the waves are re-.

  11. Shape of Pion Distribution Amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly

    2009-11-01

    A scenario is investigated in which the leading-twist pion distribution amplitude $\\varphi_\\pi (x)$ is approximated by the pion decay constant $f_\\pi$ for all essential values of the light-cone fraction $x$. A model for the light-front wave function $\\Psi (x, k_\\perp)$ is proposed that produces such a distribution amplitude and has a rapidly decreasing (exponential for definiteness) dependence on the light-front energy combination $ k_\\perp^2/x(1-x)$. It is shown that this model easily reproduces the fit of recent large-$Q^2$ BaBar data on the photon-pion transition form factor. Some aspects of scenario with flat pion distribution amplitude are discussed.

  12. Discerning the Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of API X65 Steels Under Sequence Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. I. Mansor

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents the effect of sequence loading on fatigue crack growth of API X65 steel tested in room temperature. Most of pipeline steels are subjected to wide spectrum of loading during the length of service. Influence of load history effect can cause a trickier assessment to the fatigue behaviour. The objective of this study is to determine the fatigue crack growth behaviour under sequence loading. The material used in this study is X65 steel grade, broadly used in transporting the oil and gas. The constant amplitude loading under mode-I loading and stress ratio of 0.1 and 0.7 are investigate. The effects of sequence load are presents by the two-level block loading. The retardation effect is more intense for block sequence loading. At least about 9.7x104 delayed numbers of cycles was observed which is two times longer compared to constant amplitude loading. The load sequence was suggested affected by retardation consequently delayed the crack growth. It was further observed an increase of overload load ratio consequently resulted a crack grows faster about 18%. It was concluded a lengthy in crack growth was associated with the delay cycles suggesting that the fatigue life depends mainly on size of delay zone and compressive residual stress near the crack tip.

  13. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  14. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 1 to 56. (A.L.B.)

  15. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  16. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper is made of two tables. The first table describes the different particles (bosons and fermions) while the second one gives the nuclear constants of isotopes from the different elements with Z = 1 to 25. (J.S.)

  17. Nuclear constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper is written in two tables. The first one describes the different particles (bosons and fermions). The second one gives the isotopes nuclear constants of the different elements, for Z = 56 to 68. (A.L.B.)

  18. High-cycle fatigue characteristics of weldable steel for light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klesnil, M.; Polak, J.; Obrtlik, K.; Troshchenko, V.T.; Mishchenko, Yu.I.; Khamaza, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    Czechoslovak and Soviet 15Kh2NMFA steel was used for running fatigue tests at temperatures of 20, 350 and 400 degC in the high-cycle range with various loading regimes. The results show that at the given temperatures in this type of steel a cyclic softening occurs. The fatigue characteristics were measured with great dispersion of results, but within this dispersion they are almost identical for various steels at the same temperature. Increased temperature results in the decrease in the amplitude of cyclic deformation stress and in the increase in the amplitude of plastic deformation. The diversity in the values of cyclic plasticity and stress response measured in the given mode may be explained by the lower level of softening and the non-homogeneous cyclic plastic deformation of material under the given constant conditions. (J.B.)

  19. Estimation of fatigue life for aluminium welded joints with the application of artificial neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karakas, Oe.

    2011-10-15

    The aim of this investigation was determining the fatigue behaviour of welded aluminium joints and so the appertaining SN-lines by application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architectures. For this, fatigue data obtained with aluminium welded joints subjected to constant amplitude loading were used. The main benefit of ANN is the good description of the effects of different factors on fatigue life. The results determined by the ANN method for four aluminium alloys are displayed in scatter bands of SN-lines. It is observed that the trained results are in good agreement with the tested data and enable the estimation of SN-lines. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. EMG processing to interpret a neural tension-limiting mechanism with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Sutherland, Chad A; Potvin, Jim R

    2014-09-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) amplitude increases with constant muscle tension during fatiguing sub-maximum efforts. The purpose of this study was to determine if extreme highpass filtering and/or autoregressive whitening would result in a more consistent sEMG-to-moment ratio than a standard bandpass filter (20-500 Hz) during repeated, dynamic maximal efforts of the quadriceps. We collected sEMG and knee extensor moment from 16 participants during the concentric and eccentric phases of repeated, maximal knee extensor efforts. The alternative processing methods provided more consistent vastus medialis and lateralis sEMG-to-moment ratios. A neural tension-limiting mechanism appeared to exist and was magnified during the eccentric phase, particularly with fatigue. There appears to be a difference in how the central nervous system controls concentric and eccentric efforts as the quadriceps fatigues, and this is more apparent with the alternative EMG processing methods we used. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fatigue lifetime estimation of railway axles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Fajkoš, R.; Matušek, P.; Hutař, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 73, MAR (2017), s. 139-157 ISSN 1350-6307 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : Residual fatigue lifetime * Railway axle * Variable amplitude loading * Fatigue crack propagation * Damage tolerance methodology Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics OBOR OECD: Audio engineering , reliability analysis Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2016

  2. High cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steels under random loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Petrequin, P.

    1987-08-01

    To investigate reactor components, load control random fatigue tests were performed at 300 0 C and 550 0 C, on specimens from austenitic stainless steels plates in the transverse orientation. Random solicitations are produced on closed loop servo-hydraulic machines by a mini computer which generates random load sequence by the use of reduced Markovian matrix. The method has the advantage of taking into account the mean load for each cycle. The solicitations generated are those of a stationary gaussian process. Fatigue tests have been mainly performed in the endurance region of fatigue curve, with scattering determination using stair case method. Experimental results have been analysed aiming at determining design curves for components calculations, depending on irregularity factor and temperature. Analysis in term of mean square root fatigue limit calculation, shows that random loading gives more damage than constant amplitude loading. Damage calculations following Miner rule have been made using the probability density function for the case where the irregularity factor is nearest to 100 %. The Miner rule is too conservative for our results. A method using design curves including random loading effects with irregularity factor as an indexing parameter is proposed

  3. Fatigue and fracture behavior of low alloy ferritic forged steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhry, V.; Sharma, A.K.; Muktibodh, U.C.; Borwankar, Neeraj; Singh, D.K.; Srinivasan, K.N.; Kulkarni, R.G.

    2016-01-01

    Low alloy ferritic steels are widely used in nuclear industry for the construction of pressure vessels. Pressure vessel forged low alloy steels 20MnMoNi55 (modified) have been developed indigenously. Experiments have been carried out to study the Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and fracture behavior of these forged steels. Fully reversed strain controlled LCF testing at room temperature and at 350 °C has been carried out at a constant strain rate, and for different axial strain amplitude levels. LCF material behavior has been studied from cyclic stress-strain responses and the strain-life relationships. Fracture behavior of the steel has been studied based on tests carried out for crack growth rate and fracture toughness (J-R curve). Further, responses of fatigue crack growth rate tests have been compared with the rate evaluated from fatigue precracking carried out for fracture toughness (J-R) tests. Fractography of the samples have been carried out to reveal dominant damage mechanisms in crack propagation and fracture. The fatigue and fracture properties of indigenously developed low alloy steel 20MnMoNi55 (modified) steels are comparable with similar class of steels. (author)

  4. A Fatigue Life Prediction Model of Welded Joints under Combined Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goes, Keurrie C.; Camarao, Arnaldo F.; Pereira, Marcos Venicius S.; Ferreira Batalha, Gilmar

    2011-01-01

    A practical and robust methodology is developed to evaluate the fatigue life in seam welded joints when subjected to combined cyclic loading. The fatigue analysis was conducted in virtual environment. The FE stress results from each loading were imported to fatigue code FE-Fatigue and combined to perform the fatigue life prediction using the S x N (stress x life) method. The measurement or modelling of the residual stresses resulting from the welded process is not part of this work. However, the thermal and metallurgical effects, such as distortions and residual stresses, were considered indirectly through fatigue curves corrections in the samples investigated. A tube-plate specimen was submitted to combined cyclic loading (bending and torsion) with constant amplitude. The virtual durability analysis result was calibrated based on these laboratory tests and design codes such as BS7608 and Eurocode 3. The feasibility and application of the proposed numerical-experimental methodology and contributions for the technical development are discussed. Major challenges associated with this modelling and improvement proposals are finally presented.

  5. Simple criterion for predicting fatigue life under combined bending and torsion loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Slámečka

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue is a challenging problem and, consequently, a number of methods has been developed to aid in design of components and assemblies. Following the complexity of the problem, these approaches are often elaborate and it is difficult to use them for simple loading cases. In this paper, an empirical approach for constant amplitude, proportional axial and torsion loading is introduced to serve as a basic engineering tool for estimating fatigue life of rotational structural parts. The criterion relies on a quadratic equivalent-stress formula and requires one constant parameter to be determined from experiments. The comparison with similar classical stressbased approaches using data on diverse materials (several steels, aluminium alloy, and nickel base superalloy reveals very good agreement with experimental data.

  6. The reliability of test results from simple test samples in predicting the fatigue performance of automotive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourlaris, G.; Ellwood, R.; Jones, T.B.

    2007-01-01

    The use of high strength steels (HSS) in automotive components is steadily increasing as automotive designers use modern steel grades to improve structural performance, reduce vehicle weight and enhance crash performance. Weight reduction can be achieved by substituting mild steel with a thinner gauge HSS, however, it must be ensured that no deterioration in performance including fatigue capability occurs. In this study, tests have been carried out to determine the effects that gauge and material strength have on the fatigue performance of a fusion welded automotive suspension arm. Current finite element (FE) modelling and fatigue prediction techniques have been evaluated to determine their reliability when used for thin strip steels. Results have shown the fatigue performance of welded components to be independent of the strength of the parent material for the steel grades studied, with material thickness and joining process the key features determining the fatigue performance. The correlation between the fatigue performance of simple welded samples under uniaxial, constant amplitude loading and complex components under biaxial in service road load data, has been shown to be unreliable. This study also indicates that with the application of modern technologies, such as tailor-welded blanks (TWB), significant weight savings can be achieved. This is demonstrated by a 19% weight reduction with no detrimental effect on the fatigue performance

  7. New method of determination of spot welding-adhesive joint fatigue life using full field strain evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, T.; Kneć, M.

    2016-04-01

    Fatigue tests were conducted since more than two hundred years ago. Despite this long period, as fatigue phenomena are very complex, assessment of fatigue response of standard materials or composites still requires a long time. Quite precise way to estimate fatigue parameters is to test at least 30 standardized specimens for the analysed material and further statistical post processing is required. In case of structural elements analysis like hybrid joints (Figure 1), the situation is much more complex as more factors influence the fatigue load capacity due to much more complicated structure of the joint in comparison to standard materials specimen, i.e. occurrence of: welded hot spots or rivets, adhesive layers, local notches creating the stress concentrations, etc. In order to shorten testing time some rapid methods are known: Locati's method [1] - step by step load increments up to failure, Prot's method [2] - constant increase of the load amplitude up to failure; Lehr's method [2] - seeking for the point during regular fatigue loading when an increase of temperature or strains become non-linear. The present article proposes new method of the fatigue response assessment - combination of the Locati's and Lehr's method.

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effect of Low Cycle Fatigue and Creep-Fatigue Interaction on Surface Morphology and Tensile Properties of 316L(N) Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariappan, K.; Shankar, Vani; Sandhya, R.; Bhaduri, A. K.; Laha, Kinkar

    2016-04-01

    In the present work, the deformation and damage evolution in 316L(N) stainless steel during low cycle fatigue (LCF) and creep-fatigue interaction (CFI) loadings have been compared by evaluating the residual tensile properties. Towards this, LCF and CFI experiments were carried out at constant strain amplitude of ±0.6 pct, strain rate of 3 × 10-3 s-1 and temperature of 873 K (600 °C). During CFI tests, 30 minutes hold period was introduced at peak tensile strain. Experiments were interrupted up to various levels of fatigue life viz. 5, 10, 30, 50, and 60 pct of the total fatigue life ( N f) under both LCF and CFI conditions. The specimens subjected to interrupted fatigue loadings were subsequently monotonically strained at the same strain rate and temperature up to fracture. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and profilometry were conducted on the untested and tested samples to elucidate the damage evolution during the fatigue cycling under both LCF and CFI conditions. The yield strength (YS) increased sharply with the progress of fatigue damage and attained saturation within 10 pct of N f under LCF condition. On the contrary, under CFI loading condition, the YS continuously increased up to 50 pct of N f, with a sharp increase of YS up to 5 pct of N f followed by a more gradual increase up to 50 pct of N f. The difference in the evolution of remnant tensile properties was correlated with the synergistic effects of the underlying deformation and damage processes such as cyclic hardening/softening, oxidation, and creep. The evolution of tensile properties with prior fatigue damage has been correlated with the change in surface roughness and other surface features estimated by surface replica technique and fractography.

  9. Fatigue processes in thermoplastic fibres; Les mecanismes de fatigue dans les fibres thermoplastiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrera Ramirez, J.M.

    2004-09-15

    The present study examines and compares the behaviour of the two types of PA66 fibres and two types of PET fibres under fatigue loading up to failure, and the correlation between the fibres (nano)structures and their structural heterogeneities, with fatigue lifetimes. Several techniques have been used to analyze the materials, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microanalysis (EDS), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. A meticulous analysis by scanning electron microscopy of the fracture morphology of fibres broken in tension and in fatigue, as well as a study of the fatigue life, were undertaken. The fatigue process occurs when the cyclic load amplitude is sufficiently large, however a condition for fatigue failure is that the minimum load each cycle must be lower than a threshold stress level. Failure under fatigue conditions leads to distinctive fracture morphologies which are very different from those seen after tensile or creep failure and this allows easy identification of the fatigue process. The fibres have been analyzed in the as received state and after fatigue failure in order to observe the microstructural changes resulting from the fatigue loading. The results will be compared with those obtained for fibres loaded under conditions where the fatigue process was hindered. The role of the microstructure of the fibres in determining fatigue will be discussed in this work and the possibility of improving their resistance to fatigue or eliminating the fatigue process will be discussed. (author)

  10. Effect of notch location on fatigue crack growth behavior of strength-mismatched high-strength low-alloy steel weldments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Balasubramanian, V.; Nasser, S. Nemat

    2004-12-01

    Welding of high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels involves the use of low-strength, equal-strength, and high-strength filler materials (electrodes) compared with the parent material, depending on the application of the welded structures and the availability of filler material. In the present investigation, the fatigue crack growth behavior of weld metal (WM) and the heat-affected zone (HAZ) of undermatched (UM), equally matched (EM), and overmatched (OM) joints has been studied. The base material used in this investigation is HSLA-80 steel of weldable grade. Shielded metal arc welding (SMAW) has been used to fabricate the butt joints. A center-cracked tension (CCT) specimen has been used to evaluate the fatigue crack growth behavior of welded joints, utilizing a servo-hydraulic-controlled fatigue-testing machine at constant amplitude loading (R=0). The effect of notch location on the fatigue crack growth behavior of strength mismatched HSLA steel weldments also has been analyzed.

  11. Diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the leading order diphoton generalized distribution amplitudes by calculating the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. As in the case of the anomalous photon structure functions, the γγ generalized distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic lnQ 2 behavior and obey inhomogeneous QCD evolution equations.

  12. Seafarer fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The consequences of fatigue for the health and safety of seafarers has caused concern in the industry and among academics, and indicates the importance of further research into risk factors and preventive interventions at sea. This review gives an overview of the key issues relating...... to seafarer fatigue. Materials and methods: A literature study was conducted aiming to collect publications that address risk factors for fatigue, short-term and long-term consequences for health and safety, and options for fatigue mitigation at sea. Due to the limited number of publications that deals...

  13. Cosmological constant as integration constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, H.-J.

    1994-08-01

    Einstein's field theory of elementary particles (Einstein 1919) yields black holes with a mass M approximately G-1 Lambda-1/2 c2 and a charge Q approximately G-1/2 Lambda-1/2 c2, their curvature radius is Lambda-1/2. Here Lambda is an integration constant of Einstein's 'trace-less' gravitation equations. The choice Lambda = G-1 h-1 c3 for this constant defines Planck ions and implies 'strong-gravity'. The choice Lambda = lambda = 3Hinf exp 2 c-2 (where Hinf means the Hubble parameter of a final de Sitter cosmos) involves 'weak-gravity' and describes an electro-vac spherical universe.

  14. Mechanics and mechanisms of cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.J. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States) Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)); Mai, Y.W. (Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Damage and cyclic fatigue failure under alternating loading in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics is reviewed and compared to corresponding behavior under quasi-static loading (static fatigue). Current understanding of the role of transformation toughening in influencing cyclic fatigue-crack propagation behavior is examined based on studies which altered the extent of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in MG-PSZ through subeutectoid aging. These studies suggest that near-tip computations of the crack-driving force (in terms of the local stress intensity) can be used to predict crack-growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable-amplitude (spectrum) loading, using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy to measure the extent of the transformation zones. In addition, results are reviewed which rationalize distinctions between the crack-growth behavior of preexisting, long'' (> 2 mm), through-thickness cracks and naturally-occurring, small'' (1 to 100 [mu]m), surface cracks in terms of variations in crack-tip shielding with crack size. In the present study, the effect of grain size variations on crack-growth behavior under both monotonic (R-curve) and cyclic fatigue loading are examined. Such observations are used to speculate on the mechanisms associated with cyclic crack advance, involving such processes as alternating shear via transformation-band formation, cyclic modification of the degree of transformation toughening, and uncracked-ligament (or grain) bridging.

  15. Mechanics and mechanisms of cyclic fatigue-crack propagation in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, M.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)]|[Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Dauskardt, R.H.; Ritchie, R.O. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Mai, Y.W. [Sydney Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1992-05-01

    Damage and cyclic fatigue failure under alternating loading in transformation-toughened zirconia ceramics is reviewed and compared to corresponding behavior under quasi-static loading (static fatigue). Current understanding of the role of transformation toughening in influencing cyclic fatigue-crack propagation behavior is examined based on studies which altered the extent of the tetragonal-to-monoclinic phase transformation in MG-PSZ through subeutectoid aging. These studies suggest that near-tip computations of the crack-driving force (in terms of the local stress intensity) can be used to predict crack-growth behavior under constant amplitude and variable-amplitude (spectrum) loading, using spatially resolved Raman spectroscopy to measure the extent of the transformation zones. In addition, results are reviewed which rationalize distinctions between the crack-growth behavior of preexisting, ``long`` (> 2 mm), through-thickness cracks and naturally-occurring, ``small`` (1 to 100 {mu}m), surface cracks in terms of variations in crack-tip shielding with crack size. In the present study, the effect of grain size variations on crack-growth behavior under both monotonic (R-curve) and cyclic fatigue loading are examined. Such observations are used to speculate on the mechanisms associated with cyclic crack advance, involving such processes as alternating shear via transformation-band formation, cyclic modification of the degree of transformation toughening, and uncracked-ligament (or grain) bridging.

  16. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-01-01

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process γ*γ→γγ in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q 2 behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations

  17. An Analytical Model for Fatigue Crack Propagation Prediction with Overload Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a theoretical model was developed to predict the fatigue crack growth behavior under the constant amplitude loading with single overload. In the proposed model, crack growth retardation was accounted for by using crack closure and plastic zone. The virtual crack annealing model modified by Bauschinger effect was used to calculate the crack closure level in the outside of retardation effect region. And the Dugdale plastic zone model was employed to estimate the size of retardation effect region. A sophisticated equation was developed to calculate the crack closure variation during the retardation area. Model validation was performed in D16 aluminum alloy and 350WT steel specimens subjected to constant amplitude load with single or multiple overloads. The predictions of the proposed model were contrasted with experimental data, and fairly good agreements were observed.

  18. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Probabilistic Fatigue Life Updating for Railway Bridges Based on Local Inspection and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Joo; Kim, Robin E; Suh, Wonho; Park, Kiwon

    2017-04-24

    Railway bridges are exposed to repeated train loads, which may cause fatigue failure. As critical links in a transportation network, railway bridges are expected to survive for a target period of time, but sometimes they fail earlier than expected. To guarantee the target bridge life, bridge maintenance activities such as local inspection and repair should be undertaken properly. However, this is a challenging task because there are various sources of uncertainty associated with aging bridges, train loads, environmental conditions, and maintenance work. Therefore, to perform optimal risk-based maintenance of railway bridges, it is essential to estimate the probabilistic fatigue life of a railway bridge and update the life information based on the results of local inspections and repair. Recently, a system reliability approach was proposed to evaluate the fatigue failure risk of structural systems and update the prior risk information in various inspection scenarios. However, this approach can handle only a constant-amplitude load and has limitations in considering a cyclic load with varying amplitude levels, which is the major loading pattern generated by train traffic. In addition, it is not feasible to update the prior risk information after bridges are repaired. In this research, the system reliability approach is further developed so that it can handle a varying-amplitude load and update the system-level risk of fatigue failure for railway bridges after inspection and repair. The proposed method is applied to a numerical example of an in-service railway bridge, and the effects of inspection and repair on the probabilistic fatigue life are discussed.

  20. Residual strength and crack propagation tests on C-130 airplane center wings with service-imposed fatigue damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, H. L.; Reeder, F. L.; Dirkin, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    Fourteen C-130 airplane center wings, each containing service-imposed fatigue damage resulting from 4000 to 13,000 accumulated flight hours, were tested to determine their fatigue crack propagation and static residual strength characteristics. Eight wings were subjected to a two-step constant amplitude fatigue test prior to static testing. Cracks up to 30 inches long were generated in these tests. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 56 to 87 percent of limit load. The remaining six wings containing cracks up to 4 inches long were statically tested as received from field service. Residual static strengths of these wings ranged from 98 to 117 percent of limit load. Damage-tolerant structural design features such as fastener holes, stringers, doublers around door cutouts, and spanwise panel splices proved to be effective in retarding crack propagation.

  1. Fatigue behaviour and crack growth rate of cryorolled Al 7075 alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Prosenjit [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute (CSIR), Durgapur 713209 (India); Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Jayaganthan, R., E-mail: rjayafmt@iitr.ernet.in [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India); Chowdhury, T. [School of Material Science and Engineering, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur (India); Singh, I.V. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IIT Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} High cycle fatigue of cryorolled Al 7075 alloy has been investigated. {yields} Cryorolled Al alloy showed significant enhancement in fatigue strength. {yields} FCGR resistance of the ufg Al alloy is higher at higher values of applied stress. - Abstract: The effects of cryorolling (CR) on high cycle fatigue (HCF) and fatigue crack growth rate behaviour of Al 7075 alloy have been investigated in the present work. The Al 7075 alloy was rolled for different thickness reductions (40% and 70%) at cryogenic (liquid nitrogen) temperature and its tensile strength, fatigue life, and fatigue crack growth mechanism were studied by using tensile testing, constant amplitude stress controlled fatigue testing, and fatigue crack growth rate testing using load shedding (decreasing {Delta}K) technique. The microstructural characterization of the alloy was carried out by using Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The cryorolled Al alloy after 70% thickness reduction exhibits ultrafine grain (ufg) structure as observed from its FESEM micrographs. The cryorolled Al 7075 alloys showed improved mechanical properties (Y.S, U.T.S, Impact energy and Fracture toughness are 430 Mpa, 530 Mpa, 21 J, 24 Mpa m{sup 1/2} for 40CR alloy) as compared to the bulk 7075 Al alloy. It is due to suppression of dynamic recovery and accumulation of higher dislocations density in the cryorolled Al alloys. The cryorolled Al alloy investigated under HCF regime of intermediate to low plastic strain amplitudes has shown the significant enhancement in fatigue strength as compared to the coarse grained (CG) bulk alloy due to effective grain refinement. Fatigue crack growth (FCGR) resistance of the ufg Al alloy has been found be higher, especially at higher values of applied stress intensity factor {Delta}K The reasons behind such crack growth retardation is due to diffused crack branching mechanism, interaction between a propagating crack and the increased amount of grain

  2. High cycle fatigue of austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauthier, J.P.; Lehmann, D.; Picker

    1990-01-01

    This study concerns the evaluation of material data to be used in LMFBR design codes. High cycle fatigue properties of three austenitic stainless steels are evaluated: type AISI 316 (UKAEA tests), type AISI 316L (CEA tests) and type AISI 304 (Interatom tests). The data on these steels comprised some 550 data points from 14 casts. This data set covered a wide range of testing parameters: temperature from 20-625 0 C, frequency from 1-20 000 Hz, constant amplitude and random fatigue loading, with and without mean stress, etc. However, the testing conditions chosen by the three partners differed considerably because they had been fixed independently and not harmonized prior to the tests. This created considerable difficulties for the evaluations. Experimental procedures and statistical treatments used for the three subsets of data are described and discussed. Results are presented in tables and graphs. Although it is often difficult to single out the influence of each parameter due to the different testing conditions, several interesting conclusions can be drawn: The HCF properties of the three steels are consistent with the 0.2% proof stress, the fatigue limit being larger than the latter at temperatures above 550 0 C. The type 304 steel has lower tensile properties than the two other steels and hence also lower HCF properties. Parameters which clearly have a significant effect of HCF behaviour are mean stress or R-ratio (less in the non-endurance region than in the endurance region), temperature, cast or product. Other parameters have probably a weak or no effect but it is difficult to conclude due to insufficient data: environment, specimen orientation, frequency, specimen geometry

  3. Fatigue assessment of laserbeam-welded aluminium joints under multiaxial loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemke, M.; Sonsino, C.M.; Kaufmann, H. [Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF, Darmstadt (Germany); Wiebesiek, J.

    2011-10-15

    This paper presents the results and evaluation of the multiaxial fatigue behaviour of laserbeam-welded overlapped tubular joints made from the artificially hardened aluminium alloy AlSi1MgMn T6 (EN AW 6082 T6) under multiaxial loadings with constant and variable amplitudes. Several fatigue test series under pure axial and pure torsional loadings as well as combined axial and torsional proportional and non-proportional loadings have been carried out in the range of 2.10{sup 4} to 2.10{sup 7}cycles. The assessment of the investigated thin-walled joints is based on a local notch stress concept. In this concept the fatigue critical area of the weld root is substituted by a fictitious notch radius r{sub ref}= 0.05 mm. The equivalent stresses in the notch, considering especially the fatigue life reducing influence of non-proportional loading in comparison to proportional loading, were calculated by a recently developed hypothesis, which is called the Stress Space Curve Hypothesis (SSCH). This hypothesis is based on the time evolution of the stress state during one load cycle. In addition, the fatigue strength evaluation of multiaxial spectrum loading was carried out using a modified Gough-Pollard algorithm. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  4. Crack Closure Effects on Fatigue Crack Propagation Rates: Application of a Proposed Theoretical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. F. O. Correia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural design taking into account fatigue damage requires a thorough knowledge of the behaviour of materials. In addition to the monotonic behaviour of the materials, it is also important to assess their cyclic response and fatigue crack propagation behaviour under constant and variable amplitude loading. Materials whenever subjected to fatigue cracking may exhibit mean stress effects as well as crack closure effects. In this paper, a theoretical model based on the same initial assumptions of the analytical models proposed by Hudak and Davidson and Ellyin is proposed to estimate the influence of the crack closure effects. This proposal based further on Walker’s propagation law was applied to the P355NL1 steel using an inverse analysis (back-extrapolation of experimental fatigue crack propagation results. Based on this proposed model it is possible to estimate the crack opening stress intensity factor, Kop, the relationship between U=ΔKeff/ΔK quantity and the stress intensity factor, the crack length, and the stress ratio. This allows the evaluation of the influence of the crack closure effects for different stress ratio levels, in the fatigue crack propagation rates. Finally, a good agreement is found between the proposed theoretical model and the analytical models presented in the literature.

  5. A quadri-constant fraction discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Gu Zhongdao

    1992-01-01

    A quad Constant Fraction (Amplitude and Rise Time Compensation) Discriminator Circuit is described, which is based on the ECL high-speed dual comparator AD 9687. The CFD (ARCD) is of the constant fraction timing type (the amplitude and rise time compensation timing type) employing a leading edge discriminator to eliminate error triggers caused by noises. A timing walk measurement indicates a timing walk of less than +- 150 ps from -50 mV to -5 V

  6. Effects of Shot-Peening and Stress Ratio on the Fatigue Crack Propagation of AL 7475-T7351 Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Ferreira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Shot peening is an attractive technique for fatigue enhanced performance of metallic components, because it increases fatigue crack initiation life prevention and retards early crack growth. Engineering design based on fatigue crack propagation predictions applying the principles of fracture mechanics is commonly used in aluminum structures for aerospace engineering. The main purpose of present work was to analyze the effect of shot peening on the fatigue crack propagation of the 7475 aluminum alloy, under both constant amplitude loading and periodical overload blocks. The tests were performed on 4 and 8 mm thickness specimens with stress ratios of 0.05 and 0.4. The analysis of the shot-peened surface showed a small increase of the micro-hardness values due to the plastic deformations imposed by shot peening. The surface peening beneficial effect on fatigue crack growth is very limited; its main effect is more noticeable near the threshold. The specimen’s thickness only has marginal influence on the crack propagation, in opposite to the stress ratio. Periodic overload blocks of 300 cycles promotes a reduction of the fatigue crack growth rate for both intervals of 7500 and 15,000 cycles.

  7. Neuromuscular frequency-coding and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kernell, D; Gandevia, SC; Enoka, RM; McComas, AJ; Stuart, DG; Thomas, CK

    1995-01-01

    In daily life, muscle fatigue often becomes noticeable as an apparent decline in the efficiency of force production by central commands, making it necessary to increase drive (or ''effort'') to produce a constant motor output. Such aspects of fatigue may be caused by changes in the way in which

  8. Fatigue Crack-Growth Resistance of Aluminum Alloys Under Spectrum Loading. Volume 2. Aluminum Lithium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    Bretz (Alcoa) 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 14 DATE OF REPORT IYr . Mo.. Daye IS. PAGE COUNT Technical Report FROM 30Segt82 TO _1 Ma85 DECEMBER...alloy for both constant-amplitude loading and two F-18 load spectrums. One of the spectrums was dominated by tension loads ( TD ) and the other spectrum...indicating contact between the opposing fracture surfaces. Several observations can be made based on the TD and TC spectrum FCP test results: 1. The fatigue

  9. High-temperature thermal fatigue of AISI 316L steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, C.; Rubiolo, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    A test method for performing uniaxial low-cycle thermal fatigue tests on metals is described. The test facility consists of an ohmic heating system built in a closed loop material testing maschine. The used hollow, hourglass-shaped, tubular specimens are subjected to constant linear heating and cooling rates in a temperature range of a fixed minimum temperature (200deg C) and a variable maximum temperature (550 to 750deg C) in air atmosphere. The specimens are constrained at mean temperature and the test starts tension going towards the minimum temperature. Total mechanical strain amplitudes between 0.4 and 1.4% are evaluated by applying a strain measuring system that allows direct recording of mechanical strain by eliminatingthe thermal component from the measurable net strain. Thermal fatigue life of AISI 316 L steel is found to be shorter than isothermal, strain controlled fatigue life at a temperature equal to the mean temperature of thermal cycling and in some cases even shorter than the maximum temperature of thermal cycling. As scanning electron microscopy of failed specimens shows, crack initiation occurs in most cases on nonmetallic inclusions or impurities and the fracture topology has a typical striation appearance. (orig.)

  10. [Auditory fatigue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjuán Juaristi, Julio; Sanjuán Martínez-Conde, Mar

    2015-01-01

    Given the relevance of possible hearing losses due to sound overloads and the short list of references of objective procedures for their study, we provide a technique that gives precise data about the audiometric profile and recruitment factor. Our objectives were to determine peripheral fatigue, through the cochlear microphonic response to sound pressure overload stimuli, as well as to measure recovery time, establishing parameters for differentiation with regard to current psychoacoustic and clinical studies. We used specific instruments for the study of cochlear microphonic response, plus a function generator that provided us with stimuli of different intensities and harmonic components. In Wistar rats, we first measured the normal microphonic response and then the effect of auditory fatigue on it. Using a 60dB pure tone acoustic stimulation, we obtained a microphonic response at 20dB. We then caused fatigue with 100dB of the same frequency, reaching a loss of approximately 11dB after 15minutes; after that, the deterioration slowed and did not exceed 15dB. By means of complex random tone maskers or white noise, no fatigue was caused to the sensory receptors, not even at levels of 100dB and over an hour of overstimulation. No fatigue was observed in terms of sensory receptors. Deterioration of peripheral perception through intense overstimulation may be due to biochemical changes of desensitisation due to exhaustion. Auditory fatigue in subjective clinical trials presumably affects supracochlear sections. The auditory fatigue tests found are not in line with those obtained subjectively in clinical and psychoacoustic trials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrasonic fatigue of a high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, M.; Wagner, G.; Eifler, D.

    2010-07-01

    At the Institute of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Kaiserslautern an ultrasonic testing system for the fatigue assessment of metallic materials in the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime was developed. The ultrasonic testing system allows to control the test and to measure detailed fatigue data. The achieved results can be used to describe the cyclic deformation behaviour of wheel steels at ultrasonic frequencies. In load increase tests (LIT), the critical stress amplitude can be determined, which leads to a defined change of process parameters like generator power, dissipated energy and specimen temperature. With SEM investigations it was proved that the change of the process parameters correlates with irreversible changes in the microstructure. It can be shown that the stress amplitude, leading to first irreversible changes in the microstructure, strongly depends on the depth position within the original wheel rim. New and basic results on the fatigue mechanisms of high strength steels in the VHCF-regime can be achieved.

  12. Fatigue crack growth behaviour of the aluminium-lithium alloy 2090

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabrett, C.P.; McKeighan, P.C.; Smith, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The fatigue crack growth (FCG) behavior of the aluminum lithium (Al-Li) alloy 2090-T84 has been investigated from a series of constant amplitude FCG tests. The influence of in plane orientation (L-T, T-L+45) and sheet thickness (1.6 and 6 mm) on the FCG rates for the rolled product has been examined. In general, the T-L orientation possess superior FCG resistance for both thicknesses and the 6 mm thick sheet material showed improved FCG resistance when compared to the 1.6 mm thick material for all orientations. It is believed this trend is related to the greater roughness and larger asperities found on the fatigue crack surfaces for the 6 mm thick material. Closure corrected FCG data suggests that much of the difference between the L-T and T-L orientation for the 6 mm thick sheet arise from variations in crack closure levels. (author)

  13. AN EFFECT OF SHOT PEENING ON GROWTH AND RETARDATION OF PHYSICALLY SHORT FATIGUE CRACKS IN AN AIRCRAFT Al-ALLOY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Černý

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Results of an investigation of effect of shot peening on development of physically short fatigue crack in an aircraft V-95 Al-alloy, which is of a similar type as 7075 alloy, are described and discussed in the paper. The first part deals with adaptation and verification of direct current potential drop method for detection and measurement of short crack initiation and growth. The specific material and quite large dimensions of flat specimens with side necking of a low stress concentration factor had to be considered when position of electrodes was specified and the measurement method verified. The specimen type and dimensions were proposed taking account of the investigation of shot peening effects. Physically short fatigue cracks of the length from 0.2 mm to more than 3 mm, most of them between 0.8 – 1.5 mm, were prepared under high cycle fatigue loading of a constant nominal stress amplitude plus/minus 160 MPa. Specimens with existing short fatigue cracks were shot peened using two different groups of parameters. Development of crack growth after shot peening was measured and compared with crack growth in specimens without shot peening. Retardation of crack growth was significant particularly with cracks shorter than 2 mm. For the specific stress amplitude, evaluated results enable to estimate threshold length of defects, which after the application of shot peening will be reliably arrested.

  14. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Life of Ti-6Al-4V Treated by Vibratory Stress Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Jun Gao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vibratory stress relief (VSR is a highly efficient and low-energy consumption method to relieve and homogenize residual stresses in materials. Thus, the effect of VSR on the fatigue life should be determined. Standard fatigue specimens are fabricated to investigate the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy treated by VSR. The dynamic stresses generated under different VSR amplitudes are measured, and then the relationship between the dynamic stress and vibration amplitude is obtained. Different specimen groups are subjected to VSRs with different amplitudes and annealing treatment with typical process parameters. Residual stresses are measured to evaluate the stress relieving effects. Finally, the fatigue behavior under different states is determined by uniaxial tension–compression fatigue experiments. Results show that VSR and annealing treatment have negative effects on the fatigue life of Ti-6Al-4V. The fatigue life is decreased with the increase in VSR amplitude. When the VSR amplitude is less than 0.1 mm, the decrease in fatigue limit is less than 2%. Compared with specimens without VSR or annealing treatment, the fatigue limit of the specimens treated by VSR with 0.2 mm amplitude and annealing treatment decreases by 10.60% and 8.52%, respectively. Although the stress relieving effect is better, high amplitude VSR will lead to the decrease of Ti-6Al-4V fatigue life due to the defects generated during vibration. Low amplitude VSR can effectively relieve the stress with little decrease in fatigue life.

  15. Low Cycle Fatigue of Steel in Strain Controled Cyclic Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesa Anna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a comparison of the fatigue life curves based on test of 15Mo3 steel under cyclic, pendulum bending and tension-compression. These studies were analyzed in terms of a large and small number of cycles where strain amplitude is dependent on the fatigue life. It has been shown that commonly used Manson-Coffin-Basquin model cannot be used for tests under cyclic bending due to the impossibility of separating elastic and plastic strains. For this purpose, some well-known models of Langer and Kandil and one new model of authors, where strain amplitude is dependent on the number of cycles, were proposed. Comparing the results of bending with tension-compression it was shown that for smaller strain amplitudes the fatigue life for both test methods were similar, for higher strain amplitudes fatigue life for bending tests was greater than for tension-compression.

  16. Using endogenous saccades to characterize fatigue in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Marisa; Pereira, Paulo A; Parreira, Marta; Sousa, Inês; Figueiredo, José; Cerqueira, João J; Macedo, Antonio F

    2017-05-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is likely to cause dysfunction of neural circuits between brain regions increasing brain working load or a subjective overestimation of such working load leading to fatigue symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate if saccades can reveal the effect of fatigue in patients with MS. Patients diagnosed with MS (EDSSendogenous generated saccade paradigm (valid and invalid trials). The fatigue severity scale (FSS) was used to assess the severity of fatigue. FSS scores were used to define two subgroups, the MS fatigue group (score above normal range) and the MS non-fatigue. Differences between groups were tested using linear mixed models. Thirty-one MS patients and equal number of controls participated in this study. FSS scores were above the normal range in 11 patients. Differences in saccade latency were found according to group (p<0.001) and trial validity (p=0.023). Differences were 16.9ms, between MS fatigue and MS non-fatigue, 15.5ms between MS fatigue and control. The mean difference between valid and invalid trials was 7.5ms. Differences in saccade peak velocity were found according to group (p<0.001), the difference between MS fatigue and control was 22.3°/s and between MS fatigue and non-fatigue was 12.3°/s. Group was a statistically significant predictor for amplitude (p<0.001). FSS scores were correlated with peak velocity (p=0.028) and amplitude (p=0.019). Consistent with the initial hypothesis, our study revealed altered saccade latency, peak velocity and amplitude in patients with fatigue symptoms. Eye movement testing can complement the standard inventories when investigating fatigue because they do not share similar limitations. Our findings contribute to the understanding of functional changes induced by MS and might be useful for clinical trials and treatment decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low-cycle fatigue of X 2 NiCoMo 18 12 and X 10 NiCrAlTi 32 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detert, K.; Adolfs, R.

    1992-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue and short crack-growth behaviour of an ultra-high strength maraging steel and a high-nickel austenitic steel have been studies. The tests were performed in a laboratory environment at room temperature in push-pull cycles with constant strain amplitudes of 0.25 to 2%. Short crack-growth investigations were performed using bending specimens loaded by a resonance bending machine. Crack growth was measured using the replica method. The cyclic and tension stress strain behaviour has been compared. Fatigue tests were interpreted according to the recommended practice of ASTM-E 606-80. First microcracks were observed after 10 to 70% of the fatigue life. (orig.) [de

  18. FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION THROUGH AUSTEMPERED DUCTILE IRON MICROSTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Bubenko

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Austempered ductile iron (ADI has a wide range of application, particularly for castings used in automotive and earth moving machinery industries. These components are usually subjected to variable dynamic loading that may promote initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks up to final fracture. Thus, it is important to determine the fatigue crack propagation behavior of ADI. Since fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN vs. stress intensity factor K data describe fatigue crack propagation resistance and fatigue durability of structural materials, da/dN vs. Ka curves of ADI 1050 are reported here. The threshold amplitude of stress intensity factor Kath is also determined. Finally, the influence of stress intensity factor amplitude to the character of fatigue crack propagation through the ADI microstructure is described.

  19. Fatigue Life of High-Strength Steel Offshore Tubular Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rasmus Ingomar; Agerskov, Henning; Lopez Martinez, Luis

    1996-01-01

    In the present investigation, the fatigue life of tubular joints in offshore steel structures is studied. Two test series on full-scale tubular joints have been carried through. One series was on joints in conventional offshore structural steel, and the other series was on joints in high......-strength steel with a yield stress of 820-830 MPa and with high weldability and toughness properties. The test specimens of both series had the same geometry. The present report concentrates on the results obtained in the investigation on the high-strength steel tubular joints.The test specimens were fabricated...... amplitude fatigue test results showed shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, the fatigue tests on high-strength steel tubular joints showed slightly longer fatigue lives than those obtained...

  20. Myoelectrical Manifestation of Fatigue Less Prominent in Patients with Cancer Related Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel-Sajewicz, Katarzyna; Siemionow, Vlodek; Seyidova-Khoshknabi, Dilara; Davis, Mellar P.; Wyant, Alexandria; Ranganathan, Vinoth K.; Walsh, Declan; Yan, Jin H.; Hou, Juliet; Yue, Guang H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A lack of fatigue-related muscle contractile property changes at time of perceived physical exhaustion and greater central than peripheral fatigue detected by twitch interpolation technique have recently been reported in cancer survivors with fatigue symptoms. Based on these observations, it was hypothesized that compared to healthy people, myoelectrical manifestation of fatigue in the performing muscles would be less significant in these individuals while sustaining a prolonged motor task to self-perceived exhaustion (SPE) since their central fatigue was more prominent. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis by examining electromyographic (EMG) signal changes during fatiguing muscle performance. Methods Twelve individuals who had advanced solid cancer and cancer-related fatigue (CRF), and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls performed a sustained elbow flexion at 30% maximal voluntary contraction till SPE. Amplitude and mean power frequency (MPF) of EMG signals of the biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and triceps brachii muscles were evaluated when the individuals experienced minimal, moderate, and severe fatigue. Results CRF patients perceived physical “exhaustion” significantly sooner than the controls. The myoelectrical manifestation of muscular fatigue assessed by EMG amplitude and MPF was less significant in CRF than controls. The lower MPF even at minimal fatigue stage in CRF may indicate pathophysiologic condition of the muscle. Conclusions CRF patients experience less myoelectrical manifestation of muscle fatigue than healthy individuals near the time of SPE. The data suggest that central nervous system fatigue plays a more important role in limiting endurance-type of motor performance in patients with CRF. PMID:24391800

  1. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arthur, R.; Brommel, D.; Donnellan, M.A.; Flynn, J.M.; Juttner, A.; de Lima, H.Pedroso; Rae, T.D.; Sachrajda, C.T.; Samways, B.

    2010-01-01

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  2. Fatigue (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lessen the patient's quality of life and self-esteem . Getting help with fatigue may prevent some of ... National Institutes of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact ...

  3. Ratcheting fatigue behavior of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajpurohit, R.S., E-mail: rsrajpurohit.rs.met13@iitbhu.ac.in [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India); Sudhakar Rao, G. [Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, CH-5232 (Switzerland); Chattopadhyay, K.; Santhi Srinivas, N.C.; Singh, Vakil [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, 221005 (India)

    2016-08-15

    Nuclear core components of zirconium alloys experience asymmetric stress or strain cycling during service which leads to plastic strain accumulation and drastic reduction in fatigue life as well as dimensional instability of the component. Variables like loading rate, mean stress, and stress amplitude affect the influence of asymmetric loading. In the present investigation asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with mean stress from 80 to 150 MPa, stress amplitude from 270 to 340 MPa and stress rate from 30 to 750 MPa/s to study the process of plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life of Zircaloy-2 at room temperature. It was observed that with increase in mean stress and stress amplitude accumulation of ratcheting strain was increased and fatigue life was reduced. However, increase in stress rate led to improvement in fatigue life due to less accumulation of ratcheting strain. - Highlights: • Ratcheting strain accumulation occurred due to asymmetric cyclic loading. • Accumulation of ratcheting strain increased with mean stress and stress amplitude. • Ratcheting strain accumulation decreased with increase in stress rate. • With increase in mean stress and stress amplitude there was reduction in fatigue life. • Fatigue life is improved with increase in stress rate.

  4. Low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wei

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is a main failure mode for magnesium and other alloys. It is beneficial for fatigue design and fatigue life improvement to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of magnesium alloys. In order to investigate the low cycle fatigue behavior of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy, the strain controlled fatigue experiments were performed at room temperature and fatigue fracture surfaces of specimens were observed with scanning election microscopy for the alloys under die-cast and aged states. Cyclic stress response curves, strain amplitude versus reversals to failure curve, total strain amplitude versus fatigue life curves and cyclic stress-strain curves of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys were analyzed. The results show that the Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys under die-cast (F and aged (T5 states exhibit cyclic strain hardening under the applied total strain amplitudes, and aging treatment could greatly increase the cyclic stress amplitudes of die cast Mg-Al-Mn-Ce alloys. The relationships between the plastic strain amplitude, the elastic strain amplitude and reversals to failure of Mg-Al-Mn-Ce magnesium alloy under different treatment states could be described by Coffin-Manson and Basquin equations, respectively. Observations on the fatigue fracture surface of specimens reveal that the fatigue cracks initiate on the surface of specimens and propagate transgranularly.

  5. Random non-proportional fatigue tests with planar tri-axial fatigue testing machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Inoue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Complex stresses, which occur on the mechanical surfaces of transport machinery in service, bring a drastic degradation in fatigue life. However, it is hard to reproduce such complex stress states for evaluating the fatigue life with conventional multiaxial fatigue machines. We have developed a fatigue testing machine that enables reproduction of such complex stresses. The testing machine can reproduce arbitrary in-plane stress states by applying three independent loads to the test specimen using actuators which apply loads in the 0, 45, and 90 degree directions. The reproduction was tested with complex stress data obtained from the actual operation of transport machinery. As a result, it was found that the reproduced stress corresponded to the measured stress with an error range of less than 10 %. Then, we made a comparison between measured fatigue lives under random non-proportional loading conditions and predicted fatigue lives. It was found that predicted fatigue lives with cr, stress on critical plane, were over a factor of 10 against measured fatigue lives. On the other hand, predicted fatigue lives with ma, stress in consideration of a non-proportional level evaluated by using amplitude and direction of principal stress, were within a factor of 3 against measured fatigue lives

  6. An Artificial Neural Network-Based Algorithm for Evaluation of Fatigue Crack Propagation Considering Nonlinear Damage Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the aerospace and aviation sectors, the damage tolerance concept has been applied widely so that the modeling analysis of fatigue crack growth has become more and more significant. Since the process of crack propagation is highly nonlinear and determined by many factors, such as applied stress, plastic zone in the crack tip, length of the crack, etc., it is difficult to build up a general and flexible explicit function to accurately quantify this complicated relationship. Fortunately, the artificial neural network (ANN is considered a powerful tool for establishing the nonlinear multivariate projection which shows potential in handling the fatigue crack problem. In this paper, a novel fatigue crack calculation algorithm based on a radial basis function (RBF-ANN is proposed to study this relationship from the experimental data. In addition, a parameter called the equivalent stress intensity factor is also employed as training data to account for loading interaction effects. The testing data is then placed under constant amplitude loading with different stress ratios or overloads used for model validation. Moreover, the Forman and Wheeler equations are also adopted to compare with our proposed algorithm. The current investigation shows that the ANN-based approach can deliver a better agreement with the experimental data than the other two models, which supports that the RBF-ANN has nontrivial advantages in handling the fatigue crack growth problem. Furthermore, it implies that the proposed algorithm is possibly a sophisticated and promising method to compute fatigue crack growth in terms of loading interaction effects.

  7. Effect of fibre arrangement on the multiaxial fatigue of fibrous composites: a micromechanical computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Brighenti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Structural components made of fibre-reinforced materials are frequently used in engineering applications. Fibre-reinforced composites are multiphase materials, and complex mechanical phenomena take place at limit conditions but also during normal service situations, especially under fatigue loading, causing a progressive deterioration and damage. Under repeated loading, the degradation mainly occurs in the matrix material and at the fibre-matrix interface, and such a degradation has to be quantified for design structural assessment purposes. To this end, damage mechanics and fracture mechanics theories can be suitably applied to examine such a problem. Damage concepts can be applied to the matrix mechanical characteristics and, by adopting a 3-D mixed mode fracture description of the fibre-matrix detachment, fatigue fracture mechanics concepts can be used to determine the progressive fibre debonding responsible for the loss of load bearing capacity of the reinforcing phase. In the present paper, a micromechanical model is used to evaluate the unixial or multiaxial fatigue behaviour of structures with equi-oriented or randomly distributed fibres. The spatial fibre arrangement is taken into account through a statistical description of their orientation angles for which a Gaussian-like distribution is assumed, whereas the mechanical effect of the fibres on the composite is accounted for by a homogenization approach aimed at obtaining the macroscopic elastic constants of the material. The composite material behaves as an isotropic one for randomly distributed fibres, while it is transversally isotropic for unidirectional fibres. The fibre arrangement in the structural component influences the fatigue life with respect to the biaxiality ratio for multiaxial constant amplitude fatigue loading. One representative parametric example is discussed.

  8. Vibration fatigue using modal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mršnik, Matjaž; Slavič, Janko; Boltežar, Miha

    2018-01-01

    Vibration-fatigue analysis deals with the material fatigue of flexible structures operating close to natural frequencies. Based on the uniaxial stress response, calculated in the frequency domain, the high-cycle fatigue model using the S-N curve material data and the Palmgren-Miner hypothesis of damage accumulation is applied. The multiaxial criterion is used to obtain the equivalent uniaxial stress response followed by the spectral moment approach to the cycle-amplitude probability density estimation. The vibration-fatigue analysis relates the fatigue analysis in the frequency domain to the structural dynamics. However, once the stress response within a node is obtained, the physical model of the structure dictating that response is discarded and does not propagate through the fatigue-analysis procedure. The structural model can be used to evaluate how specific dynamic properties (e.g., damping, modal shapes) affect the damage intensity. A new approach based on modal decomposition is presented in this research that directly links the fatigue-damage intensity with the dynamic properties of the system. It thus offers a valuable insight into how different modes of vibration contribute to the total damage to the material. A numerical study was performed showing good agreement between results obtained using the newly presented approach with those obtained using the classical method, especially with regards to the distribution of damage intensity and critical point location. The presented approach also offers orders of magnitude faster calculation in comparison with the conventional procedure. Furthermore, it can be applied in a straightforward way to strain experimental modal analysis results, taking advantage of experimentally measured strains.

  9. Finite element simulation of asphalt fatigue testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullidtz, Per; Kieler, Thomas Lau; Kargo, Anders

    1997-01-01

    damage mechanics.The paper describes how continuum damage mechanics may be used with a finite element program to explain the progressive deterioration of asphalt mixes under laboratory fatigue testing. Both constant stress and constant strain testing are simulated, and compared to the actual results from...

  10. Eccentric muscle damage increases intermuscular coherence during a fatiguing isometric contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semmler, J G; Ebert, S A; Amarasena, J

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of eccentric muscle damage on muscle activation patterns and intermuscular coherence during a fatiguing isometric contraction involving the elbow flexor muscles. Ten young subjects participated in three experimental sessions that involved the performance of maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs), a constant-force task at 30% MVC, and a fatiguing isometric contraction at 30% MVC. The three sessions were performed before, 2 h after and 2 days after eccentric exercise to induce muscle damage in elbow flexor muscles. Task performance was quantified with electromyography (EMG) from the elbow flexor (biceps brachii, brachialis and brachioradialis) and extensor (triceps brachii) muscles, M-wave amplitude of biceps brachii, elbow flexor force fluctuations and endurance time of a fatiguing contraction. Intermuscular coherence during the fatiguing contraction was quantified from the rectified surface EMGs between muscle pairs. Eccentric exercise resulted in several indicators of muscle damage, such as a prolonged decline in muscle strength and an increase in muscle soreness 2 days after exercise. A 29% reduction in endurance time was observed 2 h after eccentric muscle damage, which returned to baseline 2 days later. The reduced endurance time 2 h after muscle damage was accompanied by an increase in EMG-EMG coherence between biceps brachii and brachialis muscles, which was observed at the end of the fatiguing contraction. These findings suggest that eccentric muscle damage produces a decrease in endurance time that is accompanied by an increase in intermuscular coherence in the presence of fatigue. © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Cyclic and Fatigue Behaviour of Rock Materials: Review, Interpretation and Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerfontaine, B.; Collin, F.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive state of the art of fatigue and cyclic loading of natural rock materials. Papers published in the literature are classified and listed in order to ease bibliographical review, to gather data (sometimes contradictory) on classical experimental results and to analyse the main interpretation concepts. Their advantages and limitations are discussed, and perspectives for further work are highlighted. The first section summarises and defines the different experimental set-ups (type of loading, type of experiment) already applied to cyclic/fatigue investigation of rock materials. The papers are then listed based on these different definitions. Typical results are highlighted in next section. Fatigue/cyclic loading mainly results in accumulation of plastic deformation and/or damage cycle after cycle. A sample cyclically loaded at constant amplitude finally leads to failure even if the peak load is lower than its monotonic strength. This subcritical crack is due to a diffuse microfracturing and decohesion of the rock structure. The third section reviews and comments the concepts used to interpret the results. The fatigue limit and S- N curves are the most common concepts used to describe fatigue experiments. Results published from all papers are gathered into a single figure to highlight the tendency. Predicting the monotonic peak strength of a sample is found to be critical in order to compute accurate S- N curves. Finally, open questions are listed to provide a state of the art of grey areas in the understanding of fatigue mechanisms and challenges for the future.

  12. Accommodative Amplitude in School-Age Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikaunieks Gatis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In children, intensive near-work affects the accommodation system of the eye. Younger children, due to anatomical parameters, read at smaller distance than older children and we can expect that the accommodation system of younger can be affected more than that of older children. We wanted to test this hypothesis. Some authors showed that the norms of amplitude of accommodation (AA developed by Hofstetter (1950 not always could be applied for children. We also wanted to verify these results. A total of 106 (age 7-15 children participated in the study. Distance visual acuity was measured for all children and only data of children with good visual acuity 1.0 or more (dec. units were analysed (73 children. Accommodative amplitude was measured before and after lessons using subjective push-up technique (with RAF Near Point Ruler. The results showed that the amplitude of accommodation reduced significantly (p < 0.05 during the day and decrease of AA was similar in different age groups (about ~0.70 D. Additional measurements are needed to verify that the observed changes in AA were associated with fatigue effect. The results showed lower accommodation values compared to average values calculated according to the Hofstetter equation (p < 0.05.

  13. Automated force controller for amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyagi, Atsushi, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr; Scheuring, Simon, E-mail: atsushi.miyagi@inserm.fr, E-mail: simon.scheuring@inserm.fr [U1006 INSERM, Université Aix-Marseille, Parc Scientifique et Technologique de Luminy, 163 Avenue de Luminy, 13009 Marseille (France)

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is widely used in physics, chemistry, and biology to analyze the topography of a sample at nanometer resolution. Controlling precisely the force applied by the AFM tip to the sample is a prerequisite for faithful and reproducible imaging. In amplitude modulation (oscillating) mode AFM, the applied force depends on the free and the setpoint amplitudes of the cantilever oscillation. Therefore, for keeping the applied force constant, not only the setpoint amplitude but also the free amplitude must be kept constant. While the AFM user defines the setpoint amplitude, the free amplitude is typically subject to uncontrollable drift, and hence, unfortunately, the real applied force is permanently drifting during an experiment. This is particularly harmful in biological sciences where increased force destroys the soft biological matter. Here, we have developed a strategy and an electronic circuit that analyzes permanently the free amplitude of oscillation and readjusts the excitation to maintain the free amplitude constant. As a consequence, the real applied force is permanently and automatically controlled with picoNewton precision. With this circuit associated to a high-speed AFM, we illustrate the power of the development through imaging over long-duration and at various forces. The development is applicable for all AFMs and will widen the applicability of AFM to a larger range of samples and to a larger range of (non-specialist) users. Furthermore, from controlled force imaging experiments, the interaction strength between biomolecules can be analyzed.

  14. Amplitude dependent damping in single crystalline high purity molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelada-Lambri, G.I; Lambri, O.A; Garcia, J.A; Lomer, J.N

    2004-01-01

    Amplitude dependent damping measurements were performed on high purity single crystalline molybdenum at several different constant temperatures between room temperature and 1273K. The employed samples were single crystals with the orientation, having a residual resistivity ratio of about 8000. Previously to the amplitude dependent damping tests, the samples were subjected to different thermomechanical histories. Amplitude dependent damping effects appear only during the first heating run in temperature where the samples have the thermomechanical state of the deformation process at room temperature. In the subsequent run-ups in temperature, i.e, after subsequent annealings, amplitude dependent damping effects were not detected (au)

  15. An overview of fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mc Evily, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    Four topics are briefly discussed in this paper: fatigue crack initiation and growth in a nickel-base superalloy single crystal, the environment effect on near-threshold fatigue crack growth behaviour, the role of crack closure in load-interaction effects in fatigue crack growth, and the nature of creep-fatigue interactions, if any, during fatigue crack growth. (Author)

  16. Kaon-nucleus scattering and kaon-nuclear coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumbrajs, O.

    1979-01-01

    Possibilities are examined of obtaining information on kaon-nuclear coupling constants without referring to any specific models. The basis for such a type of analyses is the use of analytic properties of the scattering amplitudes. Particularly useful is the forward dispersion relation for the antisymmetric amplitude. The analysis of the K+- 12 C scattering leads to the conclusion that the corresponding effective coupling constant is significantly larger than the coherent sum of the elementary coupling constants

  17. Assessment of Pressure Fluctuation Effect for Thermal Fatigue in a T-junction Using Thermo-Hydro Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Jaebum; Kim, Jungwoo; Huh, Namsu [Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunhye [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    As a result, when evaluating thermal fatigue for the mixing tee, temperature fluctuation is dominant for this phenomenon, it can be reasonably assumed that the pressure is constant on the pipe inner wall. Recently, thermal fatigue due to mixing of the fluids having different temperatures has been considered as an important issue on the fatigue evaluation of nuclear piping. Mainly, this phenomenon occurs in a T-junction operating with the fluids consisted of different temperatures. Because of the turbulent mixing of hot and cold water, the temperature on the inner wall of the pipe fluctuates rapidly, causing the variation of thermal stresses in the pipe and resulting in high cycle thermal fatigue. In practice, cracking by high cycle thermal fatigue is reported at a T-junction in the residual heat removal system at Civaux unit 1 in France. However, because of irregular flow inside the pipe, the pressure also fluctuates rapidly as well as temperature in the inner wall of the pipe. Therefore, in this paper, three-dimensional thermo-hydro analysis was performed for the mixing tee of the shutdown cooling system of the pressurized water reactor plant, examining the pressure variation at the pipe inner wall. Based on the analysis result, this study aims at assessing the pressure fluctuation effect on the thermal fatigue. In this paper, it is verified that there is pressure fluctuation as well as temperature on the inner wall of mixing tee operating with the fluids having different temperatures. However, since the amplitude of pressure is relatively smaller than design pressure of the shutdown cooling system, the effect wouldn't be important for the thermal fatigue.

  18. An investigation on high temperature fatigue properties of tempered nuclear-grade deposited weld metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, X. Y.; Zhu, P.; Yong, Q.; Liu, T. G.; Lu, Y. H.; Zhao, J. C.; Jiang, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of tempering on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of nuclear-grade deposited weld metal was investigated, and The LCF tests were performed at 350 °C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%. The results showed that at a low strain amplitude, deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h had a high fatigue resistance due to high yield strength, while at a high strain amplitude, the one tempered for 24 h had a superior fatigue resistance due to high ductility. Deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h exhibited cyclic hardening at the tested strain amplitudes. Deposited weld metal tempered for 24 h exhibited cyclic hardening at a low strain amplitude but cyclic softening at a high strain amplitude. Existence and decomposition of martensite-austenite (M-A) islands as well as dislocations activities contributed to fatigue property discrepancy among the two tempered deposited weld metal.

  19. Experimental investigation and analysis of damage evolution in concrete under high-cyclic fatigue loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiele, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is the fatigue behavior of concrete under high-cycle compressive loadings. Current knowledge about fatigue behavior of concrete is still incomplete. This concerns especially the process of fatigue which is preceding the fatigue failure. The leak of knowledge about fatigue behavior is opposed to the steady growing importance of this topic within the practice in civil engineering. Therefore, within this thesis a systematic and comprehensive investigation of the process of fatigue itself was done. This contributes to the better understanding of the progression of damage and the corresponding processes within the material. The experimental investigation consisted mainly of experiments with constant amplitude loadings in compression with cylindrical specimen made of normal strength concrete. Two differed load levels were used which resulted in numbers of cycles to failure of 10 6 and 10 7 as well as 10 3 and 10 4 . The experiments were done in combination with different types of nondestructive and destructive testing methods like strain measuring, deformation of surface, ultrasonic signals, acoustic emissions, optical microscopy and also scattering electron microscopy. To access some parameters of influence in relation to the fatigue behavior additional creep tests and also several tests with different scales of specimen were done. The fatigue process of concrete is determined as an evolution of damage that starts from the beginning of the loading process. This evolution has manifold and different influences on the different material properties of concrete. In this relation a major finding was that fatigue related damage leads to a transformation of the complete stress-strain-relationship. This relationship is also subjected to an evolution process. Due to the authors observations it could not be determined that the investigated changes in macroscopic material behavior are caused by a development of micro cracks within the material

  20. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  1. AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, J.; Petrenec, M.; Obrtlik, K.; Polak, J.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy were applied to the study of surface relief evolution at emerging persistent slip bands (PSBs) in individual grains of ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel cycled with constant plastic strain amplitude. Only the combination of both methods can reveal the true shape and fine details of extrusions and intrusions. Quantitative data on the changes of the surface topography of persistent slip markings and on the kinetics of extrusion growth during the fatigue life were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy of surface foils revealed PSBs with the typical, well-known ladder structure. Experimental data on cyclic slip localization in PSBs are compared with those in fcc metals and discussed in terms of vacancy models of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation

  2. Experimental approach for mixed-mode fatigue delamination crack growth with large-scale bridging in polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, John W.; Liu, Liu; Sørensen, Bent F.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental apparatus utilizing double cantilever beam specimens loaded with uneven bending moments was developed to study the mixed-mode fatigue crack growth in composites. The approach is suitable when large-scale bridging of cracks is present. To illustrate the testing method, cyclic growth...... of delaminations in a typical fibre-reinforced polymer composite was investigated under a constant cyclic loading amplitude. Pure mode I, mode II and mixed-mode crack growth conditions were examined. The results, analysed using a J-integral approach, show that the double cantilever beam loaded with uneven bending...... moments configuration provides a robust approach to investigate the fatigue crack growth of composites for pure mode and mixed-mode cracking. A steady-state crack growth regime was observed for mode I and mixed-mode loading. For mode II loading, steady-state was absent, and a progressively decreasing...

  3. INFLUENCE OF SHOT PEENING ON AISI 316Ti FATIGUE PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Guagliano

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with examination of fatigue properties of AISI 316Ti stainless steel before and after shot peening including analysis of residual stress relaxation during rotating bending fatigue tests (f = 50 Hz, T = 20 ± 3 °C, R = - 1 with use of X - ray diffractometer. Obtained experimental results show increase of fatigue properties in the high – cycle region including fatigue limit and show the behavior of residual stress, decrease, at given cyclic loading amplitude in the region from N = 103 cycles to N = 107 cycles of loading.

  4. Fatigue Characteristics of Selected Light Metal Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieśla M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses results of fatigue testing of light metal alloys used in the automotive as well as aerospace and aviation industries, among others. The material subject to testing comprised hot-worked rods made of the AZ31 alloy, the Ti-6Al-4V two-phase titanium alloy and the 2017A (T451 aluminium alloy. Both low- and high-cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature on the cycle asymmetry ratio of R=-1. The low-cycle fatigue tests were performed using the MTS-810 machine on two levels of total strain, i.e.Δεc= 1.0% and 1.2%. The high-cycle fatigue tests, on the other hand, were performed using a machine from VEB Werkstoffprufmaschinen-Leipzig under conditions of rotary bending. Based on the results thus obtained, one could develop fatigue life characteristics of the materials examined (expressed as the number of cycles until failure of sample Nf as well as characteristics of cyclic material strain σa=f(N under the conditions of low-cycle fatigue testing. The Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy was found to be characterised by the highest value of fatigue life Nf, both in lowand high-cycle tests. The lowest fatigue life, on the other hand, was established for the aluminium alloys examined. Under the high-cycle fatigue tests, the life of the 2017A aluminium and the AZ31 magnesium alloy studied was determined by the value of stress amplitude σa. With the stress exceeding 150 MPa, it was the aluminium alloy which displayed higher fatigue life, whereas the magnesium alloy proved better on lower stress.

  5. Recent advances in fatigue crack growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEvily, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Many of the recent advances in the understanding of the fatigue crack growth process have resulted from an improved realization of the importance of fatigue crack closure in the crack growth process. Two basic crack closure processes have been identified. One of which is known as plasticity-induced fatigue crack closure (PIFCC), and the other is roughness-induced fatigue crack closure (RIFCC). Both forms occur in all alloys, but PIFCC is a surface-related process which is dominant in aluminum alloys such as 2024-T3, whereas RIFCC is dominant in most steels and titanium alloys. A proposed basic equation governing fatigue crack growth is derived where K/sub max/ is the maximum stress intensity factor in a loading cycle and K/sub op/ is the stress intensity factor at the crack opening level. is the range of the stress intensity factor at the threshold level which is taken to correspond to a crack growth rate of 10-11 m/cycle. The material constant A has units of (MPa)-2, and therefore Eq. 1 is dimensionally correct. Eq.1 has been successfully used in the analysis of both long and short cracks, but in the latter case modification is needed to account for elastic-plastic behavior, the development of crack closure, and the Kitagawa effect which shows that the fatigue strength rather than the threshold level is the controlling factor determining the rate of fatigue crack growth in the very short fatigue crack growth range. Eq. 1 is used to show that The non-propagating cracks observed by Frost and Dugdale resulted from crack closure. The behavior of cracks as short as 10 microns in length can be predicted. Fatigue notch sensitivity is related to crack closure. Very high cycle fatigue (VHCF) behavior is also associated with fatigue crack closure. (author)

  6. Simplified elastoplastic fatigue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autrusson, B.; Acker, D.; Hoffmann, A.

    1987-01-01

    Oligocyclic fatigue behaviour is a function of the local strain range. The design codes ASME section III, RCC-M, Code Case N47, RCC-MR, and the Guide issued by PNC propose simplified methods to evaluate the local strain range. After having briefly described these simplified methods, we tested them by comparing the results of experimental strains with those predicted by these rules. The experiments conducted for this study involved perforated plates under tensile stress, notched or reinforced beams under four-point bending stress, grooved specimens under tensile-compressive stress, and embedded grooved beams under bending stress. They display a relative conservatism depending on each case. The evaluation of the strains of rather inaccurate and sometimes lacks conservatism. So far, the proposal is to use the finite element codes with a simple model. The isotropic model with the cyclic consolidation curve offers a good representation of the real equivalent strain. There is obviously no question of representing the cycles and the entire loading history, but merely of calculating the maximum variation in elastoplastic equivalent deformations with a constant-rate loading. The results presented testify to the good prediction of the strains with this model. The maximum equivalent strain will be employed to evaluate fatigue damage

  7. Unifying relations for scattering amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Clifford; Shen, Chia-Hsien; Wen, Congkao

    2018-02-01

    We derive new amplitudes relations revealing a hidden unity among a wideranging variety of theories in arbitrary spacetime dimensions. Our results rely on a set of Lorentz invariant differential operators which transmute physical tree-level scattering amplitudes into new ones. By transmuting the amplitudes of gravity coupled to a dilaton and two-form, we generate all the amplitudes of Einstein-Yang-Mills theory, Dirac-Born-Infield theory, special Galileon, nonlinear sigma model, and biadjoint scalar theory. Transmutation also relates amplitudes in string theory and its variants. As a corollary, celebrated aspects of gluon and graviton scattering like color-kinematics duality, the KLT relations, and the CHY construction are inherited traits of the transmuted amplitudes. Transmutation recasts the Adler zero as a trivial consequence of the Weinberg soft theorem and implies new subleading soft theorems for certain scalar theories.

  8. Amplitude Modulated Sinusoidal Signal Decomposition for Audio Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, M. G.; Jacobson, A.; Andersen, S. V.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we present a decomposition for sinusoidal coding of audio, based on an amplitude modulation of sinusoids via a linear combination of arbitrary basis vectors. The proposed method, which incorporates a perceptual distortion measure, is based on a relaxation of a nonlinear least......-squares minimization. Rate-distortion curves and listening tests show that, compared to a constant-amplitude sinusoidal coder, the proposed decomposition offers perceptually significant improvements in critical transient signals....

  9. Correlates of fatigue in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belza, B L; Henke, C J; Yelin, E H; Epstein, W V; Gilliss, C L

    1993-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of fatigue, examine the association between fatigue and doctor visits, and identify correlates of fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). On average, a high degree of fatigue was reported to occur every day, to remain constant during the course of a week, and to most often affect walking and household chores. When controlling for disease severity and insurance coverage, respondents who reported more fatigue made more visits to the rheumatologist than those reporting less fatigue. A regression model with fatigue as the dependent variable revealed that the following variables explained a significant amount of variance: pain rating, functional status, sleep quality, female gender, comorbid conditions, and duration of disease.

  10. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamo, Tim [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan [School of Mathematics, Trinity College Dublin, College Green, Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2017-04-04

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point (MHV)-bar amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  11. Conformal higher spin scattering amplitudes from twistor space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Tim; Hähnel, Philipp; McLoughlin, Tristan

    2017-04-01

    We use the formulation of conformal higher spin (CHS) theories in twistor space to study their tree-level scattering amplitudes, finding expressions for all three-point \\overline{MHV} amplitudes and all MHV amplitudes involving positive helicity conformal gravity particles and two negative helicity higher spins. This provides the on-shell analogue for the covariant coupling of CHS fields to a conformal gravity background. We discuss the restriction of the theory to a ghost-free unitary subsector, analogous to restricting conformal gravity to general relativity with a cosmological constant. We study the flat-space limit and show that the restricted amplitudes vanish, supporting the conjecture that in the unitary sector the S-matrix of CHS theories is trivial. However, by appropriately rescaling the amplitudes we find non-vanishing results which we compare with chiral flat-space higher spin theories.

  12. Fatigue limit estimation of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V with infrared thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akai, Atsushi; Shiozawa, Daiki; Sakagami, Takahide

    2017-05-01

    Fatigue limit estimation using infrared thermography has recently received attention as a method for reducing the time required for product design. In this study, the applicability of a method based on mean temperature and dissipated energy measurements was experimentally investigated on a titanium alloy; fatigue plate specimens were fabricated from the titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V ELI. The fatigue limit of these specimens obtained from conventional fatigue testing was found to be 620 MPa. The estimated fatigue limit obtained from mean temperature measurements was found to be 600 MPa, although estimating the fatigue limit using dissipated energy measurements was difficult because little significant change in dissipated energy values with the stress amplitude was observed. These tendencies are probably attributed to the crystal structure displaying different deformation properties and high vibration absorption properties. The resonance components from the fatigue testing instruments (noise components) were calculated from the frequency analysis of the time-series temperature fluctuation data measured by infrared thermography. The increase in the dissipated energy values (with the noise components subtracted) against the stress amplitude changed at a certain stress amplitude and the fatigue limit could be estimated to be 565 MPa. Therefore, the relative error between the fatigue limit value obtained from conventional fatigue testing and the estimated values was within 10%. The fatigue limit could be estimated more accurately by considering the influence of different deformation properties between tensile and compressive loading due to the crystal structure differences in the dissipated energy measurement.

  13. The effect of ply folds as manufacturing defect on the fatigue life of CFRP materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hörrmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing defects are inherent to any manufacturing process. However, in composite materials they might be unavoidable, e.g. ply waviness or even folds of plies are present in complex shaped parts during high pressure resin transfer molding of carbon fiber reinforced polymers. In this work, the effect of the ply folds on the fatigue life of the composite material is investigated. Folds along fiber direction (as they commonly appear during manufacturing were artificially introduced in unidirectional non crimp fabric plies. The target of this study is the prediction of damage initiation due to this particular type of manufacturing defect. The folds locally increase the fiber volume fraction and also introduce resin rich areas. Fatigue tests in fiber direction and transverse to fiber direction are performed at different load ratios under constant amplitude loading. The influence of the defect geometry on damage initiation and progression is investigated at different scales by non-destructive methods before testing, continuous strain measurement and monitoring the damage progression during testing and fractography analysis after final failure. Most of the time, the first damage was observed at the location of the introduced fold for all considered load cases. However, it was also found, that the folds lead to no significant reduction in fatigue life

  14. Fatigue life estimation of welded joints of an aluminium alloy under superimposed random load waves (follow-up report). Effects of high frequency components; Jujo random kajuka ni okeru aluminium gokin yosetsu tsugite no hiro jumyo suitei (zokuho). Koshuha seibun no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, I.; Maenaka, H.; Takada, A. [Ship Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    In order to examine fatigue behavior of boxing welded joints of anticorrosion aluminum A 5083 P-O alloy, the residual stress measurements, static loading tests, elastic finite element analyses, constant amplitude fatigue tests, and random fatigue tests were conducted. For a load wave in the random loading fatigue tests, a direct current component, a zero-mean narrow band random process, and a high frequency component were combined and superimposed, to examine the effect of the high frequency component and the effect of the stress cycle count method and the mean stress correction on the life estimation. For the fatigue analysis, a reference stress, such as that considering the structural stress concentration, was proved effective in reducing the amount of scattering in the fatigue test results and in improving the life estimation accuracy. Accordingly, for the actual scale measurements, it is insufficient only to measure the stress at points far from the crack initiation place. It is required to analyze the fatigue by measuring the reference stress same as the basic data acquisition tests in the laboratory. 4 refs., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Fatigue diminishes motoneuronal excitability during cycling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weavil, Joshua C; Sidhu, Simranjit K; Mangum, Tyler S; Richardson, Russell S; Amann, Markus

    2016-10-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue influences the excitability of the motor pathway during single-joint isometric contractions. This study sought to investigate the influence of fatigue on corticospinal excitability during cycling exercise. Eight men performed fatiguing constant-load (80% W peak ; 241 ± 13 W) cycling to exhaustion during which the percent increase in quadriceps electromyography (ΔEMG; vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was quantified. During a separate trial, subjects performed two brief (∼45 s) nonfatiguing cycling bouts (244 ± 15 and 331 ± 23W) individually chosen to match the ΔEMG across bouts to that observed during fatiguing cycling. Corticospinal excitability during exercise was quantified by transcranial magnetic, electric transmastoid, and femoral nerve stimulation to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEP), cervicomedullary evoked potentials (CMEP), and M waves in the quadriceps. Peripheral and central fatigue were expressed as pre- to postexercise reductions in quadriceps twitch force (ΔQ tw ) and voluntary quadriceps activation (ΔVA). Whereas nonfatiguing cycling caused no measureable fatigue, fatiguing cycling resulted in significant peripheral (ΔQ tw : 42 ± 6%) and central (ΔVA: 4 ± 1%) fatigue. During nonfatiguing cycling, the area of MEPs and CMEPs, normalized to M waves, similarly increased in the quadriceps (∼40%; P fatiguing cycling. As a consequence, the ratio of MEP to CMEP was unchanged during both trials (P > 0.5). Therefore, although increases in muscle activation promote corticospinal excitability via motoneuronal facilitation during nonfatiguing cycling, this effect is abolished during fatigue. We conclude that the unaltered excitability of the corticospinal pathway from start of intense cycling exercise to exhaustion is, in part, determined by inhibitory influences on spinal motoneurons obscuring the facilitating effects of muscle activation.

  16. Ion exchange equilibrium constants

    CERN Document Server

    Marcus, Y

    2013-01-01

    Ion Exchange Equilibrium Constants focuses on the test-compilation of equilibrium constants for ion exchange reactions. The book first underscores the scope of the compilation, equilibrium constants, symbols used, and arrangement of the table. The manuscript then presents the table of equilibrium constants, including polystyrene sulfonate cation exchanger, polyacrylate cation exchanger, polymethacrylate cation exchanger, polysterene phosphate cation exchanger, and zirconium phosphate cation exchanger. The text highlights zirconium oxide anion exchanger, zeolite type 13Y cation exchanger, and

  17. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenthal, S. H.

    1984-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  18. Strain-rate dependent fatigue behavior of 316LN stainless steel in high-temperature water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jibo; Wu, Xinqiang; Han, En-Hou; Ke, Wei; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Haitao

    2017-06-01

    Low cycle fatigue behavior of forged 316LN stainless steel was investigated in high-temperature water. It was found that the fatigue life of 316LN stainless steel decreased with decreasing strain rate from 0.4 to 0.004 %s-1 in 300 °C water. The stress amplitude increased with decreasing strain rate during fatigue tests, which was a typical characteristic of dynamic strain aging. The fatigue cracks mainly initiated at pits and slip bands. The interactive effect between dynamic strain aging and electrochemical factors on fatigue crack initiation is discussed.

  19. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Henn, Johannes M

    2014-01-01

    At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge.   These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum ...

  20. Ratcheting fatigue behaviour of Al-7075 T6 alloy: Influence of stress parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Lala; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Dutta, K.

    2016-02-01

    The use of aluminium and aluminium based alloys are increasing rapidly on account of its high formability, good thermal and electrical conductivity, high strength and lightness. Aluminium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, automobile, marine and space research industries and are also put into structural applications where chances of fatigue damage cannot be ruled out. In the current work, it is intended to study the ratcheting fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminium alloy at room temperature. This Al alloy is potentially used in aviation, marine and automotive components as well as in bicycle parts, rock mounting equipment and parts of ammunition where there is every chance of failure of the parts due to deformation caused by ratcheting. Ratcheting is the process of accruement of plastic stain produced when a component is subjected to asymmetric cyclic loading under the influence of low cycle fatigue. To accomplish the requirements of the projected research, stress-controlled cyclic loading experiments were done using a ±250 kN servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (Instron: 8800R). The effect of stress parameters such as mean stress and stress amplitude were investigated on the ratcheting behavior of the selected aluminium alloy. It was observed that, ratcheting strain increased with increase in the value of stress amplitude at any constant mean stress while a saturation in strain accumulation attained in the investigated material after around 10-20 cycles, under all test conditions. The analyses of hysteresis loop generated during cyclic loading indicate that the material exhibits cyclic hardening in the initial fifty cycles which gets softened in further loading up to about 70-80 cycles and finally attains a steady state. The increase in the ratcheting strain value with stress parameters happens owing to increased deformation domain during cycling. The cyclic hardening accompanied by softening is correlated with characteristic precipitation features of

  1. Ratcheting fatigue behaviour of Al-7075 T6 alloy: Influence of stress parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarnath, Lala; Bhattacharjee, Antara; Dutta, K.

    2016-01-01

    The use of aluminium and aluminium based alloys are increasing rapidly on account of its high formability, good thermal and electrical conductivity, high strength and lightness. Aluminium alloys are extensively used in aerospace, automobile, marine and space research industries and are also put into structural applications where chances of fatigue damage cannot be ruled out. In the current work, it is intended to study the ratcheting fatigue behavior of 7075-T6 aluminium alloy at room temperature. This Al alloy is potentially used in aviation, marine and automotive components as well as in bicycle parts, rock mounting equipment and parts of ammunition where there is every chance of failure of the parts due to deformation caused by ratcheting. Ratcheting is the process of accruement of plastic stain produced when a component is subjected to asymmetric cyclic loading under the influence of low cycle fatigue. To accomplish the requirements of the projected research, stress-controlled cyclic loading experiments were done using a ±250 kN servo-hydraulic universal testing machine (Instron: 8800R). The effect of stress parameters such as mean stress and stress amplitude were investigated on the ratcheting behavior of the selected aluminium alloy. It was observed that, ratcheting strain increased with increase in the value of stress amplitude at any constant mean stress while a saturation in strain accumulation attained in the investigated material after around 10-20 cycles, under all test conditions. The analyses of hysteresis loop generated during cyclic loading indicate that the material exhibits cyclic hardening in the initial fifty cycles which gets softened in further loading up to about 70-80 cycles and finally attains a steady state. The increase in the ratcheting strain value with stress parameters happens owing to increased deformation domain during cycling. The cyclic hardening accompanied by softening is correlated with characteristic precipitation features of

  2. Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Thermal Acoustic Fatigue Apparatus (TAFA) is a progressive wave tube test facility that is used to test structures for dynamic response and sonic fatigue due to...

  3. Macroscopic Loop Amplitudes in Two-Dimensional Dilaton Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Matsumura, Yoichro; Sakai, Norisuke; Shirokura, Hiroshi

    1993-01-01

    Macroscopic loop amplitudes are obtained for the dilation gravity in two-dimensions. The dependence on the macroscopic loop length $l$ is completely determined by using the Wheeler-DeWitt equation in the mini-superspace approximation. The dependence on the cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ is also determined by using the scaling argument in addition.

  4. Influence of muscular fatigue in evoked electromyogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, J; Acevedo, R; Tabernig, C [Rehabilitation Engineering and Neuromuscular and Sensorial Research Laboratory, National University of Entre Rios (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    In this work we present the results of the evaluation of the changes happened in M wave during application of functional electrical stimulation. Electromyogram from the tibialis anterior muscle and ankle angle were measured to determine the occurrence of the fatigue phenomenon. The results report a decrease of the signal amplitude and the median of the power spectrum and are encouraging for the development of strategies of control of FES applications.

  5. An Investigation of the Microstructure and Fatigue Behavior of Additively Manufactured AISI 316L Stainless Steel with Regard to the Influence of Heat Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Blinn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available To exploit the whole potential of Additive Manufacturing, it is essential to investigate the complex relationships between Additive Manufacturing processes, the resulting microstructure, and mechanical properties of the materials and components. In the present work, Selective Laser Melted (SLM (process category: powder bed fusion, Laser Deposition Welded (LDW (process category: direct energy deposition and, for comparison, Continuous Casted and then hot and cold drawn (CC austenitic stainless steel AISI 316L blanks were investigated with regard to their microstructure and mechanical properties. To exclude the influence of surface topography and focus the investigation on the volume microstructure, the blanks were turned into final geometry of specimens. The additively manufactured (AM- blanks were manufactured in both the horizontal and vertical building directions. In the horizontally built specimens, the layer planes are perpendicular and in vertical building direction, they are parallel to the load axis of the specimens. The materials from different manufacturing processes exhibit different chemical composition and hence, austenite stability. Additionally, all types of blanks were heat treated (2 h, 1070 °C, H2O and the influence of the heat treatment on the properties of differently manufactured materials were investigated. From the cyclic deformation curves obtained in the load increase tests, the anisotropic fatigue behavior of the AM-specimens could be detected with only one specimen in each building direction for the different Additive Manufacturing processes, which could be confirmed by constant amplitude tests. The results showed higher fatigue strength for horizontally built specimens compared to the vertical building direction. Furthermore, the constant amplitude tests show that the austenite stability influences the fatigue behavior of differently manufactured 316L. Using load increase tests as an efficient rating method of the

  6. Motivic amplitudes and cluster coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.K.; Goncharov, A.B.; Spradlin, M.; Vergu, C.; Volovich, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we study motivic amplitudes — objects which contain all of the essential mathematical content of scattering amplitudes in planar SYM theory in a completely canonical way, free from the ambiguities inherent in any attempt to choose particular functional representatives. We find that the cluster structure on the kinematic configuration space Conf n (ℙ 3 ) underlies the structure of motivic amplitudes. Specifically, we compute explicitly the coproduct of the two-loop seven-particle MHV motivic amplitude A 7,2 M and find that like the previously known six-particle amplitude, it depends only on certain preferred coordinates known in the mathematics literature as cluster X-coordinates on Conf n (ℙ 3 ). We also find intriguing relations between motivic amplitudes and the geometry of generalized associahedrons, to which cluster coordinates have a natural combinatoric connection. For example, the obstruction to A 7,2 M being expressible in terms of classical polylogarithms is most naturally represented by certain quadrilateral faces of the appropriate associahedron. We also find and prove the first known functional equation for the trilogarithm in which all 40 arguments are cluster X-coordinates of a single algebra. In this respect it is similar to Abel’s 5-term dilogarithm identity

  7. Fatigue History and in-situ Loading Studies of the overload Effect Using High Resolution X-ray Strain Profiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, M.; Jisrawi, N.; Zhong, Z.; Holtz, R.; Sadananda, K.; Skaritka, J.; Tsakalakos, T.

    2007-01-01

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction experiments are used to perform local crack plane strain profiling of 4140 steel compact tension specimens fatigued at constant amplitude, subjected to a single overload cycle, then fatigued some more at constant amplitude. X-ray strain profiling results on a series of samples employing in-situ load cycling are correlated with the crack growth rate (da/dN) providing insight into the da/dN retardation known as the 'overload effect'. Immediately after the overload, the strain under maximum load is greatly reduced but the range of strain, between zero and maximum load, remains unchanged compared to the pre-overload values. At the point of maximum retardation, it is the strain range that is greatly reduced while the maximum-load strain has begun to recover to the pre-overload value. For a sample that has recovered to approximately half of the original da/dN value following the overload, the strain at maximum load is fully recovered while the strain range, though partially recovered, is still substantially reduced. The dominance of the strain range in the overload effect is clearly indicated. Subject to some assumptions, strong quantitative support for a crack growth rate driving force of the suggested form [(K max ) -p (ΔK) p ] γ is found. A dramatic nonlinear load dependence in the spatial distribution of the strain at maximum retardation is also demonstrated: at low load the response is dominantly at the overload position; whereas at high loads it is dominantly at the crack tip position. This transfer of load response away from the crack tip to the overload position appears fundamental to the overload effect for high R-ratio fatigue as studied here

  8. Mechanism of corrosion fatigue cracking of automotive coil spring steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Tae-Heum; Kwon, Min-Seok; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-11-01

    The AISI 300M ultra-high strength steel was applied for the automotive suspension coil spring. Recently, some premature failures were reported, which caused by synergistic effect of cyclic mechanical stress and corrosion, namely corrosion fatigue cracking. In this study, the accurate mechanism of corrosion fatigue cracking for coil spring steel was studied for the proper prevention method against the catastrophic failure. Fatigue life was evaluated in 5 wt% NaCl solution under the anodic dissolution and hydrogen embrittlement conditions, which is simulated by applying constant potentials. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis indicated that the corrosion fatigue cracking was initiated at the MnS inclusion of the pit initiation site. The calculation of hydrogen production corresponding to each corrosion fatigue test condition revealed the two operating mechanisms of the cracking process. The corrosion fatigue cracking failure of coil spring steel was mainly caused by the anodic dissolution combined with hydrogen embrittlement.

  9. Fractographic analysis of fatigue damage in 7000 aluminium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvijović, Z; Vratnica, M; Gerić, K

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, an attempt is made to correlate the fatigue damage in 7000 aluminium alloys with different impurity contents to the microstructural features and to explain their interdependence through fractographic observations. The Paris constants of these alloys in the form of hot-forged plates subjected to the overaged T73 temper are evaluated and differences in the fatigue crack growth rate described by striation spacing measurements. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of fatigue fracture surfaces revealed that the type and morphological parameters of coarse intermetallic particles play a critical role in fatigue crack growth behaviour. The elemental distribution determined by means of energy-dispersive spectroscopy analysis showed that the fractured particles accelerating the crack advances are larger particles of Fe-rich phases. The fatigue crack growth rate increases considerably with increasing amounts of these particles. The smaller eta, S and Mg(2)Si particles contribute beneficially to fatigue life.

  10. Method and data analysis example of fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    In the design and operation of a nuclear fusion reactor, it is important to accurately assess the fatigue life. Fatigue life is evaluated by preparing a database on the relationship between the added stress / strain amplitude and the number of cycles to failure based on the fatigue tests on standard specimens, and by comparing this relationship with the generated stress / strain of the actual constructions. This paper mainly chooses low-cycle fatigue as an object, and explains standard test methods, fatigue limit, life prediction formula and the like. Using reduced-activation ferrite steel F82H as a material, strain controlled low-cycle fatigue test was performed under room temperature atmosphere. From these results, the relationship between strain and the number of cycles to failure was analyzed. It was found that the relationship is asymptotic to the formula of Coffin-Manson Law under high-strain (low-cycle condition), and asymptotic to the formula of Basquin Law under low-strain (high-cycle condition). For F82H to be used for the blanket of a nuclear fusion prototype reactor, the arrangement of fatigue life data up to about 700°C and the establishment of optimal fatigue design curves are urgent tasks. As for fusion reactor structural materials, the evaluation of neutron irradiation effect on fatigue damage behavior and life is indispensable. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish standardized testing techniques when applied to small specimens. (A.O.)

  11. Fatigue Predictions of Various Joints of Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H.; Kari, K.; Getti, A.; Khosrovaneh, A. K.; Su, X.; Zhang, L.; Lee, Y.-L.

    In this project, a front shock tower of a passenger vehicle is developed with various magnesium alloys and joining methods. To predict the fatigue life of the joints in the structure, fatigue tests of various joint specimens including friction stir linear welding, self-piecing rivet joint with and without adhesive, and friction stir spot welding were conducted. The magnesium alloys used for the specimens are AM60 (cast), AM30 (extrusion), and AZ31 (sheet). Various finite element modeling techniques were attempted for simulating the various joints. Fatigue life prediction method for the joints was performed using the stress-life curve approach. The finite element modeling technique and the fatigue prediction method will be verified with fatigue tests of the actual front shock tower structure subjected to variable amplitude loadings in near future.

  12. Fatigue testing of weldable high strength steels under simulated service conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantbirojn, Natee

    There have been concerns over the effect of Cathodic Protection (CP) on weldable high strength steels employed in Jack-up production platform. The guidance provided by the Department of Energy HSE on higher strength steels, based on previous work, was to avoid overprotection as this could cause hydrogen embrittlement. However, the tests conducted so far at UCL for the SE702 type high strength steels (yields strength around 690 MPa) have shown that the effect of over protection on high strength steels may not be as severe as previously thought. For this thesis, SE702 high strength steels have been investigated in more detail. Thick (85mm) parent and ground welded plates were tested under constant amplitude in air and seawater with CP. Tests were also conducted on Thick (40mm) T-butt welded plates under variable amplitude loading in air and seawater with two CP levels (-800mV and -1050mV). Different backing materials (ceramic and metallic) for the welding process of the T-butt plates were also investigated. The variable amplitude sequences employed were generated using the Jack-up Offshore Standard load History (JOSH). The fatigue results are presented as crack growth and S/N curves. They were compared to the conventional offshore steel (BS 4360 50D). The results suggested that the fatigue life of the high strength steels was comparable to the BS 4360 50D steels. The effect of increasing the CP was found to be detrimental to the fatigue life but the effect was not large. The effect of CP was less noticeable in T-butt welded plates. However, in general, the effect of overprotection is not as detrimental to the Jack-up steels as previously thought. The load histories generated by JOSH were found to have some unfavourable characteristics. The framework is based on Markov Chain method and pseudo-random number generator for selecting sea-states. A study was carried out on the sequence generated by JOSH. The generated sequences were analysed for their validity for fatigue

  13. Fatigue life assessment of thin-walled welded joints under non-proportional load-time histories by the shear stress rate integral approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bolchoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue life tests under constant and variable amplitude loadings were performed on the tube-tube thin-walled welded specimens made of magnesium (AZ31 and AZ61 alloys. The tests included pure axial, pure torsional and combined in-phase and out-of-phase loadings with the load ratio  RR " ", " " 1  . For the tests with variable amplitude loads a Gaußdistributed loading spectrum with S L 4 5 10  cycles was used. Since magnesium welds show a fatigue life reduction under out-of-phase loads, a stress-based method, which takes this behavior into account, is proposed. The out-of-phase loading results in rotating shear stress vectors in the section planes, which are not orthogonal to the surface. This fact is used in order to provide an out-of-phase measure of the load. This measure is computed as an area covered by the shear stress vectors in all planes over a certain time interval, its computation involves the shear stress and the shear stress rate vectors in the individual planes. Fatigue life evaluation for the variable amplitudes loadings is performed using the Palmgren-Miner linear damage accumulation, whereas the total damage of every cycle is split up into two components: the amplitude component and the out-of-phase component. In order to compute the two components a modification of the rainflow counting method, which keeps track of the time intervals, where the cycles occur, must be used. The proposed method also takes into account different slopes of the pure axial and the pure torsional Wöhler-line by means of a Wöhler-line interpolation for combined loadings

  14. Examining the time dependence of DAMA's modulation amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelso, Chris; Savage, Christopher; Sandick, Pearl; Freese, Katherine; Gondolo, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    If dark matter is composed of weakly interacting particles, Earth's orbital motion may induce a small annual variation in the rate at which these particles interact in a terrestrial detector. The DAMA collaboration has identified at a 9.3σ confidence level such an annual modulation in their event rate over two detector iterations, DAMA/NaI and DAMA/LIBRA, each with ˜ 7 years of observations. This data is well fit by a constant modulation amplitude for the two iterations of the experiment. We statistically examine the time dependence of the modulation amplitudes, which "by eye" appear to be decreasing with time in certain energy ranges. We perform a chi-squared goodness of fit test of the average modulation amplitudes measured by the two detector iterations which rejects the hypothesis of a consistent modulation amplitude at greater than 80, 96, and 99.6% for the 2-4, 2-5 and 2-6 keVee energy ranges, respectively. We also find that among the 14 annual cycles there are three ≳ 3σ departures from the average in our estimated data in the 5-6 keVee energy range. In addition, we examined several phenomenological models for the time dependence of the modulation amplitude. Using a maximum likelihood test, we find that descriptions of the modulation amplitude as decreasing with time are preferred over a constant modulation amplitude at anywhere between 1σ and 3σ , depending on the phenomenological model for the time dependence and the signal energy range considered. A time dependent modulation amplitude is not expected for a dark matter signal, at least for dark matter halo morphologies consistent with the DAMA signal. New data from DAMA/LIBRA-phase2 will certainly aid in determining whether any apparent time dependence is a real effect or a statistical fluctuation.

  15. Cyclic pitch for the control of wind turbine noise amplitude modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertagnolio, Franck; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    that can model the different aerodynamic and aeroacoustic aspects of the study is presented. Parameters controlling the cyclic pitch are optimized in order to reduce amplitude modulation and/or fatigue load to a minimum. It is shown that such a minimum can be found and that benefit may be achieved...

  16. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  17. Characterization of fatigue properties of binders and mastics at intermediate temperatures using dynamic shear rheometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The paper compares the fatigue life of neat and modified PAV-aged binders and mastics and : determines the influence of dust on fatigue life using the Linear Amplitude Sweep (LAS) method. It : will also compare these results with results from the DER...

  18. Electromagnetic corrections to pseudoscalar decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaessle, Benjamin Simon

    2017-03-06

    First principles Lattice quantum chromodynamics (LQCD) calculations enable the determination of low energy hadronic amplitudes. Precision LQCD calculations with relative errors smaller than approximately 1% require the inclusion of electromagnetic effects. We demonstrate that including (quenched) quantum electrodynamics effects in the LQCD calculation effects the values obtained for pseudoscalar decay constants in the per mille range. The importance of systematic effects, including finite volume effects and the charge dependence of renormalization and improvement coefficients, is highlighted.

  19. Cognitive and Physical Fatigue Tasks Enhance Pain, Cognitive Fatigue and Physical Fatigue in People with Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Keffala, Valerie J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2014-01-01

    Objective Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread muscle pain and fatigue. The primary objective of this study was to determine if pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue were enhanced in participants with fibromyalgia compared to healthy controls during a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task and a dual fatigue task. Methods Twenty four people with fibromyalgia and 33 healthy controls completed pain, fatigue and function measures. A cognitive fatigue task (Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and physical fatigue task (Valpar peg test) were done individually and combined for a dual fatigue task. Resting pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue were assessed during each task using visual analogue scales. Function was assessed with shoulder range of motion and grip. Results People with fibromyalgia had significantly higher increases in pain, cognitive fatigue and physical fatigue when compared to healthy controls after completion of a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task, or a dual fatigue task (pfibromyalgia performed equivalently on measures of physical performance and cognitive performance on the physical and cognitive fatigue tasks, respectively. Conclusions These data show that people with fibromyalgia show larger increases in pain, perceived cognitive fatigue and perceived physical fatigue to both cognitive and physical fatigue tasks compared to healthy controls. The increases in pain and fatigue during cognitive and physical fatigue tasks could influence subject participation in daily activities and rehabilitation. PMID:25074583

  20. Fatigue strength tests of layered steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Černý

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with original measurement of fatigue properties of formed layered steel material – damask steel. This is a material that exhibits a fine micro-structure as well as a regular composition of many material layers with complementary properties. The article experimentally verifies high-cycle fatigue properties of layered steel and evaluates them from the point of view of fatigue tests of conventional steel materials and a parallel application of a non-destructive – acoustic emission – testing. Finally, it discusses the influence of production on fatigue strength and the possibilities of using multi-layered steel materials in technological practice. A serious result of this pilot experiment is the fact documented no only by the fractographic observation, but mainly by the AE records that the fatigue service life of this material is high if it its not stressed by tension approximating the yield point Re. However, such stress is not common in practical use of tools made of damask steel and thus under common bending stress an exceptionally long service life of tools made of this type of material is demonstrable. The fact that damask steel behaves like a homogeneous material is mainly confirmed by the records of the AE signal at lower values of stress σa. When stressed by higher amplitudes of tension σa damask responds in AE records similarly to a laminate material that is stressed by bending.

  1. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    The article discusses the importance of the fine structure constant in quantum mechanics, along with the brief history of how it emerged. Al- though Sommerfelds idea of elliptical orbits has been replaced by wave mechanics, the fine struc- ture constant he introduced has remained as an important parameter in the field of ...

  2. The Cosmological Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carroll Sean M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a review of the physics and cosmology of the cosmological constant. Focusing on recent developments, I present a pedagogical overview of cosmology in the presence of a cosmological constant, observational constraints on its magnitude, and the physics of a small (and potentially nonzero vacuum energy.

  3. On Aryabhata's Planetary Constants

    OpenAIRE

    Kak, Subhash

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the theory of a Babylonian origin of Aryabhata's planetary constants. It shows that Aryabhata's basic constant is closer to the Indian counterpart than to the Babylonian one. Sketching connections between Aryabhata's framework and earlier Indic astronomical ideas on yugas and cyclic calendar systems, it is argued that Aryabhata's system is an outgrowth of an earlier Indic tradition.

  4. Fatigue crack growth rate behaviour of friction-stir aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 welds under transient thermal tensioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilman, M.N.; Kusmono,; Iswanto, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • FSW enables unweldable aircraft material AA2024-T3 to be welded without cracking. • FSW applied to aircraft structure is required to have superior fatigue resistance. • Transient thermal tensioning (TTT) is being developed for stress relieving in FSW. • The fatigue crack growth rates of FSW joints under TTT are studied. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) has become a serious candidate technology to join metallic fuselage panels for the next generation of civil aircrafts. However, residual stress introduced during welding which subsequently affects fatigue performance is still a major problem that needs to be paid attention. The present investigation aims to improve fatigue crack growth resistance of friction stir aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 welds using transient thermal tensioning (TTT) treatment. In this investigation, aluminium alloy AA2024-T3 plates were joined using FSW process with and without TTT. The welding parameters used including tool rotation speed (Rt) and the plate travelling speed (v) were 1450 rpm and 30 mm/min respectively. The TTT treatments were carried out by heating both sides of friction stir weld line using moving electric heaters ahead of, beside and behind the tool at a heating temperature of 200 °C. Subsequently, a sequence of tests was carried out including microstructural examination, hardness measurement, tensile test and fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) test in combination with fractography using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The FCGR test was carried out using a constant amplitude fatigue experiment with stress ratio (R) of 0.1 and frequency (f) of 11 Hz whereas specimens used were centre-crack tension (CCT) type with the initial crack located at the weld nugget. Results of this investigation showed that at low ΔK, typically below 9 MPa m 0.5 , the friction stir welds under TTT treatments lowered fatigue crack growth rate (da/dN) and the lowest (da/dN) was achieved as the heaters were located ahead of

  5. Nonsinglet pentagons and NMHV amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Scattering amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric gauge theory receive a dual description in terms of the expectation value of the super Wilson loop stretched on a null polygonal contour. This makes the analysis amenable to nonperturbative techniques. Presently, we elaborate on a refined form of the operator product expansion in terms of pentagon transitions to compute twist-two contributions to NMHV amplitudes. To start with, we provide a novel derivation of scattering matrices starting from Baxter equations for flux-tube excitations propagating on magnon background. We propose bootstrap equations obeyed by pentagon form factors with nonsinglet quantum numbers with respect to the R-symmetry group and provide solutions to them to all orders in 't Hooft coupling. These are then successfully confronted against available perturbative calculations for NMHV amplitudes to four-loop order.

  6. Large amplitude oscillatory elongation flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Laillé, Philippe; Yu, Kaijia

    2008-01-01

    A filament stretching rheometer (FSR) was used for measuring the elongation flow with a large amplitude oscillative elongation imposed upon the flow. The large amplitude oscillation imposed upon the elongational flow as a function of the time t was defined as epsilon(t) =(epsilon) over dot(0)t...... with a molecular weight of 145 kg/ mol was subjected to the oscillative flow. The onset of the steady periodic regime is reached at the same Hencky strain as the onset of the steady elongational viscosity ( Lambda = 0). The integral molecular stress function formulation within the 'interchain pressure' concept...

  7. High-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Aoshuang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A modified model is developed to characterize and evaluate high-cycle fatigue behavior of Co-based superalloy 9CrCo at elevated temperatures by considering the stress ratio effect. The model is informed by the relationship surface between maximum nominal stress, stress ratio and fatigue life. New formulae are derived to deal with the test data for estimating the parameters of the proposed model. Fatigue tests are performed on Co-based superalloy 9CrCo subjected to constant amplitude loading at four stress ratios of −1, −0.3, 0.5 and 0.9 in three environments of room temperature (i.e., about 25 °C and elevated temperatures of 530 °C and 620 °C, and the interaction mechanisms between the elevated temperature and stress ratio are deduced and compared with each other from fractographic studies. Finally, the model is applied to experimental data, demonstrating the practical and effective use of the proposed model. It is shown that new model has good correlation with experimental results.

  8. Scattering Amplitudes from Intersection Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizera, Sebastian

    2018-04-06

    We use Picard-Lefschetz theory to prove a new formula for intersection numbers of twisted cocycles associated with a given arrangement of hyperplanes. In a special case when this arrangement produces the moduli space of punctured Riemann spheres, intersection numbers become tree-level scattering amplitudes of quantum field theories in the Cachazo-He-Yuan formulation.

  9. Employing Helicity Amplitudes for Resummation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moult, I.; Stewart, I.W.; Tackmann, F.J.; Waalewijn, W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are

  10. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2015-08-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d-dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for pp → H+0,1,2 jets, pp → W/Z/γ+0,1,2 jets, and pp → 2,3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e + e - and e - p collisions.

  11. Scattering amplitudes in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henn, Johannes M.; Plefka, Jan C.

    2014-01-01

    First monographical text on this fundamental topic. Course-tested, pedagogical and self-contained exposition. Includes exercises and solutions. At the fundamental level, the interactions of elementary particles are described by quantum gauge field theory. The quantitative implications of these interactions are captured by scattering amplitudes, traditionally computed using Feynman diagrams. In the past decade tremendous progress has been made in our understanding of and computational abilities with regard to scattering amplitudes in gauge theories, going beyond the traditional textbook approach. These advances build upon on-shell methods that focus on the analytic structure of the amplitudes, as well as on their recently discovered hidden symmetries. In fact, when expressed in suitable variables the amplitudes are much simpler than anticipated and hidden patterns emerge. These modern methods are of increasing importance in phenomenological applications arising from the need for high-precision predictions for the experiments carried out at the Large Hadron Collider, as well as in foundational mathematical physics studies on the S-matrix in quantum field theory. Bridging the gap between introductory courses on quantum field theory and state-of-the-art research, these concise yet self-contained and course-tested lecture notes are well-suited for a one-semester graduate level course or as a self-study guide for anyone interested in fundamental aspects of quantum field theory and its applications. The numerous exercises and solutions included will help readers to embrace and apply the material presented in the main text.

  12. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baez, John C; Christensen, J Daniel

    2002-01-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (e iS ) rather than imaginary-time e -S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model

  13. Discontinuity formulas for multiparticle amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1976-03-01

    It is shown how discontinuity formulas for multiparticle scattering amplitudes are derived from unitarity and analyticity. The assumed analyticity property is the normal analytic structure, which was shown to be equivalent to the space-time macrocausality condition. The discontinuity formulas to be derived are the basis of multi-particle fixed-t dispersion relations

  14. Biaxial fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ackermann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue behavior is an important topic in critical structural components. In the present study the biaxial-planar fatigue behavior of a powder metallurgical TRIP steel (Transformation Induced Plasticity was studied by taking into account martensitic phase transformation and crack growth behavior. Biaxial cyclic deformation tests were carried out on a servo hydraulic biaxial tension-compression test rig using cruciform specimens. Different states of strain were studied by varying the strain ratio between the axial strain amplitudes in the range of -1 (shear loading to 1 (equibiaxial loading. The investigated loading conditions were proportional due to fixed directions of principal strains. The studied TRIP steel exhibits martensitic phase transformation from -austenite via ε-martensite into α‘- martensite which causes pronounced cyclic hardening. The α‘-martensite formation increased with increasing plastic strain amplitude. Shear loading promoted martensite formation and caused the highest α‘-martensite volume fractions at fatigue failure in comparison to uniaxial and other biaxial states of strain. Moreover, the fatigue lives of shear tests were higher than those of uniaxial and other biaxial tests. The von Mises equivalent strain hypothesis was found to be appropriate for uniaxial and biaxial fatigue, but too conservative for shear fatigue, according to literature for torsional fatigue. The COD strain amplitude which is based on crack opening displacement gave a better correlation of the investigated fatigue lives, especially those for shear loading. Different types of major cracks were observed on the sample surfaces after biaxial cyclic deformation by using electron monitoring in an electron beam universal system and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Specimens with strain ratios of 1, 0.5, -0.1 and -0.5 showed mode I major cracks (perpendicular to the axis of maximum principal strain. Major cracks after shear fatigue

  15. The cosmological constant problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    A review of the cosmological term problem is presented. Baby universe model and the compensating field model are discussed. The importance of more accurate data on the Hubble constant and the Universe age is stressed. 18 refs

  16. Deconstructing the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Jejjala, V; Minic, D; Jejjala, Vishnu; Leigh, Robert G.; Minic, Djordje

    2003-01-01

    Deconstruction provides a novel way of dealing with the notoriously difficult ultraviolet problems of four-dimensional gravity. This approach also naturally leads to a new perspective on the holographic principle, tying it to the fundamental requirements of unitarity and diffeomorphism invariance, as well as to a new viewpoint on the cosmological constant problem. The numerical smallness of the cosmological constant is implied by a unique combination of holography and supersymmetry, opening a new window into the fundamental physics of the vacuum.

  17. Microscopic Study of 5083-H321 Aluminium Alloy Under Fretting Fatigue Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamian, S; Sahari, B B; Ali, Aidy; Mahdi, El-Sadiq; Hamouda, A M

    2011-01-01

    Fretting occurs where there is small amplitude oscillating motion between solid surfaces in contact. With even small loads or prolonged operation, fretting may lead to crack initiation followed by fretting fatigue. Its effect on fatigue is to speed up the nucleation of fatigue surface cracks and it can be extremely damaging. Fretting fatigue is a critical concern in aircraft structures and a widespread problem in naval structural components and is often the root cause of fatigue crack nucleation in machine components. In this investigation, fretting fatigue study is carried out using 5083-H321 marine/ aerospace aluminium alloy. The test rig and the experiments were designed with an emphasis to study the crack initiation behaviour in the fretted region using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fretting damage and its relationship to the fretting fatigue life are presented and discussed.

  18. Microscopic study of 5083-H321 Aluminium alloy under fretting fatigue condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eslamian, S.; Sahari, B.B.; Aidy Ali; El-Sadiq, M.; Hamouda, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Fretting occurs where there is small amplitude oscillating motion between solid surfaces in contact. With even small loads or prolonged operation, fretting may lead to crack initiation followed by fretting fatigue. Its effect on fatigue is to speed up the nucleation of fatigue surface cracks and it can be extremely damaging. Fretting fatigue is a critical concern in aircraft structures and a widespread problem in naval structural components and is often the root cause of fatigue crack nucleation in machine components. In this investigation, fretting fatigue study is carried out using 5083-H321 marine/ aerospace aluminium alloy. The test rig and the experiments were designed with an emphasis to study the crack initiation behaviour in the fretted region using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The damages produced by fretting and its relationship to the fretting fatigue life are discussed in the paper in some depth. (author)

  19. Microscopic Study of 5083-H321 Aluminium Alloy Under Fretting Fatigue Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslamian, S; Sahari, B B [Institute Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Ali, Aidy [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Mahdi, El-Sadiq; Hamouda, A M, E-mail: saeed.eslamian@gmail.com [Mechanical and Industrial Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Qatar University 2713 Doha (Qatar)

    2011-02-15

    Fretting occurs where there is small amplitude oscillating motion between solid surfaces in contact. With even small loads or prolonged operation, fretting may lead to crack initiation followed by fretting fatigue. Its effect on fatigue is to speed up the nucleation of fatigue surface cracks and it can be extremely damaging. Fretting fatigue is a critical concern in aircraft structures and a widespread problem in naval structural components and is often the root cause of fatigue crack nucleation in machine components. In this investigation, fretting fatigue study is carried out using 5083-H321 marine/ aerospace aluminium alloy. The test rig and the experiments were designed with an emphasis to study the crack initiation behaviour in the fretted region using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Fretting damage and its relationship to the fretting fatigue life are presented and discussed.

  20. Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwarts, M J; Bleijenberg, G; van Engelen, B G M

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a multidimensional concept covering both physiological and psychological aspects. Chronic fatigue is a typical symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disorders but is also presented by people in whom no defined somatic disease has been established. If certain criteria are met, chronic fatigue syndrome can be diagnosed. The 4-item Abbreviated Fatigue Questionnaire allows the extent of the experienced fatigue to be assessed with a high degree of reliability and validity. Physiological fatigue has been well defined and originates in both the peripheral and central nervous system. The condition can be assessed by combining force and surface-EMG measurements (including frequency analyses and muscle-fibre conduction estimations), twitch interpolation, magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex and analysis of changes in the readiness potential. Fatigue is a well-known phenomenon in both central and peripheral neurological disorders. Examples of the former conditions are multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease and stroke. Although it seems to be a universal symptom of many brain disorders, the unique characteristics of the concomitant fatigue also point to a specific relationship with several of these syndromes. As regards neuromuscular disorders, fatigue has been reported in patients with post-polio syndrome, myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, facioscapulohumeral dystrophy, myotonic dystrophy and hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy type-I. More than 60% of all neuromuscular patients suffer from severe fatigue, a prevalence resembling that of patients with MS. Except for several rare myopathies with specific metabolic derangements leading to exercise-induced muscle fatigue, most studies have not identified a prominent peripheral cause for the fatigue in this population. In contrast, the central activation of the diseased neuromuscular system is generally found to be suboptimal. The

  1. The Identification of Fatigue Resistant and Fatigue Susceptible Individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Harrison, Richard; Chaiken, Scott; Harville, Donald; Fischer, Joseph; Fisher, Dion; Whitmore, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The present study was designed to target two specific areas regarding fatigue. The primary purpose was to begin investigations into possible genetic markers linked to fatigue resistance and fatigue susceptibility...

  2. Survey on damage mechanics models for fatigue life prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silitonga, S.; Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Snijder, H.H.

    2013-01-01

    Engineering methods to predict the fatigue life of structures have been available since the beginning of the 20th century. However, a practical problem arises from complex loading conditions and a significant concern is the accuracy of the methods under variable amplitude loading. This paper

  3. Seismic amplitude processing and inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, Ashwani

    2008-10-01

    Hydrocarbon exploration requires reliable seismic amplitudes to identify oil and gas reservoirs. Erroneous seismic amplitude processing can potentially generate large economic losses. Correct seismic amplitude processing is pre-requisite for any amplitude dependent analysis. The accuracy of the subsurface image and estimation of the elastic properties of subsurface sediments depends upon the reliability of the amplitudes. Geophone groups are wavenumber filters that change the seismic amplitudes because of a wavenumber dependent information loss. Numerically defined filters deconvolve the recording group response from horizontal and the vertical component seismic data recorded with groups of uniform and non-uniform geophone sensitivity, different group lengths and spacing, and noise. The filtering effect of an array increases as the group length increases, and only the wavenumber range defined by the group interval can be correctly compensated for the group effect. A rigorous, explicit spatial antialias filter is designed and applied by removing the energy above the first Nyquist wavenumber in the horizontal slowness-frequency domain. The filter removes the spatially aliased frequencies selectively at each slowness. The aliased energy is dispersive and present at both small and large horizontal slownesses. The filter can be explicitly applied to regularly spaced or irregularly spaced traces and is independent of any event linearity assumption. An integrative interpretation approach defines the effect of the structural setting on gas hydrate and free-gas accumulation at a site at the East Casey fault zone in the Gulf of Mexico. At a well location, hydrates are interpreted as fracture fillings with maximum saturation ˜30% of the available pore space. Two low acoustic impedance (Ip) free-gas features terminating at the bottom simulating reflector (BSR) are interpreted from the 3D seismic data and the derived Ip volumes. The 2D Ip profile shows a contrast in BSR

  4. Compressive Fatigue in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1999-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Small clear specimens of spruce are taken to failure in square wave formed fatigue loading at a stress excitation level corresponding to 80% of the short term strength. Four...... frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation...

  5. Optimal Fatigue Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kroon, I. B.

    1993-01-01

    life experiments for the same purpose. The methodology is basedon modern probabilistic concepts amd classical decision theory. The special case where the fatigue life experiments are given in terms of SN curves is considered in Particular. The proposed techniques are illustrated by an example.......This paper considers the reassessment of the reliability of tubular joints subjected to fatigue load. The reassessment is considered in two parts namely the task of utilizing new experimental data on fatigue life to update the reliability of the tubular joint ant the task of planning new fatigue...

  6. Periodic instantons and scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlebnikov, S.Yu.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1991-04-01

    We discuss the role of periodic euclidean solutions with two turning points and zero winding number (periodic instantons) in instanton induced processes below the sphaleron energy E sph . We find that the periodic instantons describe certain multiparticle scattering events leading to the transitions between topologically distinct vacua. Both the semiclassical amplitudes and inital and final states of these transitions are determined by the periodic instantons. Furthermore, the corresponding probabilities are maximal among all states of given energy. We show that at E ≤ E sph , the periodic instantons can be approximated by infinite chains of ordinary instantons and anti-instantons, and they naturally emerge as deformations of the zero energy instanton. In the framework of 2d abelian Higgs model and 4d electroweak theory we show, however, that there is not obvious relation between periodic instantons and two-particle scattering amplitudes. (orig.)

  7. (Thunb.), Makino on Physical Fatigue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fatigue agent, but there is a need for further research on long-term use in order to show its positive effects on physical fatigue. Key words: polysaccharides from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino; physical fatigue; forced swimming test; ...

  8. Low cycle fatigue of Eurofer 97

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marmy, Pierre; Kruml, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    We have investigated the low cycle fatigue and creep-fatigue properties of Eurofer 97 and observed the associated microstructural changes. The as received structure is composed of equiaxed subgrains and a few martensite laths with a high dislocation density. Fatigue tests have been carried out in air or in high vacuum, from room temperature to 550 deg. C, under total strain control. It has been found that the influence of the test temperature on the fatigue endurance is not significant. The softening behaviour as a function of the imposed strain amplitude and temperature has been analysed in detail. The softening rate is independent of the imposed strain but strongly enhanced at the highest test temperature. Creep-fatigue tests were run, imposing a 500 s dwell at the maximum tensile strain of the loading cycle, at a total strain range of 0.5%, 0.8% and 1.4%, and at 150, 300 and 550 deg. C. The influence of the hold time is important only at the highest test temperature, under low applied strains. It was found that at the beginning of life, at the highest temperature, the softening rate with hold times is much stronger as compared to the softening rate without hold times. The amount of stress relaxed during the dwell is independent of the applied strain, at the end of life. The effect of fatigue with and without hold times up to medium temperatures on the microstructure was to lower the dislocation density and to decompose the laths and large grains into a homogeneous structure of submicron grains. At the highest test temperature, an increase of the subgrain size and carbide coarsening were observed

  9. Elastic constants of calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.

    1962-01-01

    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  10. Fundamental physics constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, E.R.; Taylor, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    Present technological applications require the values used for the fundamental physical and chemical constants to be more and more precise and at the same time coherent. Great importance is then attached to the task of coordinating and comparing the most recent experimental data, extracting from them as a whole, by means of a least square fit, a set of values for the fundamental constants as precise and coherent as possible. The set of values which is at present in usage, derives from a fit performed in 1986, but new experimental results already promise a large reduction in the uncertainties of various constants. A new global fit that will implement such reductions is scheduled for completion in 1995 or 1996

  11. Control of amplitude chimeras by time delay in oscillator networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjurchinovski, Aleksandar; Schöll, Eckehard; Zakharova, Anna

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the influence of time-delayed coupling in a ring network of nonlocally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators upon chimera states, i.e., space-time patterns with coexisting partially coherent and partially incoherent domains. We focus on amplitude chimeras, which exhibit incoherent behavior with respect to the amplitude rather than the phase and are transient patterns, and we show that their lifetime can be significantly enhanced by coupling delay. To characterize their transition to phase-lag synchronization (coherent traveling waves) and other coherent structures, we generalize the Kuramoto order parameter. Contrasting the results for instantaneous coupling with those for constant coupling delay, for time-varying delay, and for distributed-delay coupling, we demonstrate that the lifetime of amplitude chimera states and related partially incoherent states can be controlled, i.e., deliberately reduced or increased, depending upon the type of coupling delay.

  12. Amplitude saturation of MEMS resonators explained by autoparametric resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Avoort, C; Bontemps, J J M; Steeneken, P G; Le Phan, K; Van Beek, J T M; Van der Hout, R; Hulshof, J; Fey, R H B

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenon that limits the power handling of MEMS resonators. It is observed that above a certain driving level, the resonance amplitude becomes independent of the driving level. In contrast to previous studies of power handling of MEMS resonators, it is found that this amplitude saturation cannot be explained by nonlinear terms in the spring constant or electrostatic force. Instead we show that the amplitude in our experiments is limited by nonlinear terms in the equation of motion which couple the in-plane length-extensional resonance mode to one or more out-of-plane (OOP) bending modes. We present experimental evidence for the autoparametric excitation of these OOP modes using a vibrometer. The measurements are compared to a model that can be used to predict a power-handling limit for MEMS resonators

  13. Three-Orthogonal-Direction Stress Mapping around a Fatigue-Crack Tip Using Neutron Diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, E.-Wen; Lee, Soo Yeol; Woo, Wanchuck; Lee, Kuan-Wei

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative determination of the stress fields around the crack tip is a challenging and important subject to understand the fatigue crack-growth mechanism. In the current study, we measured the distribution of residual stresses and the evolution of the stress fields around a fatigue crack tip subjected to the constant-amplitude cyclic loading in a 304L stainless steel compact-tension (CT) specimen. The three orthogonal stress components ( i.e., crack growth, crack opening, and through thickness) of the CT specimen were determined as a function of distance from the crack tip with 1-mm spatial resolution along the crack-propagation direction. In-situ neutron-diffraction results show that the enlarged tensile stresses were developed during loading along the through-thickness direction at a localized volume close to the crack tip, resulting in the lattice expansion in all three orthogonal directions during P max. The current study suggests that the atypical plane strainlike behavior observed at the midthickness position might be the reason for the mechanism of the faster crack-growth rate inside the interior than that near the surface.

  14. Role of plasticity-induced crack closure in fatigue crack growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Toribio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The premature contact of crack surfaces attributable to the near-tip plastic deformations under cyclic loading, which is commonly referred to as plasticity induced crack closure (PICC, has long been focused as supposedly controlling factor of fatigue crack growth (FCG. Nevertheless, when the plane-strain near-tip constraint is approached, PICC lacks of straightforward evidence, so that its significance in FCG, and even the very existence, remain debatable. To add insights into this matter, large-deformation elastoplastic simulations of plane-strain crack under constant amplitude load cycling at different load ranges and ratios, as well as with an overload, have been performed. Modeling visualizes the Laird-Smith conceptual mechanism of FCG by plastic blunting and re-sharpening. Simulation reproduces the experimental trends of FCG concerning the roles of stress intensity factor range and overload, but PICC has never been detected. Near-tip deformation patterns discard the filling-in a crack with material stretched out of the crack plane in the wake behind the tip as supposed PICC origin. Despite the absence of closure, load-deformation curves appear bent, which raises doubts about the trustworthiness of closure assessment from the compliance variation. This demonstrates ambiguities of PICC as a supposedly intrinsic factor of FCG and, by implication, favors the stresses and strains in front of the crack tip as genuine fatigue drivers.

  15. Perceived exertion during muscle fatigue as reflected in movement-related cortical potentials: an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Feng; Sun, Yong-Jun; Zhang, Ri-Hui

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism on perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. A total of 15 individuals in the fatigue group and 13 individuals in the nonfatigue group were recruited into this study, performing 200 intermittent handgrip contractions with 30% maximal voluntary contraction. The force, surface electromyography (sEMG), movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs), and rating perception of effort (RPE) were combined to evaluate the perceived exertion during muscle fatigue. The maximal handgrip force significantly decreased (Pfatigue. The RPE scores reported by the individuals and the motor potential amplitude of MRCPs in the fatigue group significantly increased (Pfatigue but could also reflect the peripheral local muscle fatigue.

  16. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality was tes...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  17. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  18. Fatigue hardening and softening studies on strain hardened 18-8 austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna Prasad, C.; Vasudevan, R.

    1976-01-01

    Metals when subjected to fatigue harden or soften depending on their previous mechanical history. Annealed or mildly cold worked metals are known to harden while severely cold worked metals soften when subjected to fatigue loading. In the present work samples of austenitic 18-8 steel cold worked to 11% and 22% reduction in area were mounted in a vertical pulsator and fatigued in axial tension-compression. Clear cut effects were produced and it was noticed that these depended on the extent of cold work, the amplitude as well as the number of cycles of fatigue and mean stress if any. (orig.) [de

  19. Variation of nonlinearity parameter at low fundamental amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Daniel J.

    1999-04-01

    Recent harmonic generation measurements of the nonlinearity parameter β in polycrystalline Cu-Al alloys have shown a transition to lower values at low fundamental amplitude levels. Values for β at high (>10 Å) fundamental levels are in the range predicted by single-crystal second- and third-order elastic constants while lower fundamental levels (alloy by others. The source of the effect is unclear but initial results may require a reexamination of current methods for measurement of third-order elastic constants.

  20. Amplitude and frequency changes in surface EMG of biceps femoris during five days Bruce Protocol treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaluddin, Fauzani N; Ahmad, Siti A; Noor, Samsul Bahari Mohd; Hassan, Wan Zuha Wan; Yaakob, Azhar; Adam, Yunus; Ali, Sawal H M

    2015-01-01

    Electromyography (EMG) is one of the indirect tools in indexing fatigue. Fatigue can be detected when there are changes on amplitude and frequency. However, various outcomes from literature make researchers conclude that EMG is not a reliable tool to measure fatigue. This paper investigates EMG behavior of biceps femoris in median frequency and mean absolute value during five days of Bruce Protocol treadmill test. Before that, surface EMG signals are filtered using band pass filter cut-off at 20-500Hz and are de-noised using db45 1-decimated wavelet transform. Five participants achieved more than 85% of their maximal heart rate during the running activity. The authors also consider other markers of fatigue such as performance, muscle soreness and lethargy as indicators to adaptation and maladaptation conditions. Result shows that turning points of median frequency and mean absolute value are very significant in indexing fatigue and indicators to adaptation of resistive training.

  1. Out-of-pile fatigue tests on Zircaloy CANDU sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, Maria; Ciocanescu, Marin; Gheorghiu, Constantin; Pitigoi, Vasile; Ducu, Catalin; Malinovschi, Viorel

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the achievements in the nuclear research field of cooperation on Nuclear Fuel performed as part of the collaboration under the Memorandum of Understanding, settled between Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) and Institute for Nuclear Research (ICN), The sheath behavior was simulated using out-of-pile fatigue tests, in conditions identical with those met during the operation in power cycling of CANDU reactor, except for irradiation. A special test rig, designed and carried-out at ICN ensured the experimental requirements according to the Canadian testing procedure. The description of the experimental setup and monitoring of testing parameters were also done. The fatigue life time, expressed as number of cycles to rupture (N), was measured as a function of the total strain amplitude (e) induced in the Zircaloy-4 sheath samples. Strain-Life time fatigue dependence (e-N) under low cycle fatigue conditions was also verified using the Coffin-Manson correlation. (authors)

  2. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2002-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth of a hardened and tempered high speed steel was investigated. The evolution of fatigue cracks was followed in four point bending at room temperature. It was found that a carbide damage zone exists above a threshold load...... value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...... microns in front of the fatigue crack tip, which is comparable with the relevant mean free carbide spacing....

  3. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic fatigue syndrome. Committee for Science and Education, Medical. Association of South Africa. Objective. ... Synonyms. Major controversy surrounds the name of the syndrome. In medical circles the preferred term is chronic fatigue .... urine tests using dipsticks. The above investigations should only be pursued when.

  4. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Steven F; Chalder, Trudie; Cleare, Anthony; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2008-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by severe, disabling fatigue, and other symptoms including musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, and headaches. CFS affects between 0.006% and 3% of the population depending on the criteria used, with women being at higher risk than men.

  5. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Steven; Chalder, Trudie; Cleare, Anthony; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome is characterised by severe, disabling fatigue, and other symptoms including musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, and headaches. CFS affects between 0.006% and 3% of the population depending on the criteria used, with women being at higher risk than men.

  6. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Cleare, Anthony J.; Reid, Steven; Chalder, Trudie; Hotopf, Matthew; Wessely, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is characterised by severe, disabling fatigue, and other symptoms, including musculoskeletal pain, sleep disturbance, impaired concentration, and headaches. CFS affects between 0.006% and 3% of the population depending on the criteria used, with women being at higher risk than men.

  7. Perineal neuromuscular fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deffieux, X; Hubeaux, K; Damphousse, M; Raibaut, P; Sheikh Ismael, S; Thoumie, P; Amarenco, G; Lapeyre, E; Jousse, M

    2006-07-01

    The physiology of urinary continence during stress is complex and the role of passive and active mechanisms remains unclear. Coughing leads to a contraction of urethral rhabdomyosphincter and pelvic floor muscles leading to a positive urethro-vesical gradient and continence. Neuromuscular fatigue can involve all striated muscles, including rhabdomyosphincter, peri-urethral and pelvic floor muscles. This article reviews results of studies assessing perineal muscular fatigue in urinary incontinence. A systematic review of the literature (Medline, Pascal and Embase) with use of the MESH keywords fatigue, stress, urinary incontinence, pelvic floor, urethra, urethral pressure, and muscle. Animal models have shown that the pelvic muscles (iliococcygeus and pubococcygeous) exhibit more neuromuscular fatigue than classical skeletal striated muscles (i.e. soleus muscle). Although the human external urethral sphincter is considered to be a highly fatigue-resistant muscle with its high proportion of slow muscle fibers, repeated coughing seems to lead to decreased urethral pressure in numerous women affected with stress urinary incontinence. In this case, "urethral fatigue" might be a possibility. Although few studies have focused on perineal muscular fatigue, such increased fatigue in pelvic floor muscles may play a role in the pathophysiologic features of stress urinary incontinence in women.

  8. Clinical neurophysiology of fatigue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, M.J.; Bleijenberg, G.; Engelen, B.G.M. van

    2008-01-01

    Fatigue is a multidimensional concept covering both physiological and psychological aspects. Chronic fatigue is a typical symptom of diseases such as cancer, multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and cerebrovascular disorders but is also presented by people in whom no defined somatic

  9. The Yamabe constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O Murchadha, N.

    1991-01-01

    The set of riemannian three-metrics with positive Yamabe constant defines the space of independent data for the gravitational field. The boundary of this set is investigated, and it is shown that metrics close to the boundary satisfy the positive-energy theorem. (Author) 18 refs

  10. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions has been ... A good deal of work has been reported on the preparation and structural investigation of. Schiff base ... Formation constants and thermodynamic parameters of Co, Ni, Cu and Zn complexes. Bull. Chem.

  11. Examining fatigue in COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Shair, Khaled; Muellerova, Hana; Yorke, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a disruptive symptom that inhibits normal functional performance of COPD patients in daily activities. The availability of a short, simple, reliable and valid scale would improve assessment of the characteristics and influence of fatigue in COPD. METHODS......: At baseline, 2107 COPD patients from the ECLIPSE cohort completed the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue (FACIT-F) scale. We used well-structured classic method, the principal components analysis (PCA) and Rasch analysis for structurally examining the 13-item FACIT-F. RESULTS: Four items...... were less able to capture fatigue characteristics in COPD and were deleted. PCA was applied to the remaining 9 items of the modified FACIT-F and resulted in three interpretable dimensions: i) general (5 items); ii) functional ability (2 items); and iii) psychosocial fatigue (2 items). The modified...

  12. Forward amplitude in pion deuteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, E.M.; Munguia, G.A.P.; Rosa, L.P.; Thome, Z.D.

    1979-06-01

    The data on total cross section for πd scattering is analysed in terms of a single scattering calculation with Fermi motion dependence, in order to obtain a criterion to fix the value of the energy entering the two body meson nucleon amplitude. It is found that the prescription derived from the non-relativistic three body kinematics gives reasonable results. The introduction of a shift in the energy value, possibly representing nuclear binding effects, leads to a very good fitting of the data. The results are compared with those obtained in direct calculations of Faddeev equations and with the Brueckner model of fixed scatterers. (Author) [pt

  13. Superstring amplitudes and contact interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greensite, J.

    1987-08-01

    We show that scattering amplitudes computed from light-cone superstring field theory are divergent at tree level. The divergences can be eliminated, and supersymmetry restored, by the addition of certain counter terms to the light-cone Hamiltonian. These counter terms have the form of local contact interactions, whose existence we had previously deduced on grounds of vacuum stability, and closure of the super-Poincare algebra. The quartic contact interactions required in Type I and Type IIB superstring theories are constructed in detail. (orig.)

  14. Amplitude modulation reflectometer for FTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerbini, M.; Buratti, P.; Centioli, C.; Amadeo, P.

    1995-06-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) reflectometry is a modification of the classical frequency sweep technique which allows to perform unambiguous phase delay measurements. An eight-channel AM reflectometer has been realized for the measurement of density profiles on the FTU tokamak in the range. The characteristics of the instrument have been determined in extensive laboratory tests; particular attention has been devoted to the effect of interference with parasitic reflections. The reflectometer is now operating on FTU. Some examples of the first experimental data are discussed

  15. Influence of temperature on the fatigue properties of alloy 690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, G.; Frodigh, J.

    2002-01-01

    Owing to good resistance to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC), Alloy 690 as steam generator tubing material is today used to replace Alloy 600 in nuclear steam generators. Besides the behaviour in corrosive environments, the response of strain or stress controlled fatigue is also important. Low cycle fatigue tests for hot-extruded tube material of Alloy 690 (Sandvik Sanicro 69) have been performed under total strain-control mode at room temperature (RT) and at elevated temperature (204 0 C). Rectangular specimens taken from the longitudinal axis of the tubes were used. The influences of temperature and strain amplitude on the fatigue life and cyclic deformation behaviour have been investigated. The fatigue life related to plastic strain is somewhat better at 204 0 C than at room temperature, but the difference is rather small. The fatigue life related to total strain at these two temperatures is comparable. The test results are compared with the existing model for Alloy 600. They show a relatively good agreement in the small strain range. This material at 204 0 C shows a cyclic stress response with a cyclic strain hardening first, followed by a relatively stable stress and finally a second cyclic strain hardening, which has rarely been reported on the strain-controlled fatigue at elevated temperature. TEM investigation shows that the material at 204 0 C has a dislocation structure with planar slip mode, which is less damaging or more fatigue resistant. The mechanisms for the second cyclic strain hardening have also been discussed. (author)

  16. The effect of massage on localized lumbar muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisman Gerry

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is not enough evidence to support the efficacy of massage for muscle fatigue despite wide utilization of the modality in various clinical settings. This study investigated the influence of massage application on localized back muscle fatigue. Methods Twenty-nine healthy subjects participated in two experimental sessions (massage and rest conditions. On each test day, subjects were asked to lie in the prone position on a treatment table and perform sustained back extension for 90 seconds. Subjects then either received massage on the lumbar region or rested for a 5 minute duration, then repeated the back extension movement. The median frequency (MDF, mean power frequency (MNF, and root mean square (RMS amplitude of electromyographic signals during the 90 second sustained lumbar muscle contraction were analyzed. The subjective feeling of fatigue was then evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS. Results MDF and MNF significantly declined with time under all conditions. There was no significant difference in MDF, MNF or RMS value change between before and after massage, or between rest and massage conditions. There was a significant increase in fatigue VAS at the end of the 2nd back extension with rest condition. There was a significant difference in fatigue VAS change between massage and rest condition. Conclusions A significant difference was observed between massage and rest condition on VAS for muscle fatigue. On EMG analysis, there were no significant differences to conclude that massage stimulation influenced the myoelectrical muscle fatigue, which is associated with metabolic and electrical changes.

  17. Development of the ultrasonic fatigue testing machine due to study on giga-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature. 2001 annual report. Document on collaborative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Shuji; Itoh, Takamoto

    2002-03-01

    An ultrasonic fatigue testing machine was developed to obtain the giga-cycle fatigue life at elevated temperature for safety and reliability of structural components in the faster breeder reactor (FBR). This testing machine consists of an amplifier, booster, horn and the equipments such as a system controller and data acquisition. The test specimen is attached at the end of the horn. The electric power generated in the amplifier is transformed into the mechanical vibration in the converter and is magnified in the booster and horn. The vibration was enough to fatigue the specimen. Since the test frequency is set at a resonant frequency, the shape and dimensions of specimen were designed so as to vibrate itself resonantly. However, the maximum amplitudes of stress and strain in the specimen can be calculated easily by measuring the amplitude of displacement at the end of the specimen. The developed ultrasonic fatigue testing machine enables to carry out the fatigue tests at 20 kHz so that it can perform the giga-cycle fatigue test within a very short time as compared with the regular fatigue testing machines such as a hydraulic fatigue testing machine. By clarifying the material strength characteristics in giga-cycle region, the life evaluation, design and examination of components will be more suitable than ever. This study will contribute to improve the safety and reliability of components in FBR. In this technical report, the specification and characteristics of the testing machine were described along with the several experimental results. (author)

  18. Effects of Relaxing Music on Mental Fatigue Induced by a Continuous Performance Task: Behavioral and ERPs Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Ren, Jie; Wang, Biye; Zhu, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether listening to relaxing music would help reduce mental fatigue and to maintain performance after a continuous performance task. The experiment involved two fatigue evaluation phases carried out before and after a fatigue inducing phase. A 1-hour AX-continuous performance test was used to induce mental fatigue in the fatigue-inducing phase, and participants' subjective evaluation on the mental fatigue, as well as their neurobehavioral performance in a Go/NoGo task, were measured before and after the fatigue-inducing phase. A total of 36 undergraduate students (18-22 years) participated in the study and were randomly assigned to the music group and control group. The music group performed the fatigue-inducing task while listening to relaxing music, and the control group performed the same task without any music. Our results revealed that after the fatigue-inducing phase, (a) the music group demonstrated significantly less mental fatigue than control group, (b) reaction time significantly increased for the control group but not for the music group, (c) larger Go-P3 and NoGo-P3 amplitudes were observed in the music group, although larger NoGo-N2 amplitudes were detected for both groups. These results combined to suggest that listening to relaxing music alleviated the mental fatigue associated with performing an enduring cognitive-motor task.

  19. Renormalization of Newton's constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    The problem of obtaining a gauge independent beta function for Newton's constant is addressed. By a specific parametrization of metric fluctuations a gauge independent functional integral is constructed for the semiclassical theory around an arbitrary Einstein space. The effective action then has the property that only physical polarizations of the graviton contribute, while all other modes cancel with the functional measure. We are then able to compute a gauge independent beta function for Newton's constant in d dimensions to one-loop order. No Landau pole is present provided Ng<18 , where Ng=d (d -3 )/2 is the number of polarizations of the graviton. While adding a large number of matter fields can change this picture, the absence of a pole persists for the particle content of the standard model in four spacetime dimensions.

  20. Production in constant evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, T.

    2009-01-01

    The Cofrentes Nuclear Power Plant now has 25 years of operation behind it: a quarter century adding value and demonstrating the reasons why it is one of the most important energy producing facilities in the Spanish power market. Particularly noteworthy is the enterprising spirit of the plant, which has strived to continuously improve with the large number of modernization projects that it has undertaken over the past 25 years. The plant has constantly evolved thanks to the amount of investments made to improve safety and reliability and the perseverance to stay technologically up to date. Efficiency, training and teamwork have been key to the success of the plant over these 25 years of constant change and progress. (Author)

  1. Creep-fatigue damage assessment by subsequent fatigue straining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, M.; Nakamura, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Asada, Y.

    1993-01-01

    A series of creep-fatigue tests has been conducted with Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at 600 deg. C in a high vacuum environment of 0.1mPa to assess an accumulation of creep-fatigue damage. In these tests, each test specimen has been subjected to prior creep-fatigue loading followed by subsequent fatigue loading or prior fatigue loading followed by subsequent creep-fatigue loading. A linear summation of cumulative damage of fatigue and creep life fraction is smaller than unity for the former case, and larger than unity for the latter case. SEM observation was conducted and it was shown that in the case of prior creep-fatigue loading, crack mode transforms from transgranular to intergranular type with the increase of the number of cycles of prior creep-fatigue loading, while crack mode is generally intergranular in the case of prior fatigue loading. (author)

  2. Fatigue Management (La Gestion de la Fatigue)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    Management Pre’face Etant donne la tenidance de plus en plus marque ~e vets le maintien en service des aironefs au-delak des dates lintites...transport aircraft designed prototype sade its first flight one year about 20 years ago; from the fatigue point later. The results of the flight testing

  3. The Fine Structure Constant

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    important parameter in the field of atomic struc- ture. The values of the constants of ... tions in their core that produce carbon. As a result, .... atom in 1913. In other words, the size of a hydrogen atom is a factor α−2 ≈ 20000 times the size of an elec- tron. Another way of looking at α is to consider the ratio of the orbital speed of ...

  4. The cosmological constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellor, F.

    1989-01-01

    Astronomical observations predict to an extremely accurate degree that the cosmological term in Einstein's equations should be zero. This conflicts with the predictions from particle theories of a non-zero cosmological term. Attempts to resolve this paradox range from arguments based on the anthropic principle to supersymmetric theories to quantum cosmological proposals. These approaches are discussed here and the history of the cosmological constant is reviewed. (author)

  5. Connecting Fundamental Constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Mario, D.

    2008-01-01

    A model for a black hole electron is built from three basic constants only: h, c and G. The result is a description of the electron with its mass and charge. The nature of this black hole seems to fit the properties of the Planck particle and new relationships among basic constants are possible. The time dilation factor in a black hole associated with a variable gravitational field would appear to us as a charge; on the other hand the Planck time is acting as a time gap drastically limiting what we are able to measure and its dimension will appear in some quantities. This is why the Planck time is numerically very close to the gravitational/electric force ratio in an electron: its difference, disregarding a π√(2) factor, is only 0.2%. This is not a coincidence, it is always the same particle and the small difference is between a rotating and a non-rotating particle. The determination of its rotational speed yields accurate numbers for many quantities, including the fine structure constant and the electron magnetic moment

  6. The Hubble Constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Neal

    2015-01-01

    I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H 0 values of around 72-74 km s -1 Mpc -1 , with typical errors of 2-3 km s -1 Mpc -1 . This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67-68 km s -1 Mpc -1 and typical errors of 1-2 km s -1 Mpc -1 . The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  7. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  8. Neck Fatigue and Comfort Effects Due to the Extended Wear of Law Enforcement Representative Head-Borne Personal Protective Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    during Endurance Pull 2.3.2. Muscle Activity: Electromyography ( EMG ) has been widely used to investigate muscle fatigue . EMG has become an...environments is uncertain [36]. Surface EMG was used in this study in an attempt to quantify the target muscles ’ level of fatigue (Figure 8). A DelSys...Amplitude and Frequency Components of the Surface EMG as an Index of Muscle Fatigue " Ergonomics, 25,213-223. 30. Cobb, S.; Forbes, A. (1923

  9. Radiotherapy-related fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Marsiglia, Hugo Raul; Orecchia, Roberto

    2002-03-01

    Radiotherapy-induced fatigue is a common early and chronic side-effect of irradiation, reported in up to 80 and 30% of patients during radiation therapy and at follow-up visits, respectively. It is frequently underestimated by medical and nursing staff, only about 50% of patients discuss it with a physician and in one fourth of cases any intervention is proposed to the patient. The patients rarely expect fatigue to be a side-effect of treatment. The etiology of this common symptom, its correlates and prevalence are poorly understood. In numerous studies the level and time course of fatigue was demonstrated to depend on the site of tumor and treatment modalities. For example, psychological mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatigue in women receiving irradiation for early breast cancer, whereas decline in neuromuscular efficiency rather than psychological reasons can lead to the fatigue observed in patients undergoing radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Fatigue can affect global quality of life more than pain, sexual dysfunction and other cancer- or treatment-related symptoms. Several interventions have been tested in the management of radiotherapy-related fatigue and some randomized studies have been recently published. Although an optimal method has not yet been established, some promising results have been reported with relaxation therapy, group psychotherapy, physical exercise and sleep. Further methodologically correct studies are warranted to define better the causes, optimal prevention and management of this symptom.

  10. Reconstruction of far-field tsunami amplitude distributions from earthquake sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    The probability distribution of far-field tsunami amplitudes is explained in relation to the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones. Tsunami amplitude distributions at tide gauge stations follow a similar functional form, well described by a tapered Pareto distribution that is parameterized by a power-law exponent and a corner amplitude. Distribution parameters are first established for eight tide gauge stations in the Pacific, using maximum likelihood estimation. A procedure is then developed to reconstruct the tsunami amplitude distribution that consists of four steps: (1) define the distribution of seismic moment at subduction zones; (2) establish a source-station scaling relation from regression analysis; (3) transform the seismic moment distribution to a tsunami amplitude distribution for each subduction zone; and (4) mix the transformed distribution for all subduction zones to an aggregate tsunami amplitude distribution specific to the tide gauge station. The tsunami amplitude distribution is adequately reconstructed for four tide gauge stations using globally constant seismic moment distribution parameters established in previous studies. In comparisons to empirical tsunami amplitude distributions from maximum likelihood estimation, the reconstructed distributions consistently exhibit higher corner amplitude values, implying that in most cases, the empirical catalogs are too short to include the largest amplitudes. Because the reconstructed distribution is based on a catalog of earthquakes that is much larger than the tsunami catalog, it is less susceptible to the effects of record-breaking events and more indicative of the actual distribution of tsunami amplitudes.

  11. Prolonged unexplained fatigue in paediatrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    Prolonged Unexplained Fatigue in Paediatrics. Fatigue, as the result of mental or physical exertion, will disappear after rest, drinks and food. Fatigue as a symptom of illness will recover with the recovering of the illness. But when fatigue is ongoing for a long time, and not the result of

  12. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods: Perceived fatigue was

  13. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J.; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; van Brussel, Marco|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30481962X; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Methods Perceived fatigue was

  14. Contraintes residuelles et leurs impacts sur l'amorcage de fissures en fatigue de flexion dans des engrenages aeronautiques durcis superficiellement par induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaria, Vincent

    The optimization of gearing for aeronautical engines depends on the development of surface hardening processes to significantly improve in-service durability. Induction heating followed by quenching is a treatment increasingly used in this field to improve the fatigue resistance of critical components such as gears. In this context, this thesis studies the impact of the induction process parameters on residual stresses and the effects of those stresses on the bending fatigue of induction hardened gears. Two existing residual stress measurement techniques, X-ray diffraction and the contour method, were adapted for induction hardened components. The residual stress measurement by X-ray diffraction technique has been significantly improved in this thesis by the consideration of the variation of the X-ray elastic constant at different locations in the hardened layer and the development of a finite element based layer removal correction method that enabled more accurate in-depth residual stress measurements in all sort of geometries. The contour method is clearly a powerful tool for residual stress mapping at the core of parts but proved to be inaccurate for near-surface measurements in the case of thin hardened layers. These methods were used to show the effects of several parameters (initial hardness, preheating, final heating, tempering) with discs and aeronautical spur gears. The results indicate that two induction treatments can sometimes produce two different residual stress distributions (amplitude, severity of gradient in the transition zone, etc.) for a similar hardened depth. The bending fatigue of those gears was studied experimentally with a single tooth bending test rig and numerically with the proposition of a fatigue model for the calculation of the bending endurance limit. The calibration of the model was based on fatigue tests results on traction and torsion specimens. Bending fatigue testing results on gears confirmed the overall accuracy of the

  15. Hyperthermia and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars

    2008-01-01

    of the cardiovascular function, which eventually reduces arterial oxygen delivery to the exercising muscles. Accordingly, aerobic energy turnover is impaired and anaerobic metabolism provokes peripheral fatigue. In contrast, metabolic disturbances of muscle homeostasis are less important during prolonged exercise...... of the dopaminergic system, but may primarily relate to inhibitory signals from the hypothalamus arising secondary to an increase in brain temperature. Fatigue is an integrated phenomenon, and psychological factors, including the anticipation of fatigue, should not be neglected and the interaction between central...... and peripheral physiological factors also needs to be considered....

  16. Expansion of Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chih-Hao; Du, Yi-Jian; Huang, Rijun; Feng, Bo

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we study from various perspectives the expansion of tree level single trace Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes into linear combination of color-ordered Yang-Mills amplitudes. By applying the gauge invariance principle, a programable recursive construction is devised to expand EYM amplitude with arbitrary number of gravitons into EYM amplitudes with fewer gravitons. Based on this recursive technique we write down the complete expansion of any single trace EYM amplitude in the basis of color-order Yang-Mills amplitude. As a byproduct, an algorithm for constructing a polynomial form of the BCJ numerator for Yang-Mills amplitudes is also outlined in this paper. In addition, by applying BCFW recursion relation we show how to arrive at the same EYM amplitude expansion from the on-shell perspective. And we examine the EYM expansion using KLT relations and show how to evaluate the expansion coefficients efficiently.

  17. Constructing Amplitudes from Their Soft Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boucher-Veronneau, Camille; Larkoski, Andrew J.; /SLAC

    2011-12-09

    The existence of universal soft limits for gauge-theory and gravity amplitudes has been known for a long time. The properties of the soft limits have been exploited in numerous ways; in particular for relating an n-point amplitude to an (n-1)-point amplitude by removing a soft particle. Recently, a procedure called inverse soft was developed by which 'soft' particles can be systematically added to an amplitude to construct a higher-point amplitude for generic kinematics. We review this procedure and relate it to Britto-Cachazo-Feng-Witten recursion. We show that all tree-level amplitudes in gauge theory and gravity up through seven points can be constructed in this way, as well as certain classes of NMHV gauge-theory amplitudes with any number of external legs. This provides us with a systematic procedure for constructing amplitudes solely from their soft limits.

  18. Effects of the Electron Beam Welding Process on the Microstructure, Tensile, Fatigue and Fracture Properties of Nickel Alloy Nimonic 80A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H.; Huang, Chongxiang; Guan, Zhongwei; Li, Jiukai; Liu, Yongjie; Chen, Ronghua; Wang, Qingyuan

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate rotary bending high-cycle fatigue properties and crack growth of Nimonic 80A-based metal and electron beam-welded joints. All the tests were performed at room temperature. Fracture surfaces under high-cycle fatigue and fatigue crack growth were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Microstructure, hardness and tensile properties were also evaluated in order to understand the effects on the fatigue results obtained. It was found that the tensile properties, hardness and high-cycle fatigue properties of the welded joint are lower than the base metal. The fracture surface of the high-cycle fatigue shows that fatigue crack initiated from the surface under the high stress amplitude and from the subsurface under the low stress amplitude. The effect of the welding process on the statistical fatigue data was studied with a special focus on probabilistic life prediction and probabilistic lifetime limits. The fatigue crack growth rate versus stress intensity factor range data were obtained from the fatigue crack growth tests. From the results, it was evident that the fatigue crack growth rates of the welded are higher than the base metal. The mechanisms and fracture modes of fatigue crack growth of welded specimens were found to be related to the stress intensity factor range ΔK. In addition, the effective fatigue crack propagation thresholds and mismatch of welded joints were described and discussed.

  19. Effect of cooling rate during hot stamping on low cyclic fatigue of boron steel sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Chang Hee; Jang, Won Seok; Oh, Sang Kyun; Lee, Rac Gyu; Jung, Yun-Chul; Kim, Young Suk

    2012-08-01

    Boron steel is widely used throughout the automobile industry due to its high tensile strength and hardenability. When boron steel is used for body parts, only high strength is required for crashworthiness. However, when boron steel is used for chassis parts, a high fatigue life is needed. The microstructure of boron steel is mainly affected by the cooling rate during hot stamping. Therefore, this study investigated the low cyclic fatigue life according to the cooling rate. The fatigue life increased at a low strain amplitude when the cooling rate was fast. However, at a high strain amplitude, the fatigue life decreased, due to the low ductility and fracture toughness of the martensite formed by rapid cooling. Martensite formed by a fast cooling rate shows excellent fatigue life at a low total strain amplitude; however, a multiphase microstructure formed by a slow cooling rate is recommended if the parts experience high and low total strain amplitudes alternately. In addition, the cooling rate has little effect on the distribution of solute boron and boron precipitations, so it is expected that boron rarely affects low cyclic fatigue.

  20. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  1. Deformation mechanisms in cyclic creep and fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laird, C.

    1979-01-01

    Service conditions in which static and cyclic loading occur in conjunction are numerous. It is argued that an understanding of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation are necessary both for design and for understanding creep-fatigue fracture. Accordingly a brief, and selective, review of cyclic creep and cyclic deformation at both low and high strain amplitudes is provided. Cyclic loading in conjunction with static loading can lead to creep retardation if cyclic hardening occurs, or creep acceleration if softening occurs. Low strain amplitude cyclic deformation is understood in terms of dislocation loop patch and persistent slip band behavior, high strain deformation in terms of dislocation cell-shuttling models. While interesting advances in these fields have been made in the last few years, the deformation mechanisms are generally poorly understood

  2. Variation of structural damping with response amplitude in piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    From tests conducted over the last several years, it has become apparent that structural damping is not a single number applicable to all piping systems, but is highly dependent on piping system parameters such as supports, response amplitude, and insulation. As a result, there is considerable scatter in the available data. Furthermore, the relationships between the parameters and damping are often highly complex, interrelated, and difficult to predict. From tests of piping supported by various typical methods, two basic types of energy dissipation in the supports can be observed. The first is friction such as between spring hangers and their housings or in the internal mechanisms of constant force hangers. The second is impacting such as occurs in snubbers, rigid struts, and rod hangers. Overall, these effects lead to a wide variety of possibilities that can occur at low vibration levels and can change with only a slight perturbation of vibration amplitude. This can account for much of the scatter in the data at low strain levels. Thus damping is almost impossible to predict at low amplitudes, and extrapolation of this type data to higher amplitudes is cautioned. However, once strain levels rise above 100 to 200 micro in/in, the damping trend becomes easier to characterize. From the 100 to 200 micro in/in to 800 to 1000 micro in/in range the damping is fairly constant and is induced primarily by the supports. At the upper end of this range a threshold is reached in which damping increases with increasing strain amplitude. Data in the high strain (plastic range) is sparse since the test usually renders the pipe unsuitable for further use. 15 refs

  3. Experiences of Fatigue at Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Zhiwei; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Chen, Zhonglong

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue has negative impacts on the general working population as well as on seafarers. In order to study seafarers’ fatigue, a questionnaire-base survey was conducted to gain information about potential risk factors for fatigue and construct indexes indicating fatigue. The study applies T-test t......-test to compare strata of seafarers to analyse work and sleep patterns in global seafaring. Qualitative analysis are also employed to explore the impacts of fatigue on seafarer’s occupational health and safety....

  4. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher

  5. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neal Jackson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. There are two broad categories of measurements. The first uses individual astrophysical objects which have some property that allows their intrinsic luminosity or size to be determined, or allows the determination of their distance by geometric means. The second category comprises the use of all-sky cosmic microwave background, or correlations between large samples of galaxies, to determine information about the geometry of the Universe and hence the Hubble constant, typically in a combination with other cosmological parameters. Many, but not all, object-based measurements give H_0 values of around 72–74 km s^–1 Mpc^–1, with typical errors of 2–3 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. This is in mild discrepancy with CMB-based measurements, in particular those from the Planck satellite, which give values of 67–68 km s^–1 Mpc^–1 and typical errors of 1–2 km s^–1 Mpc^–1. The size of the remaining systematics indicate that accuracy rather than precision is the remaining problem in a good determination of the Hubble constant. Whether a discrepancy exists, and whether new physics is needed to resolve it, depends on details of the systematics of the object-based methods, and also on the assumptions about other cosmological parameters and which datasets are combined in the case of the all-sky methods.

  6. Spaces of constant curvature

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Joseph A

    2010-01-01

    This book is the sixth edition of the classic Spaces of Constant Curvature, first published in 1967, with the previous (fifth) edition published in 1984. It illustrates the high degree of interplay between group theory and geometry. The reader will benefit from the very concise treatments of riemannian and pseudo-riemannian manifolds and their curvatures, of the representation theory of finite groups, and of indications of recent progress in discrete subgroups of Lie groups. Part I is a brief introduction to differentiable manifolds, covering spaces, and riemannian and pseudo-riemannian geomet

  7. Insomnia and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in turn leads to fatigue, may affect your self-esteem, mood, emotions, relationships and work. But you don’ ... 19004 Phone: (855) 807-6386 email Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Contact Us Privacy Policy Site Credits Terms ...

  8. Fatigue Design and Prevention in Movable Scaffolding Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Hugo; Torres, Alberto; Pacheco, Pedro; Moreira, Cristiano; Silva, Rute; Soares, José M.; Pinto, Dânia

    2017-06-01

    The Movable Scaffolding System (MSS) is a heavy construction equipment used for casting situ of concrete bridge decks. In the past decades, MSSs have become increasingly complex and industrialized, enlarging its span ranges, incorporating auxiliary elevation machinery and increasing productivity. The tendency nowadays is for strong reutilization and the notion of MSS as a disposable or temporary structure is somehow reductive. The main structure of MSSs may be potentially exposed to fatigue, usually characterized by low number of cycles with significant stress amplitude. Fatigue may be prevented through adequate design; judicious selection of materials; demanding quality control and implementation of robust inspection and maintenance plans.

  9. Study of Mechanical Features for Low Cycle Fatigue Samples of Metastable Austenitic Steel AISI 321 by Neutron Stress Analysis under Applied Load

    CERN Document Server

    Taran, Yu V; Eifler, D; Nebel, Th; Schreiber, J

    2002-01-01

    The elastoplastic properties of the austenitic matrix and martensitic volume areas induced during cyclic tensile-compressive loading of low carbon metastable austenitic stainless steel were studied in an in situ neutron diffraction stress rig experiment on the ENGIN instrument at the ISIS pulsed neutron facility. Samples prepared from the steel AISI 321 annealed at 1050 ^{\\circ}C and quenched in water were subjected to low-cycle fatigue under total-strain control with an amplitude of 1 % at a frequency of 0.5 Hz. Subsequent applied stress?elastic strain responses of the austenitic and martensitic phases were obtained by Rietveld and Le Bail refinements of the neutron diffraction spectra, and were used to determine the elastic constants of the phases as a function of fatigue level. The results of modified refinements accounting for the elastic anisotropy in polycrystalline materials under load are also presented. The residual strains in the austenitic matrix were determined as a function of fatigue cycling, us...

  10. The Recognition Of Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsass, Peter; Jensen, Bodil; Mørup, Rikke

    2007-01-01

    Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87......Elsass P., Jensen B., Morup R., Thogersen M.H. (2007). The Recognition Of Fatigue: A qualitative study of life-stories from rehabilitation clients. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 11 (2), 75-87...

  11. Fatigue Crack Prognostics by Optical Quantification of Defect Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.; Buckner, B. D.; Earthman, J. C.

    2018-01-01

    Defect frequency, a fatigue crack prognostics indicator, is defined as the number of microcracks per second detected using a laser beam that is scanned across a surface at a constant predetermined frequency. In the present article, a mechanistic approach was taken to develop a methodology for deducing crack length and crack growth information from defect frequency data generated from laser scanning measurements made on fatigued surfaces. The method was developed by considering a defect frequency vs fatigue cycle curve that comprised three regions: (i) a crack initiation regime of rising defect frequency, (ii) a plateau region of a relatively constant defect frequency, and (iii) a region of rapid rising defect frequency due to crack growth. Relations between defect frequency and fatigue cycle were developed for each of these three regions and utilized to deduce crack depth information from laser scanning data of 7075-T6 notched specimens. The proposed method was validated using experimental data of crack density and crack length data from the literature for a structural steel. The proposed approach was successful in predicting the length or depth of small fatigue cracks in notched 7075-T6 specimens and in smooth fatigue specimens of a structural steel.

  12. Seasonality of cavitation and frost fatigue in Acer mono Maxim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Feng, Feng; Tyree, Melvin T

    2017-12-08

    Although cavitation is common in plants, it is unknown whether the cavitation resistance of xylem is seasonally constant or variable. We tested the changes in cavitation resistance of Acer mono before and after a controlled cavitation-refilling and freeze-thaw cycles for a whole year. Cavitation resistance was determined from 'vulnerability curves' showing the percent loss of conductivity versus xylem tension. Cavitation fatigue was defined as a reduction of cavitation resistance following a cavitation-refilling cycle, whereas frost fatigue was caused by a freeze-thaw cycle. A. mono developed seasonal changes in native embolisms; values were relatively high during winter but relatively low and constant throughout the growing season. Cavitation fatigue occurred and changed seasonally during the 12-month cycle; the greatest fatigue response occurred during summer and the weakest during winter, and the transitions occurred during spring and autumn. A. mono was highly resistant to frost damage during the relatively mild winter months; however, a quite different situation occurred during the growing season, as the seasonal trend of frost fatigue was strikingly similar to that of cavitation fatigue. Seasonality changes in cavitation resistance may be caused by seasonal changes in the mechanical properties of the pit membranes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Microstructural mechanisms of cyclic deformation, fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughrabi, Haël

    2015-03-28

    In this survey, the origin of fatigue crack initiation and damage evolution in different metallic materials is discussed with emphasis on the responsible microstructural mechanisms. After a historical introduction, the stages of cyclic deformation which precede the onset of fatigue damage are reviewed. Different types of cyclic slip irreversibilities in the bulk that eventually lead to the initiation of fatigue cracks are discussed. Examples of trans- and intercrystalline fatigue damage evolution in the low cycle, high cycle and ultrahigh cycle fatigue regimes in mono- and polycrystalline face-centred cubic and body-centred cubic metals and alloys and in different engineering materials are presented, and some microstructural models of fatigue crack initiation and early crack growth are discussed. The basic difficulties in defining the transition from the initiation to the growth of fatigue cracks are emphasized. In ultrahigh cycle fatigue at very low loading amplitudes, the initiation of fatigue cracks generally occupies a major fraction of fatigue life and is hence life controlling. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Hold-time effects on the fatigue life of CuCrZr alloys for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xianglin; Pan, Xiao; Singh, Bachu N.; Li, Meimei; Stubbins, James F.

    2007-01-01

    The fatigue and creep-fatigue response of copper alloys is of interest due to the cyclic thermal-mechanical loading processes a fusion first wall will experience during operation. Creep-fatigue experiments were performed on a CuCrZr alloy with an overaged heat treatment at room temperature to determine the effects on fatigue life of a 10 s hold period applied at the maximum tension and compression points in the fatigue loading cycle. The hold period produced a reduction in the number of cycles to failure. This reduction was largest at the lowest strain amplitudes and the longest fatigue lives, the region of most interest for component design. Stress relaxation was observed during the hold periods even at room temperature where thermally-activated creep processes are not expected. The large reduction in fatigue life is apparently due to a change in the crack initiation mode from transgranular with no hold period to intergranular with a hold period

  15. Generation of synthetic surface electromyography signals under fatigue conditions for varying force inputs using feedback control algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopal, G; Deepak, P; Ghosh, Diptasree M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2017-11-01

    Surface electromyography is a non-invasive technique used for recording the electrical activity of neuromuscular systems. These signals are random, complex and multi-component. There are several techniques to extract information about the force exerted by muscles during any activity. This work attempts to generate surface electromyography signals for various magnitudes of force under isometric non-fatigue and fatigue conditions using a feedback model. The model is based on existing current distribution, volume conductor relations, the feedback control algorithm for rate coding and generation of firing pattern. The result shows that synthetic surface electromyography signals are highly complex in both non-fatigue and fatigue conditions. Furthermore, surface electromyography signals have higher amplitude and lower frequency under fatigue condition. This model can be used to study the influence of various signal parameters under fatigue and non-fatigue conditions.

  16. Room temperature creep-fatigue response of selected copper alloys for high heat flux applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Meimei; Singh, B.N.; Stubbins, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Two copper alloys, dispersion-strengthened CuAl25 and precipitation-hardened CuCrZr, were examined under fatigue and fatigue with hold time loading conditions. Tests were carried out at room temperature and hold times were imposed at maximum tensile and maximum compressive strains. It was found that hold times could be damaging even at room temperature, well below temperatures typically associated with creep. Hold times resulted in shorter fatigue lives in the high cycle fatigue, long life regime (i.e., at low strain amplitudes) than those of materials tested under the same conditions without hold times. The influence of hold times on fatigue life in the low cycle fatigue, short life regime (i.e., at high strain amplitudes) was minimal. When hold time effects were observed, fatigue lives were reduced with hold times as short as two seconds. Appreciable stress relaxation was observed during the hold period at all applied strain levels in both tension and compression. In all cases, stresses relaxed quickly within the first few seconds of the hold period and much more gradually thereafter. The CuAl25 alloy showed a larger effect of hold time on reduction of high cycle fatigue life than did the CuCrZr alloy

  17. G-control fatigue testing for cyclic crack propagation in composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manca, Marcello; Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computer controlled testing methodology called “The G-control Method” which allows cyclic crack growth testing using real-time control of the cyclic energy release rate. The advantages of using this approach are described and compared with traditional fatigue testing methods...... that the G-control method allows fatigue testing at a constant range of energy release rates leading to a constant crack propagation rate....

  18. Performance of a martensitic steel with 12 wt % Cr under low-cycle fatigue at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degallaix, G.; Gabrel, C.; Vanderschaeghe, A.

    1982-01-01

    Monotonic tensile strength and low-cycle fatigue tests between 350 and 600 deg C were performed on a martensitic stainless steel with 12% Cr improved with additions of Mo and V. The behaviour of this material essentially exhibits a cyclic softening phenomenon, both for the comparison of the monotonic hardening and cyclic curves and the change in the stress amplitude during the fatigue tests. The breaking facies have been the subject of macroscopic observations and by scanning microscopy. The study of the fatigue strength shows, for the deformation rate used, the dominating influence of the two parameters: plastic deformation amplitude and test temperature [fr

  19. Un saludo constante

    OpenAIRE

    Salcedo Ortega, Manuela; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Cali

    2013-01-01

    La presencia familiar estará siempre en mi vida: Creo que esa unión va más allá de los lazos que creamos en ese primer abrir de ojos del nacimiento pues los lazos se fortalecen con el tiempo. Es que esos lazos van de la genética al riñón y puede que suene muy raro, pero esta es mi enfermedad, la primera y la constante, la que desaparece y reaparece, la heredada y la que cada vez que me saluda, deja su huella. Comenzó hace 16 años. Mis infecciones urinarias fueron el comienzo de muchas maluque...

  20. The Hubble Constant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Neal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available I review the current state of determinations of the Hubble constant, which gives the length scale of the Universe by relating the expansion velocity of objects to their distance. In the last 20 years, much progress has been made and estimates now range between 60 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, with most now between 70 and 75 km s^-1 Mpc^-1, a huge improvement over the factor-of-2 uncertainty which used to prevail. Further improvements which gave a generally agreed margin of error of a few percent rather than the current 10% would be vital input to much other interesting cosmology. There are several programmes which are likely to lead us to this point in the next 10 years.

  1. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Cathrine

    2014-01-01

    Portfolio insurance, as practiced in 1987, consisted of trading between an underlying stock portfolio and cash, using option theory to place a floor on the value of the position, as if it included a protective put. Constant Proportion Portfolio Insurance (CPPI) is an option-free variation...... on the theme, originally proposed by Fischer Black. In CPPI, a financial institution guarantees a floor value for the “insured” portfolio and adjusts the stock/bond mix to produce a leveraged exposure to the risky assets, which depends on how far the portfolio value is above the floor. Plain-vanilla portfolio...... insurance largely died with the crash of 1987, but CPPI is still going strong. In the frictionless markets of finance theory, the issuer’s strategy to hedge its liability under the contract is clear, but in the real world with transactions costs and stochastic jump risk, the optimal strategy is less obvious...

  2. Effect of One Carpet Weaving Workstation on Upper Trapezius Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Mahdavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to investigate the effect of carpet weaving at a proposed workstation on Upper Trapezius (UTr fatigue during a task cycle. Fatigue in the shoulder is one of the most important precursors for upper limb musculoskeletal disorders. One of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders between carpet weavers is disorder of the shoulder region. Methods: This cross-sectional study, included eight females and three males. During an 80-minute cycle of carpet weaving, Electromyography (EMG signals of right and left UTr were recorded by the surface EMG, continuously. After raw signals were processed, MPF and RMS were considered as EMG amplitude and frequency parameters. Time series model and JASA methods were used to assess and classify the EMG parameter changes during the working time. Results: According to the JASA method, 58%, 16%, 8% and 8% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the right UTr. Also, 50%, 25%, 8% and 16% of the participants experienced fatigue, force increase, force decrease and recovery, respectively in the left UTr. Conclusions: For the major portion of the weavers, dominant status in Left and right UTr was fatigue, at the proposed workstation during a carpet weaving task cycle. The results of the study provide detailed information for optimal design of workstations. Further studies should focus on fatigue in various muscles and time periods for designing an appropriate and ergonomics carpet weaving workstation

  3. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  4. HELAS: HELicity Amplitude Subroutines for Feynman diagram evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, H.; Watanabe, I.; Hagiwara, K.

    1992-01-01

    HELAS is a set of the FORTRAN 77 subroutines which enable to compute the helicity amplitude of an arbitrary tree level Feynman diagram with a simple sequence of CALL SUBROUTINE statements. It is easy to write down a FORTRAN program to calculate the helicity amplitude of a given process by calling the HELAS subroutines. The example of evaluating the helicity amplitude of the process W + W - →t anti-t is shown. The compactness of the helicity amplitude programs is the main advantage of using the HELAS. Another advantage is that it is very easy to allow external heavy particles to decay into light quarks and leptons without losing the spin correlation. The procedure of calculating the cross section of an arbitrary process with the help of the HELAS and noteworthy characteristics of the HELAS system are shown. How to use the HELAS package is explained about the above example. The HELAS subroutines are grouped in wave functions, nine vertices and tools and standard model coupling constants. HELAS CHECK messages makes the job to find mistake easy. (K.I.)

  5. Creep-fatigue damage assessment by subsequent fatigue straining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaguchi, Masatsugu; Nakamura, Toshiya; Ishikawa, Akiyoshi; Asada, Yasuhide

    1993-01-01

    A series of creep-fatigue tests has been conducted with Modified 9Cr-1Mo steel at 600 C in a high vacuum environment of 0.1 mPa to assess an accumulation of creep-fatigue damage. In these tests, each test specimen has been subjected to prior creep-fatigue loading followed by subsequent fatigue loading or prior fatigue loading followed by subsequent creep-fatigue loading. A linear summation of cumulative damage of fatigue and creep life fraction was smaller than unity for the former case, and larger than unity for the latter case. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that in the case of prior creep-fatigue loading, a crack propagated from inclusions around which cavities were observed and its appearance transformed from transgranular to intergranular type with the increase of the number of cycles of prior creep-fatigue loading, while crack mode was predominantly intergranular in the case of prior fatigue loading. It was suggested that in the case of prior creep-fatigue loading, the fatigue life becomes shorter than that predicted by the linear rule due to early initiation of a crack caused from the cavity creation. In the case of prior fatigue loading, the crack propagates different courses in each loading to lead to the life fraction which is larger than unity

  6. Mental Fatigue Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. Rozhentsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article offers the method for evaluation of mental fatigue, based on the method of paired light pulses. Ten pre-trained test men with normal vision, aged 18–20 participated in the experiment. Testees were showed subsequent paired light pulses at a 200 ms interval, divided by initial interpulse interval of 70 ms, recurring at the fixed time interval of 1 s. Testees determined the threshold interpulse interval, at which the two pulses in a pair merged into one, three times, using the method of successive approximation. Then testees solved algebraic equations with several unknowns for two hours. The threshold interpulse interval was determined three times every 20 minutes in the course of equations solving. The degree of mental fatigue DMF was calculated, using the formula: DMFi = (TPIi – TPI0 100% / TPIi; i = 1, 2, … , n, where DMFi is the degree of mental fatigue at the i-th measurement; TPIi is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval at the i-th measurement; TPI0 is average arithmetic duration of threshold interpulse interval before algebraic equations solving; n is the dimension of threshold interpulse interval measurement in the course of algebraic equations solving. After 20 minutes of work, the degree of mental fatigue of one of the testees was 9.5 %, rose to 21 % by the end of the first hour and exceeded 39 % by the end of the second hour. Similar dynamics of mental fatigue was observed in all testees, but its development and the degree of fatigue are individual. To prevent fatigue and ensure high level of efficiency one should set the individual schedule and rest pauses duration during mental activity.

  7. Inspiratory muscles experience fatigue faster than the calf muscles during treadmill marching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovitch, Renana; Gefen, Amit; Elad, David; Ratnovsky, Anat; Kramer, Mordechai R; Halpern, Pinchas

    2007-04-16

    The possibility that respiratory muscles may fatigue during extreme physical activity and thereby become a limiting factor leading to exhaustion is debated in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine whether treadmill marching exercise induces respiratory muscle fatigue, and to compare the extent and rate of respiratory muscle fatigue to those of the calf musculature. To identify muscle fatigue, surface electromyographic (EMG) signals of the inspiratory (sternomastoid, external intercostals), expiratory (rectus abdominis and external oblique) and calf (gastrocnemius lateralis) muscles were measured during a treadmill march of 2 km at a constant velocity of 8 km/h. The extent of fatigue was assessed by determining the increase in root-mean-square (RMS) of EMG over time, and the rate of fatigue was assessed from the slope of the EMG RMS versus time curve. Results indicated that (i) the inspiratory and calf muscles are the ones experiencing the most dominant fatigue during treadmill marching, (ii) the rate of fatigue of each muscle group was monotonic between the initial and terminal phases of exercise, and (iii) the inspiratory muscles fatigue significantly faster than the calf at the terminal phase of exercise, and are likely to fatigue faster during the initial exercise as well. Accordingly, this study supports the hypothesis that fatigue of the inspiratory muscles may be a limiting factor during exercise.

  8. Comment on the non-renormalization theorem in four-dimensional string theory and vanishing β-function for Newton's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.C.; Kikuchi, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Three-point one-loop amplitude for the graviton is considered in the string theory compactified on orbifolds with N = 1 supersymmetry. The authors show that the amplitude leads to the vanishing correction to the Newton's constant

  9. Fatigue properties of a biomedical 316L steel processed by surface mechanical attrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Z; Chemkhi, M; Kanoute, P; Retraint, D

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) on fatigue properties of a medical grade 316L stainless steel. Metallurgical parameters governed by SMAT such as micro-hardness and nanocrystalline layer are characterized using different techniques. Low cycle fatigue tests are performed to investigate the fatigue properties of untreated and SMAT-processed samples. The results show that the stress amplitude of SMAT- processed samples with two different treatment intensities is significantly enhanced compared to untreated samples, while the fatigue strength represented by the number of cycles to failure is not improved in the investigated strain range. The enhancement in the stress amplitude of treated samples can be attributed to the influence of the SMAT affected layer

  10. Low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che Xin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue failure is one of the main failure forms of Al-Si-Cu-Mg aluminum alloys. To feature their mechanical aspect of fatigue behavior, the low-cycle fatigue behavior of permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys at room temperature was investigated. The experimental results show that both permanent mold cast and die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloys mainly exhibit cyclic strain hardening. At the same total strain amplitude, the die-cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy shows higher cyclic deformation resistance and longer fatigue life than does the permanent mold cast Al-Si-Cu-Mg alloy. The relationship between both elastic and plastic strain amplitudes with reversals to failure shows a monotonic linear behavior, and can be described by the Basquin and Coffin-Manson equations, respectively.

  11. Fatigue oxidation interaction in a superalloy—application to life prediction in high temperature low cycle fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuchet, J.; Remy, L.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the interaction between fatigue and oxidation has been carried out in the case of a cast cobalt base superalloy MARM 509 tested in laboratory air at 900 °C. The influence of fatigue cycling on oxidation of this alloy has been studied by quantitative metallography on polished specimens exposed to air in a furnace and on strain-cycled low-cycle fatigue specimens. The oxidation kinetics were determined by thickness measurements for matrix oxidation and by oxidized depth measurements for the preferential oxidation of MC carbides. In both cases the oxidation kinetics were found to be dramatically enhanced by cycling for the matrix oxidation according to a linear relationship with plastic strain amplitude and less dramatically for carbides according to an exponential relationship with the maximum cyclic stress. From these observations a damage equation which describes fatigue damage as a crack growth process has been proposed: the elementary crack advance is a summation of a mechanical contribution due to the fatigue process itself which is described by Tomkins’ equation and of an oxidation contribution which has been evaluated from metallographic measurements. Integration of this crack growth equation gives predicted fatigue lives which are in good agreement with experimental results within a factor of two.

  12. Application of Selected Multi-axial Fatigue Criteria Are Using Fifth-dimensional Space on the Results of Fatigue Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František FOJTÍK

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the experimental results obtained for the combined loading of the specimens in the region of high-cycle fatigue. The specimens were manufactured from common structural steel 11523.1. There has been realized a set of proportional and non-proportional experiments in the area of high-cycle fatigue for basic methods of loading, namely: tension/compression, bending and torsion and its mutual combinations. By selected experiments, the specimens were additionally loaded by constant inner/outer pressure and axial prestress for a various loading levels. Experiments were realized on testing machines, situated at author´s workplace. The experimental results were undergone to application of selected and known criteria of fatigue strength and subsequently carried out its modification according to the results. For gaining necessary input values for criteria of fatigue strength, there was a need to realize a FEM simulation of test specimens.

  13. High temperature, low cycle fatigue of IN-100 superalloy. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reger, M.; Remy, L.

    1988-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests on cast nickel-based superalloy IN-100 were conducted at various temperatures from 20 to 1000 0 C in air under continuous-strain cycling at a constant total strain rate. The fatigue life was found to decrease with increasing temperature for a given total strain range. Fatigue cracks are partly crystallographic at low temperatures and strongly oxidized at high temperatures. The reduction in fatigue life is discussed using potential drop measurements and observations on interrupted test specimens. Testing at 1000 0 C is shown to reduce drastically the crack initiation period and this behaviour is attributed to oxidation. (orig.)

  14. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radyushkin, Anatoly V. [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We describe a method of analytic evolution of distribution amplitudes (DA) that have singularities, such as non-zero values at the end-points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a flat (constant) DA, anti-symmetric at DA and then use it for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials, which requires infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points, and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. The latter produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration, while in our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve, with only one or two iterations needed afterwards in order to get rather precise results.

  15. Frequency and amplitude stabilization in MEMS and NEMS oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changyao; Lopez, Omar Daniel; Czaplewski, David A.

    2017-06-14

    This invention comprises a nonlinear micro- and nano-mechanical resonator that can maintain frequency of operation and amplitude of operation for a period of time after all external power has been removed from the device. Utilizing specific nonlinear dynamics of the micromechanical resonator, mechanical energy at low frequencies can be input and stored in higher frequencies modes, thus using the multiple degrees of freedom of the resonator to extend its energy storage capacity. Furthermore, the energy stored in multiple vibrational modes can be used to maintain the resonator oscillating for a fixed period of time, even without an external power supply. This is the first demonstration of an "autonomous" frequency source that can maintain a constant frequency and vibrating amplitude when no external power is provided, making it ideal for applications requiring an oscillator in low power, or limited and intermittent power supplies.

  16. Comparison of properties of amplitude-to-digital converters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryak, P.; Tluchor, D.; JIranek, V.

    1986-01-01

    Integral linearity and the profile of the channel were measured for amplitude-to-digital converters manufactured by CANBERRA, ORTEC, NUCLEAR DATA, TRACOR and TESLA. For some of them differential linearity was also measured. Pulse generator ORTEC 448 was used for determining the parameters. The channel profile was determined only for a short stretch of ca 10 channels in the region of half the range of input amplitudes. The same shape of pulses with a leading edge of 500 ns and a time constant of 5 μs was always used. Graphs are presented of the deviations of the tested converters from linearity and of channel profiles. (M.D.) 2 tabs., 25 figs

  17. Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei

    2018-02-09

    We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S-matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.

  18. Ward Identity and Scattering Amplitudes for Nonlinear Sigma Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Ian; Yin, Zhewei

    2018-02-01

    We present a Ward identity for nonlinear sigma models using generalized nonlinear shift symmetries, without introducing current algebra or coset space. The Ward identity constrains correlation functions of the sigma model such that the Adler's zero is guaranteed for S -matrix elements, and gives rise to a subleading single soft theorem that is valid at the quantum level and to all orders in the Goldstone decay constant. For tree amplitudes, the Ward identity leads to a novel Berends-Giele recursion relation as well as an explicit form of the subleading single soft factor. Furthermore, interactions of the cubic biadjoint scalar theory associated with the single soft limit, which was previously discovered using the Cachazo-He-Yuan representation of tree amplitudes, can be seen to emerge from matrix elements of conserved currents corresponding to the generalized shift symmetry.

  19. Tensile and Fatigue Properties of Single and Multiple Dissimilar Welded Joints of DP980 and HSLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Q. L.; Parkes, D.; Westerbaan, D.; Nayak, S. S.; Zhou, Y.; Saha, D. C.; Liu, D.; Goodwin, F.; Bhole, S.; Chen, D. L.

    2017-02-01

    The present study focused on single and multiple dissimilar joints between DP980 and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) galvanized steels. The tensile properties of the dissimilar joint between the strong DP980 and the relatively soft HSLA reflected only the properties of HSLA with plastic deformation, and final fracture took place entirely in HSLA. The fatigue properties of the dissimilar joints were more intriguing, with the strong DP980 outperforming at high stress amplitude and the ductile HSLA outperforming at low stress amplitude. For different load amplitudes, fatigue failure occurred in different materials and at different locations. The fatigue strength of DP980 was more negatively impaired by weld defects than that of HSLA.

  20. Modeling of creep-fatigue interaction of zirconium {alpha} under cyclic loading at 200 C; Modelisation du comportement et de l`endommagement en fatigue-fluage du zirconium {alpha} a 200C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, C.

    1996-04-01

    The present work deals with mechanical behaviour of zirconium alpha at 200 deg. C and crack initiation prediction methods, particularly when loading conditions lead to interaction of fatigue and creep phenomena. A classical approach used to study interaction between cyclic effects and constant loading effects does not give easy understanding of experimental results. Therefore, a new approach has been developed, which allow to determine a number of cycles for crack initiation for complex structures under large loading conditions. To study influence of fatigue and creep interaction on crack initiation, a model was chosen, using a scalar variable, giving representation of the material deterioration state. The model uses a non linear cumulating effect between the damage corresponding to cyclic loads and the damage correlated to time influence. The model belongs to uncoupled approaches between damage and behaviour, which is described here by a two inelastic deformations model. This mechanical behaviour model is chosen because it allows distinction between a plastic and a viscous part in inelastic flow. Cyclic damage is function of stress amplitude and mean stress. For the peculiar sensitivity of the material to creep, a special parameter bas been defined to be critical toward creep damage. It is the kinematic term associated to state variables describing this type of hardening in the viscous mechanism. (author).

  1. Biologic fatigue in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Ethan C; Gupta, Rishu; Brown, Gabrielle; Malakouti, Mona; Koo, John

    2014-02-01

    Over the past 15 years, biologic medications have greatly advanced psoriasis therapy. However, these medications may lose their efficacy after long-term use, a concept known as biologic fatigue. We sought to review the available data on biologic fatigue in psoriasis and identify strategies to help clinicians optimally manage patients on biologic medications in order to minimize biologic fatigue. We reviewed phase III clinical trials for the biologic medications used to treat psoriasis and performed a PubMed search for the literature that assessed the loss of response to biologic therapy. In phase III clinical trials of biologic therapies for the treatment of psoriasis, 20-32% of patients lost their PASI-75 response during 0.8-3.9 years of follow-up. A study using infliximab reported the highest percentage of patients who lost their response (32%) over the shortest time-period (0.8 years). Although not consistently reported across all studies, the presence of antidrug antibodies was associated with the loss of response to treatment with infliximab and adalimumab. Biologic fatigue may be most frequent in those patients using infliximab. Further studies are needed to identify risk factors associated with biologic fatigue and to develop meaningful antidrug antibody assays.

  2. Effect of mental fatigue caused by mobile 3D viewing on selective attention: an ERP study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mun, Sungchul; Kim, Eun-Soo; Park, Min-Chul

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated behavioral responses to and auditory event-related potential (ERP) correlates of mental fatigue caused by mobile three-dimensional (3D) viewing. Twenty-six participants (14 women) performed a selective attention task in which they were asked to respond to the sounds presented at the attended side while ignoring sounds at the ignored side before and after mobile 3D viewing. Considering different individual susceptibilities to 3D, participants' subjective fatigue data were used to categorize them into two groups: fatigued and unfatigued. The amplitudes of d-ERP components were defined as differences in amplitudes between time-locked brain oscillations of the attended and ignored sounds, and these values were used to calculate the degree to which spatial selective attention was impaired by 3D mental fatigue. The fatigued group showed significantly longer response times after mobile 3D viewing compared to before the viewing. However, response accuracy did not significantly change between the two conditions, implying that the participants used a behavioral strategy to cope with their performance accuracy decrement by increasing their response times. No significant differences were observed for the unfatigued group. Analysis of covariance revealed group differences with significant and trends toward significant decreases in the d-P200 and d-late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes at the occipital electrodes of the fatigued and unfatigued groups. Our findings indicate that mentally fatigued participants did not effectively block out distractors in their information processing mechanism, providing support for the hypothesis that 3D mental fatigue impairs spatial selective attention and is characterized by changes in d-P200 and d-LPP amplitudes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Flight Attendant Work/Rest Patterns, Alertness, and Performance Assessment: Field Validation of Biomathematical Fatigue Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    several dynamic components such as a homeostatic sleep reservoir, circadian oscillator, and sleep inertia function (see Figure 1). Final cognitive...for example, via differences in sleep need, sleep inertia , or circadian phasing and amplitude. As we have seen in the present study and others...safety risks. The Sleep , Activity, Fatigue, and Task Effectiveness model (SAFTE; Hursh et al., 2004) is among the more mature fatigue models currently

  4. Factors that affect the fatigue strength of power transmission shafting and their impact on design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leowenthal, S. H.

    1986-01-01

    A long standing objective in the design of power transmission shafting is to eliminate excess shaft material without compromising operational reliability. A shaft design method is presented which accounts for variable amplitude loading histories and their influence on limited life designs. The effects of combined bending and torsional loading are considered along with a number of application factors known to influence the fatigue strength of shafting materials. Among the factors examined are surface condition, size, stress concentration, residual stress and corrosion fatigue.

  5. The Identification of Fatigue Resistant and Fatigue Susceptible Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    normalized and compared 38 to normalized SAFTE predictions. See text for details. Figure 3 Fatigue plots for fatigue susceptible vs. fatigue...has 5 seconds to press the button to get points for successful signal detections. Lower tones are given with greater frequency and responses to...address the first question, and we use predictions of the Sleep Activity Fatigue Task Effectiveness, or SAFTE model (Hursh, Redmond, Johnson, Thorne

  6. Evaluation of the strain rate effects on environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ill Seok; Ha, Gak Hyun; Jeon, Hyun Ik

    2009-01-01

    The environmental fatigue life of CF8M cast stainless steel is influenced by mechanical, environmental and metallurgical parameters, such as strain rate, strain amplitude, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, water flow rate and so on. In an actual plant, the mechanical and environmental parameters are changing during the plant operation. Therefore, the effect of such mechanical and environmental parameter changes on fatigue life evaluation have to be studied. Low cycle fatigue life of structural materials diminishes remarkably as functions of various parameters in high temperature and high pressure environments. Such reduction can be estimated by the fatigue life reduction factor(F en ). In this study, fatigue tests were performed under changing conditions of strain amplitude, strain rate. Fatigue life was measured in terms of the number of cycles with the variation of strain amplitudes at 0.004 %/s strain rate, and the fatigue life correction factor was evaluated according to the equation modified by U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission(U.S.NRC) and Japanese Environmental Fatigue Tests committee (JEFT).

  7. Separation of surface, subsurface and volume fatigue damage effects in AISI 348 steel for power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Martin; Nowak, David; Walther, Frank [Technical Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Dept. of Materials Test Engineering (WPT); Starke, Peter [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Boller, Christian [Saarland Univ., Saarbruecken (Germany). Chair of Non-Destructive Testing and Quality Assurance; Fraunhofer IZFP, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    A wide range of industries including energy, chemistry, pharmacy, textiles, food and drink, pulp and paper, etc. is using stainless steels. Metastable austenitic steels such as used in power plants and chemical industry are subjected to cyclic mechanical and thermal loading in air as well as under the influence of corrosive media. This paper provides an overview on different nondestructive and electrochemical measurement techniques, which allow differentiating fatigue damage effects in total strain controlled multiple and constant amplitude tests with respect to damage appearance on surface, in subsurface area as well as in volume of specimens or components microstructure. In addition to conventional mechanical stress-strain hysteresis curves, electrical resistance, magnetic and open circuit potential measurements have been applied to characterize the cyclic deformation behavior of the metastable austenitic steel AISI 348 (X10CrNiNb18-9) in laboratory air and in distilled water. Based on these results obtained, the paper provides an outlook on the possibility for an efficient (remaining) fatigue life evaluation approach, which is adapted to the needs of the application areas.

  8. Fatigue and fatigue crack growth processes in hard tissues: The importance of age and surface integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Hessam

    . Using the experimental findings, a Damage Effect Model (DEM) was also developed to describe the influence of flaws introduced by bur treatment on fatigue of dentin. The DEM showed that the damage caused by bur treatment is uniform and independent of tubule orientation. Using the developed DEM for dentin with 0° tubule orientation, material constants of bur treated dentin with 90° orientation were estimated and used in predicting fatigue for controlled experimental conditions involving a notched fatigue approach. Overall, the results of this study provide fundamental knowledge concerning the influence of aging and cutting processes on the fatigue properties of dentin. These findings are of substantial importance to the field of restorative dentistry, and potentially establish the need for treating senior patients with an approach that is unique from that of younger patients. The damage models developed in this investigation are the first that have been developed for hard tissues, and provide a foundation for future research aimed at modeling fatigue processes in hard tissues including bone and dentin.

  9. Utility of electromyographic fatigue threshold during treadmill running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozara, Luciano F; Castro, Alex; De Almeida Neto, Antonio F; Laroche, Dain P; Cardozo, Adalgiso C; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2015-12-01

    We investigated 2 different methods for determining muscle fatigue threshold by electromyography (EMG). Thirteen subjects completed an incremental treadmill running protocol for EMG fatigue threshold (EMGFT ) determination based on the critical power concept (EMGFT 1) and the breakpoint in the linear relationship between EMG amplitude and exercise intensity (EMGFT 2). Then, both the EMGFT 1 and EMGFT 2 were tested in a continuous treadmill running protocol. EMG was recorded from the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) muscles. For BF, EMGFT 2 was higher than EMGFT 1, and EMGFT 1 for BF was lower than EMGFT 1 for LG. EMG of RF was higher at EMGFT 2 than at EMGFT 1, and LG EMG was lower at EMGFT 2. EMGFT can be determined during a single treadmill running test, and EMGFT 1 may be the most appropriate method to estimate the muscle fatigue threshold during running. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Composite superstring model for hadron amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, V.A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, P.O. Box 188300, Gatchina (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Hadron dynamics is formulated in terms of interacting composite strings. These composite string amplitudes give other possible solution of duality equations for crossing channels in addition to classical string amplitudes. The composite strings carry quark flavour and spin degrees of freedom on edging two-dimensional surfaces. Consistent composite string models with extended N=3 Virasoro superconformal symmetry are found. Simple amplitudes for interaction of pi and K-mesons in this model are represented.

  11. New relations for graviton-matter amplitudes

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    I report on recent progress in finding compact expressions for scattering amplitudes involving gravitons and gluons as well as massive scalar and fermionic matter particles. At tree level the single graviton emission amplitudes may be expressed as linear combination of purely non-gravitational ones. At the one-loop level recent results on all four point Einstein-Yang-Mills amplitudes with at most one opposite helicity state using unitarity methods are reported. 

  12. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism. (orig.)

  13. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1987-06-04

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are not terms in the perturbative expansion of physical S-matrix elements: These can be defined only with massless external states. Consistent massive amplitudes repuire an off-shell formalism.

  14. Fatigue design 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquis, G.; Solin, J. [eds.] [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    These preprints contain the presentations to be delivered at the Fatigue Design 1998 symposium held on May 26-29, 1998 in Espoo. Fatigue Design 1998 is the tenth in a series of VTT symposia addressing the challenge of fatigue of materials, components and structures. Previous international events were in 1992 and 1995. The key theme of the current meeting is `RELIABILITY`. The two volumes (VTT symposium 181-182) represent 56 contributions by authors representing 26 countries. Emphasis has been given to application oriented research topics that report new technologies, new uses of existing methods and case studies. The objective of the symposium is to bring together researchers and engineers to share experiences and new innovations in designing reliable components to resist alternating loads. (orig.)

  15. Determinants of seafarers’ fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøggild Dohrmann, Solveig; Leppin, Anja

    2017-01-01

    of the present article was therefore to systematically detect, analyze and assess the quality of this evidence. Methods: Systematic searches in ten databases were performed. Searches considered articles published in scholarly journals from 1980 to April 15, 2016. Nineteen out of 98 eligible studies were included......Purpose: Fatigue jeopardizes seafarer’s health and safety. Thus, knowledge on determinants of fatigue is of great importance to facilitate its prevention. However, a systematic analysis and quality assessment of all empirical evidence specifically for fatigue are still lacking. The aim......: Realistic countermeasures ought to be established, e.g., in terms of shared or split night shifts. As internal as well as external validity of many study findings was limited, the range of factors investigated was insufficient and few studies investigated more complex interactions between different factors...

  16. Fatigue in Cambodia veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M; Soetekouw, P M; Van Der Meer, J W; Bleijenberg, G

    2000-05-01

    In 1992 and 1993, Dutch military personnel were deployed in the peace operation UNTAC in Cambodia. Since returning, Cambodia veterans have reported health complaints which they perceive to be related to their service. Their symptoms strikingly resemble health problems reported by Gulf War veterans. Four years post-return, a cross-sectional survey on health symptoms in Cambodia veterans was initiated. Questionnaires were sent to all Cambodia veterans and four comparison groups. Forgetfulness, difficulty concentrating and fatigue were the symptoms most commonly endorsed. An operational case definition was constructed using a validated fatigue severity questionnaire. Cases were not uniquely found in Cambodia veterans (17%). In Rwanda and Bosnia veterans, respectively, 28% and 11% also met our case definition. Fatigue severity level was predicted by pre-mission, during-mission and post-mission variables, of which retrospective recollection of side-effects of vaccines and causal attributions also have been shown to be relevant in studies on Gulf-related illness.

  17. Modafinil May Alleviate Poststroke Fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mai Bang; Damgaard, Bodil; Zerahn, Bo

    2015-01-01

    was randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled. Patients were treated with 400-mg modafinil or placebo for 90 days. Assessments were done at inclusion, 30, 90, and 180 days. The primary end point was fatigue at 90 days measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 general fatigue domain......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke fatigue is common and reduces quality of life. Current evidence for intervention is limited, and this is the first placebo-controlled trial to investigate treatment of poststroke fatigue with the wakefulness promoting drug modafinil. METHODS: The trial....... Secondary end points included the Fatigue Severity Scale, the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the modified Rankin Scale and the Stroke-specific quality of Life questionnaire. Adult patients with a recent stroke achieving a score of ≥12 on the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory-20 general fatigue domain were...

  18. DVCS amplitude with kinematical twist-3 terms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radyushkin, A.V.; Weiss, C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors compute the amplitude of deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) using the calculus of QCD string operators in coordinate representation. To restore the electromagnetic gauge invariance (transversality) of the twist-2 amplitude they include the operators of twist-3 which appear as total derivatives of twist-2 operators. The results are equivalent to a Wandzura-Wilczek approximation for twist-3 skewed parton distributions. They find that this approximation gives a finite result for the amplitude of a longitudinally polarized virtual photon, while the amplitude for transverse polarization is divergent, i.e., factorization breaks down in this term

  19. An Assessment of Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue in a Cobalt-Base Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sreeramesh; Bonacuse, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Cumulative fatigue under axial and torsional loading conditions can include both load-order (higMow and low/high) as well as load-type sequence (axial/torsional and torsional/axial) effects. Previously reported experimental studies on a cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188 at 538 C, addressed these effects. These studies characterized the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue behavior under high amplitude followed by low amplitude (Kalluri, S. and Bonacuse, P. J., "Cumulative Axial and Torsional Fatigue: An Investigation of Load-Type Sequance Effects," in Multiaxial Fatigue and Deformation: Testing and Prediction, ASTM STP 1387, S. Kalluri, and P. J. Bonacuse, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA, 2000, pp. 281-301) and low amplitude followed by high amplitude (Bonacuse, P. and Kalluri, S. "Sequenced Axial and Torsional Cumulative Fatigue: Low Amplitude Followed by High Amplitude Loading," Biaxial/Multiaxial Fatigue and Fracture, ESIS Publication 31, A. Carpinteri, M. De Freitas, and A. Spagnoli, Eds., Elsevier, New York, 2003, pp. 165-182) conditions. In both studies, experiments with the following four load-type sequences were performed: (a) axial/axial, (b) torsional/torsional, (c) axial/torsional, and (d) torsional/axial. In this paper, the cumulative axial and torsional fatigue data generated in the two previous studies are combined to generate a comprehensive cumulative fatigue database on both the load-order and load-type sequence effects. This comprehensive database is used to examine applicability of the Palmgren-langer-Miner linear damage rule and a nonlinear damage curve approach for Haynes 188 subjected to the load-order and load-type sequencing described above. Summations of life fractions from the experiments are compared to the predictions from both the linear and nonlinear cumulative fatigue damage approaches. The significance of load-order versus load-type sequence effects for axial and torsional loading conditions

  20. Isometric knee extensor fatigue following a Wingate test: peripheral and central mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-del-Olmo, M; Rodriguez, F A; Marquez, G; Iglesias, X; Marina, M; Benitez, A; Vallejo, L; Acero, R M

    2013-02-01

    Central and peripheral fatigue have been explored during and after running or cycling exercises. However, the fatigue mechanisms associated with a short maximal cycling exercise (30 s Wingate test) have not been investigated. In this study, 10 volunteer subjects performed several isometric voluntary contractions using the leg muscle extensors before and after two bouts of cycling at 25% of maximal power output and two bouts of Wingate tests. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electrical motor nerve stimulation (NM) were applied at rest and during the voluntary contractions. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), voluntary activation (VA), twitch amplitude evoked by electrical nerve stimulation, M wave and motor potential evoked by TMS (MEP) were recorded. MVC, VA and twitch amplitude evoked at rest by NM decreased significantly after the first and second Wingate tests, indicating central and peripheral fatigue. MVC and VA, but not the twitch amplitude evoked by NM, recovered before the second Wingate test. These results suggest that the Wingate test results in a decrease in MVC associated with peripheral and central fatigue. While the peripheral fatigue is associated with an intramuscular impairment, the central fatigue seems to be the main reason for the Wingate test-induced impairment of MVC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. External and internal limitations in amplitude-modulation processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewert, Stephan; Dau, Torsten

    2004-01-01

    Three experiments are presented to explore the relative role of "external" signal variability and "internal" resolution limitations of the auditory system in the detection and discrimination of amplitude modulations (AM). In the first experiment, AM-depth discrimination performance was determined......-term average envelope power spectrum was held constant. The experiment examined the validity of a long-term average quantity as the decision variable, and the role of memory in experiments with frozen-noise maskers. The empirical results were compared to predictions obtained with two modulation...

  2. Do cognitive and physical fatigue tasks enhance pain, cognitive fatigue, and physical fatigue in people with fibromyalgia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Dana L; Keffala, Valerie J; Sluka, Kathleen A

    2015-02-01

    Fibromyalgia is a condition characterized by chronic widespread muscle pain and fatigue. The primary objective of this study was to determine if pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue were enhanced in participants with fibromyalgia compared to healthy controls during a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task, and a dual fatigue task. In total, 24 people with fibromyalgia and 33 healthy controls completed pain, fatigue, and function measures. A cognitive fatigue task (Controlled Oral Word Association Test) and physical fatigue task (Valpar peg test) were done individually and combined for a dual fatigue task. Resting pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue were assessed during each task using visual analog scales. Function was assessed with shoulder range of motion and grip. People with fibromyalgia had significantly higher increases in pain, cognitive fatigue, and physical fatigue when compared to healthy controls after completion of a cognitive fatigue task, a physical fatigue task, or a dual fatigue task (P fibromyalgia performed equivalently on measures of physical performance and cognitive performance on the physical and cognitive fatigue tasks, respectively. These data show that people with fibromyalgia show larger increases in pain, perceived cognitive fatigue, and perceived physical fatigue to both cognitive and physical fatigue tasks compared to healthy controls. The increases in pain and fatigue during cognitive and physical fatigue tasks could influence subject participation in daily activities and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  3. Beyond the Hubble Constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    about the distances to galaxies and thereby about the expansion rate of the Universe. A simple way to determine the distance to a remote galaxy is by measuring its redshift, calculate its velocity from the redshift and divide this by the Hubble constant, H0. For instance, the measured redshift of the parent galaxy of SN 1995K (0.478) yields a velocity of 116,000 km/sec, somewhat more than one-third of the speed of light (300,000 km/sec). From the universal expansion rate, described by the Hubble constant (H0 = 20 km/sec per million lightyears as found by some studies), this velocity would indicate a distance to the supernova and its parent galaxy of about 5,800 million lightyears. The explosion of the supernova would thus have taken place 5,800 million years ago, i.e. about 1,000 million years before the solar system was formed. However, such a simple calculation works only for relatively ``nearby'' objects, perhaps out to some hundred million lightyears. When we look much further into space, we also look far back in time and it is not excluded that the universal expansion rate, i.e. the Hubble constant, may have been different at earlier epochs. This means that unless we know the change of the Hubble constant with time, we cannot determine reliable distances of distant galaxies from their measured redshifts and velocities. At the same time, knowledge about such change or lack of the same will provide unique information about the time elapsed since the Universe began to expand (the ``Big Bang''), that is, the age of the Universe and also its ultimate fate. The Deceleration Parameter q0 Cosmologists are therefore eager to determine not only the current expansion rate (i.e., the Hubble constant, H0) but also its possible change with time (known as the deceleration parameter, q0). Although a highly accurate value of H0 has still not become available, increasing attention is now given to the observational determination of the second parameter, cf. also the Appendix at the

  4. Study on determination of durability analysis process and fatigue damage parameter for rubber component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong In; Cho, Il Je; Woo, Chang Su; Kim, Wan Doo

    2011-01-01

    Rubber components, which have been widely used in the automotive industry as anti-vibration components for many years, are subjected to fluctuating loads, often failing due to the nucleation and growth of defects or cracks. To prevent such failures, it is necessary to understand the fatigue failure mechanism for rubber materials and to evaluate the fatigue life for rubber components. The objective of this study is to develop a durability analysis process for vulcanized rubber components, that can predict fatigue life at the initial product design step. The determination method of nonlinear material constants for FE analysis was proposed. Also, to investigate the applicability of the commonly used damage parameters, fatigue tests and corresponding finite element analyses were carried out and normal and shear strain was proposed as the fatigue damage parameter for rubber components. Fatigue analysis for automotive rubber components was performed and the durability analysis process was reviewed

  5. Fatigue Strength of Weathering Steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kunz, Ludvík; Lukáš, Petr; Klusák, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 1 (2012), s. 18-22 ISSN 1392-1320 Grant - others:GA MPO(CZ) FT/TA5/076 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fatigue of weathering steel * corrosion pits * fatigue notch factor Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.522, year: 2012

  6. Fatigue data compilation and evaluation of fatigue on design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyilas, A.

    1985-05-01

    The aim of this report is a review of the available fatigue data of various materials necessary for the design of large superconducting magnets for fusion. One of the primary objectives of this work is to present a broad outline of the low temperature fatigue data of relevant materials within the scope of available data. Besides the classical fatigue data of materials the fatigue crack propagation measurements are outlined widely. The existing recommendations for the design of cryogenic structures are described. A brief introduction of fracture mechanics as well as a historical background of the development of our present day understanding of fatigue has been done. (orig.) [de

  7. Fatigue crack propagation behaviour of a TiAl-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henaff, G.; Mabru, C.; Petit, J.

    1996-01-01

    In the present study the fatigue crack propagation resistance of a nearly fully lamellar quaternary TiAl based is investigated at room-temperature. The fatigue crack growth rates material are shown to be highly sensitive on the applied stress intensity factor amplitude. A special attention is also paid to the influence of extrinsic factors. Thus crack-closure is proved to strongly influence the propagation. As regards environmental effects, ambient air induces fatigue crack growth rates two orders of magnitude higher than those measured in vacuum. The role of moisture in this deleterious effect is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Very high cycle fatigue crack initiation in electroplated Ni films under extreme stress gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumert, E.K.; Pierron, O.N.

    2012-01-01

    A characterization technique based on kilohertz micro-resonators is presented to investigate the very high cycle fatigue behavior of 20 μm thick electroplated Ni films with a columnar microstructure (grain diameter less than 2 μm). The films exhibit superior fatigue resistance due to the extreme stress gradients at the surface. The effects of stress amplitude and environment on the formation of fatigue extrusions and micro-cracks are discussed based on scanning electron microscopy and the tracking of the specimens’ resonant frequency.

  9. Generalization of Coffin-Manson relation in connection with the low-cycle fatigue in the temperature range 20-300 o C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, V.

    1992-01-01

    The low-cycle fatigue phenomenon in the framework of plastic deformation is studied considering the temperature parameter. The experimental results obtained for the plastic strain Δε p (1-7%), in the temperature range 20-300 o C are examined. The conclusion is that the lifetime, expressed by the number of stress cycles, N f , is given by the relation N f = C exp(-A/T)(Δε p ) β+αΔT , where T is the absolute temperature, Δε p is double of plastic deformation amplitude, and C, A, β, and α are material constants. This relation can be interpreted as being the generalization of a relation, known in literature as the 'Coffin-Manson relation', but which does not include the temperature parameter. The validation of this relation can be done either on the results presented in this paper or an those published in literature. (Author)

  10. Short fatigue cracks nucleation and growth in lean duplex stainless steel LDX 2101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubbia, R., E-mail: strubbia@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física Rosario – CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina); Hereñú, S.; Alvarez-Armas, I. [Instituto de Física Rosario – CONICET, Universidad Nacional de Rosario (Argentina); Krupp, U. [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences Osnabrück (Germany)

    2014-10-06

    This work is focused on the fatigue damage of lean duplex stainless steels (LDSSs) LDX 2101. Special interest is placed on analyzing short fatigue crack behavior. In this sense, short crack initiation and growth during low cycle fatigue (LCF) and short crack nucleation during high cycle fatigue (HCF) of this LDSS have been studied. The active slip systems and their associated Schmid factors (SF) are determined using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD). Additionally, the dislocation structure developed during cycling is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Regardless of the fatigue regime, LCF and HCF, short cracks nucleate along intrusion/extrusions in ferritic grains. Moreover, during the LCF phase boundaries decelerate short crack propagation. These results are rationalized by the hardness of the constitutive phases and the dependence of screw dislocation mobility in the ferrite phase on strain rate and stress amplitude.

  11. Study on Fatigue Performance of Composite Bolted Joints with Bolt-Hole Delamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. J.; Yu, S.; Zhao, Q. Y.

    2018-03-01

    Fatigue performance of composite structure with imperfections is a challenging subject at present. Based on cohesive zone method and multi-continuum theory, delamination evolution response and fatigue life prediction of a 3D composite single-lap joint with a bolt-hole have been investigated through computer codes Abaqus and Fe-safe. Results from the comparison of a perfect composite bolted joint with another defect one indicates that a relatively small delamination damage around the bolt hole brings about significant degradation of local material performance. More notably, fatigue life of stress concentration region of composite bolted joints is highly sensitive to external loads, as an increase of 67% cyclic load amplitude leads to an decrease of 99.5% local fatigue life in this study. However, the numerical strategy for solving composite fatigue problems is meaningful to engineering works.

  12. Fatigue Damage of Al/SiC Composites - Macroscopic and Microscopic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutecka A.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of comparative examinations of mechanical behaviour during fatigue loads and microstructure assessment before and after fatigue tests were presented. Composites of aluminium matrix and SiC reinforcement manufactured using the KoBo method were investigated. The combinations of two kinds of fatigue damage mechanisms were observed. The first one governed by cyclic plasticity and related to inelastic strain amplitude changes and the second one expressed in a form of ratcheting based on changes in mean inelastic strain. The higher SiC content the less influence of the fatigue damage mechanisms on material behaviour was observed. Attempts have been made to evaluate an appropriate fatigue damage parameter. However, it still needs further improvements.

  13. Comparative Study of Fatigue Damage Models Using Different Number of Classes Combined with the Rainflow Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zengah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue damage increases with applied load cycles in a cumulative manner. Fatigue damage models play a key role in life prediction of components and structures subjected to random loading. The aim of this paper is the examination of the performance of the “Damaged Stress Model”, proposed and validated, against other fatigue models under random loading before and after reconstruction of the load histories. To achieve this objective, some linear and nonlinear models proposed for fatigue life estimation and a batch of specimens made of 6082T6 aluminum alloy is subjected to random loading. The damage was cumulated by Miner’s rule, Damaged Stress Model (DSM, Henry model and Unified Theory (UT and random cycles were counted with a rain-flow algorithm. Experimental data on high-cycle fatigue by complex loading histories with different mean and amplitude stress values are analyzed for life calculation and model predictions are compared.

  14. Probabilistic assessment of fatigue life including statistical uncertainties in the S-N curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudret, B.; Hornet, P.; Stephan, J.-M.; Guede, Z.; Lemaire, M.

    2003-01-01

    A probabilistic framework is set up to assess the fatigue life of components of nuclear power plants. It intends to incorporate all kinds of uncertainties such as those appearing in the specimen fatigue life, design sub-factor, mechanical model and applied loading. This paper details the first step, which corresponds to the statistical treatment of the fatigue specimen test data. The specimen fatigue life at stress amplitude S is represented by a lognormal random variable whose mean and standard deviation depend on S. This characterization is then used to compute the random fatigue life of a component submitted to a single kind of cycles. Precisely the mean and coefficient of variation of this quantity are studied, as well as the reliability associated with the (deterministic) design value. (author)

  15. Fatigue and thermal fatigue of Pb-Sn solder joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frear, D.; Grivas, D.; McCormack, M.; Tribula, D.; Morris, J.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a fundamental investigation of the fatigue and thermal fatigue characteristics, with an emphasis on the microstructural development during fatigue, of Sn-Pb solder joints. Fatigue tests were performed in simple shear on both 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Isothermal fatigue tests show increasing fatigue life of 60Sn-40Pb solder joints with decreasing strain and temperature. In contrast, such behavior was not observed in the isothermal fatigue of 5Sn-95Pb solder joints. Thermal fatigue results on 60Sn-40Pb solder cycled between -55 0 C and 125 0 C show that a coarsened region develops in the center of the joint. Both Pb-rich and Sn-rich phases coarsen, and cracks form within these coarsened regions. The failure mode 60Sn-40Pb solder joints in thermal and isothermal fatigue is similar: cracks form intergranularly through the Sn-rich phase or along Sn/Pb interphase boundaries. Extensive cracking is found throughout the 5Sn-95Pb joint for both thermal and isothermal fatigue. In thermal fatigue the 5Sn-95Pb solder joints failed after fewer cycles than 60Sn-40Pb

  16. Nitinol Fatigue Investigation on Stent-Finish Specimens Using Tension-Tension Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z.; Pike, K.; Zipse, A.; Schlun, M.

    2011-07-01

    Nitinol fatigue strain limit versus both strain amplitude (range 0.25-1.25%) and mean strain (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0%) was investigated using a tension-tension method. In order to apply the fatigue testing results to a nitinol stent and evaluate stent fatigue performance, the dog-bone style specimens were processed from the same raw material common to implantable stent manufacturing, i.e., similar nitinol tubing, surface quality, and electropolished surface. To simulate a physiological environment, the tension-tension fatigue tests were conducted in water at 37 °C. This strain-controlled fatigue test was conducted with a run-out set at 106 cycles. The fatigue strain limit at 106 cycles as well as the mean strain effect and the effects of inclusions are discussed. Fatigue results appeared in a bi-modal pattern when the strain amplitude was at a level between too high, which made all specimens to fail, and too low, which allowed all specimens to survive.

  17. Fatigue characteristics of sand-cast AZ91D magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenming Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The fatigue characteristics of the AZ91D-T6 alloy samples taken from engine blocks have been investigated at 20 °C and elevated temperature (150 °C. The fatigue strength and cyclic stress amplitude of the alloy significantly decrease with the increase of the test temperature, although cyclic hardening occurs continuously until failure for both temperatures. With the increase of the temperature, the decreased fatigue life of the alloy tested at the same stress amplitude is mainly attributed to the decreased matrix strength and the increased hysteresis energies. Fatigue failure of the engine blocks made of AZ91D-T6 alloy is mainly controlled by casting defects. For the defect-free specimens, the crack initiation behavior is determined by the single-slip (20 °C and by environment-assisted cyclic slip (150 °C during fatigue, respectively. The low-cycle fatigue lives of the alloy can be predicted using the Coffin-Manson relation and Basquin laws, the three-parameter equation and the energy-based concepts, while the high-cycle fatigue lives of the alloy fitted well with the developed long crack life model and MSF life models.

  18. Fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, Paul; Rudolph, Juergen; Steinmann, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory tests consider simple trapezoidal, triangle, and sinusoidal signals. However, actual plant components are characterized by complex loading patterns and periods of holds. Fatigue tests in water environment show, that the damage from a realistic strain variation or the presence of hold-times within cyclic loading results in an environmental reduction factor (Fen) only half that of a simple waveform. This study proposes a new fatigue approach for addressing environmental effects in fatigue usage calculation for class 1 boiler and pressure vessel reactor components. The currently accepted method of fatigue assessment has been used as a base model and all cycles, which have been comparable with realistic fatigue tests, have been excluded from the code-based fatigue calculation and evaluated directly with the test data. The results presented show that the engineering approach can successfully be integrated in the code-based fatigue assessment. The cumulative usage factor can be reduced considerably.

  19. Robust seismic images amplitude recovery using curvelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moghaddam, Peyman P.; Herrmann, Felix J.; Stolk, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we recover the amplitude of a seismic image by approximating the normal (demigration-migration) operator. In this approximation, we make use of the property that curvelets remain invariant under the action of the normal operator. We propose a seismic amplitude recovery method that

  20. Correlation of amplitude modulation to inflow characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Bertagnolio, Franck; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Amplitude modulation (AM) of noise from wind turbines and its more extreme version named “other amplitude modulation” OAM have been investigated intensively during the last few years due to the additional annoyance impact this type of noise has compared to broad band noise. In a recent published...

  1. On the singularities of massive superstring amplitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foda, O.

    1987-01-01

    Superstring one-loop amplitudes with massive external states are shown to be in general ill-defined due to internal on-shell propagators. However, we argue that since any massive string state (in the uncompactified theory) has a finite lifetime to decay into massless particles, such amplitudes are

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To acknowledge the dinical syndrome chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and outline the diagnostic criteria and reasonable management. Outcomes. Attempt at containment of treatmentcost and improvement of the quality of care of patients with. CFS. Evidence. Delphi-type commentary from 20 expert clinicians and ...

  3. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorist, M.M.; Tops, M.

    2003-01-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support

  4. Fatigue Countermeasures in Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    310. 26. Booth-Bourdeau J, Marcil 1, Laurence :M, McCulloch K, Dawson D. Development of fatigue risk management systenls for the Canadian aviation... Warren PSG, Watson B, Drud M. The sleep and performance of shift workers. Hum Factors 1982; 24:629-41. 206. Touitou Y, Bogdan A. Promoting adjustment

  5. FATIGUE OF DENTAL CERAMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Sailer, Irena; Lawn, Brian R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Clinical data on survival rates reveal that all-ceramic dental prostheses are susceptible to fracture from repetitive occlusal loading. The objective of this review is to examine the underlying mechanisms of fatigue in current and future dental ceramics. Data/sources The nature of various fatigue modes is elucidated using fracture test data on ceramic layer specimens from the dental and biomechanics literature. Conclusions Failure modes can change over a lifetime, depending on restoration geometry, loading conditions and material properties. Modes that operate in single-cycle loading may be dominated by alternative modes in multi-cycle loading. While post-mortem examination of failed prostheses can determine the sources of certain fractures, the evolution of these fractures en route to failure remains poorly understood. Whereas it is commonly held that loss of load-bearing capacity of dental ceramics in repetitive loading is attributable to chemically-assisted 'slow crack growth' in the presence of water, we demonstrate the existence of more deleterious fatigue mechanisms, mechanical rather than chemical in nature. Neglecting to account for mechanical fatigue can lead to gross overestimates in predicted survival rates. Clinical significance Strategies for prolonging the clinical lifetimes of ceramic restorations are proposed based on a crack-containment philosophy. PMID:24135295

  6. Amplitude image processing by diffractive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagigal, Manuel P; Valle, Pedro J; Canales, V F

    2016-02-22

    In contrast to the standard digital image processing, which operates over the detected image intensity, we propose to perform amplitude image processing. Amplitude processing, like low pass or high pass filtering, is carried out using diffractive optics elements (DOE) since it allows to operate over the field complex amplitude before it has been detected. We show the procedure for designing the DOE that corresponds to each operation. Furthermore, we accomplish an analysis of amplitude image processing performances. In particular, a DOE Laplacian filter is applied to simulated astronomical images for detecting two stars one Airy ring apart. We also check by numerical simulations that the use of a Laplacian amplitude filter produces less noisy images than the standard digital image processing.

  7. Temporal Control of Metabolic Amplitude by Nocturnin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy J. Stubblefield

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The timing of food intake and nutrient utilization is critical to health and regulated partly by the circadian clock. Increased amplitude of circadian oscillations and metabolic output has been found to improve health in diabetic and obesity mouse models. Here, we report a function for the circadian deadenylase Nocturnin as a regulator of metabolic amplitude across the day/night cycle and in response to nutrient challenge. We show that mice lacking Nocturnin (Noct−/− display significantly increased amplitudes of mRNA expression of hepatic genes encoding key metabolic enzymes regulating lipid and cholesterol synthesis, both over the daily circadian cycle and in response to fasting and refeeding. Noct−/− mice have increased plasma triglyceride throughout the night and increased amplitude of hepatic cholesterol levels. Therefore, posttranscriptional control by Nocturnin regulates the amplitude of these critical metabolic pathways, and loss of this activity results in increased metabolic flux and reduced obesity.

  8. Fatigue modelling for gas nitriding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Weil

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop an algorithm able to predict the fatigue lifetime of nitrided steels. Linear multi-axial fatigue criteria are used to take into account the gradients of mechanical properties provided by the nitriding process. Simulations on rotating bending fatigue specimens are made in order to test the nitrided surfaces. The fatigue model is applied to the cyclic loading of a gear from a simulation using the finite element software Ansys. Results show the positive contributions of nitriding on the fatigue strength

  9. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  10. Temperature and grain size effect on the fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior of OFHC copper and CuCrZr for fusion application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, X.; Wu, X.; Stubbins, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Copper and its alloys are prime candidates for high heat flux applications in fusion reactor systems due to their high thermal conductivity. This class of materials is of particular interest for the first wall and divertor structures in ITER. In service, these components will endure not only the cyclic loading but also the stress relaxation and microstructural recovery during the pulsed mode operation. Thus the fatigue and creep-fatigue behavior is central to materials selection since thermal-mechanical cycling will limit component life. Several studies of the fatigue performance which include hold time effects indicate that the hold process can substantially degrade the material fatigue life even at room temperature, 0.22 T m , which is well below temperatures typically associated with thermally-induced creep and stress relaxation. This reduction in fatigue life is found to be most dramatic in the low strain amplitude, high cycle fatigue regime where fatigue lives can be reduced by a factor of more than two. It is also found that the reduction in fatigue life requires only a short hold period of 10 s, much shorter than the anticipated on/off cycles in ITER of 1000 s/100 s. Grain size is an important parameter affecting material fatigue performance. Early studies show that fatigue life of copper reduces with increasing the grain size in both continuous fatigue and creep-fatigue conditions at room temperature. It is found that the mode of fatigue crack initiation changes with changing of the testing modes, grain size and strain amplitudes, which finally determines the fatigue life of OFHC copper. The mechanisms controlling the room temperature creep damage in OHFC copper with different grain size are interesting and should also be investigated at higher temperatures. To examine this issue in greater detail, a series of will be conducted with different grain sizes at different temperature. Selected interrupted fatigue and creep-fatigue

  11. Influence of Mixed Mode I-Mode II Loading on Fatigue Delamination Growth Characteristics of a Graphite Epoxy Tape Laminate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Johnston, William M., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Mixed mode I-mode II interlaminar tests were conducted on IM7/8552 tape laminates using the mixed-mode bending test. Three mixed mode ratios, G(sub II)/G(sub T) = 0.2, 0.5, and 0.8, were considered. Tests were performed at all three mixed-mode ratios under quasi-static and cyclic loading conditions, where the former static tests were used to determine initial loading levels for the latter fatigue tests. Fatigue tests at each mixed-mode ratio were performed at four loading levels, Gmax, equal to 0.5G(sub c), 0.4G(sub c), 0.3G(sub c), and 0.2G(sub c), where G(sub c) is the interlaminar fracture toughness of the corresponding mixed-mode ratio at which a test was performed. All fatigue tests were performed using constant-amplitude load control and delamination growth was automatically documented using compliance solutions obtained from the corresponding quasi-static tests. Static fracture toughness data yielded a mixed-mode delamination criterion that exhibited monotonic increase in Gc with mixed-mode ratio, G(sub II)/G(sub T). Fatigue delamination onset parameters varied monotonically with G(sub II)/G(sub T), which was expected based on the fracture toughness data. Analysis of non-normalized data yielded a monotonic change in Paris law exponent with mode ratio. This was not the case when normalized data were analyzed. Fatigue data normalized by the static R-curve were most affected in specimens tested at G(sub II)/G(sub T)=0.2 (this process has little influence on the other data). In this case, the normalized data yielded a higher delamination growth rate compared to the raw data for a given loading level. Overall, fiber bridging appeared to be the dominant mechanism, affecting delamination growth rates in specimens tested at different load levels and differing mixed-mode ratios.

  12. The growth of small corrosion fatigue cracks in alloy 2024

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.; Willard, Scott A.

    1993-04-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 2024 is established. The damaging effect of salt water on the early stages of small crack growth is characterized by crack initiation at constituent particle pits, intergranular microcracking for a less than 100 micrometers, and transgranular small crack growth for a micrometer. In aqueous 1 percent NaCl and at a constant anodic potential of -700 mV(sub SCE), small cracks exhibit a factor of three increase in fatigue crack growth rates compared to laboratory air. Small cracks exhibit accelerated corrosion fatigue crack growth rates at low levels of delta-K (less than 1 MPa square root of m) below long crack delta-K (sub th). When exposed to Paris regime levels of crack tip stress intensity, small corrosion fatigue cracks exhibit growth rates similar to that observed for long cracks. Results suggest that crack closure effects influence the corrosion fatigue crack growth rates of small cracks (a less than or equal to 100 micrometers). This is evidenced by similar small and long crack growth behavior at various levels of R. Contrary to the corrosion fatigue characteristics of small cracks in high strength steels, no pronounced chemical crack length effect is observed for Al by 2024 exposed to salt water.

  13. Assessment of physical fatigability and fatigue perception in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Berit; Mehl, Theresa; Schweden, Tabea L K; Menge, Uwe; Zierz, Stephan

    2017-05-01

    Fatigue includes both performance fatigability and fatigue perception. In 32 stable patients with generalized myasthenia gravis (MG) and 17 controls, time-dependent physical performance was assessed by the arm movement test (AMT) and 6-minute walk test (6MWT). MG patients presented with low quantitative MG scores (mean 0.5, SD 0.5) and without pathologic decrement. Fatigability was based on calculation of linear trend (LT) reflecting dynamic performance within subsequent constant time intervals. Perception of physical fatigue was analyzed using fatigue questionnaires. MG patients showed a negative LT in both AMT and 6MWT, significantly differing from stable performance in controls. LT inversely correlated with elevation of acetylcholine receptor antibodies (r = -0.59, P perception. LT allows quantification of fatigability as an objective measurement of decline in individual performance, even in patients without obvious neuromuscular deficits in routine testing. The missing correlation of experienced fatigue supports the multidimensional fatigue model. Muscle Nerve 55: 657-663, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. APPLICATION OF MULTIBODY SIMULATION FOR FATIGUE LIFE ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In automobile design, the safety of passengers is of prime concern to the manufacturers. Suspension is one of the safety-related automotive systems which is responsible for maintaining traction between the road and tires, and offers a comfortable ride experience to the passengers by absorbing disturbances. One of the critical components of the suspension system is the knuckle, which constantly faces cyclic loads subjecting it to fatigue failure. This paper presents an evaluation of the fatigue characteristics of a knuckle using a gravel road profile acquired using a data acquisition system and standard SAE profiles for the suspension (SAESUS, bracket (SAEBRAKT and transmission (SAETRN. The gravel road profile was applied as the input to a multi body simulation (MBS, and the load history for various mounting points of the knuckle is extracted. Fatigue life is predicted using the strain-life method. The instantaneous stress distributions and maximum principal stress are used for fatigue life predictions. From the results, the strut connection is found to be the critical region for fatigue failure. The fatigue life from loading extracted from gravel road MBS agreed well with the life prediction when standard SAE profiles were used. This close agreement shows the effectiveness of the load extraction technique from MBS. This method can also be effectively used for more complex loading conditions that occur during real driving environments.

  15. Influence of blood flow occlusion on the development of peripheral and central fatigue during small muscle mass handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broxterman, R M; Craig, J C; Smith, J R; Wilcox, S L; Jia, C; Warren, S; Barstow, T J

    2015-09-01

    Critical power represents an important threshold for neuromuscular fatigue development and may, therefore, dictate intensities for which exercise tolerance is determined by the magnitude of fatigue accrued. Peripheral fatigue appears to be constant across O2 delivery conditions for large muscle mass exercise, but this consistency is equivocal for smaller muscle mass exercise. We sought to determine the influence of blood flow occlusion during handgrip exercise on neuromuscular fatigue development and to examine the relationship between neuromuscular fatigue development and W '. Blood flow occlusion influenced the development of both peripheral and central fatigue, thus providing further evidence that the magnitude of peripheral fatigue is not constant across O2 delivery conditions for small muscle mass exercise. W ' appears to be related to the magnitude of fatigue accrued during exercise, which may explain the reported consistency of intramuscular metabolic perturbations and work performed for severe-intensity exercise. The influence of the muscle metabolic milieu on peripheral and central fatigue is currently unclear. Moreover, the relationships between peripheral and central fatigue and the curvature constant (W ') have not been investigated. Six men (age: 25 ± 4 years, body mass: 82 ± 10 kg, height: 179 ± 4 cm) completed four constant power handgrip tests to exhaustion under conditions of control exercise (Con), blood flow occlusion exercise (Occ), Con with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Con + Occ), and Occ with 5 min post-exercise blood flow occlusion (Occ + Occ). Neuromuscular fatigue measurements and W ' were obtained for each subject. Each trial resulted in significant peripheral and central fatigue. Significantly greater peripheral (79.7 ± 5.1% vs. 22.7 ± 6.0%) and central (42.6 ± 3.9% vs. 4.9 ± 2.0%) fatigue occurred for Occ than for Con. In addition, significantly greater peripheral (83.0 ± 4.2% vs. 69.0 ± 6.2%) and central

  16. Nonlinear spectral correlation for fatigue crack detection under noisy environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peipei; Sohn, Hoon; Jeon, Ikgeun

    2017-07-01

    When ultrasonic waves at two distinct frequencies are applied to a structure with a fatigue crack, crack-induced nonlinearity creates nonlinear ultrasonic modulations at the sum and difference of the two input frequencies. The amplitude of the nonlinear modulation components is typically one or two orders of magnitude smaller than that of the primary linear components. Therefore, the modulation components can be easily buried under noise levels and it becomes difficult to extract the nonlinear modulation components under noisy environments using a conventional spectral density function. In this study, nonlinear spectral correlation, which calculates the spectral correlation between nonlinear modulation components, is proposed to isolate the nonlinear modulation components from noisy environments and used for fatigue crack detection. The proposed nonlinear spectral correlation offers the following benefits: (1) Stationary noises have little effect on nonlinear spectral correlation; (2) By using a wideband high-frequency input and a single low-frequency input, the contrast of nonlinear spectral correlation between damage and intact conditions can be enhanced; and (3) The test efficiency can be also improved via reducing the data collection time. Validation tests are performed on aluminum plates and scaled steel shafts with real fatigue cracks. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed nonlinear spectral correlation owns a higher sensitivity to fatigue crack than the classical nonlinear coefficient estimated from the spectral density function, and the usage of nonlinear spectral correlation allows the detection of fatigue crack even using noncontact air-coupled transducers with a low signal-to-noise ratio.

  17. EMG spectral indices and muscle power fatigue during dynamic contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Izal, M; Malanda, A; Navarro-Amézqueta, I; Gorostiaga, E M; Mallor, F; Ibañez, J; Izquierdo, M

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine acute exercise-induced changes on muscle power output and surface electromyography (sEMG) parameters (amplitude and spectral indices of muscle fatigue) during a dynamic fatiguing protocol. Fifteen trained subjects performed five sets consisting of 10 leg presses (10RM), with 2min rest between sets. Surface electromyography was recorded from vastus medialis (VM) and lateralis (VL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. A number of EMG-based parameters were compared for estimation accuracy and sensitivity to detect peripheral muscle fatigue. These were: Mean Average Voltage, median spectral frequency, Dimitrov spectral index of muscle fatigue (FI(nsm5)), as well as other parameters obtained from a time-frequency analysis (Choi-Williams distributions) such as mean and variance of the instantaneous frequency and frequency variance. The log FI(nsm5) as a single parameter predictor accounted for 37% of the performance variance of changes in muscle power and the log FI(nsm5) and MFM as a two factor combination predictor accounted for 44%. Peripheral impairments assessed by sEMG spectral index FI(nsm5) may be a relevant factor involved in the loss of power output after dynamic high-loading fatiguing task. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Separating plasticity-induced closure and residual stress contributions to fatigue crack retardation following an overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, Enrico; Zhang, Hongjia; Fong, Kai Soon; Song, Xu; Korsunsky, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of an overload or underload within a constant amplitude loading fatigue test leads to a retardation or acceleration of the Fatigue Crack Growth Rate (FCGR). The understanding of the causes of these effects is essential in the context of variable amplitude fatigue loading, since in principle any loading history can be represented as a sequence of overloads and underloads. In the case of overload, along with some other minor causes, the residual stress changes at the crack tip and crack closure behind the tip can be thought of as the main factors that affect the fatigue crack growth rate. Whilst this has been recognised and accepted for many decades, controversy persists regarding the relative significance and presence of these two effects, and consensus is yet to emerge. The effect of crack closure, when the baseline loading ratio is high enough, can be inhibited so that the main cause of retardation becomes doubtless the residual stress present ahead the crack tip. In the present paper we report our attempt to deconvolve the contributions of crack closure and residual stress on crack retardation following an overload. To accomplish this task we analyse the results of fatigue tests run at two baseline load ratios, namely R=0.1 and R=0.7. At the load ratio of R=0.7 the crack closure effect is not operative, as confirmed by Digital Image Correlation analysis of the crack flanks close to the tip, and post mortem fractographic analysis of crack surfaces. Therefore, for R=0.7 the compressive residual stress region created by the overload ahead of the crack tip is the sole mechanism causing crack retardation. Therefore, for R=0.7 the focus must be placed entirely on the strain field around the crack tip. To this end, line profiles along the crack bisector of elastic strain in the crack opening direction were collected at several stages of crack propagation past the overload using in situ Synchrotron X-ray Powder Diffraction (SXRPD) technique. By

  19. The Growth of Small Corrosion Fatigue Cracks in Alloy 7075

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piascik, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    The corrosion fatigue crack growth characteristics of small (greater than 35 micrometers) surface and corner cracks in aluminum alloy 7075 is established. The early stage of crack growth is studied by performing in situ long focal length microscope (500×) crack length measurements in laboratory air and 1% sodium chloride (NaCl) environments. To quantify the "small crack effect" in the corrosive environment, the corrosion fatigue crack propagation behavior of small cracks is compared to long through-the-thickness cracks grown under identical experimental conditions. In salt water, long crack constant K(sub max) growth rates are similar to small crack da/dN.

  20. Low-cycle fatigue of dissimilar friction stir welded aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, R.I. [The University of Alabama, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Jordon, J.B., E-mail: bjordon@eng.ua.edu [The University of Alabama, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Allison, P.G. [The University of Alabama, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Rushing, T.; Garcia, L. [Engineering Research and Development Center, Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS 39180 (United States)

    2016-01-27

    In this work, experiments were conducted to quantify structure-property relations of low-cycle fatigue behavior of dissimilar friction stir welding (FSW) of AA6061-to-AA7050 high strength aluminum alloys. In addition, a microstructure-sensitive fatigue model is employed to further elucidate cause-effect relationships. Experimental strain-controlled fatigue testing revealed an increase in the cyclic strain hardening and the number-of cycles to failure as the tool rotational speed was increased. At higher applied strain amplitudes (>0.3%), the corresponding stress amplitude increased and the plastic strain amplitude decreased, as the number of cycles increased. However, at 0.2% strain amplitude, the plastic strain decreased until it was almost negligible. Inspection of the hysteresis loops demonstrated that at low strain amplitudes, there was an initial stage of strain hardening that increased until it reached a maximum strain hardening level, afterwards a nearly perfect elastic behavior was observed. Under fully-reversed fatigue loading, all samples failed at the region between the heat-affected and thermomechanically-affected zones. Inspection of the fractured surfaces under scanning electron microscopy revealed that the cracks initiated at either the crown or the root surface of the weld, and from secondary intermetallic particles located near the free surface of the weld. Lastly, a microstructure-sensitive multistage fatigue model was employed to correlate the fatigue life of the dissimilar FSW of AA6061-to-AA7050 considering microstructural features such as grain size, intermetallic particles and mechanical properties.

  1. Muscular synergy in the shoulder during a fatiguing static contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, H; Takala, E-P; Niemi, J; Viikari-Juntura, E

    1995-09-01

    The synergic operation of shoulder muscles during a fatiguing submaximal arm flexion task was studied using both a biomechanical 3-dimensional shoulder model and electromyographic recordings. A new optimization scheme aiming to maximize the task endurance time by constantly regulating the force output of each muscle is utilized in the model. The method can be used to simulate the muscle rotation phenomenon, which has been proposed to occur during an endurance type contraction. The model predictions on the fatigue order of the shoulder muscles were compared to results derived using the median frequencies of the electromyographic signals from nine muscles or muscle parts. In the test performed 10 men held until exhaustion a weight (4 kg) suspended on the wrist with the arm in horizontal flexion. The deltoid, infraspinatus, and supraspinatus muscles were the first to show electromyographic signs of fatigue. The times for detecting electromyographic changes in the trapezius muscle were longer than those in the muscles first showing electromyographic signs of fatigue. The biomechanical model used predicted the upper and lower infraspinatus and the anterior part of the deltoid to be the first to show signs of fatigue during the flexion task. The predictions of the biomechanical model on the order of fatigue of the nine shoulder muscles monitored also using electromyographic recordings corresponded to the electromyographic results. However, the accuracy of this comparison is limited by the fact that the electromyographic recordings did not cover all the muscles used in the model. No clear order was found for the development of electromyographic signs of muscle fatigue. RELEVANCE--:The biomechanical model and the developed optimization methods provide new tools for studying the synergic operation of shoulder muscles during fatiguing contractions. Our results will help in analysing and optimizing shoulder load in problematic functions both of work and leisure activities.

  2. Speech production in amplitude-modulated noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Ewen N; Raufer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    the consequences of temporally fluctuating noise. In the present study, 20 talkers produced speech in a variety of noise conditions, including both steady-state and amplitude-modulated white noise. While listening to noise over headphones, talkers produced randomly generated five word sentences. Similar...... to previous studies, talkers raised the level of their voice in steady-state noise. While talkers also increased the level of their voice in amplitude-modulated noise, the increase was not as large as that observed in steady-state noise. Importantly, for the 2 and 4 Hz amplitude-modulated noise conditions...

  3. Experimental investigation on the effect of creep on the damage evolution of CFRP structures during fatigue loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarouchas, D.; Eleftheroglou, N.; Gdoutos, Emmanuel E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation on the effect of creep on the damage evolution of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer structures during fatigue loading. A new experimental campaign is proposed where unidirectional CFRP specimens are tested under the combination of fatigue and constant

  4. 3D-FE Modeling of 316 SS under Strain-Controlled Fatigue Loading and CFD Simulation of PWR Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Barua, Bipul [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Listwan, Joseph [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Majumdar, Saurin [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Natesan, Ken [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-03-01

    In financial year 2017, we are focusing on developing a mechanistic fatigue model of surge line pipes for pressurized water reactors (PWRs). To that end, we plan to perform the following tasks: (1) conduct stress- and strain-controlled fatigue testing of surge-line base metal such as 316 stainless steel (SS) under constant, variable, and random fatigue loading, (2) develop cyclic plasticity material models of 316 SS, (3) develop one-dimensional (1D) analytical or closed-form model to validate the material models and to understand the mechanics associated with 316 SS cyclic hardening and/or softening, (4) develop three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models with implementation of evolutionary cyclic plasticity, and (5) develop computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for thermal stratification, thermal-mechanical stress, and fatigue of example reactor components, such as a PWR surge line under plant heat-up, cool-down, and normal operation with/without grid-load-following. This semi-annual progress report presents the work completed on the above tasks for a 316 SS laboratory-scale specimen subjected to strain-controlled cyclic loading with constant, variable, and random amplitude. This is the first time that the accurate 3D-FE modeling of the specimen for its entire fatigue life, including the hardening and softening behavior, has been achieved. We anticipate that this work will pave the way for the development of a fully mechanistic-computer model that can be used for fatigue evaluation of safety-critical metallic components, which are traditionally evaluated by heavy reliance on time-consuming and costly test-based approaches. This basic research will not only help the nuclear reactor industry for fatigue evaluation of reactor components in a cost effective and less time-consuming way, but will also help other safety-related industries, such as aerospace, which is heavily dependent on test-based approaches, where a single full-scale fatigue test can cost

  5. Fatigue Experiences Among OCD Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, Massimo; Piacentino, Daria; Berardelli, Isabella; Roselli, Valentina; Maraone, Annalisa; Tarsitani, Lorenzo; Biondi, Massimo

    2015-12-01

    Patients with OCD are impaired in multiple domains of functioning and quality of life. While associated psychopathology complaints and neuropsychological deficits were reported, the subjective experience of general fatigue and mental fatigue was scarcely investigated. In this single-center case-control study we compared 50 non-depressed OCD outpatients consecutively recruited and 50 panic disorder (PD) outpatients, to determine whether they experienced fatigue differently. Assessment consisted of structured clinical interview for DSM-IV criteria by using the SCID-I and the SCID-II. Symptom severity was assessed using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Clinical Global Impressions Scale, severity and the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale. Fatigue was assessed by using the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI). Regarding MFI physical fatigue, an OR of 0.196 (95 % CI 0.080-0.478) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD compared to PD. The same can be said for MFI mental fatigue, as an OR of 0.138 (95 % CI 0.049-0.326) was found, suggesting that its presence is associated with lower odds of OCD. Notably, OCD patients with OCDP co-morbidity reported higher scores of mental fatigue. In this study fatigue, including mental fatigue, seems not to be a prominent experience among adult non-depressed OCD patients.

  6. Effects of Variable Contact Load on Fretting Fatigue Behavior of Shot-Peened and Un-Peened Titanium Alloy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Chia-hwa

    2004-01-01

    .... The primary goal of this study was to explore fretting fatigue behavior under constant and variable contact load configurations using both shot-peened and un-peened specimens made up of Ti-6Al-4V alloy...

  7. Caffeine, fatigue, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorist, Monicque M; Tops, Mattie

    2003-10-01

    Effects of caffeine and fatigue are discussed with special attention to adenosine-dopamine interactions. Effects of caffeine on human cognition are diverse. Behavioural measurements indicate a general improvement in the efficiency of information processing after caffeine, while the EEG data support the general belief that caffeine acts as a stimulant. Studies using ERP measures indicate that caffeine has an effect on attention, which is independent of specific stimulus characteristics. Behavioural effects on response related processes turned out to be mainly related to more peripheral motor processes. Recent insights in adenosine and dopamine physiology and functionality and their relationships with fatigue point to a possible modulation by caffeine of mechanisms involved in the regulation of behavioural energy expenditure.

  8. Analytic continuation of dual Feynman amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleher, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    A notion of dual Feynman amplitude is introduced and a theorem on the existence of analytic continuation of this amplitude from the convergence domain to the whole complex is proved. The case under consideration corresponds to massless power propagators and the analytic continuation is constructed on the propagators powers. Analytic continuation poles and singular set of external impulses are found explicitly. The proof of the theorem on the existence of analytic continuation is based on the introduction of α-representation for dual Feynman amplitudes. In proving, the so-called ''trees formula'' and ''trees-with-cycles formula'' are established that are dual by formulation to the trees and 2-trees formulae for usual Feynman amplitudes. (Auth.)

  9. Effective string theory and QCD scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makeenko, Yuri

    2011-01-01

    QCD string is formed at distances larger than the confinement scale and can be described by the Polchinski-Strominger effective string theory with a nonpolynomial action, which has nevertheless a well-defined semiclassical expansion around a long-string ground state. We utilize modern ideas about the Wilson-loop/scattering-amplitude duality to calculate scattering amplitudes and show that the expansion parameter in the effective string theory is small in the Regge kinematical regime. For the amplitudes we obtain the Regge behavior with a linear trajectory of the intercept (d-2)/24 in d dimensions, which is computed semiclassically as a momentum-space Luescher term, and discuss an application to meson scattering amplitudes in QCD.

  10. An analysis of heavy ion scattering amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.

    1979-01-01

    A heurisht method is derived for the analysis of light heavy ion systems. It consists in splitting an oscillatory amplitude into subamplitudes each of them being smooth, at least in modulus. Applications are given

  11. Helicopter Fatigue Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    Utility Tactical Troop Carrying Heavy Lift Air Force: Transport Search and Rescue The sheer scale of the costs of designing and developing a modern...torsion, the latter being related to piano wire and stainless steel 18.8. To my knowledge a 25 % improvement can be ob- tained by shot peening on actual...N testing is not in the test itself, but in the sheer number of tests to be conducted. A modern helicopter may have from 75 to 100 fatigue

  12. Frequency and amplitude modulation have different effects on the percepts elicited by retinal stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanduri, Devyani; Fine, Ione; Horsager, Alan; Boynton, Geoffrey M; Humayun, Mark S; Greenberg, Robert J; Weiland, James D

    2012-01-20

    In an effort to restore functional form vision, epiretinal prostheses that elicit percepts by directly stimulating remaining retinal circuitry were implanted in human subjects with advanced retinitis pigmentosa RP). In this study, manipulating pulse train frequency and amplitude had different effects on the size and brightness of phosphene appearance. Experiments were performed on a single subject with severe RP (implanted with a 16-channel epiretinal prosthesis in 2004) on nine individual electrodes. Psychophysical techniques were used to measure both the brightness and size of phosphenes when the biphasic pulse train was varied by either modulating the current amplitude (with constant frequency) or the stimulating frequency (with constant current amplitude). Increasing stimulation frequency always increased brightness, while having a smaller effect on the size of elicited phosphenes. In contrast, increasing stimulation amplitude generally increased both the size and brightness of phosphenes. These experimental findings can be explained by using a simple computational model based on previous psychophysical work and the expected spatial spread of current from a disc electrode. Given that amplitude and frequency have separable effects on percept size, these findings suggest that frequency modulation improves the encoding of a wide range of brightness levels without a loss of spatial resolution. Future retinal prosthesis designs could benefit from having the flexibility to manipulate pulse train amplitude and frequency independently (clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00279500).

  13. gVSγ coupling constant in light cone QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, C.; Keskin, F.; Yilmaz, A. H.; Aydin, S. H.

    2011-01-01

    We recalculated the coupling constants g φσγ , g φa 0 γ , g ωσγ , g a 0 ωγ , g ρσγ , and g a 0 ργ by taking into account the contributions of the three-particle up to twist-4 distribution amplitudes of the photon involving quark-gluon and quark-anti-quark-photon fields in the light-cone sum-rule framework.

  14. A new type time-amplitude converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou Haiwei; Han Jian; Li Zhongwei

    2004-01-01

    The time-amplitude converter is used mostly in nuclear physics experiments where require fast time measurement, such as the identify of particles, the measurement of excitated life-span and flying time of nucleon, and so on. According to the requirement of experiment, a new type time-amplitude converter composing of IC has been developed. It is precision is 100 ns. It has the merits of stable performance, higher precision and so on. (authors)

  15. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation in SCET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Nikhef, Amsterdam

    2016-05-01

    Helicity amplitudes are the fundamental ingredients of many QCD calculations for multi-leg processes. We describe how these can seamlessly be combined with resummation in Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET), by constructing a helicity operator basis for which the Wilson coefficients are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. This basis is crossing symmetric and has simple transformation properties under discrete symmetries.

  16. Scattering amplitudes of regularized bosonic strings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambjørn, J.; Makeenko, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We compute scattering amplitudes of the regularized bosonic Nambu-Goto string in the mean-field approximation, disregarding fluctuations of the Lagrange multiplier and an independent metric about their mean values. We use the previously introduced Lilliputian scaling limit to recover the Regge behavior of the amplitudes with the usual linear Regge trajectory in space-time dimensions d >2 . We demonstrate a stability of this minimum of the effective action under fluctuations for d <26 .

  17. Effective gluon interactions from superstring disk amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisa, D.

    2006-05-15

    In this thesis an efficient method for the calculation of the N-point tree-level string amplitudes is presented. Furthermore it is shown that the six-gluon open-superstring disk amplitude can be expressed by a basis of six triple hypergeometric functions, which encode the full {alpha}' dependence. In this connection material for obtaining the {alpha}' expansion of these functions is derived. Hereby many Euler-Zagier sums are calculated including multiple harmonic series. (HSI)

  18. The Cepheid bump progression and amplitude equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, G.; Buchler, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the characteristic and systematic behavior of the low-order Fourier amplitudes and phases of hydrodynamically generated radial velocity and light curves of Cepheid model sequences is very well captured not only qualitatively but also quantitatively by the amplitude equation formalism. The 2:1 resonance between the fundamental and the second overtone plays an essential role in the behavior of the models 8 refs

  19. Fatigue mechanism of yttrium-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fei; Chen, Xing; Liang, Xiao; Qin, Jun; Zhang, Yan; Huang, Taixing; Wang, Zhuo; Peng, Bo; Zhou, Peiheng; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Liu, Ming; Liu, Qi; Tian, He; Bi, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Owing to their prominent stability and CMOS compatibility, HfO 2 -based ferroelectric films have attracted great attention as promising candidates for ferroelectric random-access memory applications. A major reliability issue for HfO 2 based ferroelectric devices is fatigue. So far, there have been a few studies on the fatigue mechanism of this material. Here, we report a systematic study of the fatigue mechanism of yttrium-doped hafnium oxide (HYO) ferroelectric thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition. The influence of pulse width, pulse amplitude and temperature on the fatigue behavior of HYO during field cycling is studied. The temperature dependent conduction mechanism is characterized after different fatigue cycles. Domain wall pinning caused by carrier injection at shallow defect centers is found to be the major fatigue mechanism of this material. The fatigued device can fully recover to the fatigue-free state after being heated at 90 °C for 30 min, confirming the shallow trap characteristic of the domain wall pinning defects.

  20. Fatigue limit investigation of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy in giga-cycle regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa, E-mail: yoshim-t@kansai-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Yoshitake, Hiroaki; Nakamichi, Ryota; Wada, Takuya; Takuma, Masanori [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita-shi, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan); Shikama, Takahiro [Kobe Steel Ltd., Aluminum and Copper Business (Chofu Works), 14-1 Chofu Minato-machi, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-0953 (Japan); Noguchi, Hiroshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2014-09-22

    In order to investigate the fatigue limit micro-mechanism of a precipitation-hardened Al–Mg–Si alloy (6061-T6), the alloy was subjected to very-high-cycle fatigue (VHCF) of over 10{sup 9} cycles by an ultrasonic fatigue method. Two kinds of specimens, one with smooth surface and the other with a small artificial hole on the surface, were compared. The smooth specimens showed no distinct fatigue limit. Conversely, the holed specimens showed clear fatigue limit which had been generally deemed to be absent in non-ferrous alloys. In addition to the conventional fatigue crack growth (FCG) observation by replica technique, metallographically critical analyses by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and cross-sectional focused ion beam (FIB) were conducted to reveal the micro-plasticity associated with FCG. It was found that the fatigue life of smooth specimens at low stress amplitude was controlled by an unstoppable FCG mechanism mediated by persistent slip bands (PSBs). On the other hand, the emergence of distinct fatigue limit in holed specimens was attributed to a non-propagating crack having mode I characteristics in essence. No coaxing effect was, however, confirmed for such non-propagating cracks. The above results, which were somewhat different from previous ones obtained by rotating bending under normal frequency, were discussed in terms of both metallurgical and mechanical points of view.

  1. Fatigue limit investigation of 6061-T6 aluminum alloy in giga-cycle regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Yoshitake, Hiroaki; Nakamichi, Ryota; Wada, Takuya; Takuma, Masanori; Shikama, Takahiro; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    In order to investigate the fatigue limit micro-mechanism of a precipitation-hardened Al–Mg–Si alloy (6061-T6), the alloy was subjected to very-high-cycle fatigue (VHCF) of over 10 9 cycles by an ultrasonic fatigue method. Two kinds of specimens, one with smooth surface and the other with a small artificial hole on the surface, were compared. The smooth specimens showed no distinct fatigue limit. Conversely, the holed specimens showed clear fatigue limit which had been generally deemed to be absent in non-ferrous alloys. In addition to the conventional fatigue crack growth (FCG) observation by replica technique, metallographically critical analyses by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and cross-sectional focused ion beam (FIB) were conducted to reveal the micro-plasticity associated with FCG. It was found that the fatigue life of smooth specimens at low stress amplitude was controlled by an unstoppable FCG mechanism mediated by persistent slip bands (PSBs). On the other hand, the emergence of distinct fatigue limit in holed specimens was attributed to a non-propagating crack having mode I characteristics in essence. No coaxing effect was, however, confirmed for such non-propagating cracks. The above results, which were somewhat different from previous ones obtained by rotating bending under normal frequency, were discussed in terms of both metallurgical and mechanical points of view

  2. Ventricular fibrillation time constant for swine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Jiun-Yan; Sun, Hongyu; Nimunkar, Amit J; Webster, John G; O'Rourke, Ann; Huebner, Shane; Will, James A

    2008-01-01

    The strength–duration curve for cardiac excitation can be modeled by a parallel resistor–capacitor circuit that has a time constant. Experiments on six pigs were performed by delivering current from the X26 Taser dart at a distance from the heart to cause ventricular fibrillation (VF). The X26 Taser is an electromuscular incapacitation device (EMD), which generates about 50 kV and delivers a pulse train of about 15–19 pulses s −1 with a pulse duration of about 150 µs and peak current about 2 A. Similarly a continuous 60 Hz alternating current of the amplitude required to cause VF was delivered from the same distance. The average current and duration of the current pulse were estimated in both sets of experiments. The strength–duration equation was solved to yield an average time constant of 2.87 ms ± 1.90 (SD). Results obtained may help in the development of safety standards for future electromuscular incapacitation devices (EMDs) without requiring additional animal tests

  3. The dependence of the period on the angular amplitude of a simple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interesting properties of a pendulum are that the pendulum executes simple harmonic motion, and that the period of each swing is constant, and depends only on the pendulum length. While it is independent of the weight. The major aim of this paper is to ascertain the minimum angular amplitude at which the error in ...

  4. How internally coupled ears generate temporal and amplitude cues for sound localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedurmudi, A P; Goulet, J; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J

    2016-01-01

    ears generate unique amplitude and temporal cues for sound localization. The magnitudes of both these cues are directionally dependent. The tympanic fundamental frequency segregates a low-frequency regime with constant time-difference magnification from a high-frequency domain with considerable...

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of association constant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    Least-squares 'Systematic Trial-and-Error Procedure' (STEP) for spectrophotometric evaluation of association constant (equilibrium constant) K and molar absorption coefficient E for a 1:1 molecular complex, A + B = C, with error analysis according to Conrow et al. (1964). An analysis of the Charg...

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  7. Influence of fatigue on hand muscle coordination and EMG-EMG coherence during three-digit grasping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Poston, Brach; Jesunathadas, Mark; Bobich, Lisa R; Hamm, Thomas M; Santello, Marco

    2010-12-01

    Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a fatiguing contraction by gripping a manipulandum with thumb, index, and middle fingers while matching an isometric target force (40% maximal voluntary force) for as long as possible. The coordination of 12 hand muscles was quantified as electromyographic (EMG) muscle activation pattern (MAP) vector and EMG-EMG coherence. We hypothesized that muscle fatigue would cause uniform changes in EMG amplitude across all muscles and an increase in EMG-EMG coherence in the higher frequency bands but with an invariant heterogeneous distribution across muscles. Muscle fatigue caused a 12.5% drop in the maximum voluntary contraction force (P EMG amplitude of all muscles increased during the fatiguing contraction (P muscle coordination pattern was used throughout the fatiguing contraction. Last, EMG-EMG coherence (0-35 Hz) was significantly greater at the end than at the beginning of the fatiguing contraction (P muscles. These findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved for modulating and sustaining digit forces in nonfatiguing and fatiguing contractions, respectively.

  8. Fatigue Life Prediction of Metallic Materials Based on the Combined Nonlinear Ultrasonic Parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Li, Xinxin; Wu, Zhenyong; Huang, Zhenfeng; Mao, Hanling

    2017-08-01

    The fatigue life prediction of metallic materials is always a tough problem that needs to be solved in the mechanical engineering field because it is very important for the secure service of mechanical components. In this paper, a combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter based on the collinear wave mixing technique is applied for fatigue life prediction of a metallic material. Sweep experiments are first conducted to explore the influence of driving frequency on the interaction of two driving signals and the fatigue damage of specimens, and the amplitudes of sidebands at the difference frequency and sum frequency are tracked when the driving frequency changes. Then, collinear wave mixing tests are carried out on a pair of cylindrically notched specimens with different fatigue damage to explore the relationship between the fatigue damage and the relative nonlinear parameters. The experimental results show when the fatigue degree is below 65% the relative nonlinear parameter increases quickly, and the growth rate is approximately 130%. If the fatigue degree is above 65%, the increase in the relative nonlinear parameter is slow, which has a close relationship with the microstructure evolution of specimens. A combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter is proposed to highlight the relationship of the relative nonlinear parameter and fatigue degree of specimens; the fatigue life prediction model is built based on the relationship, and the prediction error is below 3%, which is below the prediction error based on the relative nonlinear parameters at the difference and sum frequencies. Therefore, the combined nonlinear ultrasonic parameter using the collinear wave mixing method can effectively estimate the fatigue degree of specimens, which provides a fast and convenient method for fatigue life prediction.

  9. Low cycle corrosion fatigue properties of F316Ti in simulated LWR primary environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xuelian; Ding Yaping; Katada, Y.; Sato, S.

    1998-11-01

    Environment effect on fatigue performance of materials used for Pressurized boundary, including fatigue life and crack growth rate, are of importance to nuclear safety. To predict the fatigue life of nuclear materials and to improve the design of nuclear materials, it is necessary to investigated the material fatigue performances in corrosive environment and to get the fatigue data under its environment to be used in. Low cycle corrosion fatigue (CF) performance investigation of domestic F316Ti in simulated BWR and PWR primary environment was carried out. The result shows that the high temperature water environment is one of the most important factors on CF properties. For the same material, the low cycle fatigue life in high temperature air is longer than that in simulated BWR and PWR primary environments. In high temperature water, domestic F316Ti has almost the same low cycle corrosion fatigue performance as F316 (made in Japan). All of the fatigue data are scattered within ASME best-fit curve and ASME design fatigue curve. In high strain range, there is no significant difference of the CF performance for F316Ti in both of BWR and PWR primary environments. With the decrease of strain amplitude, the difference appears gradually. The data is located at the short life side of the fatigue data in simulated BWR primary environment. Titanium is distributed uniformly in F316Ti manufactured in Fushun Steel Factory. Ni, Cr, Mo in this material are located at the high side of the alloy chemical composition range. So, F316Ti has a better CF property in high temperature water

  10. Investigation of Cyclic Deformation and Fatigue of Polycrystalline Cu under Pure Compression Cyclic Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Tzu-Yin Jean

    It is commonly accepted that fatigue crack is initiated under tensile fatigue stresses. However, practical examples demonstrate that cracks may also initiate under pure compressive fluctuating loads such as the failures observed in aircraft landing gear frames. However, the mechanism of such failures is rarely investigated. Furthermore, knowledge on cyclic deformation response under pure compressive fatigue condition is also very limited or non-existent. Our recent work already verified that fatigue cracks may nucleate from stress concentration sites under pure compression fatigue, but whether or not a form of stress concentration is always needed to initiate a crack under pure compression fatigue remains uncertain. In this study, compression fatigue tests under different peak stresses were carried out on smooth bars of fully annealed OFHC Copper. The purpose of these tests is to investigate not only the cyclic deformation response but also the possibility of crack nucleation without the stress concentrator. Results showed that overall the cyclic stress-strain response and microstructural evolution of OFHC Copper under pure compression fatigue exhibits rather dissimilar behaviour compared to those under symmetrical fatigue. The specimens hardened rapidly within 10 cycles under pure compression fatigue unlike the gradual cyclic hardening behaviour in symmetrical fatigue with the same peak stress amplitude. Compressive cyclic creep behaviour was also observed under the same testing conditions. Moreover, unlike conventional tension-compression fatigue, only moderate slip activity was detectable on the surface instead of typical PSB features detected from TEM observations. The surface observations has revealed that surface slip bands did not increase in number nor did they become more pronounced in height with increasing number of cycles. In addition, surface roughening by grain boundary extrusion was detected to become more severe as the cycling progressed. Therefore

  11. Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of FML Structures and Materials under Complex Variable Amplitude Loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderdiesten, R.; Benedictus, R.; Khan, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents various failure mechanisms in FMLs, highlights the presence or absence of interaction effects, and describes how the failure mechanisms can be described for predicting damage growth under arbitrary complex load spectra.

  12. Results of fatigue tests and prediction of fatigue life under superposed stress wave and combined superposed stress wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Shunji; Horikawa, Takeshi; Tsunenari, Toshiyasu; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    1983-01-01

    In order to examine fatigue life prediction methods at high temperatures where creep damage need not be taken into account, fatigue tests were carried out on plane bending specimens of alloy steels (SCM 435, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo) under superposed and combined superposed stress waves at room temperature and 500 0 C. The experimental data were compared with the fatigue lives predicted by using the cycle counting methods (range pair, range pair mean and zero-cross range pair mean methods), the modified Goodman's equation and the modified Miner's rule. The main results were as follows. (1) The fatigue life prediction method which is being used for the data at room temperature is also applicable to predict the life at high temperatures. The range pair mean method is especially better than other cycle counting methods. The zero-cross range pair mean method gives the estimated lives on the safe side of the experimental lives. (2) The scatter bands of N-bar/N-barsub(es) (experimental life/estimated life) becomes narrower when the following equation is used instead of the modified Goodman's equation for predicting the effect of mean stress on fatigue life. σ sub(t) = σ sub(a) / (1 - Sigma-s sub(m) / kσ sub(B)) σ sub(t); stress amplitude at zero mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(B); tensile strength (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(m); mean stress (kg/mm 2 ) σ sub(a); stress amplitude (kg/mm 2 ) k; modified coefficient of σ sub(B) (author)

  13. Coupled particle filtering : A new approach for P300-based analysis of mental fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarchi, Delaram; Sanei, Saeid; Mohseni, Hamid R.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    A new method for investigating mental fatigue based on P300 variability is presented here. In this approach a new coupled particle filtering for tracking variability of P300 subcomponents, i.e., P3a and P3b, across trials is developed. The latency, amplitude, and width of each subcomponent, as the

  14. Perceived fatigue following pediatric burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Mouton, Leonora J; Dijkstra, Froukje; Niemeijer, Anuschka S; van Brussel, Marco; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Disseldorp, Laurien M; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K

    2017-12-01

    Fatigue is a common consequence of numerous pediatric health conditions. In adult burn survivors, fatigue was found to be a major problem. The current cross-sectional study is aimed at determining the levels of perceived fatigue in pediatric burn survivors. Perceived fatigue was assessed in 23 children and adolescents (15 boys and 8 girls, aged 6-18 years, with burns covering 10-46% of the total body surface area, 1-5 years post burn) using both child self- and parent proxy reports of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale. Outcomes were compared with reference values of non-burned peers. At group level, pediatric burn survivors did not report significantly more symptoms of fatigue than their non-burned peers. Individual assessments showed, however, that four children experienced substantial symptoms of fatigue according to the child self-reports, compared to ten children according to the parent proxy reports. Furthermore, parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue than the children themselves. Age, gender, extent of burn, length of hospital stay, and number of surgeries could not predict the level of perceived fatigue post-burn. Our results suggest that fatigue is prevalent in at least part of the pediatric burn population after 1-5 years. However, the fact that parents reported significantly more symptoms of fatigue then the children themselves, hampers evident conclusions. It is essential for clinicians and therapists to consider both perspectives when evaluating pediatric fatigue after burn and to determine who needs special attention, the pediatric burn patient or its parent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Three technical issues in fatigue damage assessment of nuclear power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1991-01-01

    This paper addresses three technical issues that affect the fatigue damage assessment of nuclear power plant components: the effect of the environment on the fatigue life, the importance of the loading sequence in calculating the fatigue crack-initiation damage, and the adequacy of current inservice inspection requirements and methods to characterize fatigue cracks. The environmental parameters that affect the fatigue life of carbon and low alloy steel components are the sulphur content in the steel, the temperature, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the coolant, and the presence of oxidizing agents such as copper oxide. The occurrence of large-amplitude stress cycles early in a component's life followed by low-amplitude stress cycles may cause crack initiation at a cumulative usage factor less than 1.0. The current inservice inspection requirements include volumetric inspections of welds but not of some susceptible sites in the base metal. In addition, the conventional ultrasonic testing techniques need to be improved for reliable detection and accurate sizing of fatigue cracks. 28 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Amplitude modulation in δ Sct stars: statistics from an ensemble of Kepler targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Breger, Michel; Murphy, Simon J.; Holdsworth, Daniel L.

    2017-10-01

    The results of a search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes in 983 δ Sct stars, which have effective temperatures between 6400 ⩽ Teff ⩽ 10 000 K in the Kepler Input Catalogue and were continuously observed by the Kepler Space Telescope for 4 yr, are presented. A total of 603 δ Sct stars (61.3 per cent) are found to exhibit at least one pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude over 4 yr. Furthermore, it is found that amplitude modulation is not restricted to a specific region within the classical instability strip in the HR diagram, therefore its cause is not necessarily dependent on stellar parameters such as Teff or log g. On the other hand, many δ Sct stars show constant pulsation amplitudes demonstrating that the cause of pulsational non-linearity in these stars is not well understood.

  17. IIW recommendations for the HFMI treatment for improving the fatigue strength of welded joints

    CERN Document Server

    Marquis, Gary B

    2016-01-01

    This book of recommendations presents an overview of High Frequency Mechanical Impact (HFMI) techniques existing today in the market and their proper procedures, quality assurance measures and documentation. Due to differences in HFMI tools and the wide variety of potential applications, certain details of proper treatments and quantitative quality control measures are presented generally. An example of procedure specification as a quality assurance measure is given in the Appendix. Moreover, the book presents procedures for the fatigue life assessment of HFMI-improved welded joints based on nominal stress, structural hot spot stress and effective notch stress. It also considers the extra benefit that has been experimentally observed for HFMI-treated high-strength steels. The recommendations offer proposals on the effect of loading conditions like high mean stress fatigue cycles, variable amplitude loading and large amplitude/low cycle fatigue cycles. Special considerations for low stress concentration welded...

  18. Fatigue life enhancement of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments by progressive reciprocating operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, C S; Huang, Y H; Chi, C W; Lin, C P

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of reciprocating amplitude and progressive angular increment on fatigue life enhancement of NiTi rotary endodontic instruments. ProTaper F2 instruments were operated in steel artificial canals with both stationary reciprocating (SR) and progressive reciprocating (PR) motions. The SR motions involved symmetric to and fro reciprocation of ± 180(o) , ± 135(o) , ± 90(o) , ± 60(o) and ± 45(o) . The PR motions were ± 45(o) stationary motion superimposed with angular increments of 7(o) , 11(o) , 22.5(o) or 31(o) whenever an instrument completed 1, 10 or 30 reciprocating cycles (rc). The fatigue lives were compared with those under continuous rotation (CR) and a reciprocating operation with a forward 144(o) and backward 72(o) motion proposed by Yared (2008). The statistical significance of these operating modes on fatigue life was examined using one way anova and post hoc Tukey's tests at P = 0.05. Fractographic analysis was also applied to probe the fracture mechanisms of different rotation motions. Fatigue life increased with decreasing reciprocating amplitude. Operating in the SR increased fatigue life by 355% over that in the CR. Except for the 22.5(o) increment, all PR motions yielded longer fatigue lives than the SR motion. A progressive reciprocating operation with a ± 45(o) reciprocating amplitude and a + 7(o) progressive angular increment every 10 reciprocating cycles (± 45(o) /10rc/+7(o) ) increased fatigue life by 990% over that in the CR motion. In terms of life enhancement over the CR motion, the larger the curvature the less are the differences between different movements. Single crack initiation sites were found in the CR and SR motions, while three crack initiation sites were typical in the ± 45(o) /10rc/+7(o) motion. Fatigue life increased with decreasing reciprocating amplitude in stationary reciprocation. A progressive reciprocating operation with ± 45(o) /10rc/+7(o) motion led to significant fatigue life enhancement and

  19. Life Prediction of Low Cycle Fatigue for Ni-base Superalloy GTD111 DS at Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Yeol; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon; Bae, Si Yeon; Chang, Sung Yong; Chang, Sung Ho

    2017-01-01

    GTD111 DS of nickel base superalloy has been used for gas turbine blades. In this study, low cycle fatigue test was conducted on the GTD111 DS alloy by setting conditions similar to the real operating environment. The low cycle fatigue tests were conducted at room temperature, 760 °C, 870 °C, and various strain amplitudes. Test results showed that fatigue life decreased with increasing total strain amplitude. Cyclic hardening response was observed at room temperature and 760 °C; however, tests conducted at 870 °C showed cyclic softening response. Stress relaxation was observed at 870 °C because creep effects occurred from holding time. A relationship between fatigue life and total strain range was obtained from the Coffin-Manson method. The fratography using a SEM was carried out at the crack initiation and propagation regions.

  20. Adjusting pulse amplitude during transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application produces greater hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantaleão, Manuela A; Laurino, Marjorie F; Gallego, Natalie L G; Cabral, Cristina M N; Rakel, Barbara; Vance, Carol; Sluka, Kathleen A; Walsh, Deirdre M; Liebano, Richard E

    2011-05-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a noninvasive technique used for pain modulation. During application of TENS there is a fading of current sensation. Textbooks of electrophysical agents recommend that pulse amplitude should be constantly adjusted. This seems to be accepted clinically despite the fact that there is no direct experimental evidence. The aim of the current study was to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of adjusting TENS pulse amplitude on pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) in healthy humans. Fifty-six healthy TENS naïve participants were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups (n = 14 per group): control, placebo TENS, fixed pulse amplitude TENS, and adjusted pulse amplitude TENS. Both active and placebo TENS were applied to the dominant forearm. PPTs were recorded from 2 points on the dominant forearm and hand before, during, and after 40 minutes of TENS. TENS increased the PPTs on the forearm (P = .003) and hand (P = .003) in the group that received the adjusted pulse amplitude when compared to all other groups. The mean final pulse amplitude for the adjusted pulse amplitude TENS group was 35.51 mA when compared to the fixed pulse amplitude TENS group, which averaged 31.37 mA (P = .0318). These results suggest that it is important to adjust the pulse amplitude during TENS application to get the maximal analgesic effect. We propose that the fading of current sensation allows the use of higher pulse amplitudes, which would activate a greater number of and deeper tissue afferents to produce greater analgesia. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Constant luminance (cd·s/m2) versus constant retinal illuminance (Td·s) stimulation in flicker ERGs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, C Quentin; Kraszewska, Olga; Manning, Colette

    2017-04-01

    To compare the effect of variable pupil size on the flicker electroretinogram (ERG) between a stimulus having constant luminance and a stimulus having constant retinal illuminance (constant Troland) that compensates for pupil size. Subjects (n = 18) were tested with 12 pairs of the stimuli. The stimulus pair consisted of the ISCEV standard constant luminance stimulus (3 cd·s/m 2 with a 30 cd/m 2 background) and a constant retinal illuminance stimulus (32 Td·s with a 320 Td background) selected to provide the same stimulus and background when the pupil diameter is 3.7 mm. Half the subjects were artificially dilated, and their response was measured before and during the dilation. The natural pupil group was used to assess intra- and inter-subject variability. The artificially dilated group was used to measure the flicker ERG's dependence on pupil size. With natural pupils, intra-subject variability was lower with the constant Troland stimulus, while inter-subject variability was similar between stimuli. During pupil dilation, the constant Troland stimulus did not have a dependence on pupil size up to 6.3 mm and had slightly larger amplitudes with longer implicit times for fully dilated pupils. For the constant luminance stimulus, waveform amplitudes varied by 22% per mm change in pupil diameter, or by 48% over the 2.2 mm diameter range measured in dilated pupil size. There was no difference in inter-subject variability between constant Troland natural pupils and the same subjects with a constant luminance stimulus when dilated (i.e., the ISCEV standard condition). These results suggest that a constant Troland flicker ERG test with natural pupils may be advantageous in clinical testing. Because of its insensitivity to pupil size, constant Troland stimuli should produce smaller reference ranges, which in turn should improve the sensitivity for detection of abnormalities and for monitoring changes. In addition, the test can be administered more efficiently as

  2. Scattering amplitudes in open superstring theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlotterer, Oliver

    2011-07-15

    The present thesis deals with the theme field of the scattering amplitudes in theories of open superstrings. Especially two different formalisms for the handling of superstrings are introduced and applied for the calaculation of tree-level amplitudes - the Ramond- Neveu-Schwarz (RNS) and the Pure-Spinor (PS) formalism. The RNS approach is proved as flexible in order to describe compactification of the initially ten flat space-time dimensions to four dimensions. We solve the technical problems, which result from the interacting basing world-sheet theory with conformal symmetry. This is used to calculate phenomenologically relevant scattering amplitudes of gluons and quarks as well as production rates of massive harmonic vibrations, which were already identified as virtual exchange particles on the massless level. In the case of a low string mass scale in the range of some Tev the string-specific signatures in parton collisions can be observed in the near future in the LHC experiment at CERN and indicated as first experimental proof of the string theory. THose string effects occur universally for a wide class of string ground states respectively internal geometries and represent an elegant way to avoid the so-called landscape problem of the string theory. A further theme complex in this thesis is based on the PS formalism, which allows a manifestly supersymmetric treatment of scattering amplitudes in ten space-time dimension with sixteen supercharges. We introduce a family of superfields, which occur in massless amplitudes of the open string and can be naturally identified with diagrams of three-valued knots. Thereby we reach not only a compact superspace representation of the n-point field-theory amplitude but can also write the complete superstring n-point amplitude as minimal linear combination of partial amplitudes of the field theory as well as hypergeometric functions. The latter carry the string effects and are analyzed from different perspectives, above all

  3. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  4. Fatigue assessment of a double submerged arc welded gas pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazzini, Pablo; Otegui, Jose Luis [Universidad Nacional Mar del Plata, Mar del Plata (Argentina). Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia de Materiales (INTEMA); Teutonico, Mauricio; Manfredi, Carlos [GIE S.A., Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2005-07-01

    An uncommon blowout in a 24'' diameter, 7 mm thick API 5L X52 gas pipeline was due to fracture at the longitudinal double submerged arc weld. Oddly enough for gas pipelines, it was found that fatigue cracks had propagated from a large embedded weld defect of lack of fusion resulting from severe geometrical mismatch between inner and outer weld passes. What makes this failure particularly interesting is that: previous in line inspections failed to detect any defect, no evidence of third party damage was found, and very few large pressure cycles had been recorded during the last 5 years of service, which were believed to be representative of the entire service life of the pipeline. Fatigue tests were carried out to characterize propagation of fatigue cracks in weld metal, it was found that a large Paris exponent made the few large amplitude cycles most contributing to crack propagation. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. Crack growth path and striation patterns were studied. It was found that microstructure discontinuities govern propagation at low {delta}K, but one striation per cycle was produced at large {delta}K, due to a mostly ductile propagation mode. Fatigue growth was modelled by integrating experimental results and by extrapolating striation spacing in the fracture surface of the failed pipe. It was found that in the early life of the line many more large pressure cycles than expected had occurred. Good correspondence between predicted and actual fatigue lives was in this way obtained (author)

  5. Cyclic plasticity and fatigue of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mughrabi, H.

    1993-01-01

    This report is a survey of the cyclic deformation and fatigue behaviour of selected engineering steels and alloys. Emphasis is placed on the important roles of the cyclic slip mode and the stability of the microstructure during cyclic stressing and on the conditions of fatigue testing with respect to the failure mechanisms and fatigue life. The examples presented include low-temperature fatigue, high-temperature fatigue in the presence of dynamic strain ageing and thermomechanical fatigue. (orig.)

  6. Amplitude Modulation of Pulsation Modes in Delta Scuti Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Dominic M.

    2017-10-01

    The pulsations in δ Sct stars are excited by a heat engine driving mechanism caused by increased opacity in their surface layers, and have pulsation periods of order a few hours. Space based observations in the last decade have revealed a diverse range of pulsational behaviour in these stars, which is investigated using an ensemble of 983 δ Sct stars observed continuously for 4 yr by the Kepler Space Telescope. A statistical search for amplitude modulation of pulsation modes is carried out and it is shown that 61.3 per cent of the 983 δ Sct stars exhibit significant amplitude modulation in at least a single pulsation mode, and that this is uncorrelated with effective temperature and surface gravity. Hence, the majority of δ Sct stars exhibit amplitude modulation, with time-scales of years and longer demonstrated to be significant in these stars both observationally and theoretically. An archetypal example of amplitude modulation in a δ Sct star is KIC 7106205, which contains only a single pulsation mode that varies significantly in amplitude whilst all other pulsation modes stay constant in amplitude and phase throughout the 4-yr Kepler data set. Therefore, the visible pulsational energy budget in this star, and many others, is not conserved over 4 yr. Models of beating of close-frequency pulsation modes are used to identify δ Sct stars with frequencies that lie closer than 0.001 d^{-1}, which are barely resolved using 4 yr of Kepler observations, and maintain their independent identities over 4 yr. Mode coupling models are used to quantify the strength of coupling and distinguish between non-linearity in the form of combination frequencies and non-linearity in the form of resonant mode coupling for families of pulsation modes in several stars. The changes in stellar structure caused by stellar evolution are investigated for two high amplitude δ Sct (HADS) stars in the Kepler data set, revealing a positive quadratic change in phase for the fundamental and

  7. Evoked EMG versus Muscle Torque during Fatiguing Functional Electrical Stimulation-Evoked Muscle Contractions and Short-Term Recovery in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo H. Estigoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES. Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA, and the m-wave area (Area were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery.

  8. Evoked EMG versus muscle torque during fatiguing functional electrical stimulation-evoked muscle contractions and short-term recovery in individuals with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estigoni, Eduardo H; Fornusek, Che; Hamzaid, Nur Azah; Hasnan, Nazirah; Smith, Richard M; Davis, Glen M

    2014-12-03

    This study investigated whether the relationship between muscle torque and m-waves remained constant after short recovery periods, between repeated intervals of isometric muscle contractions induced by functional electrical stimulation (FES). Eight subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI) were recruited for the study. All subjects had their quadriceps muscles group stimulated during three sessions of isometric contractions separated by 5 min of recovery. The evoked-electromyographic (eEMG) signals, as well as the produced torque, were synchronously acquired during the contractions and during short FES bursts applied during the recovery intervals. All analysed m-wave variables changed progressively throughout the three contractions, even though the same muscle torque was generated. The peak to peak amplitude (PtpA), and the m-wave area (Area) were significantly increased, while the time between the stimulus artefact and the positive peak (PosT) were substantially reduced when the muscles became fatigued. In addition, all m-wave variables recovered faster and to a greater extent than did torque after the recovery intervals. We concluded that rapid recovery intervals between FES-evoked exercise sessions can radically interfere in the use of m-waves as a proxy for torque estimation in individuals with SCI. This needs to be further investigated, in addition to seeking a better understanding of the mechanisms of muscle fatigue and recovery.

  9. Fatigue Characterization of Fire Resistant Syntactic Foam Core Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad Mynul

    Eco-Core is a fire resistant material for sandwich structural application; it was developed at NC A&T State University. The Eco-Core is made of very small amount of phenolic resin and large volume of flyash by a syntactic process. The process development, static mechanical and fracture, fire and toxicity safety and water absorption properties and the design of sandwich structural panels with Eco-Core material was established and published in the literature. One of the important properties that is needed for application in transportation vehicles is the fatigue performance under different stress states. Fatigue data are not available even for general syntactic foams. The objective of this research is to investigate the fatigue performance of Eco-Core under three types of stress states, namely, cyclic compression, shear and flexure, then document failure modes, and develop empherical equations for predicting fatigue life of Eco-Core under three stress states. Compression-Compression fatigue was performed directly on Eco-Core cylindrical specimen, whereas shear and flexure fatigue tests were performed using sandwich beam made of E glass-Vinyl Ester face sheet and Eco-Core material. Compression-compression fatigue test study was conducted at two values of stress ratios (R=10 and 5), for the maximum compression stress (sigmamin) range of 60% to 90% of compression strength (sigmac = 19.6 +/- 0.25 MPa) for R=10 and 95% to 80% of compression strength for R=5. The failure modes were characterized by the material compliance change: On-set (2% compliance change), propagation (5%) and ultimate failure (7%). The number of load cycles correspond to each of these three damages were characterized as on-set, propagation and total lives. A similar approach was used in shear and flexure fatigue tests with stress ratio of R=0.1. The fatigue stress-number of load cycles data followed the standard power law equation for all three stress states. The constant of the equation were

  10. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  11. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  12. Fatigue 󈨛. Volume 3,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    the University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia. 0 June 28 - July 3, 1987 J 0 EDITORIAL PANEL p...c.. d R.P. Gangloff, R.O. Ritchie, E.A. Starke...8217- rrocee, s hi, ir-.---’atc- % apour prE r ardL heance the rt-4d;ee Kix it tho crac&’ tip cat sos ’ her , qrowtb. rate. in ’ a e oxi-rt-,-tcd -is t t...precursor wire) was typically 0.064 cm. 1334 FATIGUE 87 Fabrication of the precursor wire into panels was done by DWA Composite Specialties, Inc., using the

  13. Fatigue in soccer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2005-01-01

    in the game: (1) after short-term intense periods in both halves; (2) in the initial phase of the second half; and (3) towards the end of the game. Temporary fatigue after periods of intense exercise in the game does not appear to be linked directly to muscle glycogen concentration, lactate accumulation......, acidity or the breakdown of creatine phosphate. Instead, it may be related to disturbances in muscle ion homeostasis and an impaired excitation of the sarcolemma. Soccer players' ability to perform maximally is inhibited in the initial phase of the second half, which may be due to lower muscle...

  14. Spinfoam cosmology with the proper vertex amplitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilensky, Ilya

    2017-11-01

    The proper vertex amplitude is derived from the Engle-Pereira-Rovelli-Livine vertex by restricting to a single gravitational sector in order to achieve the correct semi-classical behaviour. We apply the proper vertex to calculate a cosmological transition amplitude that can be viewed as the Hartle-Hawking wavefunction. To perform this calculation we deduce the integral form of the proper vertex and use extended stationary phase methods to estimate the large-volume limit. We show that the resulting amplitude satisfies an operator constraint whose classical analogue is the Hamiltonian constraint of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology. We find that the constraint dynamically selects the relevant family of coherent states and demonstrate a similar dynamic selection in standard quantum mechanics. We investigate the effects of dynamical selection on long-range correlations.

  15. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique bea...... for cold atoms and for optical manipulation of microscopic particles.......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...

  16. Cut-constructible part of QCD amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto, Ruth; Feng Bo; Mastrolia, Pierpaolo

    2006-01-01

    Unitarity cuts are widely used in analytic computation of loop amplitudes in gauge theories such as QCD. We expand upon the technique introduced in hep-ph/0503132 to carry out any finite unitarity cut integral. This technique naturally separates the contributions of bubble, triangle and box integrals in one-loop amplitudes and is not constrained to any particular helicity configurations. Loop momentum integration is reduced to a sequence of algebraic operations. We discuss the extraction of the residues at higher-order poles. Additionally, we offer concise algebraic formulas for expressing coefficients of three-mass triangle integrals. As an application, we compute all remaining coefficients of bubble and triangle integrals for nonsupersymmetric six-gluon amplitudes

  17. Nonlinear (super)symmetries and amplitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallosh, Renata [Physics Department, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4060 (United States)

    2017-03-07

    There is an increasing interest in nonlinear supersymmetries in cosmological model building. Independently, elegant expressions for the all-tree amplitudes in models with nonlinear symmetries, like D3 brane Dirac-Born-Infeld-Volkov-Akulov theory, were recently discovered. Using the generalized background field method we show how, in general, nonlinear symmetries of the action, bosonic and fermionic, constrain amplitudes beyond soft limits. The same identities control, for example, bosonic E{sub 7(7)} scalar sector symmetries as well as the fermionic goldstino symmetries. We present a universal derivation of the vanishing amplitudes in the single (bosonic or fermionic) soft limit. We explain why, universally, the double-soft limit probes the coset space algebra. We also provide identities describing the multiple-soft limit. We discuss loop corrections to N≥5 supergravity, to the D3 brane, and the UV completion of constrained multiplets in string theory.

  18. Amplitude-modulated fiber-ring laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, J. G.; Clausen, Carl A. Balslev; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2000-01-01

    Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self-starting......Soliton pulses generated by a fiber-ring laser are investigated by numerical simulation and perturbation methods. The mathematical modeling is based on the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with perturbative terms. We show that active mode locking with an amplitude modulator leads to a self......-starting of stable solitonic pulses from small random noise, provided the modulation depth is small. The perturbative analysis leads to a nonlinear coupled return map for the amplitude, phase, and position of the soliton pulses circulating in the fiber-ring laser. We established the validity of this approach...

  19. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  20. Relativistic amplitudes in terms of wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the invariant diagram technique which arises at the formulation of the fueld theory on the light front the question about conditions at which the relativistic amplitudes may be expressed through the wave functions is investigated. The amplitudes obtained depend on four-vector ω, determining the light front surface. The way is shown to find such values of the four-vector ω, at which the contribution of diagrams not expressed through wave functions is minimal. The investigation carried out is equivalent to the study of the dependence of amplitudes of the old-fashioned perturbation theory in the in the infinite momentum frame on direction of the infinite momentum

  1. Scattering Amplitudes and Worldsheet Models of QFTs

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    I will describe recent progress on the study of scattering amplitudes via ambitwistor strings and the scattering equations. Ambitwistor strings are worldsheet models of quantum field theories, inspired by string theory. They naturally lead to a representation of amplitudes based on the scattering equations. While worldsheet models and related ideas have had a wide-ranging impact on the modern study of amplitudes, their direct application at loop level is a very recent success. I will show how a major difficulty in the loop-level story, the technicalities of higher-genus Riemann surfaces, can be avoided by turning the higher-genus surface into a nodal Riemann sphere, with the nodes representing the loop momenta. I will present new formulas for the one-loop integrands of gauge theory and gravity, with or without supersymmetry, and also some two-loop results.

  2. Uncertainty Quantification in Fatigue Crack Growth Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Sankararaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology to quantify the uncertainty in fatigue crack growth prognosis, applied to structures with complicated geometry and subjected to variable amplitude multi-axial loading. Finite element analysis is used to address the complicated geometry and calculate the stress intensity factors. Multi-modal stress intensity factors due to multi-axial loading are combined to calculate an equivalent stress intensity factor using a characteristic plane approach. Crack growth under variable amplitude loading is modeled using a modified Paris law that includes retardation effects. During cycle-by-cycle integration of the crack growth law, a Gaussian process surrogate model is used to replace the expensive finite element analysis. The effect of different types of uncertainty – physical variability, data uncertainty and modeling errors – on crack growth prediction is investigated. The various sources of uncertainty include, but not limited to, variability in loading conditions, material parameters, experimental data, model uncertainty, etc. Three different types of modeling errors – crack growth model error, discretization error and surrogate model error – are included in analysis. The different types of uncertainty are incorporated into the crack growth prediction methodology to predict the probability distribution of crack size as a function of number of load cycles. The proposed method is illustrated using an application problem, surface cracking in a cylindrical structure.

  3. Tensile and superelastic fatigue characterization of NiTi shape memory cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, Muhammad M.; Ozbulut, Osman E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the tensile response and functional fatigue characteristics of a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) cable with an outer diameter of 5.5 mm. The cable composed of multiple strands arranged as one inner core and two outer layers. The results of the tensile tests revealed that the SMA cable exhibits good superelastic behavior up to 10% strain. Fatigue characteristics were investigated under strain amplitudes ranging from 3% to 7% and a minimum of 2500 loading cycles. The evolutions of maximum tensile stress, residual strains, energy dissipation, and equivalent viscous damping under a number of loading cycles were analyzed. The fracture surface of a specimen subjected to 5000 loading cycles and 7% strain was discussed. Functional fatigue test results indicated a very high superelastic fatigue life cycle for the tested NiTi SMA cable.

  4. Low Cycle Fatigue Behavior Zr-Sn-Nb Slice Alloy at Elevated Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xuewei; Cai Lixun; Bao Chen; Tan Jun

    2010-01-01

    A series of low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on small funnel-like slice-specimens of Zr-Sn-Nb alloy at room temperature and 500 degree C. Based on the local uniaxial strain of small funnel-like specimens, the fatigue damage equivalent hypothesis was given. Through finite element analysis, the strain conversion model for funnel-like specimens from uniaxial testing strain to local uniaxial strain was established,besides, the validity of finite element analysis was checked by the test results; with the results of test, Manson-Conffin model for Zr-Sn-Nb alloy strain fatigue life estimation was presented. The results show that, Zr-Sn-Nb alloy exhibits cyclic stability; elevated temperature shorten the fatigue life of Zr-Sn-Nb alloy seriously and temperature effect impairs gradually with the increase of strain amplitude. (authors)

  5. Influence of composition and distribution of the reinforcing particles on fatigue properties of metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochreiter, E.; Jeglitsch, F.

    1993-01-01

    Fatigue-life-time behaviour has been examined of extruded 6061 aluminium alloy composites reinforced with 15 vol.% SiC and 10 vol.% Al 2 O 3 particles. The peak particle sizes are at about 4.5 and 6 μm. Within measured S-N curves the fatigue life-time at given stress amplitudes of SiC p /AA6061 is superiour to that of Al 2 O 3p /AA6061 in the low-cycle fatigue region as well as in the high-cycle fatigue region. The discussion of these results has been done by means of theoretical evaluated crack propagation curves. Interfacial bonding has been studied by means of TEM investigations. (orig.)

  6. Load assumption for fatigue design of structures and components counting methods, safety aspects, practical application

    CERN Document Server

    Köhler, Michael; Pötter, Kurt; Zenner, Harald

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the fatigue behaviour of structural components under variable load amplitude is an essential prerequisite for safe and reliable light-weight design. For designing and dimensioning, the expected stress (load) is compared with the capacity to withstand loads (fatigue strength). In this process, the safety necessary for each particular application must be ensured. A prerequisite for ensuring the required fatigue strength is a reliable load assumption. The authors describe the transformation of the stress- and load-time functions which have been measured under operational conditions to spectra or matrices with the application of counting methods. The aspects which must be considered for ensuring a reliable load assumption for designing and dimensioning are discussed in detail. Furthermore, the theoretical background for estimating the fatigue life of structural components is explained, and the procedures are discussed for numerous applications in practice. One of the prime intentions of the authors ...

  7. Bilateral knee extensor fatigue modulates force and responsiveness of the corticospinal pathway in thenon-fatigued, dominant elbow flexors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja eŠambaher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue affects muscle performance and modulates corticospinal excitability in non-exercised muscles. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of bilateral knee extensor fatigue on dominant elbow flexor (EF maximal voluntary force production and corticospinal excitability. Transcranial magnetic, transmastoid electrical and brachial plexus electrical stimulation were used to investigate corticospinal, spinal, and muscle excitability of the dominant EF before and after a bilateral knee extensor fatiguing protocol or time matched rest period (control. For both sessions three stimuli were delivered every 1.5s during the three pre-test time points and during the 1st, 3rd, 6th, 9th and 12th post-test 5s EF isometric maximal voluntary contractions (MVC. In both conditions, Overall, EF MVC force (p< 0.001 decreased progressively from repetition #1 to #12 during the post-test MVC protocol. EF MVC force (p < 0.001, ES = 0.9, ∆ 10.3% decrements were more pronounced in the knee extensor fatigue intervention condition. In addition, there were no significant differences between conditions for biceps brachii electromyographic (EMG activity (p = 0.43, motor evoked potentials (MEP amplitude (p=0.908 or MEP silent period (p=0.776. However, the fatigue condition exhibited a lower MEP/ cervico-medullary MEP (CMEP ratio (p=0.042, ES=2.5, ∆25% and a trend toward higher CMEP values (p=0.08, ES=0.5, ∆20.4%. These findings suggest that bilateral knee extensor fatigue can impair performance and modulate corticospinal excitability of the EF.

  8. Fatigue life prediction for a cold worked T316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjoine, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    Permanent damage curves of initiation-life and propagation-life which predict the fatigue life of specimens of a cold-worked type 316 stainless steel under complex strain-range histories were generated by a limited test program. Analysis of the test data showed that fatigue damage is not linear throughout life and that propagation life is longer than initiation-life at high strain ranges but is shorter at low strain ranges. If permanent damage has been initiated by prior history and/or fabrication, propagation to a given life can occur at a lower strain range than that estimated from the fatigue curves for constant CSR. (author) [pt

  9. Intramuscular pressure and EMG relate during static contractions but dissociate with movement and fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Jensen, Bente R.; Hargens, Allan R.

    2004-01-01

    Intramuscular pressure (IMP) and electromyography (EMG) mirror muscle force in the nonfatigued muscle during static contractions. The present study explores whether the constant IMP-EMG relationship with increased force may be extended to dynamic contractions and to fatigued muscle. IMP and EMG...... with speed of abduction. In the nonfatigued supraspinatus muscle, a linear relationship was found between IMP and EMG; in contrast, during fatigue and recovery, significant timewise changes of the IMP-to-EMG ratio occurred. The results indicate that IMP should be included along with EMG when mechanical load...... sharing between muscles is evaluated during dynamic and fatiguing contractions....

  10. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2017-12-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  11. Quantitative Analysis of GPR Signals: Transmitted Wavelet, Amplitude Decay, and Sampling-Related Amplitude Distortions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossi, M.; Forte, Emanuele; Pipan, M.

    2018-03-01

    We study the importance of accurately recording signal amplitudes for the quantitative analysis of GPR data sets. Specifically, we measure the peak amplitudes of signals emitted by GPR antennas with different central frequencies and study their amplitude decay with distance, in order to extrapolate the peak amplitude of the wavelet initially transmitted by each antenna. The purpose is to compare the reference and reflected amplitudes in order to accurately estimate the subsurface EM impedance contrasts. Moreover, we study how sampling-related amplitude distortions can affect the quantitative analysis, and subsequently the resulting subsurface models, even in the absence of aliasing effects. The well-known Nyquist-Shannon theorem gives practical lower limits for the sampling rate in order to preserve the spectral content of a digitized signal; however, we show that it does not prevent possible amplitude distortions. In particular, we demonstrate that significant and unrecoverable loss of amplitude information occurs even at sampling rates well above the Nyquist-Shannon threshold. Interpolation may theoretically reduce such amplitude distortions; however, its accuracy would depend on the implemented algorithm and it is not verifiable in real data sets, since the actual amplitude information is limited to the sampled values. Moreover, re-sampling the interpolated signal simply reintroduces the initial problem, when a new sampling rate is selected. Our analysis suggests that, in order to limit the maximum peak amplitude error within 5%, the sampling rate selected during data acquisition must be at least 12 times the signal central frequency, which is higher than the commonly adopted standards.

  12. Amplitude Models for Discrimination and Yield Estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, William Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This seminar presentation describes amplitude models and yield estimations that look at the data in order to inform legislation. The following points were brought forth in the summary: global models that will predict three-component amplitudes (R-T-Z) were produced; Q models match regional geology; corrected source spectra can be used for discrimination and yield estimation; three-component data increase coverage and reduce scatter in source spectral estimates; three-component efforts must include distance-dependent effects; a community effort on instrument calibration is needed.

  13. High energy multi-gluon exchange amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszewicz, T.

    1980-11-01

    We examine perturbative high energy n-gluon exchange amplitudes calculated in the Coulomb gauge. If n exceeds the minimum required by the t-channel quantum numbers, such amplitudes are non-leading in lns. We derive a closed system of coupled integral equations for the corresponding two-particle n-gluon vertices, obtained by summing the leading powers of ln(N μ psup(μ)), where psup(μ) is the incident momentum and Nsup(μ) the gauge-defining vector. Our equations are infra-red finite, provided the external particles are colour singlets. (author)

  14. Singularity Structure of Maximally Supersymmetric Scattering Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bourjaily, Jacob L.; Cachazo, Freddy

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that loop amplitudes in maximally supersymmetric (N=4) Yang-Mills theory (SYM) beyond the planar limit share some of the remarkable structures of the planar theory. In particular, we show that through two loops, the four-particle amplitude in full N=4 SYM has only logarithmic ...... singularities and is free of any poles at infinity—properties closely related to uniform transcendentality and the UV finiteness of the theory. We also briefly comment on implications for maximal (N=8) supergravity theory (SUGRA)....

  15. Gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Maldacena, Juan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We describe how to compute planar gluon scattering amplitudes at strong coupling in N = 4 super Yang Mills by using the gauge/string duality. The computation boils down to finding a certain classical string configuration whose boundary conditions are determined by the gluon momenta. The results are infrared divergent. We introduce the gravity version of dimensional regularization to define finite quantities. The leading and subleading IR divergencies are characterized by two functions of the coupling that we compute at strong coupling. We compute also the full finite form for the four point amplitude and we find agreement with a recent ansatz by Bern, Dixon and Smirnov.

  16. Chiral symmetry constraints on resonant amplitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Peter C.; Mai, Maxim

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the impact of chiral symmetry constraints on the quark-mass dependence of meson resonance pole positions, which are encoded in non-perturbative parametrizations of meson scattering amplitudes. Model-independent conditions on such parametrizations are derived, which are shown to guarantee the correct functional form of the leading quark-mass corrections to the resonance pole positions. Some model amplitudes for ππ scattering, widely used for the determination of ρ and σ resonance properties from results of lattice simulations, are tested explicitly with respect to these conditions.

  17. Scattering Amplitudes via Algebraic Geometry Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Mads

    This thesis describes recent progress in the understanding of the mathematical structure of scattering amplitudes in quantum field theory. The primary purpose is to develop an enhanced analytic framework for computing multiloop scattering amplitudes in generic gauge theories including QCD without...... unitarity cuts. We take advantage of principles from algebraic geometry in order to extend the notion of maximal cuts to a large class of two- and three-loop integrals. This allows us to derive unique and surprisingly compact formulae for the coefficients of the basis integrals. Our results are expressed...

  18. Microwave Imaging using Amplitude-only Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubæk, Tonny; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2010-01-01

    This paper discuss how the performance of an imaging system is affected when the phase information of the measurements are removed from the data, leaving only amplitude information as input for the imaging algorithm. Simulated data are used for this purpose, and the images resulting from using...... amplitude-only data are compared with images obtained using the same data sets in which the phase information has been retained. In addition to this, some modifications for the imaging algorithm is presented which to some extent counters the effects of excluding the phase information in the reconstruction....

  19. Evaluation of fatigue data including reactor water environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinski, S.T.; Nickell, R.E.; Van Der Sluys, W.A.; Yukawa, S.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory data have been gathered in the past decade indicating a significant reduction in component fatigue life when reactor water environmental effects are experimentally simulated. However, these laboratory data have not been supported by nuclear power plant component operating experience. The laboratory data under simulated operating conditions are being used to support arguments for revising the design-basis fatigue curves in the ASME Code Section III, Division 1, for Class 1 components. A thorough review of available laboratory fatigue data and their applicability to actual component operating conditions was performed. The evaluation divided the assembly, review and assessment of existing laboratory fatigue data and its applicability to plant operating conditions into four principal tasks: (1) review of available laboratory data relative to thresholds for environmental parameters, such as temperature, reactor water oxidation potential, strain rate, strain amplitude, reactor water flow rate, and component metal sulfur content; (2) determination of the relevance of the laboratory data to actual plant operating conditions; (3) review of laboratory S-N data curve-fitting models; and (4) assessment of existing ASME Code Section III Class 1 margins This paper summarizes the results of the data review. In addition, recommendations are made for additional laboratory testing intended to improve the applicability of laboratory test results under simulated reactor water environmental conditions. (authors)

  20. Very High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of TA11 Titanium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIAO Zehui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The conventional fatigue test method was used to obtain the very high cycle fatigue (VHCF limits of 3×107 and 1×108 cycles for TA11 titanium alloy in different temperatures and stress ratios. Three parameter power function method was used to obtain the VHCF median S-N curves and equations. The results show that the VHCF strength of 3×107 and 1×108 cycles presented a continue reducing trend compared with the traditional 1 x 107 fatigue limit. This trend is not obvious in negative stress ratio (R=-1, but significant in normal stress ratio (R=0.1 and 0.5, and the reduction amplitude of room temperature tests was greater than that of elevated temperature tests. The fracture morphologies showed that the VHCF cracks initiat at the specimen surface of TA11 alloy in room temperature tests, and the VHCF cracks initiation ways in elevated temperature tests relate to the stress ratio. The cracks initiate at the specimen surface when R=0.1 and 0.5 but in the internal when R=0.5; The surface state of TA11 alloy specimens is the main cause of its fatigue life dispersion.

  1. Fatigue effects on tracking performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huysmans, M.A.; Hoozemans, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Looze, M.P. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to test the effect of fatigue on task performance in a tracking task performed with a computer mouse. Participants performed a two-minute tracking task twice before and once immediately after a fatiguing wrist extension protocol. Results indicate that the mean

  2. Fatigue tests on aluminium bridges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Soetens, F.; Straalen, IJ.J. van

    2004-01-01

    Traffic bridges are subjected to variable loads and should therefore be checked on fatigue. Especially low weight materials, like aluminium, are sensitive to fatigue, because the variable load is a substantial part of the total load. This paper shows the structural design of an aluminium bridge

  3. Fatigue of Concrete Armour Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, N. B.; Burcharth, H. F.; Liu, Z.

    1995-01-01

    In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed.......In the present article fatigue as a possible reason for failure of Dolosse armour units made of plain concrete is discussed....

  4. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nez, F.

    2005-06-01

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  5. Constant fields and constant gradients in open ionic channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D P; Barcilon, V; Eisenberg, R S

    1992-05-01

    Ions enter cells through pores in proteins that are holes in dielectrics. The energy of interaction between ion and charge induced on the dielectric is many kT, and so the dielectric properties of channel and pore are important. We describe ionic movement by (three-dimensional) Nemst-Planck equations (including flux and net charge). Potential is described by Poisson's equation in the pore and Laplace's equation in the channel wall, allowing induced but not permanent charge. Asymptotic expansions are constructed exploiting the long narrow shape of the pore and the relatively high dielectric constant of the pore's contents. The resulting one-dimensional equations can be integrated numerically; they can be analyzed when channels are short or long (compared with the Debye length). Traditional constant field equations are derived if the induced charge is small, e.g., if the channel is short or if the total concentration gradient is zero. A constant gradient of concentration is derived if the channel is long. Plots directly comparable to experiments are given of current vs voltage, reversal potential vs. concentration, and slope conductance vs. concentration. This dielectric theory can easily be tested: its parameters can be determined by traditional constant field measurements. The dielectric theory then predicts current-voltage relations quite different from constant field, usually more linear, when gradients of total concentration are imposed. Numerical analysis shows that the interaction of ion and channel can be described by a mean potential if, but only if, the induced charge is negligible, that is to say, the electric field is spatially constant.

  6. Learning Read-constant Polynomials of Constant Degree modulo Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chattopadhyay, Arkadev; Gavaldá, Richard; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt

    2011-01-01

    Boolean functions that have constant degree polynomial representation over a fixed finite ring form a natural and strict subclass of the complexity class \\textACC0ACC0. They are also precisely the functions computable efficiently by programs over fixed and finite nilpotent groups. This class...... is not known to be learnable in any reasonable learning model. In this paper, we provide a deterministic polynomial time algorithm for learning Boolean functions represented by polynomials of constant degree over arbitrary finite rings from membership queries, with the additional constraint that each variable...

  7. Analytic Evolution of Singular Distribution Amplitudes in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandogan Kunkel, Asli [Old Dominion Univ., Norfolk, VA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Distribution amplitudes (DAs) are the basic functions that contain information about the quark momentum. DAs are necessary to describe hard exclusive processes in quantum chromodynamics. We describe a method of analytic evolution of DAs that have singularities such as nonzero values at the end points of the support region, jumps at some points inside the support region and cusps. We illustrate the method by applying it to the evolution of a at (constant) DA, antisymmetric at DA, and then use the method for evolution of the two-photon generalized distribution amplitude. Our approach to DA evolution has advantages over the standard method of expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials [1, 2] and over a straightforward iteration of an initial distribution with evolution kernel. Expansion in Gegenbauer polynomials requires an infinite number of terms in order to accurately reproduce functions in the vicinity of singular points. Straightforward iteration of an initial distribution produces logarithmically divergent terms at each iteration. In our method the logarithmic singularities are summed from the start, which immediately produces a continuous curve. Afterwards, in order to get precise results, only one or two iterations are needed.

  8. Multidimensional Stability of Large-Amplitude Navier-Stokes Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humpherys, Jeffrey; Lyng, Gregory; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    Extending results of Humpherys-Lyng-Zumbrun in the one-dimensional case, we use a combination of asymptotic ODE estimates and numerical Evans-function computations to examine the multidimensional stability of planar Navier-Stokes shocks across the full range of shock amplitudes, including the infinite-amplitude limit, for monatomic or diatomic ideal gas equations of state and viscosity and heat conduction coefficients {μ}, {μ +η}, and {ν=κ/c_v} constant and in the physical ratios predicted by statistical mechanics, and Mach number {M > 1.035}. Our results indicate unconditional stability within the parameter range considered; this agrees with the results of Erpenbeck and Majda for the corresponding inviscid case of Euler shocks. Notably, this study includes the first successful numerical computation of an Evans function associated with the multidimensional stability of a viscous shock wave. The methods introduced can be used in principle to decide stability for shocks in any polytropic gas, or indeed for shocks of other models, including in, particular, viscoelasticity, combustion, and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD).

  9. Q factor and resonance amplitude of Josephson tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broom, R.F.; Wolf, P.

    1977-01-01

    The surface impedance of the superconducting films comprising the electrodes of Josephson tunnel junctions has been derived from the BCS theory in the extreme London limit. Expressions have been obtained for (i) the dependence of the penetration depth lambda on frequency and temperature, and (ii) the quality factor Q of the junction cavity, attributable to surface absorption in the electrodes. The effect of thin electrodes (t 9 or approx. = lambda) is also included in the calculations. Comparison of the calculated frequency dependence of lambda with resonance measurements on Pb-alloy and all-Nb tunnel junctions yields quite good agreement, indicating that the assumptions made in the theory are reasonable. Measurements of the (current) amplitude of the resonance peaks of the junctions have been compared with the values obtained from inclusion of the calculated Q in the theory by Kulik. In common with observations on microwave cavities by other workers, we find that a small residual conductivity must be added to the real part of the BCS value. With its inclusion, good agreement is found between calculation and experiment, within the range determined by the simplifying assumptions of Kulik's theory. From the results, we believe the calculation of Q to be reasonably accurate for the materials investigated. It is shown that the resonance amplitude of Josephson junctions can be calculated directly from the material constants and a knowledge of the residual conductivity

  10. Very high cycle fatigue behaviour of as-extruded AZ31, AZ80, and ZK60 magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novy, Frantisek; Skorik, Viktor [Zilina Univ. (Slovakia). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Janecek, Milos [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physics of Materials; Mueller, Julia; Wagner, Lothar [Technische Univ. Clausthal, Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany). Inst. of Materials Science and Technology

    2009-03-15

    The very high cycle fatigue properties of extruded AZ31, AZ80, and ZK60 magnesium alloys were investigated. Fatigue tests were performed at ultrasonic cyclic frequency and at a load ratio of R = -1 at ambient temperature using smooth electropolished specimens. Fatigue failures were observed at lifetimes above 10{sup 9} cycles. The fatigue life was found to increase with decreasing stress amplitude. The fracture surfaces and fracture profiles of selected specimens cycled until failure were examined. The purpose of the study was to determine the role of the microstructure on the fatigue crack nucleation and growth. Furthermore, the fatigue properties were discussed on the basis of microstructure and the presence of inclusions which are known as crack initiation sites. In AZ31 and AZ80 alloys only surface-induced fatigue cracks were observed. On the other hand, in the ZK60 alloy both surface- and interior-induced fatigue cracks were observed. Both mechanisms operate in the ZK60 also at a lifetime of around 10{sup 1}0 cycles. Interior-induced fatigue cracks were accompanied by clear fish-eye marks on the fracture surfaces of the ZK60 alloy. (orig.)

  11. Fatigue - an underestimated symptom in psoriatic arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewska-Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Owczarczyk-Saczonek, Agnieszka; Placek, Waldemar

    2017-01-01

    The nature of fatigue is very complex and involves physiological, psychological and social phenomena at the same time, and the mechanisms leading to occurrence and severity of fatigue are still poorly understood. The condition of chronic inflammation associated with psoriatic arthritis can be regarded as a potential factor affecting development of fatigue. Only a few studies so far have focused on the occurrence of fatigue in psoriatic arthritis. The problem of chronic fatigue is underestimated in everyday clinical practice. Identification and analysis of subjective fatigue components in each patient can provide an objective basis for optimal fatigue treatment in daily practice. This review presents a definition of chronic fatigue and describes mechanisms that may be associated with development of fatigue, highlighting the role of chronic inflammation, selected fatigue measurement methods and relations of fatigue occurrence with clinical aspects of psoriatic arthritis.

  12. Effects of residual stress on fatigue strength of small diameter welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Tetsuo; Hattori, Takahiro; Nomoto, Toshiharu; Iida, Kunihiro; Sato, Masanobu

    1996-01-01

    A power plant consists of many welded components, therefore, it is essential in establishing the reliability of the power plant to maintain the reliability of all welded components. The fatigue failure caused by mechanical vibrations of small diameter welded joints, which is represented by socket welded joints, is one of the major causes of trouble for the welded parts of the power plant. Here, bending fatigue tests were conducted to investigate the fatigue strength of small diameter socket welded pipe joints. In the most cases of large diameter socket joints, a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet weld though the stress amplitude at the root was smaller than that at the toe of fillet weld. Additionally, the fatigue strength was affected by the weld bead sequence. The residual stress was considered to be one of the important parameters governing fatigue strength, therefore, its effects were investigated. In several types of pipe joints, the local stress and residual stress distributions were calculated by finite element analysis. The residual stresses were compressive at the toe and tensile at the root of the socket welded joints. Based on these results, the effects of residual stresses on the fatigue strength are discussed for small diameter welded pipe joints in the present work

  13. Interaction of shear and normal stresses in multiaxial fatigue damage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R. Gates

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abundance of engineering components subjected to complex multiaxial loading histories, being able to accurately estimate fatigue damage under multiaxial stress states is a fundamental step in many fatigue life analyses. In this respect, the Fatemi-Socie (FS critical plane damage parameter has been shown to provide excellent fatigue life correlations for a variety of materials and loading conditions. In this parameter shear strain amplitude has a primary influence on fatigue damage and the maximum normal stress on the maximum shear plane has a secondary, but important, influence. In this parameter, the maximum normal stress is normalized by the material yield strength in order to preserve the unitless feature of strain. However, in examining some literature data it was found that in certain situations the FS parameter can result in better fatigue life predictions if the maximum normal stress is normalized by shear stress range instead. These data include uniaxial loadings with large tensile mean stress, and some non-proportional axial-torsion load paths with different normal-shear stress interactions. This modification to the FS parameter was investigated by using fatigue data from literature for 7075-T651 aluminum alloy, as well as additional data from 2024-T3 aluminum alloy fatigue tests performed in this study.

  14. Stora's fine notion of divergent amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph C. Várilly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stora and coworkers refined the notion of divergent quantum amplitude, somewhat upsetting the standard power-counting recipe. This unexpectedly clears the way to new prototypes for free and interacting field theories of bosons of any mass and spin.

  15. Ward identities for amplitudes with reggeized gluons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartles, J.; Vacca, G.P.

    2012-05-01

    Starting from the effective action of high energy QCD we derive Ward identities for Green's functions of reggeized gluons. They follow from the gauge invariance of the effective action, and allow to derive new representations of amplitudes containing physical particles as well as reggeized gluons. We explicitly demonstrate their validity for the BFKL kernel, and we present a new derivation of the kernel.

  16. Particle Distribution Modification by Low Amplitude Modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.B.; Gorelenkov, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Van Zeeland, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Modification of a high energy particle distribution by a spectrum of low amplitude modes is investigated using a guiding center code. Only through resonance are modes effective in modifying the distribution. Diagnostics are used to illustrate the mode-particle interaction and to find which effects are relevant in producing significant resonance, including kinetic Poincare plots and plots showing those orbits with time averaged mode-particle energy transfer. Effects of pitch angle scattering and drag are studied, as well as plasma rotation and time dependence of the equilibrium and mode frequencies. A specific example of changes observed in a DIII-D deuterium beam distribution in the presence of low amplitude experimentally validated Toroidal Alfven (TAE) eigenmodes and Reversed Shear Alfven (RSAE) eigenmodes is examined in detail. Comparison with experimental data shows that multiple low amplitude modes can account for significant modification of high energy beam particle distributions. It is found that there is a stochastic threshold for beam profile modification, and that the experimental amplitudes are only slightly above this threshold.

  17. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Song [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,No. 19A Yuquan Road, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhang, Yong [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University,Beijing 100875 (China); CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China)

    2017-03-17

    Witten’s twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  18. Scattering amplitudes in super-renormalizable gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donà, Pietro; Giaccari, Stefano; Modesto, Leonardo; Rachwał, Lesław; Zhu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    We explicitly compute the tree-level on-shell four-graviton amplitudes in four, five and six dimensions for local and weakly nonlocal gravitational theories that are quadratic in both, the Ricci and scalar curvature with form factors of the d’Alembertian operator inserted between. More specifically we are interested in renormalizable, super-renormalizable or finite theories. The scattering amplitudes for these theories turn out to be the same as the ones of Einstein gravity regardless of the explicit form of the form factors. As a special case the four-graviton scattering amplitudes in Weyl conformal gravity are identically zero. Using a field redefinition, we prove that the outcome is correct for any number of external gravitons (on-shell n−point functions) and in any dimension for a large class of theories. However, when an operator quadratic in the Riemann tensor is added in any dimension (with the exception of the Gauss-Bonnet term in four dimensions) the result is completely altered, and the scattering amplitudes depend on all the form factors introduced in the action.

  19. Kaon decay amplitudes using staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-12-01

    A status report is given of an attempt, using staggered fermions to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the amplitudes for K → ππ,. Semi-quantitative results are found for the imaginary parts, and these suggest that ε' might be smaller than previously expected in the standard model

  20. Muscle Fatigue Affects the Interpolated Twitch Technique When Assessed Using Electrically-Induced Contractions in Human and Rat Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyroud, Daria; Cheng, Arthur J; Bourdillon, Nicolas; Kayser, Bengt; Place, Nicolas; Westerblad, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    The interpolated twitch technique (ITT) is the gold standard to assess voluntary activation and central fatigue. Yet, its validity has been questioned. Here we studied how peripheral fatigue can affect the ITT. Repeated contractions at submaximal frequencies were produced by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the human adductor pollicis muscle in vivo and of isolated rat soleus fiber bundles; an extra stimulation pulse was given during contractions to induce a superimposed twitch. Human muscles fatigued by repeated 30-Hz stimulation trains (3 s on-1 s off) showed an ~80% reduction in the superimposed twitch force accompanied by a severely reduced EMG response (M-wave amplitude), which implies action potential failure. Subsequent experiments combined a less intense stimulation protocol (1.5 s on-3 s off) with ischemia to cause muscle fatigue, but which preserved M-wave amplitude. However, the superimposed twitch force still decreased markedly more than the potentiated twitch force; with ITT this would reflect increased "voluntary activation." In contrast, the superimposed twitch force was relatively spared when a similar protocol was performed in rat soleus bundles. Force relaxation was slowed by >150% in fatigued human muscles, whereas it was unchanged in rat soleus bundles. Accordingly, results similar to those in the human muscle were obtained when relaxation was slowed by cooling the rat soleus muscles. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that muscle fatigue can confound the quantification of central fatigue using the ITT.

  1. From the Rydberg constant to the fundamental constants metrology; De la constante de Rydberg a la metrologie des constantes fondamentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez, F

    2005-06-15

    This document reviews the theoretical and experimental achievements of the author since the beginning of his scientific career. This document is dedicated to the spectroscopy of hydrogen, deuterium and helium atoms. The first part is divided into 6 sub-sections: 1) the principles of hydrogen spectroscopy, 2) the measurement of the 2S-nS/nD transitions, 3) other optical frequency measurements, 4) our contribution to the determination of the Rydberg constant, 5) our current experiment on the 1S-3S transition, 6) the spectroscopy of the muonic hydrogen. Our experiments have improved the accuracy of the Rydberg Constant by a factor 25 in 15 years and we have achieved the first absolute optical frequency measurement of a transition in hydrogen. The second part is dedicated to the measurement of the fine structure constant and the last part deals with helium spectroscopy and the search for optical references in the near infrared range. (A.C.)

  2. Systematics of constant roll inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anguelova, Lilia; Suranyi, Peter; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.

    2018-02-01

    We study constant roll inflation systematically. This is a regime, in which the slow roll approximation can be violated. It has long been thought that this approximation is necessary for agreement with observations. However, recently it was understood that there can be inflationary models with a constant, and not necessarily small, rate of roll that are both stable and compatible with the observational constraint ns ≈ 1. We investigate systematically the condition for such a constant-roll regime. In the process, we find a whole new class of inflationary models, in addition to the known solutions. We show that the new models are stable under scalar perturbations. Finally, we find a part of their parameter space, in which they produce a nearly scale-invariant scalar power spectrum, as needed for observational viability.

  3. Revisiting Hartert's 1962 Calculation of the Physical Constants of Thrombelastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochleitner, Gerald; Sutor, Ken; Levett, Caroline; Leyser, Harald; Schlimp, Christoph J; Solomon, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    Thrombelastography (TEG)/thromboelastometry (ROTEM) devices measure viscoelastic clot strength as clot amplitude (A). Transformation of clot amplitude into clot elasticity (E with TEG; CE with ROTEM) is sometimes necessary (eg, when calculating platelet component of the clot). With TEG, clot amplitude is commonly transformed into shear modulus (G; expressed in Pa or dyn/cm 2 ) as follows: G = (5000 × A)/(100 - A). Use of the constant "5000" stems from Hartert's 50-year-old calculation of G for a normal blood clot. We question the value of calculating G as follows: (1) It may be questioned whether TEG/ROTEM analysis enable measurement of elasticity because viscosity may also contribute to clot amplitude. (2) It has been suggested that absolute properties of a blood clot cannot be measured with TEG/ROTEM analysis because the strain amplitude applied by the device is uncontrolled and changes during the course of coagulation. (3) A review of the calculation of G using Hartert's methods and some updated assumptions suggests that the value of 5000 is unreliable. (4) Recalculation of G for the ROTEM device yields a different value from that with Hartert TEG, indicating a degree of inaccuracy with the calculations. (5) Shear modulus is simply a multiple of E/CE and, because of the unreliability of G in absolute terms, it provides no additional value versus E/CE. The TEG and ROTEM are valuable coagulation assessment tools that provide an evaluation of the viscoelastic properties of a clot, not through measuring absolute viscoelastic forces but through continuous reading of the clot amplitude relative to an arbitrary, preset scale.

  4. Electron-muon puzzle and the electromagnetic coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jehle, H.

    1977-01-01

    On the basis of a heuristic model we argued in an earlier paper (paper C of this series) electric field (and of course the magnetic field, too) of a lepton or of a quark may be formulated in terms of a closed loop of quantized magnetic flux whose alternative forms (''loopforms'') are superposed with probability amplitudes so as to represent the electromagnetic field of that lepton or quark. The Zitterbewegung of a single stationary (''elementary'') particle suggests a kind of quasiextension, which is assumed, in the present theory, to permit concepts of structuralization of the electromagnetic field even for leptons. Mesons and baryons may be represented by linked quantized flux loops, i.e., quark loops (as in paper B). The central problem now (in this paper D) is to formulate those probability-amplitude distributions in terms of wave functions to characterize the internal structure of the lepton or quark in question. As probability-amplitude functions one may choose bases of irreducible representations of the group with respect to which the model is to be invariant. It is seen that this implies the SO(4) group. As both the electron-muon mass ratio and the electromagnetic coupling constant depend, in this flux-quantization model, on the correct formulation of the structuralization of probability-amplitude distributions, we should expect to get an insight into both these puzzles from finding the right probability-amplitude wave functions. Furthermore, it is seen that this same structuralization of probability-amplitude distributions also permits one to estimate the rate of weak interactions, thus relating them to electromagnetic interactions

  5. A critical assessment of the mechanistic aspects in HAYNES 188 during low-cycle fatigue in the range 25 °C to 1000 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankara Rao, K. Bhanu; Castelli, M. G.; Allen, G. P.; Ellis, John R.

    1997-02-01

    The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) behavior of a wrought cobalt-base superalloy, Haynes 188, has been investigated over a range of temperatures between 25 °C and 1000 °C employing a triangular waveform and a constant strain amplitude of ±0.4 pct. Correlations between macroscopic cyclic deformation and fatigue life with the various microstructural phenomena were enabled through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), detailing the crack initiation and propagation modes, deformation substructure, and carbide precipitation. Cyclic stress response varied as a complex function of temperature. Dynamic strain aging (DSA) was found to occur over a wide temperature range between 300 °C and 750 °C. In the DSA domain, the alloy exhibited marked cyclic hardening with a pronounced maximum at 650 °C. Dynamic strain aging has been documented through the occurrence of serrated yielding, inverse temperature dependence of maximum cyclic stress, and cyclic inelastic strain developed at half of the fatigue life. Additionally, the alloy also displayed a negative strain rate sensitivity of cyclic stress in the DSA regime. These macroscopic features in the DSA domain were accompanied by the substructure comprised of coplanar distribution of dislocations associated with the formation of pileups, stacking faults, and very high dislocation density. Toward the end of the DSA domain, dislocation pinning by M23C6 precipitates occurred predominantly. The deformation behavior below and above the DSA domain has also been investigated in detail. The temperature dependence of LCF life showed a maximum at ≈300 °C. The drastic reduction in life between 300 °C and 850 °C has been ascribed primarily to the deleterious effects of DSA on crack initiation and propagation, while the lower life at temperatures less than 200 °C has been attributed to the combined influence of low ductility and larger cyclic response stress.

  6. An EMG-driven biomechanical model that accounts for the decrease in moment generation capacity during a dynamic fatigued condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Guillaume; Berton, Eric; Amarantini, David; Vigouroux, Laurent; Buchanan, Thomas S

    2010-07-01

    Although it is well known that fatigue can greatly reduce muscle forces, it is not generally included in biomechanical models. The aim of the present study was to develop an electromyographic-driven (EMG-driven) biomechanical model to estimate the contributions of flexor and extensor muscle groups to the net joint moment during a nonisokinetic functional movement (squat exercise) performed in nonfatigued and in fatigued conditions. A methodology that aims at balancing the decreased muscle moment production capacity following fatigue was developed. During an isometric fatigue session, a linear regression was created linking the decrease in force production capacity of the muscle (normalized force/EMG ratio) to the EMG mean frequency. Using the decrease in mean frequency estimated through wavelet transforms between dynamic squats performed before and after the fatigue session as input to the previous linear regression, a coefficient accounting for the presence of fatigue in the quadriceps group was computed. This coefficient was used to constrain the moment production capacity of the fatigued muscle group within an EMG-driven optimization model dedicated to estimate the contributions of the knee flexor and extensor muscle groups to the net joint moment. During squats, our results showed significant increases in the EMG amplitudes with fatigue (+23.27% in average) while the outputs of the EMG-driven model were similar. The modifications of the EMG amplitudes following fatigue were successfully taken into account while estimating the contributions of the flexor and extensor muscle groups to the net joint moment. These results demonstrated that the new procedure was able to estimate the decrease in moment production capacity of the fatigued muscle group.

  7. Strain fluctuations and elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrinello, M.; Rahman, A.

    1982-03-01

    It is shown that the elastic strain fluctuations are a direct measure of elastic compliances in a general anisotropic medium; depending on the ensemble in which the fluctuation is measured either the isothermal or the adiabatic compliances are obtained. These fluctuations can now be calculated in a constant enthalpy and pressure, and hence, constant entropy, ensemble due to recent develpments in the molecular dynamics techniques. A calculation for a Ni single crystal under uniform uniaxial 100 tensile or compressive load is presented as an illustration of the relationships derived between various strain fluctuations and the elastic modulii. The Born stability criteria and the behavior of strain fluctuations are shown to be related.

  8. Structure analysis, fatigue testing, and lifetime prediction of composite steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolkin, Yu. V.; Chekalkin, A. A.; Babushkin, A. V.

    1998-05-01

    Composite steels prepared by technology of powder metallurgy are widely used as low cost parts with good resistance to wear, fracture, and corrosion. The development of powder composite steels is directly related to strength under vibration, fatigue stabilizing, and accurate lifetime prediction for actual composite topology. The fatigue behavior of powder steels was studied by experimental and numerical methods of composite mechanics and materials sciences. The chemical composition of composite steel is a pure iron powder as the base material and a handful of carbon, chromium, nickel, or phosphorus powders. The powder multi-component mixture is compacted by cold isostatic pressing to a rectangular form. The compactants are sintered in protective atmosphere. The microscale examination of the composite structure included an METAM-RV-21 metallographic optic microscope with a high-resolution ScanNexIIc scanner and an image processing package on the PC platform. The phase composition of powder steels has complex disordered topology with irregular ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores. The microstructure images are treated according to the theory of stochastic processes as ergodic probability functions; statistical moments and a structural covariance function of the composite steels are given. The microscale stress-strain state of the composite steel is analyzed by finite element methods. The stiffness matrix of the composite steel is also presented together with stiffness matrices of ferrite/austenite grains, iron carbide inclusions, and pores as zero matrices. Endurance limits of the microstructural components are described by the Basquin or Coffin-Manson laws, respectively, as high and low cycle fatigue; cumulative microdamage in loading with a variable amplitude is taken from the Palmgren-Miner rule. Planar specimens were tested by console bending. Symmetric fatigue cycling was performed at a stable frequency of 20 Hz with endurance limits up

  9. Fatigue management in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghniiat-Haghighi, Khosro; Yazdi, Zohreh

    2015-01-01

    Workers' fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS) is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management.

  10. Fatigue management in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosro Sadeghniiat-Haghighi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Workers′ fatigue is a significant problem in modern industry, largely because of high demand jobs, long duty periods, disruption of circadian rhythms, and accumulative sleep debt that are common in many industries. Fatigue is the end result of integration of multiple factors such as time awake, time of day, and workload. Then, the full understanding of circadian biologic clock, dynamics of transient and cumulative sleep loss, and recovery is required for effective management of workplace fatigue. It can be more investigated in a new field of sleep medicine called occupational sleep medicine. Occupational sleep medicine is concerned with maintaining best productivity and safety in the industrial settings. The fatigue risk management system (FRMS is a comprehensive approach that is based on applying scientific evidence of sleep knowledge to manage workers fatigue. It is developing rapidly in the highly safety demand jobs; especially truck drivers, pilots, and power plant workers. The objective of this review is to explain about fatigue in the workplace with emphasis on its association work performance and errors/accidents. Also, we discussed about different methods of fatigue measurement and management.

  11. Mental Fatigue Affects Visual Selective Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Leon G.; Maurits, Natasha M.; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    Mental fatigue is a form of fatigue, induced by continuous task performance. Mentally fatigued people often report having a hard time keeping their attention focussed and being easily distracted. In this study, we examined the relation between mental fatigue, as induced by time on task, and

  12. The role of central and peripheral muscle fatigue in postcancer fatigue: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinsen, Hetty; van Dijk, Johannes P.; Zwarts, Machiel J.; Leer, Jan Willem H.; Bleijenberg, Gijs; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Postcancer fatigue is a frequently occurring problem, impairing quality of life. Little is known about (neuro)physiological factors determining postcancer fatigue. It may be hypothesized that postcancer fatigue is characterized by low peripheral muscle fatigue and high central muscle fatigue. The

  13. Non-constant retardation coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiming; Gu Zhijie; Yang Yue'e; Li Shushen

    2004-12-01

    Retardation coefficient is one of the important parameters used in transport models describing radionuclide migration in geological media and usually regarded as a constant in the models. The objectives of the work are to understand: (1) Whether the retardation coefficient, R d , is a constant? (2) How much effect is R d on calculated consequence if R d is not constant? (3) Is the retardation coefficient derived from distribution coefficient, k d , according to conventional equation suitable for safety assessment? The objectives are achieved through test and analysis of the test results on radionuclide migration in unsaturated loess. It can be seen from the results that retardation coefficient, R d , of 85 Sr is not constant and increases with water content, θ, under unsaturated condition. R d , of 85 Sr derived from k d according to conventional equation can not be used for safety assessment. R d , used for safety assessment should be directly measured, rather than derived from k d . It is shown from calculation that the effect of R d on calculated consequence is very considerable. (authors)

  14. Universal relation between spectroscopic constants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (3) The author has used eq. (6) of his paper to calculate De. This relation leads to a large deviation from the correct value depending upon the extent to which experimental values are known. Guided by this fact, in our work, we used experimentally observed De values to derive the relation between spectroscopic constants.

  15. Fatigue Performance under Multiaxial Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Abramov and H. Nagler. "Investigation of Effect of Welding on the Fatigue Properties of HY-80 Steel," New York Naval Shipyard, Material Laboratory...Project 6160-2, Progress Report 3, July 1961. 4-23.Stern, I., R. Wolfe, H. Nagler and P. Abramov . "Effects of Various Weld Flaws on Fatigue Properties of...V., P. Abramov and E. Lewis. "Investigation of the Effect of Welding on the Fatigue Properties of HY- 80 Steel," New York Naval Shipyard, Material

  16. Fatigue Reliability of Offshore Wind Turbine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of the design of offshore wind turbine substructures with respect to fatigue loads is an important issue in offshore wind energy. A stochastic model is developed for assessing the fatigue failure reliability. This model can be used for direct probabilistic design and for calibration...... of appropriate partial safety factors / fatigue design factors (FDF) for steel substructures of offshore wind turbines (OWTs). The fatigue life is modeled by the SN approach. Design and limit state equations are established based on the accumulated fatigue damage. The acceptable reliability level for optimal...... fatigue design of OWTs is discussed and results for reliability assessment of typical fatigue critical design of offshore steel support structures are presented....

  17. Low cycle fatigue analysis of a last stage steam turbine blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Měšťánek P.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the low cycle fatigue analysis of the low pressure (LP steam turbine blade. The blade is cyclically loaded by the centrifugal force because of the repeated startups of the turbine. The goal of the research is to develop a technique to assess fatigue life of the blade and to determine the number of startups to the crack initiation. Two approaches were employed. First approach is based on the elastic finite element analysis. Fictive 'elastic' results are recalculated using Neuber's rule and the equivalent energy method. Triaxial state of stress is reduced using von Mises theory. Strain amplitude is calculated employing the cyclic deformation curve. Second approach is based on elastic-plastic FE analysis. Strain amplitude is determined directly from the FE analysis by reducing the triaxial state of strain. Fatigue life was assessed using uniaxial damage parameters. Both approaches are compared and their applicability is discussed. Factors that can influence the fatigue life are introduced. Experimental low cycle fatigue testing is shortly described.

  18. Analysis of partially pulsating fatigue process on carbon steel with microstructural observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimano, Hiroyuki; Faiz, M. Khairi; Hara, Asato; Yoshizumi, Kyoko; Yoshida, Makoto; Horibe, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    Pulsating low-cycle fatigue processes, up to the present, have been divided into three states: the transient state, steady state, and accelerating state of ratcheting. In our previous work, we suggested that fatigue behavior of pulsating fatigue process should be classified into five stages in which the plastic strain amplitude and the ratcheting strain rate are plotted on the X and Y axis, respectively. In this study, at the condition of R=−0.3 (partially pulsating fatigue), the change in the plastic strain amplitude and ratcheting strain rate for each cycle to failure was examined on AISI 1025 carbon steel. The dislocation substructure was examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for each stage, except for stage I. It was also demonstrated that the fatigue process can be divided into five stages: stage I corresponds to the un-pinning of dislocations from the Cottrell atmosphere and propagation of the Luders band. Stage II corresponds to the restriction of dislocation movement by dislocation tangles. Stage III corresponds to the formation of dislocation cells. Stage IV corresponds to the promotion of the to-and-fro (back-and-forth) motion of dislocations by a re-arrangement of the dislocations in the cells. Stage V corresponds to the release of dislocation movement by the collapse of dislocation cells.

  19. Probabilistic Simulation of Combined Thermo-Mechanical Cyclic Fatigue in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2011-01-01

    A methodology to compute probabilistically-combined thermo-mechanical fatigue life of polymer matrix laminated composites has been developed and is demonstrated. Matrix degradation effects caused by long-term environmental exposure and mechanical/thermal cyclic loads are accounted for in the simulation process. A unified time-temperature-stress-dependent multifactor-interaction relationship developed at NASA Glenn Research Center has been used to model the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. The fast probability-integration method is used to compute probabilistic distribution of response. Sensitivities of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables (e.g., constituent properties, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio, ply thickness, etc.) computed and their significance in the reliability-based design for maximum life is discussed. The effect of variation in the thermal cyclic loads on the fatigue reliability for a (0/+/-45/90)s graphite/epoxy laminate with a ply thickness of 0.127 mm, with respect to impending failure modes has been studied. The results show that, at low mechanical-cyclic loads and low thermal-cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life for 0.999 reliability is most sensitive to matrix compressive strength, matrix modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, and ply thickness. Whereas at high mechanical-cyclic loads and high thermal-cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life at 0.999 reliability is more sensitive to the shear strength of matrix, longitudinal fiber modulus, matrix modulus, and ply thickness.

  20. Different fatigue-resistant leg muscles and EMG response during whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Deniz

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of static whole-body vibration (WBV) on the Electromyograhic (EMG) responses of leg muscles, which are fatigue-resistant in different manner. The study population was divided into two groups according to the values obtained by the Fatigue Index [Group I: Less Fatigue Resistant (LFR), n=11; Group II: More Fatigue Resistant (MFR), n=11]. The repeated electromyographic (EMG) activities of four leg muscles were analyzed the following determinants: (1) frequency (30 Hz, 35 Hz and 40 Hz); (2) stance position (static squat position); (3) amplitude (2 mm and 4 mm) and (4) knee flexion angle (120°), (5) vertical vibration platform. Vibration data were analyzed using Minitab 16 (Minitab Ltd, State College, PA, USA). The significance level was set at pmuscle fatigue (pEMG activation at higher frequencies (max at 40 Hz) and amplitudes (4 mm) (p<.05). The present study can be used for the optimal prescription of vibration exercise and can serve to guide the development of training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.