WorldWideScience

Sample records for consistent hazard controls

  1. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  2. Radiation hazard control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Hisanaga, Saemi; Miki, Ryota; Kawai, Hiroshi; Aoki, Yutaka; Sone, Koji; Okada, Hirokazu

    1990-01-01

    The report describes the radiation hazard control activities performed at the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University, Japan, during the one-year period from April 1989 to March 1990. Personal radiation hazard control is outlined first focusing on results of physical examination and data of personal exposure dose equivalent. Radiation control in laboratory is then described. Dose equivalent at various places is discussed on the basis of monthly total dose equivalent measured on film badges, measurements made by TLD, and observations made through a continuous radiations monitoring system. The concentration of radiations in air and water is discussed focusing on their measured concentrations in air at the air outlets of tracer/accelerator facilities, and radioactivity in waste water sampled in the reactor facilities and tracer/accelerator facilities. Another discussion is made on the surface contamination density over the floors, draft systems, sink surface, etc. Concerning outdoor radiation hazard control, furthermore, TLD measurements of environmental gamma-rays, data on total gamma-ray radioactivity in environmental samples, and analysis of gamma-ray emitting nuclides in environmental samples are described and discussed. (N.K.)

  3. Radiation Hazard control report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Inagaki, Masayo; Miki, Ryota; Aoki, Yutaka; Takiguchi, Chizuko; Hutai, Yasuhiro; Sakamoto, Norihiko; Okazaki, Koji

    1992-01-01

    The results of radiation control for one year from April, 1991 to March, 1992 in the Atomic Energy Research Institute of Kinki University are reported. As for the persons engaging in radiation-related works as of April, 1991, 57 teachers in the Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Faculties of Science and Engineering, Pharmacology and Agriculture, 17 students of Department of Science and Engineering who utilize the reactor facility for graduation research, and 55 students of Department of Science and Engineering and others as the persons engaging in radiation-related works regarding the law on injury prevention, 129 persons in total became the object of radiation control. The state of operation of the nuclear reactor in fiscal year 1991 was the highest thermal output 1 W, the cumulative thermal output 362.62 Wh, and the total time of operation was 563.27 h. The operation of the neutron generator was carried out for 1.17 h because of the periodic inspection and the trial operation. In personal control, the abnormality due to radiation exposure was not found. The radiation control in laboratories and in fields are reported. (K.I.)

  4. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicken, J C

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated.

  5. Nuclear power hazard control policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicken, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents an analysis of the factors that appear to have influenced the formation and form of nuclear power hazard control policy in Britain. A simple account is given of the technical nature of nuclear hazards and of the legal and administrative framework that has been constructed to control them. The subsequent analysis concentrates primarily on the influence exerted by social and political factors. Particular attention is directed to those political groups which have developed a special interest in the problems of nuclear power, and to the interplay between organised groupings and public opinion generally. The metamorphosis of these groupings is traced from the origins of the nuclear industry in the Second World War to their prominent role during the Windscale Inquiry. Attention is given to the policy constraint imposed by increased expectations in the form of demands for higher standards of living, and improvements in the quality of the environment. The study is concerned with both policy-making and with policy implementation; with interest articulation as well as with the functioning of formal institutions. The evolution of policy takes place in an atmosphere of keen economic debate and conflicting moral perceptions. A model of the policy-making system is postulated. (author)

  6. Hazardous landfill management, control options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corbin, M.H.; Lederman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    The land disposal of hazardous wastes has been a common practice over the last half century. The industrial and environmental communities, as well as the public, have an immediate challenge to control the contaminants that may be released from waste land disposal facilities. At the same time, land disposal continues to be, in many cases, the only available disposal technique that can be utilized in the next five years. Thus, it is extremely important that environmentally sound landfill management and control techniques be utilized, both for inactive and active sites. There are a number of key steps in developing a sound management and control plan. These include problem definition, personnel safety, characterization, evaluation of control options, cost-effectiveness analysis and development of an integrated control plan. A number of control options, including diversion, regrading, sealing, and leachate treatment are available and more cost effective in most cases than waste removal. These and other options, as well as the methodology to develop an integrated control plan, are discussed, together with examples. (Auth.)

  7. How to control chemical hazards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Improving protection against chemical hazards is one of the 2012 CERN safety objectives identified by the Director General. Identifying and drawing up a complete inventory of chemicals, and assessing the associated risks are important steps in this direction.   The HSE Unit has drawn up safety rules, guidelines and forms to help you to meet this objective. We would like to draw your attention to: • safety guidelines C-0-0-1 and C-1-0-2 (now also available in French), which deal with the identification of hazardous chemicals and the assessment of chemical risk; • safety guideline C-1-0-1, which deals with the storage of hazardous chemicals. All safety documents can be consulted at: cern.ch/regles-securite The HSE Unit will be happy to answer any questions you may have. Write to us at: safety-general@cern.ch The HSE Unit

  8. Progress towards developing consistent design and evaluation guidelines for DOE facilities subjected to natural phenomena hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.P.; Short, S.A.; McDonald, J.R.; McCann, M.W. Jr.; Reed, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Probabilistic definitions of earthquake, wind and tornado natural phenomena hazards for many Department of Energy (DOE) facilities throughout the United States have been developed. In addition, definitions of the flood hazards which might affect these locations are currently being developed. The Department of Energy Natural Phenomena Hazards Panel is now preparing a document to provide guidance and criteria for DOE facility managers to assure that DOE facilities are adequately constructed to resist the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquake, strong wind and flood. The intent of this document is to provide instruction on how to utilize the hazard definitions to evaluate existing facilities and design new facilities in a manner such that the risk of adverse consequences is consistent with the cost, function, and danger to the public or environment of the facility. Potential effects on facilities of natural phenomena hazards are emphasized in this paper. The philosophy for mitigating these effects to be employed in the design and evaluation guidelines is also presented

  9. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J. (eds.)

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  10. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-09-19

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department`s efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely.

  11. Hazards Control Department 1995 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.W.

    1996-01-01

    This annual report of the Hazards Control Department activities in 1995 is part of the department's efforts to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) where every person desire to work safely

  12. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Reilly, A.; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    2000-01-01

    -harvest and are difficult or impossible to control by applying presently available preventive measures. In contrast, the hazards related to contamination, recontamination or survival of biological hazards during processing are well-defined and can be controlled by applying Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Good Hygiene......Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production...

  13. Hazard-consistent response spectra in the Region of Murcia (Southeast Spain): comparison to earthquake-resistant provisions

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar Escribano, Jorge M.; Benito Oterino, Belen; Garcia Mayordomo, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Hazard-consistent ground-motion characterisations of three representative sites located in the Region of Murcia (southeast Spain) are presented. This is the area where the last three damaging events in Spain occurred and there is a significant amount of data for comparing them with seismic hazard estimates and earthquake-resistant provisions. Results of a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis are used to derive uniform hazard spectra (UHS) for the 475-year return period, on rock and soil cond...

  14. Regulation and Control of Hazardous Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Hans W. Gottinger

    1994-01-01

    Hazardous waste regulations require disposal in approved dumpsites, where environmental consequences are minimal but entry may be privately very costly. Imperfect policing of regulations makes the socially more costly option illicit disposal preferable form the perspective of the private decision maker. The existence of the waste disposal decision, its economic nature, production independence, and the control over environmental damage are key issues in the economics of hazardous waste managem...

  15. Automated hazard analysis of digital control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Chris J.; Apostolakis, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems can provide important benefits in many safety-critical applications, but they can also introduce potential new failure modes that can affect safety. Unlike electro-mechanical systems, whose failure modes are fairly well understood and which can often be built to fail in a particular way, software errors are very unpredictable. There is virtually no nontrivial software that will function as expected under all conditions. Consequently, there is a great deal of concern about whether there is a sufficient basis on which to resolve questions about safety. In this paper, an approach for validating the safety requirements of digital I and C systems is developed which uses the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology to conduct automated hazard analyses. The prime implicants of these analyses can be used to identify unknown system hazards, prioritize the disposition of known system hazards, and guide lower-level design decisions to either eliminate or mitigate known hazards. In a case study involving a space-based reactor control system, the method succeeded in identifying an unknown failure mechanism

  16. Consistency between subjectively and objectively measured hazard perception skills among young male drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abele, Liva; Haustein, Sonja; Møller, Mette

    2018-01-01

    . Subjective measures of HPS include self-reports derived based on the Hazard Perception Questionnaire (HPQ), Driving Skill Questionnaire (DSQ), and Brief Sensation Seeking Scale (BSSS). Results show that drivers who respond to the hazards on time, as compared to drivers who do not respond, have higher scores......Young male drivers have lower hazard perception skills (HPS) than older and more experienced drivers and a tendency to overestimate their skills in hazardous situations. Both factors contribute to an over-representation in traffic accidents. Based on a sample of 63 drivers aged 18-24, this study...... negatively when the hazard is visible. To enhance the HPS among young drivers, the results of this study suggest that specific hazard perception training is relevant, especially for hazards that require more advanced HPS....

  17. 21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... fish or fishery product being processed in the absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every...

  18. Performance Analysis: Control of Hazardous Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Grange, Connie E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Freeman, Jeff W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kerr, Christine E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-10-06

    LLNL experienced 26 occurrences related to the control of hazardous energy from January 1, 2008 through August 2010. These occurrences were 17% of the total number of reported occurrences during this 32-month period. The Performance Analysis and Reporting Section of the Contractor Assurance Office (CAO) routinely analyzes reported occurrences and issues looking for patterns that may indicate changes in LLNL’s performance and early indications of performance trends. It became apparent through these analyses that LLNL might have experienced a change in the control of hazardous energy and that these occurrences should be analyzed in more detail to determine if the perceived change in performance was real, whether that change is significant and if the causes of the occurrences are similar. This report documents the results of this more detailed analysis.

  19. Adaptive control of manipulators handling hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colbaugh, R.; Glass, K.

    1994-01-01

    This article focuses on developing a robot control system capable of meeting hazardous waste handling application requirements, and presents as a solution an adaptive strategy for controlling the mechanical impedance of kinematically redundant manipulators. The proposed controller is capable of accurate end-effector impedance control and effective redundancy utilization, does not require knowledge of the complex robot dynamic model or parameter values for the robot or the environment, and is implemented without calculation of the robot inverse transformation. Computer simulation results are given for a four degree of freedom redundant robot under adaptive impedance control. These results indicate that the proposed controller is capable of successfully performing important tasks in robotic waste handling applications. (author) 3 figs., 39 refs

  20. Controlling organic chemical hazards in food manufacturing: a hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-08-01

    Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.

  1. Hazards Control Department 1996 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.

    1997-06-30

    This annual report on the activities of the Hazards Control Department (HCD) in 1996 is part of the department's continuing effort to foster a working environment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory where every person has the means, ability, and desire to work safely. The significant accomplishments and activities, the various services provided, and research into Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) issues by HCD would not have been possible without the many and ongoing contributions by its employees and support personnel. The HCD Leadership Team thanks each and every one in the department for their efforts and work in 1996 and for their personal commitment to keeping one of the premier research and scientific institutions in the world today a safe and healthy place.

  2. Microneedle Manufacture: Assessing Hazards and Control Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Martin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Transdermal microneedles have captured the attention of researchers in relation to a variety of applications, and silicone-based moulds required to produce these systems are now widely available and can be readily manufactured on the lab bench. There is however some concern over the potential for accidental needlestick injuries and, as with any sharp hazard, the potential for blood-borne pathogen transmission must be considered. This follows from recent governmental concerns over the use of microneedle systems in dermabrasion. Despite the piercing nature of the microneedle patch sharing many similarities with conventional hypodermic needles, there are notable factors that mitigate the risk of contamination. A range of microneedle systems has been prepared using micromoulding techniques, and their puncture capability assessed. A critical assessment of the potential for accidental puncture and the control measures needed to ensure safe utilisation of the patch systems is presented.

  3. Administrative goals and safety standards for hazard control on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1973-01-01

    For efficient control of tree hazard on recreation sites, a specific administrative goal must be selected. A safety standard designed to achieve the selected goal and a uniform hazard-rating procedure will then promote a consistent level of safety at an acceptable cost. Safety standards can be established with the aid of data for past years, and dollar evaluations are...

  4. Sensor and control for consistent seed drill coulter depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard Nielsen, Søren; Nørremark, Michael; Green, Ole

    2016-01-01

    The consistent depth placement of seeds is vital for achieving the optimum yield of agricultural crops. In state-of-the-art seeding machines, the depth of drill coulters will vary with changes in soil resistance. This paper presents the retrofitting of an angle sensor to the pivoting point...... by a sub-millimetre accurate positioning system (iGPS, Nikon Metrology NV, Belgium) mounted on the drill coulter. At a drill coulter depth of 55 mm and controlled by an ordinary fixed spring loaded down force only, the change in soil resistance decreased the mean depth by 23 mm. By dynamically controlling...

  5. Consistently Trained Artificial Neural Network for Automatic Ship Berthing Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.A. Ahmed

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, consistently trained Artificial Neural Network controller for automatic ship berthing is discussed. Minimum time course changing manoeuvre is utilised to ensure such consistency and a new concept named ‘virtual window’ is introduced. Such consistent teaching data are then used to train two separate multi-layered feed forward neural networks for command rudder and propeller revolution output. After proper training, several known and unknown conditions are tested to judge the effectiveness of the proposed controller using Monte Carlo simulations. After getting acceptable percentages of success, the trained networks are implemented for the free running experiment system to judge the network’s real time response for Esso Osaka 3-m model ship. The network’s behaviour during such experiments is also investigated for possible effect of initial conditions as well as wind disturbances. Moreover, since the final goal point of the proposed controller is set at some distance from the actual pier to ensure safety, therefore a study on automatic tug assistance is also discussed for the final alignment of the ship with actual pier.

  6. Prevention and control of hazards in seafood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Reilly, A.; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben

    2000-01-01

    Seafood is high on the list of foods transmitting disease. However, the food safety issues are highly focussed and more than 80% of all seafood-borne outbreaks are related to biotoxins (ciguatoxin), scombrotoxin or the consumption of raw molluscan shellfish. The safety hazards in seafood production...

  7. Controlling hazardous energy sources (lockout/tagout)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Manuel B.

    1991-10-01

    The minimum requirements as established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard 29 CFR 1910.147 are discussed for preventing the unexpected operation of equipment or release of energy which could cause injury to personnel, damage to equipment, harm to the environment, or loss or compromise of test data. Safety requirements both for government and contractor personnel are explained for potentially hazardous energy sources during work operations at LeRC (Cleveland and Plum Brook Stations). Basic rules are presented to ensure protection against harmful exposures, and baseline implementation requirements are discussed from which detailed lockout/tagout procedures can be developed for individual equipment items. Examples of energy sources covered by this document include electrical, pneumatic, mechanical, chemical, cryogenic, thermal, spring tension/compression suspended or moving loads, and other potentially hazardous sources. Activities covered by this standard include, but are not limited to, construction, maintenance, installation, calibration, inspection, cleaning, or repair.

  8. Effective tree hazard control on forested recreation sites...losses and protection costs evaluated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1967-01-01

    Effectiveness of hazard control was evaluated by analyzing data on tree failures, accidents, and control costs on California recreation sites. Results indicate that reduction of limb hazard in oaks and bole hazard in conifers is the most effective form of control. Least effective is limb hazard reduction in conifers. After hazard control goals or control budgets have...

  9. Control of dust hazards in mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanov, V V

    1981-09-01

    This paper analyzes health hazards associated with air pollution by respirable coal dust which causes pneumoconioses. The following directions in pneumoconioses prevention are discussed: improved protective systems (e.g. respirators), mining schemes optimized from a health hazards point of view, correct determination of the maximum permissible level of respirable dusts, reducing working time. Safety regulations in the USSR on the critical amount of coal dust in the miner respiratory system are insufficient as the 20 g limit is too high and does not guarantee safety. Using regression analysis influence of the factors which cause pneumoconioses is analyzed. This influence is described by an equation which considers the following factors: number of shifts associated with contact of a miner with coal dusts, dust concentration in mine air, amount of air with coal dust being respirated, miner's age, years as miner, coal rank. It is stated that use of the proposed equation (derived by computer calculations) permits the safe working time to be correctly determined considering all factors which cause pneumoconioses.

  10. Beryllium. Health hazards and their control. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lires, O.A.; Delfino, C.A.; Botbol, J.

    1991-01-01

    In this work (continuation of 'Beryllium' series) health hazards, toxic effects, limits of permissible atmospheric contamination and safe exposure to beryllium are described. Guidelines to the design, control operations and hygienic precautions of the working facilities are given. (Author) [es

  11. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information is provided for selecting the best spill stabilization controls for hazardous substances regulated by the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Information is also provided on the onsite assessment of spill severity, app...

  12. Control of uranium hazards - Portsmouth uranium enrichment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.R.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the Environmental, Safety and Health programs to control uranium hazards at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. A description of the physical plant, the facility processes and the attendant uranium flows and effluents are provided. The hazards of uranium are discussed and the control systems are outlined. Finally, the monitoring programs are described and summaries of recent data are provided. 11 figs., 20 tabs

  13. Control of biological hazards in cold smoked salmon production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huss, Hans Henrik; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Jeppesen, V.F.

    1995-01-01

    An outline of the common processing technology for cold smoked salmon in Denmark is presented. The safety hazards related to pathogenic bacteria, parasites and biogenic amines are discussed with special emphasis on hazards related to Clostridium botulinum and Listeria monocytogenes. Critical...... control points are identified for all hazards except growth of L. monocytogenes. For this reason a limitation of shelf life to three weeks at +5 degrees C far cold smoked vacuum-packed salmon having greater than or equal to 3% water phase salt is recommended...

  14. Evaluation and control of radon daughter hazards in uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holaday, D.A.

    1974-11-01

    This monograph discusses primarily those health hazards to uranium miners which are produced by exposure to ionizing radiation. Emphasis is placed on the areas of evaluation of exposures to the radioactive gas radon-222 and its short-lived transformation products, and methods of controlling such exposures. A limited discussion of the biological effects of radon and radon daughters is undertaken, and some procedures are given for evaluating hazards created by other common contaminants of mine atmospheres. A large amount of information exists on these topics, some of which is unpublished or is not readily available. While efforts were made to obtain data from all sources, undoubtedly some valuable work was overlooked. The monograph is an endeavor to assemble pertinent information and make it available to those who are concerned with producing uranium at minimal risks. Where they were available, a variety of procedures for evaluating hazards are given, and examples of systems for controlling hazards are included. 154 references

  15. Avalanche hazard and control in Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Blagoveshchensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Kazakhstan, area of 124 thousand km2 is prone to the avalanche hazard. Avalanches are released down in mountain regions situated along the eastern boundary of Kazakhstan. Systematic studies of avalanches here were started in 1958 by explorer I.S. Sosedov; later on, I.V. Seversky continued these investigations in Institute of Geography of the Kazakh Soviet Republic. Actually, he founded the Kazakh school of the avalanche studies. In 1970–1980s, five snow-avalanche stations operated in Kazakhstan: two in Il’ Alatau, two in Zhetysu Alatau, and one in the Altai. At the present time, only two stations and two snow-avalanche posts operate, and all of them are located in Il’ Alatau.Since 1951 to 2013, 75 avalanches took place in Kazakhstan, releases of them caused significant damages. For this period 172 people happened to be under avalanches, among them 86 perished. Large avalanche catastrophes causing human victims and destructions took place in Altai in 1977 and in Karatau in 1990. In spring of 1966, only in Il’ Alatau avalanches destroyed more 600 ha of mature fir (coniferous forest, and the total area of forest destroyed here by avalanches amounts to 2677 ha or 7% of the total forest area.For 48 years of the avalanche observations, there were 15 winters with increased avalanche activity in the river Almatinka basin when total volume of released snow exceeded annual mean value of 147 thousand m3. During this period, number of days with winter avalanches changed from three (in season of 1973/1974 to 28 (1986/1987, the average for a year is 16 days for a season. Winter with the total volume of snow 1300 thousand m3 occur once in 150 years. Individual avalanches with maximal volume of 350 thousand m3 happen once in 80 years.Preventive avalanche releases aimed at protection of roads and settlements are used in Kazakhstan since 1974. These precautions are taken in Il’ Alatau, Altai, and on Kalbinsky Range. Avalanches are released with the

  16. The Control of Criticality Hazards at Harwell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jefferson-Loveday, D. W. [Atomic Energy Research Establishment, Harwell, Berks. (United Kingdom)

    1966-05-15

    The paper describes the methods of criticality control in use at a large research establishment and looks at some of the technical and administrative problems involved in the day-to-day control. Criticality advice is given formally by an establishment committee, reinforced by specialist consultants from other U.K.A.E.A. establishments and the Authority Health and Safety Branch, with a special provision for dealing with urgent matters. The advantages of a local part-time committee in a research establishment with rapidly changing requirements are discussed together with the positive steps necessary to ensure that part-time officers and members of the committee are able to keep up to date. The total amount of fissile material in use is about 150 kg and examples are given of some of the forms and conditions of use for which there were often no published criticality precedents. To avoid unnecessary restrictions, work with small quantities is considered to be exempt from any form of criticality control. The exempt quantities are stated. Examples are given of the controls recommended for larger amounts, from hundreds of grams in physics experiments to kilograms in chemical and metallurgical operations and the handling of reactor fuel elements. The problem of providing a technical argument for safety is described in examples where lack of information has required obviously restrictive recommendations to be made. The question of inspection of operations is discussed with the view that more is to be gained by careful inspection and consultation before operations commence, as this is often an educative process for the staff involved. Methods of ensuring continued adherence to the approved conditions are examined. Some of the more difficult problems for a research establishment arise in storage of fissile material in its varied forms including fissile waste. Typical stores are described with the criticality safety controls. The aspects, which have been taken into account in

  17. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Waste Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems (i.e., waste transfer piping and waste transfer-associated structures) made at control decision meetings on November 30, 1999a and April 19, 2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996). Following the Contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the US. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval. The control decision meeting on November 30, 1999 to address flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems followed the control decision process and the criteria for control decisions described in Section 3.3.1.5 of the FSAR. The control decision meeting agenda, attendance list, and introductory and background presentations are included in Attachments 1 through 4. The control decision discussions on existing and other possible controls for flammable gas hazards in waste transfer systems and the basis for selecting or not selecting specific controls are summarized in this report

  18. The role of interactive control systems in obtaining internal consistency in the management control system package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod, Thomas; Israelsen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    Companies rely on multiple Management Control Systems to obtain their short and long term objectives. When applying a multifaceted perspective on Management Control System the concept of internal consistency has been found to be important in obtaining goal congruency in the company. However, to d...... management is aware of this shortcoming they use the cybernetic controls more interactively to overcome this shortcoming, whereby the cybernetic controls are also used as a learning platform and not just for performance control....

  19. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  20. The radon daughter radiation hazard in controlled recirculation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolle, R.; Burton, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    In deep South African gold mines, controlled recirculation systems with air cooling are being used to an increasing extent to improve the thermal environment. Recirculation causes some air to reside in the working area for a longer time than would have occurred without recirculation. Since radon daughters grow spontaneously from radon there is some concern that, with the extended residence time, the potential radiation hazard could increase to an unacceptable level. This paper describes the results obtained from a theoretical model of a controlled recirculation system. Guidelines for the design of recirculation systems to control the radon daughter radiation, and to keep it within acceptable limits are provided. 3 refs., 5 figs

  1. Standard test methods for determining chemical durability of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed waste glasses and multiphase glass ceramics: The product consistency test (PCT)

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 These product consistency test methods A and B evaluate the chemical durability of homogeneous glasses, phase separated glasses, devitrified glasses, glass ceramics, and/or multiphase glass ceramic waste forms hereafter collectively referred to as “glass waste forms” by measuring the concentrations of the chemical species released to a test solution. 1.1.1 Test Method A is a seven-day chemical durability test performed at 90 ± 2°C in a leachant of ASTM-Type I water. The test method is static and conducted in stainless steel vessels. Test Method A can specifically be used to evaluate whether the chemical durability and elemental release characteristics of nuclear, hazardous, and mixed glass waste forms have been consistently controlled during production. This test method is applicable to radioactive and simulated glass waste forms as defined above. 1.1.2 Test Method B is a durability test that allows testing at various test durations, test temperatures, mesh size, mass of sample, leachant volume, a...

  2. 21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.8 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...

  3. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas

    2004-05-01

    Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.

  4. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen

    2017-04-01

    The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety terms that serve as building blocks for the understanding of more complex food safety topics.

  5. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in dried anchovy production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.

  6. Evaluation of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk in Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Oyarzabal

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56% provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27% provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20% provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32% did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05. Thirty participants (42% stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65% responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important

  7. Development of hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) procedures to control organic chemical hazards in the agricultural production of raw food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, Karl; Ferguson, Andrew; Beck, Angus J

    2003-01-01

    Hazard Analysis by Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards in the food chain. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all chemical microbiological, and physical hazards. However, current procedures focus primarily on microbiological and physical hazards, while chemical aspects of HACCP have received relatively little attention. In this article we discuss the application of HACCP to organic chemical contaminants and the problems that are likely to be encountered in agriculture. We also present generic templates for the development of organic chemical contaminant HACCP procedures for selected raw food commodities, that is, cereal crops,raw meats, and milk.

  8. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9669-6] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Diamond... reissuance of an exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  9. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9461-5] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Great Lakes... of an exemption to the land disposal restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  10. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9440-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ConocoPhillips... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  11. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9321-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ExxonMobil... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  12. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9904-21-OW] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  13. 75 FR 60457 - Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9208-4] Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Dow Chemical Company (DOW... 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have been...

  14. 78 FR 42776 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL9834-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Blanchard Refining... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  15. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-1] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the...

  16. Physical hazards (noise, heat, vibration, illumination) - control at work place, methods and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, M.; Srivastava, P.; Ganesh, G.

    2016-01-01

    The industrial work is getting modernized more day by day leading to more physical hazard. It is forcing the line management stressed upon in relation to the work place physical hazard. In order to keep the work place free from physical hazard it is required to use proper tool like work place assessment, measuring the parameters and analyze the end result which force us to take proper control measures to check and eliminate the physical hazard. (author)

  17. Accident hazard evaluation and control decisions on forested recreation sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine

    1971-01-01

    Accident hazard associated with trees on recreation sites is inherently concerned with probabilities. The major factors include the probabilities of mechanical failure and of target impact if failure occurs, the damage potential of the failure, and the target value. Hazard may be evaluated as the product of these factors; i.e., expected loss during the current...

  18. SOLID-STATE CONTROLLED FIRE HAZARD DETECTION AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microcontrol/er based fire hazard detection and quenching .system is developed, tested and found working satisfactory. Its response is very fast to quench thefire hazard before it spreads out. It is smart to ffiJoid any false alarming in case of momentary fire occurrence. ,Special emphasis has been laid down in choosing.

  19. Semi-active control of monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, C.

    2018-01-01

    The present paper studies the control of monopile offshore wind turbines subjected to multi-hazards consisting of wind, wave and earthquake. A Semi-active tuned mass damper (STMD) with tunable natural frequency and damping ratio is introduced to control the dynamic response. A new fully coupled analytical model of the monopile offshore wind turbine with an STMD is established. The aerodynamic, hydrodynamic and seismic loading models are derived. Soil effects and damage are considered. The National Renewable Energy Lab monopile 5 MW baseline wind turbine model is employed to examine the performance of the STMD. A passive tuned mass damper (TMD) is utilized for comparison. Through numerical simulation, it is found that before damage occurs, the wind and wave induced response is more dominant than the earthquake induced response. With damage presence in the tower and the foundation, the nacelle and the tower response is increased dramatically and the natural frequency is decreased considerably. As a result, the passive TMD with fixed parameters becomes off-tuned and loses its effectiveness. In comparison, the STMD retuned in real-time demonstrates consistent effectiveness in controlling the dynamic response of the monopile offshore wind turbines under multi-hazards and damage with a smaller stroke.

  20. 14 CFR 417.415 - Post-launch and post-flight-attempt hazard controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-flight-attempt hazard controls. (a) A launch operator must establish, maintain and perform procedures for... system operation. The flight termination system receivers must remain captured by the command control... launch operator must establish procedural controls for hazards associated with an unsuccessful flight...

  1. Standard hazard analysis, critical control point and hotel management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Vesna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic category which is continuously evolving in the world. Specificities that have to be respected in the execution in relation to the food industry are connected with the fact that the main differences which exist regarding the food serving procedure in catering, numerous complex recipes and production technologies, staff fluctuation, old equipment. For an effective and permanent implementation, the HACCP concept is very important for building a serious base. In this case, the base is represented by the people handling the food. This paper presents international ISO standards, the concept of HACCP and the importance of its application in the tourism and hospitality industry. The concept of HACCP is a food safety management system through the analysis and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in the entire process, from raw material production, procurement, handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the application of HACCP concept in tourism and hotel management as a recognizable international standard.

  2. Bilingualism increases neural response consistency and attentional control: evidence for sensory and cognitive coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizman, Jennifer; Skoe, Erika; Marian, Viorica; Kraus, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing is presumed to be influenced by cognitive processes - including attentional control - in a top-down manner. In bilinguals, activation of both languages during daily communication hones inhibitory skills, which subsequently bolster attentional control. We hypothesize that the heightened attentional demands of bilingual communication strengthens connections between cognitive (i.e., attentional control) and auditory processing, leading to greater across-trial consistency in the auditory evoked response (i.e., neural consistency) in bilinguals. To assess this, we collected passively-elicited auditory evoked responses to the syllable [da] in adolescent Spanish-English bilinguals and English monolinguals and separately obtained measures of attentional control and language ability. Bilinguals demonstrated enhanced attentional control and more consistent brainstem and cortical responses. In bilinguals, but not monolinguals, brainstem consistency tracked with language proficiency and attentional control. We interpret these enhancements in neural consistency as the outcome of strengthened attentional control that emerged from experience communicating in two languages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of community participation in the control of bird hazards at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of measures to prevent bird hazards from occurring. One of the most important methods of bird hazard control involves participation of local communities around the airport. This paper illustrates the different ways in which the airport works with the community to control bird collisions with aircraft at Entebbe International ...

  4. Consistency maintenance for constraint in role-based access control model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟力; 陈刚; 尹建伟; 董金祥

    2002-01-01

    Constraint is an important aspect of role-based access control and is sometimes argued to be the principal motivation for role-based access control (RBAC). But so far few authors have discussed consistency maintenance for constraint in RBAC model. Based on researches of constraints among roles and types of inconsistency among constraints, this paper introduces corresponding formal rules, rule-based reasoning and corresponding methods to detect, avoid and resolve these inconsistencies. Finally, the paper introduces briefly the application of consistency maintenance in ZD-PDM, an enterprise-oriented product data management (PDM) system.

  5. Consistency maintenance for constraint in role-based access control model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩伟力; 陈刚; 尹建伟; 董金祥

    2002-01-01

    Constraint is an important aspect of role-based access control and is sometimes argued to be the principal motivation for role-based access control (RBAC). But so far'few authors have discussed consistency maintenance for constraint in RBAC model. Based on researches of constraints among roles and types of inconsistency among constraints, this paper introduces correaponding formal rules, rulebased reasoning and corresponding methods to detect, avoid and resolve these inconsistencies. Finally,the paper introduces briefly the application of consistency maintenance in ZD-PDM, an enterprise-ori-ented product data management (PDM) system.

  6. Engineered and Administrative Safety Systems for the Control of Prompt Radiation Hazards at Accelerator Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, James C.; SLAC; Vylet, Vashek; Walker, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    The ANSI N43.1 Standard, currently in revision (ANSI 2007), sets forth the requirements for accelerator facilities to provide adequate protection for the workers, the public and the environment from the hazards of ionizing radiation produced during and from accelerator operations. The Standard also recommends good practices that, when followed, provide a level of radiation protection consistent with those established for the accelerator communities. The N43.1 Standard is suitable for all accelerator facilities (using electron, positron, proton, or ion particle beams) capable of producing radiation, subject to federal or state regulations. The requirements (see word 'shall') and recommended practices (see word 'should') are prescribed in a graded approach that are commensurate with the complexity and hazard levels of the accelerator facility. Chapters 4, 5 and 6 of the N43.1 Standard address specially the Radiation Safety System (RSS), both engineered and administrative systems, to mitigate and control the prompt radiation hazards from accelerator operations. The RSS includes the Access Control System (ACS) and Radiation Control System (RCS). The main requirements and recommendations of the N43.1 Standard regarding the management, technical and operational aspects of the RSS are described and condensed in this report. Clearly some aspects of the RSS policies and practices at different facilities may differ in order to meet the practical needs for field implementation. A previous report (Liu et al. 2001a), which reviews and summarizes the RSS at five North American high-energy accelerator facilities, as well as the RSS references for the 5 labs (Drozdoff 2001; Gallegos 1996; Ipe and Liu 1992; Liu 1999; Liu 2001b; Rokni 1996; TJNAF 1994; Yotam et al. 1991), can be consulted for the actual RSS implementation at various laboratories. A comprehensive report describing the RSS at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC 2006) can also serve as a reference

  7. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  8. Hazards And Critical Control Points Of Yoghurt Produced In A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... determine hazards associated with the processing of milk supplied to the unit into ... of milk into yoghurt, recording temperatures and pH measurements throughout all ... The temperature of the milk at the time it was freshly supplied to the Milk ... At this temperature the microbial load was already more than 10log10cfu/ml.

  9. Trip Reports. Hazardous Waste Minimization and Control at Army Depots

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-01

    Chief, Building 114; Major Robert Ronne; and Ken Rollins, Section Chief, Building 409. The purpose of this trip report Is to document the Information...hazardous. 6. Wf-TIM WOR Feosbility of a suitable p-etresaent f waste cuttins oil and sulleln coolant loach as 4iltratlan to remove metals. removal

  10. Hazard Control Extensions in a COTS Based Data Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Torsten; Rakers, Sven; Gronowski, Matthias; Schneegans, Joachim

    2011-08-01

    EML is an electromagnetic levitator for containerless processing of conductive samples on the International Space Station. This material sciences experiment is running in the European Drawer Rack (EDR) facility. The objective of this experiment is to gain insight into the parameters of liquid metal samples and their crystallisation processes without the influence of container walls. To this end the samples are electromagnetically positioned in a coil system and then heated up beyond their melting point in an ultraclean environment.The EML programme is currently under development by Astrium Space Transportation in Friedrichshafen and Bremen; jointly funded by ESA and DLR (on behalf of BMWi, contract 50WP0808). EML consists of four main modules listed in Table 1. The paper focuses mainly on the architecture and design of the ECM module and its contribution to a safe operation of the experiment. The ECM is a computer system that integrates the power supply to the EML experiment, control functions and video handling and compression features. Experiment control is performed by either telecommand or the execution of predefined experiment scripts.

  11. Women and postfertilization effects of birth control: consistency of beliefs, intentions and reported use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Han S

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study assesses the consistency of responses among women regarding their beliefs about the mechanisms of actions of birth control methods, beliefs about when human life begins, the intention to use or not use birth control methods that they believe may act after fertilization or implantation, and their reported use of specific methods. Methods A questionnaire was administered in family practice and obstetrics and gynecology clinics in Salt Lake City, Utah, and Tulsa, Oklahoma. Participants included women ages 18–50 presenting for any reason and women under age 18 presenting for family planning or pregnancy care. Analyses were based on key questions addressing beliefs about whether specific birth control methods may act after fertilization, beliefs about when human life begins, intention to use a method that may act after fertilization, and reported use of specific methods. The questionnaire contained no information about the mechanism of action of any method of birth control. Responses were considered inconsistent if actual use contradicted intentions, if one intention contradicted another, or if intentions contradicted beliefs. Results Of all respondents, 38% gave consistent responses about intention to not use or to stop use of any birth control method that acted after fertilization, while 4% gave inconsistent responses. The corresponding percentages for birth control methods that work after implantation were 64% consistent and 2% inconsistent. Of all respondents, 34% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization and would not use any birth control method that acts after fertilization (a consistent response, while 3% reported they believed that life begins at fertilization but would use a birth control method that acts after fertilization (inconsistent. For specific methods of birth control, less than 1% of women gave inconsistent responses. A majority of women (68% or greater responded accurately about the

  12. The Main Biological Hazards in Animal Biosafety Level 2 Facilities and Strategies for Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Yan; Xue, Kang Ning; Jiang, Jin Sheng; Lu, Xuan Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Concern about the biological hazards involved in microbiological research, especially research involving laboratory animals, has increased in recent years. Working in an animal biosafety level 2 facility (ABSL-2), commonly used for research on infectious diseases, poses various biological hazards. Here, the regulations and standards related to laboratory biosafety in China are introduced, the potential biological hazards present in ABSL-2 facilities are analyzed, and a series of strategies to control the hazards are presented. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  13. 76 FR 23823 - Guidance for Industry on Fish and Fishery Products Hazards and Controls, Fourth Edition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... analysis and critical control point (HACCP) methods. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on... conducting a hazard analysis and implementing a HACCP plan. Although this guidance document is immediately in... appropriate HACCP plans for those hazards that are reasonably likely to occur. A summary of the changes from...

  14. Hazards and control of ruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichholz, G.G.

    1978-01-01

    A review is presented of present information on the possible hazards of radioruthenium in the nuclear fuel cycle and its behaviour in nuclear operations and in the environment. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: basic chemical and nuclear properties of ruthenium; chemistry (including the ruthenium-nitric acid system, electrochemistry, extraction processes); ruthenium toxicity; generation of radioruthenium (fallout sources, reactor sources, fuel reprocessing operations); waste treatment (cementation and bitumenization, calcining processes, vitrification); movement in the environment (movement of airborne effluents, liquid effluents and the freshwater environment, marine environment, bottom sediments, marine organisms, terrestrial environments, uptake in vegetation and animals); conclusion. (U.K.)

  15. Seafood safety: economics of hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cato, James C

    1998-01-01

    .... This document on economic issues associated with seafood safety was prepared to complement the work of the Service in seafood technology, plant sanitation and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation...

  16. Participatory health impact assessment for the development of local government regulation on hazard control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inmuong, Uraiwan; Rithmak, Panee; Srisookwatana, Soomol; Traithin, Nathathai; Maisuporn, Pornpun

    2011-01-01

    The Thai Public Health Act 1992 required the Thai local governments to issue respective regulations to take control of any possible health-hazard related activities, both from commercial and noncommercial sources. Since 1999, there has been centrally decentralized of power to a new form of local government establishment, namely Sub-district Administrative Organization (SAO). The SAO is asmall-scale local governing structure while its legitimate function is for community services, including control of health impact related activities. Most elected SAO administrators and officers are new and less experience with any of public health code of practice, particularly on health-hazard control. This action research attempted to introduce and apply a participatory health impact assessment (HIA) tool for the development of SAO health-hazard control regulation. The study sites were at Ban Meang and Kok See SAOs, Khon Kaen Province, Thailand, while all intervention activities conducted during May 2005-April 2006. A set of cooperative activities between researchers and community representatives were planned and organized by; surveying and identifying place and service base locally causing local environmental health problems, organizing community participatory workshops for drafting and proposing the health-hazard control regulation, and appropriate practices for health-hazard controlling measures. This action research eventually could successfully enable the SAO administrators and officers understanding of local environmental-related health problem, as well as development of imposed health-hazard control regulation for local community.

  17. Effect of systematic ergonomic hazard identification and control implementation on musculoskeletal disorder and injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantley, Linda F; Taiwo, Oyebode A; Galusha, Deron; Barbour, Russell; Slade, Martin D; Tessier-Sherman, Baylah; Cullen, Mark R

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of an ergonomic hazard control (HC) initiative, undertaken as part of a company ergonomics standard, on worker injury risk. Using the company's ergonomic hazards database to identify jobs with and without ergonomic HC implementation and linking to individual job and injury histories, injury risk among person-jobs with HC implementation (the HC group) was compared to those without HC (NoHC group) using random coefficient models. Further analysis of the HC group was conducted to determine the effect of additional ergonomic hazards controlled on injury risk. Among 123 jobs at 17 plant locations, 347 ergonomic hazards were quantitatively identified during the study period. HC were implemented for 204 quantified ergonomic hazards in 84 jobs, impacting 10 385 persons (12 967 person-jobs). No HC were implemented for quantified ergonomic hazards in the remaining 39 jobs affecting 4155 persons (5046 person-jobs). Adjusting for age, sex, plant origin, and year to control for any temporal trend in injury risk, the relative risk (RR) for musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) was 0.85 and the RR for any injury or MSD was 0.92 in the HC compared to NoHC group. Among the HC group, each ergonomic hazard controlled was associated with risk reduction for MSD and acute injury outcomes (RR 0.93). Systematic ergonomic HC through participatory ergonomics, as part of a mandatory company ergonomics standard, is associated with MSD and injury risk reduction among workers in jobs with HC implemented.

  18. New U.K. safety legislation and its effects on the control of radiological hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, B.H.J.; Luxon, S.G.

    1977-01-01

    This paper explains the objectives of the Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 and refers in particular to its effects on the control of hazards at nuclear installations and, more widely, on the control of radiological hazards generally. It deals also with the changes resulting from the setting up of the Health and Safety Commission and its Executive under the new Act, and the effects of these changes on the work of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. (auth.) [fr

  19. Rate control scheme for consistent video quality in scalable video codec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Chan-Won; Han, Jong-Ki; Nguyen, Truong Q

    2011-08-01

    Multimedia data delivered to mobile devices over wireless channels or the Internet are complicated by bandwidth fluctuation and the variety of mobile devices. Scalable video coding has been developed as an extension of H.264/AVC to solve this problem. Since scalable video codec provides various scalabilities to adapt the bitstream for the channel conditions and terminal types, scalable codec is one of the useful codecs for wired or wireless multimedia communication systems, such as IPTV and streaming services. In such scalable multimedia communication systems, video quality fluctuation degrades the visual perception significantly. It is important to efficiently use the target bits in order to maintain a consistent video quality or achieve a small distortion variation throughout the whole video sequence. The scheme proposed in this paper provides a useful function to control video quality in applications supporting scalability, whereas conventional schemes have been proposed to control video quality in the H.264 and MPEG-4 systems. The proposed algorithm decides the quantization parameter of the enhancement layer to maintain a consistent video quality throughout the entire sequence. The video quality of the enhancement layer is controlled based on a closed-form formula which utilizes the residual data and quantization error of the base layer. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm controls the frame quality of the enhancement layer in a simple operation, where the parameter decision algorithm is applied to each frame.

  20. Application of systems and control theory-based hazard analysis to radiation oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlicki, Todd; Samost, Aubrey; Brown, Derek W; Manger, Ryan P; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Leveson, Nancy G

    2016-03-01

    Both humans and software are notoriously challenging to account for in traditional hazard analysis models. The purpose of this work is to investigate and demonstrate the application of a new, extended accident causality model, called systems theoretic accident model and processes (STAMP), to radiation oncology. Specifically, a hazard analysis technique based on STAMP, system-theoretic process analysis (STPA), is used to perform a hazard analysis. The STPA procedure starts with the definition of high-level accidents for radiation oncology at the medical center and the hazards leading to those accidents. From there, the hierarchical safety control structure of the radiation oncology clinic is modeled, i.e., the controls that are used to prevent accidents and provide effective treatment. Using STPA, unsafe control actions (behaviors) are identified that can lead to the hazards as well as causal scenarios that can lead to the identified unsafe control. This information can be used to eliminate or mitigate potential hazards. The STPA procedure is demonstrated on a new online adaptive cranial radiosurgery procedure that omits the CT simulation step and uses CBCT for localization, planning, and surface imaging system during treatment. The STPA procedure generated a comprehensive set of causal scenarios that are traced back to system hazards and accidents. Ten control loops were created for the new SRS procedure, which covered the areas of hospital and department management, treatment design and delivery, and vendor service. Eighty three unsafe control actions were identified as well as 472 causal scenarios that could lead to those unsafe control actions. STPA provides a method for understanding the role of management decisions and hospital operations on system safety and generating process design requirements to prevent hazards and accidents. The interaction of people, hardware, and software is highlighted. The method of STPA produces results that can be used to improve

  1. Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal: Final Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-03-01

    The Conference on Plenipotentiaries on the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes was convened by the Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) pursuant to decision 14/30, adopted by the Governing Council of UNEP on 17 June 1987. The Conference adopted the Global Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal. In the 29 articles of this Convention the definitions of hazardous wastes, the scope of the Convention, general obligations of the signatory parties, transboundary waste movement between Parties as well as through states which are not parties, illegal traffic, international control, liabilities, financial aspects, verification, accession and withdrawal of the Parties are defined in detail. There are 6 Annexes, including specifications of hazardous wastes, information requirements, notification rules, etc

  2. Hazardous materials management and control program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory - environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, B.M.; Oakes, T.W.

    1982-01-01

    In the Federal Register of May 19, 1980, the US Environmental Protection Agency promulgated final hazardous waste regulations according to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976. The major substantive portions of these regulations went into effect on November 19, 1980, and established a federal program to provide comprehensive regulation of hazardous waste from its generation to its disposal. In an effort to comply with these regulations, a Hazardous Materials Management and Control Program was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The program is administered by two Hazardous Materials Coordinators, who together with various support groups, ensure that all hazardous materials and wastes are handled in such a manner that all personnel, the general public, and the environment are adequately protected

  3. Physically consistent data assimilation method based on feedback control for patient-specific blood flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Satoshi; Adib, Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Wada, Shigeo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a novel data assimilation method for patient-specific blood flow analysis based on feedback control theory called the physically consistent feedback control-based data assimilation (PFC-DA) method. In the PFC-DA method, the signal, which is the residual error term of the velocity when comparing the numerical and reference measurement data, is cast as a source term in a Poisson equation for the scalar potential field that induces flow in a closed system. The pressure values at the inlet and outlet boundaries are recursively calculated by this scalar potential field. Hence, the flow field is physically consistent because it is driven by the calculated inlet and outlet pressures, without any artificial body forces. As compared with existing variational approaches, although this PFC-DA method does not guarantee the optimal solution, only one additional Poisson equation for the scalar potential field is required, providing a remarkable improvement for such a small additional computational cost at every iteration. Through numerical examples for 2D and 3D exact flow fields, with both noise-free and noisy reference data as well as a blood flow analysis on a cerebral aneurysm using actual patient data, the robustness and accuracy of this approach is shown. Moreover, the feasibility of a patient-specific practical blood flow analysis is demonstrated. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control (HIRARC Accidents at Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Asmalia Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Power plant had a reputation of being one of the most hazardous workplace environments. Workers in the power plant face many safety risks due to the nature of the job. Although power plants are safer nowadays since the industry has urged the employer to improve their employees’ safety, the employees still stumble upon many hazards thus accidents at workplace. The aim of the present study is to investigate work related accidents at power plants based on HIRARC (Hazard Identification, Risk Assessment and Risk Control process. The data were collected at two coal-fired power plant located in Malaysia. The finding of the study identified hazards and assess risk relate to accidents occurred at the power plants. The finding of the study suggested the possible control measures and corrective actions to reduce or eliminate the risk that can be used by power plant in preventing accidents from occurred

  5. Meteorological controls on atmospheric particulate pollution during hazard reduction burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Hart, Melissa Anne; Jiang, Ningbo

    2018-05-01

    Internationally, severe wildfires are an escalating problem likely to worsen given projected changes to climate. Hazard reduction burns (HRBs) are used to suppress wildfire occurrences, but they generate considerable emissions of atmospheric fine particulate matter, which depend upon prevailing atmospheric conditions, and can degrade air quality. Our objectives are to improve understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and air quality during HRBs in Sydney, Australia. We identify the primary meteorological covariates linked to high PM2.5 pollution (particulates pollution, the PBLH between 00:00 and 07:00 LT (local time) was 100-200 m higher than days with high pollution. The PBLH was similar during 10:00-17:00 LT for both low and high pollution days, but higher after 18:00 LT for HRB days with low pollution. Cloud cover, temperature and wind speed reflected the above pattern, e.g. mean temperatures and wind speeds were 2 °C cooler and 0.5 m s-1 lower during mornings and evenings of HRB days when air quality was poor. These cooler, more stable morning and evening conditions coincide with nocturnal westerly cold air drainage flows in Sydney, which are associated with reduced mixing height and vertical dispersion, leading to the build-up of PM2.5. These findings indicate that air pollution impacts may be reduced by altering the timing of HRBs by conducting them later in the morning (by a matter of hours). Our findings support location-specific forecasts of the air quality impacts of HRBs in Sydney and similar regions elsewhere.

  6. HABIT, Toxic and Radioactive Release Hazards in Reactor Control Room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. 2 - Methods: Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel

  7. Development of constrained motion control for robot handling of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    Handling and archiving of hazardous waste is an area where automation and robotics can be of significant benefit, by removing the human operator from the workplace and its associated hazards. For reasons of safety, throughput, and reduced setup time, force-controlled robots are well-suited for hazardous materials handling. The focus of this investigation is the development of advanced force control techniques for commercial industrial robots in the surface sampling of hazardous waste containers. Two particular control strategies are considered, (1) preview control, and (2) adaptive control. Preview control uses a sensor which can ''look ahead'' and thereby reduce the effect of surface irregularity on contact force control. Adaptive control allows the robot controller to compensate for changes in the robot characteristics as it changes position, and likewise improves performance. The resulting control algorithms will be applied to a two-dimensional contour-following task using a PUMA robot at the Robotics Research Laboratory at The University of New Mexico. (author) 9 figs., 13 refs

  8. Control de configuraciones peligrosas en instalaciones con riesgo asociado // Hazardous configurations control in risk related facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Torres - Valle

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl control de configuraciones peligrosas en instalaciones con riesgo asociado es una aplicación delos Análisis Probabilistas de Seguridad (APS previos de las mismas. Una opción de mayor alcancees el uso de monitores de riesgo los que permiten la detección en tiempo real de talesconfiguraciones. Dada la complejidad de los APS y de los monitores de riesgo, esta tarea requiere depersonal experto. El documento presenta un método cualitativo de control de configuracionespeligrosas basado en matrices de dependencias. El algoritmo, informatizado en el códigoCONFIGURACION, puede ser aplicado sin necesidad de APS previos ni uso de monitores de riesgo.La sencillez del método justifica su extensión a instalaciones donde tales herramientas no se handesarrollado, permitiendo así la detección de las configuraciones peligrosas durante su explotación yelevando la seguridad de las plantas. Un sistema similar al descrito se utiliza como ayuda en laoperación de la central nuclear de Embalse. El artículo muestra el uso del método utilizando comobase un sistema de seguridad simplificado.Palabras claves: control de configuración, Análisis Probabilista de Seguridad (APS, matriz de___________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe hazardous configurations control in risk related facilities is an application of the previousProbabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA. A more complete option is the risk monitoring for the on-linedetection of these configurations. The expert personnel are required for this task take into account thecomplexity of the PSA and risk monitor. The paper presents a method of configuration control, basedon dependence matrixes. The algorithm is included in a computer code called CONFIGURACION, todetermine these situations in a qualitative way, without previous PSA results or using a Risk Monitor.The simplicity of the method warrants its application to facilities where these tools have not

  9. A risk perception gap? Comparing expert, producer and consumer prioritization of food hazard controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Christina; Hübner, Philipp; Siegrist, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Using a survey approach, the study examined how experts (i.e. food control representatives), producers (i.e. food industry representatives) and consumers prioritized control activities for 28 hazards related to food and other everyday items. The investigated hazards encompassed a wide range of safety issues, including health risks, consumer deception and poor food hygiene behaviour. The participants included 41 experts, 138 producers and 243 consumers from the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland. Based on detailed descriptions of the hazards, they were asked to rank these on a score sheet in terms of the perceived importance of monitoring by food control authorities. A between-group comparison of average rankings showed that consumers and experts differed significantly in relation to 17 of the 28 hazards. While the experts assigned higher priority to hazards related to everyday items such as nitrosamine in mascara and chromium VI in leather products, producers and consumers tended to prioritize products related to plant treatment and genetic modification of food and feeds. Producer and consumer rankings of the hazards were highly correlated (r = .96, p < .001). Rankings were also similar among participants from the two cultural regions (i.e. German and French-speaking parts of Switzerland). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Control Analysis of Hazards Potential in Crude Distiller Unit III PT. Pertamina (Persero) Refinery Unit III Plaju Tahun 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Matariani, Ade; Hasyim, Hamzah; Faisya, Achmad Fickry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Activities in CDU III are very risk to any hazards potential; because of that hazards potential is much needed in controlling the hazards potential to decrease the accidents and occupational diseases. The aim of this study was to analyze the controlling of hazards potential in CDU III PT. Pertamina (Persero) RU III Plaju in 2011. Method: This study was a qualitative study. The methods of data collection were using in-depth interview and observation. The total of informants in this...

  11. Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) history and conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulebak, Karen L; Schlosser, Wayne

    2002-06-01

    The concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system that enables the production of safe meat and poultry products through the thorough analysis of production processes, identification of all hazards that are likely to occur in the production establishment, the identification of critical points in the process at which these hazards may be introduced into product and therefore should be controlled, the establishment of critical limits for control at those points, the verification of these prescribed steps, and the methods by which the processing establishment and the regulatory authority can monitor how well process control through the HACCP plan is working. The history of the development of HACCP is reviewed, and examples of practical applications of HACCP are described.

  12. Virtual reality and telepresence control of robots used in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronisz, L.E.; Pittman, P.C.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to explore the application of teleoperation and telepresence control to robots in hazardous environments at Los Alamos. The primary use of this technology would be in a glove-box type operation potentially allowing operators to work on hazardous materials while being completely removed from the danger of exposure in situations that are difficult to completely automate due to the highly unstructured environments or off-normal conditions. This project focused on determining the most appropriate tools and methods that could be applied in the near future resulting in a reasonably inexpensive working teleoperation or telepresence control system for industrial robots used in the handling of hazardous materials. Several topics had to be addressed to perform this task including input devices, control systems, robot manipulators, and simulation techniques or packages. Much of the work is still in the developmental stage and hardware will follow -- providing a usable tool for glove box robot control

  13. Application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to organic chemical contaminants in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropkins, K; Beck, A J

    2002-03-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.

  14. Testing to fulfill HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) requirements: principles and examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, I A

    1997-12-01

    On-farm HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) monitoring requires cost-effective, yet accurate and reproducible tests that can determine the status of cows, milk, and the dairy environment. Tests need to be field-validated, and their limitations need to be established so that appropriate screening strategies can be initiated and test results can be rationally interpreted. For infections and residues of low prevalence, tests or testing strategies that are highly specific help to minimize false-positive results and excessive costs to the dairy industry. The determination of the numbers of samples to be tested in HACCP monitoring programs depends on the specific purpose of the test and the likely prevalence of the agent or residue at the critical control point. The absence of positive samples from a herd test should not be interpreted as freedom from a particular agent or residue unless the entire herd has been tested with a test that is 100% sensitive. The current lack of field-validated tests for most of the chemical and infectious agents of concern makes it difficult to ensure that the stated goals of HACCP programs are consistently achieved.

  15. Using range vision for telerobotic control in hazardous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, M.G.; Ballantyne, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes how range vision augments a telerobotic system. The robot has a manipulator arm mounted onto a mobile platform. The robot is driven by a human operator under remote control to a work site, and then the operator uses video cameras and laser range images to perform manipulation tasks. A graphical workstation displays a three-dimensional image of the workspace to the operator, and a CAD model of the manipulator moves in this 'virtual environment' while the actual manipulator moves in the real workspace. This paper gives results of field trials of a remote excavation system, and describes a remote inspection system being developed for reactor maintenance. (author)

  16. Operation of controlled-air incinerators and design considerations for controlled-air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McRee, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper reviews the basic theory and design philosophies of the so-called controlled-air incinerator and examines the features of this equipment that make it ideally suited to the application of low-level radioactive waste disposal. Special equipment design considerations for controlled air incinerators treating hazardous and radioactive wastes are presented. 9 figures

  17. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  18. Hazard banding in compliance with the new Globally Harmonised System (GHS) for use in control banding tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnone, Mario; Koppisch, Dorothea; Smola, Thomas; Gabriel, Stefan; Verbist, Koen; Visser, Remco

    2015-10-01

    Many control banding tools use hazard banding in risk assessments for the occupational handling of hazardous substances. The outcome of these assessments can be combined with advice for the required risk management measures (RMMs). The Globally Harmonised System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has resulted in a change in the hazard communication elements, i.e. Hazard (H) statements instead of Risk-phrases. Hazard banding schemes that depend on the old form of safety information have to be adapted to the new rules. The purpose of this publication is to outline the rationales for the assignment of hazard bands to H statements under the GHS. Based on this, this publication proposes a hazard banding scheme that uses the information from the safety data sheets as the basis for assignment. The assignment of hazard bands tiered according to the severity of the underlying hazards supports the important principle of substitution. Additionally, the set of assignment rules permits an exposure-route-specific assignment of hazard bands, which is necessary for the proposed route-specific RMMs. Ideally, all control banding tools should apply the same assignment rules. This GHS-compliant hazard banding scheme can hopefully help to establish a unified hazard banding strategy in the various control banding tools. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, L.

    1986-03-01

    This report presents information for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains background material which outlines tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire hazards. Volume 2 presents criteria for evaluating fire hazard reports. The criteria are consistent with the existing AECB regulatory approach in Canada and cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis. This volume also provides details of each topic so that the quality of an analysis may be evaluated

  20. The effect of interior lead hazard controls on children's blood lead concentrations: a systematic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Erin; Lanphear, Bruce P; Tohn, Ellen; Farr, Nick; Rhoads, George G

    2002-01-01

    Dust control is often recommended to prevent children's exposure to residential lead hazards, but the effect of these controls on children's blood lead concentrations is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review of randomized, controlled trials of low-cost, lead hazard control interventions to determine the effect of lead hazard control on children's blood lead concentration. Four trials met the inclusion criteria. We examined mean blood lead concentration and elevated blood lead concentrations (> or = 10 microg/dL, > or = 15 microg/dL, and > or = 20 microg/dL) and found no significant differences in mean change in blood lead concentration for children by random group assignment (children assigned to the intervention group compared with those assigned to the control group). We found no significant difference between the intervention and control groups in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 10 microg/dL, 29% versus 32% [odds ratio (OR), 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56-1.3], but there was a significant difference in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 15 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 6% versus 14% (OR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.21-0.80) and in the percentage of children with blood lead > or = 20 microg/dL between the intervention and control groups, 2% versus 6% (OR, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10-0.85). We conclude that although low-cost, interior lead hazard control was associated with 50% or greater reduction in the proportion of children who had blood lead concentrations exceeding 15 microg/dL and > or = 20 microg/dL, there was no substantial effect on mean blood lead concentration.

  1. Towards a decision support system for control of multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiegel, van der M.; Sterrenburg, P.; Haasnoot, W.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Decision support systems (DSS) for controlling multiple food safety hazards in raw milk production have not yet been developed, but the underlying components are fragmentarily available. This article presents the state-of-the-art of essential DSS elements for judging food safety compliance of raw

  2. Mixed Integer PDE Constrained Optimization for the Control of a Wildfire Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Constrained Optimization for the Control of a Wildfire Hazard Herausgegeben von der Professor fur Angewandte Mathematik Professor Dr. rer. nat. Armin...and H.H. Tan . Finite difference methods for solving the two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation. Int. J. Numer. Meth. Fluids, 9:75-98, 1989. 6

  3. HANDBOOK: QUALITY ASSURANCE/QUALITY CONTROL (QA/QC) PROCEDURES FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resource Conservation and Recovery Act regulations for hazardous waste incineration require trial burns by permit applicants. uality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) must accompany a trial burn plan with appropriate quality assurance/quality control procedures. uidance on the prepa...

  4. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical waste at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.; Draper, W.E.; Koenig, R.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    An incineration system, originally demonstrated as a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process, is described. The production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology was modified for solid radioactive waste service. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system has been modified further for use in evaluating the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood. Results of a PCP-treated wood incineration test show a PCP destruction efficiency of greater than 99.99% in the primary chamber for the operating conditions investigated. Conditions and results for this test are described

  5. Compliance of SLAC's Laser Safety Program with OSHA Requirements for the Control of Hazardous Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, M.

    2009-01-01

    SLAC's COHE program requires compliance with OSHA Regulation 29CFR1910.147, 'The control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout)'. This regulation specifies lockout/tagout requirements during service and maintenance of equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the equipment, or release of stored energy, could cause injury to workers. Class 3B and Class 4 laser radiation must be considered as hazardous energy (as well as electrical energy in associated equipment, and other non-beam energy hazards) in laser facilities, and therefore requires careful COHE consideration. This paper describes how COHE is achieved at SLAC to protect workers against unexpected Class 3B or Class 4 laser radiation, independent of whether the mode of operation is normal, service, or maintenance

  6. An approach to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of environmental chemical and radioactive pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Human population, both at the occupational and non-occupational levels, is exposed to the environment polluted by man-made chemicals and radiation sources. The parameters required for quantitating mutagenic hazards of any agent are listed and it has been pointed out that though sufficient information of this nature is available in the case of radiations, it is almost impossible to collect similar information for chemical substances due to their number running into astronomical figures. A short-cut approach, therefore, is suggested to quantitate and control the mutagenic hazards of these pollutants. It is to express the mutagenic hazards of a chemical substance in terms of equivalent radiation units. The unit proposed for this purpose is called as Rem-Equivalent Chemical (REC). Total mutagenic burden to the society should take account of exposure from both chemicals and radiations. Advantages and limitation of this approach are discussed. (M.G.B.)

  7. PENERAPAN SISTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN KERIPIK TEMPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmi Yuniarti

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Malang is one of the industrial centers of tempe chips. To maintain the quality and food safety, analysis is required to identify the hazards during the production process. This study was conducted to identify the hazards during the production process of tempe chips and provide recommendations for developing a HACCP system. The phases of production process of tempe chips are started from slice the tempe, move it to the kitchen, coat it with flour dough, fry it in the pan, drain it, package it, and then storage it. There are 3 types of potential hazards in terms of biological, physical, and chemical during the production process. With the CCP identification, there are three processes that have Critical Control Point. There are the process of slicing tempe, immersion of tempe into the flour mixture and draining. Recommendations for the development of HACCP systems include recommendations related to employee hygiene, supporting equipment, 5-S analysis, and the production layout.

  8. Towards more consistent and effective food control: learning from the views of food business operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettunen, Karoliina; Lundén, Janne; Läikkö-Roto, Tiina; Nevas, Mari

    2017-06-01

    We surveyed the opinions of Finnish food business operators (FBOs) about the uniformity of local official food control and its importance for dairy, fishery and meat plants. A total of 136 FBOs responded to the questionnaire. Most FBOs considered official food control to be important for food safety and were generally satisfied with its quality. However, they often did not perceive official food control as being uniform, and 23% even considered it arbitrary. Small-sized FBOs were particularly critical of the relevance of control actions. The better the FBOs assessed their cooperation with the inspector, the higher they assessed the quality, uniformity and benefits of official food control. The cooperative approach in control practices should be emphasized to support the positive views of FBOs about official food control, thus promoting food safety. Cross-audits among local food control units are recommended to improve the FBOs' experience of uniformity of food control.

  9. Part I: Hazard, sensorial and economic implications of applying the hazard analysis and critical control points to irradiated ready-to-eat meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruvy, Y.F.

    2009-01-01

    The classical methodology of hazard analysis and critical control points focuses on hazards and related implications. A new methodology is suggested here, one that attempts at a systematic simultaneous assessment of safety hazards, sensorial failures and economic risks, and the critical control points necessary for their early detection and/or prevention of their potential outcomes. The new methodology also attempts to combine the three parameters to form a qualitative prioritization of the numerous control points and to screen those that can be cost effective for implementation. This is demonstrated in this paper for a complex product, i.e. radiation sterilized ready-to-eat meals. Hence, a fourth parameter specific to this product - the radiation specific pitfall - is also assessed. The advantages and drawbacks of the combined assessment methodology are described and their overall possible impact is discussed. Finally, the suggested combined assessment and control system for ensuring the safety and quality of food can provide a more structured and critical approach to control identified hazards, compared with that achievable by traditional inspection and quality control procedures. It has the potential to identify areas of concern where failure has not yet been experienced, making it particularly useful for new operations and products thereafter. (author)

  10. Kenyan female sex workers' use of female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception: do they use condoms less consistently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yam, Eileen A; Okal, Jerry; Musyoki, Helgar; Muraguri, Nicholas; Tun, Waimar; Sheehy, Meredith; Geibel, Scott

    2016-03-01

    To examine whether nonbarrier modern contraceptive use is associated with less consistent condom use among Kenyan female sex workers (FSWs). Researchers recruited 579 FSWs using respondent-driven sampling. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to examine the association between consistent condom use and female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use. A total of 98.8% reported using male condoms in the past month, and 64.6% reported using female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. In multivariate analysis, female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraceptive use was not associated with decreased condom use with clients or nonpaying partners. Consistency of condom use is not compromised when FSWs use available female-controlled nonbarrier modern contraception. FSWs should be encouraged to use condoms consistently, whether or not other methods are used simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Statistical Process Control Charts for Measuring and Monitoring Temporal Consistency of Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. Hafidz

    2010-01-01

    Methods of statistical process control were briefly investigated in the field of educational measurement as early as 1999. However, only the use of a cumulative sum chart was explored. In this article other methods of statistical quality control are introduced and explored. In particular, methods in the form of Shewhart mean and standard deviation…

  12. Gate-controlled current and inelastic electron tunneling spectrum of benzene: a self-consistent study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y Y; Chen, H; Mizuseki, H; Kawazoe, Y

    2011-04-14

    We use density functional theory based nonequilibrium Green's function to self-consistently study the current through the 1,4-benzenedithiol (BDT). The elastic and inelastic tunneling properties through this Au-BDT-Au molecular junction are simulated, respectively. For the elastic tunneling case, it is found that the current through the tilted molecule can be modulated effectively by the external gate field, which is perpendicular to the phenyl ring. The gate voltage amplification comes from the modulation of the interaction between the electrodes and the molecules in the junctions. For the inelastic case, the electron tunneling scattered by the molecular vibrational modes is considered within the self-consistent Born approximation scheme, and the inelastic electron tunneling spectrum is calculated.

  13. The role of the health physicist in the control of airborne radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basson, J.K.

    1978-01-01

    Health physics is based on the ease and sensitivity with which ionising radiations can be measured, as well as on the extensive medical knowledge of its long-term effects. Such studies have led to fundamental contributions to scientific health protection as well as practical occupational hygiene. The first aspect is illustrated with aerosol biophysics as example, while the practical control of airborne radioactive hazards in South Africa is described inside uranium plants as well as in the environment of nuclear installations [af

  14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Radiation Hazard Scale Data Product Review Feedback Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Askin, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Buddemeier, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Alai, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Yu, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-20

    In support of the Department of Energy (DOE) National nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assisted in the development of new data templates for disseminating and communicating FRMAC1 data products using the CDC Radiation Hazard Scale communication tool. To ensure these data products will be useful to stakeholders during a radiological emergency, LLNL facilitated opportunities for product socialization and review.

  15. Pasteurised milk and implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of pasteurisation is to destroy pathogen bacteria without affecting the taste, flavor, and nutritional value. A study on the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in producing pasteurized milk was carried out in four processing unit of pasteurised milk, one in Jakarta, two in Bandung and one in Bogor. The critical control points in the production line were identified. Milk samples were collected from the critical points and were analysed for the total number of microbes. Antibiotic residues were detected on raw milks. The study indicated that one unit in Bandung dan one unit in Jakarta produced pasteurized milk with lower number of microbes than the other units, due to better management and control applied along the chain of production. Penisilin residues was detected in raw milk used by unit in Bogor. Six critical points and the hazard might arise in those points were identified, as well as how to prevent the hazards. Quality assurance system such as HACCP would be able to produce high quality and safety of pasteurised milk, and should be implemented gradually.

  16. The anatomy of the central control of posture : Consistency and plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G

    Posture is usually thought to be steered by brainstem and cortical structures that have access to the motoneurons and their premotor interneurons of the axial and neck muscles. The present paper describes these pathways and their relation with gaze control structures. All these systems belong to the

  17. The effects of prioritize inspections on occupational health hazards control in workplaces in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemah; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Fatemi, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Iran, a newly industrializing country in Middle East, has a workforce of 25 million people. Most employees are working in agriculture, manufacturing, services, construction, commerce sectors, carpet weaving and mining. This article aims to explore the improvement of occupational harmful agents in workplaces due to implement "prioritize inspections". In 2012, the system of "prioritize inspections "was defined for surveillance on enterprises replace of routine inspection. From this system, the enterprises classified on four groups based on health hazards and enterprises with high risk were under more surveillance. The information about each enterprise was collected by health centers, in five provinces and reported by a recommended form to Centre of Environmental and Occupational Health (CEOH). At this program, the inspections from high and medium hazards were increased in all of provinces. The results showed there was a significant difference between the control of health hazards in before and after beginning of "prioritize inspections"(P=0.048). The control of noise, fumes and providing of proper illumination increased from 8 to 10%, 9 to 9.5%, 12.9 to 15.4%, respectively, at under study provinces in 2012 compared to 2011. The surveillance based on "prioritize inspections" increased the quality of occupational health inspections that causes to prevent occupational health diseases.

  18. Controlled air incineration of hazardous chemical and mixed waste at Los Alamos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Vavruska, J.J.; Warner, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Controlled Air Incineration (CAI) system, originally developed for transuranic (TRU) waste volume reduction studies, is currently being qualified for hazardous chemical and mixed waste treatment under provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The objective is to obtain a permanent RCRA Part B permit for thermal disposal of hazardous and mixed wastes generated by LANL. Constructed in the mid-1970s as a demonstration project for incineration of TRU solid wastes, the CAI process was substantially modified and tested in 1980-1983 for acceptance of both liquid and solid hazardous chemicals. Successful demonstration of TRU solid waste processing objectives in 1979 and later chemical waste incineration studies have been documented in several publications. In 1984, the LANL CAI became the first US Dept. of Energy (DOE) incinerator to be permitted for polychlorinated biphenyl disposal under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Following establishment of Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) jurisdiction over DOE chemical waste management in 1984, LANL sought and was granted interim status for the CAI and applied for a trial burn permit in the overall laboratory RCRA Part B application. A trial burn and final report have been completed; results have been submitted to EPA and the New Mexico Environmental Improvement Division. This paper provides an overview of trial burn planning and results together with the operational status of LANL's CAI

  19. Enhancing sediment flux control and natural hazard risk mitigation through a structured conceptual planning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, S.; Vignoli, G.; Mazzorana, B.

    2017-08-01

    Sediment fluxes from mountain rivers contribute to shape the geomorphologic features of lowland rivers and to establish the physical basis for an optimal set of ecosystem functions and related services to people. Through significant public funding, the hydro-morphological regimes of mountain rivers in the European Alps have been progressively altered over the last century, with the aim to provide a safe dwelling space, to boost transport, mobility and to support economic growth. We claim that the underlying planning weaknesses contribute to determine these inefficient resource allocations, since flood risk is still high and the ecosystem services are far from being optimal. Hence, with the overall aim to enhance sediment flux control and hazard risk mitigation in such heavily modified alpine streams, we propose a structured design workflow which guides the planner through system analysis and synthesis. As a first step the proposed workflow sets the relevant planning goals and assesses the protection structure functionality. Then a methodology is proposed to achieve the goals. This methodology consists in characterising the hydrologic basin of interest and the sediment availability and determining the sediment connectivity to channels. The focus is set on the detailed analysis of existing river cross sections where the sediment continuity is interrupted (e.g. slit and check dams). By retaining relevant sediment volumes these structures prevent the reactivation of hydro-morphological and associated ecological functionalities. Since their actual performance can be unsatisfying with respect to flood risk mitigation (e.g. mainly old structures), we introduce specific efficiency indicators as a support for the conceptual design stage to quantify effects related to sediment flux control and risk management. The proposed planning approach is then applied to the Gadria system (stream, slit dam, retention basin and culvert), located in South Tyrol, Italy. This case study

  20. 78 FR 64425 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., 507, and 579 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0922] Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and... requirements for current good manufacturing practice and hazard analysis and risk-based preventive controls for..., packing, or holding of animal food in two ways. First, it would create new current good manufacturing...

  1. 78 FR 24691 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... comments should be identified with the title ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and..., 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0920] RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk- Based Preventive Controls for Human Food; Extension of...

  2. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Intervention to Reduce Alcohol Consumption among French Hazardous Drinkers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemont, Juliette; Cogordan, Chloé; Nalpas, Bertrand; Nguyen-Thanh, Vi?t; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Arwidson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a web-based intervention to reduce alcohol consumption among hazardous drinkers. A two-group parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted among adults identified as hazardous drinkers according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. The intervention delivers personalized normative…

  3. Chemical inventory control program for mixed and hazardous waste facilities at SRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ades, M.J.; Vincent, A.M. III.

    1997-01-01

    Mixed Waste (MW) and Hazardous Waste (HW) are being stored at the Savannah River Site (SRS) pending onsite and/or offsite treatment and disposal. The inventory control for these wastes has recently been brought under Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) in accordance with DOE Order 5480.22. With the TSRs was the question of the degree of rigor with which the inventory is to be tracked, considering that the variety of chemicals present, or that could be present, numbers in the hundreds. This paper describes the graded approach program to track Solid Waste (SW) inventories relative to TSRs. The approach uses a ratio of the maximum anticipated chemical inventory to the permissible inventory in accordance with Emergency Response Planning Guideline (ERPG) limits for on- and off-site receptors. A specific threshold ratio can then be determined. The chemicals above this threshold ratio are to be included in the chemical inventory control program. The chemicals that fall below the threshold ratio are managed in accordance with existing practice per State and RCRA hazardous materials requirements. Additionally, the facilities are managed in accordance with process safety management principles, specifically using process hazards analyses, which provides safety assurance for even the small quantities that may be excluded from the formal inventory control program. The method yields a practical approach to chemical inventory control, while maintaining appropriate chemical safety margins. The resulting number of specific chemicals that require inclusion in a rigorous inventory control program is greatly reduced by about 80%, thereby resulting in significant reduction in chemical data management while preserving appropriate safety margins

  4. Operational quality control of daily precipitation using spatio-climatological consistency testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, S. C.; Croci-Maspoli, M.; van Geijtenbeek, D.; Naguel, C.; Appenzeller, C.

    2010-09-01

    Quality control (QC) of meteorological data is of utmost importance for climate related decisions. The search for an effective automated QC of precipitation data has proven difficult and many weather services still use mainly manual inspection of daily precipitation including MeteoSwiss. However, man power limitations force many weather services to move towards less labour intensive and more automated QC with the challenge to keeping data quality high. In the last decade, several approaches have been presented to objectify daily precipitation QC. Here we present a spatio-climatological approach that will be implemented operationally at MeteoSwiss. It combines the information from the event based spatial distribution of everyday's precipitation field and the historical information of the interpolation error using different precipitation intensity intervals. Expert judgement shows that the system is able to detect potential outliers very well (hardly any missed errors) without creating too many false alarms that need human inspection. 50-80% of all flagged values have been classified as real errors by the data editor. This is much better than the roughly 15-20% using standard spatial regression tests. Very helpful in the QC process is the automatic redistribution of accumulated several day sums. Manual inspection in operations can be reduced and the QC of precipitation objectified substantially.

  5. Washing and chilling as critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.

  6. Develop and implement preconditioning techniques to control face ejection rockbursts for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Toper, AZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available This research report discusses the development of preconditioning techniques to control face bursts, for safer mining in seismically hazardous areas. Preconditioning involves regularly setting off carefully tailored blasts in the fractured rock...

  7. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, Luke

    1986-03-01

    This report presents criteria for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report presents criteria that are consistent with the existing regulatory approach in Canada, and outlines engineering tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire. The criteria presented cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis and provide details of each topic so that the accuracy of an analysis may be evaluated

  8. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  9. Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program requirements for quality control of analytical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.S.; Zolyniak, J.W.

    1988-08-01

    The Hazardous Waste Remedial Action Program (HAZWRAP) is involved in performing field investigations and sample analysis pursuant to the NCP for the Department of Energy and other federal agencies. The purpose of this document is to specify the requirements for the control of the accuracy, precision and completeness of the samples, and data from the point of collection through analysis. The requirements include data reduction and reporting of the resulting environmentally related data. Because every instance and concern may not be addressed in this document, HAZWRAP subcontractors are encouraged to discuss any questions with the HAZWRAP Project Manager hereafter identified as the Project Manager

  10. [Incorporation of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP) in food legislation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.

  11. Control Decisions for Flammable Gas Hazards in Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRTs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2000-06-28

    This report describes the control decisions for flammable gas hazards in double-contained receiver tanks (DCRTs) made at control decision meetings on November 16, 17, and 18, 1999, on April 19,2000, and on May 10,2000, and their basis. These control decisions, and the analyses that support them, will be documented in an amendment to the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (CHG 2000a) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSR) (CHG 2000b) to close the Flammable Gas Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) (Bacon 1996 and Wagoner 1996) for DCRTs. Following the contractor Tier I review of the FSAR and TSR amendment, it will be submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) for review and approval.

  12. The juridic control of transboundary shipments of hazardous waste in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergensmeyer, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    An intergovernmental conflict over location of disposal of hazardous waste is discussed; the several definitions of hazardous waste in the United States are analysed; moreover the American Law Regulating the transport and disposal of hazardous waste as well is put in question; also the restrictions an disposal of waste are examined in light of the Constitution of the United States, finally, transboundary shipments of hazardous waste and international agreements on hazardous waste shipment are considered [pt

  13. Use of the hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) risk assessment on a medical device for parenteral application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Michael; Kühn, Klaus-Dieter

    2003-01-01

    In order to guarantee the consistently high quality of medical products for human use, it is absolutely necessary that flawless hygiene conditions are maintained by the strict observance of hygiene rules. With the growing understanding of the impact of process conditions on the quality of the resulting product, process controls (surveillance) have gained increasing importance to complete the quality profile traditionally defined by post-process product testing. Today, process controls have become an important GMP requirement for the pharmaceutical industry. However, before quality process controls can be introduced, the manufacturing process has to be analyzed, with the focus on its critical quality-influencing steps. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) method is well recognized as a useful tool in the pharmaceutical industry. This risk analysis, following the guidelines of the HACCP method and the monitoring of critical steps during the manufacturing process was applied to the manufacture of methyl methacrylate solution used for bone cement and led to the establishment of a preventative monitoring system and constitutes an effective concept for quality assurance of hygiene and all other parameters influencing the quality of the product.

  14. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model for the production of Thai fermented pork sausage (Nham).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukatong, K V; Kunawasen, S

    2001-01-01

    Nham is a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage. The major ingredients of Nham are ground pork meat and shredded pork rind. Nham has been reported to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is a potential cause of foodborne diseases for consumers. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model has been developed for the Nham process. Nham processing plants were observed and a generic flow diagram of Nham processes was constructed. Hazard analysis was then conducted. Other than microbial hazards, the pathogens previously found in Nham, sodium nitrite and metal were identified as chemical and physical hazards in this product, respectively. Four steps in the Nham process have been identified as critical control points. These steps are the weighing of the nitrite compound, stuffing, fermentation, and labeling. The chemical hazard of nitrite must be controlled during the weighing step. The critical limit of nitrite levels in the Nham mixture has been set at 100-200 ppm. This level is high enough to control Clostridium botulinum but does not cause chemical hazards to the consumer. The physical hazard from metal clips could be prevented by visual inspection of every Nham product during stuffing. The microbiological hazard in Nham could be reduced in the fermentation process. The critical limit of the pH of Nham was set at lower than 4.6. Since this product is not cooked during processing, finally, educating the consumer, by providing information on the label such as "safe if cooked before consumption", could be an alternative way to prevent the microbiological hazards of this product.

  15. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS TO THE PASTA PRODUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulexis Meneses Linares

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to combine the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP methodologies for the determination of risks that the food production represents to the human health and the ecosystem. The environmental performance of the production of pastas in the “Marta Abreu” Pasta Factory of Cienfuegos is assessed, where the critical control points determined by the biological dangers (mushrooms and plagues and the physical dangers (wood, paper, thread and ferromagnetic particles were the raw materials: flour, semolina and its mixtures, and the disposition and extraction of them. Resources are the most affected damage category due to the consumption of fossil fuels.

  16. Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator for hazardous chemical and mixed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Borduin, L.C.; Hutchins, D.A.; Koenig, R.A.; Warner, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Los Alamos Controlled Air Incinerator (CAI) is currently the only radioactive waste incineration facility in the US permitted to treat polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The CAI was developed in the mid-1970's as a demonstration system for volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) contaminated combustible solid wastes. It has since undergone additions and modifications to accommodate hazardous chemical wastes in response to a need within the Department of Energy (DOE) to treat mixed radioactive/chemical wastes. An overview of these additions which include a liquid feed system, a high intensity liquid injection burner, and an activated carbon adsorption unit is presented here. Also included is a discussion of the procedures required for Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) permitting of the CAI

  17. Post-operative endophthalmitis: the application of hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) to an infection control problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G

    2001-09-01

    Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.

  18. WE-G-BRA-06: Application of Systems and Control Theory-Based Hazard Analysis to Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlicki, T [UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Samost, A; Leveson, N [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The process of delivering radiation occurs in a complex socio-technical system heavily reliant on human operators. Furthermore, both humans and software are notoriously challenging to account for in traditional hazard analysis models. High reliability industries such as aviation have approached this problem through using hazard analysis techniques grounded in systems and control theory. The purpose of this work is to apply the Systems Theoretic Accident Model Processes (STAMP) hazard model to radiotherapy. In particular, the System-Theoretic Process Analysis (STPA) approach is used to perform a hazard analysis of a proposed on-line adaptive cranial radiosurgery procedure that omits the CT Simulation step and uses only CBCT for planning, localization, and treatment. Methods: The STPA procedure first requires the definition of high-level accidents and hazards leading to those accidents. From there, hierarchical control structures were created followed by the identification and description of control actions for each control structure. Utilizing these control structures, unsafe states of each control action were created. Scenarios contributing to unsafe control action states were then identified and translated into system requirements to constrain process behavior within safe boundaries. Results: Ten control structures were created for this new CBCT-only process which covered the areas of hospital and department management, treatment design and delivery, and vendor service. Twenty three control actions were identified that contributed to over 80 unsafe states of those control actions resulting in over 220 failure scenarios. Conclusion: The interaction of people, hardware, and software are highlighted through the STPA approach. STPA provides a hierarchical model for understanding the role of management decisions in impacting system safety so that a process design requirement can be traced back to the hazard and accident that it is intended to mitigate. Varian

  19. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.

  20. Study on integrated approach of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling System based on GIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Lijuan; Huang Shunxiang; Wang Xinming

    2012-01-01

    The issue of nuclear safety becomes the attention focus of international society after the nuclear accident happened in Fukushima. Aiming at the requirements of the prevention and controlling of Nuclear Accident establishment of Nuclear Accident Hazard Predicting, Warning and optimized Controlling System (NAPWS) is a imperative project that our country and army are desiderating, which includes multiple fields of subject as nuclear physics, atmospheric science, security science, computer science and geographical information technology, etc. Multiplatform, multi-system and multi-mode are integrated effectively based on GIS, accordingly the Predicting, Warning, and Optimized Controlling technology System of Nuclear Accident Hazard is established. (authors)

  1. Assessment of hygiene standards and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points implementation on passenger ships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2013-01-01

    The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.

  2. The application of hazard analysis and critical control points and risk management in the preparation of anti-cancer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas; Berhoune, Malik; Maestroni, Marie-Laure; Havard, Laurent; Prognon, Patrice

    2009-02-01

    To apply the Hazard analysis and Critical Control Points method to the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. To identify critical control points in our cancer chemotherapy process and to propose control measures and corrective actions to manage these processes. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points application began in January 2004 in our centralized chemotherapy compounding unit. From October 2004 to August 2005, monitoring of the process nonconformities was performed to assess the method. According to the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method, a multidisciplinary team was formed to describe and assess the cancer chemotherapy process. This team listed all of the critical points and calculated their risk indexes according to their frequency of occurrence, their severity and their detectability. The team defined monitoring, control measures and corrective actions for each identified risk. Finally, over a 10-month period, pharmacists reported each non-conformity of the process in a follow-up document. Our team described 11 steps in the cancer chemotherapy process. The team identified 39 critical control points, including 11 of higher importance with a high-risk index. Over 10 months, 16,647 preparations were performed; 1225 nonconformities were reported during this same period. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method is relevant when it is used to target a specific process such as the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. This method helped us to focus on the production steps, which can have a critical influence on product quality, and led us to improve our process.

  3. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, E; Revitt, D M; Ledin, A; Lundy, L; Holten Lützhøft, H C; Wickman, T; Mikkelsen, P S

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on 'Source control options for reducing emissions of Priority Pollutants' (ScorePP), seven emission control strategies (ECSs) were developed and tested within a semi-hypothetical case city (SHCC) to evaluate their potential to reduce the emission of selected European priority hazardous substances (PHSs) to surface waters. The ECSs included (1) business-as-usual, (2) full implementation of relevant European (EU) directives, (3) ECS2 in combination with voluntary options for household, municipalities and industry, (4) ECS2 combined with industrial treatment and best available technologies (BAT), (5) ECS2 in combination with stormwater and combined sewer overflow treatment, (6) ECS2 in combination with advanced wastewater treatment, and (7) combinations of ECS3-6. The SHCC approach was chosen to facilitate transparency, to allow compensating for data gaps and to decrease the level of uncertainty in the results. The selected PHSs: cadmium (Cd), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), nonylphenol (NP) and pentabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE) differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in surface waters to differing extents in response to the application of alternative ECS. To achieve the required reduction in PHS levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is prioritised and feasible combinations of managerial and technological options (source control and treatment) can be highly relevant for mitigating releases.

  4. Controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a thin stiff film and a heat shrinkable polymer sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jianxun; Adams, John G. M.; Zhu, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Bending pre-designed flat sheets into three-dimensional (3D) structures is attracting much interest, as it provides a simple approach to make 3D devices. Here we report controlled bending and folding of a bilayer structure consisting of a heat shrinkable polymer sheet and a thin stiff film (not thermally responsive). Upon heating, the prestrained polymer sheet shrinks, leading to bending or folding of the bilayer. We studied the effect of relative dimensions of the two layers on the bending behavior and demonstrated the transition from longitudinal bending to transverse bending of the bilayer strip. Transverse bending was utilized to fold origami structures, including several flat letters, a crane, and a corrugated metal sheet via Miura-ori folding. We developed a method to further control the bending orientation based on bio-inspired anisotropic bending stiffness. By bending the metal foil in different orientations, several structures were obtained, including cylindrical surfaces and left-handed/right-handed helical structures.

  5. Task-level strategies for human sagittal-plane running maneuvers are consistent with robotic control policies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu Qiao

    Full Text Available The strategies that humans use to control unsteady locomotion are not well understood. A "spring-mass" template comprised of a point mass bouncing on a sprung leg can approximate both center of mass movements and ground reaction forces during running in humans and other animals. Legged robots that operate as bouncing, "spring-mass" systems can maintain stable motion using relatively simple, distributed feedback rules. We tested whether the changes to sagittal-plane movements during five running tasks involving active changes to running height, speed, and orientation were consistent with the rules used by bouncing robots to maintain stability. Changes to running height were associated with changes to leg force but not stance duration. To change speed, humans primarily used a "pogo stick" strategy, where speed changes were associated with adjustments to fore-aft foot placement, and not a "unicycle" strategy involving systematic changes to stance leg hip moment. However, hip moments were related to changes to body orientation and angular speed. Hip moments could be described with first order proportional-derivative relationship to trunk pitch. Overall, the task-level strategies used for body control in humans were consistent with the strategies employed by bouncing robots. Identification of these behavioral strategies could lead to a better understanding of the sensorimotor mechanisms that allow for effective unsteady locomotion.

  6. Evaluation of the Adequacy of GMP to Control Microbial Hazards in Dairy Factories in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajjad Abdi no

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Pre-requisite programs (PRPs are “primary conditions and requirements essential for HACCP operations, which are crucial in food safety programs”. The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of implementation of PRPs on the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk (according to the National Standard of Iran. Effectiveness of HACCP operation requirements and efficiency of Good Laboratory Practice (GLP were also evaluated in control of the above-mentioned microbial parameters. Materials and Methods: According to the approved checklist of the Vice-chancellor in Food and Drug affairs, PRPs of 26 factories were evaluated from March 2014 to March 2015 in two-month intervals, and their total and component scores were obtained along with the microbial parameters of pasteurized milk. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs were used to determine the significance of total score and the impact of its components on controlling microbial hazards. Results: There was a reverse significant relation between the total scores of the PRPs and microbial hygiene indices (total and coliform count which approves the effectiveness of operating the programs in controlling the mentioned microorganisms. Efficiency of each pre-requisite program was different in controlling the microbial parameters. Good Laboratory Practice (GLP had a prominent effect on controlling of the index microorganisms of hygienic operations. Overall, the results showed a little probability of contamination with E. coli in the pasteurized milk samples of Fars Province for which the statistical analysis was ignored. Conclusions: The exact operation of PRPs resulted in reduction of microbial parameters in a way that increasing the total score of PRPs led to decrease in microbial parameters of total count (TC, coliforms, molds and yeasts. The findings further suggest the application of this checklist in evaluation and prediction of microbial parameters. Keywords

  7. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ting Hung

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.

  8. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-01-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  9. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  10. HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points): is it coming to the dairy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullor, J S

    1997-12-01

    The risks and consequences of foodborne and waterborne pathogens are coming to the forefront of public health concerns, and strong pressure is being applied on agriculture for immediate implementation of on-farm controls. The FDA is considering HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) as the new foundation for revision of the US Food Safety Assurance Program because HACCP is considered to be a science-based, systematic approach to the prevention of food safety problems. In addition, the implementation of HACCP principles permits more government oversight through requirements for standard operating procedures and additional systems for keeping records, places primary responsibility for ensuring food safety on the food manufacturer or distributor, and may assist US food companies in competing more effectively in the world market. With the HACCP-based program in place, a government investigator should be able to determine and evaluate both current and past conditions that are critical to ensuring the safety of the food produced by the facility. When this policy is brought to the production unit, the impact for producers and veterinarians will be substantial.

  11. [Simulation on contamination forecast and control of groundwater in a certain hazardous waste landfill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Fei; An, Da; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Ding-Long; Zhang, Jin-Bao; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of site investigation and data collection of a certain hazardous waste landfill, the groundwater flow and solute transport coupled models were established by applying Visual Modflow software, which was used to conduct a numerical simulation that forecast the transport process of Cr6+ in groundwater and the effects of three control measures (ground-harden, leakage-proof barriers and drainage ditches) of contaminants transport after leachate leakage happened in impermeable layer of the landfill. The results show that the contamination plume of Cr6+ transports with groundwater flow direction, the contamination rang would reach the pool's boundary in 10 years, and the distance of contamination transport is 1 450 m. But the diffusion range of contamination plume would not be obviously expanded between 10 and 20 years. While the ground is hardened, the contamination plume would not reach the pool's boundary in 20 years. When the leakage-proof barrier is set in the bottom of water table aquifer, the concentration of Cr6+ is higher than that the leakage-proof barrier is unset, but the result is just opposite when setting the leakage-proof barrier in the bottom of underlying aquifer. The range of contamination plume is effectively controlled by setting drainage ditches that water discharge is 2 642 m3 x d(-1), which makes the monitoring wells would not be contaminated in 20 years. Moreover, combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches can get the best effect in controlling contaminants diffusion, and meanwhile, the drainage ditches' daily discharge is reduced to 1 878 m3 x d(-1). Therefore, it is suggested that the control measure combining the ground-harden with drainage ditches should apply to prevent contamination diffusion in groundwater when leachate leakage have happened in impermeable layer of the landfill.

  12. System implementation of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) in a nitrogen production plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrantes Salazar, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    System of hazard analysis and critical control points are deployed in a production plant of liquid nitrogen. The fact that the nitrogen has become a complement to food packaging to increase shelf life, or provide a surface that protect it from manipulation, has been the main objective. Analysis of critical control points for the nitrogen production plant has been the adapted methodology. The knowledge of both the standard and the production process, as well as the on site verification process, have been necessary. In addition, all materials and/or processing units that are found in contact with the raw material or the product under study were evaluated. Such a way that the intrinsic risks of each were detected, from the physical, chemical and biological points of view according to the origin or pollution source. For each found risk was evaluated the probability of occurrence according to the frequency and gravity of it, with these variables determined was achieved the definition of the type of risk detected. In the cases that was presented a greater risk or critical, these were subjected decision tree; with which is concluded the non determination of critical control points. However, for each one of them were established the maximum permitted limits. To generate each of the results it has literature or scientific reference of reliable provenance, where is indicated properly the support of the evaluated matter. In a general way, the material matrix and the process matrix are found without critical control points; so that the project is concluded in the analysis, and it has to generate without the monitoring system and verification. To increase this project is suggested in order to cover the packaging system of gaseous nitrogen, due to it was delimited to liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, the liquid nitrogen is a 100% automated and closed process so the introduction of contaminants is very reduced, unlike the gaseous nitrogen process. (author) [es

  13. Tree failures and accidents in recreation areas: a guide to data management for hazard control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee A. Paine; James W. Clarke

    1978-01-01

    A data management system has been developed for storage and retrieval of tree failure and hazard data, with provision for computer analyses and presentation of results in useful tables. This system emphasizes important relationships between tree characteristics, environmental factors, and the resulting hazard. The analysis programs permit easy selection of subsets of...

  14. Hazard Analysis of Software Requirements Specification for Process Module of FPGA-based Controllers in NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung; Sejin; Kim, Eui-Sub; Yoo, Junbeom [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Keum, Jong Yong; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Software in PLC, FPGA which are used to develop I and C system also should be analyzed to hazards and risks before used. NUREG/CR-6430 proposes the method for performing software hazard analysis. It suggests analysis technique for software affected hazards and it reveals that software hazard analysis should be performed with the aspects of software life cycle such as requirements analysis, design, detailed design, implements. It also provides the guide phrases for applying software hazard analysis. HAZOP (Hazard and operability analysis) is one of the analysis technique which is introduced in NUREG/CR-6430 and it is useful technique to use guide phrases. HAZOP is sometimes used to analyze the safety of software. Analysis method of NUREG/CR-6430 had been used in Korea nuclear power plant software for PLC development. Appropriate guide phrases and analysis process are selected to apply efficiently and NUREG/CR-6430 provides applicable methods for software hazard analysis is identified in these researches. We perform software hazard analysis of FPGA software requirements specification with two approaches which are NUREG/CR-6430 and HAZOP with using general GW. We also perform the comparative analysis with them. NUREG/CR-6430 approach has several pros and cons comparing with the HAZOP with general guide words and approach. It is enough applicable to analyze the software requirements specification of FPGA.

  15. Long-term radiological liabilities and institutional control for radiation hazardous objects in the Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskra, A.; Lebedev, O.; Popov, V.

    2006-01-01

    Efforts aimed at securing safe human life environment are taking more and more significant place in the RF public policy sphere, practical steps are being made for the purpose of environmental remediation, including scheduled life cycle completion of a number of nuclear- and radiation-hazardous engineering objects. Currently nuclear subs decommissioning and dismantling is being carried out, as well as decommissioning of research reactors in various cities of the country. A number of industrial sites have already been cleaned up, in some places restoration works are on, remediation of the reactor sites and former naval technical service bases is being planned. Whereas nuclear reactors for various purposes, spent nuclear fuel and radwaste storage facilities, have safe and reliable physical protection, trained personnel and arm guard, so that the risk of the objects' eventual effects on the natural environment and the population in adjacent areas is well predicted at any stage of their life cycle, be it regular operation, shutdown, dismantling or site remediation, such components of the radiation legacy as radioactively contaminated sites and radionuclide ionizing radiation sources, though so different by nature, but equally bearing radiation threat, cause well explainable public anxiety. Their specific character lies not only in the fact that they are often not guarded in a proper way, but also in the great extent to which they are spread geographically. In order to prevent non-sanctioned access to such kind of objects and eventual exposure of the population, an institutional control system (ICS) should be set up for the radiation risk sources. The ICS has very much in common for various types of the radiation hazardous objects, and it should include such constituents as regulatory and normative documentation, environmental (radiation inclusive) monitoring arrangement, radioactive materials and radioactive wastes control and accounting, ensuring of civil security

  16. Consistent manufacturing and quality control of a highly complex recombinant polyclonal antibody product for human therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Torben P; Naested, Henrik; Rasmussen, Søren K; Hauptig, Peter; Wiberg, Finn C; Rasmussen, Lone Kjaer; Jensen, Anne Marie Valentin; Persson, Pia; Wikén, Margareta; Engström, Anders; Jiang, Yun; Thorpe, Susan J; Förberg, Cecilia; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2011-09-01

    The beneficial effect of antibody therapy in human disease has become well established mainly for the treatment of cancer and immunological disorders. The inherent monospecificity of mAbs present limitations to mAb therapy which have become apparent notably in addressing complex entities like infectious agents or heterogenic endogenous targets. For such indications mixtures of antibodies comprising a combination of specificities would convey more potent biological effect which could translate into therapeutic efficacy. Recombinant polyclonal antibodies (rpAb) consisting of a defined number of well-characterized mAbs constitute a new class of target specific antibody therapy. We have developed a cost-efficient cell banking and single-batch manufacturing concept for the production of such products and demonstrate that a complex pAb composition, rozrolimupab, comprising 25 individual antibodies can be manufactured in a highly consistent manner in a scaled-up manufacturing process. We present a strategy for the release and characterization of antibody mixtures which constitute a complete series of chemistry, manufacturing, and control (CMC) analytical methods to address identity, purity, quantity, potency, and general characteristics. Finally we document selected quality attributes of rozrolimupab based on a battery of assays at the genetic-, protein-, and functional level and demonstrate that the manufactured rozrolimupab batches are highly pure and very uniform in their composition. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The impact of a home visitation programme on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Willem; van Niekerk, Ashley; Jordaan, Esme; Seedat, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The continued high mortality and morbidity rates for unintentional childhood injuries remain a public health concern. This article reports on the influence of a home visitation programme (HVP) on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries in a South African low-income setting. A randomised controlled trial (n=211 households) was conducted in a South African informal settlement. Community members were recruited and trained as paraprofessional visitors. Four intervention visits were conducted over 3 months, focusing on child development, and the prevention of burn, poison, and fall injuries. The HVP, a multi-component intervention, included educational inputs, provision of safety devices, and an implicit enforcement strategy. The intervention effect (IE) was measured with a standardised risk assessment index that compared post-intervention scores for intervention and control households. A significant reduction was observed in the hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances, as well as in hazards related to poisoning. Non-significant changes were observed for burn safety household practices and fall injury hazards. This study confirmed that a multi-component HVP effectively reduced household hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances and poisoning among children in a low-income South African setting.

  18. [Introduction of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) principles at the flight catering food production plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, A Yu; Trukhina, G M; Mikailova, O M

    In the article there is considered the quality control and safety system implemented in the one of the largest flight catering food production plant for airline passengers and flying squad. The system for the control was based on the Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles and developed hygienic and antiepidemic measures. There is considered the identification of hazard factors at stages of the technical process. There are presented results of the analysis data of monitoring for 6 critical control points over the five-year period. The quality control and safety system permit to decline food contamination risk during acceptance, preparation and supplying of in-flight meal. There was proved the efficiency of the implemented system. There are determined further ways of harmonization and implementation for HACCP principles in the plant.

  19. Recommendations for dealing with waste contaminated with Ebola virus: a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark; Hunter, Paul R

    2016-06-01

    To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease.

  20. The Hazardous-Drums Project: A Multiweek Laboratory Exercise for General Chemistry Involving Environmental, Quality Control, and Cost Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, David; Widanski, Bozena

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that introduces students to "real-world" hazardous waste management issues chemists face. The students are required to define an analytical problem, choose a laboratory analysis method, investigate cost factors, consider quality-control issues, interpret the meaning of results, and provide management…

  1. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...

  2. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: challenges for hazardous substance control and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-05-01

    To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6-10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using insulation (tape) on waste batteries to prevent fires, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. Our field study of small WEEE showed that batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE on a weight basis. Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, digital cameras, radios, and remote controls, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. Given the safety issues and the rapid changes occurring with mobile phones or other types of small WEEE, discussion is needed among stakeholders to determine how to safely collect and recycle WEEE and waste batteries. Copyright

  3. Understanding the Geographic Controls of Hazardous Convective Weather Environments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, K. A.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Hazardous Convective Weather (HCW), such as severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, poses significant risk to life and property in the United States every year. While these HCW events are small scale, they develop principally within favorable larger-scale environments (i.e., HCW environments). Why these large-scale environments are confined to specific regions, particularly the Eastern United States, is not well understood. This can, in part, be related to a limited fundamental knowledge of how the climate system creates HCW environment, which provides uncertainty in how HCW environments may be altered in a changing climate. Previous research has identified the Gulf of Mexico to the south and elevated terrain upstream as key geographic contributors to the generation of HCW environments over the Eastern United States. This work investigates the relative role of these geographic features through "component denial" experiments in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5). In particular, CAM5 simulations where topography is removed (globally and regionally) and/or the Gulf of Mexico is converted to land is compared to a CAM5 control simulation of current climate following the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) protocols. In addition to exploring differences in general characteristics of the large-scale environments amongst the experiments, HCW changes will be explored through a combination of high shear and high Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) environments. Preliminary work suggests that the removal of elevated terrain reduces the inland extent of HCW environments in the United States, but not the existence of these events altogether. This indicates that topography is crucial for inland HCW environments but perhaps not for their existence in general (e.g., near the Gulf of Mexico). This initial work is a crucial first step to building a reduced-complexity framework within CAM5 to quantify how land-ocean contrast and elevated terrain control

  4. Hazardous Chemicals

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    Chemicals are a part of our daily lives, providing many products and modern conveniences. With more than three decades of experience, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has been in the forefront of efforts to protect and assess people's exposure to environmental and hazardous chemicals. This report provides information about hazardous chemicals and useful tips on how to protect you and your family from harmful exposure.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  5. Comparison of working length control consistency between hand K-files and Mtwo NiTi rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajczár, Károly; Varga, Enikő; Marada, Gyula; Jeges, Sára; Tóth, Vilmos

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the consistency of working length control between hand instrumentation in comparison to engine driven Mtwo nickel-titanium rotary files. Forty extracted maxillary molars were selected and divided onto two parallel groups. The working lengths of the mesiobuccal root canals were estimated. The teeth were fixed in a phantom head. The root canal preparation was carried out group 1 (n=20) with hand K-files, (VDW, Munich, Germany) and group 2 (n=20) with Mtwo instruments (VDW, Munich, Germany). Vestibulo-oral and mesio-distal directional x-ray images were taken before the preparation with #10 K-file, inserted into the mesiobuccal root canal to the working length, and after preparation with #25, #30 and #40 files. Working lenght changes were detected with measurements between the radiological apex and the instrument tips. In the Mtwo group a difference in the working competency (protary files. Mtwo NiTi rotary file did therefore proved to be more accurate in comparison to the conventional hand instrumentation. Working length, Mtwo, nickel-titanium, hand preparation, engine driven preparation.

  6. [Powdered infant formulae preparation guide for hospitals based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M

    2009-06-01

    This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.

  7. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) to guarantee safe water reuse and drinking water production--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W

    2001-01-01

    To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.

  8. Readiness to implement Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in Iowa schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henroid, Daniel; Sneed, Jeannie

    2004-02-01

    To evaluate current food-handling practices, food safety prerequisite programs, and employee knowledge and food safety attitudes and provide baseline data for implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in school foodservice. One member of the research team visited each school to observe food-handling practices and assess prerequisite programs using a structured observation form. A questionnaire was used to determine employees' attitudes, knowledge, and demographic information. A convenience sample of 40 Iowa schools was recruited with input from the Iowa Department of Education. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences in attitudes and food safety knowledge among managers, cooks, and other foodservice employees. Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between manager and school district demographics and the food safety practice score. Proper food-handling practices were not being followed in many schools and prerequisite food safety programs for HACCP were found to be inadequate for many school foodservice operations. School foodservice employees were found to have a significant amount of food safety knowledge (15.9+/-2.4 out of 20 possible points). School districts with managers (P=.019) and employees (P=.030) who had a food handler certificate were found to have higher food safety practice scores. Emphasis on implementing prerequisite programs in preparation for HACCP is needed in school foodservice. Training programs, both basic food safety such as ServSafe and HACCP, will support improvement of food-handling practices and implementation of prerequisite programs and HACCP.

  9. HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THIKA TOWN, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinde, R K; Kiinyukia, C; Rombo, G O; Muoki, M A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika. Municipality (n = 30). Simple randomsamples of restaurantswere selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected. Of these, 30 were sampled for microbiological testing. From the study, 221 (74%) of the restaurants were ready to eat establishments where food was prepared early enough to hold and only 77(26%) of the total restaurants, customers made an order of food they wanted. 118(63%) of the restaurant operators/staff had knowledge on quality control on food safety measures, 24 (8%) of the restaurants applied these knowledge while 256 (86%) of the restaurants staff showed that food contains ingredients that were hazard if poorly handled. 238 (80%) of the resultants used weighing and sorting of food materials, 45 (15%) used preservation methods and the rest used dry foods as critical control points on food safety measures. The study showed that there was need for implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to enhance food safety. Knowledge of HACCP was very low with 89 (30%) of the restaurants applying some of quality measures to the food production process systems. There was contamination with Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial though at very low level. The means of Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas microbial in sampled food were 9.7 x 103CFU/gm, 8.2 x 103 CFU/gm and 5.4 x 103 CFU/gm respectively with Coliforms taking the highest mean.

  10. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terazono, Atsushi, E-mail: terazono@nies.go.jp [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Oguchi, Masahiro [National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8506 (Japan); Iino, Shigenori [Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection, 1-7-5 Shinsuna, Koto-ku, Tokyo 136-0075 (Japan); Mogi, Satoshi [Bureau of Environment, Tokyo Metropolitan Government, 2-8-1 Nishi-shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-8001 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  11. Battery collection in municipal waste management in Japan: Challenges for hazardous substance control and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazono, Atsushi; Oguchi, Masahiro; Iino, Shigenori; Mogi, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality in Japan. • 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. • Despite announcements by producers and municipalities, only 2.0% of discarded cylindrical dry batteries were insulated. • Batteries made up an average of 4.6% of the total collected small WEEE under the small WEEE recycling scheme in Japan. • Exchangeable batteries were used in almost all of mobile phones, but the removal rate was as low as 22% for mobile phones. - Abstract: To clarify current collection rules of waste batteries in municipal waste management in Japan and to examine future challenges for hazardous substance control and safety, we reviewed collection rules of waste batteries in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. We also conducted a field survey of waste batteries collected at various battery and small waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) collection sites in Tokyo. The different types of batteries are not collected in a uniform way in the Tokyo area, so consumers need to pay attention to the specific collection rules for each type of battery in each municipality. In areas where small WEEE recycling schemes are being operated after the enforcement of the Act on Promotion of Recycling of Small Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment in Japan in 2013, consumers may be confused about the need for separating batteries from small WEEE (especially mobile phones). Our field survey of collected waste batteries indicated that 6–10% of zinc carbon and alkaline batteries discarded in Japan currently could be regarded as containing mercury. More than 26% of zinc carbon dry batteries currently being discarded may have a lead content above the labelling threshold of the EU Batteries Directive (2006/66/EC). In terms of safety, despite announcements by producers and municipalities about using

  12. CE-PA: A user's manual for determination of controlling earthquakes and development of seismic hazard information data base for the central and eastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short, C.

    1995-05-01

    The CE-PA, Controlling Earthquake(s) through Probabilistic Analysis, software package developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is a research program used as part of a study performed for the US Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research Division Engineering project on Geosciences Issues in the revision of geological siting criteria. The objectives of this study were to explore ways on how to use results from probabilistic seismic hazard characterization (PSHC) to determine hazard-consistent scenario earthquakes and to develop design ground motion. The purpose of this document is to describe the CE-PA software to users. The software includes two operating system and process controllers plus several fortran routines and input decks. This manual gives an overview of the methodology to estimate controlling earthquakes in Section I. A descriptive overview of the procedures and the organization of the program modules used in CE-PA is provided in Section II. Section III contains four example executions with comments and a graphical display of each execution path, plus an overview of the directory/file structure. Section IV provides some general observations regarding the model

  13. The application of quality risk management to the bacterial endotoxins test: use of hazard analysis and critical control points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annalaura, Carducci; Giulia, Davini; Stefano, Ceccanti

    2013-01-01

    Risk analysis is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to manage production processes, validation activities, training, and other activities. Several methods of risk analysis are available (for example, failure mode and effects analysis, fault tree analysis), and one or more should be chosen and adapted to the specific field where they will be applied. Among the methods available, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a methodology that has been applied since the 1960s, and whose areas of application have expanded over time from food to the pharmaceutical industry. It can be easily and successfully applied to several processes because its main feature is the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. It can be also integrated with other tools, such as fishbone diagram and flowcharting. The aim of this article is to show how HACCP can be used to manage an analytical process, propose how to conduct the necessary steps, and provide data templates necessary to document and useful to follow current good manufacturing practices. In the quality control process, risk analysis is a useful tool for enhancing the uniformity of technical choices and their documented rationale. Accordingly, it allows for more effective and economical laboratory management, is capable of increasing the reliability of analytical results, and enables auditors and authorities to better understand choices that have been made. The aim of this article is to show how hazard analysis and critical control points can be used to manage bacterial endotoxins testing and other analytical processes in a formal, clear, and detailed manner.

  14. Indoor spread of respiratory infection by recirculation of air: a controllable hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    The overall health benefit to be derived from disinfecting air before recirculation is difficult to predict, but as more and more buildings recirculate air without disinfection, the problem of spreading infection increases. Since the cost of disinfection with uv radiation is small and the cost of morbidity from airborne infections immense, the cost-benefit ratio for disinfecting recirculated air may be attractive, even though the protection of occupants would be limited. Recirculation of air in buildings is a relatively new technology that conserves energy. Like most new technologies, it brings new hazards. Disinfection of recirculated air is an appropriate additional technique with which to counter some of the hazards of air recirculation

  15. Can the Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system be used to design process-based hygiene concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.

  16. The implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point management system in a peanut butter ice cream plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen

    2015-09-01

    To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. [Experience with knowledge development in food handlers with te implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical control points (HACCP) in a hospital food service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, A A; de Salles, R K; Felipe, M R; Tosin, I

    1999-03-01

    The present article has as objective to describe the methodology of an experience of implantation of Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCP) with food handlers in a hospital food service establishment, inside of a conception of relationship and construction of knowledge. Meetings with the food handlers and nutritionists, with the objective of raising the difficulties poined for the sector and the work to be developed. The HACCP consisted of the evaluation of the operations, following the sequential steps recommended, looking itself to instruct the food handlers on the methods of the operations and its interpretations. The detected critical points, the measures of control, the criteria of correction and the monitoring have widely been argued, serving as didactic elements for the reconstruction of quality of the preparations. The discussions generated actions that were developed in short term, revealing the need of a more effective and continuous partnership for the new proposals.

  18. Radiation hazard surveillance in spanish uranium mines; Control de los peligros de la radiactividad en las minas de uranio espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iranzo, E; Liarte, J

    1963-07-01

    The regulations applied in the uranium mines which belong to the Junta de Energia Nuclear to control the radioactive hazards, and to get the personal protection avoiding overexposures in the external radiation and inhalation of radioactive dust and gases are given. The Radon daughters concentration in the atmosphere of Avery one of the mines and the external radiation exposure and uranium excretion in urine of the miners during 1962 are specified. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in probation services: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Judy

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of randomised controlled trials in health settings have consistently reported positive effects of brief intervention in terms of reductions in alcohol use. However, although alcohol misuse is common amongst offenders, there is limited evidence of alcohol brief interventions in the criminal justice field. This factorial pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with Offender Managers (OMs as the unit of randomisation will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in probation and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in probation clients. Methods and design Ninety-six OMs from 9 probation areas across 3 English regions (the North East Region (n = 4 and London and the South East Regions (n = 5 will be recruited. OMs will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a client information leaflet control condition (n = 32 OMs; 5-minute simple structured advice (n = 32 OMs and 20-minute brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (n = 32 OMs. Randomisation will be stratified by probation area. To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all OMs will be randomised to either the Modified Single Item Screening Questionnaire (M-SASQ or the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST. There will be a minimum of 480 clients recruited into the trial. There will be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months post intervention. Analysis will include client measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, re-offending, public service use and quality of life and implementation measures from OMs (the extent of screening and brief intervention beyond the minimum recruitment threshold will provide data on acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention. We will also examine the

  20. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in probation services: a cluster randomised controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; Bland, Martin; Cassidy, Paul; Coulton, Simon; Deluca, Paolo; Drummond, Colin; Gilvarry, Eilish; Godfrey, Christine; Heather, Nick; Kaner, Eileen; Myles, Judy; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Parrott, Steve; Perryman, Katherine; Phillips, Tom; Shenker, Don; Shepherd, Jonathan

    2009-11-18

    A large number of randomised controlled trials in health settings have consistently reported positive effects of brief intervention in terms of reductions in alcohol use. However, although alcohol misuse is common amongst offenders, there is limited evidence of alcohol brief interventions in the criminal justice field. This factorial pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial with Offender Managers (OMs) as the unit of randomisation will evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different models of screening to identify hazardous and harmful drinkers in probation and different intensities of brief intervention to reduce excessive drinking in probation clients. Ninety-six OMs from 9 probation areas across 3 English regions (the North East Region (n = 4) and London and the South East Regions (n = 5)) will be recruited. OMs will be randomly allocated to one of three intervention conditions: a client information leaflet control condition (n = 32 OMs); 5-minute simple structured advice (n = 32 OMs) and 20-minute brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (n = 32 OMs). Randomisation will be stratified by probation area. To test the relative effectiveness of different screening methods all OMs will be randomised to either the Modified Single Item Screening Questionnaire (M-SASQ) or the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST). There will be a minimum of 480 clients recruited into the trial. There will be an intention to treat analysis of study outcomes at 6 and 12 months post intervention. Analysis will include client measures (screening result, weekly alcohol consumption, alcohol-related problems, re-offending, public service use and quality of life) and implementation measures from OMs (the extent of screening and brief intervention beyond the minimum recruitment threshold will provide data on acceptability and feasibility of different models of brief intervention). We will also examine the practitioner and organisational factors

  1. Report: EPA Does Not Effectively Control or Monitor Imports of Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #15-P-0172, July 6, 2015. The EPA lacks explicit authority to block imported shipments of hazardous waste that lack prior EPA consent. This could lead to improper handling and disposal, resulting in unknown human and environmental exposure to toxic

  2. The Control of Hazardous Wastes and the Role of Environmental Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfortner, Ray

    1984-01-01

    Discusses legislation aimed at hazardous waste issues which are implemented by the Environmental Protection Agency and state governments. Particular attention is given to Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). A case study of an abandoned acres superfund site is included with two related student…

  3. Hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) in public catering services: a modified method, combined to bacteriologic assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P

    1992-01-01

    During 1990 and 1991 the Veterinary and Public Health Services of USL 35 of Ravenna carried out a research programme aimed at the control of food-borne diseases in the sector of public catering services, in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory (Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione). The objectives were: obtaining sure information about health hazards in public catering services; checking structural characteristics and equipment of workrooms in restaurants, hotels and refectories; verifying food preparation and preservation methods; promoting health education to increase employees' awareness of hygiene-related problems. The first objective, evaluation of the level of the control of the workrooms exerted on the food contamination hazard by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms, was carried out by allotting specific scores to several characteristics of laboratories or workers' habits, as suggested by the "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point" (HACCP) method for butcher's shops and fish markets. Five hundred ninety-eight public catering service units have been inspected in restaurants, hotels, school-refectories, factories, hospitals and social houses; 2,097 bacteriological examinations by agar-contact plates and swabs were carried out; 118 preserved-food temperatures were measured, especially in deep-frozen and cooked food; 70 food specimens were tested to search for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and measure Total Aerobic Mesophilic Weight. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli was also tested.

  4. Handbook of hazardous waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metry, A.A.

    1980-01-01

    The contents of this work are arranged so as to give the reader a detailed understanding of the elements of hazardous waste management. Generalized management concepts are covered in Chapters 1 through 5 which are entitled: Introduction, Regulations Affecting Hazardous Waste Management, Comprehensive Hazardous Waste Management, Control of Hazardous Waste Transportation, and Emergency Hazardous Waste Management. Chapters 6 through 11 deal with treatment concepts and are entitled: General Considerations for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities, Physical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Chemical Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Biological Treatment of Hazardous Wastes, Incineration of Hazardous Wastes, and Hazardous Waste Management of Selected Industries. Chapters 12 through 15 are devoted to ultimate disposal concepts and are entitled: Land Disposal Facilities, Ocean Dumping of Hazardous Wastes, Disposal of Extremely Hazardous Wastes, and Generalized Criteria for Hazardous Waste Management Facilities

  5. Seiler Pollution Control Systems vitrification process for the treatment of hazardous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuesch, P.C.; Sarko, A.B.

    1995-01-01

    Seiler Pollution Control Systems, Inc. (Seiler) applies an economical, transportable, compact high temperature vitrification process to recycle and/or stabilize mixed organic/inorganic waste streams. Organic components are gasified by the system and are used as an auxiliary energy source. The inorganic components are melted and bound up molecularly in a glass/ceramic matrix. These glass/ceramics are extremely stable and durable and will pass typical regulatory leachate tests. Waste types that can be processed through the Seiler vitrification system include incinerator flyash, paint sludges, plating wastes, metal hydroxide sludges, low level and mixed radioactive wastes, contaminated soils and sludges, asbestos, and various mixed organic/inorganic residues. For nonradioactive waste streams, a variety of commercially saleable glass/ceramic products can be produced. These materials are marketed either as architectural materials, abrasives, or insulating refractories. The glass/ceramics generated from radioactive waste streams can be formed in a shape that is easily handled, stored, and retrieved. The system, itself is modular and can either be used as a stand alone system or hooked-up in line to existing manufacturing and production facilities. It consists of four sections: feed preparation; preheater; vitrifier/converter, and air pollution control. The vitrification system can use oxygen enriched natural gas or fuel oil for both cost efficiency and to reduce air pollution emissions

  6. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting in unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  7. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. P.; Crandall, R. S.; Moskowitz, P. D.; Fthenakis, V. M.

    1992-12-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin.

  8. Pollution control and resource reuse for alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes

    CERN Document Server

    Youcai, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of alkaline hydrometallurgy of amphoteric metal hazardous wastes. Topics focus on leaching of zinc and lead hazardous wastes, purification of leach solution of zinc and lead, electrowinning of zinc and lead from purified alkaline solutions, chemical reactions taking place in the production flowsheets, thermodynamic and spent electrolyte regeneration, alkaline hydrometallurgy of low-grade smithsonite ores, recovery of molybdenum and tungsten using ion flotation and solvent extraction processes and their application in chemical synthesis of Nb and Ta inorganic compounds, and industrial scale production of 1500-2000 t/a zinc powder using alkaline leaching–electrowinning processes. Processes described are cost-effective, generate lesser secondary pollutants, and have been applied widely in China. Readers that will find the book appealing include solid waste engineers, environmental managers, technicians, recycling coordinators, government officials, undergraduates ...

  9. An overview of safety assessment, regulation, and control of hazardous material use at NREL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.P.; Crandall, R.S.; Moskowitz, P.D.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the methodology we use to ensure the safe use of hazardous materials at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). First, we analyze the processes and the materials used in those processes to identify the hazards presented. Then we study federal, state, and local regulations and apply the relevant requirements to our operations. When necessary, we generate internal safety documents to consolidate this information. We design research operations and support systems to conform to these requirements. Before we construct the systems, we perform a semiquantitative risk analysis on likely accident scenarios. All scenarios presenting an unacceptable risk require system or procedural modifications to reduce the risk. Following these modifications, we repeat the risk analysis to ensure that the respective accident scenarios present an acceptable risk. Once all risks are acceptable, we conduct an operational readiness review (ORR). A management-appointed panel performs the ORR ensuring compliance with all relevant requirements. After successful completion of the ORR, operations can begin

  10. Climatic control of Mississippi River flood hazard amplified by river engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Samuel E.; Giosan, Liviu; Therrell, Matthew D.; Remo, Jonathan W. F.; Shen, Zhixiong; Sullivan, Richard M.; Wiman, Charlotte; O’Donnell, Michelle; Donnelly, Jeffrey P.

    2018-04-01

    Over the past century, many of the world’s major rivers have been modified for the purposes of flood mitigation, power generation and commercial navigation. Engineering modifications to the Mississippi River system have altered the river’s sediment levels and channel morphology, but the influence of these modifications on flood hazard is debated. Detecting and attributing changes in river discharge is challenging because instrumental streamflow records are often too short to evaluate the range of natural hydrological variability before the establishment of flood mitigation infrastructure. Here we show that multi-decadal trends of flood hazard on the lower Mississippi River are strongly modulated by dynamical modes of climate variability, particularly the El Niño–Southern Oscillation and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, but that the artificial channelization (confinement to a straightened channel) has greatly amplified flood magnitudes over the past century. Our results, based on a multi-proxy reconstruction of flood frequency and magnitude spanning the past 500 years, reveal that the magnitude of the 100-year flood (a flood with a 1 per cent chance of being exceeded in any year) has increased by 20 per cent over those five centuries, with about 75 per cent of this increase attributed to river engineering. We conclude that the interaction of human alterations to the Mississippi River system with dynamical modes of climate variability has elevated the current flood hazard to levels that are unprecedented within the past five centuries.

  11. Application of HACCP principles as a management tool for monitoring and controlling microbiological hazards in water treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagals, C; Jagals, P

    2004-01-01

    HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) principles were applied to evaluate the effectiveness of two water treatment facilities to continually produce potable water free of microbiological health hazards. This paper reports a hazard analyses protocol (microbiological hazards based on faecal coliforms (FC) and turbidity (TBY) as indicators) for critical control points (CCPs) within each facility. The CCPs were raw resource water, sedimentation, filtration and chlorine-disinfection. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of each CCP to remove the indicators from the water under treatment. Arbitrary critical performance limit targets (CPLTs) were set up for each CCP to determine to what extent each contributed to effective removal and to predict what the effect would be if any of the CCPs should fail. Health-related water quality guideline limits for expected health effects were applied and compliance measured at the 90th percentile. The raw resource river water used at both treatment facilities complied with raw resource water extraction CPLTs. The treated potable water complied with health-related drinking water guidelines. Sedimentation removed the largest proportion of the indicators from the raw water, but showed failure potential that could overload the consequent system. Filtration effectiveness at both treatment facilities showed potential to break down the overall effectiveness of the entire treatment facility, since the filter systems failed to meet their respective CPLTs. This left the disinfection phase to remove the remaining portion of indicators. Faecal coliforms appeared to be completely removed from post-chlorination samples. This indicated that both chlorine disinfection phases were 100% effective in meeting their disinfection CPLTs, despite having to "clean up" the indicator organisms that spilt over from the upstream CCPs. This, nevertheless, implied a risk of unsafe water release into distribution. CCPs at these treatment

  12. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  13. Hazardous waste operational plan for site 300

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    This plan outlines the procedures and operations used at LLNL's Site 300 for the management of the hazardous waste generated. This waste consists primarily of depleted uranium (a by-product of U-235 enrichment), beryllium, small quantities of analytical chemicals, industrial type waste such as solvents, cleaning acids, photographic chemicals, etc., and explosives. This plan details the operations generating this waste, the proper handling of this material and the procedures used to treat or dispose of the hazardous waste. A considerable amount of information found in this plan was extracted from the Site 300 Safety and Operational Manual written by Site 300 Facility personnel and the Hazards Control Department

  14. Bioinspired synthesis of a soft-nanofilament-based coating consisting of polysilsesquioxanes/polyamine and its divergent surface control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Jun; Kimitsuka, Nobuo; Jin, Ren-Hua

    2013-04-24

    The synthesis of polysilsesquioxanes coating with controllable one-dimensional nanostructure on substrates remains a major long-term challenge by conventional solution-phase method. The hydrolytic polycondensation of organosilanes in solution normally produces a mixture of incomplete cages, ladderlike, and network structures, resulting in the poor control of the formation of specific nanostructure. This paper describes a simple aqueous process to synthesize nanofilament-based coatings of polysilsesquioxanes possessing various organo-functional groups (for example, thiol, methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and epoxy). We utilized a self-assembled nanostructured polyamine layer as a biomimetically catalytic scaffold/template to direct the formation of one-dimensional nanofilament of polysilsesquioxanes by temporally and spatially controlled hydrolytic polycondensation of organosilane. The surface nanostructure and morphology of polysilsesquioxane coating could be modulated by changing hydrolysis and condensation reaction conditions, and the orientation of nanofilaments of polysilsesquioxanes on substrates could be controlled by simply adjusting the self-assembly conditions of polyamine layer. The nanostructure and polyamine@polysilsesquioxane hybrid composition of nanofilament-based coatings were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The template role of nanostructured polyamine layer for the formation of polysilsesquioxane nanofilament was confirmed by combining thin film X-ray diffraction (XRD) and XPS measurements. Moreover, these nanotextured coatings with various organo-functional groups could be changed into superhydrophobic surfaces after surface modification with fluorocarbon molecule.

  15. Notification: FY 2017 Update of Proposed Key Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses Confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan 5, 2017. The EPA OIG is beginning work to update for fiscal year 2017 its list of proposed key management challenges and internal control weaknesses confronting the U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board (CSB).

  16. Occurrence and determinants of increases in blood lead levels in children shortly after lead hazard control activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Scott; Grote, JoAnn; Wilson, Jonathan; Succop, Paul; Chen Mei; Galke, Warren; McLaine, Pat

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of the effect of lead hazard control strategies on children's blood lead levels immediately after an intervention was conducted as part of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's Lead-Based Paint Hazard Control Grant Program. Fourteen state and local government grantees participated in the evaluation. The findings indicated an overall average reduction in the blood lead levels of 869 children soon after the implementation of lead hazard controls. However, 9.3% of these children (n=81) had blood lead increases of 5 μg/dL or more. Data routinely collected as part of the evaluation, as well as additional information supplied by the individual programs, were used to determine potential reasons for these observed increases in blood lead. A logistic regression analysis indicated that three principal factors were associated with the blood lead increases: the number of exterior deteriorations present in the child's home (prior to intervention), the educational level of the female parent or guardian of the child, and the child's age. The statistical analysis did not find evidence that children living in households that either did not relocate or relocated for less than the full work period were significantly more likely to have a blood lead increase equal to or greater than 5 μg/dL than children living in households that fully relocated. Statistical analyses also did not reveal any single interior strategy to be more or less likely than others to be associated with a blood lead increase of 5 μg/dL or more

  17. Hazard, sensorial and economic analysis critical control point (HACCP) check list for radiation sterilized ready-to-eat meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haruvy, Y F [Soreq Nuclear Research Centre, Operations Division, QA Department, Yavne (Israel)

    2004-07-01

    The primary objective of this work is to introduce a modified HACCP analysis route, for irradiated prepared meals that addresses not only health hazards but also sensorial failures, economic risks. Above all, this method aims at pinpointing failure modes specific to the radiation pasteurization aspect of the production and the product. The suggested modified analysis should serve all researchers in the CRP in their attempts to transfer their process and product from the laboratory-research type into an industrial one. While in the laboratory we can discard 'failure' samples or lots, or parts of a lot that are of inferior quality, an industrial process must be profitable and, hence, stable and reproducibly producing high quality products. The basic aspects of the HACCP route are: HACCP describes a system of control for assuring food safety and provides a more structured and critical approach to the control of identified hazards than that achievable by traditional inspection and quality control procedures; It has the potential to identify areas of concern where failure has not yet been experienced, making it particularly useful for new operations. The analysis route is exemplified in tables, that cover all the steps involved in the food production, from farm to fork.

  18. Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) to the Cultivation Line of Mushroom and Other Cultivated Edible Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo

    2013-09-01

    The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.

  19. Introduction of the system of hazard analysis critical control point to ensure the safety of irradiated food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive system for food safety. It identifies safety risks faced by food. Identified points are controlled ensuring product safety. Because of presence of many of the pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food which caused cases of food poisoning and many diseases transmitted through food, the current methods of food production could not prevent food contamination or prevent the growth of these pathogens completely because of being a part of the normal flora in the environment. Irradiation technology helped to control diseases transmitted through food, caused by pathological microorganisms and parasites present in food. The application of a system based on risk analysis as a means of risk management in food chain, demonstrated the importance of food irradiation. (author)

  20. European protection principles against external hazards by means of Emergency Power Supply and Control Safety System Building in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallinat, Dipl Ing [Max Aicher Engineering GmbH, Freilassing (Germany)

    2016-10-15

    One of the most important nuclear power plant safety requirements is a redundant and independent power system. This requires such a design of emergency power systems that failure of one will not adversely impact the other. External hazards of natural origin or linked to human activity could potentially affect plant safety. The general objective of the design provisions is to ensure that the safety functions of the systems and components required to return the plant to a safe shutdown state and to prevent and limit radioactive release are not adversely affected. As external hazards are site dependent, Technical Guidelines specify that 'it is not necessary to take all of the hazards in a standardized design; such external hazards as external flooding, drought, ice formation and toxic, corrosive or combustible gases may be dealt with only for a specific plant, on a plant specific basis'. In accordance with the Technical Guidelines, external hazards are taken into consideration at the design stage consistently with internal events or hazards. The basic design principle is to protect against external hazards in accordance with the Technical Guidelines using a 'load case' procedure.

  1. Hazard Classification and Auditable Safety Analysis for the 1300-N Emergency Dump Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloster, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This document combines three analytical functions consisting of (1) the hazards baseline of the Emergency Dump Basin (EDB) for surveillance and maintenance, (2) the final hazard classification for the facility, and (3) and auditable safety analysis. This document also describes the potential hazards contained within the EDB at the N Reactor complex and the vulnerabilities of those hazards. The EDB segment is defined and confirmed its independence from other segments at the site by demonstrating that no potential adverse interactions exist between the segments. No EDB hazards vulnerabilities were identified that require reliance on either active, mitigative, or protective measures; adequate facility structural integrity exists to safely control the hazards

  2. Got Rhythm? Better Inhibitory Control Is Linked with More Consistent Drumming and Enhanced Neural Tracking of the Musical Beat in Adult Percussionists and Nonpercussionists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jessica; Ashley, Richard; Tierney, Adam; Kraus, Nina

    2018-01-01

    Musical rhythm engages motor and reward circuitry that is important for cognitive control, and there is evidence for enhanced inhibitory control in musicians. We recently revealed an inhibitory control advantage in percussionists compared with vocalists, highlighting the potential importance of rhythmic expertise in mediating this advantage. Previous research has shown that better inhibitory control is associated with less variable performance in simple sensorimotor synchronization tasks; however, this relationship has not been examined through the lens of rhythmic expertise. We hypothesize that the development of rhythm skills strengthens inhibitory control in two ways: by fine-tuning motor networks through the precise coordination of movements "in time" and by activating reward-based mechanisms, such as predictive processing and conflict monitoring, which are involved in tracking temporal structure in music. Here, we assess adult percussionists and nonpercussionists on inhibitory control, selective attention, basic drumming skills (self-paced, paced, and continuation drumming), and cortical evoked responses to an auditory stimulus presented on versus off the beat of music. Consistent with our hypotheses, we find that better inhibitory control is correlated with more consistent drumming and enhanced neural tracking of the musical beat. Drumming variability and the neural index of beat alignment each contribute unique predictive power to a regression model, explaining 57% of variance in inhibitory control. These outcomes present the first evidence that enhanced inhibitory control in musicians may be mediated by rhythmic expertise and provide a foundation for future research investigating the potential for rhythm-based training to strengthen cognitive function.

  3. Hazard analysis and critical control points among Chinese food business operators

    OpenAIRE

    Stefano Saccares; Paolo Amadei; Gianfranco Masotti; Roberto Condoleo; Alessandra Guidi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of...

  4. Novel bio-inspired smart control for hazard mitigation of civil structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeesock; Kim, Changwon; Langari, Reza

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a new bio-inspired controller is proposed for vibration mitigation of smart structures subjected to ground disturbances (i.e. earthquakes). The control system is developed through the integration of a brain emotional learning (BEL) algorithm with a proportional–integral–derivative (PID) controller and a semiactive inversion (Inv) algorithm. The BEL algorithm is based on the neurologically inspired computational model of the amygdala and the orbitofrontal cortex. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm, a seismically excited building structure equipped with a magnetorheological (MR) damper is investigated. The performance of the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm is compared with that of passive, PID, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and BEL control systems. In the simulation, the robustness of the hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm in the presence of modeling uncertainties as well as external disturbances is investigated. It is shown that the proposed hybrid BEL–PID–Inv control algorithm is effective in improving the dynamic responses of seismically excited building structure–MR damper systems

  5. Remote Control Childhood: Combating the Hazards of Media Culture in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Background: Media culture touches most aspects of the lives of children growing up today, beginning at the earliest ages. It is profoundly the lessons children learn as well as how they learn, thereby contributing to what this article characterizes as "remote control childhood." Educators need to understand remote control childhood so…

  6. Consistency of control of damping-off of cucumber is improved by combining ethanol extract of Serratia marcescens with other biologically based technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmentally friendly disease control tactics are needed that are consistently effective in soils that vary with regard to their biotic and abiotic components. An ethanol extract of Serratia marcescens N4-5, when applied as a cucumber seed treatment, effectively suppressed damping-off of cucumbe...

  7. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  8. A critical spare part inventory control based on hazard function approach: A case study in a garment company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melinda, Intan Dewi; Jauhari, Wakhid Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Spare part procurement is a complex issue and requires an accurate analysis. Stock outs of spare part can leads a great impact on production. Therefore, it is necessary to design the inventory control of spare parts that guarantee the availability of spare parts needed for supporting the maintenance activity. This paper studies the inventory policy for sewing machine spare part using hazard function to approximate the demand. Hazard function is the indicator of the effect of ageing on the reliability of the system. It quantifies the risk of failure as the age of the system increases. We use a continuous review policy based on Hadley Within Approach to calculate the optimum inventory level for critical spare parts. There are four spare parts categorized as critical spare parts, which are needle plate, feed dog, rotary and binder attachment. The optimal ordering quantity for needle plate, feed, rotary and binder attachment are 5 units, 17 units, 5 units, and 9 units, respectively and the reorder point are 2 units, 1 unit, 2 units and 1 unit, respectively. Finally, the service level achieved by the proposed policy is in a range of 95.91%-97.93%, which indicates that the inventory level of spare parts can be used to support the required parts in the maintenance activity.

  9. Studies for the requirements of automatic and remotely controlled shutoff valves on hazardous liquids and natural gas pipelines with respect to public and environmental safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oland, C. Barry [XCEL Engineering, Inc. (United States); Rose, Simon D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Engineering Science and Technology Div.; Grant, Herb L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Lower, Mark D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fabrication, Hoisting and Rigging Div.; Spann, Mark A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Facility Management Div.; Kirkpatrick, John R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.; Sulfredge, C. David [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Computational Sciences and Engineering Div.

    2012-12-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of block valve closure swiftness in mitigating the consequences of natural gas and hazardous liquid pipeline releases on public and environmental safety. It also evaluates the technical, operational, and economic feasibility and potential cost benefits of installing automatic shutoff valves (ASVs) and remote control valves (RCVs) in newly constructed and fully replaced transmission lines. Risk analyses of hypothetical pipeline release scenarios are used as the basis for assessing: (1) fire damage to buildings and property in Class 1, Class 2, Class 3, and Class 4 high consequence areas (HCAs) caused by natural gas pipeline releases and subsequent ignition of the released natural gas; (2) fire damage to buildings and property in HCAs designated as high population areas and other populated areas caused by hazardous liquid pipeline releases and subsequent ignition of the released propane; and (3) socioeconomic and environmental damage in HCAs caused by hazardous liquid pipeline releases of crude oil. These risk analyses use engineering principles and fire science practices to characterize thermal radiation effects on buildings and humans and to quantify the total damage cost of socioeconomic and environmental impacts. The risk analysis approach used for natural gas pipelines is consistent with risk assessment standards developed by industry and incorporated into Federal pipeline safety regulations. Feasibility evaluations for the hypothetical pipeline release scenarios considered in this study show that installation of ASVs and RCVs in newly constructed and fully replaced natural gas and hazardous liquid pipelines is technically, operationally, and economically feasible with a positive cost benefit. However, these results may not apply to all newly constructed and fully replaced pipelines because site-specific parameters that influence risk analyses and feasibility evaluations often vary significantly from one pipeline segment to

  10. A Guide to the Application of Probability Risk Assessment Methodology and Hazard Risk Frequency Criteria as a Hazard Control for the Use of the Mobile Servicing System on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'silva, Oneil; Kerrison, Roger

    2013-09-01

    A key feature for the increased utilization of space robotics is to automate Extra-Vehicular manned space activities and thus significantly reduce the potential for catastrophic hazards while simultaneously minimizing the overall costs associated with manned space. The principal scope of the paper is to evaluate the use of industry standard accepted Probability risk/safety assessment (PRA/PSA) methodologies and Hazard Risk frequency Criteria as a hazard control. This paper illustrates the applicability of combining the selected Probability risk assessment methodology and hazard risk frequency criteria, in order to apply the necessary safety controls that allow for the increased use of the Mobile Servicing system (MSS) robotic system on the International Space Station. This document will consider factors such as component failure rate reliability, software reliability, and periods of operation and dormancy, fault tree analyses and their effects on the probability risk assessments. The paper concludes with suggestions for the incorporation of existing industry Risk/Safety plans to create an applicable safety process for future activities/programs

  11. Study on the control of groundwater hazard at Gays river mine: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    This report outlines a study to assess and investigate sources of groundwater inflow to Westminer Canada Ltd.'s Gays River lead-zinc mine in Nova Scotia. The study consisted of a hydrochemical assessment, a review of drainhole well screens and an underground pressure point measurement program, preparation of a , an airphoto interpretation study of sinkhole features, and a major piezometer installation and overburden soil investigation program. This report provides an overview of the program.

  12. Technical management techniques for identification and control of industrial safety and pollution hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R.; Dyer, M. K.; Hoard, E. G.; Little, D. G.; Taylor, A. C.

    1972-01-01

    Constructive recommendations are suggested for pollution problems from offshore energy resources industries on outer continental shelf. Technical management techniques for pollution identification and control offer possible applications to space engineering and management.

  13. Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccares, Stefano; Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra

    2014-08-28

    The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety.

  14. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmberg, J.

    1997-04-01

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant

  15. Control of City Shallow Buried Tunnel Blasting Hazard to Surface Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combining with the blasting test of an under-construction tunnel, this paper optimizes the overall blasting construction scheme. The optimized blasting scheme is used in the site construction test and the peak particle vibration velocity is strictly controlled under working conditions through blasting vibration monitoring to ensure the safety of surrounding buildings and structures in the construction process. The corresponding control measures are proposed to reduce the blasting vibration which brings certain guiding significance to the following construction project.

  16. Probabilistic safety assessment and optimal control of hazardous technological systems. A marked point process approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmberg, J [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-04-01

    The thesis models risk management as an optimal control problem for a stochastic process. The approach classes the decisions made by management into three categories according to the control methods of a point process: (1) planned process lifetime, (2) modification of the design, and (3) operational decisions. The approach is used for optimization of plant shutdown criteria and surveillance test strategies of a hypothetical nuclear power plant. 62 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.

  17. Hazard perception in traffic. [previously knows as: Hazard perception.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Hazard perception is an essential part of the driving task. There are clear indications that insufficient skills in perceiving hazards play an important role in the occurrence of crashes, especially those involving novice drivers. Proper hazard perception not only consists of scanning and perceiving

  18. Hazard management at the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasfazilah Hassan; Azimawati Ahmad; Syed Asraf Fahlawi Wafa S M Ghazi; Hairul Nizam Idris

    2005-01-01

    Failure to ensure health and safety environment at workplace will cause an accident involving loss to the time, human resource, finance and for the worse case effect the moral value of an organization. If we go through to the cause of the accident, it is impossible to have a totally safety workplace. It is because every process in work activities has it own hazard elements. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the best action to prevent from the hazard with a comprehensive and effectiveness hazard management. Hazard management is the one of the pro-active hazard control. With this we manage to identify and evaluate the hazard and control the hazard risk. Therefore, hazard management should be screened constantly and continuously to make sure work hazard always in control. (Author)

  19. Hazardous Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chemicals can still harm human health and the environment. When you throw these substances away, they become hazardous waste. Some hazardous wastes come from products in our homes. Our garbage can include such hazardous wastes as old batteries, bug spray cans and paint thinner. U.S. residents ...

  20. Hazard analysis and critical control points among Chinese food business operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Saccares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of selfcontrol in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety.

  1. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Anne H; Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-12-22

    About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1 has access to the Swedish

  2. Effectiviness and environmental hazards of acaricides applied to large mammals for tick control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieren, van S.E.; Braks, Marieta A.H.; Lahr, J.

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are important vectors of a large number of pathogenic organisms. In the Netherlands, Ixodes ricinus is the most abundant tick species and the main vector for several Borrelia species that may cause Lyme borreliosis. Many chemicals have been developed for tick control. In this chapter, a few

  3. Policy issues on the control of major accident hazards and the new Seveso II directive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, S.; Wettig, J.

    1999-01-01

    No one wants a major accident to occur! This paper describes the development of EC policies to convert this simple and obvious fact into a coherent prevention strategy which can deliver a high level of protection throughout the European Community. The Seveso II Directive is described in detail, being the relevant Community Instrument which Member States must implement in their national laws. The need to achieve the correct balance between setting general goals and being over prescriptive is discussed, commensurate with the intent to be flexible but yet consistent and effective at the same time. The main changes from Seveso I are discussed, including requirements related to the operator's management systems, the competent authority's systems for inspection, and information and consultation arrangements with the public. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  4. Application of Physiological Self-Regulation and Adaptive Task Allocation Techniques for Controlling Operator Hazardous States of Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Pope, Alan T.; Freeman, Frederick G.

    2001-01-01

    Prinzel, Hadley, Freeman, and Mikulka found that adaptive task allocation significantly enhanced performance only when used at the endpoints of the task workload continuum (i.e., very low or high workload), but that the technique degraded performance if invoked during other levels of task demand. These researchers suggested that other techniques should be used in conjunction with adaptive automation to help minimize the onset of hazardous states of awareness (HSA) and keep the operator 'in-the-loop.' The paper reports on such a technique that uses psychophysiological self-regulation to modulate the level of task engagement. Eighteen participants were assigned to three groups (self-regulation, false feedback, and control) and performed a compensatory tracking task that was cycled between three levels of task difficulty on the basis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) record. Those participants who had received self-regulation training performed significantly better and reported lower NASA-TLX scores than participants in the false feedback and control groups. Furthermore, the false feedback and control groups had significantly more task allocations resulting in return-to-manual performance decrements and higher EEG difference scores. Theoretical and practical implications of these results for adaptive automation are discussed.

  5. Hazard analysis of critical control points assessment as a tool to respond to emerging infectious disease outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L Edmunds

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases.

  6. Risk analysis of hematopoietic stem cell transplant process: failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis and hazard analysis critical control point methods integration based on guidelines to good manufacturing practice for medicinal product ANNEX 20 (February 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianassi, S; Bisin, S; Bindi, B; Spitaleri, I; Bambi, F

    2010-01-01

    The collection and handling of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must meet high quality requirements. An integrated Quality Risk Management can help to identify and contain potential risks related to HSC production. Risk analysis techniques allow one to "weigh" identified hazards, considering the seriousness of their effects, frequency, and detectability, seeking to prevent the most harmful hazards. The Hazard Analysis Critical Point, recognized as the most appropriate technique to identify risks associated with physical, chemical, and biological hazards for cellular products, consists of classifying finished product specifications and limits of acceptability, identifying all off-specifications, defining activities that can cause them, and finally establishing both a monitoring system for each Critical Control Point and corrective actions for deviations. The severity of possible effects on patients, as well as the occurrence and detectability of critical parameters, are measured on quantitative scales (Risk Priority Number [RPN]). Risk analysis was performed with this technique on manipulation process of HPC performed at our blood center. The data analysis showed that hazards with higher values of RPN with greater impact on the process are loss of dose and tracking; technical skills of operators and manual transcription of data were the most critical parameters. Problems related to operator skills are handled by defining targeted training programs, while other critical parameters can be mitigated with the use of continuous control systems. The blood center management software was completed by a labeling system with forms designed to be in compliance with standards in force and by starting implementation of a cryopreservation management module. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Water management in cities of the future using emission control strategies for priority hazardous substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Eva; Revitt, D. M.; Ledin, A.

    2011-01-01

    Cities of the future face challenges with respect to the quantity and quality of water resources, and multiple managerial options need to be considered in order to safeguard urban surface water quality. In a recently completed project on “Source Control Options for Reducing Emissions of Priority...... in the results. The selected PPs differ in their uses and environmental fate and therefore accumulate in different urban environmental compartment. To achieve the required reduction in PP levels in urban waters the full implementation of existing EU regulation is essential and appropriate combinations...

  8. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning of Hazardous Sites - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalkoff, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes work after 4 years of a 3-year project (no-cost extension of the above-referenced project for a period of 12 months granted). The fourth generation of a vision sensing head for geometric and photometric scene sensing has been built and tested. Estimation algorithms for automatic sensor calibration updating under robot motion have been developed and tested. We have modified the geometry extraction component of the rendering pipeline. Laser scanning now produces highly accurate points on segmented curves. These point-curves are input to a NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) skinning procedure to produce interpolating surface segments. The NURBS formulation includes quadrics as a sub-class, thus this formulation allows much greater flexibility without the attendant instability of generating an entire quadric surface. We have also implemented correction for diffuse lighting and specular effects. The QRobot joint level control was extended to a complete semi-autonomous robot control system for D and D operations. The imaging and VR subsystems have been integrated and tested

  9. Advanced Sensing and Control Techniques to Facilitate Semi-Autonomous Decommissioning of Hazardous Sites - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalkoff, R.J.

    2000-12-01

    This report summarizes work after 4 years of a 3-year project (no-cost extension of the above-referenced project for a period of 12 months granted). The fourth generation of a vision sensing head for geometric and photometric scene sensing has been built and tested. Estimation algorithms for automatic sensor calibration updating under robot motion have been developed and tested. We have modified the geometry extraction component of the rendering pipeline. Laser scanning now produces highly accurate points on segmented curves. These point-curves are input to a NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) skinning procedure to produce interpolating surface segments. The NURBS formulation includes quadrics as a sub-class, thus this formulation allows much greater flexibility without the attendant instability of generating an entire quadric surface. We have also implemented correction for diffuse lighting and specular effects. The QRobot joint level control was extended to a complete semi-autonomous robot control system for D and D operations. The imaging and VR subsystems have been integrated and tested.

  10. Hazard perception skills of young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be improved with computer based driver training: An exploratory randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, C R; Unsworth, C A; Dillon, M P; Tay, R; Falkmer, T; Bird, P; Carey, L M

    2017-12-01

    Young drivers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are at higher risk of road traffic injuries than their peers. Increased risk correlates with poor hazard perception skill. Few studies have investigated hazard perception training using computer technology with this group of drivers. *Determine the presence and magnitude of the between-group and within- subject change in hazard perception skills in young drivers with ADHD who receive Drive Smart training. *Determine whether training-facilitated change in hazard perception is maintained over time. This was a feasibility study, randomised control trial conducted in Australia. The design included a delayed treatment for the control group. Twenty-five drivers with a diagnosis of ADHD were randomised to the Immediate Intervention or Delayed Intervention group.The Immediate Intervention group received a training session using a computer application entitled Drive Smart. The Delayed Intervention group watched a documentary video initially (control condition), followed by the Drive Smart computer training session. The participant's hazard perception skill was measured using the Hazard Perception Test (HPT). After adjusting for baseline scores, there was a significant betweengroup difference in post-intervention HPT change scores in favour of the Immediate Intervention group. The magnitude of the effect was large. There was no significant within-group delayed intervention effect. A significant maintenance effect was found at 6-week follow-up for the Immediate Intervention group. The hazard perception skills of participants improved following training with large effect size and some maintenance of gain. A multimodal approach to training is indicated to facilitate maintenance. A full-scale trial is feasible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP hazards.

  12. Effect of antioxidants treatments to control hazard of radiation exposure and food aflatoxin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Rahman, N.A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective role of diadezin and/or lycopene (prolonged administration) against biochemical and histopathological changes in male rats exposed to gamma radiation and / or aflatoxin B1.Irradiated rats were whole body exposed to fractionated 8 Gy γradiations (4 x 2 Gy, every other day). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)exposed rats were received 10μg/kg body weight for 7 consecutive days. Daidzein delivered to rats via stomach tube at a concentration of 63 mg/kg body weight/day. Whereas lycopene was ingested at a concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were sacrificed on the 1 st day post the last irradiation dose. The results obtained showed that irradiation and/or AFB1 induced significant change in blood enzymes (alanine aminotransferase; ALT and aspartate aminotransferase; AST) activity as well as in the level of serum cholesterol. triglycerides, phospholipids, uric acid, urea, creatinine, total proteins and albumin. These changes were accompanied with a significant alteration in the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase; SOD, catalase; CAT activity and glutathione concentration; GSH) and a significant increase in the peroxidation processes (TBARS). In addition , the histological investigation displayed remarkable changes in liver photomicrographs compared to the sections of liver in control rats.

  13. Structural Consistency, Consistency, and Sequential Rationality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kreps, David M; Ramey, Garey

    1987-01-01

    Sequential equilibria comprise consistent beliefs and a sequentially ra tional strategy profile. Consistent beliefs are limits of Bayes ratio nal beliefs for sequences of strategies that approach the equilibrium strategy. Beliefs are structurally consistent if they are rationaliz ed by some single conjecture concerning opponents' strategies. Consis tent beliefs are not necessarily structurally consistent, notwithstan ding a claim by Kreps and Robert Wilson (1982). Moreover, the spirit of stru...

  14. Control of a self guided tracked vehicle for hazardous waste removal using GPS positioning and ultrasonic collision avoidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, B.; Lokhorst, D.; Fung, P.; Rice, P.

    1996-01-01

    In 1994 a large hydraulic telerobotic tracked transport vehicle (TTV) was built for Lockheed Idaho Technologies by a team of companies consisting of RAHCO International of Spokane, Spar Aerospace of Toronto and RSI Research of Victoria. The TTV was developed as a part of the Department of Energy's Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program to transport low level transuranic waste in a safe, dust-free manner minimizing the potential spread of airborne contaminants. The TTV was controlled from a remote control station by an operator relying on video and sensor feedback. This paper describes the control system of SGTV, a self guided version of the TTV developed in 1995 to travel autonomously between loading and off-loading points while automatically avoiding obstacles in its path. Self-guidance is divided between a supervisory Mission Planning and Control computer (WC) and an on-board system of five networked computers

  15. 78 FR 11611 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... related to the proposed rule on ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based... . All comments should be identified with the title ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard... rulemaking to modernize the regulation for ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice In Manufacturing, Packing...

  16. 78 FR 48636 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... collection related to the proposed rule, ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk... period. These two proposals are related to the proposed rule ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and... final extension of the comment period for the ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis...

  17. Implementation of health and safety management system to reduce hazardous potential in PT.XYZ Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, L.; Adianto; Sartika, D. I.

    2017-12-01

    PT. XYZ is a large automotive manufacturing company that manufacture, assemble as well as a car exporter. The other products are spare parts, jig and dies. PT. XYZ has long been implementing the Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) to reduce the potential hazards that cause work accidents. However, this does not mean that OSHMS that has been implemented does not need to be upgraded and improved. This is due to the potential danger caused by work is quite high. This research was conducted in Sunter 2 Plant where its production activities have a high level of potential hazard. Based on Hazard Identification risk assessment, Risk Assessment, and Risk Control (HIRARC) found 10 potential hazards in Plant Stamping Production, consisting of 4 very high risk potential hazards (E), 5 high risk potential hazards (H), and 1 moderate risk potential hazard (M). While in Plant Casting Production found 22 potential hazards findings consist of 7 very high risk potential hazards (E), 12 high risk potential hazards (H), and 3 medium risk potential hazards (M). Based on the result of Fault Tree Analysis (FTA), the main priority is the high risk potential hazards (H) and very high risk potential hazards (E). The proposed improvement are to make the visual display of the importance of always using the correct Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), establishing good working procedures, conducting OSH training for workers on a regular basis, and continuing to conduct safety campaigns.

  18. Radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch, L.

    1979-01-01

    On a scientific basis and with the aid of realistic examples, the author gives a popular introduction to an understanding and judgment of the public discussion over radiation hazards: Uses and hazards of X-ray examinations, biological radiation effects, civilisation risks in comparison, origins and explanation of radiation protection regulations. (orig.) [de

  19. Microbiological performance of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based food safety management systems: A case of Nile perch processing company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based Food Safety Management System (FSMS) of a Nile perch exporting company by using a combined assessment, This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output

  20. Double-walled control valves for the transport of liquids presenting a water pollution hazard; Doppelwandige Stellventile fuer den Transport wassergefaehrdender Fluessigkeiten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daume, A.; Weissberg, S. [Daume Regelarmaturen GmbH, Isernhagen (Germany)

    2004-09-01

    Under German law valves, vessels and connecting pipework containing and/or transporting hazardous substances must be fitted with watertight drip pans or moniterable double walls. This article describes double-walled control valves which are very well suited to meet plant operators' safety requirements and environmental protection requirements. In addition to environmental protection, the valves provide opportunities for cost savings. (orig.)

  1. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  2. Radiation hazards control activities in BARC and other DAE units in Bombay and Indore: annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagwat, A M; Pimputkar, D P; Mogal, M P; Mehta, S K [comps.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiation Safety Systems Division

    1996-12-31

    The radiation hazards control activities of units of Radiation Safety Systems Division stationed at different plants and facilities of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and other units of Department of Atomic Energy in Bombay are briefly summarised. The activities are reported plantwise and include the following: (i) nature of radioactive operations, (ii) radiological status of the plant, (iii) personnel exposure data including collective and average exposures, (iv) effluent discharges, (v) waste disposal data, and (vi) safety related unusual occurrences and special problems, if any. Important operations for which extensive radiation safety surveillance was provided during the year 1994 are included. During the year 4319 persons were provided with radiation safety coverage at 25 different facilities. The collective dose and the average individual dose for the year 1994 are 6.08 man-Sv and 1.41 mSv respectively. Trends in personnel radiation exposure for a longer period i.e. from 1981 onwards are shown graphically. The figure also shows a steady trend in collective as well as average doses. The major contribution to dose comes from the following facilities: Plutonium Plant, Thorium Plant, Cirus, Radiological Laboratories and Dhruva in the decreasing order. (author). refs., tabs., 1 fig.

  3. Radiation hazards control activities in BARC and other DAE units in Bombay and Indore: annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, A.M.; Pimputkar, D.P.; Mogal, M.P.; Mehta, S.K.

    1995-01-01

    The radiation hazards control activities of units of Radiation Safety Systems Division stationed at different plants and facilities of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre and other units of Department of Atomic Energy in Bombay are briefly summarised. The activities are reported plantwise and include the following: (i) nature of radioactive operations, (ii) radiological status of the plant, (iii) personnel exposure data including collective and average exposures, (iv) effluent discharges, (v) waste disposal data, and (vi) safety related unusual occurrences and special problems, if any. Important operations for which extensive radiation safety surveillance was provided during the year 1994 are included. During the year 4319 persons were provided with radiation safety coverage at 25 different facilities. The collective dose and the average individual dose for the year 1994 are 6.08 man-Sv and 1.41 mSv respectively. Trends in personnel radiation exposure for a longer period i.e. from 1981 onwards are shown graphically. The figure also shows a steady trend in collective as well as average doses. The major contribution to dose comes from the following facilities: Plutonium Plant, Thorium Plant, Cirus, Radiological Laboratories and Dhruva in the decreasing order. (author). refs., tabs., 1 fig

  4. Controlling Electrical Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...). In general, OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire Protection Associations Standard NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, and in turn, from the National Electrical Code (NEC...

  5. Toward risk assessment 2.0: Safety supervisory control and model-based hazard monitoring for risk-informed safety interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favarò, Francesca M.; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2016-01-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) is a staple in the engineering risk community, and it has become to some extent synonymous with the entire quantitative risk assessment undertaking. Limitations of PRA continue to occupy researchers, and workarounds are often proposed. After a brief review of this literature, we propose to address some of PRA's limitations by developing a novel framework and analytical tools for model-based system safety, or safety supervisory control, to guide safety interventions and support a dynamic approach to risk assessment and accident prevention. Our work shifts the emphasis from the pervading probabilistic mindset in risk assessment toward the notions of danger indices and hazard temporal contingency. The framework and tools here developed are grounded in Control Theory and make use of the state-space formalism in modeling dynamical systems. We show that the use of state variables enables the definition of metrics for accident escalation, termed hazard levels or danger indices, which measure the “proximity” of the system state to adverse events, and we illustrate the development of such indices. Monitoring of the hazard levels provides diagnostic information to support both on-line and off-line safety interventions. For example, we show how the application of the proposed tools to a rejected takeoff scenario provides new insight to support pilots’ go/no-go decisions. Furthermore, we augment the traditional state-space equations with a hazard equation and use the latter to estimate the times at which critical thresholds for the hazard level are (b)reached. This estimation process provides important prognostic information and produces a proxy for a time-to-accident metric or advance notice for an impending adverse event. The ability to estimate these two hazard coordinates, danger index and time-to-accident, offers many possibilities for informing system control strategies and improving accident prevention and risk mitigation

  6. Industrial hazard and safety handbook

    CERN Document Server

    King, Ralph W

    1979-01-01

    Industrial Hazard and Safety Handbook (Revised Impression) describes and exposes the main hazards found in industry, with emphasis on how these hazards arise, are ignored, are identified, are eliminated, or are controlled. These hazard conditions can be due to human stresses (for example, insomnia), unsatisfactory working environments, as well as secret industrial processes. The book reviews the cost of accidents, human factors, inspections, insurance, legal aspects, planning for major emergencies, organization, and safety measures. The text discusses regulations, codes of practice, site layou

  7. QMRA (quantitative microbial risk assessment) and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control points) for management of pathogens in wastewater and sewage sludge treatment and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrell, T; Schönning, C; Stenström, T A; Ashbolt, N J

    2004-01-01

    Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) was applied for identifying and controlling exposure to pathogenic microorganisms encountered during normal sludge and wastewater handling at a 12,500 m3/d treatment plant utilising tertiary wastewater treatment and mesophilic sludge digestion. The hazardous scenarios considered were human exposure during treatment, handling, soil application and crop consumption, and exposure via water at the wetland-area and recreational swimming. A quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), including rotavirus, adenovirus, haemorrhagic E. coli, Salmonella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium, was performed in order to prioritise pathogen hazards for control purposes. Human exposures were treated as individual risks but also related to the endemic situation in the general population. The highest individual health risk from a single exposure was via aerosols for workers at the belt press for sludge dewatering (virus infection risk = 1). The largest impact on the community would arise if children ingested sludge at the unprotected storage site, although in the worst-case situation the largest number of infections would arise through vegetables fertilised with sludge and eaten raw (not allowed in Sweden). Acceptable risk for various hazardous scenarios, treatment and/or reuse strategies could be tested in the model.

  8. SCI Hazard Report Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the methodology in creating a Source Control Item (SCI) Hazard Report (HR). The SCI HR provides a system safety risk assessment for the following Ares I Upper Stage Production Contract (USPC) components (1) Pyro Separation Systems (2) Main Propulsion System (3) Reaction and Roll Control Systems (4) Thrust Vector Control System and (5) Ullage Settling Motor System components.

  9. Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes. A Comparative Analysis of Policy Options to Control the International Waste Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilz, Christoph; Ehrenfeld, John R.

    1991-01-01

    Several policy frameworks for managing hazardous waste import/export are examined with respect to economic issues, environmental sustainability, and administrative feasibility and effectiveness. Several recommendations for improving the present instrument and implementing process are offered. (Author/CW)

  10. Notification: FY 2012 Management Challenges and Internal Control Weaknesses for the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    February 1, 2012. The EPA Office of Inspector General is beginning work to update our list of areas we consider to be the key management challenges confronting the Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board.

  11. Hazardous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... substances that could harm human health or the environment. Hazardous means dangerous, so these materials must be ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  12. ''Hazardous'' terminology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J.

    1991-01-01

    A number of terms (e.g., ''hazardous chemicals,'' ''hazardous materials,'' ''hazardous waste,'' and similar nomenclature) refer to substances that are subject to regulation under one or more federal environmental laws. State laws and regulations also provide additional, similar, or identical terminology that may be confused with the federally defined terms. Many of these terms appear synonymous, and it easy to use them interchangeably. However, in a regulatory context, inappropriate use of narrowly defined terms can lead to confusion about the substances referred to, the statutory provisions that apply, and the regulatory requirements for compliance under the applicable federal statutes. This information Brief provides regulatory definitions, a brief discussion of compliance requirements, and references for the precise terminology that should be used when referring to ''hazardous'' substances regulated under federal environmental laws. A companion CERCLA Information Brief (EH-231-004/0191) addresses ''toxic'' nomenclature

  13. Welding hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Welding technology is advancing rapidly in the developed countries and has converted into a science. Welding involving the use of electricity include resistance welding. Welding shops are opened in residential area, which was causing safety hazards, particularly the teenagers and children who eagerly see the welding arc with their naked eyes. There are radiation hazards from ultra violet rays which irritate the skin, eye irritation. Welding arc light of such intensity could damage the eyes. (Orig./A.B.)

  14. Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil; Analise de perigos e pontos criticos de controle para alimentos irradiados no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra

    2004-07-01

    Food borne diseases, in particular gastro-intestinal infections, represent a very large group of pathologies with a strong negative impact on the health of the population because of their widespread nature. Little consideration is given to such conditions due to the fact that their symptoms are often moderate and self-limiting. This has led to a general underestimation of their importance, and consequently to incorrect practices during the preparation and preservation of food, resulting in the frequent occurrence of outbreaks involving groups of varying numbers of consumers. Despite substantial efforts in the avoidance of contamination, an upward trend in the number of outbreaks of food borne illnesses caused by non-spore forming pathogenic bacteria are reported in many countries. Good hygienic practices can reduce the level of contamination but the most important pathogens cannot presently be eliminated from most farms, nor is it possible to eliminate them by primary processing, particularly from those foods which are sold raw. Several decontamination methods exist but the most versatile treatment among them is the ionizing radiation procedure. HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) is a management system in which food safety is addressed through the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. For successful implementation of a HACCP plan, management must be strongly committed to the HACCP concept. A firm commitment to HACCP by top management provides company employees with a sense of the importance of producing safe food. At the same time, it has to be always emphasized that, like other intervention strategies, irradiation must be applied as part of a total sanitation program. The benefits of irradiation should never be considered as an excuse for poor quality or for poor handling and storage conditions

  15. Improving risk assessment by defining consistent and reliable system scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mazzorana

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available During the entire procedure of risk assessment for hydrologic hazards, the selection of consistent and reliable scenarios, constructed in a strictly systematic way, is fundamental for the quality and reproducibility of the results. However, subjective assumptions on relevant impact variables such as sediment transport intensity on the system loading side and weak point response mechanisms repeatedly cause biases in the results, and consequently affect transparency and required quality standards. Furthermore, the system response of mitigation measures to extreme event loadings represents another key variable in hazard assessment, as well as the integral risk management including intervention planning. Formative Scenario Analysis, as a supplement to conventional risk assessment methods, is a technique to construct well-defined sets of assumptions to gain insight into a specific case and the potential system behaviour. By two case studies, carried out (1 to analyse sediment transport dynamics in a torrent section equipped with control measures, and (2 to identify hazards induced by woody debris transport at hydraulic weak points, the applicability of the Formative Scenario Analysis technique is presented. It is argued that during scenario planning in general and with respect to integral risk management in particular, Formative Scenario Analysis allows for the development of reliable and reproducible scenarios in order to design more specifically an application framework for the sustainable assessment of natural hazards impact. The overall aim is to optimise the hazard mapping and zoning procedure by methodologically integrating quantitative and qualitative knowledge.

  16. Nitrous Oxide Explosive Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    concentrations of N2O. A test program is suggested that could answer questions about decomposition propagation control in large N2O systems and hazards...accident. OSHA fined Scaled Composites for not training their workers informing them about N2O hazards, instructing them on safe procedures, and...seemed present that could produce temperatures in excess of the autogeneous ignition temperature (AIT) for the polymers? Autogeneous ignition

  17. Screening and brief interventions for hazardous alcohol use in accident and emergency departments: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myles Judy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a wealth of evidence regarding the detrimental impact of excessive alcohol consumption on the physical, psychological and social health of the population. There also exists a substantial evidence base for the efficacy of brief interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption across a range of healthcare settings. Primary research conducted in emergency departments has reinforced the current evidence regarding the potential effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. Within this body of evidence there is marked variation in the intensity of brief intervention delivered, from very minimal interventions to more intensive behavioural or lifestyle counselling approaches. Further the majority of primary research has been conducted in single centre and there is little evidence of the wider issues of generalisability and implementation of brief interventions across emergency departments. Methods/design The study design is a prospective pragmatic factorial cluster randomised controlled trial. Individual Emergency Departments (ED (n = 9 are randomised with equal probability to a combination of screening tool (M-SASQ vs FAST vs SIPS-PAT and an intervention (Minimal intervention vs Brief advice vs Brief lifestyle counselling. The primary hypothesis is that brief lifestyle counselling delivered by an Alcohol Health Worker (AHW is more effective than Brief Advice or a minimal intervention delivered by ED staff. Secondary hypotheses address whether short screening instruments are more acceptable and as efficient as longer screening instruments and the cost-effectiveness of screening and brief interventions in ED. Individual participants will be followed up at 6 and 12 months after consent. The primary outcome measure is performance using a gold-standard screening test (AUDIT. Secondary outcomes include; quantity and frequency of alcohol consumed, alcohol-related problems, motivation to change, health related quality of life and

  18. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  19. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, H. K.; Ichinose, G. A.; Somerville, P. G.; Polet, J.

    2006-12-01

    The recent tsunami disaster caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake has focused our attention to the hazard posed by large earthquakes that occur under water, in particular subduction zone earthquakes, and the tsunamis that they generate. Even though these kinds of events are rare, the very large loss of life and material destruction caused by this earthquake warrant a significant effort towards the mitigation of the tsunami hazard. For ground motion hazard, Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA) has become a standard practice in the evaluation and mitigation of seismic hazard to populations in particular with respect to structures, infrastructure and lifelines. Its ability to condense the complexities and variability of seismic activity into a manageable set of parameters greatly facilitates the design of effective seismic resistant buildings but also the planning of infrastructure projects. Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Analysis (PTHA) achieves the same goal for hazards posed by tsunami. There are great advantages of implementing such a method to evaluate the total risk (seismic and tsunami) to coastal communities. The method that we have developed is based on the traditional PSHA and therefore completely consistent with standard seismic practice. Because of the strong dependence of tsunami wave heights on bathymetry, we use a full waveform tsunami waveform computation in lieu of attenuation relations that are common in PSHA. By pre-computing and storing the tsunami waveforms at points along the coast generated for sets of subfaults that comprise larger earthquake faults, we can efficiently synthesize tsunami waveforms for any slip distribution on those faults by summing the individual subfault tsunami waveforms (weighted by their slip). This efficiency make it feasible to use Green's function summation in lieu of attenuation relations to provide very accurate estimates of tsunami height for probabilistic calculations, where one typically computes

  20. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garnier-Laplace, J.; Geras’kin, S.; Della-Vedova, C.; Beaugelin-Seiller, K.; Hinton, T.G.; Real, A.; Oudalova, A.

    2013-01-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background∼100 nGy/h up to ∼10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate–effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution – SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR 50 ) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. -- Highlights: ► Discrepancy between controlled tests and Chernobyl effects data on wildlife was examined. ► We proposed a method to correct the dosimetry used for Chernobyl wildlife. ► Wildlife from the

  1. Estimating adverse selection and moral hazard effects with hospital invoices data in a government-controlled healthcare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangping; Nestic, Danijel; Vukina, Tomislav

    2012-08-01

    We use invoices for hospital services from a regional hospital in Croatia to test for adverse selection and moral hazard. There are three categories of patients: with no supplemental insurance, who bought it, and who are entitled to it for free. Our identification procedure relies on the premise that the difference in the observed medical care consumption between the patients who bought the insurance and those entitled to free insurance is caused by pure selection effect, whereas the difference in healthcare consumption between the group that received the free insurance and the group that has no insurance is due to moral hazard. Results show favorable selection for patients in 20- to 30-year-old cohort and significant moral hazard for all age cohorts. The selection effect reverses its sign in older cohorts explained by the differences in risk aversion across cohorts caused by the timing of transition from socialism to market economy. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Informing Workers of Chemical Hazards: The OSHA Hazard Communication Standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Chemical Society, Washington, DC.

    Practical information on how to implement a chemical-related safety program is outlined in this publication. Highlights of the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administrations (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard are presented and explained. These include: (1) hazard communication requirements (consisting of warning labels, material safety…

  3. Are radiosensitivity data derived from natural field conditions consistent with data from controlled exposures? A case study of Chernobyl wildlife chronically exposed to low dose rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier-Laplace, J; Geras'kin, S; Della-Vedova, C; Beaugelin-Seiller, K; Hinton, T G; Real, A; Oudalova, A

    2013-07-01

    The discrepancy between laboratory or controlled conditions ecotoxicity tests and field data on wildlife chronically exposed to ionising radiation is presented for the first time. We reviewed the available chronic radiotoxicity data acquired in contaminated fields and used a statistical methodology to support the comparison with knowledge on inter-species variation of sensitivity to controlled external γ irradiation. We focus on the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and effects data on terrestrial wildlife reported in the literature corresponding to chronic dose rate exposure situations (from background ~100 nGy/h up to ~10 mGy/h). When needed, we reconstructed the dose rate to organisms and obtained consistent unbiased data sets necessary to establish the dose rate-effect relationship for a number of different species and endpoints. Then, we compared the range of variation of radiosensitivity of species from the Chernobyl-Exclusion Zone with the statistical distribution established for terrestrial species chronically exposed to purely gamma external irradiation (or chronic Species radioSensitivity Distribution - SSD). We found that the best estimate of the median value (HDR50) of the distribution established for field conditions at Chernobyl (about 100 μGy/h) was eight times lower than the one from controlled experiments (about 850 μGy/h), suggesting that organisms in their natural environmental were more sensitive to radiation. This first comparison highlights the lack of mechanistic understanding and the potential confusion coming from sampling strategies in the field. To confirm the apparent higher sensitive of wildlife in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, we call for more a robust strategy in field, with adequate design to deal with confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comprehensive review of the implementation of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) to the production of flour and flour-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Traikou, Athina

    2005-01-01

    The production of flour and semolina and their ensuing products, such as bread, cake, spaghetti, noodles, and corn flakes, is of major importance, because these products constitute some of the main ingredients of the human diet. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system aims at ensuring the safety of these products. HACCP has been implemented within the frame of this study on various products of both Asian and European origin; the hazards, critical control limits (CCLs), observation practices, and corrective actions have been summarized in comprehensive tables. Furthermore, the various production steps, packaging included, were thoroughly analyzed, and reference was made to both the traditional and new methodologies in an attempt to pinpoint the occurring differences (advantages and disadvantages) per process.

  5. Is Consumer Response to Plain/Standardised Tobacco Packaging Consistent with Framework Convention on Tobacco Control Guidelines? A Systematic Review of Quantitative Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I.; Bryce, Stuart L.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Standardised or ‘plain’ tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Methods Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. Conclusions The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way

  6. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Moodie, Crawford; Angus, Kathryn; Bauld, Linda; McNeill, Ann; Thomas, James; Hastings, Gerard; Hinds, Kate; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Kwan, Irene; Purves, Richard I; Bryce, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm. Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample. The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions regarding product harm

  7. Is consumer response to plain/standardised tobacco packaging consistent with framework convention on tobacco control guidelines? A systematic review of quantitative studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Stead

    Full Text Available Standardised or 'plain' tobacco packaging was introduced in Australia in December 2012 and is currently being considered in other countries. The primary objective of this systematic review was to locate, assess and synthesise published and grey literature relating to the potential impacts of standardised tobacco packaging as proposed by the guidelines for the international Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: reduced appeal, increased salience and effectiveness of health warnings, and more accurate perceptions of product strength and harm.Electronic databases were searched and researchers in the field were contacted to identify studies. Eligible studies were published or unpublished primary research of any design, issued since 1980 and concerning tobacco packaging. Twenty-five quantitative studies reported relevant outcomes and met the inclusion criteria. A narrative synthesis was conducted.Studies that explored the impact of package design on appeal consistently found that standardised packaging reduced the appeal of cigarettes and smoking, and was associated with perceived lower quality, poorer taste and less desirable smoker identities. Although findings were mixed, standardised packs tended to increase the salience and effectiveness of health warnings in terms of recall, attention, believability and seriousness, with effects being mediated by the warning size, type and position on pack. Pack colour was found to influence perceptions of product harm and strength, with darker coloured standardised packs generally perceived as containing stronger tasting and more harmful cigarettes than fully branded packs; lighter coloured standardised packs suggested weaker and less harmful cigarettes. Findings were largely consistent, irrespective of location and sample.The evidence strongly suggests that standardised packaging will reduce the appeal of packaging and of smoking in general; that it will go some way to reduce consumer misperceptions

  8. Penerapan Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP terhadap penurunan bahaya mikrobiologis pada makanan khusus anak berbasis hewani di Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah Dr. Soedarsono Pontianak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyana Lakshmi Puspita

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One way to improve the quality of food provision in hospitals is by implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP in food processing. Objective: The study aimed to identify the effect of HACCP implementation to the decrease of microbiological hazards of foods for children in particular at Nutrition Installation of Dr. Soedarso Hospital of Pontianak. Methods: The study was a quasi experiment that use multiple time series design with intervention and cassation of intervention (ABA time series chain. Samples of the study were animal based food for children, cooking utensils used preparation, processing, and distribution of the food, the food providers and food processing containers. Samples were taken 3 times before and after the implementation of HACCP, each within a week duration. Result: Average germ rate in foods and cooking utensils before implementation of HACCP was relatively high. After the implementation of HACCP there was a decrease. The result of statistical analysis showed that there were effects of HACCP implementation to the reduction of microbiological hazards in foods and cooking utensils (p<0.05. Average score of knowledge on sanitation hygiene of food and practice of sanitation hygiene of foods after HACCP implementation increased. There was an increase of average score of knowledge on food sanitation hygiene and practice of food sanitation hygiene of HACCP implementation (p<0.05. Average score of sanitation hygiene of food processing container after HACCP implementation increased. Conclusion: The implementation of HACCP could reduce microbiological hazards (germ rate of animal based special foods for children.

  9. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system in a food service unit serving immuno-suppressed patient diets / E.E. Vermeulen

    OpenAIRE

    Vermeulen, Emma Emmerenza

    2006-01-01

    Main aim: To supply recommendations to implement a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in a hospital food service unit serving low bacterial diets in order to prevent or decrease the infection rates in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) patients. Objectives: Firstly, to investigate the current food safety and hygiene status in a hospital food service unit, serving low bacterial diets, by means of a questionnaire and bacterial swabs taken from the...

  10. Levels of and changes in life satisfaction predict mortality hazards: Disentangling the role of physical health, perceived control, and social orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülür, Gizem; Heckhausen, Jutta; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Infurna, Frank J; Wagner, Gert G; Ram, Nilam; Gerstorf, Denis

    2017-09-01

    It is well documented that well-being typically evinces precipitous decrements at the end of life. However, research has primarily taken a postdictive approach by knowing the outcome (date of death) and aligning, in retrospect, how well-being has changed for people with documented death events. In the present study, we made use of a predictive approach by examining whether and how levels of and changes in life satisfaction prospectively predict mortality hazards and delineate the role of contributing factors, including health, perceived control, and social orientation. To do so, we applied shared parameter growth-survival models to 20-year longitudinal data from 10,597 participants (n = 1,560 [15%] deceased; age at baseline: M = 44 years, SD = 17, range = 18-98 years) from the national German Socio-Economic Panel Study. Our findings showed that lower levels and steeper declines of life satisfaction each uniquely predicted higher mortality risks. Results also revealed moderating effects of age and perceived control: Life satisfaction levels and changes had stronger predictive effects for mortality hazards among older adults. Perceived control was associated with lower mortality hazards; however, this effect was diminished for those who experienced accelerated life satisfaction decline. Variance decomposition suggests that predictive effects of life satisfaction trajectories were partially unique (3%-6%) and partially shared with physical health, perceived control, and social orientation (17%-19%). Our discussion focuses on the strengths and challenges of a predictive approach to link developmental changes (in life satisfaction) to mortality hazards, and considers implications of our findings for healthy aging. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Hazardous air pollutant emissions from process units in the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry: Background information for proposed standards. Volume 1B. Control technologies. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    A draft rule for the regulation of emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAP's) from chemical processes of the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI) is being proposed under the authority of Sections 112, 114, 116, and 301 of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990. The volume of the Background Information Document presents discussions of control technologies used in the industry and the costs of those technologies

  12. 78 FR 64735 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ..., chemical, physical, or radiological contaminates of the food that can cause animal or human health concerns.... The contaminants addressed by the FCP can be hazardous to livestock health and production, pet health... health organizations, and pet food manufacturers, to issue new regulations establishing, among other...

  13. 78 FR 69604 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Register of January 16, 2013 (78 FR 3646), entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and... a proposed rule entitled ``Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based..., 114, 117, 120, 123, 129, 179, and 211 [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0920] RIN 0910-AG36 Current Good...

  14. A novel osmotic pump-based controlled delivery system consisting of pH-modulated solid dispersion for poorly soluble drug flurbiprofen: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shujuan; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yingying; Zhao, Qianqian; Zhang, Lina; Yang, Xinggang; Liu, Dandan; Pan, Weisan

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a novel controlled release osmotic pump capsule consisting of pH-modulated solid dispersion for poorly soluble drug flurbiprofen (FP) was developed to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of FP and to minimize the fluctuation of plasma concentration. The pH-modulated solid dispersion containing FP, Kollidon® 12 PF and Na2CO3 at a weight ratio of 1/4.5/0.02 was prepared using the solvent evaporation method. The osmotic pump capsule was assembled by semi-permeable capsule shell of cellulose acetate (CA) prepared by the perfusion method. Then, the solid dispersion, penetration enhancer, and suspending agents were tableted and filled into the capsule. Central composite design-response surface methodology was used to evaluate the influence of factors on the responses. A second-order polynomial model and a multiple linear model were fitted to correlation coefficient of drug release profile and ultimate cumulative release in 12 h, respectively. The actual response values were in good accordance with the predicted ones. The optimized formulation showed a complete drug delivery and zero-order release rate. Beagle dogs were used to be conducted in the pharmacokinetic study. The in vivo study indicated that the relative bioavailability of the novel osmotic pump system was 133.99% compared with the commercial preparation. The novel controlled delivery system with combination of pH-modulated solid dispersion and osmotic pump system is not only a promising strategy to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of poorly soluble ionizable drugs but also an effective way to reduce dosing frequency and minimize the plasma fluctuation.

  15. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-06-01

    In recent decades, the control banding (CB) approach has been recognised as a hazard assessment methodology because of its increased importance in the occupational safety, health and hygiene (OSHH) industry. According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association, this approach originates from the pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom. The aim of the CB approach is to protect more than 90% (or approximately 2.7 billion) of the world’s workers who do not have access to OSHH professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods. In other words, CB is a qualitative or semi-quantitative tool designed to prevent occupational accidents by controlling worker exposures to potentially hazardous chemicals in the absence of comprehensive toxicological and exposure data. These criteria correspond very precisely to the development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Considering the significant lack of scientific knowledge about work-related health risks because of ENMs, CB is, in general, appropriate for these issues. Currently, CB can be adapted to the specificities of ENMs; hundreds of nanotechnology products containing ENMs are already on the market. In this context, this qualitative or semi-quantitative approach appears to be relevant for characterising and quantifying the degree of physico-chemical and biological reactivities of ENMs, leading towards better control of human health effects and the safe handling of ENMs in workplaces. The need to greater understand the CB approach is important to further manage the risks related to handling hazardous substances, such as ENMs, without established occupational exposure limits. In recent years, this topic has garnered much interest, including discussions in many technical papers. Several CB models have been developed, and many countries have created their own nano-specific CB instruments. The aims of this research were to perform a literature review about CBs, to classify the main

  16. Nanomaterials, and Occupational Health and Safety—A Literature Review About Control Banding and a Semi-Quantitative Method Proposed for Hazard Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimou, Kaotar; Emond, Claude

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, the control banding (CB) approach has been recognised as a hazard assessment methodology because of its increased importance in the occupational safety, health and hygiene (OSHH) industry. According to the American Industrial Hygiene Association, this approach originates from the pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom. The aim of the CB approach is to protect more than 90% (or approximately 2.7 billion) of the world’s workers who do not have access to OSHH professionals and traditional quantitative risk assessment methods. In other words, CB is a qualitative or semi-quantitative tool designed to prevent occupational accidents by controlling worker exposures to potentially hazardous chemicals in the absence of comprehensive toxicological and exposure data. These criteria correspond very precisely to the development and production of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). Considering the significant lack of scientific knowledge about work-related health risks because of ENMs, CB is, in general, appropriate for these issues. Currently, CB can be adapted to the specificities of ENMs; hundreds of nanotechnology products containing ENMs are already on the market. In this context, this qualitative or semi-quantitative approach appears to be relevant for characterising and quantifying the degree of physico-chemical and biological reactivities of ENMs, leading towards better control of human health effects and the safe handling of ENMs in workplaces. The need to greater understand the CB approach is important to further manage the risks related to handling hazardous substances, such as ENMs, without established occupational exposure limits. In recent years, this topic has garnered much interest, including discussions in many technical papers. Several CB models have been developed, and many countries have created their own nano-specific CB instruments. The aims of this research were to perform a literature review about CBs, to classify the main

  17. Runoff inundation hazard cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineux, N.; Degré, A.

    2012-04-01

    Between 1998 and 2004, Europe suffered from more than hundred major inundations, responsible for some 700 deaths, for the moving of about half a million of people and the economic losses of at least 25 billions Euros covered by the insurance policies. Within this context, EU launched the 2007/60/CE directive. The inundations are natural phenomenon. They cannot be avoided. Nevertheless this directive permits to better evaluate the risks and to coordinate the management measures taken at member states level. In most countries, inundation maps only include rivers' overflowing. In Wallonia, overland flows and mudflows also cause huge damages, and must be included in the flood hazard map. Indeed, the cleaning operations for a village can lead to an estimated cost of 11 000 €. Average construction cost of retention dams to control off-site damage caused by floods and muddy flows was valued at 380 000€, and yearly dredging costs associated with these retention ponds at 15 000€. For a small city for which a study was done in a more specific way (Gembloux), the mean annual cost for the damages that can generate the runoff is about 20 000€. This cost consists of the physical damages caused to the real estate and movable properties of the residents as well as the emergency operations of the firemen and the city. On top of damages to public infrastructure (clogging of trenches, silting up of retention ponds) and to private property by muddy flows, runoff generates a significant loss of arable land. Yet, the soil resource is not an unlimited commodity. Moreover, sediments' transfer to watercourses alters their physical and chemical quality. And that is not to mention the increased psychological stress for people. But to map overland flood and mud flow hazard is a real challenge. This poster will present the methodology used to in Wallonia. The methodology is based on 3 project rainfalls: 25, 50 and 100 years return period (consistency with the cartography of the

  18. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry van der Heever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1% tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT (score 8 or more. Among the 147 (96.7% university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009. Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting.

  19. System Chemistry to Control Potential Environmental and Safety Hazards of Recycled Concrete Aggregate With Lead-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    will usually buffer the TCLP test so it would not be classified as a hazardous waste. Acidification of soil does change the chemistry and mobility...crushed concrete product from around the stockpile at Fort Jackson (Figure 8). Each sample of a few kilograms was placed in a plastic “zip-lock...Jackson, rainfall quantity and pH for Columbia, SC first had to be determined. 5.2 Columbia rain data A review of data from National Oceanic and

  20. [Present state and problems of work environment control in the workplaces using hazardous materials based on the Occupational Safety and Health Act in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Hajime

    2013-10-01

    In Japan, working environment measurement is prescribed in the designated workplaces using hazardous materials. Measurements should be carried out periodically and countermeasures are performed depending on the results. By introducing such a system, working environments have remarkably improved. However, in the designated workplaces, measurements should be continued even in work environments found safe. On the other hand, measurement need not be obliged for non-designated workplaces even if hazardous materials are utilized.In the United States of America and many European countries, work environment management and work management are carried out by measuring personal exposure concentrations. In Japan, the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare is now discussing the introduction of personal exposure monitoring. However, many problems exist to prevent the simple introduction of American and European methods. This paper describes the brief history, present state and problems of work environment control in Japan, comparing with the systems of American and European countries.

  1. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  2. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  3. Bitcoin Meets Strong Consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Decker, Christian; Seidel, Jochen; Wattenhofer, Roger

    2014-01-01

    The Bitcoin system only provides eventual consistency. For everyday life, the time to confirm a Bitcoin transaction is prohibitively slow. In this paper we propose a new system, built on the Bitcoin blockchain, which enables strong consistency. Our system, PeerCensus, acts as a certification authority, manages peer identities in a peer-to-peer network, and ultimately enhances Bitcoin and similar systems with strong consistency. Our extensive analysis shows that PeerCensus is in a secure state...

  4. Integrated Geo Hazard Management System in Cloud Computing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanifah, M. I. M.; Omar, R. C.; Khalid, N. H. N.; Ismail, A.; Mustapha, I. S.; Baharuddin, I. N. Z.; Roslan, R.; Zalam, W. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    Geo hazard can result in reducing of environmental health and huge economic losses especially in mountainous area. In order to mitigate geo-hazard effectively, cloud computer technology are introduce for managing geo hazard database. Cloud computing technology and it services capable to provide stakeholder's with geo hazards information in near to real time for an effective environmental management and decision-making. UNITEN Integrated Geo Hazard Management System consist of the network management and operation to monitor geo-hazard disaster especially landslide in our study area at Kelantan River Basin and boundary between Hulu Kelantan and Hulu Terengganu. The system will provide easily manage flexible measuring system with data management operates autonomously and can be controlled by commands to collects and controls remotely by using “cloud” system computing. This paper aims to document the above relationship by identifying the special features and needs associated with effective geohazard database management using “cloud system”. This system later will use as part of the development activities and result in minimizing the frequency of the geo-hazard and risk at that research area.

  5. Consistent classical supergravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book offers a presentation of both conformal and Poincare supergravity. The consistent four-dimensional supergravity theories are classified. The formulae needed for further modelling are included

  6. Use of butterflies as nontarget insect test species and the acute toxicity and hazard of mosquito control insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Tham C; Pryor, Rachel L; Rand, Gary M; Frakes, Robert A

    2011-04-01

    Honeybees are the standard insect test species used for toxicity testing of pesticides on nontarget insects for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) under the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Butterflies are another important insect order and a valued ecological resource in pollination. The current study conducted acute toxicity tests with naled, permethrin, and dichlorvos on fifth larval instar (caterpillars) and adults of different native Florida, USA, butterfly species to determine median lethal doses (24-h LD50), because limited acute toxicity data are available with this major insect group. Thorax- and wing-only applications of each insecticide were conducted. Based on LD50s, thorax and wing application exposures were acutely toxic to both caterpillars and adults. Permethrin was the most acutely toxic insecticide after thorax exposure to fifth instars and adult butterflies. However, no generalization on acute toxicity (sensitivity) of the insecticides could be concluded based on exposures to fifth instars versus adult butterflies or on thorax versus wing exposures of adult butterflies. A comparison of LD50s of the butterflies from this study (caterpillars and adults) with honeybee LD50s for the adult mosquito insecticides on a µg/organism or µg/g basis indicates that several butterfly species are more sensitive to these insecticides than are honeybees. A comparison of species sensitivity distributions for all three insecticides shows that permethrin had the lowest 10th percentile. Using a hazard quotient approach indicates that both permethrin and naled applications in the field may present potential acute hazards to butterflies, whereas no acute hazard of dichlorvos is apparent in butterflies. Butterflies should be considered as potential test organisms when nontarget insect testing of pesticides is suggested under FIFRA. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results

  8. Fate and transport processes controlling the migration of hazardous and radioactive materials from the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrella, R.

    1994-10-01

    Desert vadose zones have been considered as suitable environments for the safe and long-term isolation of hazardous wastes. Low precipitation, high evapotranspiration and thick unsaturated alluvial deposits commonly found in deserts make them attractive as waste disposal sites. The fate and transport of any contaminant in the subsurface is ultimately determined by the operating retention and transformation processes in the system and the end result of the interactions among them. Retention (sorption) and transformation are the two major processes that affect the amount of a contaminant present and available for transport. Retention processes do not affect the total amount of a contaminant in the soil system, but rather decrease or eliminate the amount available for transport at a given point in time. Sorption reactions retard the contaminant migration. Permanent binding of solute by the sorbent is also possible. These processes and their interactions are controlled by the nature of the hazardous waste, the properties of the porous media and the geochemical and environmental conditions (temperature, moisture and vegetation). The present study summarizes the available data and investigates the fate and transport processes that govern the migration of contaminants from the Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). While the site is currently used only for low-level radioactive waste disposal, past practices have included burial of material now considered hazardous. Fundamentals of chemical and biological transformation processes are discussed subsequently, followed by a discussion of relevant results.

  9. Safety, immunogenicity, and lot-to-lot consistency of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children, adolescents, and adults: A randomized, controlled, phase III trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadorna-Carlos, Josefina B; Nolan, Terry; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Santos, Jaime; Montalban, M Cecilia; de Looze, Ferdinandus J; Eizenberg, Peter; Hall, Stephen; Dupuy, Martin; Hutagalung, Yanee; Pépin, Stéphanie; Saville, Melanie

    2015-05-15

    Inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (IIV4) containing two influenza A strains and one strain from each B lineage (Yamagata and Victoria) may offer broader protection against seasonal influenza than inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (IIV3), containing a single B strain. This study examined the safety, immunogenicity, and lot consistency of an IIV4 candidate. This phase III, randomized, controlled, multicenter trial in children/adolescents (9 through 17 years) and adults (18 through 60 years) was conducted in Australia and in the Philippines in 2012. The study was double-blind for IIV4 lots and open-label for IIV4 vs IIV3. Children/adolescents were randomized 2:2:2:1 and adults 10:10:10:1 to receive one of three lots of IIV4 or licensed IIV3. Safety data were collected for up to 6 months post-vaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition and seroneutralization antibody titers were assessed pre-vaccination and 21 days post-vaccination. 1648 adults and 329 children/adolescents received IIV4, and 56 adults and 55 children/adolescents received IIV3. Solicited reactions, unsolicited adverse events, and serious adverse events were similar for IIV3 and IIV4 recipients in both age groups. Injection-site pain, headache, malaise, and myalgia were the most frequently reported solicited reactions, most of which were mild and resolved within 3 days. No vaccine-related serious adverse events or deaths were reported. Post-vaccination antibody responses, seroconversion rates, and seroprotection rates for the 3 strains common to both vaccines were comparable for IIV3 and IIV4 in both age groups. Antibody responses to IIV4 were equivalent among vaccine lots and comparable between age groups for each of the 4 strains. IIV4 met all European Medicines Agency immunogenicity criteria for adults for all 4 strains. In both age groups, IIV4 was well tolerated and caused no safety concerns, induced robust antibody responses to all 4 influenza strains, and met all EMA immunogenicity

  10. Meat Juice Serology and Improved Food Chain Information as Control Tools for Pork-Related Public Health Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felin, E; Jukola, E; Raulo, S; Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M

    2015-09-01

    The seroprevalence of Salmonella spp., pathogenic Yersinia spp., Toxoplasma gondii and Trichinella spp. was studied in 1353 finishing pigs from 259 farms that were allocated according to farm types: large fattening farms (≥ 1000 pig places), small fattening farms (Food Safety Authority (EFSA) considers Salmonella spp., Yersinia enterocolitica, T. gondii and Trichinella spp. as the most relevant biological hazards in the context of meat inspection of pigs. The seroprevalence of these important zoonotic pathogens was low in Finland, except that of Yersinia. The seroprevalence of Toxoplasma was significantly higher in pigs originating from small-scale fattening farms (P food chain information (FCI). © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  12. Quasiparticles and thermodynamical consistency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanenko, A.A.; Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.

    2003-01-01

    A brief and simple introduction into the problem of the thermodynamical consistency is given. The thermodynamical consistency relations, which should be taken into account under constructing a quasiparticle model, are found in a general manner from the finite-temperature extension of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. Restrictions following from these relations are illustrated by simple physical examples. (author)

  13. 21 CFR 120.7 - Hazard analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard analysis. 120.7 Section 120.7 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... hazards. The written hazard analysis shall consist of at least the following: (1) Identification of food...

  14. Consistent natural phenomena design and evaluation guidelines for U.S. Department of Energy facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Short, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Uniform design and evaluation guidelines for protection against natural phenomena hazards such as earthquakes, extreme winds, and flooding for facilities at Department of Energy (DOE) sites throughout the United States have been developed. The guidelines apply to design of new facilities and to evaluation or modification of existing facilities. These guidelines are an approach for design or evaluation for mitigating the effects of natural phenomena hazards. These guidelines are intended to control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that all hazards are treated on a reasonably consistent and uniform basis and such that the level of conservatism is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, cost, and hazards to on-site personnel, the general public, and the environment. The philosophy and goals of these guidelines are covered by this paper

  15. Spacecraft Charging: Hazard Causes, Hazard Effects, Hazard Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steve.

    2018-01-01

    Spacecraft flight environments are characterized both by a wide range of space plasma conditions and by ionizing radiation (IR), solar ultraviolet and X-rays, magnetic fields, micrometeoroids, orbital debris, and other environmental factors, all of which can affect spacecraft performance. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of spacecraft charging and charging effects that can be applied to solving practical spacecraft and spacesuit engineering design, verification, and operations problems, with an emphasis on spacecraft operations in low-Earth orbit, Earth's magnetosphere, and cis-Lunar space.

  16. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  17. Tsunami hazard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  18. Tsunami hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami on 11 March, 2011 has led the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant to a serious accident, which highlighted a variety of technical issues such as a very low design tsunami height and insufficient preparations in case a tsunami exceeding the design tsunami height. Lessons such as to take measures to be able to maintain the important safety features of the facility for tsunamis exceeding design height and to implement risk management utilizing Probabilistic Safety Assessment are shown. In order to implement the safety assessment on nuclear power plants across Japan accordingly to the back-fit rule, Nuclear Regulatory Commission will promulgate/execute the New Safety Design Criteria in July 2013. JNES has positioned the 'enhancement of probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment' as highest priority issue and implemented in order to support technically the Nuclear Regulatory Authority in formulating the new Safety Design Criteria. Findings of the research had reflected in the 'Technical Review Guidelines for Assessing Design Tsunami Height based on tsunami hazards'. (author)

  19. Occupational health hazards in mining: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, A.M. [Alcoa World Alumina Australia, Perth, WA (Australia)

    2004-08-01

    This review article outlines the physical, chemical, biological, ergonomic and psychosocial occupational health hazards of mining and associated metallurgical processes. Mining remains an important industrial sector in many parts of the world and although substantial progress has been made in the control of occupational health hazards, there remains room for further risk reduction. This applies particularly to traumatic injury hazards, ergonomic hazards and noise. Vigilance is also required to ensure exposures to coal dust and crystalline silica remain effectively controlled.

  20. Consistent integrated automation. Optimized power plant control by means of IEC 61850; Durchgaengig automatisieren. Optimierte Kraftwerksleittechnik durch die Norm IEC 61850

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, J. [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Power Generation

    2007-07-01

    Today's power plants are highly automated. All subsystems of large thermal power plants can be controlled from a central control room. The electrical systems are an important part. In future the new standard IEC 61850 will improve the integration of electrical systems into automation of power plants supporting the reduction of operation and maintenance cost. (orig.)

  1. Electrostatic hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Luttgens, Günter; Luttgens, Gnter; Luttgens, G Nter

    1997-01-01

    In the US, UK and Europe there is in excess of one notifiable dust or electrostatic explosion every day of the year. This clearly makes the hazards associated with the handling of materials subject to either cause or react to electrostatic discharge of vital importance to anyone associated with their handling or industrial bulk use. This book provides a comprehensive guide to the dangers of static electricity and how to avoid them. It will prove invaluable to safety managers and professionals, as well as all personnel involved in the activities concerned, in the chemical, agricultural, pharmaceutical and petrochemical process industries. The book makes extended use of case studies to illustrate the principles being expounded, thereby making it far more open, accessible and attractive to the practitioner in industry than the highly theoretical texts which are also available. The authors have many years' experience in the area behind them, including the professional teaching of the content provided here. Günte...

  2. Human hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.; Vignes, S.; Wolber, G.

    1976-01-01

    Among health hazards from ionizing radiations, a distinction is made of observed, likely and theoretical risks. Theoretical risks, derived from extrapolation of observations on sublethal exposures to low doses may frighten. However, they have nothing in common with reality as shown for instance, by the study of carcinogenesis risks at Nagasaki. By extrapolation to low doses, theoretical mutation risks are derived by geneticians from the observation of some characters especially deleterious in the progeny of parents exposed to sublethal doses. One cannot agree when by calculation they express a population exposure by a shift of its genetic balance with an increase of the proportion of disabled individuals. As a matter of fact, experimental exposure of successive generations of laboratory animals shows no accumulation of deleterious genes, sublethal doses excepted. Large nuclear plants should not be overwhelmed by horrible charges on sanitary grounds, whereas small sources have but too often shown they may originate mortal risks [fr

  3. Establishment of effective control factors to achieve federal enforcement consistency with the Highway Beautification Act : a final report submitted to Florida Department of Transportation, Right of Way Division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    The Highway Beautification Act, which was enforced in 1965, aims to establish an efficient outdoor advertising control (OAC) program for erection and maintenance of the outdoor advertising signs, displays and devices, which are located in a close pro...

  4. Consistency in PERT problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bergantiños, Gustavo; Valencia-Toledo, Alfredo; Vidal-Puga, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The program evaluation review technique (PERT) is a tool used to schedule and coordinate activities in a complex project. In assigning the cost of a potential delay, we characterize the Shapley rule as the only rule that satisfies consistency and other desirable properties.

  5. Intervention for hazardous alcohol use and high level of stress in university freshmen: a comparison between an intervention and a control university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Claes; Johnsson, Kent O; Berglund, Mats; Ojehagen, Agneta

    2009-12-11

    The first year of university studies is associated with increased levels of alcohol drinking and stress. This study examines the one-year outcome of both primary and secondary interventions of one alcohol programme and one stress intervention programme at an intervention university in comparison with a control university. At the intervention university all freshmen were offered a primary prevention programme for hazardous alcohol use and stress management and, in addition, those who had high ratings for stress and/or hazardous alcohol use were offered a secondary intervention programme for alcohol consumption and/or stress management. Freshmen still attending the two universities one year later responded to follow-up questionnaires. The primary alcohol and stress interventions were associated with lower alcohol expectancies and mental symptoms, but no differences in AUDIT scores (-0.2, CI 95% -0.5 to 0.1), estimated blood alcohol concentrations or stress in comparison to freshmen at the control university. The secondary alcohol interventions were associated with decreased AUDIT (-1.1, CI 95% -2.0 to -0.2) as well as alcohol expectancies, blood alcohol concentrations, stress and mental symptoms in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. The secondary stress interventions were associated with decreased mental symptoms and alcohol expectancies, but not stress, AUDIT scores (-0.6, CI 95% -1.4 to 0.2) and blood alcohol concentrations in comparison to high-risk freshmen at the control university. This study suggests that both primary and secondary alcohol and stress interventions have 1-year effects in university freshmen and could be implemented in university settings.

  6. 78 FR 3646 - Current Good Manufacturing Practice and Hazard Analysis and Risk-Based Preventive Controls for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... proposing to revise certain definitions in FDA's current regulation for Registration of Food Facilities to.... Proposed Revisions for Consistency With the Definition of ``Food'' F. Proposed Revisions To Address... globalization, which has resulted in approximately 15 percent of the U.S. food supply being imported, including...

  7. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  8. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  9. 76 FR 8780 - Standard on the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout); Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    ... included in the inspection, and the worker who performed the inspection. Training and Communication... with the knowledge and skills necessary for the safe application, use, and removal of energy controls... purpose and use of the energy control procedure; and other workers who work, or may work, near operations...

  10. Glass consistency and glass performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plodinec, M.J.; Ramsey, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    Glass produced by the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will have to consistently be more durable than a benchmark glass (evaluated using a short-term leach test), with high confidence. The DWPF has developed a Glass Product Control Program to comply with this specification. However, it is not clear what relevance product consistency has on long-term glass performance. In this report, the authors show that DWPF glass, produced in compliance with this specification, can be expected to effectively limit the release of soluble radionuclides to natural environments. However, the release of insoluble radionuclides to the environment will be limited by their solubility, and not glass durability

  11. Policy on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) and adherence to food preparation guidelines: a cross sectional survey of stakeholders in food service in Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyei-Baffour, Peter; Sekyere, Kofi Boateng; Addy, Ernestine Akosua

    2013-11-04

    Food borne diseases claim more lives and are growing public health concerns. Simple preventive techniques such as adoption and adherence to hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) policy can significantly reduce this disease burden. Though food screening and inspection are done, the ultimate regulation, Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, which is known and accepted worldwide, appears not to be popular among food operators in Ghana. This paper examines the level of awareness of the existence of policy on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) and its adherence to food preparation guidelines among food service providers in Ghana. The results revealed the mean age of food providers as 33.1 years with a standard deviation of 7.5, range of 18-55 years, more females, in full time employment and with basic education. Of the fifty institutional managers, 42 (84%) were senior officers and had worked for more than five years. Education and type of food operator had strong statistically significant relationship with the implementation of HCCP policy and adherence with food preparation guidelines. The enforcement of HACCP policy and adherence with food safety guidelines was led by the Ghana Tourist Board, Public Health officers, and KMA, respectively. While a majority of food operators 373/450 (83.3%) did not know HACCP policy is part of food safety guidelines, staff of food safety law enforcement 44/50 (88%) confirmed knowing that food operators were not aware of the HACCP policy. The study documents evidence on the practice of food safety principles or HACCP policy or adherence to food preparation guidelines. Existing food safety guidelines incorporate varying principles of HACCP, however, awareness is low among food operators. The implication is that food production is likely to fall short of acceptable standards and not be wholesome putting consumers at health risk. Repeating this study in rural and urban areas in Ghana is necessary to

  12. Comparison of Structurally Controlled Landslide Hazard Simulation to the Co-seismic Landslides Caused by the M 7.2 2013 Bohol Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galang, J. A. M. B.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A. M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The M_w 7.2 October 15, 2013 Bohol earthquake is one of the more destructive earthquake to hit the Philippines in the 21st century. The epicenter was located in Sagbayan municipality, central Bohol and was generated by a previously unmapped reverse fault called the "Inabanga Fault". The earthquake resulted in 209 fatalities and over 57 million USD worth of damages. The earthquake generated co-seismic landslides most of which were related to fault structures. Unlike rainfall induced landslides, the trigger for co-seismic landslides happen without warning. Preparations for this type of landslides rely heavily on the identification of fracture-related slope instability. To mitigate the impacts of co-seismic landslide hazards, morpho-structural orientations of discontinuity sets were mapped using remote sensing techniques with the aid of a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) obtained in 2012. The DTM used is an IFSAR derived image with a 5-meter pixel resolution and approximately 0.5 meter vertical accuracy. Coltop 3D software was then used to identify similar structures including measurement of their dip and dip directions. The chosen discontinuity sets were then keyed into Matterocking software to identify potential rock slide zones due to planar or wedged discontinuities. After identifying the structurally-controlled unstable slopes, the rock mass propagation extent of the possible rock slides was simulated using Conefall. Separately, a manually derived landslide inventory has been performed using post-earthquake satellite images and LIDAR. The results were compared to the landslide inventory which identified at least 873 landslides. Out of the 873 landslides identified through the inventory, 786 or 90% intersect the simulated structural-controlled landslide hazard areas of Bohol. The results show the potential of this method to identify co-seismic landslide hazard areas for disaster mitigation. Along with computer methods to simulate shallow landslides, and debris flow

  13. SRL process hazards review manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    The principal objective of the Process Hazards Management Program is to provide a regular, systematic review of each process at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) to eliminate injuries and to minimize property damage resulting from process hazards of catastrophic potential. Management effort is directed, through the Du Pont Safety Program, toward those controls and practices that ensure this objective. The Process Hazards Management Program provides an additional dimension to further ensure the health and safety of employees and the public. Du Pont has concluded that an organized approach is essential to obtain an effective and efficient process hazards review. The intent of this manual is to provide guidance in creating such an organized approach to performing process hazards reviews on a continuing basis

  14. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  15. Is cosmology consistent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaomin; Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2002-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the latest cosmic microwave background (CMB) measurements (including BOOMERaNG, DASI, Maxima and CBI), both alone and jointly with other cosmological data sets involving, e.g., galaxy clustering and the Lyman Alpha Forest. We first address the question of whether the CMB data are internally consistent once calibration and beam uncertainties are taken into account, performing a series of statistical tests. With a few minor caveats, our answer is yes, and we compress all data into a single set of 24 bandpowers with associated covariance matrix and window functions. We then compute joint constraints on the 11 parameters of the 'standard' adiabatic inflationary cosmological model. Our best fit model passes a series of physical consistency checks and agrees with essentially all currently available cosmological data. In addition to sharp constraints on the cosmic matter budget in good agreement with those of the BOOMERaNG, DASI and Maxima teams, we obtain a heaviest neutrino mass range 0.04-4.2 eV and the sharpest constraints to date on gravity waves which (together with preference for a slight red-tilt) favor 'small-field' inflation models

  16. Consistent Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  17. Hazardous material reduction initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.

    1995-02-01

    The Hazardous Material Reduction Initiative (HMRI) explores using the review of purchase requisitions to reduce both the use of hazardous materials and the generation of regulated and nonregulated wastes. Based on an 11-month program implemented at the Hanford Site, hazardous material use and waste generation was effectively reduced by using a centralized procurement control program known as HMRI. As expected, several changes to the original proposal were needed during the development/testing phase of the program to accommodate changing and actual conditions found at the Hanford Site. The current method requires a central receiving point within the Procurement Organization to review all purchase requisitions for potentially Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) hazardous products. Those requisitions (approximately 4% to 6% of the total) are then forwarded to Pollution Prevention personnel for evaluation under HMRI. The first step is to determine if the requested item can be filled by existing or surplus material. The requisitions that cannot filled by existing or surplus material are then sorted into two groups based on applicability to the HMRI project. For example, laboratory requests for analytical reagents or standards are excluded and the purchase requisitions are returned to Procurement for normal processing because, although regulated, there is little opportunity for source reduction due to the strict protocols followed. Each item is then checked to determine if it is regulated or not. Regulated items are prioritized based on hazardous contents, quantity requested, and end use. Copies of these requisitions are made and the originals are returned to Procurement within 1-hr. Since changes to the requisition can be made at later stages during procurement, the HMRI fulfills one of its original premises in that it does not slow the procurement process

  18. The announcement of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic on acceptance of the Basel Convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic (as well as the Secretary-General of the United Nations, acting in his capacity as depository, of 6 May 1998) communicates the following: at the Fourth Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention, held in Kuching, Malaysia, from 23 to 27 February 1998, the Parties proposed an amendment to Annex I and adopted two new Annexes (VIII and IX) to the Basel Convention on the Control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal. The texts of the amendment and the Annexes are transmitted herewith. The changes in the Annex I and Annexes VIII and IX for the Slovak Republic shall into effect on 6 November 1998. The thorium scrap and rare earth scrap are included into the Annex IX, List B

  19. Rapid screening and identification of chemical hazards in surface and drinking water using high resolution mass spectrometry and a case-control filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaserzon, Sarit L; Heffernan, Amy L; Thompson, Kristie; Mueller, Jochen F; Gomez Ramos, Maria Jose

    2017-09-01

    Access to clean, safe drinking water poses a serious challenge to regulators, and requires analytical strategies capable of rapid screening and identification of potentially hazardous chemicals, specifically in situations when threats to water quality or security require rapid investigations and potential response. This study describes a fast and efficient chemical hazard screening strategy for characterising trace levels of polar organic contaminants in water matrices, based on liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry with post-acquisition 'case-control' data processing. This method allowed for a rapid response time of less than 24 h for the screening of target, suspect and non-target unknown chemicals via direct injection analysis, and a second, more sensitive analysis option requiring sample pre-concentration. The method was validated by fortifying samples with a range of pesticides, pharmaceuticals and personal care products (n = 46); with >90% of target compounds positively screened in samples at 1 ng mL -1 , and 46% at 0.1 ng mL -1 when analysed via direct injection. To simulate a contamination event samples were fortified with compounds not present in the commercial library (designated 'non-target compounds'; fipronil and fenitrothion), tentatively identified at 0.2 and 1 ng mL -1 , respectively; and a compound not included in any known commercial library or public database (designated 'unknown' compounds; 8Cl - perfluorooctanesulfonic acid), at 0.8 ng mL -1 . The method was applied to two 'real-case' scenarios: (1) the assessment of drinking water safety during a high-profile event in Brisbane, Australia; and (2) to screen treated, re-circulated drinking water and pre-treated (raw) water. The validated workflow was effective for rapid prioritisation and screening of suspect and non-target potential hazards at trace levels, and could be applied to a wide range of matrices and investigations where comparison of organic contaminants

  20. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care (AESOPS – A randomised control trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton Veronica

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a wealth of evidence regarding the detrimental impact of excessive alcohol consumption. In older populations excessive alcohol consumption is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke and a range of cancers. Alcohol consumption is also associated with an increased risk of falls, early onset of dementia and other cognitive deficits. Physiological changes that occur as part of the ageing process mean that older people experience alcohol related problems at lower consumption levels. There is a strong evidence base for the effectiveness of brief psychosocial interventions in reducing alcohol consumption in populations identified opportunistically in primary care settings. Stepped care interventions involve the delivery of more intensive interventions only to those in the population who fail to respond to less intensive interventions and provide a potentially resource efficient means of meeting the needs of this population. Methods/design The study design is a pragmatic prospective multi-centre two arm randomised controlled trial. The primary hypothesis is that stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users reduce alcohol consumption compared with a minimal intervention at 12 months post randomisation. Potential participants are identified using the AUDIT questionnaire. Eligible and consenting participants are randomised with equal probability to either a minimal intervention or a three step treatment approach. The step treatment approach incorporates as step 1 behavioural change counselling, step 2 three sessions of motivational enhancement therapy and step 3 referral to specialist services. The primary outcome is measured using average standard drinks per day and secondary outcome measures include the Drinking Problems Index, health related quality of life and health utility. The study incorporates a comprehensive economic analysis to assess the relative cost

  1. The Role of Model Fidelity in Model Predictive Control Based Hazard Avoidance in Unmanned Ground Vehicles Using Lidar Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    34 VPH : A New Laser Radar Based Obstacle Avoidance Method for Intelligent Mobile Robots", Proceedings of World Congress on Intelligent Control and...Automation, Hangzhou, China, 5, pp. 4681- 4685. [9] Gong, J., Duan, Y., Man, Y., and Xiong, G., 2007, " VPH +: An Enhanced Vector Polar Histogram Method

  2. Quality control of mixtures consisting of engine oil and rapeseed oil by means of online oil sensors; Qualitaetsueberwachung von Motoroel-Rapsoelmischungen mit Online-Oelsensoren. Labortests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuneke, Klaus; Schreiber, Katja [Technologie- und Foerderzentrum, Straubing (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    It was the goal of the work to investigate interactions between motor oils and rapeseed oil fuel and to test oil sensors for monitoring the quality of aged mixtures of motor oil and rapeseed oil. At first oil samples were aged in the laboratory, whereby motor oil type, share of rapeseed oil and aeration was varied. Depending on type of engine oil different ageing effects were noticed. Higher shares of rapeseed and aeration stimulate increase of viscosity and acid value. In a further step online oil sensors were tested in both, a model of a lubrication system and a test engine. The signals of the sensors plausibly described the oil ageing process by the indicators dynamic or acoustic viscosity, permittivity number, specific electric conductivity. In particular viscosity and permittivity are suitable for showing changes in different motor oil rapeseed oil mixtures during oil ageing. However, for a reliable control system detecting critical rapeseed oil enrichment in the motor oil onboard, further work has to be done. (orig.)

  3. Food safety and nutritional quality for the prevention of non communicable diseases: the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point process (NACCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Laura; Colica, Carmen; Carraro, Alberto; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Botta, Roberto; Colombo, Maria Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Chang, Ting Fa Margherita; Droli, Maurizio; Sarlo, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-04-23

    The important role of food and nutrition in public health is being increasingly recognized as crucial for its potential impact on health-related quality of life and the economy, both at the societal and individual levels. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases calls for a reformulation of our view of food. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, first implemented in the EU with the Directive 43/93/CEE, later replaced by Regulation CE 178/2002 and Regulation CE 852/2004, is the internationally agreed approach for food safety control. Our aim is to develop a new procedure for the assessment of the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (NACCP) process, for total quality management (TMQ), and optimize nutritional levels. NACCP was based on four general principles: i) guarantee of health maintenance; ii) evaluate and assure the nutritional quality of food and TMQ; iii) give correct information to the consumers; iv) ensure an ethical profit. There are three stages for the application of the NACCP process: 1) application of NACCP for quality principles; 2) application of NACCP for health principals; 3) implementation of the NACCP process. The actions are: 1) identification of nutritional markers, which must remain intact throughout the food supply chain; 2) identification of critical control points which must monitored in order to minimize the likelihood of a reduction in quality; 3) establishment of critical limits to maintain adequate levels of nutrient; 4) establishment, and implementation of effective monitoring procedures of critical control points; 5) establishment of corrective actions; 6) identification of metabolic biomarkers; 7) evaluation of the effects of food intake, through the application of specific clinical trials; 8) establishment of procedures for consumer information; 9) implementation of the Health claim Regulation EU 1924/2006; 10) starting a training program. We calculate the risk assessment as follows

  4. Hazard classification methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brereton, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    This document outlines the hazard classification methodology used to determine the hazard classification of the NIF LTAB, OAB, and the support facilities on the basis of radionuclides and chemicals. The hazard classification determines the safety analysis requirements for a facility

  5. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Mr. Joseph DiNunno of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued an approach to describe the concept of an integrated safety management program which incorporates hazard and safety analysis to address a multitude of hazards affecting the public, worker, property, and the environment. Since then the U S . Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a policy to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions can be completed while protecting the public, worker, and the environment. While the DOE and its contractors possessed a variety of processes for analyzing fire hazards at a facility, activity, and job; the outcome and assumptions of these processes have not always been consistent for similar types of hazards within the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis. Although the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis are driven by different DOE Orders and requirements, these analyses should not be entirely independent and their preparation should be integrated to ensure consistency of assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and other controls. Under the DOE policy to implement an integrated safety management system, identification of hazards must be evaluated and agreed upon to ensure that the public. the workers. and the environment are protected from adverse consequences. The DOE program and contractor management need a uniform, up-to-date reference with which to plan. budget, and manage nuclear programs. It is crucial that DOE understand the hazards and risks necessarily to authorize the work needed to be performed. If integrated safety management is not incorporated into the preparation of the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis, inconsistencies between assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and controls may occur that affect safety. Furthermore, confusion created by inconsistencies may occur in the DOE process to grant authorization of the work. In accordance with

  6. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-10-01

    To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery-related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. An interrupted time-series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery-related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout-related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. The average annual crude rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non-significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full-time equivalents (95% CI -0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery-related fatalities in manufacturing. There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after.

  7. Effects of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulzacchelli, Maria T; Vernick, Jon S; Webster, Daniel W; Lees, Peter S J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the United States' federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration's control of hazardous energy (lockout/tagout) standard on rates of machinery‐related fatal occupational injury. The standard, which took effect in 1990, requires employers in certain industries to establish an energy control program and sets minimum criteria for energy control procedures, training, inspections, and hardware. Design An interrupted time‐series design was used to determine the standard's effect on fatality rates. Machinery‐related fatalities, obtained from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for 1980 through 2001, were used as a proxy for lockout/tagout‐related fatalities. Linear regression was used to control for changes in demographic and economic factors. Results The average annual crude rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing changed little from 1980 to 1989, but declined by 4.59% per year from 1990 to 2001. However, when controlling for demographic and economic factors, the regression model estimate of the standard's effect is a small, non‐significant increase of 0.05 deaths per 100 000 production worker full‐time equivalents (95% CI −0.14 to 0.25). When fatality rates in comparison groups that should not have been affected by the standard are incorporated into the analysis, there is still no significant change in the rate of machinery‐related fatalities in manufacturing. Conclusions There is no evidence that the lockout/tagout standard decreased fatality rates relative to other trends in occupational safety over the study period. A possible explanation is voluntary use of lockout/tagout by some employers before introduction of the standard and low compliance by other employers after. PMID:17916891

  8. Childhood lead exposure in France: benefit estimation and partial cost-benefit analysis of lead hazard control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zmirou-Navier Denis

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead exposure remains a public health concern due to its serious adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioral impairment: children younger than six years of age being the most vulnerable population. In Europe, the lead-related economic impacts have not been examined in detail. We estimate the annual costs in France due to childhood exposure and, through a cost benefit analysis (CBA, aim to assess the expected social and economic benefits of exposure abatement. Methods Monetary benefits were assessed in terms of avoided national costs. We used results from a 2008 survey on blood-lead (B-Pb concentrations in French children aged one to six years old. Given the absence of a threshold concentration being established, we performed a sensitivity analysis assuming different hypothetical threshold values for toxicity above 15 μg/L, 24 μg/L and 100 μg/L. Adverse health outcomes of lead exposure were translated into social burden and economic costs based on literature data from literature. Direct health benefits, social benefits and intangible avoided costs were included. Costs of pollutant exposure control were partially estimated in regard to homes lead-based paint decontamination, investments aiming at reducing industrial lead emissions and removal of all lead drinking water pipes. Results The following overall annual benefits for the three hypothetical thresholds values in 2008 are: €22.72 billion, €10.72 billion and €0.44 billion, respectively. Costs from abatement ranged from €0.9 billion to 2.95 billion/year. Finally, from a partial CBA of lead control in soils and dust the estimates of total net benefits were € 3.78 billion, € 1.88 billion and €0.25 billion respectively for the three hypothesized B-Pb effect values. Conclusions Prevention of childhood lead exposure has a high social benefit, due to reduction of B-Pb concentrations to levels below 15 μg/L or 24 μg/L, respectively. Reducing only exposures

  9. Relative consequences of transporting hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.R.; Rhyne, W.R.; Simmons, J.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to discuss methods under study at Transportation Technology Center to develop a perspective on how technical measures of hazard and risk relate to perception of hazards, harm, and risks associated with transporting hazardous materials. This paper is concerned with two major aspects of the relative hazards problem. The first aspect is the analyses of the possible effects associated with exposure to hazardous materials as contained in the following two parts: outlines of possible problems and controversies that could be encountered in the evaluation and comparisons of hazards and risks; and description of the various measures of harm (hazards or dangers) and subsequent comparisons thereof. The second aspect of this paper leads into a presentation of the results of a study which had the following purposes: to develop analytical techniques for a consistent treatment of the phenomenology of the consequences of a release of hazardous materials; to reduce the number of variables in the consequence analyses by development of transportation accident scenarios which have the same meteorological conditions, demography, traffic and population densities, geographical features and other appropriate conditions and to develop consistent methods for presenting the results of studies and analyses that describe the phenomenology and compare hazards. The results of the study are intended to provide a bridge between analytical certainty and perception of the hazards involved. Understanding the differences in perception of hazards resulting from transport of various hazardous materials is fraught with difficulties in isolating the qualitative and quantitative features of the problem. By relating the quantitative impacts of material hazards under identical conditions, it is hoped that the perceived differences in material hazards can be delineated and evaluated

  10. New evidence on the health hazards and control of metalworking fluids since completion of the OSHA advisory committee report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirer, Franklin E

    2010-08-01

    Metalworking fluids (MWF) are used in the manufacture of engines, transmissions, chassis parts and other products. In 2003, OSHA denied a union petition to promulgate a standard for MWF. The 3rd Circuit Court of Appeals rejected a union lawsuit to compel OSHA to regulate MWF. OSHA relied exclusively on the 1999 Metal Working Fluids Standards Advisory Committee report, therefore, only evidence available before 1999 was quoted supporting the denial. This review was conducted to identify studies published since 1998. Electronic reference sources were queried for the terms for metalworking fluids, machining fluids, cutting fluids, cutting oils, coolants, machining, and machinist. All items returned were reviewed for relevance to MWF regulation. The review noted 227 reports in the peer reviewed literature directly relevant to regulation of MWF exposures. Of these, 26 addressed cancer; 58 respiratory effects; 32 skin effects or absorption; 45 microbial contaminants; and 76 exposure measurements and controls. Three major studies identified excess cancer including lung, liver, pancreatic, laryngeal, and leukemia associated with MWF exposures. Reports strengthened associations of asthma and hypersensitivity pneumonitis with recent exposure to MWF. Material new evidence demonstrates significant risks to material impairment of health at prevailing exposure levels and feasibility of lower exposure limits. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. [Quality assurance in food production in Europe according to ISO 90000 and HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve, J L

    1996-12-01

    HACCP is intended to make food protection programs evolve from a mainly retrospective quality control toward a preventative quality assurance approach and to provide an increased confidence in food safety. In parallel, the continuous evolution of quality concepts in the food industry resulted in the development of quality systems and quality assurance techniques with regard to the EN 29,000 (ISO 9000) series of standards. Specific to the food industry, HACCP can be seen as a very effective method to prepare specific Safety Assurance Plans (cf. the quality assurance plan concept) within a quality systems approach (Jouve, 1993). By reference to ISO 8402, a Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) basically sets out "the specific quality practices, resources and sequence of activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract or project". Quality assurance plans are more particularly useful for projects relating to new products or processes and/or comprising inter-related tasks whose interaction may be complex. In addition, in contractual or regulatory situations, such plans can be used to demonstrate the supplier's capability to meet identified objectives, specification or standards. In the food industry, the management of safety is a critical and complex issue which fits very well in the scope of application of a specific QAP; it is also where the use of HACCP is otherwise recommended by priority.

  12. Use of controlled dynamic impacts on hierarchically structured seismically hazardous faults for seismically safe relaxation of shear stresses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzhich, Valery V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.; Levina, Elena A.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Grigoriev, Alexandr S.

    2017-12-01

    In the paper we briefly outline the experience in forecasting catastrophic earthquakes and the general problems in ensuring seismic safety. The purpose of our long-term research is the development and improvement of the methods of man-caused impacts on large-scale fault segments to safely reduce the negative effect of seismodynamic failure. Various laboratory and large-scale field experiments were carried out in the segments of tectonic faults in Baikal rift zone and in main cracks in block-structured ice cove of Lake Baikal using the developed measuring systems and special software for identification and treatment of deformation response of faulty segments to man-caused impacts. The results of the study let us to ground the necessity of development of servo-controlled technologies, which are able to provide changing the shear resistance and deformation regime of fault zone segments by applying vibrational and pulse triggering impacts. We suppose that the use of triggering impacts in highly stressed segments of active faults will promote transferring the geodynamic state of these segments from a metastable to a more stable and safe state.

  13. Egyptian Environmental Activities and Regulations for Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Zarka, M.

    1999-01-01

    A substantial use of hazardous substances is essential to meet the social and economic goals of the community in Egypt. Agrochemicals are being used extensively to increase crop yield. The outdated agrochemicals and their empty containers represent a serious environmental problem. Industrial development in different sectors in Egypt obligates handling of huge amounts of hazardous substances and hazardous wastes. The inappropriate handling of such hazardous substances creates several health and environmental problems. Egypt faces many challenges to control safe handling of such substances and wastes. Several regulations are governing handling of hazardous substances in Egypt. The unified Environmental Law 4 for the year 1994 includes a full chapter on the Management of Hazardous Substances and Hazardous Wastes. National and international activities have been taken to manage hazardous substances and hazardous wastes in an environmental sound manner

  14. Consistent application of codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The guidelines presented in the US Department of Energy, General Design Criteria (DOE 6430.1A), and the Design and Evaluation Guidelines for Department of Energy Facilities Subject to Natural Phenomena Hazards (UCRL-15910) provide a consistent and well defined approach to determine the natural phenomena hazards loads for US Department of Energy site facilities. The guidelines for the application of loads combinations and allowables criteria are not as well defined and are more flexible in interpretation. This flexibility in the interpretation of load combinations can lead to conflict between the designer and overseer. The establishment of an efficient set of acceptable design criteria, based on US Department of Energy guidelines, provides a consistent baseline for analysis, design, and review. Additionally, the proposed method should not limit the design and analytical innovation necessary to analyze or qualify the unique structure. This paper investigates the consistent application of load combinations, analytical methods, and load allowables and suggests a reference path consistent with the US Department of Energy guidelines

  15. Major hazards onshore and offshore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This symposium continues the tradition of bringing together papers on a topic of current interest and importance in terms of process safety - in this case, Major Hazards Onshore and Offshore. Lord Cullen in his report on the Piper Alpha disaster has, in effect, suggested that the experience gained in the control of major hazards onshore during the 1980s should be applied to improve safety offshore during the 1990s. This major three-day symposium reviews what has been learned so far with regard to major hazards and considers its present and future applications both onshore and offshore. The topics covered in the programme are wide ranging and deal with all aspects of legislation, the application of regulations, techniques for evaluating hazards and prescribing safety measures in design, construction and operation, the importance of the human factors, and recent technical developments in protective measures, relief venting and predicting the consequences of fires and explosions. (author)

  16. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  17. 76 FR 74709 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Final Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    ..., including any sludge, spill residue, ash, emission control dust, or leachate, remains a hazardous waste... water for use as a cleaning agent. The slop oil waste is thereby diluted and hazardous constituents are... separation sludges that are listed as hazardous wastes due to benzene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, lead and...

  18. Dextrous gripping in a hazardous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongkind, W.

    1993-01-01

    Existing dextrous grippers are presented and compared, tasks to be performed in the hazardous environment are analyzed, and recommendations on gripper design and configuration are given. The outcome is a proposal for a dextrous gripper consisting of three antropomorphic fingers and an active palm. Sensor and actuator issues have been investigated and a selection of them has been made with respect to applicability in the hazardous environment. Theoretical contact issues were investigated and contacts have been modelled accordingly, followed by a kinematical analysis of the proposed gripper. Force and motion equations have been derived, and finger force distribution and computation has been analyzed. Grasp planning, the determination for a given task of a sequence of postures, to gurantee the safe and robust grasping of an object has been investigated. The determination of postures resulting in the designation of the number and categories of contact points before the fingers of the gripper contact the object is a matter of high-level grasping. The post-contact phase of the grasp, where set points for position and/or force have to be controlled, a matter of low-level grasp planning, has been investigated. The dissertation concluded with an investigation into the control of the gripper to achieve reliable grasps. The aim was to arrive at a controller that can comply with varying external forces and that can cope with imprecise known objects and imprecise task descriptions. Also the controlling of grasping forces as aimed at. The resulting gripper is radiation resistant. The methodology worked out in the dissertation is currently being applied to the design of a gripper able to operate in a hazardous nuclear environment. (orig./HP)

  19. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, L.; Vogel, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Studies from the natural hazards literature indicate that many natural processes, including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow and earthquakes, show evidence of nonstationary behavior such as trends in magnitudes through time. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on partial duration series (PDS) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e. that the probability of exceedance is constant through time. Given evidence of trends and the consequent expected growth in devastating impacts from natural hazards across the world, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (x) with its failure time series (t), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose PDS magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied Poisson-GP model. We derive a 2-parameter Generalized Pareto hazard model and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard event series x, with corresponding failure time series t, should have application to a wide class of natural hazards.

  20. 46 CFR 151.03-30 - Hazardous material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hazardous material means a liquid material or substance that is— (a) Flammable or combustible; (b) Designated a hazardous substance under section 311(b) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C... Agency designates hazardous substances in 40 CFR Table 116.4A. The Coast Guard designates hazardous...

  1. AESOPS: a randomised controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and stepped care interventions for older hazardous alcohol users in primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, J M; Crosby, H; Dale, V M; Tober, G; Wu, Q; Lang, J; McGovern, R; Newbury-Birch, D; Parrott, S; Bland, J M; Drummond, C; Godfrey, C; Kaner, E; Coulton, S

    2013-06-01

    There is clear evidence of the detrimental impact of hazardous alcohol consumption on the physical and mental health of the population. Estimates suggest that hazardous alcohol consumption annually accounts for 150,000 hospital admissions and between 15,000 and 22,000 deaths in the UK. In the older population, hazardous alcohol consumption is associated with a wide range of physical, psychological and social problems. There is evidence of an association between increased alcohol consumption and increased risk of coronary heart disease, hypertension and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, increased rates of alcohol-related liver disease and increased risk of a range of cancers. Alcohol is identified as one of the three main risk factors for falls. Excessive alcohol consumption in older age can also contribute to the onset of dementia and other age-related cognitive deficits and is implicated in one-third of all suicides in the older population. To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a stepped care intervention against a minimal intervention in the treatment of older hazardous alcohol users in primary care. A multicentre, pragmatic, two-armed randomised controlled trial with an economic evaluation. General practices in primary care in England and Scotland between April 2008 and October 2010. Adults aged ≥ 55 years scoring ≥ 8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (10-item) (AUDIT) were eligible. In total, 529 patients were randomised in the study. The minimal intervention group received a 5-minute brief advice intervention with the practice or research nurse involving feedback of the screening results and discussion regarding the health consequences of continued hazardous alcohol consumption. Those in the stepped care arm initially received a 20-minute session of behavioural change counselling, with referral to step 2 (motivational enhancement therapy) and step 3 (local specialist alcohol services) if indicated. Sessions were

  2. Emergency planning and the Control of Major Accident Hazards (COMAH/Seveso II) Directive: An approach to determine the public safety zone for toxic cloud releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahony, Mary T.; Doolan, Donal; O'Sullivan, Alice; Hession, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The EU Control of Major Accidents Hazards Directive (Seveso II) requires an external emergency plan for each top tier site. This paper sets out a method to build the protection of public health into emergency planning for Seveso sites in the EU. The method involves the review of Seveso site details prescribed under the directive. The site safety report sets out the potential accident scenarios. The safety report's worst-case scenario, and chemical involved, is used as the basis for the external emergency plan. A decision was needed on the appropriate threshold value to use as the level of concern to protect public health. The definitions of the regulatory standards (air quality standards and occupational standards) in use were studied, how they are derived and for what purpose. The 10 min acute exposure guideline level (AEGL) for a chemical is recommended as the threshold value to inform decisions taken to protect public health from toxic cloud releases. The area delimited by AEGL 1 defines the population who may be concerned about being exposed. They need information based on comprehensive risk assessment. The area delimited by AEGL 2 defines the population for long-term surveillance when indicated and may include first responders. The area delimited by AEGL 3 defines the population who may present acutely to the medical services. It ensures that the emergency responders site themselves safely. A standard methodology facilitates discussions with plant operators and concerned public. Examples show how the methodology can be adapted to suit explosive risk and response to fire

  3. Auditing hazardous waste incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayanty, R.K.M.; Allen, J.M.; Sokol, C.K.; von Lehmden, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that audit standards consisting of volatile and semivoltile organics have been established by the EPA to be provided to federal, state, and local agencies or their contractors for use in performance audits to assess the accuracy of measurement methods used during hazardous waste trial burns. The volatile organic audit standards currently total 29 gaseous organics in 5, 6, 7, 9, and 18-component mixtures at part-per-billion (ppb) levels (1 to 10 000 ppb) in compressed gas cylinders in a balance gas of nitrogen. The semivoltile organic audit standards currently total six organics which are spiked onto XAD-2 cartridges for auditing analysis procedures. Studies of all organic standards have been performed to determine the stability of the compounds and the feasibility of using them as performance audit materials. Results as of July 1987 indicate that all of the selected organic compounds are adequately stabile for use as reliable audit materials. Performance audits have been conducted with the audit materials to assess the accuracy of the measurement methods. To date, 160 performance audits have been initiated with the ppb-level audit gases. The audit results obtained with audit gases during hazardous waste trial burn tests were generally within ±50% of the audit concentrations. A limited number of audit results have been obtained with spiked XAD-2 cartridges, and the results have generally been within ±35% of the audit concentrations

  4. Primary or secondary tasks? Dual-task interference between cyclist hazard perception and cadence control using cross-modal sensory aids with rider assistance bike computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Yang; Wu, Cheng-Tse

    2017-03-01

    This research investigated the risks involved in bicycle riding while using various sensory modalities to deliver training information. To understand the risks associated with using bike computers, this study evaluated hazard perception performance through lab-based simulations of authentic riding conditions. Analysing hazard sensitivity (d') of signal detection theory, the rider's response time, and eye glances provided insights into the risks of using bike computers. In this study, 30 participants were tested with eight hazard perception tasks while they maintained a cadence of 60 ± 5 RPM and used bike computers with different sensory displays, namely visual, auditory, and tactile feedback signals. The results indicated that synchronously using different sense organs to receive cadence feedback significantly affects hazard perception performance; direct visual information leads to the worst rider distraction, with a mean sensitivity to hazards (d') of -1.03. For systems with multiple interacting sensory aids, auditory aids were found to result in the greatest reduction in sensitivity to hazards (d' mean = -0.57), whereas tactile sensory aids reduced the degree of rider distraction (d' mean = -0.23). Our work complements existing work in this domain by advancing the understanding of how to design devices that deliver information subtly, thereby preventing disruption of a rider's perception of road hazards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Transportation of Hazardous Evidentiary Material.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborn, Douglas.

    2005-06-01

    This document describes the specimen and transportation containers currently available for use with hazardous and infectious materials. A detailed comparison of advantages, disadvantages, and costs of the different technologies is included. Short- and long-term recommendations are also provided.3 DraftDraftDraftExecutive SummaryThe Federal Bureau of Investigation's Hazardous Materials Response Unit currently has hazardous material transport containers for shipping 1-quart paint cans and small amounts of contaminated forensic evidence, but the containers may not be able to maintain their integrity under accident conditions or for some types of hazardous materials. This report provides guidance and recommendations on the availability of packages for the safe and secure transport of evidence consisting of or contaminated with hazardous chemicals or infectious materials. Only non-bulk containers were considered because these are appropriate for transport on small aircraft. This report will addresses packaging and transportation concerns for Hazardous Classes 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, and 9 materials. If the evidence is known or suspected of belonging to one of these Hazardous Classes, it must be packaged in accordance with the provisions of 49 CFR Part 173. The anthrax scare of several years ago, and less well publicized incidents involving unknown and uncharacterized substances, has required that suspicious substances be sent to appropriate analytical laboratories for analysis and characterization. Transportation of potentially hazardous or infectious material to an appropriate analytical laboratory requires transport containers that maintain both the biological and chemical integrity of the substance in question. As a rule, only relatively small quantities will be available for analysis. Appropriate transportation packaging is needed that will maintain the integrity of the substance, will not allow biological alteration, will not react chemically with the substance being

  6. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY)

  7. Radiation hazard control in hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denley, H.V.

    1981-02-01

    This manual is designed to aid in the training of hospital personnel engaged in work with the more common sources of ionizing radiation. It emphasizes the essentials of safety procedures for users of radioisotopes and x-rays

  8. Alcohol assessment & feedback by e-mail for university student hazardous and harmful drinkers: study protocol for the AMADEUS-2 randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCambridge, Jim; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; Bendtsen, Preben

    2013-10-10

    Alcohol is responsible for a large and growing proportion of the global burden of disease, as well as being the cause of social problems. Brief interventions are one component of comprehensive policy measures necessary to reduce these harms. Brief interventions increasingly take advantage of the Internet to reach large numbers of high risk groups such as students. The research literature on the efficacy and effectiveness of online interventions is developing rapidly. Although many studies show benefits in the form of reduced consumption, other intervention studies show no effects, for reasons that are unclear. Sweden became the first country in the world to implement a national system in which all university students are offered a brief online intervention via an e-mail. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effectiveness of this national system comprising a brief online intervention among university students who are hazardous and harmful drinkers. This study employs a conventional RCT design in which screening to determine eligibility precedes random allocation to immediate or delayed access to online intervention. The online intervention evaluated comprises three main components; assessment, normative feedback and advice on reducing drinking. Screening is confined to a single question in order to minimise assessment reactivity and to prevent contamination. Outcomes will be evaluated after 2 months, with total weekly alcohol consumption being the primary outcome measure. Invitations to participate are provided by e-mail to approximately 55,000 students in 9 Swedish universities. This RCT evaluates routine service provision in Swedish universities via a delay in offer of intervention to the control group. It evaluates effects in the key population for whom this intervention has been designed. Study findings will inform the further development of the national service provision. ISRCTN02335307.

  9. Hazardous waste management in the Pacific basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Chiu, S.; Chun, K.C.; Conzelmann, G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Carpenter, R.A.; Indriyanto, S.H. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States)

    1994-11-01

    Hazardous waste control activities in Asia and the Pacific have been reviewed. The review includes China (mainland, Hong Kong, and Taiwan), Indonesia, Korea, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. It covers the sources of hazardous waste, the government structure for dealing with hazardous waste, and current hazardous waste control activities in each country. In addition, the hazardous waste program activities of US government agencies, US private-sector organizations, and international organizations are reviewed. The objective of these reviews is to provide a comprehensive picture of the current hazardous waste problems and the waste management approaches being used to address them so that new program activities can be designed more efficiently.

  10. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  11. Global Landslide Hazard Distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global Landslide Hazard Distribution is a 2.5 minute grid of global landslide and snow avalanche hazards based upon work of the Norwegian Geotechnical Institute...

  12. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  13. Hazard function theory for nonstationary natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Laura K.; Vogel, Richard M.

    2016-04-01

    Impact from natural hazards is a shared global problem that causes tremendous loss of life and property, economic cost, and damage to the environment. Increasingly, many natural processes show evidence of nonstationary behavior including wind speeds, landslides, wildfires, precipitation, streamflow, sea levels, and earthquakes. Traditional probabilistic analysis of natural hazards based on peaks over threshold (POT) generally assumes stationarity in the magnitudes and arrivals of events, i.e., that the probability of exceedance of some critical event is constant through time. Given increasing evidence of trends in natural hazards, new methods are needed to characterize their probabilistic behavior. The well-developed field of hazard function analysis (HFA) is ideally suited to this problem because its primary goal is to describe changes in the exceedance probability of an event over time. HFA is widely used in medicine, manufacturing, actuarial statistics, reliability engineering, economics, and elsewhere. HFA provides a rich theory to relate the natural hazard event series (X) with its failure time series (T), enabling computation of corresponding average return periods, risk, and reliabilities associated with nonstationary event series. This work investigates the suitability of HFA to characterize nonstationary natural hazards whose POT magnitudes are assumed to follow the widely applied generalized Pareto model. We derive the hazard function for this case and demonstrate how metrics such as reliability and average return period are impacted by nonstationarity and discuss the implications for planning and design. Our theoretical analysis linking hazard random variable X with corresponding failure time series T should have application to a wide class of natural hazards with opportunities for future extensions.

  14. Obsolete tobacco control themes can be hazardous to public health: the need for updating views on absolute product risks and harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn T. Kozlowski

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leading themes have guided tobacco control efforts, and these themes have changed over the decades. When questions arose about health risks of tobacco, they focused on two key themes: 1 how bad is the problem (i.e., absolute risk and 2 what can be done to reduce the risk without cessation (i.e., prospects for harm reduction. Using the United States since 1964 as an example, we outline the leading themes that have arisen in response to these two questions. Initially, there was the recognition that “cigarettes are hazardous to health” and an acceptance of safer alternative tobacco products (cigars, pipes, light/lower-tar cigarettes. In the 1980s there was the creation of the seminal theme that “Cigarettes are lethal when used as intended and kill more people than heroin, cocaine, alcohol, AIDS, fires, homicide, suicide, and automobile crashes combined.” By around 2000, support for a less-dangerous light/lower tar cigarette was gone, and harm reduction claims were avoided for products like cigars and even for smokeless tobacco which were summarized as “unsafe” or “not a safe alternative to cigarettes.” Discussion The Surgeon General in 2014 concluded that by far the greatest danger to public health was from cigarettes and other combusted products. At the same time the evidence base for smokeless tobacco and alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDS had grown. Product innovation and tobacco/nicotine bio-behavioral, epidemiological and public health sciences demonstrate that low nitrosamine smokeless tobacco (e.g., Swedish snus, and ANDS have substantially lower harms than cigarettes. Going forward, it is important to sharpen themes and key messages of tobacco control, while continuing to emphasize the extreme lethality of the inhaled smoke from cigarettes or from use of any combusting tobacco product. Summary Implications of updating the leading themes for regulation, policymaking and advocacy in tobacco control

  15. Robots, systems, and methods for hazard evaluation and visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Curtis W.; Bruemmer, David J.; Walton, Miles C.; Hartley, Robert S.; Gertman, David I.; Kinoshita, Robert A.; Whetten, Jonathan

    2013-01-15

    A robot includes a hazard sensor, a locomotor, and a system controller. The robot senses a hazard intensity at a location of the robot, moves to a new location in response to the hazard intensity, and autonomously repeats the sensing and moving to determine multiple hazard levels at multiple locations. The robot may also include a communicator to communicate the multiple hazard levels to a remote controller. The remote controller includes a communicator for sending user commands to the robot and receiving the hazard levels from the robot. A graphical user interface displays an environment map of the environment proximate the robot and a scale for indicating a hazard intensity. A hazard indicator corresponds to a robot position in the environment map and graphically indicates the hazard intensity at the robot position relative to the scale.

  16. Preliminary Hazard Classification for the 105-B Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, N.R.

    1997-08-01

    This document summarizes the inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials present within the 105-B Reactor and uses the inventory information to determine the preliminary hazard classification for the surveillance and maintenance activities of the facility. The result of this effort was the preliminary hazard classification for the 105-B Building surveillance and maintenance activities. The preliminary hazard classification was determined to be Nuclear Category 3. Additional hazard and accident analysis will be documented in a separate report to define the hazard controls and final hazard classification

  17. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  18. Sustainable System for Residual Hazards Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2004-01-01

    Hazardous, radioactive and other toxic substances have routinely been generated and subsequently disposed of in the shallow subsurface throughout the world. Many of today's waste management techniques do not eliminate the problem, but rather only concentrate or contain the hazardous contaminants. Residual hazards result from the presence of hazardous and/or contaminated material that remains on-site following active operations or the completion of remedial actions. Residual hazards pose continued risk to humans and the environment and represent a significant and chronic problem that require continuous long-term management (i.e. >1000 years). To protect human health and safeguard the natural environment, a sustainable system is required for the proper management of residual hazards. A sustainable system for the management of residual hazards will require the integration of engineered, institutional and land-use controls to isolate residual contaminants and thus minimize the associated hazards. Engineered controls are physical modifications to the natural setting and ecosystem, including the site, facility, and/or the residual materials themselves, in order to reduce or eliminate the potential for exposure to contaminants of concern (COCs). Institutional controls are processes, instruments, and mechanisms designed to influence human behavior and activity. System failure can involve hazardous material escaping from the confinement because of system degradation (i.e., chronic or acute degradation) or by external intrusion of the biosphere into the contaminated material because of the loss of institutional control. An ongoing analysis of contemporary and historic sites suggests that the significance of the loss of institutional controls is a critical pathway because decisions made during the operations/remedial action phase, as well as decisions made throughout the residual hazards management period, are key to the long-term success of the prescribed system. In fact

  19. Lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semprich, S.; Speidel, S.R.; Schneider, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For reasons of environmental protection the storage of hazardous waste in unlined rock caverns is possible to a very limited extent only. Therefore, the authors have recently developed technologies for the lining and sealing of rock caverns. In the process, sealing systems of synthetic materials or metals have proved suitable. Synthetic materials can be used in the form of either sheets or coatings with various materials such as epoxy resins, polyethylenes etc. being used. Metal sealings consist of thin sheets or foils which are either welded or bonded. In either case, the structural design must provide for a leakage control possibility. The article describes the design principles, the structural and operational aspects as well as the control measures with regard to the planning and execution of lined rock caverns for the storage of hazardous waste

  20. Relative Hazard and Risk Measure Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, Robert D.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Elder, Matthew S.; Andrews, William B.; Walton, Terry L.

    2003-01-01

    The RHRM equations, as represented in methodology and code presented in this report, are primarily a collection of key factors normally used in risk assessment that are relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected mitigation, cleanup, and risk management activities. The RHRM code has broad application potential. For example, it can be used to compare one mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to just the fixed baseline. If the appropriate source term data are available, it can be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated controlling hazards and risks. These estimated values of controlling hazards and risks can then be examined to help understand which mitigation, cleanup, or risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions and risk reduction potential at a site. Graphics can be generated from these absolute controlling hazard and risk values to graphically compare these high hazard and risk reduction potential conditions. If the RHRM code is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard and risk estimates) the resultant absolute controlling hazard and risk values

  1. Identify alkylation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that extensive experience shows that alkylation plants regardless of acid catalyst choice, can be operated safely, and with minimum process risk to employees or neighbors. Both types of plants require a comprehensive and fully supported hazard management program that accounts for differing physical properties of the acids involved. Control and mitigation cost to refiners will vary considerably from plant to plant and location to location. In the author's experience, the order of magnitude costs will be about $1 to $2 million for a sulfuric acid (SA) alkylation plant, and about $10 to $15 million for a hydrofluoric acid (HF) plant. These costs include water supply systems and impoundment facilities for contaminated runoff water. The alkylation process, which chemically reacts isobutane and light olefins in the presence of a strong acid catalyst into a premium gasoline component is described

  2. An ultrasonic sensor controller for mapping and servo control in robotic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drotning, W.D.; Garcia, P. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    An ultrasonic sensor controller has been developed and applied in a variety of robotic systems for operation in hazardous environments. The controller consists of hardware and software that control multiple ultrasonic range sensors and provide workspace information to robot controllers for rapid, safe, and reliable operation in hazardous and remote environments. The hardware consists of a programmable multichannel controller that resides on a VMEbus for high speed communication to a multiprocessor architecture. The sensor controller has been used in a number of applications, which include providing high precision range information for proximity servo control of robots, and performing surface and obstacle mapping functions for safe path planning of robots in unstructured environments

  3. Online monitoring of coffee roasting by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS): towards a real-time process control for a consistent roast profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Flurin; Gloess, Alexia N; Keller, Marco; Wetzel, Andreas; Schenker, Stefan; Yeretzian, Chahan

    2012-03-01

    A real-time automated process control tool for coffee roasting is presented to consistently and accurately achieve a targeted roast degree. It is based on the online monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) in the off-gas of a drum roaster by proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry at a high time (1 Hz) and mass resolution (5,500 m/Δm at full width at half-maximum) and high sensitivity (better than parts per billion by volume). Forty-two roasting experiments were performed with the drum roaster being operated either on a low, medium or high hot-air inlet temperature (= energy input) and the coffee (Arabica from Antigua, Guatemala) being roasted to low, medium or dark roast degrees. A principal component analysis (PCA) discriminated, for each one of the three hot-air inlet temperatures, the roast degree with a resolution of better than ±1 Colorette. The 3D space of the three first principal components was defined based on 23 mass spectral profiles of VOCs and their roast degree at the end point of roasting. This provided a very detailed picture of the evolution of the roasting process and allowed establishment of a predictive model that projects the online-monitored VOC profile of the roaster off-gas in real time onto the PCA space defined by the calibration process and, ultimately, to control the coffee roasting process so as to achieve a target roast degree and a consistent roasting.

  4. 340 Waste handling Facility Hazard Categorization and Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodovsky, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category 3. The final hazard categorization for the deactivated 340 Waste Handling Facility (340 Facility) is presented in this document. This hazard categorization was prepared in accordance with DOE-STD-1 027-92, Change Notice 1, Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with Doe Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. The analysis presented in this document provides the basis for categorizing the facility as less than Hazard Category (HC) 3. Routine nuclear waste receiving, storage, handling, and shipping operations at the 340 Facility have been deactivated, however, the facility contains a small amount of radioactive liquid and/or dry saltcake in two underground vault tanks. A seismic event and hydrogen deflagration were selected as bounding accidents. The generation of hydrogen in the vault tanks without active ventilation was determined to achieve a steady state volume of 0.33%, which is significantly less than the lower flammability limit of 4%. Therefore, a hydrogen deflagration is not possible in these tanks. The unmitigated release from a seismic event was used to categorize the facility consistent with the process defined in Nuclear Safety Technical Position (NSTP) 2002-2. The final sum-of-fractions calculation concluded that the facility is less than HC 3. The analysis did not identify any required engineered controls or design features. The Administrative Controls that were derived from the analysis are: (1) radiological inventory control, (2) facility change control, and (3) Safety Management Programs (SMPs). The facility configuration and radiological inventory shall be controlled to ensure that the assumptions in the analysis remain valid. The facility commitment to SMPs protects the integrity of the facility and environment by ensuring training, emergency response, and radiation protection. The full scale

  5. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    When implementing configuration systems, knowledge about products and processes are documented and replicated in the configuration system. This practice assumes that products are specified consistently i.e. on the same rule base and likewise for processes. However, consistency cannot be taken...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation......, this paper presents a methodology for measuring product and process consistency prior to implementing a configuration system. The methodology consists of two parts: 1) measuring knowledge consistency and 2) measuring process consistency. Knowledge consistency is measured by developing a questionnaire...

  6. DOE Hazardous Waste Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyman, L.D.; Craig, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The goal of the DOE Hazardous Waste Program is to support the implementation and improvement of hazardous-chemical and mixed-radioactive-waste management such that public health, safety, and the environment are protected and DOE missions are effectively accomplished. The strategy for accomplishing this goal is to define the character and magnitude of hazardous wastes emanating from DOE facilities, determine what DOE resources are available to address these problems, define the regulatory and operational constraints, and develop programs and plans to resolve hazardous waste issues. Over the longer term the program will support the adaptation and application of technologies to meet hazardous waste management needs and to implement an integrated, DOE-wide hazardous waste management strategy. 1 reference, 1 figure

  7. Radon and its hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Guilan

    2002-01-01

    The author describes basic physical and chemical properties of radon and the emanation, introduces methods of radon measurement, expounds the hazards of non-mine radon accumulation to the health of human being and the protection, as well as the history how the human being recognizes the hazards of radon through the specific data and examples, and finally proposes protecting measures to avoid the hazards of radon to the health of human being, and to do ecologic evaluation of environments

  8. 76 FR 72216 - Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories Standard; Extension of the Office of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... accordance with the Standard's definitions for ``laboratory use of hazardous chemicals'' and ``laboratory... using hazardous chemicals; hazard-control techniques; equipment- reliability measures; worker... burden (time and costs) of the information collection requirements, including the validity of the...

  9. 76 FR 56294 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations, Penalties... error in processing the direct- final rule. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not...

  10. 76 FR 56362 - National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan National Priorities List AGENCY: Environmental... protection, Air pollution control, Chemicals, Hazardous Waste, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental... processing the deletion notice. The online Federal Document Management System (FDMS) did not include required...

  11. 77 FR 3223 - National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production Risk and Technology Review..., Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Intergovernmental relations... National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mineral Wool Production and Wool Fiberglass...

  12. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Hazard Analysis Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-12

    Hazard analyses were performed to evaluate the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment process was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. The analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public. The following selected hazardous scenarios received increased attention: •Scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy, controls were identified in the What-If analysis table that prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release. •Scenarios with significant consequences that could impact personnel outside the immediate operations area, quantitative analyses were performed to determine the potential magnitude of the scenario. The set of “critical controls” were identified for these scenarios (see Section 4) which prevent the occurrence or mitigate the effects of the release of events with significant consequences.

  13. Auditors of safety in hazardous materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manas Lahoz, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The author describes the methodology for safety auditory and control, prevention, risks of hazardous materials transport through ship, airplane, rail, etc. In this way, The author presents the classification of damage materials transport, characteristic damage and different transport methods

  14. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  15. Disposal of hazardous wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnhart, B.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Fifth Life Sciences Symposium entitled Hazardous Solid Wastes and Their Disposal on October 12 through 14, 1977 was summarized. The topic was the passage of the National Resources Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 will force some type of action on all hazardous solid wastes. Some major points covered were: the formulation of a definition of a hazardous solid waste, assessment of long-term risk, list of specific materials or general criteria to specify the wastes of concern, Bioethics, sources of hazardous waste, industrial and agricultural wastes, coal wastes, radioactive wastes, and disposal of wastes

  16. Civil nuclear: which hazards?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This document briefly indicates and describes the various hazards of exposure to radioactivity in relationship with the different stages of exploitation of nuclear energy: mining, exploitation, fuel reprocessing and waste management. It briefly presents and describes the scenarios associated with major risks in the exploitation phase: core fusion (description, possible origins, consequences in terms of possible releases), formation of hydrogen (chemical reaction, risk of explosion with releases, failure modes for the containment enclosure). It proposes a brief overview of consequences for mankind and for the environment due to irradiation and contamination. A brief assessment of major nuclear accidents is given, with an indication of their severity INES classification (Kyshtym, Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Fukushima). It evokes incidents which occurred in France, and outlines the main challenges and stakes in terms of risk prevention, of plant control, of nuclear material and waste management, of public information, and of struggle against nuclear weapon proliferation. Actors and their roles are indicated: operator (EDF in France), control authority (ASN), actors in charge of waste management (ANDRA), research and information institutions (CEA, IRSN, CRIIRAD), international scientific bodies (UNSCEAR)

  17. Avoiding the Hazards of Hazardous Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Under a 1980 law, colleges and universities can be liable for cleanup of hazardous waste on properties, in companies, and related to stocks they invest in or are given. College planners should establish clear policy concerning gifts, investigate gifts, distance university from business purposes, sell real estate gifts quickly, consult a risk…

  18. [Occupational hazards and bladder cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamova, R S

    1991-01-01

    Occupational exposure to health hazards was studied in 258 industrial workers who had developed cancer of the bladder against 454 matched controls. All the test subjects and controls were residents of the Tambov Province centers of chemical industry. Statistical significance (relative risk-4.7) was established for exposure to aromatic amines. For those contacting with aniline dyes the relative risk (RR) made up 2.4. The risk to develop bladder cancer in powder shops (RR-3.2) was attributed to the hazards of dyes and diphenylamine. In leather-shoe and textile industry the exposure to dyes was not safe (RR-6.1), neither was it to chemicals, oil products, pesticides, overheating (RR-3.2, 1.6, 3.2 and 2.9, respectively). It is stated that in line with a significant risk to develop bladder cancer at exposure to aromatic amines there exist a number of occupational factors contributing to this risk.

  19. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  20. The transport of hazardous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goemmel, F.

    1987-01-01

    The rapid development of all kinds of transports has been leading to a continuously increasing number of accidents involving the release and escape of hazardous materials. The risks involved for men and the environment have to be realized and reduced to a minimum. Efforts in this field have meanwhile been accumulating an enormous quantity of rules, recommendations and regulations. They comprise, among others, both national and international rail transport, maritime transport, inland shipping, air and road transport regulations adding up to a total of about 5000 pages. The publication discusses the necessity and justification of the existing quantity of regulations, it deals with their possible simplification and modified user-oriented arrangement as well as with a possible international harmonization of regulations. Apart from giving a general survey of the transport of hazardous materials the author reviews the intensive efforts which are going into the safety of the transport of hazardous materials and points out technical and legal problems which have remained unsolved so far. The publication essentially contributes to clearing up the background, perspectives and prospects of the complex regulations controlling the transport of hazardous materials. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article is an overview of efforts at INEL to reduce the generation of hazardous wastes through the elimination of hazardous solvents. To aid in their efforts, a number of databases have been developed and will become a part of an Integrated Solvent Substitution Data System. This latter data system will be accessible through Internet

  2. Relative Hazard Calculation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DL Strenge; MK White; RD Stenner; WB Andrews

    1999-01-01

    The methodology presented in this document was developed to provide a means of calculating the RH ratios to use in developing useful graphic illustrations. The RH equation, as presented in this methodology, is primarily a collection of key factors relevant to understanding the hazards and risks associated with projected risk management activities. The RH equation has the potential for much broader application than generating risk profiles. For example, it can be used to compare one risk management activity with another, instead of just comparing it to a fixed baseline as was done for the risk profiles. If the appropriate source term data are available, it could be used in its non-ratio form to estimate absolute values of the associated hazards. These estimated values of hazard could then be examined to help understand which risk management activities are addressing the higher hazard conditions at a site. Graphics could be generated from these absolute hazard values to compare high-hazard conditions. If the RH equation is used in this manner, care must be taken to specifically define and qualify the estimated absolute hazard values (e.g., identify which factors were considered and which ones tended to drive the hazard estimation)

  3. Hazardous Waste Manifest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s hazardous waste manifest system is designed to track hazardous waste from the time it leaves the generator facility where it was produced, until it reaches the off-site waste management facility that will store, treat, or dispose of the waste.

  4. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  5. Replica consistency in a Data Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenici, Andrea; Donno, Flavia; Pucciani, Gianni; Stockinger, Heinz; Stockinger, Kurt

    2004-01-01

    A Data Grid is a wide area computing infrastructure that employs Grid technologies to provide storage capacity and processing power to applications that handle very large quantities of data. Data Grids rely on data replication to achieve better performance and reliability by storing copies of data sets on different Grid nodes. When a data set can be modified by applications, the problem of maintaining consistency among existing copies arises. The consistency problem also concerns metadata, i.e., additional information about application data sets such as indices, directories, or catalogues. This kind of metadata is used both by the applications and by the Grid middleware to manage the data. For instance, the Replica Management Service (the Grid middleware component that controls data replication) uses catalogues to find the replicas of each data set. Such catalogues can also be replicated and their consistency is crucial to the correct operation of the Grid. Therefore, metadata consistency generally poses stricter requirements than data consistency. In this paper we report on the development of a Replica Consistency Service based on the middleware mainly developed by the European Data Grid Project. The paper summarises the main issues in the replica consistency problem, and lays out a high-level architectural design for a Replica Consistency Service. Finally, results from simulations of different consistency models are presented

  6. Working towards a clearer and more helpful hazard map: investigating the influence of hazard map design on hazard communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M. A.; Lindsay, J. M.; Gaillard, J.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, geological hazards are communicated using maps. In traditional hazard mapping practice, scientists analyse data about a hazard, and then display the results on a map for stakeholder and public use. However, this one-way, top-down approach to hazard communication is not necessarily effective or reliable. The messages which people take away will be dependent on the way in which they read, interpret, and understand the map, a facet of hazard communication which has been relatively unexplored. Decades of cartographic studies suggest that variables in the visual representation of data on maps, such as colour and symbology, can have a powerful effect on how people understand map content. In practice, however, there is little guidance or consistency in how hazard information is expressed and represented on maps. Accordingly, decisions are often made based on subjective preference, rather than research-backed principles. Here we present the results of a study in which we explore how hazard map design features can influence hazard map interpretation, and we propose a number of considerations for hazard map design. A series of hazard maps were generated, with each one showing the same probabilistic volcanic ashfall dataset, but using different verbal and visual variables (e.g., different colour schemes, data classifications, probabilistic formats). Following a short pilot study, these maps were used in an online survey of 110 stakeholders and scientists in New Zealand. Participants answered 30 open-ended and multiple choice questions about ashfall hazard based on the different maps. Results suggest that hazard map design can have a significant influence on the messages readers take away. For example, diverging colour schemes were associated with concepts of "risk" and decision-making more than sequential schemes, and participants made more precise estimates of hazard with isarithmic data classifications compared to binned or gradational shading. Based on such

  7. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  8. An Independent Evaluation of the FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis Alternative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Paul S.

    1996-01-01

    The present instruments of safety and reliability risk control for a majority of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) programs/projects consist of Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis (HA), Critical Items List (CIL), and Hazard Report (HR). This extensive analytical approach was introduced in the early 1970's and was implemented for the Space Shuttle Program by NHB 5300.4 (1D-2. Since the Challenger accident in 1986, the process has been expanded considerably and resulted in introduction of similar and/or duplicated activities in the safety/reliability risk analysis. A study initiated in 1995, to search for an alternative to the current FMEA/CIL Hazard Analysis methodology generated a proposed method on April 30, 1996. The objective of this Summer Faculty Study was to participate in and conduct an independent evaluation of the proposed alternative to simplify the present safety and reliability risk control procedure.

  9. Choice, internal consistency, and rationality

    OpenAIRE

    Aditi Bhattacharyya; Prasanta K. Pattanaik; Yongsheng Xu

    2010-01-01

    The classical theory of rational choice is built on several important internal consistency conditions. In recent years, the reasonableness of those internal consistency conditions has been questioned and criticized, and several responses to accommodate such criticisms have been proposed in the literature. This paper develops a general framework to accommodate the issues raised by the criticisms of classical rational choice theory, and examines the broad impact of these criticisms from both no...

  10. Self-consistent quark bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1979-01-01

    After an introductory overview of the bag model the author uses the self-consistent solution of the coupled Dirac-meson fields to represent a bound state of strongly ineteracting fermions. In this framework he discusses the vivial approach to classical field equations. After a short description of the used numerical methods the properties of bound states of scalar self-consistent Fields and the solutions of a self-coupled Dirac field are considered. (HSI) [de

  11. Natural hazards science strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert R.; Jones, Lucile M.; Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Godt, Jonathan W.; Kirby, Stephen H.; Love, Jeffrey J.; Neal, Christina A.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Plunkett, Michael L.; Weaver, Craig S.; Wein, Anne; Perry, Suzanne C.

    2012-01-01

    The mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in natural hazards is to develop and apply hazard science to help protect the safety, security, and economic well-being of the Nation. The costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous, and each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. USGS scientific research—founded on detailed observations and improved understanding of the responsible physical processes—can help to understand and reduce natural hazard risks and to make and effectively communicate reliable statements about hazard characteristics, such as frequency, magnitude, extent, onset, consequences, and where possible, the time of future events.To accomplish its broad hazard mission, the USGS maintains an expert workforce of scientists and technicians in the earth sciences, hydrology, biology, geography, social and behavioral sciences, and other fields, and engages cooperatively with numerous agencies, research institutions, and organizations in the public and private sectors, across the Nation and around the world. The scientific expertise required to accomplish the USGS mission in natural hazards includes a wide range of disciplines that this report refers to, in aggregate, as hazard science.In October 2010, the Natural Hazards Science Strategy Planning Team (H–SSPT) was charged with developing a long-term (10-year) Science Strategy for the USGS mission in natural hazards. This report fulfills that charge, with a document hereinafter referred to as the Strategy, to provide scientific observations, analyses, and research that are critical for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards. Science provides the information that decisionmakers need to determine whether risk management activities are worthwhile. Moreover, as the agency with the perspective of geologic time, the USGS is uniquely positioned to extend the collective experience of society to prepare for events outside current memory. The USGS has critical statutory

  12. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from

  13. Hazardous metals in yellow items used in RCAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.F.; Rankin, W.N.

    1992-01-01

    Yellow items used in Radiologically Controlled Areas (RCAs) that could contain hazardous metals were identified. X-ray fluorescence analyses indicated that thirty of the fifty-two items do contain hazardous metals. It is important to minimize the hazardous metals put into the wastes. The authors recommend that the specifications for all yellow items stocked in Stores be changed to specify that they contain no hazardous metals

  14. Occupational hazards to health of port workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Zhan, Shuifen; Liu, Yan; Li, Yan

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this article is to reduce the risk of occupational hazards and improve safety conditions by enhancing hazard knowledge and identification as well as improving safety behavior for freight port enterprises. In the article, occupational hazards to health and their prevention measures of freight port enterprises have been summarized through a lot of occupational health evaluation work, experience and understanding. Workers of freight port enterprises confront an equally wide variety of chemical, physical and psychological hazards in production technology, production environment and the course of labor. Such health hazards have been identified, the risks evaluated, the dangers to health notified and effective prevention measures which should be put in place to ensure the health of the port workers summarized. There is still a long way to go for the freight port enterprises to prevent and control the occupational hazards. Except for occupational hazards and their prevention measures, other factors that influence the health of port workers should also be paid attention to, such as age, work history, gender, contraindication and even the occurrence and development rules of occupational hazards in current production conditions.

  15. An Internet-based intervention for eating disorders consisting of automated computer-tailored feedback with or without supplemented frequent or infrequent support from a coach: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aardoom, Jiska J; Dingemans, Alexandra E; Spinhoven, Philip; Hakkaart-van Roijen, Leona; Van Furth, Eric F

    2013-10-17

    Several Internet-based interventions for eating disorders have shown their effectiveness. Still, there is a need to refine such interventions given that most existing programs seem to be limited by their static 'one-size-fits-all' approach. 'Featback', an Internet-based intervention for symptoms of eating disorders provides a more individualized approach. It consists of several components (psychoeducation, a fully automated monitoring and feedback system, and support from a coach), which can be matched to participants' needs and preferences. Until now, it is unclear whether online self-help interventions for eating disorders with support are more effective than those without. The aims of the current study are i) to examine the relative effectiveness of (the different components of) Featback; ii) to examine predictors, moderators and mediators of intervention responses; iii) to report on practical experiences with Featback; and iv) to examine the cost-effectiveness of Featback. Individuals aged 16 years or older, with mild to severe eating disorder symptoms will be randomized to one of the four study conditions. In condition one, participants receive the basic version of Featback, consisting of psychoeducation and a fully automated monitoring and feedback system. In conditions two and three, participants receive the basic version of Featback supplemented with the possibility of infrequent (weekly) or frequent (three times a week) e-mail, chat, or Skype support from a coach, respectively. The fourth condition is a waiting list control condition. Participants are assessed at baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks), and at 3- and 6-month follow-up (the latter except for participants in the waiting list control condition). Primary outcome measures are disordered eating behaviors and attitudes. Secondary outcome measures are (eating disorder-related) quality of life, self-stigma of seeking help, self-esteem, mastery and support, symptoms of depression and anxiety

  16. Hazard screening application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information

  17. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  18. Consistent and significant improvement of nighttime voiding frequency (nocturia) with silodosin in men with LUTS suggestive of BPH: pooled analysis of three randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase III studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenhardt, Andreas; Schneider, Tim; Cruz, Francisco; Oelke, Matthias

    2014-10-01

    Nocturia is prevalent and bothersome in men with lower urinary tract symptoms suggestive of BPH (LUTS/BPH). α-Adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity have inconsistently shown significant effects on nocturia in these patients. We explored the effects of the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin on nocturia by analyzing three placebo-controlled registration studies. Responses to question 7 of the IPSS questionnaire were analyzed for the entire study population and patients with ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Improvement/worsening rates for nocturia were calculated for once-daily silodosin 8 mg and placebo. Silodosin effects on the mean number of nocturnal voids were compared with placebo, and the number of patients in whom nocturia was reduced to silodosin or placebo; 1,266 men (85 %) had ≥ 2 voids/night at baseline. Compared to placebo, more men treated with silodosin reported about nocturia improvement (53.4 vs. 42.8 %, p Silodosin significantly reduced nocturia within each study and pooled cohort compared to placebo (p silodosin and placebo had reductions of ≥ 1 voids/night, respectively (p = 0.0003), and significantly more patients with silodosin had nocturia episodes at study end compared to placebo (29.3 vs. 19.0 %; p = 0.0002). Although a weak impact on nocturia is already known from α-adrenoceptor antagonists without subtype selectivity, the individual placebo-controlled studies and the pooled data analysis showed that the α1A-adrenoceptor subtype-selective antagonist silodosin consistently and significantly improves nocturia in men with LUTS/BPH.

  19. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  20. Consistent guiding center drift theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wimmel, H.K.

    1982-04-01

    Various guiding-center drift theories are presented that are optimized in respect of consistency. They satisfy exact energy conservation theorems (in time-independent fields), Liouville's theorems, and appropriate power balance equations. A theoretical framework is given that allows direct and exact derivation of associated drift-kinetic equations from the respective guiding-center drift-orbit theories. These drift-kinetic equations are listed. Northrop's non-optimized theory is discussed for reference, and internal consistency relations of G.C. drift theories are presented. (orig.)

  1. Weak consistency and strong paraconsistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Robles

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In a standard sense, consistency and paraconsistency are understood as, respectively, the absence of any contradiction and as the absence of the ECQ (“E contradictione quodlibet” rule that allows us to conclude any well formed formula from any contradiction. The aim of this paper is to explain the concepts of weak consistency alternative to the standard one, the concepts of paraconsistency related to them and the concept of strong paraconsistency, all of which have been defined by the author together with José M. Méndez.

  2. Consistent force fields for saccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Kjeld

    1999-01-01

    Consistent force fields for carbohydrates were hitherto developed by extensive optimization ofpotential energy function parameters on experimental data and on ab initio results. A wide range of experimental data is used: internal structures obtained from gas phase electron diffraction and from x......-anomeric effects are accounted for without addition of specific terms. The work is done in the framework of the Consistent Force Field which originatedin Israel and was further developed in Denmark. The actual methods and strategies employed havebeen described previously. Extensive testing of the force field...

  3. PHAZE, Parametric Hazard Function Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: Phaze performs statistical inference calculations on a hazard function (also called a failure rate or intensity function) based on reported failure times of components that are repaired and restored to service. Three parametric models are allowed: the exponential, linear, and Weibull hazard models. The inference includes estimation (maximum likelihood estimators and confidence regions) of the parameters and of the hazard function itself, testing of hypotheses such as increasing failure rate, and checking of the model assumptions. 2 - Methods: PHAZE assumes that the failures of a component follow a time-dependent (or non-homogenous) Poisson process and that the failure counts in non-overlapping time intervals are independent. Implicit in the independence property is the assumption that the component is restored to service immediately after any failure, with negligible repair time. The failures of one component are assumed to be independent of those of another component; a proportional hazards model is used. Data for a component are called time censored if the component is observed for a fixed time-period, or plant records covering a fixed time-period are examined, and the failure times are recorded. The number of these failures is random. Data are called failure censored if the component is kept in service until a predetermined number of failures has occurred, at which time the component is removed from service. In this case, the number of failures is fixed, but the end of the observation period equals the final failure time and is random. A typical PHAZE session consists of reading failure data from a file prepared previously, selecting one of the three models, and performing data analysis (i.e., performing the usual statistical inference about the parameters of the model, with special emphasis on the parameter(s) that determine whether the hazard function is increasing). The final goals of the inference are a point estimate

  4. Multifaceted processes controlling the distribution of hazardous compounds in the spontaneous combustion of coal and the effect of these compounds on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos L S; da Boit, Kátia; Pacheco, Fernanda; Teixeira, Elba C; Schneider, Ismael L; Crissien, Tito J; Pinto, Diana C; Oyaga, Rafael M; Silva, Luis F O

    2018-01-01

    Pollution generated by hazardous elements and persistent organic compounds that affect coal fire is a major environmental concern because of its toxic nature, persistence, and potential risk to human health. The coal mining activities are growing in the state of Santa Catarina in Brazil, thus the collateral impacts on the health and economy are yet to be analyzed. In addition, the environment is also enduring the collateral damage as the waste materials directly influence the coal by-products applied in civil constructions. This study was aimed to establish the relationships between the composition, morphology, and structural characteristics of ultrafine particles emitted by coal mine fires. In Brazil, the self-combustions produced by Al-Ca-Fe-Mg-Si coal spheres are rich in chalcophile elements (As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, and Zn), lithophile elements (Ce, Hf, In, La, Th, and U), and siderophile elements (Co, Cr, Mo, Fe, Ni, and V). The relationship between nanomineralogy and the production of hazardous elements as analyzed by advanced methods for the geochemical analysis of different materials were also delineated. The information obtained by the mineral substance analysis may provide a better idea for the understanding of coal-fire development and assessing the response of particular coal in different combustion processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time-consistent actuarial valuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.A.J.; Salahnejhad Ghalehjooghi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Time-consistent valuations (i.e. pricing operators) can be created by backward iteration of one-period valuations. In this paper we investigate the continuous-time limits of well-known actuarial premium principles when such backward iteration procedures are applied. This method is applied to an

  6. Dynamically consistent oil import tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, L.; Newbery, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The standard theory of optimal tariffs considers tariffs on perishable goods produced abroad under static conditions, in which tariffs affect prices only in that period. Oil and other exhaustable resources do not fit this model, for current tariffs affect the amount of oil imported, which will affect the remaining stock and hence its future price. The problem of choosing a dynamically consistent oil import tariff when suppliers are competitive but importers have market power is considered. The open-loop Nash tariff is solved for the standard competitive case in which the oil price is arbitraged, and it was found that the resulting tariff rises at the rate of interest. This tariff was found to have an equilibrium that in general is dynamically inconsistent. Nevertheless, it is shown that necessary and sufficient conditions exist under which the tariff satisfies the weaker condition of time consistency. A dynamically consistent tariff is obtained by assuming that all agents condition their current decisions on the remaining stock of the resource, in contrast to open-loop strategies. For the natural case in which all agents choose their actions simultaneously in each period, the dynamically consistent tariff was characterized, and found to differ markedly from the time-inconsistent open-loop tariff. It was shown that if importers do not have overwhelming market power, then the time path of the world price is insensitive to the ability to commit, as is the level of wealth achieved by the importer. 26 refs., 4 figs

  7. Supplemental Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment - Hydrotreater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, Peter P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wagner, Katie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    A supplemental hazard analysis was conducted and quantitative risk assessment performed in response to an independent review comment received by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from the U.S. Department of Energy Pacific Northwest Field Office (PNSO) against the Hydrotreater/Distillation Column Hazard Analysis Report issued in April 2013. The supplemental analysis used the hazardous conditions documented by the previous April 2013 report as a basis. The conditions were screened and grouped for the purpose of identifying whether additional prudent, practical hazard controls could be identified, using a quantitative risk evaluation to assess the adequacy of the controls and establish a lower level of concern for the likelihood of potential serious accidents. Calculations were performed to support conclusions where necessary.

  8. Technical basis document for natural event hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARSON, D.M.

    2003-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the Tank Farms Documented Safety Analysis (DSA), and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazards (NEH)-initiated representative accident and associated represented hazardous conditions. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls. Determination of the need for safety-class SSCs was performed in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', as described in this report

  9. Hazardous waste management and weight-based indicators-The case of Haifa Metropolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elimelech, E.; Ayalon, O.; Flicstein, B.

    2011-01-01

    The quantity control of hazardous waste in Israel relies primarily on the Environmental Services Company (ESC) reports. With limited management tools, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) has no applicable methodology to confirm or monitor the actual amounts of hazardous waste produced by various industrial sectors. The main goal of this research was to develop a method for estimating the amounts of hazardous waste produced by various sectors. In order to achieve this goal, sector-specific indicators were tested on three hazardous waste producing sectors in the Haifa Metropolis: petroleum refineries, dry cleaners, and public hospitals. The findings reveal poor practice of hazardous waste management in the dry cleaning sector and in the public hospitals sector. Large discrepancies were found in the dry cleaning sector, between the quantities of hazardous waste reported and the corresponding indicator estimates. Furthermore, a lack of documentation on hospitals' pharmaceutical and chemical waste production volume was observed. Only in the case of petroleum refineries, the reported amount was consistent with the estimate.

  10. Hazardous waste management and weight-based indicators--the case of Haifa Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elimelech, E; Ayalon, O; Flicstein, B

    2011-01-30

    The quantity control of hazardous waste in Israel relies primarily on the Environmental Services Company (ESC) reports. With limited management tools, the Ministry of Environmental Protection (MoEP) has no applicable methodology to confirm or monitor the actual amounts of hazardous waste produced by various industrial sectors. The main goal of this research was to develop a method for estimating the amounts of hazardous waste produced by various sectors. In order to achieve this goal, sector-specific indicators were tested on three hazardous waste producing sectors in the Haifa Metropolis: petroleum refineries, dry cleaners, and public hospitals. The findings reveal poor practice of hazardous waste management in the dry cleaning sector and in the public hospitals sector. Large discrepancies were found in the dry cleaning sector, between the quantities of hazardous waste reported and the corresponding indicator estimates. Furthermore, a lack of documentation on hospitals' pharmaceutical and chemical waste production volume was observed. Only in the case of petroleum refineries, the reported amount was consistent with the estimate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Flood Hazard Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  12. Flood Hazard Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The National Flood Hazard Layer (NFHL) data incorporates all Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map(DFIRM) databases published by FEMA, and any Letters Of Map Revision...

  13. Introduction: Hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rex L.; Miyagi, Toyohiko; Lee, Saro; Trofymchuk, Oleksandr M

    2014-01-01

    Twenty papers were accepted into the session on landslide hazard mapping for oral presentation. The papers presented susceptibility and hazard analysis based on approaches ranging from field-based assessments to statistically based models to assessments that combined hydromechanical and probabilistic components. Many of the studies have taken advantage of increasing availability of remotely sensed data and nearly all relied on Geographic Information Systems to organize and analyze spatial data. The studies used a range of methods for assessing performance and validating hazard and susceptibility models. A few of the studies presented in this session also included some element of landslide risk assessment. This collection of papers clearly demonstrates that a wide range of approaches can lead to useful assessments of landslide susceptibility and hazard.

  14. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  15. Natural Hazards Image Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photographs and other visual media provide valuable pre- and post-event data for natural hazards. Research, mitigation, and forecasting rely on visual data for...

  16. Hazardous Waste Research Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is playing a major role in development of technologies for cleanup of toxic and hazardous waste in military...

  17. Health Hazard Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 1, 2018 Content source: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluation, and Field Studies ... Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road Atlanta , GA 30329-4027 ...

  18. What Are Volcano Hazards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sheet 002-97 Revised March 2008 What Are Volcano Hazards? Volcanoes give rise to numerous geologic and ... as far as 15 miles from the volcano. Volcano Landslides A landslide or debris avalanche is a ...

  19. Hazards from aircraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grund, J.E.; Hornyik, K.

    1975-01-01

    The siting of nuclear power plants has created innumerable environmental concerns. Among the effects of the ''man-made environment'' one of increasing importance in recent nuclear plant siting hazards analysis has been the concern about aircraft hazards to the nuclear plant. These hazards are of concern because of the possibility that an aircraft may have a malfunction and crash either near the plant or directly into it. Such a crash could be postulated to result, because of missile and/or fire effects, in radioactive releases which would endanger the public health and safety. The majority of studies related to hazards from air traffic have been concerned with the determination of the probability associated with an aircraft striking vulnerable portions of a given plant. Other studies have focused on the structural response to such a strike. This work focuses on the problem of strike probability. 13 references

  20. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  1. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  2. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  3. A probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horspool, N.; Pranantyo, I.; Griffin, J.; Latief, H.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Kongko, W.; Cipta, A.; Bustaman, B.; Anugrah, S. D.; Thio, H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Probabilistic hazard assessments are a fundamental tool for assessing the threats posed by hazards to communities and are important for underpinning evidence-based decision-making regarding risk mitigation activities. Indonesia has been the focus of intense tsunami risk mitigation efforts following the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, but this has been largely concentrated on the Sunda Arc with little attention to other tsunami prone areas of the country such as eastern Indonesia. We present the first nationally consistent probabilistic tsunami hazard assessment (PTHA) for Indonesia. This assessment produces time-independent forecasts of tsunami hazards at the coast using data from tsunami generated by local, regional and distant earthquake sources. The methodology is based on the established monte carlo approach to probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) and has been adapted to tsunami. We account for sources of epistemic and aleatory uncertainty in the analysis through the use of logic trees and sampling probability density functions. For short return periods (100 years) the highest tsunami hazard is the west coast of Sumatra, south coast of Java and the north coast of Papua. For longer return periods (500-2500 years), the tsunami hazard is highest along the Sunda Arc, reflecting the larger maximum magnitudes. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 0.5 m at the coast is greater than 10% for Sumatra, Java, the Sunda islands (Bali, Lombok, Flores, Sumba) and north Papua. The annual probability of experiencing a tsunami with a height of > 3.0 m, which would cause significant inundation and fatalities, is 1-10% in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok and north Papua, and 0.1-1% for north Sulawesi, Seram and Flores. The results of this national-scale hazard assessment provide evidence for disaster managers to prioritise regions for risk mitigation activities and/or more detailed hazard or risk assessment.

  4. Consistently violating the non-Gaussian consistency relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooij, Sander; Palma, Gonzalo A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-attractor models of inflation are characterized by the super-horizon evolution of curvature perturbations, introducing a violation of the non-Gaussian consistency relation between the bispectrum's squeezed limit and the power spectrum's spectral index. In this work we show that the bispectrum's squeezed limit of non-attractor models continues to respect a relation dictated by the evolution of the background. We show how to derive this relation using only symmetry arguments, without ever needing to solve the equations of motion for the perturbations

  5. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  6. Self-consistent radial sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    The boundary layer arising in the radial vicinity of a tokamak limiter is examined, with special reference to the TEXT tokamak. It is shown that sheath structure depends upon the self-consistent effects of ion guiding-center orbit modification, as well as the radial variation of E /times/ B-induced toroidal rotation. Reasonable agreement with experiment is obtained from an idealized model which, however simplified, preserves such self-consistent effects. It is argued that the radial sheath, which occurs whenever confining magnetic field-lines lie in the plasma boundary surface, is an object of some intrinsic interest. It differs from the more familiar axial sheath because magnetized charges respond very differently to parallel and perpendicular electric fields. 11 refs., 1 fig

  7. Lagrangian multiforms and multidimensional consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobb, Sarah; Nijhoff, Frank [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-30

    We show that well-chosen Lagrangians for a class of two-dimensional integrable lattice equations obey a closure relation when embedded in a higher dimensional lattice. On the basis of this property we formulate a Lagrangian description for such systems in terms of Lagrangian multiforms. We discuss the connection of this formalism with the notion of multidimensional consistency, and the role of the lattice from the point of view of the relevant variational principle.

  8. Consistency and Communication in Committees

    OpenAIRE

    Inga Deimen; Felix Ketelaar; Mark T. Le Quement

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes truthtelling incentives in pre-vote communication in heterogeneous committees. We generalize the classical Condorcet jury model by introducing a new informational structure that captures consistency of information. In contrast to the impossibility result shown by Coughlan (2000) for the classical model, full pooling of information followed by sincere voting is an equilibrium outcome of our model for a large set of parameter values implying the possibility of ex post confli...

  9. Deep Feature Consistent Variational Autoencoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xianxu; Shen, Linlin; Sun, Ke; Qiu, Guoping

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel method for constructing Variational Autoencoder (VAE). Instead of using pixel-by-pixel loss, we enforce deep feature consistency between the input and the output of a VAE, which ensures the VAE's output to preserve the spatial correlation characteristics of the input, thus leading the output to have a more natural visual appearance and better perceptual quality. Based on recent deep learning works such as style transfer, we employ a pre-trained deep convolutional neural net...

  10. Landslides control the spatial and temporal variation of channel width in southern Taiwan: implications for landscape evolution and cascading hazards in steep, tectonically active landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanites, B.; Bregy, J. C.; Carlson, G.; Cataldo, K.; Holahan, M.; Johnston, G.; Mitchell, N. A.; Nelson, A.; Valenza, J.; Wanker, M.

    2017-12-01

    Intense precipitation or seismic events can generate clustered mass movement processes across a landscape. These rare events have significant impacts on the landscape, however, the rarity of such events leads to uncertainty in how these events impact the entire geomorphic system over a range of timescales. Taiwan is a steep, seismically active region and is highly prone to landslide and debris flows, especially when exposed to heavy rainfall events. Typhoon Morakot made landfall in Taiwan in August of 2009, delivering record-breaking rainfall and inducing more than 22,000 landslides in southern Taiwan. The topographic gradient in southern Taiwan leads to spatial variability in landslide susceptibility providing an opportunity to infer the long-term impact of landslides on channel morphology. The availability of pre and post typhoon imagery allows a quantitative reconstruction on the propagating impact of this event on channel width. The pre and post typhoon patterns of channel width to river and hillslope gradients in 20 basins in the study area reveal the importance of cascading hazards from landslides on landscape evolution. Prior to Typhoon Morakot, the river channels in the central part of the study area were about 3-10 times wider than the channels in the south. Aggradation and widening was also a maximum in these basins where hillslope gradients and channel steepness is high. The results further show that the narrowest channels are located where channel steepness is the lowest, an observation inconsistent with a detachment-limited model for river evolution. We infer this pattern is indicative of a strong role of sediment supply, and associated landslide events, on long-term channel evolution. These findings have implications across a range of spatial and temporal scales including understanding the cascade of hazards in steep landscapes and geomorphic interpretation of channel morphology.

  11. A proposal for performing software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.; Gallagher, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper. The method concentrates on finding hazards during the early stages of the software life cycle, using an extension of HAZOP

  12. Chemical process hazards analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The Office of Worker Health and Safety (EH-5) under the Assistant Secretary for the Environment, Safety and Health of the US Department (DOE) has published two handbooks for use by DOE contractors managing facilities and processes covered by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Rule for Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (29 CFR 1910.119), herein referred to as the PSM Rule. The PSM Rule contains an integrated set of chemical process safety management elements designed to prevent chemical releases that can lead to catastrophic fires, explosions, or toxic exposures. The purpose of the two handbooks, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` and ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate implementation of the provisions of the PSM Rule within the DOE. The purpose of this handbook ``Chemical Process Hazards Analysis,`` is to facilitate, within the DOE, the performance of chemical process hazards analyses (PrHAs) as required under the PSM Rule. It provides basic information for the performance of PrHAs, and should not be considered a complete resource on PrHA methods. Likewise, to determine if a facility is covered by the PSM rule, the reader should refer to the handbook, ``Process Safety Management for Highly Hazardous Chemicals`` (DOE- HDBK-1101-96). Promulgation of the PSM Rule has heightened the awareness of chemical safety management issues within the DOE. This handbook is intended for use by DOE facilities and processes covered by the PSM rule to facilitate contractor implementation of the PrHA element of the PSM Rule. However, contractors whose facilities and processes not covered by the PSM Rule may also use this handbook as a basis for conducting process hazards analyses as part of their good management practices. This handbook explains the minimum requirements for PrHAs outlined in the PSM Rule. Nowhere have requirements been added beyond what is specifically required by the rule.

  13. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  14. Transportation of Hazardous Materials Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-02-28

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program.

  15. Transportation of hazardous materials emergency preparedness hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the Emergency Preparedness Hazards Assessment (EPHA) for the Transportation of Hazardous Materials (THM) at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This hazards assessment is intended to identify and analyze those transportation hazards significant enough to warrant consideration in the SRS Emergency Management Program

  16. The California Hazards Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, J. B.; Kellogg, L. H.; Turcotte, D. L.

    2006-12-01

    California's abundant resources are linked with its natural hazards. Earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, floods, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, severe storms, fires, and droughts afflict the state regularly. These events have the potential to become great disasters, like the San Francisco earthquake and fire of 1906, that overwhelm the capacity of society to respond. At such times, the fabric of civic life is frayed, political leadership is tested, economic losses can dwarf available resources, and full recovery can take decades. A patchwork of Federal, state and local programs are in place to address individual hazards, but California lacks effective coordination to forecast, prevent, prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and recover from, the harmful effects of natural disasters. Moreover, we do not know enough about the frequency, size, time, or locations where they may strike, nor about how the natural environment and man-made structures would respond. As California's population grows and becomes more interdependent, even moderate events have the potential to trigger catastrophes. Natural hazards need not become natural disasters if they are addressed proactively and effectively, rather than reactively. The University of California, with 10 campuses distributed across the state, has world-class faculty and students engaged in research and education in all fields of direct relevance to hazards. For that reason, the UC can become a world leader in anticipating and managing natural hazards in order to prevent loss of life and property and degradation of environmental quality. The University of California, Office of the President, has therefore established a new system-wide Multicampus Research Project, the California Hazards Institute (CHI), as a mechanism to research innovative, effective solutions for California. The CHI will build on the rich intellectual capital and expertise of the Golden State to provide the best available science, knowledge and tools for

  17. Defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The book on defense against terroristic hazards and risk by building planning law includes the following issues: Introduction: civil engineering and safety. Risk, hazards and urban planning: historical and actual examples for the constructional danger prevention, terroristic threat and urban planning. Risk, hazards and terrorism: sociology and risk, law and risk, terrorism - risk or hazard? Answer to uncertainty - risk prevention, catastrophe law as link. Risk, hazard, terrorism and the public building and regional planning law: regional planning law as point of origin, building law and terrorism, possibility of control by the legal building regulations.

  18. Management of radiation hazards in hospitals: plural rationalities in a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the perceptions of occupational radiological hazards in a small sample of American hospitals during an anthropological pilot study conducted in 1982. The results indicate that occupants of various occupational categories exhibit diverse behaviours toward medical radiation. These behaviours are consistent with grid/group classifications of each type of occupation. Various implications for risk management and institutional design are discussed in the context of different levels of trust in individual control and institutional procedures. (author)

  19. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Ashley

    2006-12-08

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7).

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF AIRCRAFT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K.L. Ashley

    2005-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in the ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2004, Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based on limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and on crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987, Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. NUREG-0800 is being used here as a reference because some of the same considerations apply. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of the identified aircraft hazards based on the criteria that apply to Category 1 and 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 (see Section 4). The scope of this technical report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the MGR at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (see Section 7)

  1. Natural Hazards, Second Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhban, Badaoui

    Natural disaster loss is on the rise, and the vulnerability of the human and physical environment to the violent forces of nature is increasing. In many parts of the world, disasters caused by natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, landslides, drought, wildfires, intense windstorms, tsunami, and volcanic eruptions have caused the loss of human lives, injury, homelessness, and the destruction of economic and social infrastructure. Over the last few years, there has been an increase in the occurrence, severity, and intensity of disasters, culminating with the devastating tsunami of 26 December 2004 in South East Asia.Natural hazards are often unexpected or uncontrollable natural events of varying magnitude. Understanding their mechanisms and assessing their distribution in time and space are necessary for refining risk mitigation measures. This second edition of Natural Hazards, (following a first edition published in 1991 by Cambridge University Press), written by Edward Bryant, associate dean of science at Wollongong University, Australia, grapples with this crucial issue, aspects of hazard prediction, and other issues. The book presents a comprehensive analysis of different categories of hazards of climatic and geological origin.

  2. Barrow hazards survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    Following a series of public meetings at which PERG presented the results of a literature review and site specific accident study of the hazards of the maritime transport of spent nuclear reactor fuel to Barrow (en route to the Windscale reprocessing works), PERG was requested by the Planning Committee of Barrow Town Council to prepare an assessment of the interaction of the hazards arising from the concentration of nuclear activities in the area with those of a proposed gas-terminal. This report presents a preliminary review of the Environmental Impact Assessments prepared by the Borough Surveyor and a critical appraisal of the hazard analyses undertaken by the Health and Safety Executive, and the consultants to Cumbria County Council on this matter, the Safety and Reliability Directorate of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority. After a general and historical introduction, the document continues under the following headings: a description of the hazards (BNFL spent fuel shipments; the gas terminal; gas condensate storage; the Vickers shipyard (involving nuclear powered submarines)); the interaction of hazards; planning implications and democratic decisions; recommendations. (U.K.)

  3. Identification of Aircraft Hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    K. Ashley

    2006-01-01

    Aircraft hazards were determined to be potentially applicable to a repository at Yucca Mountain in ''Monitored Geological Repository External Events Hazards Screening Analysis'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 174235], Section 6.4.1). That determination was conservatively based upon limited knowledge of flight data in the area of concern and upon crash data for aircraft of the type flying near Yucca Mountain. The purpose of this report is to identify specific aircraft hazards that may be applicable to a monitored geologic repository (MGR) at Yucca Mountain, using NUREG-0800, ''Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants'' (NRC 1987 [DIRS 103124], Section 3.5.1.6), as guidance for the inclusion or exclusion of identified aircraft hazards. The intended use of this report is to provide inputs for further screening and analysis of identified aircraft hazards based upon the criteria that apply to Category 1 and Category 2 event sequence analyses as defined in 10 CFR 63.2 [DIRS 176544] (Section 4). The scope of this report includes the evaluation of military, private, and commercial use of airspace in the 100-mile regional setting of the repository at Yucca Mountain with the potential for reducing the regional setting to a more manageable size after consideration of applicable screening criteria (Section 7)

  4. Spatio-volumetric hazard estimation in the Auckland volcanic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebbington, Mark S.

    2015-05-01

    The idea of a volcanic field `boundary' is prevalent in the literature, but ill-defined at best. We use the elliptically constrained vents in the Auckland Volcanic Field to examine how spatial intensity models can be tested to assess whether they are consistent with such features. A means of modifying the anisotropic Gaussian kernel density estimate to reflect the existence of a `hard' boundary is then suggested, and the result shown to reproduce the observed elliptical distribution. A new idea, that of a spatio-volumetric model, is introduced as being more relevant to hazard in a monogenetic volcanic field than the spatiotemporal hazard model due to the low temporal rates in volcanic fields. Significant dependencies between the locations and erupted volumes of the observed centres are deduced, and expressed in the form of a spatially-varying probability density. In the future, larger volumes are to be expected in the `gaps' between existing centres, with the location of the greatest forecast volume lying in the shipping channel between Rangitoto and Castor Bay. The results argue for tectonic control over location and magmatic control over erupted volume. The spatio-volumetric model is consistent with the hypothesis of a flat elliptical area in the mantle where tensional stresses, related to the local tectonics and geology, allow decompressional melting.

  5. Assessment of LANL hazardous waste management documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.D.; Hoevemeyer, S.S.; Stirrup, T.S.; Jennrich, E.A.; Lund, D.M.

    1991-04-01

    The objective of this report is to present findings from evaluating the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) ''Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria Receipt at TA-54, Area L'' to determine if it meets applicable DOE requirements. The guidelines and requirements for the establishment of a Hazardous Waste Acceptance Criteria (HW-WAC) are found in 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. Neither set of requirements specifically require a WAC for the management of hazardous waste; however, the use of such documentation is logical and is consistent with the approach required for the management of radioactive waste. The primary purpose of a HW-WAC is to provide generators and waste management with established criteria that must be met before hazardous waste can be acceptable for treatment, storage and/or disposal. An annotated outline for a generic waste acceptance criteria was developed based on the requirements of 40 CFR 260 to 270 and DOE Order 5820.2A. The outline contains only requirements for hazardous waste, it does not address the radiological components of low-level mixed waste. The outline generated from the regulations was used for comparison to the LANL WAC For Chemical and Low-level Mixed Waste Receipt at TA-54, Area L. The major elements that should be addressed by a hazardous waste WAC were determined to be as follows: Waste Package/Container Requirements, Waste Forms, Land Disposal Restrictions, and Data Package-Certification ampersand Documentation

  6. Natural phenomena hazards design and evaluation criteria for Department of Energy Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has issued an Order 420.1 which establishes policy for its facilities in the event of natural phenomena hazards (NPH) along with associated NPH mitigation requirements. This DOE Standard gives design and evaluation criteria for NPH effects as guidance for implementing the NPH mitigation requirements of DOE Order 420.1 and the associated implementation Guides. These are intended to be consistent design and evaluation criteria for protection against natural phenomena hazards at DOE sites throughout the United States. The goal of these criteria is to assure that DOE facilities can withstand the effects of natural phenomena such as earthquakes, extreme winds, tornadoes, and flooding. These criteria apply to the design of new facilities and the evaluation of existing facilities. They may also be used for modification and upgrading of existing facilities as appropriate. The design and evaluation criteria presented herein control the level of conservatism introduced in the design/evaluation process such that earthquake, wind, and flood hazards are treated on a consistent basis. These criteria also employ a graded approach to ensure that the level of conservatism and rigor in design/evaluation is appropriate for facility characteristics such as importance, hazards to people on and off site, and threat to the environment. For each natural phenomena hazard covered, these criteria consist of the following: Performance Categories and target performance goals as specified in the DOE Order 420.1 NPH Implementation Guide, and DOE-STD-1 021; specified probability levels from which natural phenomena hazard loading on structures, equipment, and systems is developed; and design and evaluation procedures to evaluate response to NPH loads and criteria to assess whether or not computed response is permissible.

  7. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Hazardous Waste Site Polygon Data, 1996 consists of 2042 polygons for selected hazardous waste sites...

  8. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  9. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  10. Potential hazards in smoke-flavored fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong; Jiang, Jie; Li, Donghua

    2008-08-01

    Smoking is widely used in fish processing for the color and flavor. Smoke flavorings have evolved as a successful alternative to traditional smoking. The hazards of the fish products treated by liquid-smoking process are discussed in this review. The smoke flavoring is one important ingredient in the smoke-flavored fish. This paper gives the definition of smoke flavorings and the hazard of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) residue in the smoke flavorings on the market. It gives also an assessment of chemical hazards such as carcinogenic PAHs, especially Benzo-[ a]pyrene, as well as biological hazards such as Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, histamine and parasites in smoke-flavored fish. The limitations in regulations or standards are discussed. Smoke flavored fish have lower content of PAHs as compared with the traditional smoking techniques if the PAHs residue in smoke flavorings is controlled by regulations or standards.

  11. Microbial hazards reduction during creamy cream cheese production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Miarka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the hazards relevant to the production of safe food and to assess the effects of a possible infection. The paper presents the microbiological hazards that can occur throughout the production of creamy cream cheese and indicates the means to their minimization or elimination. The analysis of microbiological hazards showed that in the manufacturing process of the type of cheese mentioned, there are a few critical steps that should be specifically overseen. In order to acquire a high quality product it is important to monitor a quality of raw material, the parameters of pasteurization and souring, temperature of product packaging, storage conditions of the finished product and maintain hygiene throughout the production. The process of heat treatment, which is pasteurization, is a critical step (critical control points - CCP for the whole process. Monitoring this stage and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Programs at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, guarantees a safe product and its long shelf life.

  12. 晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产的职业危害特点及其防控对策%Characteristics and Control Strategies of Occupational Hazards in Crystal Silicon Solar Energy Photovoltaic Battery Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴云; 朱素蓉; 陈喆; 王强毅

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] To investigate the status and features of occupational hazards in crystal silicon solar energy photovoltaic battery production, and to explore solutions for the improvement of occupational hazard control strategies. [ Methods ] A survey on technology, hygienic engineering measures, occupational health surveillance and management was conducted in 4 crystal silicon solar energy photovoltaic battery manufacturing plants in Shanghai, where the concentration (level) of occupational hazard factor was also monitored. [ Results ] The technology of solar energy photovoltaic battery was complicated and involved more than 20 kinds of materials. The workers were exposed to various irritant chemicals and dusts, half of which were severe or moderate poisons. All of the 4 plants took certain hygienic engineering measures and basically established health surveillance and hygienic management system. All the occupational hazard concentrations (levels) were significantly below the national allowable occupational exposure levels (OELs) except that of carborundum in sand-blast shop. [ Conclusion ] The occupational health management of the 4 manufacturing plants is in line with the regulatory requirements, but potential hazards of occupational diseases should not be ignored. It is necessary to further improve the prevention and control measures for occupational hazards.%[目的]调查晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产的职业危害特点和现状,并对进一步健全和完善职业危害防控策略进行探讨.[方法]对上海市4家从事晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产企业的生产工艺、卫生工程防护措施、职业健康监护和职业卫生管理制度等现状进行调查,并对作业场所职业病危害因素浓度(强度)进行检测.[结果]晶硅太阳能光伏电池生产工艺较为复杂,涉及的原、辅料多达20余种,员工在生产过程中可能接触到多种刺激性化学毒物和多种粉尘,且其中一半以上为中毒或高毒物

  13. The perception of hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsche, A.F.

    1986-01-01

    The fourth chapter deals with the profusion of factors determining the differing assessment of hazards by our society. Subjective factors influencing risk perception comprise, among others, general knowledge and recognition of a hazard; the degree of voluntariness when taking the risk and its influencibility; the problem of large scale accidents; immediate and delayed results. Next to the objective and the subjective risks, the individual and the social or collective risks are assessed differently. The author dicusses in detail recent investigations into and study methods for the determination of risk perception, while eliminating systematic trends from subjective perception since common assessments are shared by whole groups of individuals time and again which allow a better understanding of today's handling of hazards. (HSCH) [de

  14. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Harold E.; McLaurin, Felder M.; Ortiz, Monico; Huth, William A.

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  15. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  16. Hazardous factories: Nigerian evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, Olajide

    2005-06-01

    The past 15 years have seen an increasing governmental and corporate concern for the environment worldwide. For governments, information about the environmental performance of the industrial sector is required to inform macro-level decisions about environmental targets such as those required to meet UN directives. However, in many African, Asian, and Latin American countries, researching and reporting company environmental performance is limited. This article serves as a contribution to filling the gap by presenting evidence of physical and chemical risk in Nigerian factories. One hundred and three factories with a total of 5,021 workers were studied. One hundred and twenty physical and chemical hazards were identified and the result shows a high number of workers exposed to such hazards. The study also reveals that workers' awareness level of chemical hazards was high. Yet the danger was perceived in behavioral terms, especially by manufacturing firms, which tend to see environmental investment in an increasingly global economy as detrimental to profitability.

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from ...

  18. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  19. Hazard Communication Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichak, S.

    1991-01-01

    The current rate of technological advances has brought with it an overwhelming increase in the usage of chemicals in the workplace and in the home. Coupled to this increase has been a heightened awareness in the potential for acute and chronic injuries attributable to chemical insults. The Hazard Communication Standard has been introduced with the desired goal of reducing workplace exposures to hazardous substances and thereby achieving a corresponding reduction in adverse health effects. It was created and proclaimed by the US Department of Labor and regulated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. 1 tab

  20. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  1. Bed-sharing in the absence of hazardous circumstances: is there a risk of sudden infant death syndrome? An analysis from two case-control studies conducted in the UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter S Blair

    Full Text Available The risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS among infants who co-sleep in the absence of hazardous circumstances is unclear and needs to be quantified.Combined individual-analysis of two population-based case-control studies of SIDS infants and controls comparable for age and time of last sleep.Parents of 400 SIDS infants and 1386 controls provided information from five English health regions between 1993-6 (population: 17.7 million and one of these regions between 2003-6 (population:4.9 million.Over a third of SIDS infants (36% were found co-sleeping with an adult at the time of death compared to 15% of control infants after the reference sleep (multivariate OR = 3.9 [95% CI: 2.7-5.6]. The multivariable risk associated with co-sleeping on a sofa (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.1-47.4] or next to a parent who drank more than two units of alcohol (OR = 18.3 [95% CI: 7.7-43.5] was very high and significant for infants of all ages. The risk associated with co-sleeping next to someone who smoked was significant for infants under 3 months old (OR = 8.9 [95% CI: 5.3-15.1] but not for older infants (OR = 1.4 [95% CI: 0.7-2.8]. The multivariable risk associated with bed-sharing in the absence of these hazards was not significant overall (OR = 1.1 [95% CI: 0.6-2.0], for infants less than 3 months old (OR = 1.6 [95% CI: 0.96-2.7], and was in the direction of protection for older infants (OR = 0.1 [95% CI: 0.01-0.5]. Dummy use was associated with a lower risk of SIDS only among co-sleepers and prone sleeping was a higher risk only among infants sleeping alone.These findings support a public health strategy that underlines specific hazardous co-sleeping environments parents should avoid. Sofa-sharing is not a safe alternative to bed-sharing and bed-sharing should be avoided if parents consume alcohol, smoke or take drugs or if the infant is pre-term.

  2. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium con...

  3. Stop radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Brief general advice is presented for the employer unused to handling radioactive materials or using x-ray techniques. Topics mentioned are the definition of radiation and its hazards, measuring and monitoring the working environment, how to decide on and obtain equipment, standards and regulations, codes of practice, records, training, and useful sources of information. (U.K.)

  4. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  5. Hazardous industrial waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quesada, Hilda; Salas, Juan Carlos; Romero, Luis Guillermo

    2007-01-01

    The appropriate managing of hazardous wastes is a problem little dealed in the wastes management in the country. A search of available information was made about the generation and handling to internal and external level of the hazardous wastes by national industries. It was worked with eleven companies of different types of industrial activities for, by means of a questionnaire, interviews and visits, to determine the degree of integral and suitable handling of the wastes that they generate. It was concluded that exist only some isolated reports on the generation of hazardous industrial wastes and handling. The total quantity of wastes generated in the country was impossible to establish. The companies consulted were deficient in all stages of the handling of their wastes: generation, accumulation and storage, transport, treatment and final disposition. The lack of knowledge of the legislation and of the appropriate managing of the wastes is showed as the principal cause of the poor management of the residues. The lack of state or private entities entrusted to give services of storage, transport, treatment and final disposition of hazardous wastes in the country was evident. (author) [es

  6. Hazardous solvent substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twitchell, K.E.

    1995-01-01

    Eliminating hazardous solvents is good for the environment, worker safety, and the bottom line. However, even though we are motivated to find replacements, the big question is 'What can we use as replacements for hazardous solvents?'You, too, can find replacements for your hazardous solvents. All you have to do is search for them. Search through the vendor literature of hundreds of companies with thousands of products. Ponder the associated material safety data sheets, assuming of course that you can obtain them and, having obtained them, that you can read them. You will want to search the trade magazines and other sources for product reviews. You will want to talk to users about how well the product actually works. You may also want to check US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other government reports for toxicity and other safety information. And, of course, you will want to compare the product's constituent chemicals with the many hazardous constituency lists to ensure the safe and legal use of the product in your workplace

  7. Maintenance and hazardous substances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhl, K.; Terwoert, J.; Cabecas, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Maintenance workers come into close contact with a broad variety of often hazardous chemicals. Depending on the specific type, these chemicals may not only cause diseases like skin sores or cancer, but many of them are highly flammable and explosive. This e-facts focuses on the specific risks

  8. Assessing storm erosion hazards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranasinghe, Ranasinghe W M R J B; Callaghan, D.; Ciavola, Paolo; Coco, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The storm erosion hazard on coasts is usually expressed as an erosion volume and/or associated episodic coastline retreat. The accurate assessment of present-day and future storm erosion volumes is a key task for coastal zone managers, planners and engineers. There are four main approaches that can

  9. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  10. PERMITTING HAZARDOUS WASTE INCINERATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This publication is a compilation of information presented at a seminar series designed to address the issues that affect the issuance of hazardous waste incineration permits and to improve the overall understanding of trial burn testing. pecifically, the document provides guidan...

  11. Airborne geophysical radon hazard mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, P.

    1993-01-01

    Shales containing uranium pose a radon health hazard even when covered by several meters of overburden. Such an alum shale in southern Norway has been mapped with a joint helicopter borne electromagnetic (HEM) and radiometric survey. Results are compared with ground spectrometer, radon emanometer and radon gas measurements in dwellings, and a model to predict radon gas concentrations from the airborne data is developed. Since the shale is conductive, combining the HEM data with the radiometric channel allows the shale to be mapped with greater reliability than if the radiometric channel were used alone. Radiometrically more active areas which do not pose a radon gas hazard can thus be separated from the shales which do. The ground follow-up work consisted of spectrometer and radon emanometer measurements over a uranium anomaly coinciding with a conductor. The correlation between the airborne uranium channel, the ground uranium channel and emanometry is extremely good, indicating that airborne geophysics can, in this case, be used to predict areas having a high radon potential. Contingency tables comparing both radon exhalation and concentration in dwellings with the airborne uranium data show a strong relationship exists between exhalation and the airborne data and while a relationship between concentration and the airborne data is present, but weaker

  12. Tank farms hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broz, R.E.

    1994-01-01

    Hanford contractors are writing new facility specific emergency procedures in response to new and revised US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders on emergency preparedness. Emergency procedures are required for each Hanford facility that has the potential to exceed the criteria for the lowest level emergency, an Alert. The set includes: (1) a facility specific procedure on Recognition and Classification of Emergencies, (2) area procedures on Initial Emergency Response and, (3) an area procedure on Protective Action Guidance. The first steps in developing these procedures are to identify the hazards at each facility, identify the conditions that could release the hazardous material, and calculate the consequences of the releases. These steps are called a Hazards Assessment. The final product is a document that is similar in some respects to a Safety Analysis Report (SAR). The document could br produced in a month for a simple facility but could take much longer for a complex facility. Hanford has both types of facilities. A strategy has been adopted to permit completion of the first version of the new emergency procedures before all the facility hazards Assessments are complete. The procedures will initially be based on input from a task group for each facility. This strategy will but improved emergency procedures in place sooner and therefore enhance Hanford emergency preparedness. The purpose of this document is to summarize the applicable information contained within the Waste Tank Facility ''Interim Safety Basis Document, WHC-SD-WM-ISB-001'' as a resource, since the SARs covering Waste Tank Operations are not current in all cases. This hazards assessment serves to collect, organize, document and present the information utilized during the determination process

  13. Occupational hazards to dental staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamshid Ayatollahi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental professionals are predisposed to a number of occupational hazards. These include exposure to infections (including Human Immunodeficiency Virus and viral hepatitis; percutaneous exposure incidents, dental materials, radiation, and noise; musculoskeletal disorders; psychological problems and dermatitis; respiratory disorders; and eye insults. Percutaneous exposure incidents remain a main concern, as exposure to serious infectious agents is a virtual risk. Minimizing percutaneous exposure incidents and their consequences should continue to be considered, including sound infection control practices, continuing education, and hepatitis B vaccination. Basically, for any infection control strategies, dentists should be aware of individual protective measures and appropriate sterilization or other high-level disinfection utilities. Strained posture at work disturbs the musculoskeletal alignment and leads to stooped spine. The stooped posture also involved certain groups of muscles and joints. This may lead to diseases of the musculoskeletal system. Continuous educating and appropriate intervention studies are needed to reduce the complication of these hazards. So, it is important for dentists to remain constantly up-to-date about measures on how to deal with newer strategies and dental materials, and implicates the need for special medical care for this professional group.

  14. Emergency planning for industrial hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, H.B.F.; Kay, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    The European Communities have produced a Directive on the Major Accident Hazards of Certain Industrial Activities which sets out standards for the control and mitigation of the hazards presented by sites and storages which contain significant quantities of dangerous substances. An essential element of these controls is the provision of effective on-and off-site emergency plans. This conference explores the considerable research effort which is going on throughout the world in the improvement of systems for emergency planning. Attention was also drawn to areas where difficulties still exist, for example in predicting the consequences of an accident, the complexities of communication problems and the difficulties arising from involvement of the public. The proceedings are in six parts which deal with organizations implementing emergency planning: on- and off-site emergency planning and design; techniques for emergency plans; expenses and auditing of emergency plans; lessons learnt from the emergency management of major accidents; information to the public to and during emergencies. (author)

  15. Evaluation and validation of a single-dilution potency assay based upon serology of vaccines containing diphtheria toxoid: analysis for consistency in production and testing at the laboratory of the Control of Biological Products of the RIVM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans AM; Hendriksen CFM; Marsman FR; de Jong WH; van de Donk HJM

    1993-01-01

    A single-dilution assay can be a valid procedure to demonstrate that a product exceeds the minimal requirement given for potency provided that consistency in production and testing has been proven. Information is presented justifying the use of a single dilution assay based upon quantitative

  16. EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards (BIOHAZ); Scientific Opinion on Scientific Opinion on risk based control of biogenic amine formation in fermented foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Tine

    A qualitative risk assessment of biogenic amines (BA) in fermented foods was conducted, using data from the scientific literature, as well as from European Union-related surveys, reports and consumption data. Histamine and tyramine are considered as the most toxic and food safety relevant...... chromatography (HPLC)-based methods enable simultaneous and high sensitivity quantification of all BA in foods, hence are best suited for monitoring and control purposes. Monitoring of BA concentrations in fermented foods during the production process and along the food chain would be beneficial for controls...... and further knowledge. Further research on BA in fermented foods is needed; particularly on toxicity and associated concentrations, production process-based control measures, further process hygiene and/or food safety criteria development, and validation of analysis methods....

  17. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT FOR NATURAL EVENT HAZARDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRIPPS, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    This technical basis document was developed to support the documented safety analysis (DSA) and describes the risk binning process and the technical basis for assigning risk bins for natural event hazard (NEH)-initiated accidents. The purpose of the risk binning process is to determine the need for safety-significant structures, systems, and components (SSC) and technical safety requirement (TSR)-level controls for a given representative accident or represented hazardous conditions based on an evaluation of the frequency and consequence. Note that the risk binning process is not applied to facility workers, because all facility worker hazardous conditions are considered for safety-significant SSCs and/or TSR-level controls

  18. Evaluation of microbial hazards during creamy cream cheese processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Żukowska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work was to identify the potential microbial hazards that may occur during the manufacturing process of creamy cream cheese, and to present the means of their elimination or minimization. The analysis demonstrated that among the most crucial stages that should be particularly monitored are: the quality of raw materials, the control of pasteurization and souring parameters as well as temperature of product packaging, ensuring proper storage conditions of the finished product and hygiene throughout the production. Of these, the most critical step in the entire process (critical control points - CCP is a heat treatment process which is pasteurization. On the basis of the analysis, it can be concluded that the monitoring of such a process and consistent adherence to Operational Pre-Condition Pro-grams at the thermisation and centrifuging and later packaging, can help guarantee a safe product and its long shelf life.

  19. Hazardous waste research and development in the Pacific Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirillo, R.R.; Carpenter, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The effective management of hazardous waste is an issue that all countries of the Pacific Basin must address. By very rough estimates, almost 272 million metric tons of hazardous wastes are being generated every year in the region. While the data are not consistently defined and reported, they do indicate the extent of the problem. Increasing development brings along an increase in the rate of hazardous waste generation. On this basis, the developing countries of the region can be expected to experience some of the same problems of the developed countries as their economies become more industrialized. Fundamental problems are involved in the compilation of consistent hazardous-waste generation statistics in the Pacific Basin. One involves the definition of what constitutes hazardous waste

  20. How to Reinforce the “Defence-in-Depth” in NPP by Taking into Account Natural Hazards?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavarenne, C.; Herviou, K.; Picot, C.; Dupuy, P., E-mail: caroline.lavarenne@irsn.fr, E-mail: karine.herviou@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Sûreté Nucléaire, Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2014-10-15

    The “defence-in-depth” (DiD) principle is the fundamental safety principle for the design and operation of nuclear power plants. This principle aims to prevent as far as possible initiating events and managing their consequences if preventive provisions failed. It has to be applied to the protection against hazards so as to limit their likelihood and/or their consequences by the implementation of prevention, control and mitigation provisions in NPPs consistently with provisions for internal events. So far, the protection of nuclear power plants against external hazards follows a “load-cases” approach, which differs from the approach used for internal events. In 2011, the Fukushima accident showed that, for a beyond design hazard or a combination of hazards not considered at the design stage, all levels of defence may be swept away simultaneously and may lead to a disaster. Natural hazards can therefore be considered as a potential common cause of failure affecting at the same time all levels of the “defence-in-depth”. In France, the definition and the implementation of a post-Fukushima “Hardened Safety Core” for operating NPPs should compensate for some weaknesses in the current approach and improve significantly the robustness of the installations against natural hazards. For future reactors, a new approach based on the definition of two domains, “design basis” and “design extension” for natural hazards, is examined in order to fulfil ambitious general plant safety objectives. It turns out that safety assessments related to natural hazards raise some challenges and difficulties, especially to characterize events with very low frequencies in a context of limited data, to define combinations of hazards (eventually with internal events) and to consider events that go beyond the design basis. For these issues, international guidance and discussions may be fruitful. (author)

  1. Hygienic-sanitary working practices and implementation of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in lobster processing industries Condições higiênico-sanitárias e implementação do plano de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC em indústrias processadoras de lagosta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Farias da Fonseca

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs) including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP) was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP) hazards.Objetivou-se com este estudo verificar as condições higiênico-sanitárias e criar um plano de Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle (APPCC) para implantação em duas indústrias de processamento de lagosta no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. As indústrias estudadas processam lagosta inteira congelada, lagostas inteiras cozidas congeladas e caudas de lagosta congelada para exportação. A aplicação de um checklist de controle higiênico-sanitário nas indústrias visitadas resultou em uma classificação global de conformidades maior que 96% dos aspectos analisados. O desenvolvimento do plano APPCC resultou na detecção de dois pontos críticos de controle (PCC), incluindo o recebimento e etapas de classificação, no processamento de lagosta congelada e caudas de lagosta congelada, e um PCC adicional foi detectado no processamento de lagosta inteira cozida

  2. Personality consistency analysis in cloned quarantine dog candidates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent research, personality consistency has become an important characteristic. Diverse traits and human-animal interactions, in particular, are studied in the field of personality consistency in dogs. Here, we investigated the consistency of dominant behaviours in cloned and control groups followed by the modified Puppy Aptitude Test, which consists of ten subtests to ascertain the influence of genetic identity. In this test, puppies are exposed to stranger, restraint, prey-like object, noise, startling object, etc. Six cloned and four control puppies participated and the consistency of responses at ages 7–10 and 16 weeks in the two groups was compared. The two groups showed different consistencies in the subtests. While the average scores of the cloned group were consistent (P = 0.7991, those of the control group were not (P = 0.0089. Scores of Pack Drive and Fight or Flight Drive were consistent in the cloned group, however, those of the control group were not. Scores of Prey Drive were not consistent in either the cloned or the control group. Therefore, it is suggested that consistency of dominant behaviour is affected by genetic identity and some behaviours can be influenced more than others. Our results suggest that cloned dogs could show more consistent traits than non-cloned. This study implies that personality consistency could be one of the ways to analyse traits of puppies.

  3. UV radiation hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is, for most people, a daily occurrence. Significant quantities of ultraviolet are present in sunlight, and this environmental exposure usually greatly exceeds that necessary for vitamin D production, the only certain benefit of UVR. In addition, occupational exposure to artificial sources of UVR is commonly encountered in commerce, industry and medicine. Exposure to UVR can present a hazard, principally to the eyes and exposed areas of the skin. The potential for any given source of UVR to cause photobiological damage depends on the spectral composition of the incident radiation, the geometry of optical coupling into the tissues at risk, the spectral sensitivity to damage of the irradiated tissue, the total accumulated exposure, and the action of any biological repair processes. In the ultraviolet region the photobiological interactions of concern are mainly photochemical. Hazard analysis and radiation protection require an appropriate framework of radiation measurement for the quantitative assessment of exposure and for the specification of safe exposure limits

  4. Immobilisation of hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cope, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste, e.g. radioactive waste, particularly that containing caesium-137, is immobilised by mixing with cement and solidifiable organic polymeric material. When first mixed, the organic material is preferably liquid and at this time can be polymerisable or already polymerised. The hardening can result from cooling or further polymerisation e.g. cross-linking. The organic material may be wax, or a polyester which may be unsaturated and cross-linkable by reaction with styrene. (author)

  5. PUREX facility hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, L.N.

    1994-01-01

    This report documents the hazards assessment for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Plant (PUREX) located on the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. Operation of PUREX is the responsibility of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This hazards assessment was conducted to provide the emergency planning technical basis for PUREX. DOE Order 5500.3A requires an emergency planning hazards assessment for each facility that has the potential to reach or exceed the lowest level emergency classification. In October of 1990, WHC was directed to place PUREX in standby. In December of 1992 the DOE Assistant Secretary for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management authorized the termination of PUREX and directed DOE-RL to proceed with shutdown planning and terminal clean out activities. Prior to this action, its mission was to reprocess irradiated fuels for the recovery of uranium and plutonium. The present mission is to establish a passively safe and environmentally secure configuration at the PUREX facility and to preserve that condition for 10 years. The ten year time frame represents the typical duration expended to define, authorize and initiate follow-on decommissioning and decontamination activities

  6. Hazard waste risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, K.A.; Napier, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory continued to provide technical assistance to the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in the area of risk assessment for hazardous and radioactive-mixed waste management. The overall objective is to provide technical assistance to OOS in developing cost-effective risk assessment tools and strategies for bringing DOE facilities into compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Major efforts during FY 1985 included (1) completing the modification of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Hazard Ranking System (HRS) and developing training manuals and courses to assist in field office implementation of the modified Hazard Ranking System (mHRS); (2) initiating the development of a system for reviewing field office HRS/mHRS evaluations for appropriate use of data and appropriate application of the methodology; (3) initiating the development of a data base management system to maintain all field office HRS/mHRS scoring sheets and to support the master OOS environmental data base system; (4) developing implementation guidance for Phase I of the DOE CERCLA Program, Installation Assessment; (5) continuing to develop an objective, scientifically based methodology for DOE management to use in establishing priorities for conducting site assessments under Phase II of the DOE CERCLA Program, Confirmation; and (6) participating in developing the DOE response to EPA on the proposed listing of three sites on the National Priorities List

  7. Hazard Communication Guidelines for Compliance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    OSHA's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) is based on a simple concept that employees have both a need and a right to know the hazards and identities of the chemicals they are exposed to when working...

  8. FEMA DFIRM Flood Hazard Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — FEMA flood hazard delineations are used by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) to designate the Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) and for insurance rating...

  9. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  10. Hanford surplus facilities hazards identification document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egge, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides general safety information needed by personnel who enter and work in surplus facilities managed by Bechtel Hanford, Inc. The purpose of the document is to enhance access control of surplus facilities, educate personnel on the potential hazards associated with these facilities prior to entry, and ensure that safety precautions are taken while in the facility

  11. Volcanic hazards to airports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guffanti, M.; Mayberry, G.C.; Casadevall, T.J.; Wunderman, R.

    2009-01-01

    Volcanic activity has caused significant hazards to numerous airports worldwide, with local to far-ranging effects on travelers and commerce. Analysis of a new compilation of incidents of airports impacted by volcanic activity from 1944 through 2006 reveals that, at a minimum, 101 airports in 28 countries were affected on 171 occasions by eruptions at 46 volcanoes. Since 1980, five airports per year on average have been affected by volcanic activity, which indicates that volcanic hazards to airports are not rare on a worldwide basis. The main hazard to airports is ashfall, with accumulations of only a few millimeters sufficient to force temporary closures of some airports. A substantial portion of incidents has been caused by ash in airspace in the vicinity of airports, without accumulation of ash on the ground. On a few occasions, airports have been impacted by hazards other than ash (pyroclastic flow, lava flow, gas emission, and phreatic explosion). Several airports have been affected repeatedly by volcanic hazards. Four airports have been affected the most often and likely will continue to be among the most vulnerable owing to continued nearby volcanic activity: Fontanarossa International Airport in Catania, Italy; Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport in Alaska, USA; Mariscal Sucre International Airport in Quito, Ecuador; and Tokua Airport in Kokopo, Papua New Guinea. The USA has the most airports affected by volcanic activity (17) on the most occasions (33) and hosts the second highest number of volcanoes that have caused the disruptions (5, after Indonesia with 7). One-fifth of the affected airports are within 30 km of the source volcanoes, approximately half are located within 150 km of the source volcanoes, and about three-quarters are within 300 km; nearly one-fifth are located more than 500 km away from the source volcanoes. The volcanoes that have caused the most impacts are Soufriere Hills on the island of Montserrat in the British West Indies

  12. Hazards in the chemical laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretherick, L.

    1987-01-01

    The contents of this book are: Preface; Introduction; Health and Safety at Work Act 1974; Safety Planning and Management; Fire Protection; Reactive Chemical Hazards; Chemical Hazards and Toxicology; Health Care and First Aid; Hazardous Chemicals; Precautions against Radiations; and An American View

  13. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  14. 26 CFR 1.338-8 - Asset and stock consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... that are controlled foreign corporations. (6) Stock consistency. This section limits the application of... 26 Internal Revenue 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Asset and stock consistency. 1.338-8 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Effects on Corporation § 1.338-8 Asset and stock consistency. (a) Introduction—(1...

  15. Flight Testing a Real-Time Hazard Detection System for Safe Lunar Landing on the Rocket-Powered Morpheus Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawny, Nikolas; Huertas, Andres; Luna, Michael E.; Villalpando, Carlos Y.; Martin, Keith E.; Carson, John M.; Johnson, Andrew E.; Restrepo, Carolina; Roback, Vincent E.

    2015-01-01

    The Hazard Detection System (HDS) is a component of the ALHAT (Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology) sensor suite, which together provide a lander Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) system with the relevant measurements necessary to enable safe precision landing under any lighting conditions. The HDS consists of a stand-alone compute element (CE), an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and a gimbaled flash LIDAR sensor that are used, in real-time, to generate a Digital Elevation Map (DEM) of the landing terrain, detect candidate safe landing sites for the vehicle through Hazard Detection (HD), and generate hazard-relative navigation (HRN) measurements used for safe precision landing. Following an extensive ground and helicopter test campaign, ALHAT was integrated onto the Morpheus rocket-powered terrestrial test vehicle in March 2014. Morpheus and ALHAT then performed five successful free flights at the simulated lunar hazard field constructed at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center, for the first time testing the full system on a lunar-like approach geometry in a relevant dynamic environment. During these flights, the HDS successfully generated DEMs, correctly identified safe landing sites and provided HRN measurements to the vehicle, marking the first autonomous landing of a NASA rocket-powered vehicle in hazardous terrain. This paper provides a brief overview of the HDS architecture and describes its in-flight performance.

  16. MANTEL-HAENSZEL TYPE ESTIMATORS FOR THE COUNTER-MATCHED SAMPLING DESIGN IN NESTED CASE-CONTROL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Yoshinori; Zhang, Zhong-Zhan; 藤井, 良宜

    2001-01-01

    We are concerned with a counter-matched nested case-control study. Assuming the proportional hazards model, the Mantel-Haenszel estimators of hazard rates are presented in two situations. The proposed estimators can be calculated without estimating the nuisance parameter. Consistent estimators of the variance of the proposed hazard rate estimators are also developed. We compare these estimators to the maximum partial likelihood estimators in the asymptotic variance. The methods are illustrate...

  17. Hazardous and radioactive waste incineration studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vavruska, J.S.; Stretz, L.A.; Borduin, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Development and demonstration of a transuranic (TRU) waste volume-reduction process is described. A production-scale controlled air incinerator using commercially available equipment and technology has been modified for solid radioactive waste service. This unit successfully demonstrated the volume reduction of transuranic (TRU) waste with an average TRU content of about 20 nCi/g. The same incinerator and offgas treatment system is being modified further to evaluate the destruction of hazardous liquid wastes such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hazardous solid wastes such as pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood

  18. Toward Hazardless Waste: A Guide for Safe Use and Disposal of Hazardous Household Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toteff, Sally; Zehner, Cheri

    This guide is designed to help individuals make responsible decisions about safe use and disposal of household products. It consists of eight sections dealing with: (1) hazardous chemicals in the home, how hazaradous products become hazardous waste, and whether a hazardous waste problem exists in Puget Sound; (2) which household wastes are…

  19. Hazardous materials management and compliance training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, T.F.

    1991-01-01

    OSHA training for hazardous waste site workers is required by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). In December 1986, a series of regulations was promulgated by OSHA on an interim basis calling for the training of workers engaged in hazardous waste operations. Subsequent to these interim regulations, final rules were promulgated and these final rules on hazardous waste operations and emergency response became effective on March 6, 1990. OSHA has conducted hearings on the accreditation of training programs. OSHA would like to follow the accreditation process under the AHERA regulations for asbestos, in which the model plan for accreditation of asbestos abatement training was included in Section 206 of Title 11 of the Toxic Substance Control Act (TSCA). OSHA proposed on January 26, 1990, to perform the accreditation of training programs for hazardous waste operations and that proposal suggested that they follow the model plan similar to the one used for AHERA. They did not propose to accredited training programs for workers engaged in emergency response. These new regulations pose a significant problem to the various contractors and emergency responders who deal with hazardous materials spill response, cleanup and site remediation since these programs have expanded so quickly that many people are not familiar with what particular segment of the training they are required to have and whether or not programs that have yet to be accredited are satisfactory for this type of training. Title III of SARA stipulates a training program for first responders which includes local emergency response organizations such as firemen and policemen. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the needs of workers at hazardous waste site remediation projects and workers who are dealing with hazardous substances, spill response and cleanup

  20. Modeling and Hazard Analysis Using STPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimatsu, Takuto; Leveson, Nancy; Thomas, John; Katahira, Masa; Miyamoto, Yuko; Nakao, Haruka

    2010-09-01

    A joint research project between MIT and JAXA/JAMSS is investigating the application of a new hazard analysis to the system and software in the HTV. Traditional hazard analysis focuses on component failures but software does not fail in this way. Software most often contributes to accidents by commanding the spacecraft into an unsafe state(e.g., turning off the descent engines prematurely) or by not issuing required commands. That makes the standard hazard analysis techniques of limited usefulness on software-intensive systems, which describes most spacecraft built today. STPA is a new hazard analysis technique based on systems theory rather than reliability theory. It treats safety as a control problem rather than a failure problem. The goal of STPA, which is to create a set of scenarios that can lead to a hazard, is the same as FTA but STPA includes a broader set of potential scenarios including those in which no failures occur but the problems arise due to unsafe and unintended interactions among the system components. STPA also provides more guidance to the analysts that traditional fault tree analysis. Functional control diagrams are used to guide the analysis. In addition, JAXA uses a model-based system engineering development environment(created originally by Leveson and called SpecTRM) which also assists in the hazard analysis. One of the advantages of STPA is that it can be applied early in the system engineering and development process in a safety-driven design process where hazard analysis drives the design decisions rather than waiting until reviews identify problems that are then costly or difficult to fix. It can also be applied in an after-the-fact analysis and hazard assessment, which is what we did in this case study. This paper describes the experimental application of STPA to the JAXA HTV in order to determine the feasibility and usefulness of the new hazard analysis technique. Because the HTV was originally developed using fault tree analysis