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Sample records for consistent ecological selectivity

  1. Ecology, sexual selection and speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maan, Martine E; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-06-01

    The spectacular diversity in sexually selected traits among animal taxa has inspired the hypothesis that divergent sexual selection can drive speciation. Unfortunately, speciation biologists often consider sexual selection in isolation from natural selection, even though sexually selected traits evolve in an ecological context: both preferences and traits are often subject to natural selection. Conversely, while behavioural ecologists may address ecological effects on sexual communication, they rarely measure the consequences for population divergence. Herein, we review the empirical literature addressing the mechanisms by which natural selection and sexual selection can interact during speciation. We find that convincing evidence for any of these scenarios is thin. However, the available data strongly support various diversifying effects that emerge from interactions between sexual selection and environmental heterogeneity. We suggest that evaluating the evolutionary consequences of these effects requires a better integration of behavioural, ecological and evolutionary research. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  2. Ecology, sexual selection and speciation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Seehausen, Ole

    2011-01-01

    P>The spectacular diversity in sexually selected traits among animal taxa has inspired the hypothesis that divergent sexual selection can drive speciation. Unfortunately, speciation biologists often consider sexual selection in isolation from natural selection, even though sexually selected traits e

  3. Consistent group selection in high-dimensional linear regression

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Fengrong; 10.3150/10-BEJ252

    2010-01-01

    In regression problems where covariates can be naturally grouped, the group Lasso is an attractive method for variable selection since it respects the grouping structure in the data. We study the selection and estimation properties of the group Lasso in high-dimensional settings when the number of groups exceeds the sample size. We provide sufficient conditions under which the group Lasso selects a model whose dimension is comparable with the underlying model with high probability and is estimation consistent. However, the group Lasso is, in general, not selection consistent and also tends to select groups that are not important in the model. To improve the selection results, we propose an adaptive group Lasso method which is a generalization of the adaptive Lasso and requires an initial estimator. We show that the adaptive group Lasso is consistent in group selection under certain conditions if the group Lasso is used as the initial estimator.

  4. Selection on stability across ecological scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrelli, Jonathan J; Allesina, Stefano; Amarasekare, Priyanga; Arditi, Roger; Chase, Ivan; Damuth, John; Holt, Robert D; Logofet, Dmitrii O; Novak, Mark; Rohr, Rudolf P; Rossberg, Axel G; Spencer, Matthew; Tran, J Khai; Ginzburg, Lev R

    2015-07-01

    Much of the focus in evolutionary biology has been on the adaptive differentiation among organisms. It is equally important to understand the processes that result in similarities of structure among systems. Here, we discuss examples of similarities occurring at different ecological scales, from predator-prey relations (attack rates and handling times) through communities (food-web structures) to ecosystem properties. Selection among systemic configurations or patterns that differ in their intrinsic stability should lead generally to increased representation of relatively stable structures. Such nonadaptive, but selective processes that shape ecological communities offer an enticing mechanism for generating widely observed similarities, and have sparked new interest in stability properties. This nonadaptive systemic selection operates not in opposition to, but in parallel with, adaptive evolution.

  5. Ecological consistency of SSU rRNA-based operational taxonomic units at a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas S B Schmidt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs, usually defined as clusters of similar 16S/18S rRNA sequences, are the most widely used basic diversity units in large-scale characterizations of microbial communities. However, it remains unclear how well the various proposed OTU clustering algorithms approximate 'true' microbial taxa. Here, we explore the ecological consistency of OTUs--based on the assumption that, like true microbial taxa, they should show measurable habitat preferences (niche conservatism. In a global and comprehensive survey of available microbial sequence data, we systematically parse sequence annotations to obtain broad ecological descriptions of sampling sites. Based on these, we observe that sequence-based microbial OTUs generally show high levels of ecological consistency. However, different OTU clustering methods result in marked differences in the strength of this signal. Assuming that ecological consistency can serve as an objective external benchmark for cluster quality, we conclude that hierarchical complete linkage clustering, which provided the most ecologically consistent partitions, should be the default choice for OTU clustering. To our knowledge, this is the first approach to assess cluster quality using an external, biologically meaningful parameter as a benchmark, on a global scale.

  6. A New Heuristic for Feature Selection by Consistent Biclustering

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Given a set of data, biclustering aims at finding simultaneous partitions in biclusters of its samples and of the features which are used for representing the samples. Consistent biclusterings allow to obtain correct classifications of the samples from the known classification of the features, and vice versa, and they are very useful for performing supervised classifications. The problem of finding consistent biclusterings can be seen as a feature selection problem, where the features that are not relevant for classification purposes are removed from the set of data, while the total number of features is maximized in order to preserve information. This feature selection problem can be formulated as a linear fractional 0-1 optimization problem. We propose a reformulation of this problem as a bilevel optimization problem, and we present a heuristic algorithm for an efficient solution of the reformulated problem. Computational experiments show that the presented algorithm is able to find better solutions with re...

  7. The role of ecology in speciation by sexual selection: a systematic empirical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, Elizabeth S C; Symes, Laurel B; Mendelson, Tamra C; Safran, Rebecca J

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical research indicates that sexual selection interacts with the ecological context in which mate choice occurs, suggesting that sexual and natural selection act together during the evolution of premating reproductive isolation. However, the relative importance of natural and sexual selection to speciation remains poorly understood. Here, we applied a recent conceptual framework for examining interactions between mate choice divergence and ecological context to a review of the empirical literature on speciation by sexual selection. This framework defines two types of interactions between mate choice and ecology: internal interactions, wherein natural and sexual selection jointly influence divergence in sexual signal traits and preferences, and external interactions, wherein sexual selection alone acts on traits and preferences but ecological context shapes the transmission efficacy of sexual signals. The objectives of this synthesis were 3-fold: to summarize the traits, ecological factors, taxa, and geographic contexts involved in studies of mate choice divergence; to analyze patterns of association between these variables; and to identify the most common types of interactions between mate choice and ecological factors. Our analysis revealed that certain traits are consistently associated with certain ecological factors. Moreover, among studies that examined a divergent sexually selected trait and an ecological factor, internal interactions were more common than external interactions. Trait-preference associations may thus frequently be subject to both sexual and natural selection in cases of divergent mate choice. Our results highlight the importance of interactions between sexual selection and ecology in mate choice divergence and suggest areas for future research.

  8. Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

    OpenAIRE

    Smith Thomas B; Buermann Wolfgang; Calsbeek Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study of natural selection to show that changes in vegetation structure associated with a severe drought altered b...

  9. Quantifying nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TerHorst, Casey P; Lau, Jennifer A; Cooper, Idelle A; Keller, Kane R; La Rosa, Raffica J; Royer, Anne M; Schultheis, Elizabeth H; Suwa, Tomomi; Conner, Jeffrey K

    2015-09-01

    In natural biological communities, species interact with many other species. Multiple species interactions can lead to indirect ecological effects that have important fitness consequences and can cause nonadditive patterns of natural selection. Given that indirect ecological effects are common in nature, nonadditive selection may also be quite common. As a result, quantifying nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects may be critical for understanding adaptation in natural communities composed of many interacting species. We describe how to quantify the relative strength of nonadditive selection resulting from indirect ecological effects compared to the strength of pairwise selection. We develop a clear method for testing for nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects and consider how it might affect adaptation in multispecies communities. We use two case studies to illustrate how our method can be applied to empirical data sets. Our results suggest that nonadditive selection caused by indirect ecological effects may be common in nature. Our hope is that trait-based approaches, combined with multifactorial experiments, will result in more estimates of nonadditive selection that reveal the relative importance of indirect ecological effects for evolution in a community context.

  10. Ecology, water and enterprise development in selected rural South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecology, water and enterprise development in selected rural South African towns. ... in enterprise development whether in water-abundant or water-scarce areas; these ... development dynamics in towns, which are 'enterprise ecosystems'.

  11. Ecological opportunity and sexual selection together predict adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Catherine E; Harmon, Luke J; Seehausen, Ole

    2012-07-19

    A fundamental challenge to our understanding of biodiversity is to explain why some groups of species undergo adaptive radiations, diversifying extensively into many and varied species, whereas others do not. Both extrinsic environmental factors (for example, resource availability, climate) and intrinsic lineage-specific traits (for example, behavioural or morphological traits, genetic architecture) influence diversification, but few studies have addressed how such factors interact. Radiations of cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes provide some of the most dramatic cases of species diversification. However, most cichlid lineages in African lakes have not undergone adaptive radiations. Here we compile data on cichlid colonization and diversification in 46 African lakes, along with lake environmental features and information about the traits of colonizing cichlid lineages, to investigate why adaptive radiation does and does not occur. We find that extrinsic environmental factors related to ecological opportunity and intrinsic lineage-specific traits related to sexual selection both strongly influence whether cichlids radiate. Cichlids are more likely to radiate in deep lakes, in regions with more incident solar radiation and in lakes where there has been more time for diversification. Weak or negative associations between diversification and lake surface area indicate that cichlid speciation is not constrained by area, in contrast to diversification in many terrestrial taxa. Among the suite of intrinsic traits that we investigate, sexual dichromatism, a surrogate for the intensity of sexual selection, is consistently positively associated with diversification. Thus, for cichlids, it is the coincidence between ecological opportunity and sexual selection that best predicts whether adaptive radiation will occur. These findings suggest that adaptive radiation is predictable, but only when species traits and environmental factors are jointly considered.

  12. Continuous and consistent land use/cover change estimates using socio-ecological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Michael; Norton-Griffiths, Michael; Herr, Harvey; Lamprey, Richard; Sheffield, Justin; Vagen, Tor; Okotto-Okotto, Joseph

    2017-02-01

    A growing body of research shows the importance of land use/cover change (LULCC) on modifying the Earth system. Land surface models are used to stimulate land-atmosphere dynamics at the macroscale, but model bias and uncertainty remain that need to be addressed before the importance of LULCC is fully realized. In this study, we propose a method of improving LULCC estimates for land surface modeling exercises. The method is driven by projectable socio-ecological geospatial predictors available seamlessly across sub-Saharan Africa and yielded continuous (annual) estimates of LULCC at 5 km × 5 km spatial resolution. The method was developed with 2252 sample area frames of 5 km × 5 km consisting of the proportion of several land cover types in Kenya over multiple years. Forty-three socio-ecological predictors were evaluated for model development. Machine learning was used for data reduction, and simple (functional) relationships defined by generalized additive models were constructed on a subset of the highest-ranked predictors (p ≤ 10) to estimate LULCC. The predictors explained 62 and 65 % of the variance in the proportion of agriculture and natural vegetation, respectively, but were less successful at estimating more descriptive land cover types. In each case, population density on an annual basis was the highest-ranked predictor. The approach was compared to a commonly used remote sensing classification procedure, given the wide use of such techniques for macroscale LULCC detection, and outperformed it for each land cover type. The approach was used to demonstrate significant trends in expanding (declining) agricultural (natural vegetation) land cover in Kenya from 1983 to 2012, with the largest increases (declines) occurring in densely populated high agricultural production zones. Future work should address the improvement (development) of existing (new) geospatial predictors and issues of model scalability and transferability.

  13. Ecological consistency across space: a synthesis of the ecological aspects of Dromiciops gliroides in Argentina and Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E.; Franco, Marcela; Rodríguez-Cabal, Mariano A.; Rivarola, M. Daniela; Amico, Guillermo C.

    2012-11-01

    Dromiciops gliroides is an arboreal marsupial found in the temperate forests of South America (36-43 °S). This species is the sole extant representative of the order Microbiotheria, and is a key seed disperser of many native plant species, including the keystone mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus. Here, we synthesized the current knowledge on the ecological aspects of this species, and compared the available information from Argentina and Chile. Population density (23 ± 2 (mean ± SE) individual/ha) and home range (1.6 ± 0.6 ha) appear to be relatively similar across a marked ecological gradient in the mainland, but lower densities (7 ± 2 individual/ha) and smaller home ranges (0.26 ± 0.04 ha) were detected at island sites. We detected regional variation in body condition in Chile, but there were no significant differences across a wider E-W gradient. Movement patterns fit a random walk model; such behavior might have important consequences in shaping plant's spatial patterns. Although our data suggest that D. gliroides is more tolerant to habitat disturbance than previously thought, its incapability to disperse across non-forested areas suggests that the rapid rate of habitat loss and fragmentation that characterizes southern temperate forests likely poses a serious threat to this species. These ecological similarities are surprising given that forests studied receive dramatically different rainfall and correspond to distinct forest types. The evidence synthetized here dispels some of the myths about this species but also stresses the need for more comprehensive ecological studies across its distribution range.

  14. Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Buermann, Wolfgang; Smith, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Background Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study of natural selection to show that changes in vegetation structure associated with a severe drought altered both habitat use and natural selection in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei. Results In natural populations, lizards increased their use of vegetation in wet years and this was correlated with selection on limb length but not body size. By contrast, a die-back of vegetation caused by drought was followed by reduced arboreality, selection on body size, and relaxed selection on limb length. With the return of the rains and recovery of vegetation, selection reverted back to pre-drought pattern of selection acting on limb length but not body size. To test for the impact of vegetation loss on natural selection during the drought, we experimentally removed vegetation on a separate study island in a naturally wet year. The experiment revealed similar inter-annual changes in selection on body size but not limb length. Conclusion Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecology driving natural selection on Anolis morphology and emphasize the importance of inter-annual environmental variation in shaping adaptive variation. In addition, results illustrate the utility of using remote sensing data to examine ecology's role in driving natural selection. PMID:19126226

  15. Parallel shifts in ecology and natural selection in an island lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural selection is a potent evolutionary force that shapes phenotypic variation to match ecological conditions. However, we know little about the year-to-year consistency of selection, or how inter-annual variation in ecology shapes adaptive landscapes and ultimately adaptive radiations. Here we combine remote sensing data, field experiments, and a four-year study of natural selection to show that changes in vegetation structure associated with a severe drought altered both habitat use and natural selection in the brown anole, Anolis sagrei. Results In natural populations, lizards increased their use of vegetation in wet years and this was correlated with selection on limb length but not body size. By contrast, a die-back of vegetation caused by drought was followed by reduced arboreality, selection on body size, and relaxed selection on limb length. With the return of the rains and recovery of vegetation, selection reverted back to pre-drought pattern of selection acting on limb length but not body size. To test for the impact of vegetation loss on natural selection during the drought, we experimentally removed vegetation on a separate study island in a naturally wet year. The experiment revealed similar inter-annual changes in selection on body size but not limb length. Conclusion Our results illustrate the dynamic nature of ecology driving natural selection on Anolis morphology and emphasize the importance of inter-annual environmental variation in shaping adaptive variation. In addition, results illustrate the utility of using remote sensing data to examine ecology's role in driving natural selection.

  16. Reproductive Contributions of Cardinals Are Consistent with a Hypothesis of Relaxed Selection in Urban Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda D. Rodewald

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities are leading to rapid environmental change globally and may affect the eco-evolutionary dynamics of species inhabiting human-dominated landscapes. Theory suggests that increases in environmental heterogeneity should promote variation in reproductive performance among individuals. At the same time, we know that novel environments, such as our urbanizing study system, may represent more benign or predictable environments due to resource subsidies and ecological changes. We tested the hypothesis that reduced environmental heterogeneity and enhanced resource availability in cities relax selective pressures on birds by testing if urban females vary less than rural females in their demographic contributions to local populations. From 2004 to 2014, we monitored local population densities and annual reproductive output of 470 female Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis breeding at 14 forested sites distributed across a rural-to-urban landscape gradient in Ohio, USA. Reproductive contribution was measured as the difference between individual and site-averaged annual reproductive output across all nesting attempts, divided by the annual density at each site. We show that among-individual variation in reproductive contribution to the next year's population declined with increasing urbanization, despite similar variability in body condition across the rural-urban gradient. Thus, female cardinals that bred in urban habitats within our study area were more similar in their contribution to the next generation than rural breeders, where a pattern of winners and losers was more evident. Within-individual variation in annual reproductive contribution also declined with increasing urbanization, indicating that performance of females was also more consistent among years in urban than rural landscapes. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that urbanized environments offer more homogeneous or predictable conditions that may buffer

  17. Strategic consistency of enterprise logistics activities on the bases of ecological principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Mashchak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The consistency of logistics enterprises with environmental strategies investigated. Examples of foreign experience and results of such consistency in practice are given. The necessity and strategic advantages of logistic activities on environmental grounds proved.

  18. Consistent and Conservative Model Selection with the Adaptive LASSO in Stationary and Nonstationary Autoregressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    2015-01-01

    the tuning parameter by Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) results in consistent model selection. However, it is also shown that the adaptive Lasso has no power against shrinking alternatives of the form c/T if it is tuned to perform consistent model selection. We show that if the adaptive Lasso is tuned...

  19. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  20. Individual consistency in flight initiation distances in burrowing owls: a new hypothesis on disturbance-induced habitat selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L

    2010-04-23

    Individuals often consistently differ in personalities and behaviours that allow them to cope with environmental variation. Flight initiation distance (FID) has been measured in a variety of taxa as an estimate of the risk that an individual is willing to take when facing a predator. FID has been used to test life-history trade-offs related to anti-predatory behaviour and for conservation purposes such as to establish buffer zones to minimize human disturbance, given its species-specific consistency. Individual consistency in FID, however, has been largely overlooked. Here we show that, even after controlling for several confounding effects, this behaviour has a strong individual component (repeatability = 0.84-0.92) in a bird species, leaving a small margin for behavioural flexibility. We hypothesize that individuals may distribute themselves among breeding sites depending on their individual susceptibility to human disturbance. This habitat selection hypothesis merits further research, given its implications on both evolutionary and applied ecology research. For example, selection of human-tolerant phenotypes may be promoted through the humanization of habitats occurring worldwide, and when population means instead of individual variability in FID are considered for designing buffer zones to reduce human impacts on wildlife.

  1. Hyperspectral band selection based on consistency-measure of neighborhood rough set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yao; Xie, Hong; Tan, Kezhu; Chen, Yuehua; Xu, Zhen; Wang, Liguo

    2016-05-01

    Band selection is a well-known approach for reducing dimensionality in hyperspectral imaging. In this paper, a band selection method based on consistency-measure of neighborhood rough set theory (CMNRS) was proposed to select informative bands from hyperspectral images. A decision-making information system was established by the reflection spectrum of soybeans’ hyperspectral data between 400 nm and 1000 nm wavelengths. The neighborhood consistency-measure, which reflects not only the size of the decision positive region, but also the sample distribution in the boundary region, was used as the evaluation function of band significance. The optimal band subset was selected by a forward greedy search algorithm. A post-pruning strategy was employed to overcome the over-fitting problem and find the minimum subset. To assess the effectiveness of the proposed band selection technique, two classification models (extreme learning machine (ELM) and random forests (RF)) were built. The experimental results showed that the proposed algorithm can effectively select key bands and obtain satisfactory classification accuracy.

  2. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós, Josep; Palmer, Miquel; Arlinghaus, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM) that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish) moving within a confined home range (HR). Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity, stemming, in

  3. Consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes when catchability depends on encounters among human predators and fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Alós

    Full Text Available Together with life-history and underlying physiology, the behavioural variability among fish is one of the three main trait axes that determines the vulnerability to fishing. However, there are only a few studies that have systematically investigated the strength and direction of selection acting on behavioural traits. Using in situ fish behaviour revealed by telemetry techniques as input, we developed an individual-based model (IBM that simulated the Lagrangian trajectory of prey (fish moving within a confined home range (HR. Fishers exhibiting various prototypical fishing styles targeted these fish in the model. We initially hypothesised that more active and more explorative individuals would be systematically removed under all fished conditions, in turn creating negative selection differentials on low activity phenotypes and maybe on small HR. Our results partly supported these general predictions. Standardised selection differentials were, on average, more negative on HR than on activity. However, in many simulation runs, positive selection pressures on HR were also identified, which resulted from the stochastic properties of the fishes' movement and its interaction with the human predator. In contrast, there was a consistent negative selection on activity under all types of fishing styles. Therefore, in situations where catchability depends on spatial encounters between human predators and fish, we would predict a consistent selection towards low activity phenotypes and have less faith in the direction of the selection on HR size. Our study is the first theoretical investigation on the direction of fishery-induced selection of behaviour using passive fishing gears. The few empirical studies where catchability of fish was measured in relation to passive fishing techniques, such as gill-nets, traps or recreational fishing, support our predictions that fish in highly exploited situations are, on average, characterised by low swimming activity

  4. Time-Consistent Strategies for a Multiperiod Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It remained prevalent in the past years to obtain the precommitment strategies for Markowitz's mean-variance portfolio optimization problems, but not much is known about their time-consistent strategies. This paper takes a step to investigate the time-consistent Nash equilibrium strategies for a multiperiod mean-variance portfolio selection problem. Under the assumption that the risk aversion is, respectively, a constant and a function of current wealth level, we obtain the explicit expressions for the time-consistent Nash equilibrium strategy and the equilibrium value function. Many interesting properties of the time-consistent results are identified through numerical sensitivity analysis and by comparing them with the classical pre-commitment solutions.

  5. Detecting consistent patterns of directional adaptation using differential selection codon models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Sahar; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2017-06-23

    Phylogenetic codon models are often used to characterize the selective regimes acting on protein-coding sequences. Recent methodological developments have led to models explicitly accounting for the interplay between mutation and selection, by modeling the amino acid fitness landscape along the sequence. However, thus far, most of these models have assumed that the fitness landscape is constant over time. Fluctuations of the fitness landscape may often be random or depend on complex and unknown factors. However, some organisms may be subject to systematic changes in selective pressure, resulting in reproducible molecular adaptations across independent lineages subject to similar conditions. Here, we introduce a codon-based differential selection model, which aims to detect and quantify the fine-grained consistent patterns of adaptation at the protein-coding level, as a function of external conditions experienced by the organism under investigation. The model parameterizes the global mutational pressure, as well as the site- and condition-specific amino acid selective preferences. This phylogenetic model is implemented in a Bayesian MCMC framework. After validation with simulations, we applied our method to a dataset of HIV sequences from patients with known HLA genetic background. Our differential selection model detects and characterizes differentially selected coding positions specifically associated with two different HLA alleles. Our differential selection model is able to identify consistent molecular adaptations as a function of repeated changes in the environment of the organism. These models can be applied to many other problems, ranging from viral adaptation to evolution of life-history strategies in plants or animals.

  6. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  7. Consistency in Estimation and Model Selection of Dynamic Panel Data Models with Fixed Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangjie Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examine the relationship between consistent parameter estimation and model selection for autoregressive panel data models with fixed effects. We find that the transformation of fixed effects proposed by Lancaster (2002 does not necessarily lead to consistent estimation of common parameters when some true exogenous regressors are excluded. We propose a data dependent way to specify the prior of the autoregressive coefficient and argue for comparing different model specifications before parameter estimation. Model selection properties of Bayes factors and Bayesian information criterion (BIC are investigated. When model uncertainty is substantial, we recommend the use of Bayesian Model Averaging to obtain point estimators with lower root mean squared errors (RMSE. We also study the implications of different levels of inclusion probabilities by simulations.

  8. Application of selected abiotic and ecological indicators of ecologically sustainable tourism on the example of Inner Istria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Vojnović

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of abiotic and ecological indicators to investigate environmental sustainability of tourism in Inner Istria, which consists of 24 municipalities and towns. Five quantitative indicators were chosen, respecting the criteria of availability, reliability, predictability, clarity and feasibility. Within the first indicator, "protected natural areas", the greatest share of natural areas under protection was established in the Municipality of Lupoglav. Indicators "overall tourists’ water consumption" and "maximum water consumption in tourism industry" have confirmed the low share of tourists’ consumption of drinking water in all municipalities and towns in Inner Istria. The analysis of the fourth indicator, "the share of tourist accommodation facilities and connection to the sewerage system", showed that ten municipalities and towns have such facilities on their territories. The fifth indicator analyzed "resorts with tourist accommodation facilities and their coverage with recycling containers for selective municipal waste disposal" and showed that a part of the settlements in the twelve municipalities and towns had this kind of containers. All accommodation facilities in the municipality of Grožnjan have recycling containers. Qualitative indicators realized through problemoriented interviews with experts in the Istrian water-company and municipal companies, and field researches have confirmed the quantitative indicators. The conclusion derived from the interviews is that tourism is currently in its initial stages of development that does not disturb the regular water supply and waste disposal. Finally, the results of this study confirmed the hypothesis that Inner Istria is a region for ecologically sustainable tourism whose touristification does not threaten the protected natural area, water resources and water supply, wastewater and municipal waste disposal.

  9. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    into ecological functional groups and selecting those that deliver the identified environmental values. (3) All of the species or ecosystem processes related to the selected functional groups are identified and (4) multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is used to rank the indicator endpoint entities, which may......-driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential...

  10. Environmental resources of selected areas of Hawaii: Ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Jones, A.T. [Jones (Anthony T.), Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Smith, C.R. [Smith (Craig R.), Kailna, HI (United States); Kalmijn, A.J. [Kalmijn (Adrianus J.), Encinitas, CA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information that were obtained from review of the (1) scientific literature, (2) government and private sector reports, (3) studies done under DOE interagency agreements with the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and with the US Army Corps of Engineers (COE), and (4) observations made during site visits are being made available for future research in these areas.

  11. Environmental Resources of Selected Areas of Hawaii: Ecological Resources (DRAFT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trettin, C.C.; Tolbert, V.R.; Jones, A.T.; Smith, C.R.; Kalmijn, A.J.

    1994-06-01

    This report has been prepared to make available and archive the background scientific data and related information collected on ecological resources during the preparation of the environmental impact statement (EIS) for Phases 3 and 4 of the Hawaii Geothermal Project (HGP) as defined by the state of Hawaii in its April 1989 proposal to Congress. The U.S. Department of Energy (COE) published a notice in the Federal Register on May 17, 1994 (Fed. Regist. 5925638) withdrawing its Notice of Intent (Fed. Regst. 575433) of February 14, 1992, to prepare the HGP-EIS. Since the state of Hawaii is no longer pursuing or planning to pursue the HGP, DOE considers the project to be terminated. The background scientific data and related information presented in this report focus on several areas of Hawaii County, including the southeastern coast, a potential development corridor along the Saddle Road between Hilo and the North Kohala District on the northwestern coast, and on the southeastern coast of Maui. In this report, reference is made to these areas as study areas rather than as areas where proposed or alternative facilities of the HGP would be located. The resource areas addressed herein include terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, and marine ecology. The scientific background data and related information is being made available for future research in these areas. This report describes the environmental resources present in the areas studied (i.e., the affected environment) and does not represent an assessment of environmental impacts.

  12. The influence of neighbouring species on ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kinga Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt

    2013-01-01

    Ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L. were studied in the years 2011-2012, in the abandoned patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by small meadow species (Patch I), macroforbs (Patch II...

  13. A Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations Based ANP Model for R&D Project Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hua Cheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In today’s rapidly changing economy, technology companies have to make decisions on research and development (R&D projects investment on a routine bases with such decisions having a direct impact on that company’s profitability, sustainability and future growth. Companies seeking profitable opportunities for investment and project selection must consider many factors such as resource limitations and differences in assessment, with consideration of both qualitative and quantitative criteria. Often, differences in perception by the various stakeholders hinder the attainment of a consensus of opinion and coordination efforts. Thus, in this study, a hybrid model is developed for the consideration of the complex criteria taking into account the different opinions of the various stakeholders who often come from different departments within the company and have different opinions about which direction to take. The decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL approach is used to convert the cause and effect relations representing the criteria into a visual network structure. A consistent fuzzy preference relations based analytic network process (CFPR-ANP method is developed to calculate the preference-weights of the criteria based on the derived network structure. The CFPR-ANP is an improvement over the original analytic network process (ANP method in that it reduces the problem of inconsistency as well as the number of pairwise comparisons. The combined complex proportional assessment (COPRAS-G method is applied with fuzzy grey relations to resolve conflicts arising from differences in information and opinions provided by the different stakeholders about the selection of the most suitable R&D projects. This novel combination approach is then used to assist an international brand-name company to prioritize projects and make project decisions that will maximize returns and ensure sustainability for the company.

  14. Consistency and variation in phenotypic selection exerted by a community of seed predators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkman, Craig W; Smith, Julie W; Maier, Monika; Hansen, Leif; Talluto, Matt V

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic selection that is sustained over time underlies both anagenesis and cladogenesis, but the conditions that lead to such selection and what causes variation in selection are not well known. We measured the selection exerted by three species of predispersal seed predators of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta latifolia) in the South Hills, Idaho, and found that net selection on different cone and seed traits exerted by red crossbills (Loxia curvirostra) and cone borer moths (Eucosma recissoriana) over 10 years of seed crops was similar to that measured in another mountain range. We also found that the strength of selection increased as seed predation increased, which provides a mechanism for the correlation between the escalation of seed defenses and the density of seed predators. Red crossbills consume the most seeds and selection they exert accounts for much of the selection experienced by lodgepole pine, providing additional support for a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine in the South Hills. The third seed predator, hairy woodpeckers (Picoides villosus), consumed less than one-sixth as many seeds as crossbills. Across the northern Rocky Mountains, woodpecker abundance and therefore selective impact appears limited by the elevated seed defenses of lodgepole pine.

  15. Reduced fertility in patients' families is consistent with the sexual selection model of schizophrenia and schizotypy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Del Giudice

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is a mental disorder marked by an evolutionarily puzzling combination of high heritability, reduced reproductive success, and a remarkably stable prevalence. Recently, it has been proposed that sexual selection may be crucially involved in the evolution of schizophrenia. In the sexual selection model (SSM of schizophrenia and schizotypy, schizophrenia represents the negative extreme of a sexually selected indicator of genetic fitness and condition. Schizotypal personality traits are hypothesized to increase the sensitivity of the fitness indicator, thus conferring mating advantages on high-fitness individuals but increasing the risk of schizophrenia in low-fitness individuals; the advantages of successful schzotypy would be mediated by enhanced courtship-related traits such as verbal creativity. Thus, schizotypy-increasing alleles would be maintained by sexual selection, and could be selectively neutral or even beneficial, at least in some populations. However, most empirical studies find that the reduction in fertility experienced by schizophrenic patients is not compensated for by increased fertility in their unaffected relatives. This finding has been interpreted as indicating strong negative selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles, and providing evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy. METHODOLOGY: A simple mathematical model is presented, showing that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients can coexist with selective neutrality of schizotypy-increasing alleles, or even with positive selection on schizotypy in the general population. If the SSM is correct, studies of patients' families can be expected to underestimate the true fertility associated with schizotypy. SIGNIFICANCE: This paper formally demonstrates that reduced fertility in the families of schizophrenic patients does not constitute evidence against sexual selection on schizotypy-increasing alleles. Futhermore, it suggests

  16. Malaria hotspot areas in a highland Kenya site are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with ecological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernst Kacey C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria epidemics in highland areas of East Africa have caused considerable morbidity and mortality in the past two decades. Knowledge of "hotspot" areas of high malaria incidence would allow for focused preventive interventions in resource-poor areas, particularly if the hotspot areas can be discerned during non-epidemic periods and predicted by ecological factors. Methods To address this issue, spatial distribution of malaria incidence and the relationship of ecological factors to malaria incidence were assessed in the highland area of Kipsamoite, Kenya, from 2001–2004. Results Clustering of disease in a single geographic "hotspot" area occurred in epidemic and non-epidemic years, with a 2.6 to 3.2-fold increased risk of malaria inside the hotspot, as compared to outside the area (P Conclusion In this highland area, areas of high malaria risk are consistent in epidemic and non-epidemic years and are associated with specific ecological risk factors. Ongoing interventions in areas of ecological risk factors could be a cost-effective method of significantly reducing malaria incidence and blunting or preventing epidemics, even in the absence of malaria early warning systems. Further studies should be conducted to see if these findings hold true in varied highland settings.

  17. A study of Consistency in the Selection of Search Terms and Search Concepts: A Case Study in National Taiwan University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-hsuan Huang

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the consistency in the selection of search terms and search contents of college and graduate students in National Taiwan University when they are using PsycLIT CD-ROM database. 31 students conducted pre-assigned searches, doing 59 searches generating 609 search terms. The study finds the consistency in selection of search terms of first level is 22.14% and second level is 35%. These results are similar with others’ researches. About the consistency in search concepts, no matter the overlaps of searched articles or judge relevant articles are lower than other researches. [Article content in Chinese

  18. Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 1. Gene expression, selection and pleiotropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, L T; Hipperson, H; Baker, W J; Butlin, R K; Devaux, C; Hutton, I; Igea, J; Papadopulos, A S T; Quan, X; Smadja, C M; Turnbull, C G N; Savolainen, V

    2016-08-01

    Ecological speciation requires divergent selection, reproductive isolation and a genetic mechanism to link the two. We examined the role of gene expression and coding sequence evolution in this process using two species of Howea palms that have diverged sympatrically on Lord Howe Island, Australia. These palms are associated with distinct soil types and have displaced flowering times, representing an ideal candidate for ecological speciation. We generated large amounts of RNA-Seq data from multiple individuals and tissue types collected on the island from each of the two species. We found that differentially expressed loci as well as those with divergent coding sequences between Howea species were associated with known ecological and phenotypic differences, including response to salinity, drought, pH and flowering time. From these loci, we identified potential 'ecological speciation genes' and further validate their effect on flowering time by knocking out orthologous loci in a model plant species. Finally, we put forward six plausible ecological speciation loci, providing support for the hypothesis that pleiotropy could help to overcome the antagonism between selection and recombination during speciation with gene flow.

  19. Neural mechanisms of selective exposure: an EEG study on the processing of decision-consistent and inconsistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Reinweber, Matthias; Vogrincic, Claudia; Schäfer, Axel; Schienle, Anne; Volberg, Gregor

    2013-01-01

    Decision makers tend to prefer decision-consistent information and/or neglect decision-inconsistent information (selective exposure). In the present EEG study the neural mechanisms of the classic selective exposure effect were examined by investigating oscillatory brain responses to consistent vs. inconsistent information. Twenty participants made an economic decision and subsequently were exposed to 45 consistent and 45 inconsistent images concerning their decision. EEG was recorded from 31 electrodes and differences between oscillatory brain responses towards consistent and inconsistent information were examined. The main result was an increase of induced theta power (5-8Hz, 0-0.7s) in the consistent compared to the inconsistent condition at right temporo-parietal electrodes, as well as a corresponding increase of evoked theta power at frontal electrodes. Since theta oscillations are often observed during memory formation, we conclude that decision-consistent information triggers memory formation, whereas decision-inconsistent information seems not to do so. This finding supports the classic motivational perspective of Leon Festinger on the selective exposure effect.

  20. Evidence for environmental and ecological selection in a microbe with no geographic limits to gene flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Kerry A.; Rynearson, Tatiana A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability for organisms to disperse throughout their environment is thought to strongly influence population structure and thus evolution of diversity within species. A decades-long debate surrounds processes that generate and support high microbial diversity, particularly in the ocean. The debate concerns whether diversification occurs primarily through geographic partitioning (where distance limits gene flow) or through environmental selection, and remains unresolved due to lack of empirical data. Here we show that gene flow in a diatom, an ecologically important eukaryotic microbe, is not limited by global-scale geographic distance. Instead, environmental and ecological selection likely play a more significant role than dispersal in generating and maintaining diversity. We detected significantly diverged populations (FST > 0.130) and discovered temporal genetic variability at a single site that was on par with spatial genetic variability observed over distances of 15,000 km. Relatedness among populations was decoupled from geographic distance across the global ocean and instead, correlated significantly with water temperature and whole-community chlorophyll a. Correlations with temperature point to the importance of environmental selection in structuring populations. Correlations with whole-community chlorophyll a, a proxy for autotrophic biomass, suggest that ecological selection via interactions with other plankton may generate and maintain population genetic structure in marine microbes despite global-scale dispersal. Here, we provide empirical evidence for global gene flow in a marine eukaryotic microbe, suggesting that everything holds the potential to be everywhere, with environmental and ecological selection rather than geography or dispersal dictating the structure and evolution of diversity over space and time. PMID:28209775

  1. Identifying plant traits: a key aspect for suitable species selection in ecological restoration of semiarid slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochet, Esther; García-Fayos, Patricio

    2017-04-01

    In the context of ecological restoration, one of the greatest challenges for practitioners and scientists is to select suitable species for revegetation purposes. In semiarid environments where restoration projects often fail, little attention has been paid so far to the contribution of plant traits to species success. The objective of this study was to (1) identify plant traits associated with species success on four roadside situations along an erosion-productivity gradient, and (2) to provide an ecological framework for selecting suitable species on the basis of their morphological and functional traits, applied to semiarid environments. We analyzed the association of 10 different plant traits with species success of 296 species surveyed on the four roadside situations in a semiarid region (Valencia, Spain). Plant traits included general plant traits (longevity, woodiness) and more specific root-, seed- and leaf-related traits (root type, sprouting ability, seed mucilage, seed mass, seed susceptibility to removal, specific leaf area and leaf dry matter content). All of them were selected according to the prevailing limiting ecogeomorphological processes acting along the erosion-productivity gradient. We observed strong shifts along the erosion-productivity gradient in the traits associated to species success. At the harshest end of the gradient, the most intensely eroded and driest one, species success was mainly associated to seed resistance to removal by runoff and to resistance to drought. At the opposite end of the gradient, the most productive one, species success was associated to a competitive-ruderal plant strategy (herbaceous successful species with high specific leaf area and low leaf dry matter content). Our study provides an ecologically-based approach for selecting suitable native species on the basis or their morphological and functional traits and supports a differential trait-based selection of species as regards roadslope type and aspect. In

  2. Nutritional and cultural aspects of plant species selection for a controlled ecological life support system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, J. E.; Howe, J. M.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of using higher plants in a controlled ecological life support system is discussed. Aspects of this system considered important in the use of higher plants include: limited energy, space, and mass, and problems relating to cultivation and management of plants, food processing, the psychological impact of vegetarian diets, and plant propagation. A total of 115 higher plant species are compared based on 21 selection criteria.

  3. SUSTAINABLE ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND THE ORGANIZATIONAL ECOLOGY THEORY: DOES THE ENVIRONMENT SELECT THE MOST SUITABLE?

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Maralysa; Universidade Federal de Sergipe; Heber, Florence; Universidade Federal de Sergipe

    2014-01-01

    The intense exploitation of resources caused damage to ecosystems and, with the environmental crisis, the fundamentals of politics, society and the economy bring out the paradigm of sustainable business development. The approach of this trend along with the theory of organizational ecology proposes an analogy with the characteristics of the natural selection of Darwin and market convergence for social and environmentally responsible practices, concentrating the focus of the strategies on popu...

  4. Beyond the ecological: biological invasions alter natural selection on a native plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jennifer A

    2008-04-01

    Biological invasions can have strong ecological effects on native communities by altering ecosystem functions, species interactions, and community composition. Even though these ecological effects frequently impact the population dynamics and fitness of native species, the evolutionary consequences of biological invasions have received relatively little attention. Here, I show that invasions impose novel selective pressures on a native plant species. By experimentally manipulating community composition, I found that the exotic plant Medicago polymorpha and the exotic herbivore Hypera brunneipennis alter the strength and, in some instances, the direction of natural selection on the competitive ability and anti-herbivore defenses of the native plant Lotus wrangelianus. Furthermore, the community composition of exotics influenced which traits were favored. For example, high densities of the exotic herbivore Hypera selected for increased resistance to herbivores in the native Lotus; however, when Medicago also was present, selection on this defense was eliminated. In contrast, selection on tolerance, another plant defense trait, was highest when both Hypera and Medicago were present at high densities. Thus, multiple exotic species may interact to influence the evolutionary trajectories of native plant populations, and patterns of selection may change as additional exotic species invade the community.

  5. Experimental evidence for ecological selection on genome variation in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gompert, Zachariah; Comeault, Aaron A; Farkas, Timothy E; Feder, Jeffrey L; Parchman, Thomas L; Buerkle, C Alex; Nosil, Patrik

    2014-03-01

    Understanding natural selection's effect on genetic variation is a major goal in biology, but the genome-scale consequences of contemporary selection are not well known. In a release and recapture field experiment we transplanted stick insects to native and novel host plants and directly measured allele frequency changes within a generation at 186,576 genetic loci. We observed substantial, genome-wide allele frequency changes during the experiment, most of which could be attributed to random mortality (genetic drift). However, we also documented that selection affected multiple genetic loci distributed across the genome, particularly in transplants to the novel host. Host-associated selection affecting the genome acted on both a known colour-pattern trait as well as other (unmeasured) phenotypes. We also found evidence that selection associated with elevation affected genome variation, although our experiment was not designed to test this. Our results illustrate how genomic data can identify previously underappreciated ecological sources and phenotypic targets of selection. © 2013 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  6. Feeling conflicted and seeking information: when ambivalence enhances and diminishes selective exposure to attitude-consistent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Vanessa; Wegener, Duane T; Clark, Jason K; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Smith, Steven M; Durso, Geoffrey R O

    2013-06-01

    To date, little research has examined the impact of attitudinal ambivalence on attitude-congruent selective exposure. Past research would suggest that strong/univalent rather than weak/ambivalent attitudes should be more predictive of proattitudinal information seeking. Although ambivalent attitude structure might weaken the attitude's effect on seeking proattitudinal information, we believe that conflicted attitudes might also motivate attitude-congruent selective exposure because proattitudinal information should be effective in reducing ambivalence. Two studies provide evidence that the effects of ambivalence on information choices depend on amount of issue knowledge. That is, ambivalence motivates attitude-consistent exposure when issue knowledge is relatively low because less familiar information is perceived to be effective at reducing ambivalence. Conversely, when knowledge is relatively high, more unambivalent (univalent) attitudes predicted attitude-consistent information seeking.

  7. Speciation by selection: A framework for understanding ecology's role in speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.Brian LANGERHANS; Rüdiger RIESCH

    2013-01-01

    Speciation research during the last several decades has confirmed that natural selection frequently drives the generation of new species.But how does this process generally unfold in nature? We argue that answering this question requires a clearer conceptual framework for understanding selection's role in speciation.We present a unified framework of speciation,providing mechanistic descriptions of fundamentally distinct routes to speciation,and how these may interact during lineage splitting.Two major categories are recognized:reproductive isolation resulting from (1) responses to selection,"speciation by selection,"or (2) non-selective processes,"speciation without selection." Speciation by selection can occur via three mechanisms:(1) similar selection,(2) divergent selection,and (3) reinforcement selection.Understanding ecology's role in speciation requires uncovering how these three mechanisms contribute to reproductive isolation,and their relative importance compared to non-selective processes,because all three mechanisms can occur side-by-side during speciation.To accomplish this,we highlight examination of groups of organisms inhabiting replicated environmental gradients.This scenario is common in nature,and a large literature illustrates that both parallel and non-parallel responses to similar environments are widespread,and each can result in speciation.This recognition reveals four general pathways of speciation by similar or divergent selection-parallel and nonparallel responses to similar and divergent selection.Altogether,we present a more precise framework for speciation research,draw attention to some under-recognized features of speciation,emphasize the multidimensionality of speciation,reveal limitations of some previous tests and descriptions of speciation mechanisms,and point to a number of directions for future investigation [Current Zoology 59(1):31-52,2013].

  8. [Book review] Waterfowl ecology and management: selected readings, by J. T. Ratti, L. D. Flake and W. A. Wentz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krapu, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    Review of: Waterfowl ecology and management: Selected readings. J. T. Ratti, L. D. Flake, and W. A. Wentz (Compilers). 1982. Bethesda, Maryland, The Wildlife Society, Inc. 1,328 pp. Paperbound. $20.00.

  9. Unintentional selection, unanticipated insights: introductions, stocking and the evolutionary ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchings, J A

    2014-12-01

    Natural environmental change has produced countless opportunities for species to disperse into and persist in habitats where they previously did not exist. Introduction and stocking programmes have facilitated similar sorts of colonization opportunities across considerably greater geographical scales and often in much shorter periods of time. Even though the mechanism of colonization differs, the result can be the same: evolutionary change in the colonizing population in response to novel selection pressures. As a consequence, some human-mediated fish transfers have unintentionally yielded novel research opportunities to study how phenotypes and genes interact with their environment and affect ecological and evolutionary change. The primary purpose here is to explore how work, directly or indirectly involved with human-mediated transfers, has unintentionally yielded novel research and research opportunities in fish ecology and evolution. Insights have produced new knowledge or altered previously held perceptions on topics such as local adaptation, rate of evolutionary change, phenotypic plasticity, alternative reproductive strategies, population structure and colonization probability. Well-documented stocking programmes, especially in terms of history, numbers and original population sources, can provide highly fertile ground for generating further insights on the ecology and evolution of fishes and of the factors likely to influence the success of conservation-based, restoration programmes.

  10. Local densities connect spatial ecology to game, multilevel selection and inclusive fitness theories of cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekwa, Edward W; Gonzalez, Andrew; Loreau, Michel

    2015-09-07

    Cooperation plays a crucial role in many aspects of biology. We use the spatial ecological metrics of local densities to measure and model cooperative interactions. While local densities can be found as technical details in current theories, we aim to establish them as central to an approach that describes spatial effects in the evolution of cooperation. A resulting local interaction model neatly partitions various spatial and non-spatial selection mechanisms. Furthermore, local densities are shown to be fundamental for important metrics of game theory, multilevel selection theory and inclusive fitness theory. The corresponding metrics include structure coefficients, spatial variance, contextual covariance, relatedness, and inbreeding coefficient or F-statistics. Local densities serve as the basis of an emergent spatial theory that draws from and brings unity to multiple theories of cooperation.

  11. A comparative ecological study of selected cancers in Kanawha County, West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.; Talbott, E.O.; Marsh, G.M.; Case, B.W. (Department of Biostatistics, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States))

    1992-01-01

    This study compares mortality rates for selected causes of death in Kanawha County, West Virginia, to rates reported in a number of geographically defined populations for 1950-1984. Specific conditions selected for study included cancers of the biliary passages and liver, the bladder and other urinary organs, and the central nervous system (CNS), as well as leukemia and aleukemia, lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma, Hodgkin's disease, and cancer of all other lymphopoietic tissue. The analysis made use of several techniques for the investigation of ecological data, including the modeling of rates using Poission regression. The primary findings of this study concern two subgroups of cancers of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissue: (1) leukemia and aleukemia, and (2) lymphosarcoma and reticulosarcoma. For both subgroups of cancers, white male residents of Kanawha County show evidence of significantly elevated mortality rates over the 35-year period of this study.

  12. Selecting the best bank that offered Islamic personal loan package by using consistent fuzzy preference relations (CFPR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Norhidayah A.; Sarudin, Ezzah Suraya; Hamid, Fairus; Shamsuddin, Nor Diyana Ahmad

    2014-10-01

    There are various thoughts and opinions when it comes to how people think of their selected banks. Therefore, to choose the best bank with a good personal loan package can be a bit tricky especially for first time customer. This research offers a guide in choosing the right bank for applying personal loan package by highlighting the important criteria that applicants should take into consideration. In order to cater the problem above, we used Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations (CFPR). Based on expert and public opinions, the important criteria in selecting an Islamic personal loan package are interest rate, tenure of loan, processing period and security of the loan. We developed questionnaire with the criteria mention earlier and distributed it among academic staffs and non academic staffs at Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences (FSKM), UiTM Shah Alam. Based on the questionnaire, we found that four banks have been selected for multiple reasons. Before we could determine the best bank, calculations are divided into 2 phases which are criteria weights determination and ranking of alternatives. We implemented these phases to get the aggregation result and to obtain the ranking in descending order. As a result, our objectives have been achieved. As a conclusion, CFPR can help others in the decision making process.

  13. Fine-scale spatial ecology drives kin selection relatedness among cooperating amoebae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeff; Strassmann, Joan E; Queller, David C

    2016-04-01

    Cooperation among microbes is important for traits as diverse as antibiotic resistance, pathogen virulence, and sporulation. The evolutionary stability of cooperation against "cheater" mutants depends critically on the extent to which microbes interact with genetically similar individuals. The causes of this genetic social structure in natural microbial systems, however, are unknown. Here, we show that social structure among cooperative Dictyostelium amoebae is driven by the population ecology of colonization, growth, and dispersal acting at spatial scales as small as fruiting bodies themselves. Despite the fact that amoebae disperse while grazing, all it takes to create substantial genetic clonality within multicellular fruiting bodies is a few millimeters distance between the cells colonizing a feeding site. Even adjacent fruiting bodies can consist of different genotypes. Soil populations of amoebae are sparse and patchily distributed at millimeter scales. The fine-scale spatial structure of cells and genotypes can thus account for the otherwise unexplained high genetic uniformity of spores in fruiting bodies from natural substrates. These results show how a full understanding of microbial cooperation requires understanding ecology and social structure at the small spatial scales microbes themselves experience.

  14. Quality consistency evaluation of Melissa officinalis L. commercial herbs by HPLC fingerprint and quantitation of selected phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arceusz, Agnieszka; Wesolowski, Marek

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the quality consistency of commercial medicinal herbs, a simple and reliable HPLC method with UV-vis detector was developed, both for fingerprint analysis and quantitation of some pharmacologically active constituents (marker compounds). Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) was chosen for this study because it is widely used as an aromatic, culinary and medicine remedy. About fifty peaks were found in each chromatogram of a lemon balm extract, including twelve satisfactorily resolved characteristic peaks. A reference chromatographic fingerprint for the studied medicinal herb was calculated using Matlab 9.1 software as a result of analysing all the 19 lemon balm samples obtained from 12 Polish manufacturers. The similarity values and the results of principal component analysis revealed that all the samples were highly correlated with the reference fingerprint and could be accurately classified in relation to their quality consistency. Next, a quantitation of selected phenolic acids in the studied samples was performed. The results have shown that the levels of phenolic acids, i.e. gallic, chlorogenic, syringic, caffeic, ferulic and rosmarinic were as follows (mg/g of dry weight): 0.001-0.067, 0.010-0.333, 0.007-0.553, 0.047-0.705, 0.006-1.589 and 0.158-48.608, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated that rosmarinic acid occurs in M. officinalis at the highest level, whereas gallic acid in the lowest. A detailed inspection of these data has also revealed that reference chromatographic fingerprints combined with quantitation of pharmacologically active constituents of the plant could be used as an efficient strategy for monitoring of the lemon balm quality consistency. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An ecologically-based method for selecting ecological indicators for assessing risks to biological diversity from genetically-engineered plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andow, D. A.; Lövei, Gabor L; Arpaia, Salvatore

    2013-01-01

    -driven, ecologically-based decision-making and provides formal methods for completing a screening level-ERA that can focus ERA on the most significant concerns. The process requires substantial human input but the human capital is available in most countries and regions of the world.......The environmental risks associated with genetically-engineered (GE) organisms have been controversial, and so have the models for the assessment of these risks. We propose an ecologically-based environmental risk assessment (ERA) model that follows the 1998 USEPA guidelines, focusing on potential....... Knowledge about the specific transgene and its possible environmental effects in other countries can be used to assist development of risk hypotheses. (6) The risk hypotheses are ranked using MCDA with criteria related to the severity of the potential risk. The model emphasizes transparent, expert...

  16. Ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulugeta, Y; Yacob, Hailu T; Ashenafi, Hagos

    2010-08-01

    A study on ectoparasites of small ruminants in three selected agro-ecological sites of Tigray Region, Ethiopia disclosed an overall prevalence of 55.5% and 58% in each examined 750 sheep and goats, respectively. In the sheep population, Melophagus ovinus (19.1%), tick infestations (16%), Damalinia ovis (15.3%), Linognathus africanus (11.5%), and Ctenocephalides felis (9%) were the major ectoparasites. The major ectoparasites identified in goats were tick infestations (29.7%), L. africanus (27.9%), Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae (12.5%), C. felis (11.1%), and Demodex caprae (6.8%). In sheep, there was a statistically significant difference (P consciousness and awareness of farmers, and weak animal health extension services are believed to have contributed for widespread distribution and occurrences of ectoparasites. The growing threat of ectoparasites to small ruminant production and the tanning industry needs well-coordinated and urgent control intervention.

  17. Ecological community datasets used to evaluate the presence of trends in ecological communities in selected rivers and streams across the United States, 1992-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuellig, Robert E.; Riskin, Melissa L.

    2017-01-01

    In 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study of more than 50 major river basins across the Nation as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) project of the National Water-Quality Program. One of the major goals of the NAWQA project is to determine how water-quality and ecological conditions change over time. To support that goal, long-term consistent and comparable ecological monitoring has been conducted on streams and rivers throughout the Nation. Fish, invertebrate, and algae data collected as part of the NAWQA program were retrieved from the USGS Aquatic Bioassessment database for use in trend analysis. Ultimately, these data will provide insight into how natural features and human activities have contributed to changes in ecological condition over time in the Nation’s streams and rivers. This USGS data release contains all of the input and output files necessary to reproduce the results of the ecological trend analysis described in the associated U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20175006). Data preparation for input to the model is also fully described in the above mentioned report.

  18. Selecting a Conservation Surrogate Species for Small Fragmented Habitats Using Ecological Niche Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Anne-Isola Nekaris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Flagship species are traditionally large, charismatic animals used to rally conservation efforts. Accepted flagship definitions suggest they need only fulfil a strategic role, unlike umbrella species that are used to shelter cohabitant taxa. The criteria used to select both flagship and umbrella species may not stand up in the face of dramatic forest loss, where remaining fragments may only contain species that do not suit either set of criteria. The Cinderella species concept covers aesthetically pleasing and overlooked species that fulfil the criteria of flagships or umbrellas. Such species are also more likely to occur in fragmented habitats. We tested Cinderella criteria on mammals in the fragmented forests of the Sri Lankan Wet Zone. We selected taxa that fulfilled both strategic and ecological roles. We created a shortlist of ten species, and from a survey of local perceptions highlighted two finalists. We tested these for umbrella characteristics against the original shortlist, utilizing Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt modelling, and analysed distribution overlap using ArcGIS. The criteria highlighted Loris tardigradus tardigradus and Prionailurus viverrinus as finalists, with the former having highest flagship potential. We suggest Cinderella species can be effective conservation surrogates especially in habitats where traditional flagship species have been extirpated.

  19. Experimental evidence of genome-wide impact of ecological selection during early stages of speciation-with-gene-flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Scott P; Ragland, Gregory J; Assour, Lauren; Powell, Thomas H Q; Hood, Glen R; Emrich, Scott; Nosil, Patrik; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect effects due to correlations among loci, is critical to understanding speciation. Here, we measure the genome-wide impacts of host-associated selection between hawthorn and apple host races of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae), a model for contemporary speciation-with-gene-flow. Allele frequency shifts of 32 455 SNPs induced in a selection experiment based on host phenology were genome wide and highly concordant with genetic divergence between co-occurring apple and hawthorn flies in nature. This striking genome-wide similarity between experimental and natural populations of R. pomonella underscores the importance of ecological selection at early stages of divergence and calls for further integration of studies of eco-evolutionary dynamics and genome divergence. © 2015 The Authors Ecology Letters published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and CNRS.

  20. Selection of an evaluation index for water ecological civilizations of water-shortage cities based on the grey rough set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Zhu, J. W.; Xie, J. C.; Liu, J. L.; Jiang, R. G.

    2017-08-01

    According to the characteristics and existing problems of water ecological civilization of water-shortage cities, the evaluation index system of water ecological civilization was established using a grey rough set. From six aspects of water resources, water security, water environment, water ecology, water culture and water management, this study established the prime frame of the evaluation system, including 28 items, and used rough set theory to undertake optimal selection of the index system. Grey correlation theory then was used for weightings in order that the integrated evaluation index system for water ecology civilization of water-shortage cities could be constituted. Xi’an City was taken as an example, for which the results showed that 20 evaluation indexes could be obtained after optimal selection of the preliminary framework of evaluation index. The most influential indices were the water-resource category index and water environment category index. The leakage rate of the public water supply pipe network, as well as the disposal, treatment and usage rate of polluted water, urban water surface area ratio, the water quality of the main rivers, and so on also are important. It was demonstrated that the evaluation index could provide an objectively reflection of regional features and key points for the development of water ecology civilization for cities with scarce water resources. It is considered that the application example has universal applicability.

  1. The influence of neighbouring species on ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostrakiewicz-Gierałt Kinga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological variation of the selected subpopulations of Iris sibirica L. were studied in the years 2011-2012, in the abandoned patches of Molinietum caeruleae dominated by small meadow species (Patch I, macroforbs (Patch II, largetussock grasses (Patch III, shrubs (Patch IV, as well as shrubs and trees (Patch V. The abundance of subpopulations and dimensions of aggregations of ramet clusters increased gradually from Patch I to Patch IV and subsequently declined in Patch V. During the whole study period, all subpopulations showed signs of senility due to the absence of individuals in prereproductive stages. The share of generative ramet clusters diminished, while contribution of senile and fragmentised ramet clusters increased substantially in consecutive patches. The dimensions of ramet clusters increased significantly in successive plots and years. The number and height of generative stems and production of flowers and fruits did not show the temporal variability. The abundance of generative stems was considerably lower in the plots dominated by small meadow species, than in the sites dominated by large-tussock grasses, shrubs or overgrown shrubs and trees. Both the height of flowering stems and production of flowers and fruits increased gradually from Patch I, via Patches II, III and IV, to Patch V. The augmentation of flower production might contribute to better visibility of inflorescences for pollinators, whereas an increase in the production of fruits may increase the chances for successful seed dispersal to new sites.

  2. Feeding ecology informs parasite epidemiology: prey selection modulates encounter rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liccioli, Stefano; Bialowas, Carly; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Massolo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971) in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4%), when consumption of deer was highest (36.4%). However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season) with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0-22.4), combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi) were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary.

  3. Feeding ecology informs parasite epidemiology: prey selection modulates encounter rate with Echinococcus multilocularis in urban coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Liccioli

    Full Text Available We investigated the role of urban coyote feeding ecology in the transmission of Echinococcus multilocularis, the causative agent of Alveolar Echinococcosis in humans. As coyotes can play a main role in the maintenance of this zoonotic parasite within North American urban settings, such study can ultimately aid disease risk management. Between June 2012 and June 2013, we collected 251 coyote feces and conducted trapping of small mammals (n = 971 in five parks in the city of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. We investigated E. multilocularis epidemiology by assessing seasonal variations of coyote diet and the selective consumption of different rodent intermediate host species. Furthermore, accounting for small mammal digestibility and coyote defecation rates we estimated the number of small mammal preys ingested by coyote and consequently, coyote encounter rates with the parasite. Dominant food items included small mammals, fruit and vegetation, although hare and deer were seasonally relevant. The lowest frequency of occurrence per scat of small mammals was recorded in winter (39.4%, when consumption of deer was highest (36.4%. However, highest encounter rates (number of infected hosts predated/season with E. multilocularis (95% CI: 1.0-22.4, combined with the lack of predation on non-competent small mammal species, suggest that winter is the critical season for transmission and control of this parasite. Within the small mammal assemblage, voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus and Myodes gapperi were the selected preys of urban coyotes and likely played a key role for the maintenance of the urban sylvatic life-cycle of E. multilocularis in Calgary.

  4. Phenotypic selection on leaf functional traits of two congeneric species in a temperate rainforest is consistent with their shade tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto; Saldaña, Alfredo

    2013-09-01

    Several studies across species have linked leaf functional traits with shade tolerance. Because evolution by natural selection occurs within populations, in order to explain those interspecific patterns it is crucial to examine variation of traits associated with shade tolerance and plant fitness at an intraspecific scale. In a southern temperate rainforest, two climbing plant species coexist but differ in shade tolerance. Whereas Luzuriaga radicans is most abundant in the shaded understory, L. polyphylla typically occurs in intermediate light environments. We carried out an intraspecific approach to test the hypothesis of differential selection patterns in relation to shade tolerance in these congeneric species. The probability of showing reproductive structures increased with specific leaf area (SLA) in L. polyphylla, and decreased with dark respiration in L. radicans. When reproductive output of fertile individuals was the fitness variable, we detected positive directional selection on SLA in L. polyphylla, and negative directional selection on dark respiration and positive directional selection on leaf size in L. radicans. Total light radiation differed between the microsites where the Luzuriaga species were sampled in the old-growth forest understory. Accordingly, L. radicans had a lower minimum light requirement and showed fertile individuals in darker microsites. L. radicans showed lower dark respiration, higher chlorophyll content, and greater leaf size and SLA than L. polyphylla. Results suggest that in more shade-tolerant species, established in the darker microsites, selection would favor functional traits minimizing carbon losses, while in less shade-tolerant species, plants displaying leaf traits enhancing light capture would be selected.

  5. Complexity of bioindicator selection for ecological, human, and cultural health: Chinook salmon and red knot as case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Niles, Lawrence; Powers, Charles; Brown, Kevin; Clarke, James; Dey, Amanda; Kosson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable interest in developing bioindicators of ecological health that are also useful indicators for human health. Yet, human health assessment usually encompasses physical/chemical exposures and not cultural well-being. In this paper, we propose that bioindicators can be selected for all three purposes. We use Chinook or king salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and red knot (Calidris canutus rufa, a sandpiper) as examples of indicators that can be used to assess human, ecological, and cultural health. Even so, selecting endpoints or metrics for each indicator species is complex and is explored in this paper. We suggest that there are several endpoint types to examine for a given species, including physical environment, environmental stressors, habitat, life history, demography, population counts, and cultural/societal aspects. Usually cultural endpoints are economic indicators (e.g., number of days fished, number of hunting licenses), rather than the importance of a fishing culture. Development of cultural/societal endpoints must include the perceptions of local communities, cultural groups, and tribal nations, as well as governmental and regulatory communities (although not usually so defined, the latter have cultures as well). Endpoint selection in this category is difficult because the underlying issues need to be identified and used to develop endpoints that tribes and stakeholders themselves see as reasonable surrogates of the qualities they value. We describe several endpoints for salmon and knots that can be used for ecological, human, and cultural/societal health. PMID:25666646

  6. Physiological and ecological consequences of sleeping-site selection by the Galapagos land iguana (Conolophus pallidus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, K.A.; Tracy, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    Field observations and biophysical models were combined to analyze sleeping-site selection by Galapagos land iguanas (Conolophus pallidus). Iguanas slept in different kinds of sleeping sites during different seasons. In the coolest season (garua), adult land iguanas were found in sleeping sites that were warmer than the coolest sites available. This may be because the garua season (cool, overcast, and foggy) is a time when environmental conditions mitigate against rapid warm-up in the mornings, so lizards may regulate nighttime body temperatures so that it is easier to warm up to preferred daytime body temperatures. In the warmest season, adult iguanas were found in the coolest sleeping sites available. This observation is consistent with hypotheses of voluntary hypothermia, which can be advantageous in energy conservation and in avoiding detrimental effects associated with maintenance of constant body temperatures throughout the day and night. Juvenile iguanas were found sleeping in rock crevices regardless of the ambient thermal environments. Such sites are likely to be important as refugia for this life stage, which, unlike the adult stage, is vulnerable to predation. It was concluded that selection of sleeping sites is a process that may help in avoidance of predation, optimization of body temperature at the end of the sleeping period, and reduction of metabolic costs during sleeping. The importance of some of these factors may change with the thermal milieu (e.g., season).

  7. Method for Automatic Tube Current Selection for Obtaining a Consistent Image Quality and Dose Optimization in a Cardiac Multidetector CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Weiwei; Du, Xiangke [Peking University People' s Hospital, Beijing (China); Li, Jianying [GE Healthcare China, Beijing (China)

    2009-12-15

    To evaluate a quantitative method for individually adjusting the tube current to obtain images with consistent noise in electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated CT cardiac scans. The image noise from timing bolus and cardiac CT scans of 80 patients (Group A) who underwent a 64-row multidetector (MD) CT cardiac examination with patient-independent scan parameters were analyzed. A formula was established using the noise correlation between the timing bolus and cardiac scans. This formula was used to predict the required tube current to obtain the desired cardiac CT image noise based on the timing bolus noise measurement. Subsequently, 80 additional cardiac patients (Group B) were scanned with individually adjusted tube currents using an established formula to evaluate its ability to obtain accurate and consistent image noise across the patient population. Image quality was evaluated using score scale of 1 to 5 with a score of 3 or higher being clinically acceptable. Using the formula, we obtained an average CT image noise of 28.55 Hounsfield unit (HU), with a standard deviation of only 1.7 HU, as opposed to a target value of 28 HU. Image quality scores were 4.03 and 4.27 for images in Groups A and B, respectively, and there was no statistical difference between the image quality scores between the two groups. However, the average CT dose index (CTDIvol) was 30% lower for Group B. Adjusting the tube current based on timing bolus scans may provide a consistent image quality and dose optimization for cardiac patients of various body mass index values.

  8. Population-scale assessment endpoints in ecological risk assessment part II: selection of assessment endpoint attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Wayne G; Kaminski, Laurel A

    2007-07-01

    Because ecological services often are tied to specific species, the risk to populations is a critical endpoint and important feature of ecological risk assessments. In Part 1 of this series it was demonstrated that population scale assessment endpoints are important expressions of the valued components of ecological structures. This commentary reviews several of the characteristics of populations that can be evaluated and used in population scale risk assessments. Two attributes are evaluated as promising. The 1st attribute is the change in potential productivity of the population over a specified time period. The 2nd attribute is the change in the age structure of a population, expressed graphically or as a normalized effects vector (NEV). The NEV is a description of the change in age structure due to a toxicant or other stressor and appears to be characteristic of specific stressor effects.

  9. Self-consistent many-electron theory of electron work functions and surface potential characteristics for selected metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J. R.

    1969-01-01

    Electron work functions, surface potentials, and electron number density distributions and electric fields in the surface region of 26 metals were calculated from first principles within the free electron model. Calculation proceeded from an expression of the total energy as a functional of the electron number density, including exchange and correlation energies, as well as a first inhomogeneity term. The self-consistent solution was obtained via a variational procedure. Surface barriers were due principally to many-body effects; dipole barriers were small only for some alkali metals, becoming quite large for the transition metals. Surface energies were inadequately described by this model, which neglects atomistic effects. Reasonable results were obtained for electron work functions and surface potential characteristics, maximum electron densities varying by a factor of over 60.

  10. Breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of black-spotted pond frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in Ningbo, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanping WANG; Zhengjun WU; Ping LU; Fang ZHANG; Yiming LI

    2008-01-01

    The black-spotted pond frog (Rana nigromacu-lata) is one of the most widely distributed species in China. However, there have been only a few qualitative descrip-tions of their breeding ecology and oviposition site selec-tion. From 2004 to 2006, we investigated the breeding ecology and oviposition site selection of K nigromaculata in Ningbo, China, quantitatively. Analyses of breeding ecology show that: (1) mean frog density in the breeding season was 0.0903 ± 0.0029 individuals per meter (n = 11) (mean ± SE); (2) R. nigromaculata was a sexually dimorphic species, with females significantly larger than males in both body weight and snout-vent length; (3) the clutch size averaged 4643.04± 235.96 eggs (range 1546-7897, n = 50); and (4) the egg size ranged from 1.50 to 1.74 mm in diameter, with an average egg size of 1.6050 ± 0.0046 mm (n = 226). Oviposition sites differed significantly from random sites in percentages of water, bare ground and vegetation cover, water depth (cm), water temperature (°C) and water turbidity. Rana nigro-maculata preferred microhabitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, while it avoided microha-bitats with deeper water. The results suggest that micro-habitats with higher percentages of water and vegetation cover, but not deeper water, should be priorities for pro-tection and conservation of the breeding habitats of R. nigromaculata.

  11. Landscape approaches to stream fish mechanistic aspects of habitat selection and behavioral ecology. Introduction and commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro A. Rincón; N.F. Hughes; Gary D. Grossman

    2000-01-01

    The Ecology of Stream Fish Symposium (Lobón-Cerviá & Mortensen 1999) was structured as a number sessions destined to showcase the latest developments and prospects for the future in areas of research that, in the opinion of the meeting's Steering Committee and organizers, held particular interest. Convinced of the benefits of research that integrates across...

  12. Survey of ecological resources at selected US Department of Energy sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAllister, C.; Beckert, H.; Abrams, C. [and others

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) owns and manages a wide range of ecological resources. During the next 30 years, DOE Headquarters and Field Offices will make land-use planning decisions and conduct environmental remediation and restoration activities in response to federal and state statutes. This document fulfills, in part, DOE`s need to know what types of ecological resources it currently owns and manages by synthesizing information on the types and locations of ecological resources at 10 DOE sites: Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Plant, Los Alamos National Laboratory, savannah River Site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Argonne National Laboratory, and Fernald Environmental Management Project. This report summarizes information on ecosystems, habitats, and federally listed threatened, endangered, and candidate species that could be stressed by contaminants or physical activity during the restoration process, or by the natural or anthropogenic transport of contaminants from presently contaminated areas into presently uncontaminated areas. This report also provides summary information on the ecosystems, habitats, and threatened and endangered species that exist on each of the 10 sites. Each site chapter contains a general description of the site, including information on size, location, history, geology, hydrology, and climate. Descriptions of the major vegetation and animal communities and of aquatic resources are also provided, with discussions of the treatened or endangered plant or animal species present. Site-specific ecological issues are also discussed in each site chapter. 106 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Habitat selection and behaviour of a reintroduced passerine: linking experimental restoration, behaviour and habitat ecology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A Bennett

    Full Text Available Habitat restoration can play an important role in recovering functioning ecosystems and improving biodiversity. Restoration may be particularly important in improving habitat prior to species reintroductions. We reintroduced seven brown treecreeper (Climacteris picumnus social groups into two nature reserves in the Australian Capital Territory in south-eastern Australia. This study provided a unique opportunity to understand the interactions between restoration ecology, behavioural ecology and habitat ecology. We examined how experimental restoration treatments (addition of coarse woody debris, variations in ground vegetation cover and nest box installation influenced the behaviour and microhabitat use of radio-tracked individuals to evaluate the success of restoration treatments. The addition of coarse woody debris benefited the brown treecreeper through increasing the probability of foraging on a log or on the ground. This demonstrated the value of using behaviour as a bio-indicator for restoration success. Based on previous research, we predicted that variations in levels of ground vegetation cover would influence behaviour and substrate use, particularly that brown treecreepers would choose sites with sparse ground cover because this allows better access to food and better vigilance for predators. However, there was little effect of this treatment, which was likely influenced by the limited overall use of the ground layer. There was also little effect of nest boxes on behaviour or substrate use. These results somewhat confound our understanding of the species based on research from extant populations. Our results also have a significant impact regarding using existing knowledge on a species to inform how it will respond to reintroduction and habitat restoration. This study also places great emphasis on the value of applying an experimental framework to ecological restoration, particularly when reintroductions produce unexpected outcomes.

  14. Impacts of selective logging on inbreeding and gene flow in two Amazonian timber species with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinson, C C; Kanashiro, M; Harris, S A; Boshier, D H

    2015-01-01

    Selective logging in Brazil allows for the removal of up to 90% of trees above 50 cm diameter of a given timber species, independent of a species' life history characteristics or how quickly it will recover. The genetic and demographic effects of selective logging on two Amazonian timber species (Dipteryx odorata Leguminosae, Jacaranda copaia Bignoniaceae) with contrasting ecological and reproductive characteristics were assessed in the same forest. Genetic diversity and gene flow were characterized by genotyping adults and seed sampled before and after logging, using hypervariable microsatellite markers. Overall, there were no short-term genetic impacts on the J. copaia population, with commercial application of current Brazilian forest management regulations. In contrast, for D. Odorata, selective logging showed a range of genetic impacts, with a 10% loss of alleles, and reductions in siring by pollen from trees within the 546-ha study area (23-11%) and in the number of pollen donors per progeny array (2.8-1.6), illustrating the importance of the surrounding landscape. Asynchrony in flowering between D. odorata trees led to trees with no breeding partners, which could limit the species reproduction and regeneration under current regulations. The results are summarized with other published studies from the same site and the implications for forest management discussed. The different types and levels of impacts associated with each species support the idea that ecological and genetic information by species, ecological guild or reproductive group is essential in helping to derive sustainable logging guidelines for tropical forests.

  15. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  16. Ecological effects of selective decontamination on resistant gram-negative bacterial colonization.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, E.A.; Smet, A.M. de; Blok, H.E.; Thieme Groen, E.S.; Asselt, G.J. van; Benus, R.F.; Bernards, S.A.; Frenay, I.H.; Jansz, A.R.; Jongh, B.M. de; Kaan, J.A.; Leverstein-van Hall, M.A.; Mascini, E.M.; Pauw, W.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Thijsen, S.F.; Kluytmans, J.A.; Bonten, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    RATIONALE: Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) eradicate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from the intestinal and respiratory tract in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effect on antibiotic resistance remains controversial. OBJECT

  17. Ecological Effects of Selective Decontamination on Resistant Gram-negative Bacterial Colonization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostdijk, Evelien A. N.; de Smet, Anne Marie G. A.; Blok, Hetty E. M.; Groen, Emily S. Thieme; van Asselt, Gerard J.; Benus, Robin F. J.; Bernards, Sandra A. T.; Frenay, Ine H. M. E.; Jansz, Arjan R.; de Jongh, Bartelt M.; Kaan, Jan A.; Leverstein-van Hall, Maurine A.; Mascini, Ellen M.; Pauw, Wouter; Sturm, Patrick D. J.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Kluytmans, Jan A. J. W.; Bonten, Marc J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Selective digestive tract decontamination (SDD) and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD) eradicate gram-negative bacteria (GNB) from the intestinal and respiratory tract in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, but their effect on antibiotic resistance remains controversial. Object

  18. Ecological genetics of the Bromus tectorum (Poaceae) - Ustilago Bullata (Ustilaginaceae): A role for frequency dependent selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan E. Meyer; David L. Nelson; Suzette Clement; Alisa Ramakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Evolutionary processes that maintain genetic diversity in plants are likely to include selection imposed by pathogens. Negative frequency-dependent selection is a mechanism for maintenance of resistance polymorphism in plant - pathogen interactions. We explored whether such selection operates in the Bromus tectorum - Ustilago bullata pathosystem. Gene-for-gene...

  19. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  20. Selection of Numerical Methods and Their Application to the Thermo-Ecological Life Cycle Cost of Heat Exchanger Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Czarnowska

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermo-ecological cost with the inclusion of life cycle (TEC-LC is defined as the cumulative exergy consumption of non-renewable natural resources associated with any product and its life cycle, taking into account the necessity to prevent and compensate losses caused by depletion of natural resources and the release of harmful substances into the environment. The problem of collecting data for solving TEC-LC equations is not the only one which can be faced in determining this indicator. The selection of the calculation method could also affect obtained results due to the accuracy of the selected algorithm. Numerical stability is particularly important in the case of large sets of data and in this case operations on large matrixes. The issue with a set of TEC-LC balanced equations is examined and compared on the basis of heat exchanger components.

  1. Statistical Mechanics Ideas and Techniques Applied to Selected Problems in Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Fort

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem dynamics provides an interesting arena for the application of a plethora concepts and techniques from statistical mechanics. Here I review three examples corresponding each one to an important problem in ecology. First, I start with an analytical derivation of clumpy patterns for species relative abundances (SRA empirically observed in several ecological communities involving a high number n of species, a phenomenon which have puzzled ecologists for decades. An interesting point is that this derivation uses results obtained from a statistical mechanics model for ferromagnets. Second, going beyond the mean field approximation, I study the spatial version of a popular ecological model involving just one species representing vegetation. The goal is to address the phenomena of catastrophic shifts—gradual cumulative variations in some control parameter that suddenly lead to an abrupt change in the system—illustrating it by means of the process of desertification of arid lands. The focus is on the aggregation processes and the effects of diffusion that combined lead to the formation of non trivial spatial vegetation patterns. It is shown that different quantities—like the variance, the two-point correlation function and the patchiness—may serve as early warnings for the desertification of arid lands. Remarkably, in the onset of a desertification transition the distribution of vegetation patches exhibits scale invariance typical of many physical systems in the vicinity a phase transition. I comment on similarities of and differences between these catastrophic shifts and paradigmatic thermodynamic phase transitions like the liquid-vapor change of state for a fluid. Third, I analyze the case of many species interacting in space. I choose tropical forests, which are mega-diverse ecosystems that exhibit remarkable dynamics. Therefore these ecosystems represent a research paradigm both for studies of complex systems dynamics as well as to

  2. Interface Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staunstrup, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes that Interface Consistency is an important issue for the development of modular designs. Byproviding a precise specification of component interfaces it becomes possible to check that separately developedcomponents use a common interface in a coherent matter thus avoiding a very...... significant source of design errors. Awide range of interface specifications are possible, the simplest form is a syntactical check of parameter types.However, today it is possible to do more sophisticated forms involving semantic checks....

  3. Natural selection and the evolutionary ecology of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Phylum Glomeromycota).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgason, Thorunn; Fitter, Alastair H

    2009-01-01

    Darwin's model of evolution by natural selection was based on his observations of change in discrete organisms in which individuals are easy to define. Many of the most abundant functional groups in ecosystems, such as fungi and bacteria, do not fit this paradigm. In this review, we seek to understand how the elegant logic of Darwinian natural selection can be applied to distributed clonal organisms. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are one such group. Globally, they are ubiquitous in terrestrial ecosystems, are locally distributed among many host plant species, and are significant drivers of nutrient cycling in ecosystems. The AM fungi are intractable to study, as the few taxa that can be cultured cannot be grown in the absence of plant roots. Research has focused on the plant-fungus interface, and thus on the symbiotic phenotype. A model is discussed for the interchange of materials at the interface that throws the emphasis of research onto the behaviour of the individual organisms and removes the need to test for phenomena such as selectivity, co-evolution, and cheating. The AM fungi are distributed organisms with an extensive external mycelium that is likely to be under strong environmental selection. AM fungi show sufficient phenotypic variation and fitness differentials for selection to occur, and developments in genetic analyses suggest that a better understanding of heritability in these organisms is not far away. It is argued that direct selection on fungal traits related to their survival and performance in the soil independent of the host is likely to be the major driver of differentiation in the AM fungi, and the evidence for direct fungal responses to soil conditions such as pH, hypoxia, and temperature is reviewed.

  4. Abundance, diversity, and distribution of mosquito vectors in selected ecological regions of Kenya: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutomiah, Joel; Bast, Joshua; Clark, Jeffrey; Richardson, Jason; Yalwala, Santos; Oullo, David; Mutisya, James; Mulwa, Francis; Musila, Lillian; Khamadi, Samoel; Schnabel, David; Wurapa, Eyako; Sang, Rosemary

    2013-06-01

    The diversity of mosquito arbovirus vectors was investigated to define regional risk of arbovirus transmission in Kenya. Mosquitoes were sampled between April, 2007 and December, 2010 at thirteen sites across seven administrative provinces and ecological zones. CDC light traps were used to collect mosquitoes while human-landing collection was conducted in five of the sites to target day-feeding Aedes (Stegomyia) species. Over 524,000 mosquitoes were collected and identified into 101 species, 30 of them known vectors of arboviruses endemic to Kenya. Ae. (Neomelaniconion) mcintoshi and Ae. (Aedimorphus) ochraceus were most abundant in Garissa in the arid northeastern province, and Mansonia uniformis and Mn. africana in semi-arid Baringo in the Rift Valley Province. Ae. ochraceus, Mn. africana and Mn. uniformis were also significant in Nyanza Province, while Ae. (Neomelaniconion) circumluteolus predominated in Budalangi, Western Province. Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti was predominant in Rabai in the Coast Province but insignificant in the western and Nyanza sites. Culex pipiens was abundant in Rift Valley and Nyanza Provinces around the lake shores. This study highlights the potential for emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases among vulnerable populations. This calls for comprehensive mapping of vector distribution and abundance for planning focused vector control measures.

  5. Solid consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Lorenzo; Creminelli, Paolo; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Noreña, Jorge

    2017-03-01

    We argue that isotropic scalar fluctuations in solid inflation are adiabatic in the super-horizon limit. During the solid phase this adiabatic mode has peculiar features: constant energy-density slices and comoving slices do not coincide, and their curvatures, parameterized respectively by ζ and Script R, both evolve in time. The existence of this adiabatic mode implies that Maldacena's squeezed limit consistency relation holds after angular average over the long mode. The correlation functions of a long-wavelength spherical scalar mode with several short scalar or tensor modes is fixed by the scaling behavior of the correlators of short modes, independently of the solid inflation action or dynamics of reheating.

  6. Energy storage and fecundity explain deviations from ecological stoichiometry predictions under global warming and size-selective predation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Jansen, Mieke; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby

    2016-11-01

    stoichiometry, largely by changing levels of energy storage molecules. Our results highlight that two widespread patterns, the trade-off between rapid development and energy storage and the increased investment in reproduction under size-selective predation, cause predictable deviations from current ecological stoichiometry theory. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2016 British Ecological Society.

  7. Geotechnology and landscape ecology applied to the selection of potential forest fragments for seed harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Alexandre Rosa Dos; Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Carlos; de Oliveira Peluzio, Telma Machado; Esteves Peluzio, João Batista; de Queiroz, Vagner Tebaldi; Figueira Branco, Elvis Ricardo; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Santos Mota, Pedro Henrique; Ferreira da Silva, Samuel; Vargas, Rozimelia; de Carvalho, José Romário; Macedo, Leandro Levate; da Silva Araújo, Cintia; de Almeida, Samira Luns Hatum

    2016-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest biome is recognized for its biodiversity and is one of the most threatened biomes on the planet, with forest fragmentation increasing due to uncontrolled land use, land occupation, and population growth. The most serious aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the edge effect and the loss of biodiversity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of forest fragmentation and select potential forest fragments with a higher degree of conservation for seed harvesting in the Itapemirim river basin, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Image classification techniques, forest landscape ecology, and multi-criteria analysis were used to evaluate the evolution of forest fragmentation to develop the landscape metric indexes, and to select potential forest fragments for seed harvesting for the years 1985 and 2013. According to the results, there was a reduction of 2.55% of the occupancy of the fragments in the basin between the years 1985 and 2013. For the years 1985 and 2013, forest fragment units 2 and 3 were spatialized with a high potential for seed harvesting, representing 6.99% and 16.01% of the total fragments, respectively. The methodology used in this study has the potential to be used to support decisions for the selection of potential fragments for seed harvesting because selecting fragments in different environments by their spatial attributes provides a greater degree of conservation, contributing to the protection and conscious management of the forests. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and different biomes of the world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. What is the optimal duration of middle-cerebral artery occlusion consistently resulting in isolated cortical selective neuronal loss in the spontaneously hypertensive rat?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohail eEjaz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Objectives: Selective neuronal loss (SNL in the reperfused penumbra may impact clinical recovery and is thus important to investigate. Brief proximal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo results in predominantly striatal SNL, yet cortical damage is more relevant given its behavioral implications and that thrombolytic therapy mainly rescues the cortex. Distal temporary MCAo (tMCAo does target the cortex, but the optimal occlusion duration that results in isolated SNL has not been determined. In the present study we assessed different distal tMCAo durations looking for consistently pure SNL.Methods: Microclip distal tMCAo (md-tMCAo was performed in ~6-month old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs. We previously reported that 45min md-tMCAo in SHRs results in pan-necrosis in the majority of subjects. Accordingly, three shorter MCAo durations were investigated here in decremental succession, namely 30, 22 and 15mins (n=3, 3 and 7 subjects, respectively. Recanalization was confirmed by MR angiography just prior to brain collection at 28 days and T2-weighted MRI was obtained for characterization of ischemic lesions. NeuN, OX42 and GFAP immunohistochemistry appraised changes in neurons, microglia and astrocytes, respectively. Ischemic lesions were categorized into three main types: 1 pan-necrosis; 2 partial infarction; and 3 SNL. Results: Pan-necrosis or partial infarction was present in all 30min and 22min subjects, but not in the 15min group (p < 0.001, in which isolated cortical SNL was consistently present. MRI revealed characteristic hyperintense abnormalities in all rats with pan-necrosis or partial infarction, but no change in any 15min subject. Conclusions: We found that 15min distal MCAo consistently resulted in pure cortical SNL, whereas durations equal or longer than 22min consistently resulted in infarcts. This model may be of use to study the pathophysiology of cortical SNL and its prevention by appropriate

  9. Nest-site selection, nesting behaviour and spatial ecology of female Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrink, Xander; Warner, Jonathan K; Downs, Colleen T

    2017-02-01

    Nesting biology and ecology have been investigated for Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus), but information on behaviour and movement patterns of nesting females during nest guarding is scant. Consequently, we investigated the home ranges, nest-site selection strategies, movement patterns, activity levels and nest fidelity of four nesting females using telemetry. Gravid females selected winter basking/breeding areas close (351±2m) to nest-sites. Mean home range and core-use areas of nesting females were 8539±4752m(2), and 4949±3302m(2) respectively. Mean home range (0.85ha) was significantly smaller than those of non-nesting females (108.4ha) during nesting season. Activity levels and mean daily movements while nesting were 8.1±2.5% and 213±64m, respectively, and increased to 47.9±11.7% and 2176±708m post-nesting. Overall levels of nest fidelity were 82.8±11.7%, (day 78.1±15.9%; night 87.3±7.8%). Highest nest fidelity recorded during incubation was 99.7% over 96days. Telemetry data from nesting females were helpful for elucidating spatial and behavioural patterns during the nest guarding period, and provided novel insights into this biologically important event.

  10. Sex ratios in the most-selective elite US undergraduate colleges and universities are consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems increasingly select for conscientious personality compared with intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2009-08-01

    The main predictors of examination results and educational achievement in modern societies are intelligence (IQ - or general factor 'g' intelligence) and the personality trait termed 'Conscientiousness' (C). I have previously argued that increased use of continuous assessment (e.g. course work rather than timed and supervised examinations) and increased duration of the educational process implies that modern educational systems have become increasingly selective for the personality trait of Conscientiousness and consequently less selective for IQ. I have tested this prediction (in a preliminary fashion) by looking at the sex ratios in the most selective elite US universities. My two main assumptions are: (1) that a greater proportion of individuals with very high intelligence are men than women, and (2) that women are more conscientious than men. To estimate the proportion of men and women expected at highly-selective schools, I performed demonstration calculations based on three plausible estimates of male and female IQ averages and standard deviations. The expected percentage of men at elite undergraduate colleges (selecting students with IQ above 130 - i.e. in the top 2% of the population) were 66%, 61% and 74%. When these estimates were compared with the sex ratios at 33 elite colleges and universities, only two technical institutes had more than 60% men. Elite US colleges and universities therefore seem to be selecting primarily on the basis of something other than IQ - probably conscientiousness. There is a 'missing population' of very high IQ men who are not being admitted to the most selective and prestigious undergraduate schools, probably because their high school educational qualifications and evaluations are too low. This analysis is therefore consistent with the hypothesis that modern educational systems tend to select more strongly for Conscientiousness than for IQ. The implication is that modern undergraduates at the most-selective US schools are not

  11. Towards the harmonization between National Forest Inventory and Forest Condition Monitoring. Consistency of plot allocation and effect of tree selection methods on sample statistics in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Patrizia; Di Cosmo, Lucio; Cenni, Enrico; Pompei, Enrico; Ferretti, Marco

    2013-07-01

    In the frame of a process aiming at harmonizing National Forest Inventory (NFI) and ICP Forests Level I Forest Condition Monitoring (FCM) in Italy, we investigated (a) the long-term consistency between FCM sample points (a subsample of the first NFI, 1985, NFI_1) and recent forest area estimates (after the second NFI, 2005, NFI_2) and (b) the effect of tree selection method (tree-based or plot-based) on sample composition and defoliation statistics. The two investigations were carried out on 261 and 252 FCM sites, respectively. Results show that some individual forest categories (larch and stone pine, Norway spruce, other coniferous, beech, temperate oaks and cork oak forests) are over-represented and others (hornbeam and hophornbeam, other deciduous broadleaved and holm oak forests) are under-represented in the FCM sample. This is probably due to a change in forest cover, which has increased by 1,559,200 ha from 1985 to 2005. In case of shift from a tree-based to a plot-based selection method, 3,130 (46.7%) of the original 6,703 sample trees will be abandoned, and 1,473 new trees will be selected. The balance between exclusion of former sample trees and inclusion of new ones will be particularly unfavourable for conifers (with only 16.4% of excluded trees replaced by new ones) and less for deciduous broadleaves (with 63.5% of excluded trees replaced). The total number of tree species surveyed will not be impacted, while the number of trees per species will, and the resulting (plot-based) sample composition will have a much larger frequency of deciduous broadleaved trees. The newly selected trees have-in general-smaller diameter at breast height (DBH) and defoliation scores. Given the larger rate of turnover, the deciduous broadleaved part of the sample will be more impacted. Our results suggest that both a revision of FCM network to account for forest area change and a plot-based approach to permit statistical inference and avoid bias in the tree sample

  12. Selective Synthesis of Gasoline-Ranged Hydrocarbons from Syngas over Hybrid Catalyst Consisting of Metal-Loaded ZSM-5 Coupled with Copper-Zinc Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Ma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The conversion of syngas (CO + H2 to gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons was carried out using a hybrid catalyst consisting of metal-loaded ZSM-5 coupled with Cu-ZnO in a near-critical n-hexane solvent. Methanol was synthesized from syngas over Cu-ZnO; subsequently, was converted to hydrocarbons through the formation of dimethyl ether (DME over the metal-loaded ZSM-5. When 0.5 wt% Pd/ZSM-5 and 5 wt% Cu/ZSM-5 among the metal-loaded ZSM-5 catalysts with Pd, Co, Fe or Cu were employed as a portion of the hybrid catalyst, the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons were selectively produced (the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons in all hydrocarbons: 59% for the hybrid catalyst with Pd/ZSM-5 and 64% for that with Cu/ZSM-5 with a similar CO conversion during the reaction. An increase in the Cu loading on ZSM-5 resulted in increasing the yield of the gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons, and in decreasing the yield of DME. Furthermore, the hybrid catalyst with Cu/ZSM-5 exhibited no deactivation for 30 h of the reaction. It was revealed that a hybrid catalyst containing Cu/ZSM-5 was efficient in the selective synthesis of gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons from syngas via methanol in the near-critical n-hexane fluid.

  13. African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teeken, B.W.E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Teeken B (2015). African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivation in the Togo Hills: ecological and socio-cultural cues in farmer seed selection and development. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 306 pp. The low adoption rates of

  14. The Ecology of Antibiotic Use in the ICU: Homogeneous Prescribing of Cefepime but Not Tazocin Selects for Antibiotic Resistant Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginn, Andrew N.; Wiklendt, Agnieszka M.; Gidding, Heather F.; George, Narelle; O’Driscoll, James S.; Partridge, Sally R.; O’Toole, Brian I.; Perri, Rita A.; Faoagali, Joan; Gallagher, John E.; Lipman, Jeffrey; Iredell, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Antibiotic homogeneity is thought to drive resistance but in vivo data are lacking. In this study, we determined the impact of antibiotic homogeneity per se, and of cefepime versus antipseudomonal penicillin/β-lactamase inhibitor combinations (APP-β), on the likelihood of infection or colonisation with antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or two commonly resistant nosocomial pathogens (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). A secondary question was whether antibiotic cycling was associated with adverse outcomes including mortality, length of stay, and antibiotic resistance. Methods We evaluated clinical and microbiological outcomes in two similar metropolitan ICUs, which both alternated cefepime with APP-β in four-month cycles. All microbiological isolates and commensal samples were analysed for the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including MRSA and P. aeruginosa. Results Length of stay, mortality and overall antibiotic resistance were unchanged after sixteen months. However, increased colonisation and infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria were observed in cefepime cycles, returning to baseline in APP-β cycles. Cefepime was the strongest risk factor for acquisition of antibiotic-resistant infection. Conclusions Ecological effects of different β-lactam antibiotics may be more important than specific activity against the causative agents or the effect of antibiotic homogeneity in selection for antibiotic resistance. This has important implications for antibiotic policy. PMID:22761698

  15. Foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of the otter Lutra lutra: a selective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Carss

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper reviews literature on food, foraging behaviour and feeding ecology of Lutra lutra and on the behaviour of their prey species. Otters have a diverse diet, forage in a wide variety of different habitats and have a relatively complex social system. Similarly, their strategies for obtaining food are complex and varied. Three aspects of foraging behaviour (i, ii, iii and two of feeding ecology (iv, v are discussed: i adaptations and ontogeny, ii energetics and food-limitation, iii human disturbance, and periods of prey vulnerability, iv assessing diet, and v changes in prey vulnerability and selection. The review has three main aims: (a to summarize some recent advances in research, (b to highlight gaps in current knowledge, and (c to suggest some areas of future research. The need for such a review arises from a necessity to direct further research effort towards carnivore predator-prey relationships in general, and those of otters in particular, and also to meet demands for conservation management. Riassunto Foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra: un'analisi selettiva della letteratura disponibile - Questo lavoro prende in esame la letteratura riguardante dieta, foraggiamento ed ecologia alimentare della lontra Lutra lutra e il comportamento delle sue prede. La lontra ha una dieta varia, ricerca il cibo in un'ampia gamma di ambienti e ha un'organizzazione sociale relativamentc complessa. Similarmente, le sue strategie di ricerca del cibo sono complesse e varie. Tre aspetti del foraggiamento (i, ii, iii e due di ecologia alimentare (iv, v sono qui discussi: i adattamenti e ontogenesi, ii richiesta energetica e fattori limitanti la disponibilità di cibo, iii disturbo antropico e periodi di vulnerabilità delle prede, iv analisi della dieta, e v cambiamenti nella vulnerabilità delle prede e selezione. Il presente lavoro ha tre

  16. 机会(r-选择)和均衡(K-选择)遗迹化石的 现代生态学解释%MODERN ECOLOGICAL INTERPRETATION OF OPPORTUNISTIC (R-SELECTED) AND EQUILIBRIUM (K-SELECTED) TRACE FOSSILS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    consisting of Palaeodictyon, Desrnograpton , Cosrnorhaphe , Spirohaphe , Nereties and regular Scolicia and the post-turbidite opportunistic (r-selected) trace fossils consisting of Granularia, Phycosiphon and irregular Scolisia. The trace fossil assemblages in the terrigenous tem pestites of the Upper Cretaceous Cardium Formation are described by Pemberton et al. (Pemberton and Frey, 1984; Pemberton et al., 1992; Pemberton et al. in press). The opportunistic (r-selected) trace fossils consisting of Skolithos ichnofacies members in clude Arenicolites , Diplocraterion , Ophiomorpha , Palaeophycus and Skolithos. The equilibrium (K slected) trace fossils consisting of Cruziana ichnofa cies members include Anconichnus, Asterosoma, Chondrites , Helminthopsis , Palaeophycus , Plano lites, Rosselia, Teichichnus, Terebellina and Tha lassinoides. The trace fossil assemblages in the storm influenced carbonate deposits found in the Gushan Formation of the Upper Cambrian from eastern North China Platform are somewhat similar to those men tioned above in the Cardium Formation. The pre storm equilibrium ( K-selected ) trace fossils Phy codes, Thalassinoides , Palaeophycus and Planolites are composed of Cruziana ichnofacies memebers. The post-storm opportunistic (r-selected) trace fossils Diplocraterion, Arenicolites and Skolithos are com posed of Skolithos ichnofacies members ( Zhou Zhicheng et al. , in press). The characteristics of an opportunistic body fossil assemblage were summarized by Pemberton and Frey (1984) as (1) of limited aerial distribution (Waage, 1968); (2) occurring in a continuous, thin iso choronous horizon (Waage, 1968); (3) abundant in several otherwise distinct faunal assemblages (Levin ton, 1970);(4) having great abundance in a facies with which it is not generally associated (Levinton, 1970); and (5) numerical domination of one species within the fossil assemblage (Levinton, 1970). In recent ecological studies of benthic organisms, equilibrium (K-selected) species

  17. Ecological model of extinctions

    CERN Document Server

    Abramson, G

    1997-01-01

    We present numerical results based on a simplified ecological system in evolution, showing features of extinction similar to that claimed for the biosystem on Earth. In the model each species consists of a population in interaction with the others, that reproduces and evolves in time. Each species is simultaneously a predator and a prey in a food chain. Mutations that change the interactions are supposed to occur randomly at a low rate. Extinctions of populations result naturally from the predator-prey dynamics. The model is not pinned in a fitness variable, and natural selection arises from the dynamics.

  18. Top management team composition and organizational ecology : A nested hierarchical selection theory of team reproduction and organizational diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, Christophe; Wezel, Filippo C.; van Witteloostuijn, Arjen; Baum, JAC; Dobrev, SD; VanWitteloostuijn, A

    2006-01-01

    The "upper echelon" literature has mainly produced static empirical studies on the impact of top management team composition on organizational outcomes, ignoring the dynamics of industrial demography. Organizational ecology explicitly studied the dynamics of organizational diversity at the populatio

  19. Frequency-dependent sexual selection with respect to offspring fitness returns is consistent with predictions from rock-paper-scissors dynamics in the European common lizard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S. Fitze

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphism can be maintained over time by negative frequency-dependent (FD selection induced by Rock-paper-scissors (RPS social systems. RPS games produce cyclic dynamics, and have been suggested to exist in lizards, insects, isopods, plants, and bacteria. Sexual selection is predicted to accentuate the survival of the future progeny during negative FD survival selection. More specifically, females are predicted to select mates that produce progeny genotypes that exhibit highest survival during survival selection imposed by adult males. However, no empirical evidence demonstrates the existence of FD sexual selection with respect to fitness payoffs of genetic polymorphisms. Here we tested this prediction using the common lizard Zootoca vivipara, a species with three male color morphs (orange, white, yellow that exhibit morph frequency cycles. In a first step we tested the congruence of the morph frequency change with the predicted change in three independent populations, differing in male color morph frequency and state of the FD morph cycle. Thereafter we ran standardized sexual selection assays in which we excluded alternative mechanisms that potentially induce negative FD selection, and we quantified inter-sexual behavior. The patterns of sexual selection and the observed behavior were in line with context-dependent female mate choice and male behavior played a minor role. Moreover, the strength of the sexual selection was within the magnitude of selection required to produce the observed 3-4-year and 6-8 year morph frequency cycles at low and high altitudes, respectively. In summary, the study provides the first experimental evidence that underpins the crucial assumption of the RPS games suggested to exist in lizards, insects, isopods, and plants; namely, that sexual selection produces negative-FD selection. This indicates that sexual selection, in our study exert by females, might be a crucial driver of the maintenance of genetic

  20. Livelihood Selection and Risk Reduction Strategies for Herdsmen in Ecological Migration Project Based on the Survey of 3 Migrant Villages in S Banner of Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gui-ying

    2012-01-01

    Through the survey of 3 different grassland migrant villages in S Banner,the author studied the influence of ecological migration policies on migrants,and analyzed livelihood selection and adaptation of migrants in the new environment.Finally,the author put forward corresponding countermeasures,including migration without forbidding grazing,turn to the secondary and tertiary industry,and return to animal husbandry.

  1. Ecological epigenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L

    2014-01-01

    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  2. An evaluation of selected ecological benefits of forest stands under acid stress based on biogeochemical processes in a catchment in Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.

    2011-12-01

    Based on nutrient biogeochemical cycles between soil, plants and the atmosphere, four ecological functions and values of forest stands under acid stress in a small catchment in Southwestern China are evaluated in this work: nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, erosion control and water conservation. Integrated remote sensing Landsat-5 TM spectral data and field measurements of acid deposition are applied to simulate the temporal and spatial distributions of soil acidification and nutrient cycling for a small catchment with various types of vegetations in Southwestern China, using the Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments (MAGIC) coupled with a soil water balance module and a vegetation growth model. The major cations in the soil solution, the net primary productivity, the soil conservation and the rainfall intercept are considered in the evaluation of the four selected ecological benefits of forest stands in the study area. Biogeochemical processes including deposition, nitrification, weathering, mineralization, uptake, allocation and litterfall are considered in the simulation. The simulation results show that the average amounts of nutrient retaining, carbon sequestration, and soil and water conservation were 1.67 t/hm2, 2.96 t/hm2, 913 t/hm2 and 10000 t/hm2 respectively for the catchment during the period from April 2007 to April 2008. The ecological functions also vary with the vegetation types. The nutrient retaining amount is the highest in grassland and the mixed forest came next. The mixed forest has higher carbon sequestration amount than coniferous forest, shrubs and the grass. The coniferous forest and the shrubs have the highest soil conservation and water conservation amounts respectively. The forest ecological values for the selected four functions are also estimated by the prices of substitutes and found to be 20 times that of timber economic benefit. The forest ecological functions will change under different scenarios of acid

  3. Discussing a Selection of Ecological Monitoring Indicators%生态监测指标选择的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡俊; 沈强; 陈明秀; 池仕运; 胡菊香

    2014-01-01

    为了维持自然生态环境与人类社会协调、可持续发展,需要对生态系统的状态、演化趋势等进行生态监测。该文以水生态系统为例,从生态系统的组成、结构和功能角度出发,分析比较了不同类型的生态监测指标,提出从生态完整性角度对来描述和评估生态系统状况,开展生态监测和生态评价工作。以水源地水库生态监测为例,阐述了生物完整性指数的应用效果,表明基于生态完整性的生态监测工作是可行有效的。国内外的相关应用与研究均表明,我国推广开展基于生态完整性的生态监测评价工作是完全可行的,具有广阔的应用前景,将极大地推动我国监测工作的发展。%In order to maintain the coordinated and sustainable development of the natural environment and human society, the state of ecosystems and evolution trends for ecological need to be monitored. In this paper, we take the aquatic ecosystems as the example and make an analysis and comparison of the different types of ecological monitoring indicators from three aspects of the ecosystem composition, structure and function of the perspective. Furthermore, it is proposed to describe and evaluate the state of ecosystems to carry out ecological monitoring and ecological evaluation from the perspective of ecological integrity. In addition, we describe the application of the index of biotic integrity in the reservoir water source and the results show that the ecosystem monitoring based on the ecological integrity is feasible and effective. In short, the domestic and foreign-related applications and studies both show that the promotion of ecological integrity to carry out ecological monitoring based on the ecological integrity is entirely feasible, which will greatly promote the development of China’s monitoring.

  4. [Ecology and ecologies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Luca

    2011-01-01

    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  5. High SNR Consistent Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Kallummil, Sreejith; Kalyani, Sheetal

    2017-01-01

    High signal to noise ratio (SNR) consistency of model selection criteria in linear regression models has attracted a lot of attention recently. However, most of the existing literature on high SNR consistency deals with model order selection. Further, the limited literature available on the high SNR consistency of subset selection procedures (SSPs) is applicable to linear regression with full rank measurement matrices only. Hence, the performance of SSPs used in underdetermined linear models ...

  6. Is the self-selected resistance exercise intensity by older women consistent with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines to improve muscular fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan M; Krause, Maressa P; Krinski, Kleverton; Alves, Ragami C; Hsin Nery Chao, Cheng; da Silva, Sergio G

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the self-selected intensity during resistance training (RT) in older women. Twenty healthy women (mean age, 65.6 years) underwent a 2-week familiarization period followed by 3 experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric measurements were taken. The second session involved completion of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test for the following exercises: chest press, leg press, lat pull-down, leg extension, lateral shoulder raise, leg curl, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown. Last, a single RT session was performed at a self-selected intensity. During the RT session, participants were instructed to self-select a load for performing 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions. Data were analyzed by mean (SD) and analysis of variance with repeated measures (p 0.05). These results indicate that inactive older women self-selected an intensity exercise during RT below the recommendation for improvements on muscle fitness in apparently healthy older adults. However, this intensity is recommended for very deconditioned individuals. Nevertheless, the use of self-selection strategy during an exercise program can have greater advantages because of its easy applicability, its positive relation with exercise adherence, and for promoting initial muscle conditioning in older adults. Furthermore, it is crucial to gradually increase the RT load to guarantee better and sustainable effects on muscle fitness. Finally, future studies are needed to establish the chronic effects of RT at self-selected intensity on muscle fitness and the functional health of older adults.

  7. Implementing Selective Waste Collection: The Articulation between Pedagogical Theory and Practice in the Pollution and Ecology Class in the Environmental Control Technical Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Giselle; Gonzalez, Wania R. Coutinho; Araujo, Flavia Monteiro de Barros

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the implementation of selective waste collection in a school located on the outskirts of the city of Rio de Janeiro. The participants consisted mainly of 64 students taking an Environmental Control technical course during 2007 and 2008. By addressing selective waste collection, the pedagogical proposal aimed at: a) enabling…

  8. Selective Synthesis of Gasoline-Ranged Hydrocarbons from Syngas over Hybrid Catalyst Consisting of Metal-Loaded ZSM-5 Coupled with Copper-Zinc Oxide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ting Ma; Hiroyuki Imai; Manami Yamawaki; Kazusa Terasaka; Xiaohong Li

    2014-01-01

      The conversion of syngas (CO + H2) to gasoline-ranged hydrocarbons was carried out using a hybrid catalyst consisting of metal-loaded ZSM-5 coupled with Cu-ZnO in a near-critical n-hexane solvent...

  9. Evidence for r- and K-selection in a wild bird population: a reciprocal link between ecology and evolution.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sæther, S.A.; Visser, M.E.; Grotan, V.; Engen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the variation in selection pressure on key life-history traits is crucial in our rapidly changing world. Density is rarely considered as a selective agent. To study its importance, we partition phenotypic selection in fluctuating environments into components representing the population

  10. Ecological speciation in marine v. freshwater fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puebla, O

    2009-10-01

    Absolute barriers to dispersal are not common in marine systems, and the prevalence of planktonic larvae in marine taxa provides potential for gene flow across large geographic distances. These observations raise the fundamental question in marine evolutionary biology as to whether geographic and oceanographic barriers alone can account for the high levels of species diversity observed in marine environments such as coral reefs, or whether marine speciation also operates in the presence of gene flow between diverging populations. In this respect, the ecological hypothesis of speciation, in which reproductive isolation results from divergent or disruptive natural selection, is of particular interest because it may operate in the presence of gene flow. Although important insights into the process of ecological speciation in aquatic environments have been provided by the study of freshwater fishes, comparatively little is known about the possibility of ecological speciation in marine teleosts. In this study, the evidence consistent with different aspects of the ecological hypothesis of speciation is evaluated in marine fishes. Molecular approaches have played a critical role in the development of speciation hypotheses in marine fishes, with a role of ecology suggested by the occurrence of sister clades separated by ecological factors, rapid cladogenesis or the persistence of genetically and ecologically differentiated species in the presence of gene flow. Yet, ecological speciation research in marine fishes is still largely at an exploratory stage. Cases where the major ingredients of ecological speciation, namely a source of natural divergent or disruptive selection, a mechanism of reproductive isolation and a link between the two have been explicitly documented are few. Even in these cases, specific predictions of the ecological hypothesis of speciation remain largely untested. Recent developments in the study of freshwater fishes illustrate the potential for

  11. Administrative Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  12. Socio-ecological studies on marine fishing villages in the selective south coastal districts of Andhra Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, M Jaya Kumar; Rao, P Brahmaji

    2016-12-01

    Coasts are an amazing gift of nature. Industrialization, infrastructure development, urbanisation, tourism, mechanized fishing, disposal of industrial and urban wastes and effluents, are all ringing the death-knell of the sensitive coastal ecosystems of recently separated State of Andhra Pradesh. These modern interventions have been violent, disregarding both nature's rejuvenating mechanisms, and the symbiotic relationship that exist between the coast and traditional marine fishing communities. Modern fishing tecnologies using mechanized trawlers and small meshed nets lead directly to overexploitation, which is not sustainable. It is evident that fish have to breed successfully and need to have time to grow if the yield has to be used sustainably. Multiple pressures and excessive technological invasion on these marine fishing villages had created an environment in which life has become physically and mentally unhealthy. The focus of this paper is to emphasize that investing in large-scale industrial fishing, building bigger boats, and giving subsidies for pursuing deep sea fishing would be a waste of resources as the fish hauls in these selelctive districts i.e. Krishna, Guntur, Prakasam and Nellore coastal communities have dropped off alarmingly in recent years. It is essential and crucial to focus research and scientific analysis and establish awareness and education to provide a means of distinguishing responses between improvements in quality of ecosystem and those of damages. The study is to elaborate that long-term ecological gains cannot be sacrificed for short-term economic gains that unfortunately lead to environmental damage. Investigating coastal regulations, policies, and their implementation is an urgent social need for the sake of socio-ecological safety and security of coasts and host communities.

  13. Ecological Schoolyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danks, Sharon Gamson

    2000-01-01

    Presents design guidelines and organizational and site principles for creating schoolyards where students can learn about ecology. Principles for building schoolyard ecological systems are described. (GR)

  14. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis of Surface Modification Consisting of Addition of Alluvium (Feature 23a)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to document the analysis that was conducted to evaluate the effect of a potential change to the TSPA-VA base case design that could improve long-term repository performance. The design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the topographic surface of Yucca Mountain. The modification consists of covering the land surface immediately above the repository foot-print with a thick layer of unconsolidated material utilizing rip-rap and plants to mitigate erosion. This surface modification is designated as Feature 23a or simply abbreviated as F23a. The fundamental aim of F23a is to reduce the net infiltration into the unsaturated zone by enhancing the potential for evapotranspiratiration at the surface; such a change would, in turn, reduce the seepage flux and the rate of radionuclide releases from the repository. Field and modeling studies of water movement in the unsaturated zone have indicated that shallow infiltration at the surface is almost negligible in locations where the bedrock is covered by a sufficiently thick soil layer. In addition to providing storage for meteoric water, a thick soil layer would slow the downward movement of soil moisture to such an extent that evaporation and transpiration could easily transfer most of the soil-water back to the atmosphere. Generic requirements for the effectiveness of this design feature are two-fold. First, the soil layer above the repository foot-print must be thick enough to provide sufficient storage of meteoric water (from episodic precipitation events) and accommodate plant roots. Second, the added soil layer must be engineered so as to mitigate thinning by erosional processes and have sufficient thickness to accommodate the roots of common desert plants. Under these two conditions, it is reasonable to expect that modification would be effective for a significant time period and the net infiltration and deep percolation flux would be reduced by orders of magnitude lower

  15. Thermal ecology and habitat selection of two cryptic skinks (Scincidae: Emoia cyanura, E. impar) on Mo'orea, French Polynesia

    OpenAIRE

    McElroy, Matt T

    2007-01-01

    I studied the habitat selection and thermal biology of two cryptic South Pacific skinks (Emoia cyanura and Emoia impar) in order to determine whether or not differences in thermal preference affect habitat partitioning. I measured sun exposure and thermal characteristics of microhabitats selected by each skink, and then quantified preferred substrate temperatures and preferred body temperatures in a laboratory thermal gradient. Compared to E. impar, E. cyanura inhabited areas with open canopy...

  16. Ecology of gelatious plankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaspers, Cornelia

    exclusively of larval-sized animals that are actively reproducing and maintaining a self-sustained population. Natural selection can favor early maturation at small size when mortality rates are high, and our results are consistent with this hypothesis. Currently, M. leidyi has established itself permanently...... as a result of this invasion and its ecological and economic impacts. In 2005, when M. leidyi was sighted in Northern Europe for the first time, similar consequences were feared. The aim of my PhD project was to understand the potential impact of M. leidyi on the Baltic Sea ecosystem and constrains on its...... to June in high saline areas, M. leidyi larvae were present throughout the year. It remains unclear where M. leidyi overwinters but high saline areas appear to be important in the annual establishment of the population. Laboratory and in situ reproduction experiments confirmed that fecundity is a major...

  17. Polyphasic characterization of 10 selected ecologically relevant filamentous cyanobacterial strains from the South Shetland Islands, Maritime Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancusova, Miroslava; Kovacik, Lubomir; Pereira, Antonio Batista; Dusinsky, Roman; Wilmotte, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 10 Antarctic cyanobacterial strains of the order Oscillatoriales isolated from King George and Deception Islands, South Shetland Islands were studied by a polyphasic approach (morphology, 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer sequences). The studied taxa are characteristic of coastal Antarctic biotopes, where they form distinct populations and ecologically delimited communities. They were isolated from terrestrial habitats: microbial mats in seepages; crusts on soil, rocks, bones and mosses; mud, sometimes close to bird colonies; and from guano. Based on major phenotypic features, the strains were divided into four distinct morphotypes: Leptolyngbya borchgrevinkii (A), Leptolyngbya frigida (B), Microcoleus sp. (C) and Wilmottia murrayi (D). This morphological identification was in agreement with the phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, the 16S rRNA gene sequence of a strain corresponding to the L. borchgrevinkii morphotype was determined. Morphotype B is most related to sequences assigned to L. frigida isolated from microbial mats of coastal lakes in East Antarctica. Morphotype C belongs to a cluster including strains with morphotypes corresponding to Microcoleus attenuatus, Microcoleus favosus and Microcoleus sp., which are from Antarctica and other continents. Morphotype D is grouped with sequences assigned to W. murrayi mostly isolated from Antarctica.

  18. An exposure-based, ecology-driven framework for selection of indicator species for insecticide risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the current “tiered” paradigm for evaluating risks of insecticidal products, one of the first decisions that must be made is the selection of indicator species to be used in toxicity assays. However, as yet, no formal system has been developed to determine whether proposed indicator species are r...

  19. Consistent quantum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  20. Microconchids from microbialite ecosystem immediately after end-Permian mass extinction: ecologic selectivity and implications for microbialite ecosystem structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H.; Chen, Z.; Wang, Y. B.; Ou, W.; Liao, W.; Mei, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Permian-Triassic (P-Tr) carbonate successions are often characterized by the presence of microbialite buildups worldwide. The widespread microbialites are believed as indication of microbial proliferation immediately after the P-Tr mass extinction. The death of animals representing the primary consumer trophic structure of marine ecosystem in the P-Tr crisis allows the bloom of microbes as an important primary producer in marine trophic food web structure. Thus, the PTB microbialite builders have been regarded as disaster taxa of the P-Tr ecologic crisis. Microbialite ecosystems were suitable for most organisms to inhabit. However, increasing evidence show that microbialite dwellers are also considerably abundant and diverse, including mainly foraminifers Earlandia sp. and Rectocornuspira sp., lingulid brachiopods, ostrocods, gastropods, and microconchids. In particular, ostracods are extremely abundant in this special ecosystem. Microconchid-like calcareous tubes are also considerably abundant. Here, we have sampled systematically a PTB microbialite deposit from the Dajiang section, southern Guizhou Province, southwest China and have extracted abundant isolated specimens of calcareous worm tubes. Quantitative analysis enables to investigate stratigraphic and facies preferences of microconchids in the PTB microbialites. Our preliminary result indicates that three microconchid species Microconchus sp., Helicoconchus elongates and Microconchus aberrans inhabited in microbialite ecosystem. Most microconchilds occurred in the upper part of the microbialite buildup and the grainstone-packstone microfacies. Very few microconchilds were found in the rocks bearing well-developed microbialite structures. Their stratigraphic and environmental preferences indicate proliferation of those metazoan organisms is coupled with ebb of the microbialite development. They also proliferated in some local niches in which microbial activities were not very active even if those

  1. Studies on Colombian cryptogams. IIB. Hepaticae – Oil body structure and ecological distribution of selected species of tropical Andean Jungermanniales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gradstein, S.R.; Cleef, A.M.; Fulford, M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Oil bodies 7-12 in upper leaf cells, 10-20 in elongated basal leaf cells; globose to ellipsoid, 3-7(-10)x3-5 μm; colourless, coarsely segmented, consisting of c. 15-30 aggregated droplets (Colombia, Boyacá, páramos NW of Belén, Cabeceras Q. El Toral, 3765 m, Cleef 2292e; Ecuador, páramos de El Angel

  2. Ecology of the Awa people: Historical context, tree knowledge, fuelwood selection and land-use in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark Kroepsch

    Multidisciplinary research was conducted with the Awa people of northern Ecuador. The Awa only immigrated into northern Ecuador from Colombia over the last century. The author researched theories surrounding the origins of the Awa people, and proposes a new theory surrounding their survival and adaptations as a people. Because of their recent arrival into what was reportedly an unoccupied and unmodified region, the Awa represent a unique opportunity to study land use practices of an indigenous group posed with what began as an unlimited but challenging habitat to exploit. Research was conducted on land use decisions made by the Awa regarding land and resource partitioning and placement relative to houses. Further land use research analyzed snapshot changes in the quantity of forest and agriculture over a 13 year period. The selection and harvesting of trees for the purpose of fuelwood and construction was compared with tree abundance, fuelwood quality (using a newly developed metric), wood splitting effort, and the difficulty of tree identification. Their observed selection was determined by woodpile composition, and was compared to an expected selection based on optimal foraging. Further research was conducted on the distribution of tree-identification knowledge. Three non-exclusive conceptual models of how knowledge is distributed within the population are tested (sub-divided, nested subsets, and centrifugal).

  3. 基于生态文明建设的生态道德培育路径选择%Selection of Ecological Moral Cultivation Path Based on the Construction of Ecological Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪玉梅

    2012-01-01

    Ecological moral ethics takes the regression between man and nature as a logical starting point and is the sum of the moral consciousness, norms and behavior to protect the ecological balance and to achieve ecologically sustainable development. It determines the moral obligation human beings and all other creatures fulfill on the natural environment. And it makes it all the more significant to strengthen ecological and moral cultivation in the post-industrial era. This paper first elucidates the theoretical basis of ecological ethics, including the ecological values of ecological ethics, ecological compensation concept, eco-development concept, the concept of ecological consumption and eco-fair concept. And it also analyzes the ethical basis to use ecological ethics to enhance the human ecological consciousness and to drive humans to protect the ecological balance and the sustainable development of ecology. Finally, it seeks to explore the moral cultivation path of ecological morals.%生态道德是以人与自然的伦理回归为逻辑起点,是保护生态平衡和实现生态可持续发展的道德意识、规范和行为的总和,它决定人类对自然环境和一切生物应承担的道德义务,也使加强生态道德培育具有了后工业化时代的广泛意义。本文首先阐述了生态道德的理论基础,包括生态道德的生态价值观、生态补偿观、生态发展观、生态消费观和生态公平观,然后对生态道德作为提高人类的生态觉悟、促使人类保护生态平衡和生态可持续发展的伦理基础进行了分析,最后,尝试探索出生态道德的培育路径。

  4. Ecological niche modeling in Maxent: the importance of model complexity and the performance of model selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Dan L; Seifert, Stephanie N

    2011-03-01

    Maxent, one of the most commonly used methods for inferring species distributions and environmental tolerances from occurrence data, allows users to fit models of arbitrary complexity. Model complexity is typically constrained via a process known as L1 regularization, but at present little guidance is available for setting the appropriate level of regularization, and the effects of inappropriately complex or simple models are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate the use of information criterion approaches to setting regularization in Maxent, and we compare models selected using information criteria to models selected using other criteria that are common in the literature. We evaluate model performance using occurrence data generated from a known "true" initial Maxent model, using several different metrics for model quality and transferability. We demonstrate that models that are inappropriately complex or inappropriately simple show reduced ability to infer habitat quality, reduced ability to infer the relative importance of variables in constraining species' distributions, and reduced transferability to other time periods. We also demonstrate that information criteria may offer significant advantages over the methods commonly used in the literature.

  5. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker; Kube, Jan; Probst, Sandra; Brenning, Ulrich

    1999-08-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a total of 30 to 40 species of marine macrofauna. The composition of the macrobenthos differed considerably between the eulittoral sandbank, the eulittoral mudflat, the pebble beach, and the sublittoral surroundings. Most dunlins were observed foraging in flocks of up to several hundred individuals on the eulittoral flats. Densities of up to 20 to 30 foraging dunlins ha -1 occurred annually during peak migration in September and October. Macrobenthos biomass in these habitats fluctuated between 20 and 40 g AFDM m -2. The mean total food consumption of dunlins during autumn migration was estimated at 0.01 g AFDM m -2 d -1. The predation pressure could be estimated at 3 to 6% of the suitable food supply. Dunlins staging on Langenwerder were able to attain a pre-migratory mass gain of 0.2 to 0.5% of their body weight per day within an 8 to 12-h daily feeding period. The birds fed predominantly on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor by probing. They selected small 7 to 31-mm-long individuals. When water levels were high, and the eulittoral flats inundated, many dunlins switched to foraging along the shorelines where a variety of small prey were taken from spilled macrophytes. Dunlins sometimes obviously ignored their most important food H. diversicolor, although available, by feeding on other prey such as juvenile fishes and shrimps, dipteran larvae or spilled amphipods. When feeding on amphipods, dunlins selected the smallest individuals.

  6. Selection of metrics based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and development of a biotic index (CYMOX) for assessing ecological status of coastal and transitional waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Mascaró, Oriol; Llagostera, Izaskun; Pérez, Marta; Romero, Javier

    2012-12-01

    Bioindicators, based on a large variety of organisms, have been increasingly used in the assessment of the status of aquatic systems. In marine coastal waters, seagrasses have shown a great potential as bioindicator organisms, probably due to both their environmental sensitivity and the large amount of knowledge available. However, and as far as we are aware, only little attention has been paid to euryhaline species suitable for biomonitoring both transitional and marine waters. With the aim to contribute to this expanding field, and provide new and useful tools for managers, we develop here a multi-bioindicator index based on the seagrass Cymodocea nodosa. We first compiled from the literature a suite of 54 candidate metrics, i. e. measurable attribute of the concerned organism or community that adequately reflects properties of the environment, obtained from C. nodosa and its associated ecosystem, putatively responding to environmental deterioration. We then evaluated them empirically, obtaining a complete dataset on these metrics along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance. Using this dataset, we selected the metrics to construct the index, using, successively: (i) ANOVA, to assess their capacity to discriminate among sites of different environmental conditions; (ii) PCA, to check the existence of a common pattern among the metrics reflecting the environmental gradient; and (iii) feasibility and cost-effectiveness criteria. Finally, 10 metrics (out of the 54 tested) encompassing from the physiological (δ15N, δ34S, % N, % P content of rhizomes), through the individual (shoot size) and the population (root weight ratio), to the community (epiphytes load) organisation levels, and some metallic pollution descriptors (Cd, Cu and Zn content of rhizomes) were retained and integrated into a single index (CYMOX) using the scores of the sites on the first axis of a PCA. These scores were reduced to a 0-1 (Ecological Quality Ratio) scale by referring the values to the

  7. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  8. Linking mesohabitat selection and ecological traits of a fish assemblage in a small tropical stream (Tinggi River, Pahang Basin) of the Malay Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kano, Yuichi; Miyazaki, Yusuke; Tomiyama, Yuta; Mitsuyuki, Chika; Nishida, Shin; Rashid, Zulkafli A

    2013-03-01

    Mesohabitat selection in fluvial fishes was studied in a small tropical stream of the Malay Peninsula. A total of 681 individuals representing 24 species were sampled at 45 stations within heterogeneous stream (ca. 1 km in length), in which water depth, water velocity, substrate size, and riparian canopy cover were measured as environmental variables. A canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) yielded a diagram that shows a specific mesohabitat selection of the fish assemblage, in which the species were plotted widely on the CCA1-CCA2 biplot. Generalized linear model also revealed a significant pattern of the mesohabitat selection of several species. Water velocity and substrate size mainly separated on CCA1, indicating variation of pool (deep, slow-flow section) and riffle (shallow, fast-flow section) structures is a primary factor of mesohabitat selection in the fluvial fish assemblage. The mean body weight of species significantly correlated with CCA1; larger species tended to inhabit pools, while small ones occupied riffles. The riparian canopy cover separated on CCA2. The trophic level of species significantly correlated with CCA2; herbivorous species (low trophic level) selected open sites without riparian cover, whereas omnivorous/carnivorous (middle-high trophic level) species preferred highly covered sites. In conclusion, our results suggest that mesohabitat selection is closely related to the species feeding habit, which is consistent with the results of previous studies.

  9. Selection of high temperatures for hibernation by the pocket mouse, Perognathus longimembris: ecological advantages and energetic consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, A.R.

    Daily metabolism was calculated from food consumption in pocket mice, Perognathus longimembris, at 8/sup 0/C, 18/sup 0/C, and 31/sup 0/C. At temperatures below thermal neutrality for this species, daily metabolism was related to the amount of time the mice spent in torpor. Ambient temperature has no net effect on the minimum energy expenditure during a typical 5-mo hibernation season. Once an animal has accumulated a food store of approximately 130 g of millet seeds, it has the minimum energy necessary to hibernate at any environmental temperature. Such temperature compensation results from the complex effects of temperature on (1) the ratio of time of euthermy to time of torpor, (2) the energetic cost per hour of torpor, (3) the energetic cost per hour of euthermy, and (4) the energetic cost of arousal from torpor. The amount of time spent in torpor was inversely dependent on the food supply, indicating that euthermia is preferred even during the hibernation season. Mice also maximize the time of euthermia by selecting high environmental temperatures at all times of the year. Torpor probably occurs naturally only during the winter when the highest temperatures available to the mice are below thermal neutrality. The maximization of the time of euthermia reduces the chances of freezing during hibernation and enhances the animal's ability to excape from predators.

  10. Determination of Baseline Periods of Record for Selected Streamflow-Gaging Stations in New Jersey for Determining Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Baker, Ronald J.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrologic changes in New Jersey stream basins resulting from human activity can affect the flow and ecology of the streams. To assess future changes in streamflow resulting from human activity an understanding of the natural variability of streamflow is needed. The natural variability can be classified using Ecologically Relevant Hydrologic Indices (ERHIs). ERHIs are defined as selected streamflow statistics that characterize elements of the flow regime that substantially affect biological health and ecological sustainability. ERHIs are used to quantitatively characterize aspects of the streamflow regime, including magnitude, duration, frequency, timing, and rate of change. Changes in ERHI values can occur as a result of human activity, and changes in ERHIs over time at various stream locations can provide information about the degree of alteration in aquatic ecosystems at or near those locations. New Jersey streams can be divided into four classes (A, B, C, or D), where streams with similar ERHI values (determined from cluster analysis) are assigned the same stream class. In order to detect and quantify changes in ERHIs at selected streamflow-gaging stations, a 'baseline' period is needed. Ideally, a baseline period is a period of continuous daily streamflow record at a gaging station where human activity along the contributing stream reach or in the stream's basin is minimal. Because substantial urbanization and other development had already occurred before continuous streamflow-gaging stations were installed, it is not possible to identify baseline periods that meet this criterion for many reaches in New Jersey. Therefore, the baseline period for a considerably altered basin can be defined as a period prior to a substantial human-induced change in the drainage basin or stream reach (such as regulations or diversions), or a period during which development did not change substantially. Index stations (stations with minimal urbanization) were defined as streamflow

  11. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  12. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota.

  13. The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Duncan S; Ollis, Stewart; Thomas, Non E; Baker, Julien S

    2010-01-08

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality throughout the world. With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, it is unsurprising that research into obesity prevalence within school aged youth is burgeoning. Within this study our primary objective will be to examine whether high intensity interval training (HIT) improves the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents. Our secondary objective will be to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors and examine factors associated with these in adolescents aged 15-18 years. A South Lanarkshire school of low socioeconomic status (SES) was selected to participate in the study intervention. Participants from secondary 5 (15-17 years) and 6 (16-18 years) will be recruited for this study. Participants from secondary 6 will be randomly assigned to Group A (HIT) or Group B (moderate-vigorous) and will perform each protocol three times weekly. The secondary 5 participants will act as the control group. Data collection will take place during the Physical Education (PE) lessons and on school premises and will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at two sites), physiological responses (blood pressure, aerobic fitness, heart rate (HR) response, vertical jump performance, 10-metre (m) sprint, 50-m sprint and 505-agility test), diet (self-reported seven-day food diary), physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A)) and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fibrinogen (Fg), interleukin-6 (IL-6), adiponectin (high molecular weight), triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). An environmental audit of the secondary school and the health related quality of life (HRQOL) of the participants will also be measured. Finally, all exercise sessions will be video recorded and

  14. The influence of a high intensity physical activity intervention on a selection of health related outcomes: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Non E

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the main cause of mortality throughout the world. With accumulating evidence suggesting that CVD has its origins in childhood, it is unsurprising that research into obesity prevalence within school aged youth is burgeoning. Within this study our primary objective will be to examine whether high intensity interval training (HIT improves the CVD risk profile of secondary school aged adolescents. Our secondary objective will be to identify the prevalence of CVD risk factors and examine factors associated with these in adolescents aged 15 - 18 years. Method/Design A South Lanarkshire school of low socioeconomic status (SES was selected to participate in the study intervention. Participants from secondary 5 (15 - 17 years and 6 (16 - 18 years will be recruited for this study. Participants from secondary 6 will be randomly assigned to Group A (HIT or Group B (moderate-vigorous and will perform each protocol three times weekly. The secondary 5 participants will act as the control group. Data collection will take place during the Physical Education (PE lessons and on school premises and will include: anthropometrical variables (height, weight, waist and hip circumferences, skinfold thickness at two sites, physiological responses (blood pressure, aerobic fitness, heart rate (HR response, vertical jump performance, 10-metre (m sprint, 50-m sprint and 505-agility test, diet (self-reported seven-day food diary, physical activity (Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A and blood tests (fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen (Fg, interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin (high molecular weight, triglyceride and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1. An environmental audit of the secondary school and the health related quality of life (HRQOL of the participants will also be measured. Finally, all exercise

  15. Chip Multithreaded Consistency Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zu-Song Li; Dan-Dan Huan; Wei-Wu Hu; Zhi-Min Tang

    2008-01-01

    Multithreaded technique is the developing trend of high performance processor. Memory consistency model is essential to the correctness, performance and complexity of multithreaded processor. The chip multithreaded consistency model adapting to multithreaded processor is proposed in this paper. The restriction imposed on memory event ordering by chip multithreaded consistency is presented and formalized. With the idea of critical cycle built by Wei-Wu Hu, we prove that the proposed chip multithreaded consistency model satisfies the criterion of correct execution of sequential consistency model. Chip multithreaded consistency model provides a way of achieving high performance compared with sequential consistency model and ensures the compatibility of software that the execution result in multithreaded processor is the same as the execution result in uniprocessor. The implementation strategy of chip multithreaded consistency model in Godson-2 SMT processor is also proposed. Godson-2 SMT processor supports chip multithreaded consistency model correctly by exception scheme based on the sequential memory access queue of each thread.

  16. International aspect of ecological innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkola Viktoriya Yurіyivna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the international aspect of ecological innovations. Today one of the most significant factors to achieve sustainable development in Ukraine is to activate the ecologically oriented innovative activity. This requires new approaches creation for the innovative processes management system at different economic levels. Ecological or “green” start-ups consist in realization of ideas by non-typical way, how it is possible to save ecology and to gain material benefits. All win in business-model of the similar projects: governments save on waste disposal, citizens are awarded for ecological way of life, and sponsors realize social responsibility.

  17. Path Selection of Ecological Security Legislation in China%我国生态安全立法的路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玲

    2014-01-01

    The related concepts of ecological security and environmental protection, ecological destruction and ecological risk need to be discriminated in order to define the concept of ecological security : protecting ecological safety and environmental protection are not the same concepts; The regulating object of ecological security legislation not only aimed at the act of ecological destruction;The way of realizing ecological security is the effective control of ecological risk. Compared with other value goal of law, ecological security is the"basic security"of society and thus become the basic value of legal order. The realistic path choices of our country's ecological security legislation are as following:. incorporating protecting ecological safety into environmental law system to form a new concept, Giving the public right of ecological security as the breakthrough point, confirming the substantive power of ecological security; giving citizens procedural power, to know participate in and claim for ecological security; providing comprehensive protection and institutionalization of relief for ecological security interests of the public.%界定生态安全的概念需要将生态安全与环境保护、生态破坏、生态风险等相关概念进行甄别:保障生态安全与环境保护并非同一概念,生态安全立法规制的对象不仅仅针对生态破坏行为,实现生态安全的途径是对生态风险进行有效控制。与法的其他价值目标相比,生态安全是社会的“底座安全”因而成为法秩序的基本价值追求。将保障生态安全作为一种新的理念融入环境法体系,以赋予公众生态安全权为突破口,确认生态安全的实体性权能并落实公民的生态安全知情权、生态安全管理参与权、生态安全请求权等程序性权能,对公众的生态安全利益提供全面保护和制度化救济,是为我国生态安全立法的现实路径选择。

  18. Consistency of Random Survival Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishwaran, Hemant; Kogalur, Udaya B

    2010-07-01

    We prove uniform consistency of Random Survival Forests (RSF), a newly introduced forest ensemble learner for analysis of right-censored survival data. Consistency is proven under general splitting rules, bootstrapping, and random selection of variables-that is, under true implementation of the methodology. Under this setting we show that the forest ensemble survival function converges uniformly to the true population survival function. To prove this result we make one key assumption regarding the feature space: we assume that all variables are factors. Doing so ensures that the feature space has finite cardinality and enables us to exploit counting process theory and the uniform consistency of the Kaplan-Meier survival function.

  19. 河道植被驳岸筛选及其生态效应分析%Selection and Ecological Effect Analysis of Vegetation Riverbanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范洁群; 宋祥甫; 邹国燕; 付子轼; 吴淑杭; 潘琦

    2011-01-01

    为了筛选出护坡效果良好,且具有较好生态效益的河道植被,在模拟农村驳岸上种植马蹄金、美人蕉、杞柳3种植被,对其坡面界面伴生植物、节肢动物、土壤微生物的种群多样性和稳定性等进行生态效应研究.结果表明:除秋季伴生植物外,春秋2季3种植物的生物量,伴生植物和节肢动物的Shannon-Weiner指数和均匀度指数均为:马蹄金<美人蕉<杞柳;Simpson多样性指数:马蹄金>美人蕉>杞柳.且杞柳土壤微生物的细菌总数最多,达到7.7× 108 cfu/g土,硝化菌和反硝化菌达到3.2× 106 cfu/g土以上.秋季马蹄金被加拿大一枝黄花等伴生植物所取代.可见,杞柳驳岸是生态效应最佳的植被驳岸,其次是美人蕉驳岸,而马蹄金驳岸不适合作植被驳岸.%In order to select out the effective riverbanks vegetation, ecological effect analysis of diversity and stability which of accompanying plants, arthropoda, soil microbe had been studied on the three vegetation riverbanks, where Dichonda repens, Canna indica and Salix Integra were planted. The results showed that, despite of accompanying plants in autumn, biomass of plants, Shannon-Weiner index and evenness index of accompanying plants and arthropoda of 3 vegetation riverbanks were Dichonda repens Canna indica~> Salix integra. Bacteria amount in Salix integra soil was most, which was 7.7×l08cfu/g soil, nitrifier and denitrifying bacterium were more than 3.2×106 cfu/g soil. In autumn, Solidgo canadensis and other accompanying plants replaced Dichonda repens. At all, Salix integra riverbank was the best vegetation riverbank according to ecological effect, following with Canna indica and Dichonda repens was unsuitable for riverbank vegetation.

  20. Consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  1. 生态补偿对象空间选择的研究进展及展望%The Research Advances and Perspectives of Spatial Selection of Ecological Compensation Objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴其文; 赵雪雁; 徐伟; 董霞; 白如山

    2009-01-01

    生态补偿作为一种将外在的、非市场环境服务转化为当地参与者提供生态系统服务的财政激励机制而备受世界关注.为了全面认识国际生态补偿对象空间选择的状况与成果,促进国际生态补偿对象空间选择研究的交流与合作,论文在分析国际相关理论和实践研究的基础上,概括介绍了生态补偿对象空间选择的相关概念和研究背景,对不同补偿对象选择方案进行了归纳梳理和比较分析,简要介绍了得分函数法、距离函数法和GAP分析法等研究方法,比较分析了研究方法的优缺点,最后提出了思考和展望:选择方案的设计既要注重资金效益,又要兼顾公平;努力建立生态补偿效果的评价机制,逐步完善生态补偿对象选择方案,健全生态补偿机制.%Ecological compensation have attracted increasing interest as a mechanism to transform external, non-market values of the environment into real financial incentives for local actors to provide environmental services. Based on the analysis of international theory and practice, this paper firstly introduces summarily the background and some related concepts of spatial selection of ecological compensation objects, analyzes the necessity of spatial selection from spatial heterogeneity of ecosystem service, destroy risk of ecosystem and participation costs and capital efficiency of ecological compensation. The research of spatial selection of ecological compensation objects has experienced the development process from a single goal and a single criterion to multi-objectives and multi-criteria. Secondly, in accordance with the summarization and comparison of the four selected criterions of ecological compensation objects, it finds out that except the flat payment , the others select sites with the highest ratio of total environment benefits to total cost, the standard of compensation increases from opportunity costs to participation costs (the sum of

  2. Parallel Ecological Speciation in Plants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine L. Ostevik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Populations that have independently evolved reproductive isolation from their ancestors while remaining reproductively cohesive have undergone parallel speciation. A specific type of parallel speciation, known as parallel ecological speciation, is one of several forms of evidence for ecology's role in speciation. In this paper we search the literature for candidate examples of parallel ecological speciation in plants. We use four explicit criteria (independence, isolation, compatibility, and selection to judge the strength of evidence for each potential case. We find that evidence for parallel ecological speciation in plants is unexpectedly scarce, especially relative to the many well-characterized systems in animals. This does not imply that ecological speciation is uncommon in plants. It only implies that evidence from parallel ecological speciation is rare. Potential explanations for the lack of convincing examples include a lack of rigorous testing and the possibility that plants are less prone to parallel ecological speciation than animals.

  3. No consistent bimetric gravity?

    CERN Document Server

    Deser, S; Waldron, A

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for a consistent, nonlinear, partially massless (PM), gauge symmetry of bimetric gravity (BMG). Just as for single metric massive gravity, ultimate consistency of both BMG and the putative PM BMG theory relies crucially on this gauge symmetry. We argue, however, that it does not exist.

  4. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  5. A process for selecting ecological indicators for application in monitoring impacts to Air Quality Related Values (AQRVs) from atmospheric pollutants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, G.J.; Breckenridge, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Section 160 of the Clean Air Act (CAA) calls for measures be taken {open_quotes}to preserve, protect, and enhance air quality in national parks, national wilderness areas, national monuments, national seashores, and other areas of special national or regional natural, recreational, scenic, or historic value.{close_quotes} Pursuant to this, stringent requirement have been established for {open_quotes}Class I{close_quotes} areas, which include most National Parks and Wilderness Areas. Federal Land Managers (FLMs) are charged with the task of carrying out these requirements through the identification of air quality related values (AQRVs) that are potentially at risk from atmospheric pollutants. This is a complex task, the success of which is dependent on the gathering of information on a wide variety of factors that contribute to the potential for impacting resources in Class I areas. Further complicating the issue is the diversity of ecological systems found in Class I areas. There is a critical need for the development of monitoring programs to assess the status of AQRVs in Class I areas with respect to impacts caused by atmospheric pollutants. These monitoring programs must be based on the measurement of a carefully selected suite of key physical, chemical, and biological parameters that serve as indicators of the status of the ecosystems found in Class I areas. Such programs must be both scientifically-based and cost-effective, and must provide the data necessary for FLMs to make objective, defensible decisions. This document summarizes a method for developing AQRV monitoring programs in Class I areas.

  6. Prizes for consistency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiscock, S.

    1986-07-01

    The importance of consistency in coal quality has become of increasing significance recently, with the current trend towards using coal from a range of sources. A significant development has been the swing in responsibilities for coal quality. The increasing demand for consistency in quality has led to a re-examination of where in the trade and transport chain the quality should be assessed and where further upgrading of inspection and preparation facilities are required. Changes are in progress throughout the whole coal transport chain which will improve consistency of delivered coal quality. These include installation of beneficiation plant at coal mines, export terminals, and on the premises of end users. It is suggested that one of the keys to success for the coal industry will be the ability to provide coal of a consistent quality.

  7. Consistent sets contradict

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1996-01-01

    In the consistent histories formulation of quantum theory, the probabilistic predictions and retrodictions made from observed data depend on the choice of a consistent set. We show that this freedom allows the formalism to retrodict several contradictory propositions which correspond to orthogonal commuting projections and which all have probability one. We also show that the formalism makes contradictory probability one predictions when applied to generalised time-symmetric quantum mechanics.

  8. Ecological Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.

    2004-09-01

    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  9. Network Consistent Data Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases.

  10. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  11. Cognitive ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    2010-10-01

    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  12. Reporting consistently on CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christa; Nielsen, Anne Ellerup

    2006-01-01

    of a case study showing that companies use different and not necessarily consistent strategies for reporting on CSR. Finally, the implications for managerial practice are discussed. The chapter concludes by highlighting the value and awareness of the discourse and the discourse types adopted......This chapter first outlines theory and literature on CSR and Stakeholder Relations focusing on the different perspectives and the contextual and dynamic character of the CSR concept. CSR reporting challenges are discussed and a model of analysis is proposed. Next, our paper presents the results...... in the reporting material. By implementing consistent discourse strategies that interact according to a well-defined pattern or order, it is possible to communicate a strong social commitment on the one hand, and to take into consideration the expectations of the shareholders and the other stakeholders...

  13. A Magnetic Consistency Relation

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2012-01-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the Cosmic Microwave Background anisotropies and Large Scale Structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  14. Consistency in Distributed Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kemme, Bettina; Ramalingam, Ganesan; Schiper, André; Shapiro, Marc; Vaswani, Kapil

    2013-01-01

    International audience; In distributed systems, there exists a fundamental trade-off between data consistency, availability, and the ability to tolerate failures. This trade-off has significant implications on the design of the entire distributed computing infrastructure such as storage systems, compilers and runtimes, application development frameworks and programming languages. Unfortunately, it also has significant, and poorly understood, implications for the designers and developers of en...

  15. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  16. Consistent wind Facilitates Vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Ogawa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether a consistent haptic cue suggesting forward self-motion facilitated vection. We used a fan with no blades (Dyson, AM01 providing a wind of constant strength and direction (wind speed was 6.37 m/s to the subjects' faces with the visual stimuli visible through the fan. We used an optic flow of expansion or contraction created by positioning 16,000 dots at random inside a simulated cube (length 20 m, and moving the observer's viewpoint to simulate forward or backward self-motion of 16 m/s. we tested three conditions for fan operation, which were normal operation, normal operation with the fan reversed (ie, no wind, and no operation (no wind and no sound. Vection was facilitated by the wind (shorter latency, longer duration and larger magnitude values with the expansion stimuli. The fan noise did not facilitate vection. The wind neither facilitated nor inhibited vection with the contraction stimuli, perhaps because a headwind is not consistent with backward self-motion. We speculate that the consistency between multi modalities is a key factor in facilitating vection.

  17. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  18. The Rucio Consistency Service

    CERN Document Server

    Serfon, Cedric; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    One of the biggest challenge with Large scale data management system is to ensure the consistency between the global file catalog and what is physically on all storage elements. To tackle this issue, the Rucio software which is used by the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system has been extended to automatically handle lost or unregistered files (aka Dark Data). This system automatically detects these inconsistencies and take actions like recovery or deletion of unneeded files in a central manner. In this talk, we will present this system, explain the internals and give some results.

  19. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...... contains papers which cover other themes thus continuing with the spirit of the meetings in the Nordic Benthological Society (NORBS) by being an open forum for exchanging knowledge on all aspects of benthic ecology. Overall, we feel the proceeding contains a wide selection of very interesting papers...... representing the state-of-the-art of benthic ecology research within, and to a lesser degree, outside the Nordic countries. We wish to thank all the authors for their inspirational contributions to the proceeding, but we feel that a special thanks is due to the invited speakers for their readiness to produce...

  20. Ecological recovery in ERA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    EFSA Scientific Committee (Scientific Committee); Topping, Christopher John

    2016-01-01

    recognises the importance of more integrated ERAs considering both the local and landscape scales, as well as the possible co-occurrence of multiple potential stressors that fall under the remit of EFSA, which are important when addressing ecological recovery. In this scientific opinion, the Scientific...... ecological recovery for any assessed products, and invasive alien species that are harmful for plant health. This framework proposes an integrative approach based on well-defined specific protection goals, scientific knowledge derived by means of experimentation, modelling and monitoring, and the selection...... Committee gathered scientific knowledge on the potential for the recovery of non-target organisms for the further development of ERA. Current EFSA guidance documents and opinions were reviewed on how ecological recovery is addressed in ERA schemes. In addition, this scientific opinion is based on expert...

  1. Coevolutionary ecological economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallis, Giorgos [ICREA Researcher, ICTA, Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, ETSE, QC/3095, 08193 Bellatera, Barcelona (Spain); Norgaard, Richard B. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California at Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    This paper maps a coevolutionary research agenda for ecological economics. At an epistemological level coevolution offers a powerful logic for transcending environmental and social determinisms and developing a cross-disciplinary approach in the study of socio-ecological systems. We identify four consistent stories emerging out of coevolutionary studies in ecological economics, concerning: environmental degradation and development failure in peripheral regions; the lock-in of unsustainable production-consumption patterns; the vicious cycle between human efforts to control undesirable micro-organisms and the evolution of these organisms; and the adaptive advantages of other-regarding, cooperative behaviors and institutions. We identify challenges in the conceptualization of coevolutionary relationships in relation to: the interaction between different hierarchical levels of evolution; the role of space and social power; uneven rates of change and crises. We conclude with the political implications of a coevolutionary perspective based on the premises of pragmatism. (author)

  2. When is holography consistent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McInnes, Brett, E-mail: matmcinn@nus.edu.sg [National University of Singapore (Singapore); Ong, Yen Chin, E-mail: yenchin.ong@nordita.org [Nordita, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University, Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark–gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a “law of physics” expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  3. Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Royer, Dana L; Johnson, Kirk R; Miller, Ian; Enquist, Brian J

    2014-09-01

    The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment) decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate) increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards "fast" growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  4. Plant ecological strategies shift across the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Blonder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards "fast" growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning.

  5. Plant Ecological Strategies Shift Across the Cretaceous–Paleogene Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blonder, Benjamin; Royer, Dana L.; Johnson, Kirk R.; Miller, Ian; Enquist, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    The Chicxulub bolide impact caused the end-Cretaceous mass extinction of plants, but the associated selectivity and ecological effects are poorly known. Using a unique set of North Dakota leaf fossil assemblages spanning 2.2 Myr across the event, we show among angiosperms a reduction of ecological strategies and selection for fast-growth strategies consistent with a hypothesized recovery from an impact winter. Leaf mass per area (carbon investment) decreased in both mean and variance, while vein density (carbon assimilation rate) increased in mean, consistent with a shift towards “fast” growth strategies. Plant extinction from the bolide impact resulted in a shift in functional trait space that likely had broad consequences for ecosystem functioning. PMID:25225914

  6. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  7. When Is Holography Consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    McInnes, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognised; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, are satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, \\emph{not} be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold, and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark-gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur...

  8. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  9. Visual ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cronin, Thomas W; Johnsen, Sönke; Marsahll, N. Justin; Warrant, Eric

    2014-01-01

    ... ecology. . Physiology, Comparative. . Eye- Evolution. I. Title. QP.C  .'- dc British Library Cataloging-in-Publication Data is available This book...

  10. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2006-01-01

    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...

  11. 农村生态文化发展的路径选择与动力机制分析%Analysis on Path Selection and Dynamic Mechanism of Rural Ecological Culture Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世书

    2014-01-01

    发展农村生态文化,需要根据我国农村文化发展与生态环境现实状况,选择适合的发展路径,建设合理有效的发展动力机制。当前,重点要发展好农村生态物质文化、农村生态制度文化和农村生态精神文化,同时还应整合来自政府、社会和个人的各种力量,构建并运用好导向机制、驱动机制和约束机制等发展手段,形成对农村生态文化发展的强大推动力。%To promote the development of rural ecological culture ,it is necessary to select the appropriate way , and to build a scientific and effective dynamic mechanism of rural ecological culture development according to the realities of Chinese rural cultural development and rural ecological environment .At present, the emphasis should be put on the development of the eco-material culture,eco-institu-tional culture and rural eco-spiritual cultural;meanwhile , we should integrate various forces from the government ,society and individu-als ,and to construct and exert efficiently the tools and mechanisms , such as the oriented mechanism , the driving mechanism and the re-straint mechanism, and eventually a strong driving force for the rural ecological cultural development could be formed .

  12. Emergence Unites Ecology and Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald L. Trosper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effort to combine analysis of ecosystems and social systems requires a firm theoretical basis. When humans are present in an ecosystem, their actions affect emergent structures; this paper examines forms of emergence that account for the presence of humans. Humans monitor and regulate ecosystems based on their cultural systems. Cultural systems consist of concepts linked in complicated ways that can form consistent world views, can contain inconsistencies, and may or may not accurately model the properties of a social–ecological system. Consequently, human monitoring and regulating processes will differ, depending on cultural systems. Humans, as agents, change or maintain pre-existing material and cultural emergent structures. The presentation is illustrated with a case study of fire-prone forests. The paper shows that explicit attention to emergence serves very well in unifying the following requirements for social–ecological analysis: coherent and observable definitions of sustainability; ways to link ecological and social phenomena; ways to understand cultural reasons for stability and instability in dynamic social–ecological systems; and ways to include human self-evaluation and culture within dynamic models of social–ecological systems. Analysis of cultural emergent structures clarifies many differences in assumptions among the fields of economics, sociology, political science, ecology, and ecological economics. Because it can be readily applied to empirical questions, the framework provides a good way to organize policy analysis that is not dominated by one or another discipline.

  13. 水源地保护区生态补偿利益相关者行为选择机理分析%ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR SELECTION MECHANISMOF ECOLOGICAL COMPENSATION STAKEHOLDERS IN WATER SOURCE PROTECTION AREAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱敏; 葛颜祥; 耿翔燕

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of ecological compensation mechanism of water source protection area involves many stakeholders. The interest demandand the behavior selection of each stakeholderwasdifferentwhichaffected the opera-tion and implementation of ecological compensation mechanism, and then affected the ecological environment in wa-ter source areas. In this paper, according to the stakeholder theory,firstit identified the stakeholders in the ecologi-cal compensation of water source protection areas, and then analyzedtheinterests of the stakeholders, andfinallythe stakeholders were divided into the compensator and the acceptor. In order to maximize the interests, the behavior choice of the compensator and the acceptorin the ecological compensation hadformed a kind of game. By using game theory and method, this paper first built the payment matrix of the construction of the compensator and the acceptor of the ecological compensationinthewater source area, and then analyzed the behavior selectionmechanism,gotthemi-xed strategy Nash equilibrium point of the behavior choice. Finally itobtainedthebehavior optimization approach of the compensator and the repayment of the ecological compensation in the water source area. Research results showed that there were some effective measures to reduce the pollution of water source protection areas, such as reducing the risk preference, supervision cost and the super long earningsinthe ecological compensation, and increasing pun-ishments, the potential loss, and the credit lossof the acceptor without protecting the ecological environment, and increasing the inside and outside income differences of ecological environment protection and the cooperation time limit of the construction of the compensator in the ecological compensation. Finally, this paper put forward the fol-lowing optimization strategies:improving the compensator's supervision system, strengthening the risk awareness of the compensator, as well as sounding social credit

  14. Molecular ecological network analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Ye

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Results Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs through Random Matrix Theory (RMT-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological

  15. Ecological divergence combined with ancient allopatry in lizard populations from a small volcanic island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, N M; Pestano, J; Brown, R P

    2014-10-01

    Population divergence and speciation are often explained by geographical isolation, but may also be possible under high gene flow due to strong ecology-related differences in selection pressures. This study combines coalescent analyses of genetic data (11 microsatellite loci and 1 Kbp of mtDNA) and ecological modelling to examine the relative contributions of isolation and ecology to incipient speciation in the scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus within the volcanic island of Gran Canaria. Bayesian multispecies coalescent dating of within-island genetic divergence of northern and southern populations showed correspondence with the timing of volcanic activity in the north of the island 1.5-3.0 Ma ago. Coalescent estimates of demographic changes reveal historical size increases in northern populations, consistent with expansions from a volcanic refuge. Nevertheless, ecological divergence is also supported. First, the two morphs showed non-equivalence of ecological niches and species distribution modelling associated the northern morph with mesic habitat types and the southern morph with xeric habitat types. It seems likely that the colour morphs are associated with different antipredator strategies in the different habitats. Second, coalescent estimation of gene copy migration (based on microsatellites and mtDNA) suggest high rates from northern to southern morphs demonstrating the strength of ecology-mediated selection pressures that maintain the divergent southern morph. Together, these findings underline the complexity of the speciation process by providing evidence for the combined effects of ecological divergence and ancient divergence in allopatry.

  16. Research on the Leading Industry Selection of Ecological Environment: Take Cheng-Yu Economic Zone as an Example%面向生态环境的主导产业选择研究——以成渝经济区为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖红艳; 袁兴中; 李波; 曹慧; 廖正军

    2011-01-01

    区域经济与生态环境保护协调发展是当代研究的热点.为了保证区域经济发展与生态环境协同共进,对区域经济发展核心和支柱的主导产业的选择必须基于生态环境的考量.本文综合考虑产业资源环境效益、经济效益、社会效益,构建了面向生态环境的主导产业选择指标体系,包括生态环境指数、经济规模指数、产品市场指数、经济效益指数、社会效益指数以及行业关联效应指数,并以成渝经济区为研究对象,运用熵值法和投入产出模型等方法进行定量综合比选.在结合研究区域发展要求的基础上,结果确定成渝经济区主导产业为装备制造业、食品制造和加工业及电力、燃气及水资源生产和供应业.%The coordinated development of the environment and the economy is a focus these days. In order to coordinate the regional economic development and eco-environmental conservation, the leading industry, being the core and pillar of the regional economic development, must be selected based on ecological environment. Considering the economical, social, and ecological efficiencies of industries, a six sets of index system consist of eco-environment index, scale economical index, market index, economic benefit index, social benefit index and correlation degree was established on the basis of leading industry selection principles and criterion for leading industry selection under the constraints of ecological environment, and in accordance with regional development requirements, the leading industry of the Cheng-Yu economic zone was analyzed by entropy method and input-output method. The results showed that, the comprehensive indexes of equipment manufacturing industry, food manufacturing and processing industries, and electric power, gas & water production and supply were determined as leading industries of Cheng-Yu economic zone.

  17. Mapping ecological states in a complex environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, C. M.; Bestelmeyer, B.; Burkett, L. M.; Ayers, E.; Romig, K.; Slaughter, A.

    2013-12-01

    The vegetation of northern Chihuahuan Desert rangelands is sparse, heterogeneous and for most of the year, consists of a large proportion of non-photosynthetic material. The soils in this area are spectrally bright and variable in their reflectance properties. Both factors provide challenges to the application of remote sensing for estimating canopy variables (e.g., leaf area index, biomass, percentage canopy cover, primary production). Additionally, with reference to current paradigms of rangeland health assessment, remotely-sensed estimates of canopy variables have limited practical use to the rangeland manager if they are not placed in the context of ecological site and ecological state. To address these challenges, we created a multifactor classification system based on the USDA-NRCS ecological site schema and associated state-and-transition models to map ecological states on desert rangelands in southern New Mexico. Applying this system using per-pixel image processing techniques and multispectral, remotely sensed imagery raised other challenges. Per-pixel image classification relies upon the spectral information in each pixel alone, there is no reference to the spatial context of the pixel and its relationship with its neighbors. Ecological state classes may have direct relevance to managers but the non-unique spectral properties of different ecological state classes in our study area means that per-pixel classification of multispectral data performs poorly in discriminating between different ecological states. We found that image interpreters who are familiar with the landscape and its associated ecological site descriptions perform better than per-pixel classification techniques in assigning ecological states. However, two important issues affect manual classification methods: subjectivity of interpretation and reproducibility of results. An alternative to per-pixel classification and manual interpretation is object-based image analysis. Object-based image

  18. Social-Ecological Guilds: Putting People into Marine Historical Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna M. Shackeroff

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine historical ecology provides historic insights into past ocean ecosystems that are crucial to effectively confronting the declining health and resilience in marine ecosystems. A more 'peopled' approach to marine historical ecology is necessary, given the heightened emphasis on human dimensions in marine management. This study examined the historical ecology of Hawaiian coral reef ecosystems through oral histories of diverse ocean experts, representing six traditional, local, and scientific knowledge systems. Based on 61 in-depth interviews with these ocean experts, historical trends, abundance, and distribution over 80 years and a 50-mile region for 271 species emerged. Analyzing trends by ecological guild, e.g., herbivores, proved inappropriate to these data; rather, based on qualitative analyses, five distinct trends encompassing nearly all species emerged in what we term "social-ecological guilds." Ocean expert's observations of change were surprisingly consistent, regardless of their knowledge system, whereas perceptions of change varied widely. The historical picture was far broader and richer when the contributions of six knowledge systems were incorporated, compared to that of any one alone. Social-ecological guilds also matter critically from a management perspective, because understanding how experts from a multiplicity of perspectives observe, interpret, and respond to ecological change can help managers anticipate responses to management activities and perhaps to design better management strategies.

  19. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge

    2013-01-01

    on how to reconcile environmental and social concerns. Based on this broad variety of pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, a new ecological macroeconomics is emerging, but the contours are still vague. This chapter seeks to outline some of this topography and to add a few pieces of its own by highlighting the need......The economic decline that began in 2008 opened a window of opportunity for consideration about how to combine macroecononomic and environmental concerns. This discussion is far from new, as evidenced, for instance, by the European Commission’s White Paper from 1993, which explained how a greening...

  20. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  1. Reconstructing the history of selection during homoploid hybrid speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrenberg, Sophie; Lexer, Christian; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2007-06-01

    This study aims to identify selection pressures during the historical process of homoploid hybrid speciation in three Helianthus (sunflower) hybrid species. If selection against intrinsic genetic incompatibilities (fertility selection) or for important morphological/ecological traits (phenotypic selection) were important in hybrid speciation, we would expect this selection to have influenced the parentage of molecular markers or chromosomal segments in the hybrid species' genomes. To infer past selection, we compared the parentage of molecular markers in high-density maps of the three hybrid species with predicted marker parentage from an analysis of fertility selection in artificial hybrids and from the directions of quantitative trait loci effects with respect to the phenotypes of the hybrid species. Multiple logistic regression models were consistent with both fertility and phenotypic selection in all three species. To further investigate traits under selection, we used a permutation test to determine whether marker parentage predicted from groups of functionally related traits differed from neutral expectations. Our results suggest that trait groups associated with ecological divergence were under selection during hybrid speciation. This study presents a new method to test for selection and supports earlier claims that fertility selection and phenotypic selection on ecologically relevant traits have operated simultaneously during sunflower hybrid speciation.

  2. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  3. PERSONAL VALUES, BELIEFS, AND ECOLOGICAL RISK PERCEPTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A mail survey on ecological risk perception was administered in the summer of 2002 to a randomized sample of the lay public and to selected risk professionals at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). The ranking of 24 ecological risk items, from global climate change...

  4. Special issue introduction: Ecological modernization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massa, Ilmo; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2000-01-01

    The contributions to this special issue of the Journal of Environmental Policy and Planning stem from an international conference on ecological modernization that took place at the Department of Social Policy of the University of Helsinki, Finland, in late 1998. They have been selected, among other...... and restoring its meaning and justification for the environmental debate....

  5. Education for Today's Ecological Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, S. Fred

    1970-01-01

    Describes the university's role in providing education for the ecological crisis, and divides environmental sciences into two major areas: basic and applied. Proposes a curriculum leading to a B.S. degree in physics consisting of a two-year honor physics program followed by specialization in environmental and planetary sciences (EPS). (PR)

  6. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文宣

    2014-01-01

    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  7. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  8. Sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  9. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  10. Consistency of trace norm minimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Regularization by the sum of singular values, also referred to as the trace norm, is a popular technique for estimating low rank rectangular matrices. In this paper, we extend some of the consistency results of the Lasso to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for rank consistency of trace norm minimization with the square loss. We also provide an adaptive version that is rank consistent even when the necessary condition for the non adaptive version is not fulfilled.

  11. Quasiparticle self-consistent GW theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schilfgaarde, M; Kotani, Takao; Faleev, S

    2006-06-09

    In past decades the scientific community has been looking for a reliable first-principles method to predict the electronic structure of solids with high accuracy. Here we present an approach which we call the quasiparticle self-consistent approximation. It is based on a kind of self-consistent perturbation theory, where the self-consistency is constructed to minimize the perturbation. We apply it to selections from different classes of materials, including alkali metals, semiconductors, wide band gap insulators, transition metals, transition metal oxides, magnetic insulators, and rare earth compounds. Apart from some mild exceptions, the properties are very well described, particularly in weakly correlated cases. Self-consistency dramatically improves agreement with experiment, and is sometimes essential. Discrepancies with experiment are systematic, and can be explained in terms of approximations made.

  12. [Assessment of landscape ecological security and optimization of landscape pattern based on spatial principal component analysis and resistance model in arid inland area: A case study of Ganzhou District, Zhangye City, Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jing-hu; Liu, Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Starting from ecological environment of inland river in arid area, the distribution of ecological security pattern of Ganzhou District was obtained by using the theory of landscape ecology, spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) and GIS techniques. Ten factors such as altitude, slope, soil erosion, vegetation coverage, and distance from road, were selected as the constraint conditions. According to the minimum cumulative resistance (MCR) model of landscape, the ecological corridor and nodes were established to optimize the structure and function of ecological function network. The results showed that the comprehensive ecological security situation of the research area was on the average. Area of moderate level of security was 1318.7 km2, being the largest and accounting for 36.7% of the research area. The area of low level of security was mainly located in the northern part and accounted for 19.9% of the study area. With points, lines and surfaces being interlaced, a regional ecological network was constructed, which was consisted of six ecological corridor, 14 ecological nodes, a large ecological source region and a plurality of small area source region, and could effectively improve ecological security level of the study area.

  13. Consistency argued students of fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viyanti; Cari; Suparmi; Winarti; Slamet Budiarti, Indah; Handika, Jeffry; Widyastuti, Fatma

    2017-01-01

    Problem solving for physics concepts through consistency arguments can improve thinking skills of students and it is an important thing in science. The study aims to assess the consistency of the material Fluid student argmentation. The population of this study are College students PGRI Madiun, UIN Sunan Kalijaga Yogyakarta and Lampung University. Samples using cluster random sampling, 145 samples obtained by the number of students. The study used a descriptive survey method. Data obtained through multiple-choice test and interview reasoned. Problem fluid modified from [9] and [1]. The results of the study gained an average consistency argmentation for the right consistency, consistency is wrong, and inconsistent respectively 4.85%; 29.93%; and 65.23%. Data from the study have an impact on the lack of understanding of the fluid material which is ideally in full consistency argued affect the expansion of understanding of the concept. The results of the study as a reference in making improvements in future studies is to obtain a positive change in the consistency of argumentations.

  14. SOLUTIONS TO ECOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION OF SALT LANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Constantin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents improvement solutions for the ecological reconstruction of salt land according to the characteristicsof their natural conditions. Agroameliorative, agrobiological, agrochemical and hydroameliorative methods may beused. Effectiveness of ecological restoration increases by applying complex ameliorative works. The main role of suchan undreground drainage facility is to collect the salt-loaded, leaching water. Drain distance is calculated for nonpermanentflow conditions, establishing a distance L that allows the lowering grounwater level from its highesthydraulic load to its best value, ht, withing a given time length. The sewer canals should have a depth of min. 1.2 if theland is not equipped with underground drains, and between 1.5 and 1.6 if underground drainage exists.The distancebetween the antenna and the sewer canal should be about 200 m or the length of the watering installation. Verticaldrainage consists in the use of wells with a depth of 25 m, equipped with selected gravel filter (Ø 2-7 mm and adecanter (1.5 m in length.

  15. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  16. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  17. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  18. Vulnerability to coastal cholera ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Andrew E

    2003-10-01

    The battle to completely control cholera continues. Multiple strains, high levels of morbidity in some regions of the world, and a complex of influences on its distribution in people and the environment are accompanied by only rough resolution prediction of outbreaks. Uncertainty as to the most effective array of interventions for one of the most researched infectious diseases thwarts further progress in providing cost-effective solutions. Progress on the research front consistently points towards the importance of disease ecology, coastal environments, and the sea. However, evaluation of the link between cholera in people and environment can only be effective with analysis of human vulnerability to variable coastal cholera ecologies. As there are some clear links between the organism, cholera incidence and the sea, it is appropriate that cholera research should examine the nature of coastal population vulnerability to the disease. The paper reviews the cholera risks of human-environment interactions in coastal areas as one component of the evaluation of cholera management. This points to effective intervention through integrative knowledge of changing human and environmental ecologies, requiring improved detection, but also an acceptance of complex causality. The challenge is to identify indicators and interventions for case specific ecologies in variable locales of human vulnerability and disease hazard. Further work will therefore aim to explore improved surveillance and intervention across the socio-behavioural and ecological spectrum. Furthermore, the story of cholera continues to inform us about how we should more effectively view emergent and resurgent infectious disease hazards more generally.

  19. Process Fairness and Dynamic Consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.T. Trautmann (Stefan); P.P. Wakker (Peter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: When process fairness deviates from outcome fairness, dynamic inconsistencies can arise as in nonexpected utility. Resolute choice (Machina) can restore dynamic consistency under nonexpected utility without using Strotz's precommitment. It can similarly justify dynamically

  20. Gravitation, Causality, and Quantum Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Hertzberg, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    We examine the role of consistency with causality and quantum mechanics in determining the properties of gravitation. We begin by constructing two different classes of interacting theories of massless spin 2 particles -- gravitons. One involves coupling the graviton with the lowest number of derivatives to matter, the other involves coupling the graviton with higher derivatives to matter, making use of the linearized Riemann tensor. The first class requires an infinite tower of terms for consistency, which is known to lead uniquely to general relativity. The second class only requires a finite number of terms for consistency, which appears as a new class of theories of massless spin 2. We recap the causal consistency of general relativity and show how this fails in the second class for the special case of coupling to photons, exploiting related calculations in the literature. In an upcoming publication [1] this result is generalized to a much broader set of theories. Then, as a causal modification of general ...

  1. Time-consistent and market-consistent evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelsser, A.; Stadje, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    We consider evaluation methods for payoffs with an inherent financial risk as encountered for instance for portfolios held by pension funds and insurance companies. Pricing such payoffs in a way consistent to market prices typically involves combining actuarial techniques with methods from mathemati

  2. Consistency and variability in functional localisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying the use of functional localiser scans is that the voxels identified as the functional region-of-interest (fROI) are essentially the same as those activated by the main experimental manipulation. Intra-subject variability in the location of the fROI violates this assumption, reducing the sensitivity of the analysis and biasing the results. Here we investigated consistency and variability in fROIs in a set of 45 volunteers. They performed two functional localiser scans to identify word- and object-sensitive regions of ventral and lateral occipito-temporal cortex, respectively. In the main analyses, fROIs were defined as the category-selective voxels in each region and consistency was measured as the spatial overlap between scans. Consistency was greatest when minimally selective thresholds were used to define “active” voxels (p < 0.05 uncorrected), revealing that approximately 65% of the voxels were commonly activated by both scans. In contrast, highly selective thresholds (p < 10− 4 to 10− 6) yielded the lowest consistency values with less than 25% overlap of the voxels active in both scans. In other words, intra-subject variability was surprisingly high, with between one third and three quarters of the voxels in a given fROI not corresponding to those activated in the main task. This level of variability stands in striking contrast to the consistency seen in retinotopically-defined areas and has important implications for designing robust but efficient functional localiser scans. PMID:19289173

  3. Market-consistent actuarial valuation

    CERN Document Server

    Wüthrich, Mario V

    2016-01-01

    This is the third edition of this well-received textbook, presenting powerful methods for measuring insurance liabilities and assets in a consistent way, with detailed mathematical frameworks that lead to market-consistent values for liabilities. Topics covered are stochastic discounting with deflators, valuation portfolio in life and non-life insurance, probability distortions, asset and liability management, financial risks, insurance technical risks, and solvency. Including updates on recent developments and regulatory changes under Solvency II, this new edition of Market-Consistent Actuarial Valuation also elaborates on different risk measures, providing a revised definition of solvency based on industry practice, and presents an adapted valuation framework which takes a dynamic view of non-life insurance reserving risk.

  4. Consistent Histories in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, David A; 10.1007/s10701-010-9422-6

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate the crucial role played by decoherence (consistency of quantum histories) in extracting consistent quantum probabilities for alternative histories in quantum cosmology. Specifically, within a Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model sourced with a free massless scalar field, we calculate the probability that the univese is singular in the sense that it assumes zero volume. Classical solutions of this model are a disjoint set of expanding and contracting singular branches. A naive assessment of the behavior of quantum states which are superpositions of expanding and contracting universes may suggest that a "quantum bounce" is possible i.e. that the wave function of the universe may remain peaked on a non-singular classical solution throughout its history. However, a more careful consistent histories analysis shows that for arbitrary states in the physical Hilbert space the probability of this Wheeler-DeWitt quantum universe encountering the big bang/crun...

  5. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  6. The Importance of being consistent

    CERN Document Server

    Wasserman, Adam; Jiang, Kaili; Kim, Min-Cheol; Sim, Eunji; Burke, Kieron

    2016-01-01

    We review the role of self-consistency in density functional theory. We apply a recent analysis to both Kohn-Sham and orbital-free DFT, as well as to Partition-DFT, which generalizes all aspects of standard DFT. In each case, the analysis distinguishes between errors in approximate functionals versus errors in the self-consistent density. This yields insights into the origins of many errors in DFT calculations, especially those often attributed to self-interaction or delocalization error. In many classes of problems, errors can be substantially reduced by using `better' densities. We review the history of these approaches, many of their applications, and give simple pedagogical examples.

  7. Author contributions to ecological publications: What does it mean to be an author in modern ecological research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, John M; Bean, Sarah B; Myers, Andrew E

    2017-01-01

    Authorship is a central element of scientific research carrying a variety of rewards and responsibilities, and while various guidelines exist, actual author contributions are often ambiguous. Inconsistent or limited contributions threaten to devalue authorship as intellectual currency and diminish authors' responsibility for published content. Researchers have assessed author contributions in the medical literature and other research fields, but similar data for the field of ecological research are lacking. Authorship practices in ecological research are broadly representative of a variety of fields due to the cross-disciplinary nature of collaborations in ecological studies. To better understand author contributions to current research, we distributed a survey regarding co-author contributions to a random selection of 996 lead authors of manuscripts published in ecological journals in 2010. We obtained useable responses from 45% of surveyed authors. Reported lead author contributions in ecological research studies consistently included conception of the project idea, data collection, analysis, and writing. Middle and last author contributions instead showed a high level of individual variability. Lead authorship in ecology is well defined while secondary authorship is more ambiguous. Nearly half (48%) of all studies included in our survey had some level of non-compliance with Ecological Society of America (ESA) authorship guidelines and the majority of studies (78%) contained at least one co-author that did not meet International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements. Incidence of non-compliance varied with lead author occupation and author position. The probability of a study including an author that was non-compliant with ESA guidelines was lowest for professor-led studies and highest for graduate student and post doctoral researcher-led studies. Among studies with > two co-authors, all lead authors met ESA guidelines and only 2% failed to

  8. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  9. Consistent supersymmetric decoupling in cosmology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sousa Sánchez, Kepa

    2012-01-01

    The present work discusses several problems related to the stability of ground states with broken supersymmetry in supergravity, and to the existence and stability of cosmic strings in various supersymmetric models. In particular we study the necessary conditions to truncate consistently a sector o

  10. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.

    2011-01-01

    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  11. Consistence of Network Filtering Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Kun; WU Yuancheng; HUANG Juncai; ZHOU Mingtian

    2004-01-01

    The inconsistence of firewall/VPN(Virtual Private Network) rule makes a huge maintainable cost.With development of Multinational Company,SOHO office,E-government the number of firewalls/VPN will increase rapidly.Rule table in stand-alone or network will be increased in geometric series accordingly.Checking the consistence of rule table manually is inadequate.A formal approach can define semantic consistence,make a theoretic foundation of intelligent management about rule tables.In this paper,a kind of formalization of host rules and network ones for auto rule-validation based on SET theory were proporsed and a rule validation scheme was defined.The analysis results show the superior performance of the methods and demonstrate its potential for the intelligent management based on rule tables.

  12. Self-consistent triaxial models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Jason L

    2015-01-01

    We present self-consistent triaxial stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) expressed in terms of the actions. These provide triaxial density profiles with cores or cusps at the centre. They are the first self-consistent triaxial models with analytic DFs suitable for modelling giant ellipticals and dark haloes. Specifically, we study triaxial models that reproduce the Hernquist profile from Williams & Evans (2015), as well as flattened isochrones of the form proposed by Binney (2014). We explore the kinematics and orbital structure of these models in some detail. The models typically become more radially anisotropic on moving outwards, have velocity ellipsoids aligned in Cartesian coordinates in the centre and aligned in spherical polar coordinates in the outer parts. In projection, the ellipticity of the isophotes and the position angle of the major axis of our models generally changes with radius. So, a natural application is to elliptical galaxies that exhibit isophote twisting....

  13. On Modal Refinement and Consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyman, Ulrik; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2007-01-01

    Almost 20 years after the original conception, we revisit several fundamental question about modal transition systems. First, we demonstrate the incompleteness of the standard modal refinement using a counterexample due to Hüttel. Deciding any refinement, complete with respect to the standard...... notions of implementation, is shown to be computationally hard (co-NP hard). Second, we consider four forms of consistency (existence of implementations) for modal specifications. We characterize each operationally, giving algorithms for deciding, and for synthesizing implementations, together...

  14. An Evaluation of the Biodiversity of Urban Ecology at ISF Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, E.

    2016-12-01

    ISF Academy, a school with 1500 students in Hong Kong, is currently constructing two annex buildings, inside which are multiple green spaces. The biodiversity of plants at ISF Academy is currently limited, hence a selection of educationally meaningful native plant species are planned for the new buildings, with the goal of attracting butterflies, reducing the school's carbon footprint and creating biologically diverse spaces where students can study ecology. This project contains a biodiversity survey of existing plants in and around the ISF campus, and an evaluation of the plant selection for the annex buildings. While native species are planned for the buildings in order to ensure that the green spaces can be maintained sustainably, not all species are suitable for a school environment, and thus the safety, feasibility and ecological significance of the plant selection will be considered.As increasing amounts of people move towards cities, green spaces are necessary for alleviating climate change and for ensuring the sustainable development of urban environments. Despite being a small and densely populated city, more than 40% of Hong Kong's land mass consists of an extensive country park network. Hong Kong therefore serves as a prime example of how urban ecology can be implemented to benefit cities, and the green spaces in the ISF Academy campus can be considered a microcosm of urban ecology in Hong Kong. The implementation of green spaces in the ISF Academy campus demonstrates the ISF community's commitment to creating sustainable environments.

  15. Tri-Sasakian consistent reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    We establish a universal consistent Kaluza-Klein truncation of M-theory based on seven-dimensional tri-Sasakian structure. The four-dimensional truncated theory is an N=4 gauged supergravity with three vector multiplets and a non-abelian gauge group, containing the compact factor SO(3). Consistency follows from the fact that our truncation takes exactly the same form as a left-invariant reduction on a specific coset manifold, and we show that the same holds for the various universal consistent truncations recently put forward in the literature. We describe how the global symmetry group SL(2,R) x SO(6,3) is embedded in the symmetry group E7(7) of maximally supersymmetric reductions, and make the connection with the approach of Exceptional Generalized Geometry. Vacuum AdS4 solutions spontaneously break the amount of supersymmetry from N=4 to N=3,1 or 0, and the spectrum contains massive modes. We find a subtruncation to minimal N=3 gauged supergravity as well as an N=1 subtruncation to the SO(3)-invariant secto...

  16. ECOLOGICAL RESTORATION:OUR HOPE FOR THE FUTURE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-gao; LI Xiu-zhen; HE Hong S; HU Yuan-man

    2004-01-01

    Ecological restoration is widely employed from tens to millions of hectares in space, and from tens of days to thousands of years in time, which forces consideration of it thoroughly. We argue that three questions are the most important among the contents relevant of ecological restoration, including why, what and how to restore degraded systems. Why to restore determines whether or not the degraded ecological systems should be restored. What to restore is the goal of ecological restoration. The explicit goal of ecological restoration is necessary to guide ecological restoration workers in pursuit of excellence and prevent restoration from being swamped by purely technological activities. And how to restore means the methods and steps we should apply. To ensure the final success of ecological restoration, restored sites should be monitored and managed for long time to determine whether the selected methods are appropriate, and can be remedy better. Only to deal with these effectively, ecological restoration would be the hope for the future.

  17. Ecological optimization of endoreversible chemical engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Xia, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Optimal ecological performances of endoreversible chemical engine cycles with both linear and diffusive mass transfer laws are derived by taking an ecological optimization criterion as the objective, which consists of maximizing a function representing the best compromise between the power output and entropy production rate of the chemical engines. Numerical examples are given to show the effects of mass-reservoir chemical potential ratio and mass-transfer coefficient ratio on the ecological function versus the efficiency characteristic of the cycles. The results can provide some theoretical guidelines for the design of practical chemical engines.

  18. On the consistency of MPS

    CERN Document Server

    Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; González, Leo M; Cercos-Pita, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    The consistency of Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method in reproducing the gradient, divergence and Laplacian differential operators is discussed in the present paper. Its relation to the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is rigorously established. The application of the MPS method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations using a fractional step approach is treated, unveiling inconsistency problems when solving the Poisson equation for the pressure. A new corrected MPS method incorporating boundary terms is proposed. Applications to one dimensional boundary value Dirichlet and mixed Neumann-Dirichlet problems and to two-dimensional free-surface flows are presented.

  19. Measuring process and knowledge consistency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Klaes Ladeby; Haug, Anders

    2007-01-01

    with a 5 point Liker scale and a corresponding scoring system. Process consistency is measured by using a first-person drawing tool with the respondent in the centre. Respondents sketch the sequence of steps and people they contact when configuring a product. The methodology is tested in one company...... for granted; rather the contrary, and attempting to implement a configuration system may easily ignite a political battle. This is because stakes are high in the sense that the rules and processes chosen may only reflect one part of the practice, ignoring a majority of the employees. To avoid this situation...

  20. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A

    2011-01-01

    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  1. Plant Landscape Design in Special Space of Ecological Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoyong; ZHANG; Xiaogang; CHEN

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly discussed the application of plant landscape design in special space of ecological buildings. From the concept of special space of ecological buildings,it elaborated social and ecological benefits of greening projects in special space. It proposed the classification method for special space of ecological building with habitat as the major part and combined with characteristics of building form. On the basis of such classification,it discussed green design method and plant selection principle,in the hope of providing certain reference for garden designers in green design of ecological buildings.

  2. Social selection parapatry in Afrotropical sunbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Jay P; Peñalba, Joshua V; Werema, Chacha; Mulungu, Elia; Mbilinyi, Maneno; Moyer, David; Hansen, Louis; Fjeldså, Jon; Bowie, Rauri C K

    2016-06-01

    The extent of range overlap of incipient and recent species depends on the type and magnitude of phenotypic divergence that separates them, and the consequences of phenotypic divergence on their interactions. Signal divergence by social selection likely initiates many speciation events, but may yield niche-conserved lineages predisposed to limit each others' ranges via ecological competition. Here, we examine this neglected aspect of social selection speciation theory in relation to the discovery of a nonecotonal species border between sunbirds. We find that Nectarinia moreaui and Nectarinia fuelleborni meet in a ∼6 km wide contact zone, as estimated by molecular cline analysis. These species exploit similar bioclimatic niches, but sing highly divergent learned songs, consistent with divergence by social selection. Cline analyses suggest that within-species stabilizing social selection on song-learning predispositions maintains species differences in song despite both hybridization and cultural transmission. We conclude that ecological competition between moreaui and fuelleborni contributes to the stabilization of the species border, but that ecological competition acts in conjunction with reproductive interference. The evolutionary maintenance of learned song differences in a hybrid zone recommend this study system for future studies on the mechanisms of learned song divergence and its role in speciation.

  3. Experimentally replicated disruptive selection on performance traits in a Caribbean lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsbeek, Ryan; Smith, Thomas B

    2008-02-01

    A central theme underlying studies of adaptive radiation is that ecologically mediated selection drives diversification. However, demonstrating the ecological basis of natural selection and linking this process to patterns of morphological diversity represents a formidable challenge. This is because selection experiments that test correlations between an organism's phenotype and its ecology are difficult to perform in the wild. Previous studies of Anolis lizards have shown that divergent morphologies are correlated with habitat use and have evolved repeatedly on islands throughout the Greater Antilles. Here, we show that the forms of selection acting within a species support an ecological mechanism for diversification. In natural populations, performance-related traits such as limb length are subject to correlational and disruptive selection driven by differences in habitat use. Experimental manipulations in the wild verify the same pattern of selection and indicate that both the targets and forms of selection are consistent through time. Elsewhere, we have demonstrated that these traits are heritable and should therefore evolve in response to selection. Our results provide evidence for the short-term repeatability of selection and its potency in the diversification of anoles.

  4. Temporally consistent segmentation of point clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jason L.; Osteen, Philip R.; Daniilidis, Kostas

    2014-06-01

    We consider the problem of generating temporally consistent point cloud segmentations from streaming RGB-D data, where every incoming frame extends existing labels to new points or contributes new labels while maintaining the labels for pre-existing segments. Our approach generates an over-segmentation based on voxel cloud connectivity, where a modified k-means algorithm selects supervoxel seeds and associates similar neighboring voxels to form segments. Given the data stream from a potentially mobile sensor, we solve for the camera transformation between consecutive frames using a joint optimization over point correspondences and image appearance. The aligned point cloud may then be integrated into a consistent model coordinate frame. Previously labeled points are used to mask incoming points from the new frame, while new and previous boundary points extend the existing segmentation. We evaluate the algorithm on newly-generated RGB-D datasets.

  5. Consistency and stability of recombinant fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiebe, M E; Builder, S E

    1994-01-01

    Production of proteins of consistent quality in heterologous, genetically-engineered expression systems is dependent upon identifying the manufacturing process parameters which have an impact on product structure, function, or purity, validating acceptable ranges for these variables, and performing the manufacturing process as specified. One of the factors which may affect product consistency is genetic instability of the primary product sequence, as well as instability of genes which code for proteins responsible for post-translational modification of the product. Approaches have been developed for mammalian expression systems to assure that product quality is not changing through mechanisms of genetic instability. Sensitive protein analytical methods, particularly peptide mapping, are used to evaluate product structure directly, and are more sensitive in detecting genetic instability than is direct genetic analysis by nucleotide sequencing of the recombinant gene or mRNA. These methods are being employed to demonstrate that the manufacturing process consistently yields a product of defined structure from cells cultured through the range of cell ages used in the manufacturing process and well beyond the maximum cell age defined for the process. The combination of well designed validation studies which demonstrate consistent product quality as a function of cell age, and rigorous quality control of every product lot by sensitive protein analytical methods provide the necessary assurance that product structure is not being altered through mechanisms of mutation and selection.

  6. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J. W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R. Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-Dávila, Esteban; Andrade, Ana; Aragão, Luis E. O. C.; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro; Arets, Eric J. M. M.; Aymard C, Gerardo A.; Baraloto, Christopher; Barroso, Jorcely G.; Bonal, Damien; Boot, Rene G. A.; Camargo, José L. C.; Comiskey, James A.; Valverde, Fernando Cornejo; de Camargo, Plínio B.; Di Fiore, Anthony; Erwin, Terry L.; Feldpausch, Ted R.; Ferreira, Leandro; Fyllas, Nikolaos M.; Gloor, Emanuel; Herault, Bruno; Herrera, Rafael; Higuchi, Niro; Honorio Coronado, Eurídice N.; Killeen, Timothy J.; Laurance, William F.; Laurance, Susan; Lloyd, Jon; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Malhi, Yadvinder; Maracahipes, Leandro; Marimon, Beatriz S.; Marimon-Junior, Ben H.; Mendoza, Casimiro; Morandi, Paulo; Neill, David A.; Vargas, Percy Núñez; Oliveira, Edmar A.; Lenza, Eddie; Palacios, Walter A.; Peñuela-Mora, Maria C.; Pipoly, John J.; Pitman, Nigel C. A.; Prieto, Adriana; Quesada, Carlos A.; Ramirez-Angulo, Hirma; Rudas, Agustin; Ruokolainen, Kalle; Salomão, Rafael P.; Silveira, Marcos; ter Steege, Hans; Thomas-Caesar, Raquel; van der Hout, Peter; van der Heijden, Geertje M. F.; van der Meer, Peter J.; Vasquez, Rodolfo V.; Vieira, Simone A.; Vilanova, Emilio; Vos, Vincent A.; Wang, Ophelia; Young, Kenneth R.; Zagt, Roderick J.; Baker, Timothy R.

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships among species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life-history characteristics, providing an excellent system to investigate the combined influences of evolutionary heritage and selection in determining trait variation. We used trait data related to the major axes of life-history variation among tropical trees (e.g. growth and mortality rates) from 577 inventory plots in closed-canopy forest, mapped onto a phylogenetic hypothesis spanning more than 300 genera including all major angiosperm clades to test for evolutionary constraints on traits. We found significant phylogenetic signal (PS) for all traits, consistent with evolutionarily related genera having more similar characteristics than expected by chance. Although there is also evidence for repeated evolution of pioneer and shade tolerant life-history strategies within independent lineages, the existence of significant PS allows clearer predictions of the links between evolutionary diversity, ecosystem function and the response of tropical forests to global change. PMID:27974517

  7. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  8. Trends and missing parts in the study of movement ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holyoak, Marcel; Casagrandi, Renato; Nathan, Ran; Revilla, Eloy; Spiegel, Orr

    2008-01-01

    Movement is important to all organisms, and accordingly it is addressed in a huge number of papers in the literature. Of nearly 26,000 papers referring to movement, an estimated 34% focused on movement by measuring it or testing hypotheses about it. This enormous amount of information is difficult to review and highlights the need to assess the collective completeness of movement studies and identify gaps. We surveyed 1,000 randomly selected papers from 496 journals and compared the facets of movement studied with a suggested framework for movement ecology, consisting of internal state (motivation, physiology), motion and navigation capacities, and external factors (both the physical environment and living organisms), and links among these components. Most studies simply measured and described the movement of organisms without reference to ecological or internal factors, and the most frequently studied part of the framework was the link between external factors and motion capacity. Few studies looked at the effects on movement of navigation capacity, or internal state, and those were mainly from vertebrates. For invertebrates and plants most studies were at the population level, whereas more vertebrate studies were conducted at the individual level. Consideration of only population-level averages promulgates neglect of between-individual variation in movement, potentially hindering the study of factors controlling movement. Terminology was found to be inconsistent among taxa and subdisciplines. The gaps identified in coverage of movement studies highlight research areas that should be addressed to fully understand the ecology of movement. PMID:19060194

  9. Ecological opportunity and the adaptive diversification of lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellborn, Gary A; Langerhans, R Brian

    2015-01-01

    The tenet that ecological opportunity drives adaptive diversification has been central to theories of speciation since Darwin, yet no widely accepted definition or mechanistic framework for the concept currently exists. We propose a definition for ecological opportunity that provides an explicit mechanism for its action. In our formulation, ecological opportunity refers to environmental conditions that both permit the persistence of a lineage within a community, as well as generate divergent natural selection within that lineage. Thus, ecological opportunity arises from two fundamental elements: (1) niche availability, the ability of a population with a phenotype previously absent from a community to persist within that community and (2) niche discordance, the diversifying selection generated by the adaptive mismatch between a population's niche-related traits and the newly encountered ecological conditions. Evolutionary response to ecological opportunity is primarily governed by (1) spatiotemporal structure of ecological opportunity, which influences dynamics of selection and development of reproductive isolation and (2) diversification potential, the biological properties of a lineage that determine its capacity to diversify. Diversification under ecological opportunity proceeds as an increase in niche breadth, development of intraspecific ecotypes, speciation, and additional cycles of diversification that may themselves be triggered by speciation. Extensive ecological opportunity may exist in depauperate communities, but it is unclear whether ecological opportunity abates in species-rich communities. Because ecological opportunity should generally increase during times of rapid and multifarious environmental change, human activities may currently be generating elevated ecological opportunity – but so far little work has directly addressed this topic. Our framework highlights the need for greater synthesis of community ecology and evolutionary biology, unifying

  10. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  11. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groer, Christopher S [ORNL; Golden, Bruce [University of Maryland; Edward, Wasil [American University

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  12. Ecological genomics of mutualism decline in nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Christie R; Lau, Jennifer A; Heath, Katy D

    2016-03-16

    Anthropogenic changes can influence mutualism evolution; however, the genomic regions underpinning mutualism that are most affected by environmental change are generally unknown, even in well-studied model mutualisms like the interaction between legumes and their nitrogen (N)-fixing rhizobia. Such genomic information can shed light on the agents and targets of selection maintaining cooperation in nature. We recently demonstrated that N-fertilization has caused an evolutionary decline in mutualistic partner quality in the rhizobia that form symbiosis with clover. Here, population genomic analyses of N-fertilized versus control rhizobium populations indicate that evolutionary differentiation at a key symbiosis gene region on the symbiotic plasmid (pSym) contributes to partner quality decline. Moreover, patterns of genetic variation at selected loci were consistent with recent positive selection within N-fertilized environments, suggesting that N-rich environments might select for less beneficial rhizobia. By studying the molecular population genomics of a natural bacterial population within a long-term ecological field experiment, we find that: (i) the N environment is indeed a potent selective force mediating mutualism evolution in this symbiosis, (ii) natural variation in rhizobium partner quality is mediated in part by key symbiosis genes on the symbiotic plasmid, and (iii) differentiation at selected genes occurred in the context of otherwise recombining genomes, resembling eukaryotic models of adaptation.

  13. [Demography and human ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, J M

    1993-01-01

    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  14. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  15. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  16. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  17. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  18. How might epigenetics contribute to ecological speciation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert SMITH, Michael G. RITCHIE

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Speciation research has seen a renewed interest in ecological speciation, which emphasises divergent ecological selection leading to the evolution of reproductive isolation. Selection from divergent ecologies means that phenotypic plasticity can play an important role in ecological speciation. Phenotypic plasticity involves the induction of phenotypes over the lifetime of an organism and emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic marks such as cytosine and protein (histone modifications might regulate such environmental induction. Epigenetic marks play a wide role in a variety of processes including development, sex differentiation and allocation, sexual conflict, regulation of transposable elements and phenotypic plasticity. Here we describe recent studies that investigate epigenetic mechanisms in a variety of contexts. There is mounting evidence for environmentally induced epigenetic variation and for the stable inheritance of epigenetic marks between generations. Thus, epigenetically-based phenotypic plasticity may play a role in adaptation and ecological speciation. However, there is less evidence for the inheritance of induced epigenetic variation across multiple generations in animals. Currently few studies of ecological speciation incorporate the potential for the involvement of epigenetically-based induction of phenotypes, and we argue that this is an important omission [Current Zoology 59 (5: 686-696, 2013 ].

  19. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories...... of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...

  20. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  1. Plant domestication through an ecological lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; Osborne, Colin P; Turcotte, Martin M; Violle, Cyrille

    2015-08-01

    Our understanding of domestication comes largely from archeology and genetics. Here, we advocate using current ecological theory and methodologies to provide novel insights into the causes and limitations of evolution under cultivation, as well as into the wider ecological impacts of domestication. We discuss the importance of natural selection under cultivation, that is, the forces promoting differences in Darwinian fitness between plants in crop populations and of constraints, that is, limitations of diverse nature that, given values for trait X, shorten the range of variation of trait Y, during the domestication process. Throughout this opinion paper, we highlight how ecology can yield insight into the effects of domestication on plant traits, on crop feedback over ecological processes, and on how species interactions develop in croplands.

  2. Social selection parapatry in Afrotropical sunbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McEntee, Jay P.; Peñalba, Joshua V.; Werema, Chacha

    2016-01-01

    The extent of range overlap of incipient and recent species depends on the type and magnitude of phenotypic divergence that separates them, and the consequences of phenotypic divergence on their interactions. Signal divergence by social selection likely initiates many speciation events, but may...... yield niche-conserved lineages predisposed to limit each others’ ranges via ecological competition. Here, we examine this neglected aspect of social selection speciation theory in relation to the discovery of a nonecotonal species border between sunbirds. We find that Nectarinia moreaui and Nectarinia...... fuelleborni meet in a ∼6 km wide contact zone, as estimated by molecular cline analysis. These species exploit similar bioclimatic niches, but sing highly divergent learned songs, consistent with divergence by social selection. Cline analyses suggest that within-species stabilizing social selection on song...

  3. Model-Consistent Sparse Estimation through the Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2009-01-01

    We consider the least-square linear regression problem with regularization by the $\\ell^1$-norm, a problem usually referred to as the Lasso. In this paper, we first present a detailed asymptotic analysis of model consistency of the Lasso in low-dimensional settings. For various decays of the regularization parameter, we compute asymptotic equivalents of the probability of correct model selection. For a specific rate decay, we show that the Lasso selects all the variables that should enter the model with probability tending to one exponentially fast, while it selects all other variables with strictly positive probability. We show that this property implies that if we run the Lasso for several bootstrapped replications of a given sample, then intersecting the supports of the Lasso bootstrap estimates leads to consistent model selection. This novel variable selection procedure, referred to as the Bolasso, is extended to high-dimensional settings by a provably consistent two-step procedure.

  4. RADIOECOLOGY AND ECOLOGICAL IMMUNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  5. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  6. The Unit of Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, F. Fraser

    After summarizing the development of ecology from botanical and zoological studies to a study of entire biological communities, the history of wool growing in England and the development of nomadism on the Asian steppes and the North American prairies is described. These examples are interpreted ecologically and used to illustrate the theses that…

  7. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  8. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  9. Disruptive natural selection predicts divergence between the sexes during adaptive radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lisle, Stephen P; Rowe, Locke

    2017-05-01

    Evolution of sexual dimorphism in ecologically relevant traits, for example, via resource competition between the sexes, is traditionally envisioned to stall the progress of adaptive radiation. An alternative view is that evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism could in fact play an important positive role by facilitating sex-specific adaptation. How competition-driven disruptive selection, ecological sexual dimorphism, and speciation interact during real adaptive radiations is thus a critical and open empirical question. Here, we examine the relationships between these three processes in a clade of salamanders that has recently radiated into divergent niches associated with an aquatic life cycle. We find that morphological divergence between the sexes has occurred in a combination of head shape traits that are under disruptive natural selection within breeding ponds, while divergence among species means has occurred independently of this disruptive selection. Further, we find that adaptation to aquatic life is associated with increased sexual dimorphism across taxa, consistent with the hypothesis of clade-wide character displacement between the sexes. Our results suggest the evolution of ecological sexual dimorphism may play a key role in niche divergence among nascent species and demonstrate that ecological sexual dimorphism and ecological speciation can and do evolve concurrently in the early stages of adaptive radiation.

  10. Characterizing perception of ecological risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniels, T; Axelrod, L J; Slovic, P

    1995-10-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the role of human perception and judgment in ecological risk management. This paper attempts to characterize perceived ecological risk, using the psychometric paradigm developed in the domain of human health risk perception. The research began by eliciting a set of scale characteristics and risk items (e.g., technologies, actions, events, beliefs) from focus group participants. Participants in the main study were 68 university students who completed a survey instrument that elicited ratings for each of 65 items on 30 characteristic scales and one scale regarding general risk to natural environments. The results are presented in terms of mean responses over individuals for each scale and item combination. Factor analyses show that five factors characterize the judgment data. These have been termed: impact on species, human benefits, impact on humans, avoidability, and knowledge of impacts. The factor results correspond with initial expectations and provide a plausible characterization of judgments regarding ecological risk. Some comparisons of mean responses for selected individual items are also presented.

  11. Predictive systems ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G

    2013-11-22

    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  12. What is dental ecology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L

    2012-06-01

    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Consistently weighted measures for complex network topologies

    CERN Document Server

    Heitzig, Jobst; Zou, Yong; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    When network and graph theory are used in the study of complex systems, a typically finite set of nodes of the network under consideration is frequently either explicitly or implicitly considered representative of a much larger finite or infinite set of objects of interest. The selection procedure, e.g., formation of a subset or some kind of discretization or aggregation, typically results in individual nodes of the studied network representing quite differently sized parts of the domain of interest. This heterogeneity may induce substantial bias and artifacts in derived network statistics. To avoid this bias, we propose an axiomatic scheme based on the idea of {\\em node splitting invariance} to derive consistently weighted variants of various commonly used statistical network measures. The practical relevance and applicability of our approach is demonstrated for a number of example networks from different fields of research, and is shown to be of fundamental importance in particular in the study of climate n...

  14. Bolasso: model consistent Lasso estimation through the bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2008-01-01

    We consider the least-square linear regression problem with regularization by the l1-norm, a problem usually referred to as the Lasso. In this paper, we present a detailed asymptotic analysis of model consistency of the Lasso. For various decays of the regularization parameter, we compute asymptotic equivalents of the probability of correct model selection (i.e., variable selection). For a specific rate decay, we show that the Lasso selects all the variables that should enter the model with probability tending to one exponentially fast, while it selects all other variables with strictly positive probability. We show that this property implies that if we run the Lasso for several bootstrapped replications of a given sample, then intersecting the supports of the Lasso bootstrap estimates leads to consistent model selection. This novel variable selection algorithm, referred to as the Bolasso, is compared favorably to other linear regression methods on synthetic data and datasets from the UCI machine learning rep...

  15. What does it mean to be an ecological filmmaker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjort, Mette

    2016-01-01

    Norwegian filmmaker Knut Erik Jensen claims to be an ecological filmmaker. This article explores what this means. Selected examples of filmmakers’ unsound attitudes toward nature are discussed to provide a context for the proposed definition of ecological filmmaking. The latter, it is claimed, goes...

  16. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  17. Urbanism from the Perspective of Ecological Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gump, Paul V.; Adelgerg, Bettina

    1978-01-01

    A perception of ecological psychology on urbanism is presented, with emphasis on the following premises: (1) Urban milieu consists of complexes of behavior settings; and (2) Size of a city should be understood in relationship to the number and variety of its settings, rather than in terms of population size. (Author/MA)

  18. Ecology of mycophagous collimonas bacteria in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höppener-Ogawa, Sachie

    2008-01-01

    Bacteria belonging to the genus Collimonas consist of soil bacteria that can grow at expense of living fungal hyphae i.e. they are mycophagous. This PhD studies deals with the ecology of mycophagous bacteria in soil using collimonads as model organisms. Collimonads were found to be widely distribut

  19. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  20. An evolutionary ecology of individual differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall, Sasha R. X.; Bell, Alison M.; Bolnick, Daniel I.; Ratnieks, Francis L. W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals often differ in what they do. This has been recognised since antiquity. Nevertheless, the ecological and evolutionary significance of such variation is attracting widespread interest, which is burgeoning to an extent that is fragmenting the literature. As a first attempt at synthesis, we focus on individual differences in behaviour within populations that exceed the day-to-day variation in individual behaviour (i.e. behavioural specialisation). Indeed, the factors promoting ecologically relevant behavioural specialisation within natural populations are likely to have far-reaching ecological and evolutionary consequences. We discuss such individual differences from three distinct perspectives: individual niche specialisations, the division of labour within insect societies and animal personality variation. In the process, while recognising that each area has its own unique motivations, we identify a number of opportunities for productive ‘crossfertilisation’ among the (largely independent) bodies of work. We conclude that a complete understanding of evolutionarily and ecologically relevant individual differences must specify how ecological interactions impact the basic biological process (e.g. Darwinian selection, development and information processing) that underpin the organismal features determining behavioural specialisations. Moreover, there is likely to be covariation amongst behavioural specialisations. Thus, we sketch the key elements of a general framework for studying the evolutionary ecology of individual differences. PMID:22897772

  1. Effects of climate dependent modifications of the local conditions on the fauna of selected coastal ecological systems of the middle Baltic Sea. Final report; Auswirkungen von klimaabhaengigen Aenderungen der Standortbedingungen auf die Fauna ausgewaehlter Kuestenoekosysteme der mittleren Ostsee. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Motzfeld, G.; Schultz, R.; Loch, R.; Wohlrab, B.; Cartellieri, M.; Rulik, B.

    2000-07-01

    In the project 'Effects of climate dependent modifications of the local conditions on the fauna of selected coastal ecological systems of the middle Baltic Sea' carabid beetles and spiders were examined with pitfall traps in 1997 and 1998 on two different meadows at the southern Baltic Sea (NE Germany). The investigation areas were the 'Sundisch Meadow', located in the National Park 'Vorpommersche Bodenlandschaft', and the 'Karrendorf Meadows' near Greifswald. The epigeic fauna were examined with five parallel pitfall traps on transects in 20, 40, 60, 100 and 150 cm above NH. In both years investigations of the reference area seawards of the former dike took place on the Karrendorf Meadows, since this area is annually examined in the context of the monitoring 'Revitalisation of the Karrendorf Meadows'. On both investigation areas the regional climatic conditions and the hydrographic situation were registered. Additionally, several soil-parameters were measured at all trap locations: Carbon content, N-content, N{sub C}-relation, pH value, salinity, grain size, water content, damp and dry bulk density. In the context of the long-term monitoring programme 'Revitalisation of the Karrendorf Meadows' the development of the ground beetles and spiders was studied after the vitalisation of this former coastal transgression mire. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen des Teilprojektes 'Auswirkungen von klimaabhaengigen Aenderungen der Standortbedingungen auf die Fauna ausgewaehlter Kuestenoekosysteme der mittleren Ostsee' fanden 1997 und 1998 Bodenfallenuntersuchungen auf der Sundischen Wiese im Nationalpark Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft und auf den Karrendorfer Wiesen bei Greifswald statt. Untersucht wurde die Laufkaefer und Spinnenfauna mit Hilfe eines Transsektes von jeweils fuenf parallelen Bodenfallen in den Hoehenstufen 20, 40, 60, 100 und 150 cm ueber HN. Zusaetzlich wurde 1997 auf der Sundischen Wiese eine

  2. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from Wolfram.com) The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  3. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2003-01-01

    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  4. Rural Mental Health Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Rhonda L.; Wilson, G. Glenn; Usher, Kim

    2015-01-01

    The mental health of people in rural communities is influenced by the robustness of the mental health ecosystem within each community. Theoretical approaches such as social ecology and social capital are useful when applied to the practical context of promoting environmental conditions which...... maximise mental health helping capital to enhance resilience and reduce vulnerably as a buffer for mental illness. This paper explores the ecological conditions that affect the mental health and illness of people in rural communities. It proposes a new mental health social ecology framework that makes full...

  5. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S

    2011-01-01

    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  6. Materials Testing - Digital Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Wiley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Access to credible building product performance information throughout the design and construction process is critical to enable project development, vet product selections, ensure as-built quality, and successfully complete construction. This is common knowledge and part of common practice for nearly all parties involved in design and construction. The sources of such information can range from vernacular to formal – from common practice to special reference. The focus of this paper is one of the more formal or specialized information sources, performance testing, as well as how such performance testing information can be better used. This paper’s goals are to familiarize the reader with performance testing and to depict a new kind of valuable informational tool (digital ecology. Reference to pertinent nomenclature, description of a real world example, and detailed description of such an informational tool’s values will be provided.The major content of this paper was developed during project-based work and firm-funded internal research at point b design, ltd. over approximately the previous 4 years. The phrase ‘digital ecology’ as herein used is a new concept proposed by the author. The analysis contained in this paper could be applied to the field of operations and maintenance as it is herein applied to design and construction; however, operations and maintenance is beyond the scope of this paper and may be addressed in future papers. It is my hope that this paper will contribute to tangible and real improvements of the built environment via continued, positive development within academic and professional practice.

  7. Evolution in Littorina: ecology matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannesson, Kerstin

    2003-03-01

    Organisms of marine rocky shores are exposed to physical stress from abiotic factors, such as temperature, salinity and wave action. These factors vary over compressed temporal and spatial scales, producing an exceedingly heterogeneous habitat with steep gradients of selection, and it seems likely that this has a strong influence on the evolution of populations of rocky shore organisms. With the periwinkles (genus Littorina) as a model group, I review strategies for coping with small-scale heterogeneous environments and what implications these strategies have on the evolution of these species. Some species of Littorina have long-lived pelagic larvae and sites of various habitats are thus recruited from a common gene pool. This largely prevents local adaptation but minor adjustments are possible through a plastic phenotype. Other species of the genus are directly developing with no larval dispersal and among these there is evidence of strong local adaptation forming distinct ecotypes in contrasting habitats by parallel evolution. In at least one of the directly developing species ( L. saxatilis) divergent selection among ecotypes has resulted in partial reproductive barriers that further impede gene flow among ecotypes. Furthermore, convergent evolution among species has produced superficially similar morphs in different habitats. Ecotype formation, ecological reproductive barriers and convergence among species all indicate that ecological processes are critical for evolution of Littorina species.

  8. Ecological operation for Three Gorges reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-xian GUO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The traditional operation rule of Three Gorges reservoir has mainly focused on water for flood control, power generation, navigation, water supply and recreation and given less attention to the negative impacts of reservoir operation on river ecosystem. In order to reduce the negative influence of reservoir operation, ecological operation of the reservoir should be studied to maintain healthy river ecosystem. The study considered the ecological operation targets, including maintaining river environmental flow and protecting the spawning and reproduction of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Based on the flow data from 1900 to 2006 of Yichang gauge as the control station of the Yangtze River, the minimal and optimal river environmental flows were analyzed, and eco-hydrological targets of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps in the Yangtze River were calculated. The paper proposed a reservoir ecological operation model of comprehensively considering flood control, power generation, navigation and ecological environment. Three typical periods including wet, normal and dry year were selected and particle swarm optimization was applied to analyze the model. The results show that there are different influences of ecological operation rules on economic benefit of hydropower station and reservoir ecological operation model can simulate the flood pulse for requirement of spawning of Chinese sturgeon and four major Chinese carps. Finally, ecological operation measures of Three Gorges reservoir were proposed. According to the results, by adopting a suitable re-operation scheme, the hydropower benefit of the reservoir will not decrease dramatically while the ecological demand can be met. The results provide the reference for making the reasonable operation schemes for Three Gorges reservoir.

  9. A Taxonomic and Ecological Survey of Aquatic Invertebrates

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study consisted of the identification and ecological distribution of macroscopic aquatic invertebrates from a pond, empounded by a beaver dam, located at the...

  10. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  11. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  12. Ecological Subsections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the third level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  13. Market Squid Ecology Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  14. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  15. Ecological Sections of Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  16. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted

    2012-01-01

    We increasingly interact with multiple interactive artifacts with overlapping capabilities during our daily activities. It has previously been shown that the use of an interactive artifact cannot be understood in isolation, but artifacts must be understood as part of an artifact ecology, where ar...... in artifact ecologies cannot be understood as static, instead they evolve dynamically over time. We provide activity theory-based concepts to explain these dynamics....

  17. Developments in numerical ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.

    1987-01-01

    From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics.

  18. Indicators of Ecological Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-03

    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  19. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  20. Sraffa and ecological economics

    OpenAIRE

    Verger, Yoann

    2015-01-01

    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  1. Evolutionary model on market ecology of investors and investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Lü, Linyuan; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2013-08-01

    The interactions between investors and investments are of significant importance to understand the dynamics of financial markets. An evolutionary model is proposed to investigate the dynamic behaviors of investors and investments in a market ecology. The investors are divided into two groups, active ones and passive ones, distinguished by different selection capabilities based on the partial information, while the investments are simply categorized as good ones and bad ones. Without external influence, the system consisting of both investors and investments can self-organize to a quasi-stationary state according to their own strategies associating with the gains of market information. The model suggests that the partial information asymmetry of investors and various qualities of investments commonly give rise to a diverse dynamic behavior of the system by quantifying the fraction of active investors and of good investment at the quasi-stationary state.

  2. Ecology of North Sea fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daan, N.; Bromley, P. J.; Hislop, J. R. G.; Nielsen, N. A.

    Fishes of the North Sea include over 200 species exhibiting widely differing ecological characteristics. There is a wealth of literature and, in this paper, we have restricted ourselves to providing generalized data on the more abundant species, with a view of highlighting those aspects which link the total fish community to the biotic and abiotic environment. There is necessarily a bias towards commercial species, because most of the pertinent information is related specifically to fish which are heavily fished. However, since there are few abundant species which are not exploited, the ecological links of the total fish community to other components of the system are well represented by the selection. Moreover, exploitation of the fish community may have indirectly affected the ecological relationships in the entire system. It follows that an understandinf of the impact of fisheries on the fish community is likely to play a key role in helping us to understand how the North Sea ecosystem functions. The paper highlights various ecological aspects of the fish fauna including population dynamics, spawning in time and space, distribution, variations in year class strength, feeding, density-dependent growth and changes in species composition. Despite long time series of quantitative biological information for individual species and the obvious impact of fisheries on longevity and productivity of the fish community, the general conclusion is that it remains very difficult to separate effects of fisheries and of the environment on reproductive success, in which the variation is the most important destabilizing factor in the regulation of exploited fish populations. Another conclusion is that the spatial heterogeneity of the fish community in the North Sea is a factor of considerable concern in trying to link fish production to other components. It would seem likely that, to improve our understanding of the ecological linkages in the entire system, the spatial differences

  3. 武汉现代新型城市圈文化生态培育的路径选择%Access Selecting of Cultural Ecological Cultivation in the Modern New-type Urban Circle of Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方爱清

    2011-01-01

    The changing time leads to the change of our cultural ecology.The fact that the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan was approved by the state government as a reforming experimental zone comprehensively assorted with construction of the "two-type society" is a good chance for historical development in constructing cultural ecology.The paper is to analyze the logical relationships between construction of the "two-type society" and cultural ecology,to observe the new demand of the construction of "two-type society" for the cultural ecology in the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan,and to raise basic way of thinking about the construction of the cultural ecology of the modern new-type urban circle of Wuhan from a point of the chance and difficulties concerning the present construction of "two-type" society" faced by Wuhan City".Special attention is given to Wuhan's reality.%时代的变迁使我们的文化生态发生了变化。武汉现代新型城市圈被国家正式批准为"两型社会"建设综合配套改革试验区,对于文化生态建设来说,是一个难得的历史性发展机遇。剖析"两型社会"建设与文化生态之间的逻辑关系,透视"两型社会"建设对武汉现代新型城市圈文化生态的新要求,从武汉市当前"两型社会"建设所面临的机遇和困境着手,重点结合武汉实际,提出武汉现代新型城市圈生态文化建设的基本思路。

  4. 关于中国特色社会主义生态文明建设路径的若干思考%On the Persistence Interpretation and Selection Path of Promoting Ecological Progress of Socialism with Chinese Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田贵平; 竟辉; 李齐亚

    2014-01-01

    中国特色社会主义生态文明建设要在坚持中国道路的基础上遵循相应的社会视角、自然视角、科学视角和价值视角,并以此为根本指针来认清我国强化生态环境保护的紧迫性和艰巨性及加强生态文明建设的重要性和必要性。为此,我们要积极探索中国特色社会主义生态文明建设的有效路径,坚持中国特色社会主义道路,依靠人民群众主体力量,健全和完善生态文明制度,加强和改善党的领导,不断推动美丽中国建设和实现中华民族永续发展,继而努力走向生态文明新时代。%Based on adhering to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, the ecological progress of socialism with Chinese characteristics should abide by society perspective, nature view, value perspec-tive and science perspective. Under the guidance of these perspective, we should also realize the urgency and difficulty of strengthening ecological environment protection, the importance and necessity of strength-ening the construction of ecological civilization. What’ s more, in order to promote the work to build a beautiful country, achieve lasting and sustainable development of the Chinese nation and make great ef-forts towards a new era of socialism ecological civilization, we must adhere to the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, rely on the main body strength of masses of the masses, improve and perfect the system of ecological civilization, strengthen and improve the leadership of CCP.

  5. 浙江主要生态经济造林树种轻基质育苗的容器筛选%Seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁冬明; 林磊; 严春风; 周志春

    2011-01-01

    选用木荷Schima superba,湿地松Pinus elliottii,苦槠Castanopsis sclerophylla,青冈Cyclobalanopsis goauca,杨梅Myrica rubra,樟树Cinnamomun camphora,无患子Sapindus mukorossi和红叶石楠Photinia serrulata等浙江省主要生态经济造林树种,开展容器类型和规格对其l~2年生容器苗生长影响的系统研究.结果表明,不同树种容器苗对不同容器类型和规格的生长反应差异很大.对于1年生容器苗培育,以无纺布网袋容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现最优,在林木穴盘、塑料薄膜容器和软质塑料杯等3种育苗容器中各树种容器苗生长均属正常,而硬质锥形塑料管和纸杯容器其容器苗生长表现较差;对于2年生容器大苗培育,以可拆式塑料容器作为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长表现皆显著优于其他类型容器,以无纺布网袋容器为育苗容器的各树种容器苗生长均较好,以软质塑料杯和纸杯容器为育苗容器的容器苗生长较差.相关分析发现,各树种1年生容器苗的苗高、地径、干物质积累量和根体积等生长性状与育苗容器直径和高度相关性不显著,而各树种2年生容器苗的主要生长性状与容器规格皆呈显著的正相关,意味着为培育2年生的容器大苗,选择规格较大的容器是关键的技术措施之一.表4参17%To aid in seedling container selection for important ecological and economic afforestation species (Schima superba, Pinus elliottii, Castanopsis sclerophylla, Cyclobalanopsis glauca, Myrica rubra,Cinnamomum camphora, Sapindus mukorossi, and Photinia serrulata) in Zhejiang Province, effect of container types (non-woven fabric containers, tree plugs, plastic film containers, soft plastic cups, hard conical plastic tubes, paper cup containers and demountable plastic containers) and sizes (container diameter and height) on the annual and biennial seedling growth of the afforestation species mentioned above were determined

  6. Ecological adaptation of diverse honey bee (Apis mellifera populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Parker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Honey bees are complex eusocial insects that provide a critical contribution to human agricultural food production. Their natural migration has selected for traits that increase fitness within geographical areas, but in parallel their domestication has selected for traits that enhance productivity and survival under local conditions. Elucidating the biochemical mechanisms of these local adaptive processes is a key goal of evolutionary biology. Proteomics provides tools unique among the major 'omics disciplines for identifying the mechanisms employed by an organism in adapting to environmental challenges. RESULTS: Through proteome profiling of adult honey bee midgut from geographically dispersed, domesticated populations combined with multiple parallel statistical treatments, the data presented here suggest some of the major cellular processes involved in adapting to different climates. These findings provide insight into the molecular underpinnings that may confer an advantage to honey bee populations. Significantly, the major energy-producing pathways of the mitochondria, the organelle most closely involved in heat production, were consistently higher in bees that had adapted to colder climates. In opposition, up-regulation of protein metabolism capacity, from biosynthesis to degradation, had been selected for in bees from warmer climates. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, our results present a proteomic interpretation of expression polymorphisms between honey bee ecotypes and provide insight into molecular aspects of local adaptation or selection with consequences for honey bee management and breeding. The implications of our findings extend beyond apiculture as they underscore the need to consider the interdependence of animal populations and their agro-ecological context.

  7. On the practical usage of genetic algorithms in ecology and evolution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamblin, Steven; Hansen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Genetic algorithms are a heuristic global optimisation technique mimicking the action of natural selection to solve hard optimisation problems, which has enjoyed growing usage in evolution and ecology...

  8. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin

  9. Urban ecology and its Importance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾玛诺

    2015-01-01

    With the development of ecological problems are becoming more and more serious people pay more and more attention on ecological city,, this paper analyzes the sources of city ecological problems from the angle of the city planning, to explore the feasible measures to solve or al eviate the increasingly serious ecological problems.

  10. Only half right: species with female-biased sexual size dimorphism consistently break Rensch's rule.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J Webb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most animal species display Sexual Size Dimorphism (SSD: males and females consistently attain different sizes, most frequently with females being larger than males. However the selective mechanisms driving patterns of SSD remain controversial. 'Rensch's rule' proposes a general scaling phenomenon for all taxa, whereby SSD increases with average body size when males are larger than females, and decreases with body size when females are larger than males. Rensch's rule appears to be general in the former case, but there is little evidence for the rule when females are larger then males. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using comprehensive data for 1291 species of birds across 30 families, we find strong support for Rensch's rule in families where males are typically larger than females, but no overall support for the rule in families with female-biased SSD. Reviewing previous studies of a broad range of taxa (arthropods, reptiles, fish and birds showing predominantly female-biased SSD, we conclude that Rensch's conjecture is the exception rather than the rule in such species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The absence of consistent scaling of SSD in taxa with female-biased SSD, the most prevalent direction of dimorphism, calls into question previous general evolutionary explanations for Rensch's rule. We propose that, unlike several other ecological scaling relationships, Rensch's rule does not exist as an independent scaling phenomenon.

  11. Consistent individual differences in the social phenotypes of wild great tits, Parus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, L M; Firth, J A; Farine, D R; Voelkl, B; Crates, R A; Culina, A; Garroway, C J; Hinde, C A; Kidd, L R; Psorakis, I; Milligan, N D; Radersma, R; Verhelst, B L; Sheldon, B C

    2015-10-01

    Despite growing interest in animal social networks, surprisingly little is known about whether individuals are consistent in their social network characteristics. Networks are rarely repeatedly sampled; yet an assumption of individual consistency in social behaviour is often made when drawing conclusions about the consequences of social processes and structure. A characterization of such social phenotypes is therefore vital to understanding the significance of social network structure for individual fitness outcomes, and for understanding the evolution and ecology of individual variation in social behaviour more broadly. Here, we measured foraging associations over three winters in a large PIT-tagged population of great tits, and used a range of social network metrics to quantify individual variation in social behaviour. We then examined repeatability in social behaviour over both short (week to week) and long (year to year) timescales, and investigated variation in repeatability across age and sex classes. Social behaviours were significantly repeatable across all timescales, with the highest repeatability observed in group size choice and unweighted degree, a measure of gregariousness. By conducting randomizations to control for the spatial and temporal distribution of individuals, we further show that differences in social phenotypes were not solely explained by within-population variation in local densities, but also reflected fine-scale variation in social decision making. Our results provide rare evidence of stable social phenotypes in a wild population of animals. Such stable social phenotypes can be targets of selection and may have important fitness consequences, both for individuals and for their social-foraging associates.

  12. BMC Ecology image competition 2014: the winning images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal’s Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn’t let you miss out on. PMID:25178017

  13. BMC Ecology image competition 2014: the winning images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Simon; Henderson, Caspar; Baguette, Michel; Bonsall, Michael B; Hughes, David; Settele, Josef

    2014-08-29

    BMC Ecology showcases the winning entries from its second Ecology Image Competition. More than 300 individual images were submitted from an international array of research scientists, depicting life on every continent on earth. The journal's Editorial Board and guest judge Caspar Henderson outline why their winning selections demonstrated high levels of technical skill and aesthetic sense in depicting the science of ecology, and we also highlight a small selection of highly commended images that we simply couldn't let you miss out on.

  14. Ecological balance for supermarket refrigeration in Switzerland; Oekobilanz fuer Supermarkt-Kaelteanlagen in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischknecht, R. [ESU-services, Uster (Switzerland)

    2000-04-01

    In the context of an ecological balance of heat pumps and refrigeration plants for the area supermarket cooling was stated that in respect of the environmental the greenhouse effect and ozone depletion give first priority to the selection of the refrigerant and the consistent minimization of the losses of refrigerant. The monitoring of the losses of refrigerant can be strongly improved. (orig.) [German] Im Rahmen einer Oekobilanz von Waermepumpen und Kaelteanlagen wurde fuer den Bereich Supermarktkaelte festgestellt, dass bei den Umweltwirkungen Treibhauseffekt und Ozonschichtabbau der Wahl des Kaeltemittels und der konsequenten Minimierung der Kaeltemittelverluste erste Prioritaet zukommt. Das Monitoring der Kaeltemittelverluste ist stark verbesserungsfaehig. (orig.)

  15. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    OpenAIRE

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.

    2011-01-01

    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engineering: from Concepts to Application” organized by the Ecological Engineering Applications Group GAIE. This paper presents the results of the workshop related to three key questions: (1) what are t...

  16. Coping with ecological catastrophe: crossing major thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cairns, Jr.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The combination of human population growth and resource depletion makes catastrophes highly probable. No long-term solutions to the problems of humankind will be discovered unless sustainable use of the planet is achieved. The essential first step toward this goal is avoiding or coping with global catastrophes that result from crossing major ecological thresholds. Decreasing the number of global catastrophes will reduce the risks associated with destabilizing ecological systems, which could, in turn, destabilize societal systems. Many catastrophes will be local, regional, or national, but even these upheavals will have global consequences. Catastrophes will be the result of unsustainable practices and the misuse of technology. However, avoiding ecological catastrophes will depend on the development of eco-ethics, which is subject to progressive maturation, comments, and criticism. Some illustrative catastrophes have been selected to display some preliminary issues of eco-ethics.

  17. Strategies of Path Dependence and Selection of Ecological Economy Development in Qiannan Prefecture%黔南州生态经济发展的路径依赖与选择策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖国学; 郭治友; 黄明辉; 李永波; 莫光友

    2012-01-01

    黔南布依族苗族自治州(简称黔南州)是位于贵州南部的少数民族地区.民族地区的生态经济既具有生态系统性、公共性、全球性和持续性,又具有政治性、民族性、矛盾性、阶段性和复杂性等特性,在民族地区相对封闭的经济环境中,这些特征通过民族地区不断地自我强化,逐渐形成了强烈的路径依赖.分析了黔南州发展生态经济的缘由,探讨了其发展生态经济的路径依赖的主要类型,提出超越路径依赖的策略.%Qiannan Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture(abbr. Qiannan Prefecture) is a minority territory of nationality which is located in southern Guizhou. The ecological economy of the territory of nationality has characteristics of not only ecological systematicness, publicity, globalization and persistence, but also political nature, nationality, contradictoriness, periodic and complexity and so on. In such relative close economic environment in the territory of nationality, these characteristics are self-reinforced constantly to form gradually some strong path dependences. The author analyzed reasons that developed ecological economy, discussed main types of path dependence and put forward strategies of path dependence in Qiannan Prefecture.

  18. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  19. Ecological approach in constructing residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ružica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a concept sustainable development has evolved over the past two decades from a concept closely associated with the biophysical environment to become much more complex, embracing social, cultural, economic political and esthetic phenomenon, which are invariably in mutual interaction, so they influence sustainability of natural environment. The very notion of "sustainable" we are meeting today in almost all significance areas of human activities. Contemporary planning, projecting and building techniques undoubtedly implied integration of goals of environmental prevention with goals of socio-economic development, all with respecting the esthetic standards. This paper represents experience from foreign praxis. Project defines and resolves objectives from social, economical, morphological and ecological aspects. Most important is aspect of Ecological Optimisation, which consists of main components: energy use optimization, water concept, exemplary waste management concept and ecological soil management.

  20. Urban sound ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne Krogh Groth

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Within recent years, there has been a renewed focus on sound in urban environments. From sound installations in public space to sound festivals in alternative settings, we find a common interest in sound art relating to the urban environment. Artworks or interventions presented in such contexts share the characteristics of site specificity. However, this article will consider the artwork in a broader context by re-examining how sound installations relate to the urban environment. For that purpose, this article brings together ecology terms from acoustic ecology of the sound theories of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel. The article concludes that the ways in which recent sound installations work with urban ecologies vary. While two of the examples blend into the urban environment, the other transfers the concert format and its mode of listening to urban space. Last, and in accordance with recent soundscape research, we point to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments.

  1. [Simulation of urban ecological security pattern based on cellular automata: a case of Dongguan City, Guangdong Province of South China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Sheng; Qiao, Ji-Gang; Ai, Bin

    2013-09-01

    Taking the Dongguan City with rapid urbanization as a case, and selecting landscape ecological security level as evaluation criterion, the urbanization cellular number of 1 km x 1 km ecological security cells was obtained, and imbedded into the transition rules of cellular automata (CA) as the restraint term to control urban development, establish ecological security urban CA, and simulate ecological security urban development pattern. The results showed the integrated landscape ecological security index of the City decreased from 0.497 in 1998 to 0.395 in 2005, indicating that the ecological security at landscape scale was decreased. The CA-simulated integrated ecological security index of the City in 2005 was increased from the measured 0.395 to 0.479, showing that the simulated urban landscape ecological pressure from human became lesser, ecological security became better, and integrated landscape ecological security became higher. CA could be used as an effective tool in researching urban ecological security.

  2. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  3. The spatial optimism model research for the regional land use based on the ecological constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    XU, K.; Lu, J.; Chi, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The study focuses on the Yunnan-Guizhou (i.e. Yunnan province and Guizhou province) Plateau in China. Since the Yunnan-Guizhou region consists of closed basins, the land resources suiting for development are in a shortage, and the ecological problems in the area are quite complicated. In such circumstance, in order to get the applicable basins area and distribution, certain spatial optimism model is needed. In this research, Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and land use data are used to get the boundary rules of the basins distribution. Furthermore, natural risks, ecological risks and human-made ecological risks are integrated to be analyzed. Finally, the spatial overlay analysis method is used to model the developable basins area and distribution for industries and urbanization. The study process can be divided into six steps. First, basins and their distribution need to be recognized. In this way, the DEM data is used to extract the geomorphology characteristics. The plaque regions with gradient under eight degrees are selected. Among these regions, the total area of the plaque with the area above 8 km2 is 54,000 km2, 10% of the total area. These regions are selected to the potential application of industries and urbanization. In the later five steps, analyses are aimed at these regions. Secondly, the natural risks are analyzed. The conditions of the earthquake, debris flow and rainstorm and flood are combined to classify the natural risks. Thirdly, the ecological risks are analyzed containing the ecological sensibility and ecosystem service function importance. According to the regional ecologic features, the sensibility containing the soil erosion, acid rain, stony desertification and survive condition factors is derived and classified according to the medium value to get the ecological sensibility partition. The ecosystem service function importance is classified and divided considering the biology variation protection and water conservation factors. The fourth

  4. Towards an evolutionary ecology of sexual traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwallis, Charlie K; Uller, Tobias

    2010-03-01

    Empirical studies of sexual traits continue to generate conflicting results, leading to a growing awareness that the current understanding of this topic is limited. Here we argue that this is because studies of sexual traits fail to encompass three important features of evolution. First, sexual traits evolve via natural selection of which sexual selection is just one part. Second, selection on sexual traits fluctuates in strength, direction and form due to spatial and temporal environmental heterogeneity. Third, phenotypic plasticity is ubiquitous and generates selection and responses to selection within and across generations. A move from purely gene-focused theories of sexual selection towards research that explicitly integrates development, ecology and evolution is necessary to break the stasis in research on sexual traits.

  5. ECOLOGICAL MARKETING – THE MAIN ELEMENT OF ENTERPRISES ECOLOGICAL POLITICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Oganesyan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In modern market conditions ecological marketing becomes more significant for formation and realization of functions of an ecological policy of the industrial enterprise. It is caused by increasing responsibility of manufacturers before consumers and society. In this article authors consider a role of ecological marketing, and also the factors influence forming and developing in the general administrative structure of the enterprise. Distinctions between principles of the general and ecological marketing, and also features of ecological marketing in the enterprise general system of marketing concepts are highlighted in this article. Here is specified the role of ecological marketing in reproduction process.

  6. Equivalency of Galápagos giant tortoises used as ecological replacement species to restore ecosystem functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Elizabeth A; Gibbs, James P; Cayot, Linda J; Tapia, Washington

    2013-08-01

    Loss of key plant-animal interactions (e.g., disturbance, seed dispersal, and herbivory) due to extinctions of large herbivores has diminished ecosystem functioning nearly worldwide. Mitigating for the ecological consequences of large herbivore losses through the use of ecological replacements to fill extinct species' niches and thereby replicate missing ecological functions has been proposed. It is unknown how different morphologically and ecologically a replacement can be from the extinct species and still provide similar functions. We studied niche equivalency between 2 phenotypes of Galápagos giant tortoises (domed and saddlebacked) that were translocated to Pinta Island in the Galápagos Archipelago as ecological replacements for the extinct saddlebacked giant tortoise (Chelonoidis abingdonii). Thirty-nine adult, nonreproductive tortoises were introduced to Pinta Island in May 2010, and we observed tortoise resource use in relation to phenotype during the first year following release. Domed tortoises settled in higher, moister elevations than saddlebacked tortoises, which favored lower elevation arid zones. The areas where the tortoises settled are consistent with the ecological conditions each phenotype occupies in its native range. Saddlebacked tortoises selected areas with high densities of the arboreal prickly pear cactus (Opuntia galapageia) and mostly foraged on the cactus, which likely relied on the extinct saddlebacked Pinta tortoise for seed dispersal. In contrast, domed tortoises did not select areas with cactus and therefore would not provide the same seed-dispersal functions for the cactus as the introduced or the original, now extinct, saddlebacked tortoises. Interchangeability of extant megaherbivores as replacements for extinct forms therefore should be scrutinized given the lack of equivalency we observed in closely related forms of giant tortoises. Our results also demonstrate the value of trial introductions of sterilized individuals to test

  7. Ecological city planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Rueda

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A territory, a city, a neighbourhood are all ecosystems; a mixture of chemico-physical and organic elements related to each other. That which defines an ecological system is the set of rules and characteristics which condition its relationships, and its duration in time is guaranteed by its efficiency and internal organization which applied to the city is translated in the reduction of the use of natural resources and in the increase of social organization. To increase the efficiency of the urban systems is the necessary condition for the formulation of ecological city planning favouring the maximum liveability of sites. Liveability is directly correlated to the optimization of numerous elements (public space, equipment, services, building techniques, innovative technology, social cohesion, biodiversity. To carry out such objectives, ecological city planning proposes a new model of town planning on three levels (subsoil, ground level, and upper level.

  8. Common ecology quantifies human insurgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohorquez, Juan Camilo; Gourley, Sean; Dixon, Alexander R; Spagat, Michael; Johnson, Neil F

    2009-12-17

    Many collective human activities, including violence, have been shown to exhibit universal patterns. The size distributions of casualties both in whole wars from 1816 to 1980 and terrorist attacks have separately been shown to follow approximate power-law distributions. However, the possibility of universal patterns ranging across wars in the size distribution or timing of within-conflict events has barely been explored. Here we show that the sizes and timing of violent events within different insurgent conflicts exhibit remarkable similarities. We propose a unified model of human insurgency that reproduces these commonalities, and explains conflict-specific variations quantitatively in terms of underlying rules of engagement. Our model treats each insurgent population as an ecology of dynamically evolving, self-organized groups following common decision-making processes. Our model is consistent with several recent hypotheses about modern insurgency, is robust to many generalizations, and establishes a quantitative connection between human insurgency, global terrorism and ecology. Its similarity to financial market models provides a surprising link between violent and non-violent forms of human behaviour.

  9. Niche construction, sources of selection and trait coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin; Odling-Smee, John; Endler, John

    2017-10-06

    Organisms modify and choose components of their local environments. This 'niche construction' can alter ecological processes, modify natural selection and contribute to inheritance through ecological legacies. Here, we propose that niche construction initiates and modifies the selection directly affecting the constructor, and on other species, in an orderly, directed and sustained manner. By dependably generating specific environmental states, niche construction co-directs adaptive evolution by imposing a consistent statistical bias on selection. We illustrate how niche construction can generate this evolutionary bias by comparing it with artificial selection. We suggest that it occupies the middle ground between artificial and natural selection. We show how the perspective leads to testable predictions related to: (i) reduced variance in measures of responses to natural selection in the wild; (ii) multiple trait coevolution, including the evolution of sequences of traits and patterns of parallel evolution; and (iii) a positive association between niche construction and biodiversity. More generally, we submit that evolutionary biology would benefit from greater attention to the diverse properties of all sources of selection.

  10. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  11. Art, Ecology and Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witzke, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    The discourse of ecology and sustainability has gained critical traction in recent years. But how are these concepts framed within the space, language and idea of the exhibition? This panel discussion, moderated by Steven Lam and conducted by email in July 2012, sought to unpack the claims...... and limits of the ecological, looking specifically at various international case studies, within the practice of curatorial and exhibition studies. The discussion begins with a reflection on ‘DON'T/PANIC’ in Durban and ‘Rethink – Contemporary Art and Climate Change’ in Copenhagen, exhibitions that were...

  12. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K.

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals’ selfie corpora.

  13. Consistently Showing Your Best Side? Intra-individual Consistency in #Selfie Pose Orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindell, Annukka K

    2017-01-01

    Painted and photographic portraits of others show an asymmetric bias: people favor their left cheek. Both experimental and database studies confirm that the left cheek bias extends to selfies. To date all such selfie studies have been cross-sectional; whether individual selfie-takers tend to consistently favor the same pose orientation, or switch between multiple poses, remains to be determined. The present study thus examined intra-individual consistency in selfie pose orientations. Two hundred selfie-taking participants (100 male and 100 female) were identified by searching #selfie on Instagram. The most recent 10 single-subject selfies for the each of the participants were selected and coded for type of selfie (normal; mirror) and pose orientation (left, midline, right), resulting in a sample of 2000 selfies. Results indicated that selfie-takers do tend to consistently adopt a preferred pose orientation (α = 0.72), with more participants showing an overall left cheek bias (41%) than would be expected by chance (overall right cheek bias = 31.5%; overall midline bias = 19.5%; no overall bias = 8%). Logistic regression modellng, controlling for the repeated measure of participant identity, indicated that sex did not affect pose orientation. However, selfie type proved a significant predictor when comparing left and right cheek poses, with a stronger left cheek bias for mirror than normal selfies. Overall, these novel findings indicate that selfie-takers show intra-individual consistency in pose orientation, and in addition, replicate the previously reported left cheek bias for selfies and other types of portrait, confirming that the left cheek bias also presents within individuals' selfie corpora.

  14. Toward measuring the impact of ecological disintegrity on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, L E; Soskolne, C L; Newman, S C; Schopflocher, D; Smoyer, K E

    2001-01-01

    Ecological integrity refers to the ability of environmental life-support systems to sustain themselves in the face of human-induced impacts. We used a correlational, aggregate-data study design to explore whether life expectancy, as a general measure of population health, is linked to large-scale declines in ecological integrity. Most of the data were obtained from World Resources Institute publications. Selected surrogate measures of ecological integrity and gross domestic product (GDP) per capita (as a socioeconomic confounder) were modeled, for the first time, using linear regression techniques with life expectancy as the health outcome. We found a modest relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy, but the direction of the association was inconsistent. When GDP per capita was controlled, the relation between ecological integrity and life expectancy was lost. GDP per capita was the overwhelming predictor of health. Any relation between ecological integrity and health may be mediated by socioeconomic factors. The effect of declines in ecological integrity may be cushioned by the exploitation of ecological capital, preventing a direct association between measures of exposure and outcome. In addition, life expectancy may be too insensitive a measure of health impacts related to ecological decline, and more sensitive measures may need to be developed.

  15. Ecological Factors in Human Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, William E

    2017-03-09

    Urie Bronfenbrenner (1992) helped developmental psychologists comprehend and define "context" as a rich, thick multidimensional construct. His ecological systems theory consists of five layers, and within each layer are developmental processes unique to each layer. The four articles in this section limit the exploration of context to the three innermost systems: the individual plus micro- and macrolayers. Rather than examine both the physical features and processes, the articles tend to focus solely on processes associated with a niche. Processes explored include social identity development, social network dynamics, peer influences, and school-based friendship patterns. The works tend to extend the generalization of extant theory to the developmental experience of various minority group experiences.

  16. Consistent Design of Dependable Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blanke, M.

    1996-01-01

    Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented.......Design of fault handling in control systems is discussed, and a method for consistent design is presented....

  17. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  18. The development of ecological tourism and ecological civilization construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波

    2014-01-01

    This passage shows us the characters of ecology tourism and reveals the problems in the modern tourism , emphasises that we should develop ecology tourism and make a link between them, then leads to Sustainable Development.

  19. Metabolomics in chemical ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlisch, Constanze; Pohnert, Georg

    2015-07-01

    Chemical ecology elucidates the nature and role of natural products as mediators of organismal interactions. The emerging techniques that can be summarized under the concept of metabolomics provide new opportunities to study such environmentally relevant signaling molecules. Especially comparative tools in metabolomics enable the identification of compounds that are regulated during interaction situations and that might play a role as e.g. pheromones, allelochemicals or in induced and activated defenses. This approach helps overcoming limitations of traditional bioassay-guided structure elucidation approaches. But the power of metabolomics is not limited to the comparison of metabolic profiles of interacting partners. Especially the link to other -omics techniques helps to unravel not only the compounds in question but the entire biosynthetic and genetic re-wiring, required for an ecological response. This review comprehensively highlights successful applications of metabolomics in chemical ecology and discusses existing limitations of these novel techniques. It focuses on recent developments in comparative metabolomics and discusses the use of metabolomics in the systems biology of organismal interactions. It also outlines the potential of large metabolomics initiatives for model organisms in the field of chemical ecology.

  20. Ecology under lake ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hampton, Stephanie E.; Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Powers, Stephen M.; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H.; Batt, Ryan D.; Labou, Stephanie G.; O'Reilly, Catherine M.; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R.; Stanley, Emily H.; North, Rebecca L.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M.; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L., Jr.; Carey, Cayelan C.; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M.; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N.; Jolley, Jeff C.; Kahilainen, Kimmo K.; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J.; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W.; Mariash, Heather L.; Mckay, Robert M.; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Noges, Peeter; Noges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C.; Post, David M.; Pruett, Matthew J.; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S.; Roberts, Sarah L.; Ruecker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A.; Smith, Derek E.; Sterner, Robert W.; Swann, George E. A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R.; Vogt, Richard J.; Watson, Susan B.; Whiteford, Erika J.; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A.

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experi-ence periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems,due to a historical research focus on summer ‘growing seasons’. We executed the first global

  1. THE AUTOIMMUNE ECOLOGY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan-Manuel eAnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune diseases (ADs represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology, which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation. As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology. In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status, gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  2. Aspects of Marine Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awkerman, Gary L.

    This publication is designed for use in standard science curricula to develop oceanologic manifestations of certain science topics. Included are teacher guides, student activities, and demonstrations to impart ocean science understanding, specifically, aspects of marine ecology, to high school students. The course objectives include the ability of…

  3. Marine and Island Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lawrence J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes an ecology course which provides students with an opportunity to observe aquatic and terrestrial life in the Bahamas. States that students learn scientific methodology by measuring physical and chemical aspects of the island habitats. Provides information on the island, course description and objectives, transportation, facilities, and…

  4. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Miguel A; Zaman, Luis; Wagner, Aaron P; Ofria, Charles

    2013-01-01

    "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms) that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism). Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks) that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved).

  5. Evolving digital ecological networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Fortuna

    Full Text Available "It is hard to realize that the living world as we know it is just one among many possibilities" [1]. Evolving digital ecological networks are webs of interacting, self-replicating, and evolving computer programs (i.e., digital organisms that experience the same major ecological interactions as biological organisms (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism, and mutualism. Despite being computational, these programs evolve quickly in an open-ended way, and starting from only one or two ancestral organisms, the formation of ecological networks can be observed in real-time by tracking interactions between the constantly evolving organism phenotypes. These phenotypes may be defined by combinations of logical computations (hereafter tasks that digital organisms perform and by expressed behaviors that have evolved. The types and outcomes of interactions between phenotypes are determined by task overlap for logic-defined phenotypes and by responses to encounters in the case of behavioral phenotypes. Biologists use these evolving networks to study active and fundamental topics within evolutionary ecology (e.g., the extent to which the architecture of multispecies networks shape coevolutionary outcomes, and the processes involved.

  6. Activity Book: Ocean Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learning, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Presents a collection of activities to help elementary students study ocean ecology. The activities have students investigate ocean inhabitants, analyze animal adaptations, examine how temperature and saltiness affect ocean creatures, and learn about safeguarding the sea. Student pages offer reproducible learning sheets. (SM)

  7. Biodiversity in Benthic Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, Nikolai; Carl, J. D.

    Foreword: This proceeding is based on a set of papers presented at the second Nordic Benthological Meeting held in Silkeborg, November 13-14, 1997. The main theme of the meeting was biodiversity in benthic ecology and the majority of contributions touch on this subject. In addition, the proceeding...

  8. Ecology of lianas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnitzer, S.A.; Bongers, F.; Burnham, R.J.; Putz, F.E.

    2015-01-01

    A liana is a long-stemmed, woody vine that is rooted in the soil at ground level and uses trees to climb up to the canopy to get access to well-lit areas of the forest. The main goal of this book is to present the current status of liana ecology in tropical and temperate forests. In essence, it is a

  9. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    for Sustainability is (generally) a subset of the enterprise innovation portfolio. Effective and efficient integration of Innovation for Sustainability and Sustainable Innovation aids translation of 3E (equity, ecology, economy) enterprise strategyof the Triple Top Line into 3P (people, planet, profit) Triple Bottom...

  10. Ecology in Urban Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Letitia K.; Ryan, Michael

    In this course guide to the teaching of urban ecology, six learning activities on the following topics are outlined: (1) city location and growth; (2) an in-depth study of New Orleans; (3) city shape and structure; (4) size and spacing of cities; (5) cities with special functions; (6) local community study. Educational objectives for each activity…

  11. Ecology and Human Destiny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haught, John F.

    1999-01-01

    Examines eschatology as the heart of Christian faith, suggesting that an appreciation of an eschatological interpretation of the cosmos enables acceptance of nature's transience and a grounding for an ecological ethic. Maintains that recent scientific developments present a promising, rather than pessimistic, picture of the universe. Holds that…

  12. The Autoimmune Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Ramirez-Santana, Carolina; Alzate, Maria A; Molano-Gonzalez, Nicolas; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) represent a heterogeneous group of disorders that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. These conditions share common immunopathogenic mechanisms (i.e., the autoimmune tautology), which explain the clinical similarities they have among them as well as their familial clustering (i.e., coaggregation). As part of the autoimmune tautology, the influence of environmental exposure on the risk of developing ADs is paramount (i.e., the autoimmune ecology). In fact, environment, more than genetics, shapes immune system. Autoimmune ecology is akin to exposome, that is all the exposures - internal and external - across the lifespan, interacting with hereditary factors (both genetics and epigenetics) to favor or protect against autoimmunity and its outcomes. Herein, we provide an overview of the autoimmune ecology, focusing on the immune response to environmental agents in general, and microbiota, cigarette smoking, alcohol and coffee consumption, socioeconomic status (SES), gender and sex hormones, vitamin D, organic solvents, and vaccines in particular. Inclusion of the autoimmune ecology in disease etiology and health will improve the way personalized medicine is currently conceived and applied.

  13. The ecological mandala of M. K. Gandhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Priscilla Kamala

    Industrialization and urbanization have brought about environmental disassociation. The works of Orr, Naess, College of the Atlantic, conservation groups, communities such as Findhorn indicate that responsible personal behavior to the earth is an evident necessity, and growing requirement. This study is a philosophical analysis of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's ecological education. Gandhi's role in the political emancipation India was inseparable from the groundwork he laid environmentally, to light a path in creating a new India through a new human consciousness. Gandhi sought to transform his own life and mind radically along with many dimensions of the social, physical and ideational environment around him with his experiments with Truth. This study accepts as ecological Reality, the Truth that Gandhi claimed to be the purpose and source of his life. The study builds a literary Ecological Mandala, through the theoretical background of Gandhi's ecological education. Using inherently universal human ethics, which I have called universal Simples consisting of three groups, the framework of the Ecological Mandala is built (chapters 2 and 3). The Simples assist the observances, which I have also called the root tools, as they act upon the core of the individual. These are; fearlessness, control of the palate, tolerance, equality, non-possession and non-stealing which found its ideal in Trusteeship, bread labor and brahmacharya. The goal of these observances was Ahimsa, or Truth. Satyagraha is explained as a comprehensive methodology for ecological education which utilizes all aspects of the universal Simples. The fast is a weapon in its arsenal. The applications of Gandhi's ecological education are examined as seen in the eco-communities he established in South Africa, Phoenix and Tolstoy, and in the Ashrams in India (chapters 4 and 5). The eco-communities served as prototypes for the national education that Gandhi sought to implement through the constructive program

  14. [Ecological suitability assessment and optimization of urban land expansion space in Guiyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Cong-hao; Li, Yang-bing; Feng, Yuan-song

    2015-09-01

    Based on the case study of Guiyang City, the minimum cumulative resistance model integrating construction land source, ecological rigid constraints and ecological function type resistance factor, was built by use of cost-distance analysis of urban spatial expansion resistance value through ArcGIS 9.3 software in this paper. Then, the ecological resistance of city spatial expansion of Guiyang from 2010 was simulated dynamically and the ecological suitability classification of city spatial expansion was assessed. According to the conflict between the newly increased city construction land in 2014 and its ecological suitability, the unreasonable city land spatial allocation was discussed also. The results showed that the ecological suitability zonation and the city expansion in the study area were basically consistent during 2010-2014, but the conflict between the new city construction and its land ecological suitability was more serious. The ecological conflict area accounted for 58.2% of the new city construction sites, 35.4% of which happened in the ecological control area, 13.9% in the limited development area and 8.9% in the prohibition development area. The intensification of ecological land use conflict would impair the ecological service function and ecological safety, so this paper put forward the city spatial expansion optimal path to preserve the ecological land and improve the construction land space pattern of Guiyang City so as to ensure its ecological safety.

  15. Ecological engineering. Bridging between ecology and civil engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bohemen, H. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    On the potential role of ecological technology as a bridge towards a sustainable development of infrastructure. The book reviews the input of (landscape) ecology to solve environmental problems due to human activity. Theories about ecological engineering as well as case studies show the magnificent opportunities to integrate human activities in the biosphere.

  16. Personalities in great tits, Parus major : stability and consistency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carere, C; Drent, Piet J.; Privitera, Lucia; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, TGG

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a longitudinal study on great tits from two lines bidirectionally selected for fast or slow exploratory performance during the juvenile phase, a trait thought to reflect different personalities. We analysed temporal stability and consistency of responses within and between situations

  17. Valuation of ecological resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Bilyard, G.R.; Link, S.O.; Ricci, P.F.; Seely, H.E.; Ulibarri, C.A.; Westerdahl, H.E.

    1995-04-01

    Ecological resources are resources that have functional value to ecosystems. Frequently, these functions are overlooked in terms of the value they provide to humans. Environmental economics is in search of an appropriate analysis framework for such resources. In such a framework, it is essential to distinguish between two related subsets of information: (1) ecological processes that have intrinsic value to natural ecosystems; and (2) ecological functions that are values by humans. The present study addresses these concerns by identifying a habitat that is being displaced by development, and by measuring the human and ecological values associated with the ecological resources in that habitat. It is also essential to determine which functions are mutually exclusive and which are, in effect, complementary or products of joint production. The authors apply several resource valuation tools, including contingent valuation methodology (CVM), travel cost methodology (TCM), and hedonic damage-pricing (HDP). One way to derive upper-limit values for more difficult-to-value functions is through the use of human analogs, because human-engineered systems are relatively inefficient at supplying the desired services when compared with natural systems. Where data on the relative efficiencies of natural systems and human analogs exist, it is possible to adjust the costs of providing the human analog by the relative efficiency of the natural system to obtain a more realistic value of the function under consideration. The authors demonstrate this approach in an environmental economic case study of the environmental services rendered by shrub-steppe habitats of Benton County, Washington State.

  18. Evolutionary heritage influences Amazon tree ecology

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho de Souza, Fernanda; Dexter, Kyle G.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Brienen, Roel J.W.; Chave, Jerome; Galbraith, David R.; Lopez Gonzalez, Gabriela; Monteagudo Mendoza, Abel; Pennington, R Toby; Poorter, Lourens; Alexiades, Miguel; Álvarez-dávila, Esteban; Andrade,Ana; Luis E. O. C. Aragão; Araujo-Murakami, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Lineages tend to retain ecological characteristics of their ancestors through time. However, for some traits, selection during evolutionary history may have also played a role in determining trait values. To address the relative importance of these processes requires large-scale quantification of traits and evolutionary relationships amongst species. The Amazonian tree flora comprises a high diversity of angiosperm lineages and species with widely differing life history characteristics, provi...

  19. Ecology of entomopathogenic fungi in agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi that infect insects have received considerable attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Many research projects have focussed on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents. In contrast, surprisingly little is known about the fundamental ecology of most of these fungi in nature. This knowledge is essential in order to receive the most ecosystem services provided by entomopathogenic fungi in agri...

  20. Ecology of entomopathogenic fungi in agroecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Meyling, Nicolai V.

    2008-01-01

    Fungi that infect insects have received considerable attention by scientists for their potential for biological control of pests. Many research projects have focussed on the selection of virulent strains for target pests and their development as biological control agents. In contrast, surprisingly little is known about the fundamental ecology of most of these fungi in nature. This knowledge is essential in order to receive the most ecosystem services provided by entomopathogenic fungi in agri...

  1. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  2. Ecological zones of California deserts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The dataset delineates ecological zones within California deserts. We derived ecological zones by reclassifying LANDFIRE vegetation biophysical setting types, plus...

  3. The redoubtable ecological periodic table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological periodic tables are repositories of reliable information on quantitative, predictably recurring (periodic) habitat–community patterns and their uncertainty, scaling and transferability. Their reliability derives from their grounding in sound ecological principle...

  4. Framework for Ecological Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first step in a long-term effort to develop risk assessment guidelines for ecological effects. Its primary purpose is to offer a simple, flexible structure for conducting and evaluating ecological risk assessment within EPA.

  5. The behavioural ecology of climbing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianoli, Ernesto

    2015-02-12

    Climbing plants require an external support to grow vertically and enhance light acquisition. Vines that find a suitable support have greater performance and fitness than those that remain prostrate. Therefore, the location of a suitable support is a key process in the life history of climbing plants. Numerous studies on climbing plant behaviour have elucidated mechanistic details of support searching and attachment. Far fewer studies have addressed the ecological significance of support-finding behaviour and the factors that affect it. Without this knowledge, little progress can be made in the understanding of the evolution of support-finding behaviour in climbers. Here I review studies addressing ecological causes and consequences of support finding and use by climbing plants. I also propose the use of behavioural ecology theoretical frameworks to study climbing plant behaviour. I show how host tree attributes may determine the probability of successful colonization for the different types of climbers, and examine the evidence of environmental and genetic control of circumnutation behaviour and phenotypic responses to support availability. Cases of oriented vine growth towards supports are highlighted. I discuss functional responses of vines to the interplay between herbivory and support availability under different abiotic environments, illustrating with one study case how results comply with a theoretical framework of behavioural ecology originally conceived for animals. I conclude stressing that climbing plants are suitable study subjects for the application of behavioural-ecological theory. Further research under this framework should aim at characterizing the different stages of the support-finding process in terms of their fit with the different climbing modes and environmental settings. In particular, cost-benefit analysis of climbing plant behaviour should be helpful to infer the selective pressures that have operated to shape current climber ecological

  6. Recent advances in primate nutritional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righini, Nicoletta

    2017-04-01

    Nutritional ecology seeks to explain, in an ecological and evolutionary context, how individuals choose, acquire, and process food to satisfy their nutritional requirements. Historically, studies of primate feeding ecology have focused on characterizing diets in terms of the botanical composition of the plants consumed. Further, dietary studies have demonstrated how patch and food choice in relation to time spent foraging and feeding are influenced by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources and by social factors such as feeding competition, dominance, or partner preferences. From a nutritional perspective, several theories including energy and protein-to-fiber maximization, nutrient mixing, and toxin avoidance, have been proposed to explain the food choices of non-human primates. However, more recently, analytical frameworks such as nutritional geometry have been incorporated into primatology to explore, using a multivariate approach, the synergistic effects of multiple nutrients, secondary metabolites, and energy requirements on primate food choice. Dietary strategies associated with nutrient balancing highlight the tradeoffs that primates face in bypassing or selecting particular feeding sites and food items. In this Special Issue, the authors bring together a set of studies focusing on the nutritional ecology of a diverse set of primate taxa characterized by marked differences in dietary emphasis. The authors present, compare, and discuss the diversity of strategies used by primates in diet selection, and how species differences in ecology, physiology, anatomy, and phylogeny can affect patterns of nutrient choice and nutrient balancing. The use of a nutritionally explicit analytical framework is fundamental to identify the nutritional requirements of different individuals of a given species, and through its application, direct conservation efforts can be applied to regenerate and protect specific foods and food patches that offer the opportunity of a

  7. The Social-Ecological Ideal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamak, A.; Tiittanen, T.

    1992-01-01

    Argues that it is essential for preschool education to explore environmental and ecological values. Discusses cognitive development of socio-ecological knowledge at three age levels. Asserts that folk tales provide good examples of ecological values because beauty usually triumphs over ugliness and good over evil. (CFR)

  8. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  9. Corridors for LIFE; ecological network analysis for Cheshire County (UK)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van der T.; Bunce, R.G.H.; Kuipers, H.; Dirksen, J.

    2003-01-01

    This report gives the result of an analysis of the ecological network, designed for the agricultural plains of Cheshire. Five ecosystem types were selected: meres and mosses, heathland, wetland and rivers, woodland, and grassland,. Species were selected which can be considered representative for the

  10. MDCC: Multi-Data Center Consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Kraska, Tim; Franklin, Michael J; Madden, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Replicating data across multiple data centers not only allows moving the data closer to the user and, thus, reduces latency for applications, but also increases the availability in the event of a data center failure. Therefore, it is not surprising that companies like Google, Yahoo, and Netflix already replicate user data across geographically different regions. However, replication across data centers is expensive. Inter-data center network delays are in the hundreds of milliseconds and vary significantly. Synchronous wide-area replication is therefore considered to be unfeasible with strong consistency and current solutions either settle for asynchronous replication which implies the risk of losing data in the event of failures, restrict consistency to small partitions, or give up consistency entirely. With MDCC (Multi-Data Center Consistency), we describe the first optimistic commit protocol, that does not require a master or partitioning, and is strongly consistent at a cost similar to eventually consiste...

  11. A dual-consistency cache coherence protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ros, Alberto; Jimborean, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Weak memory consistency models can maximize system performance by enabling hardware and compiler optimizations, but increase programming complexity since they do not match programmers’ intuition. The design of an efficient system with an intuitive memory model is an open challenge. This paper proposes SPEL, a dual-consistency cache coherence protocol which simultaneously guarantees the strongest memory consistency model provided by the hardware and yields improvements in both performance and ...

  12. Nutrition, ecology and nutritional ecology: towardan integrated framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Steven J.; Mayntz, David

    2009-01-01

    1. The science of nutritional ecology spans a wide range of fields, including ecology, nutrition, behaviour, morphology, physiology, life history and evolutionary biology. But does nutritional ecology have a unique theoretical framework and research program and thus qualify as a field of research...... in its own right? 2. We suggest that the distinctive feature of nutritional ecology is its integrative nature, and that the field would benefit from more attention to formalizing a theoretical and quantitative framework for developing this. 3. Such a framework, we propose, should satisfy three minimal...... requirements: it should be nutritionally explicit, organismally explicit, and ecologically explicit. 4. We evaluate against these criteria four existing frameworks (Optimal Foraging Theory, Classical Insect Nutritional Ecology, the Geometric Framework for nutrition, and Ecological Stoichiometry), and conclude...

  13. A new approach to hull consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolev Lubomir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hull consistency is a known technique to improve the efficiency of iterative interval methods for solving nonlinear systems describing steady-states in various circuits. Presently, hull consistency is checked in a scalar manner, i.e. successively for each equation of the nonlinear system with respect to a single variable. In the present poster, a new more general approach to implementing hull consistency is suggested which consists in treating simultaneously several equations with respect to the same number of variables.

  14. Challenges of ecological restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halme, Panu; Allen, Katherine A.; Aunins, Ainars

    2013-01-01

    on Biological Diversity. Several northern countries are now taking up this challenge by restoring forest biodiversity with increasing intensity. The ecology and biodiversity of boreal forests are relatively well understood making them a good model for restoration activities in many other forest ecosystems. Here......The alarming rate of ecosystem degradation has raised the need for ecological restoration throughout different biomes and continents. North European forests may appear as one of the least vulnerable ecosystems from a global perspective, since forest cover is not rapidly decreasing and many...... ecosystem services remain at high level. However, extensive areas of northern forests are heavily exploited and have lost a major part of their biodiversity value. There is a strong requirement to restore these areas towards a more natural condition in order to meet the targets of the Convention...

  15. Fundamental ecology is fundamental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courchamp, Franck; Dunne, Jennifer A; Le Maho, Yvon; May, Robert M; Thébaud, Christophe; Hochberg, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The primary reasons for conducting fundamental research are satisfying curiosity, acquiring knowledge, and achieving understanding. Here we develop why we believe it is essential to promote basic ecological research, despite increased impetus for ecologists to conduct and present their research in the light of potential applications. This includes the understanding of our environment, for intellectual, economical, social, and political reasons, and as a major source of innovation. We contend that we should focus less on short-term, objective-driven research and more on creativity and exploratory analyses, quantitatively estimate the benefits of fundamental research for society, and better explain the nature and importance of fundamental ecology to students, politicians, decision makers, and the general public. Our perspective and underlying arguments should also apply to evolutionary biology and to many of the other biological and physical sciences. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Biosemiotics and ecological monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruni, Luis Emilio

    2001-01-01

    Through recent decades a global cultural-institutional network has gradually grown up to project, implement and use the enormous technological web that is supposed to observe, monitor, communicate, inventory and asses our environment and its biodiversity in order to implement sustainable management...... models. The majority of “knowledge tools” that have been incorporated in the mainstream of this “techno-web” are amply based on a combination of mechanistic biology, genetic reductionism, economical determinism and neo-Darwinian cultural and biological perspectives. These approaches leave aside many...... of the qualitative and relational aspects that can only be grasped by considering the semiotic networks operative in complex ecological and cultural systems. In this paper, it is suggested that a biosemiotic approach to ecology may prove useful for the modelling process, which in turn will allow the construction...

  17. Chasing Ecological Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Basic research on biodiversity has concentrated on individual species—naming new species, studying distribution patterns, and analyzing their evolutionary relationships. Yet biodiversity is more than a collection of individual species; it is the combination of biological entities and processes that support life on Earth. To understand biodiversity we must catalog it, but we must also assess the ways species interact with other species to provide functional support for the Tree of Life. Ecological interactions may be lost well before the species involved in those interactions go extinct; their ecological functions disappear even though they remain. Here, I address the challenges in studying the functional aspects of species interactions and how basic research is helping us address the fast-paced extinction of species due to human activities. PMID:27631692

  18. Editorial: Pedagogical Media Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothee M. Meister

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available From educational gaming through portable e-readers to cell phones, media are interpenetrating educational spaces and activities. Accordingly, understanding media in environmental or ecological terms has become increasingly important for education internationally. In North America, for example, the centenary of McLuhan’s birth has focused attention on approaches to media – whether oral, textual, electronic or digital– as a kind of environment in which education takes place. In parts of Europe, the so-called mediatic turn – following on the linguistic and iconic turns – has similarly emphasized the role of media as a condition for the possibility of educational activities and programs. With a few exceptions1 the papers in this special issue were first presented at the conference «Educational Media Ecologies: International Perspectives» which took place at the University of Paderborn, Germany, on March 27–28, 2012.2 The event was an interdisciplinary and transatlantic endeavor to bring together a wide range of perspectives on various issues relevant to educational media ecologies,3 and on related debates on mediation, medialization, mediatization, and mediality.4 The purpose of this volume, like the conference, is to foster and deepen international dialogue in the area of educational media. Areas of research and scholarship relevant to this dialogue include educational media, media literacy, educational philosophy, and media and cultural studies. The contributions, described below, put conceptual issues as well as social practices and applications at the center of the debate. Klaus Rummler opens the issue by clarifying the concept of ecology itself. Referencing a range of work over the past 50 years, Rummler describes how ecological models have been cast in sociological, semiotic, cultural, mediatic and other terms, and he explains the implications of these various perspectives for the study of educational contexts. Rummler also

  19. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀青

    2014-01-01

    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im-prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the"bigfoot aesthetics"innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  20. To the Ecological Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀青

    2014-01-01

    Landscape design is one of the space form and space environment comprehensive planning and design, to im- prove the quality of urban environment, quality of life and urban landscape level play a very important role.It is expounded in this article based on the value of landscape ecological aesthetics under the background of productive landscape, discusses the "bigfoot aesthetics" innovative application in modern landscape design and new thinking.

  1. Initiatives of Ecological Responsibility

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Sergeevich Volodin; Igor Valeryevich Moshkin; Veronika Vasilyevna Khubulova

    2015-01-01

    Preservation of environment is one of the global problems for the mankind. The concept of sustainable development presented at the governmental level in 1987 urged to fix at the interstate level the basic principles of development of humanity in harmony with the nature. The Charter signed in 1991 “Business and sustainable development” proclaimed a new stage of development of world entrepreneurship – business had to become ecologicallyoriented and to form the ecologically-oriented demand. In r...

  2. Personality Consistency in Dogs: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratkin, Jamie L.; Sinn, David L.; Patall, Erika A.; Gosling, Samuel D.

    2013-01-01

    Personality, or consistent individual differences in behavior, is well established in studies of dogs. Such consistency implies predictability of behavior, but some recent research suggests that predictability cannot be assumed. In addition, anecdotally, many dog experts believe that ‘puppy tests’ measuring behavior during the first year of a dog's life are not accurate indicators of subsequent adult behavior. Personality consistency in dogs is an important aspect of human-dog relationships (e.g., when selecting dogs suitable for substance-detection work or placement in a family). Here we perform the first comprehensive meta-analysis of studies reporting estimates of temporal consistency of dog personality. A thorough literature search identified 31 studies suitable for inclusion in our meta-analysis. Overall, we found evidence to suggest substantial consistency (r = 0.43). Furthermore, personality consistency was higher in older dogs, when behavioral assessment intervals were shorter, and when the measurement tool was exactly the same in both assessments. In puppies, aggression and submissiveness were the most consistent dimensions, while responsiveness to training, fearfulness, and sociability were the least consistent dimensions. In adult dogs, there were no dimension-based differences in consistency. There was no difference in personality consistency in dogs tested first as puppies and later as adults (e.g., ‘puppy tests’) versus dogs tested first as puppies and later again as puppies. Finally, there were no differences in consistency between working versus non-working dogs, between behavioral codings versus behavioral ratings, and between aggregate versus single measures. Implications for theory, practice, and future research are discussed. PMID:23372787

  3. Ecology for a changing earth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Roughgarden, J. (Stanford Univ., CA (United States))

    1990-02-06

    To forecast the ecological impact of global change, research initiatives are needed on the explicit role of humans in ecological systems, and on how ecological processes functioning at different spatial and temporal scales are coupled. Furthermore, to synthesize the results of ecological research for Congress, policymakers, and the general public, a new agency, called the United States Ecological Survey (USES) is urgently required. Also, a national commitment to environmental health, as exemplified by establishing a National Institutes of the Environment (NIE), should be a goal.

  4. New frontiers in nematode ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, H

    1993-09-01

    Future areas of emphasis for research and scholarship in nematode ecology are indicated by pressing agricultural and environmental issues, by new directions in applied nematology, and by current technological advances. Studies in nematode ecology must extend beyond observation, counting, and simple statistical analysis. Experimentation and the testing of hypotheses are needed for understanding the biological mechanisms of ecological systems. Opportunities for fruitful experimentation in nematode ecology are emerging at the ecosystem, community, population, and individual levels. Nematode ecologists will best promote their field of study by closely monitoring and participating in the advances, initiatives, developments, and directions in the larger field of ecology.

  5. Ecology under lake ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Stephanie E; Galloway, Aaron W E; Powers, Stephen M; Ozersky, Ted; Woo, Kara H; Batt, Ryan D; Labou, Stephanie G; O'Reilly, Catherine M; Sharma, Sapna; Lottig, Noah R; Stanley, Emily H; North, Rebecca L; Stockwell, Jason D; Adrian, Rita; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Arvola, Lauri; Baulch, Helen M; Bertani, Isabella; Bowman, Larry L; Carey, Cayelan C; Catalan, Jordi; Colom-Montero, William; Domine, Leah M; Felip, Marisol; Granados, Ignacio; Gries, Corinna; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Haberman, Juta; Haldna, Marina; Hayden, Brian; Higgins, Scott N; Jolley, Jeff C; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Kaup, Enn; Kehoe, Michael J; MacIntyre, Sally; Mackay, Anson W; Mariash, Heather L; McKay, Robert M; Nixdorf, Brigitte; Nõges, Peeter; Nõges, Tiina; Palmer, Michelle; Pierson, Don C; Post, David M; Pruett, Matthew J; Rautio, Milla; Read, Jordan S; Roberts, Sarah L; Rücker, Jacqueline; Sadro, Steven; Silow, Eugene A; Smith, Derek E; Sterner, Robert W; Swann, George E A; Timofeyev, Maxim A; Toro, Manuel; Twiss, Michael R; Vogt, Richard J; Watson, Susan B; Whiteford, Erika J; Xenopoulos, Marguerite A

    2017-01-01

    Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors. Plankton were more abundant under ice than expected; mean winter values were 43.2% of summer values for chlorophyll a, 15.8% of summer phytoplankton biovolume and 25.3% of summer zooplankton density. Dissolved nitrogen concentrations were typically higher during winter, and these differences were exaggerated in smaller lakes. Lake size also influenced winter-summer patterns for dissolved organic carbon (DOC), with higher winter DOC in smaller lakes. At coarse levels of taxonomic aggregation, phytoplankton and zooplankton community composition showed few systematic differences between seasons, although literature suggests that seasonal differences are frequently lake-specific, species-specific, or occur at the level of functional group. Within the subset of lakes that had longer time series, winter influenced the subsequent summer for some nutrient variables and zooplankton biomass. © 2016 The Authors. Ecology Letters published by CNRS and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Ecological planning: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Frederick; Brooks, Kenneth

    1981-11-01

    Beginning with the passage of the National Environmental Policy Act in 1969, the federal government of the United States has enacted numerous pieces of legislation intended to protect or conserve the environment. Other national governments have also enacted environmental legislation during the past two decades. State and local governments have also adopted policies concerned with environmental planning and management. Multiple laws and overlapping governmental agency responsibilities have confused development and resource management efforts. A comprehensive methodology that integrates the legal mandates and the agency missions into a common and unified framework is needed. Ecological planning offers such a method. Application of the method allows planners and resource managers to better understand the nature and character of the land and/or resource and therefore make better decisions about its appropriate use or management. The steps taken in an ecological planning process—1) goal setting, 2) inventory and analysis of data, 3) suitability analysis, 4) developing alternatives, 5) implementation, 6) administration, and 7) evaluation—are outlined and explained. Hand-drawn overlays and computer programs as techniques for handling ecological planning information are compared. Observations and suggestions for further research are offered.

  7. Resilience Through Ecological Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazia Brunetta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the strategic role that urban biodiversity and ecosystem services management, natural infrastructure and adaptive governance approaches can play in making our economies and societies more resilient and in linking human societies and the natural environment. Resilience – a concept that entered the debate on urban governance – means the ability of urban systems, considered as linear-systems, to react to external disturbances by returning to some socio-ecological equilibrium steady-state by overcoming a crisis period (Gunderson & al. 2010, Newman & al. 2009. In this view, green infrastructures can assume a strategic role in restoring and enhancing the ecological and environmental livability in urban areas. Starting from the International and European context, the paper discusses innovative programs and interdisciplinary projects and practices (some cases in Turin Metropolitan Area to demonstrate how green infrastructures can increase the adaptive capacity of urban systems in term of resilience. They can contribute to increase the ability of European cities to adapt to climate change and to reduce their ecological footprints, to enhance security and life quality.

  8. Ecological Econophysics for Degrowth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pueyo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a synthesis of ecological economics with econophysics and other complexity approaches to economics. Arguably, the resulting “ecological econophysics” will be scientifically sounder than mainstream economics and much better suited to addressing a major challenge of our times: the development of democratically-based policies to reduce economic throughput to an environmentally sustainable level without triggering economic crises and without excluding part of the world’s population, i.e., to implement degrowth. Degrowth will need major structural changes, which leads us to question whether there are limits to the malleability of the economic system’s architecture. A fundamental limit will be encountered if, as suggested by the physics of complexity, long-lasting complex systems always occur midway between an ordered and a disordered state. There is much evidence that this hypothesis holds and that the current economic system satisfies this condition. However, this does not mean that the problems posed by this system should be unavoidable. Ecological econophysics gives clues to identifying alternative economic systems that would also function between order and chaos, but which would have radically different implications for environmental sustainability and social justice.

  9. Consistent estimators in random censorship semiparametric models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启华

    1996-01-01

    For the fixed design regression modelwhen Y, are randomly censored on the right, the estimators of unknown parameter and regression function g from censored observations are defined in the two cases .where the censored distribution is known and unknown, respectively. Moreover, the sufficient conditions under which these estimators are strongly consistent and pth (p>2) mean consistent are also established.

  10. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  11. Consistent truncations with massive modes and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide; Faedo, Anton F

    2011-01-01

    We review the basic features of some recently found consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations including massive modes. We emphasize the general ideas underlying the reduction procedure, then we focus on type IIB supergravity on 5-dimensional manifolds admitting a Sasaki-Einstein structure, which leads to half-maximal gauged supergravity in five dimensions. Finally, we comment on the holographic picture of consistency.

  12. CONSISTENT AGGREGATION IN FOOD DEMAND SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Levedahl, J. William; Reed, Albert J.; Clark, J. Stephen

    2002-01-01

    Two aggregation schemes for food demand systems are tested for consistency with the Generalized Composite Commodity Theorem (GCCT). One scheme is based on the standard CES classification of food expenditures. The second scheme is based on the Food Guide Pyramid. Evidence is found that both schemes are consistent with the GCCT.

  13. A Framework of Memory Consistency Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡伟武; 施巍松; 等

    1998-01-01

    Previous descriptions of memory consistency models in shared-memory multiprocessor systems are mainly expressed as constraints on the memory access event ordering and hence are hardware-centric.This paper presents a framework of memory consistency models which describes the memory consistency model on the behavior level.Based on the understanding that the behavior of an execution is determined by the execution order of conflicting accesses,a memory consistency model is defined as an interprocessor synchronization mechanism which orders the execution of operations from different processors.Synchronization order of an execution under certain consistency model is also defined.The synchronization order,together with the program order determines the behavior of an execution.This paper also presents criteria for correct program and correct implementation of consistency models.Regarding an implementation of a consistency model as certain memory event ordering constraints,this paper provides a method to prove the correctness of consistency model implementations,and the correctness of the lock-based cache coherence protocol is proved with this method.

  14. Sticky continuous processes have consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Christian; Pakkanen, Mikko; Sayit, Hasanjan

    Under proportional transaction costs, a price process is said to have a consistent price system, if there is a semimartingale with an equivalent martingale measure that evolves within the bid-ask spread. We show that a continuous, multi-asset price process has a consistent price system, under arb...

  15. Testing the visual consistency of web sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geest, van der Thea; Loorbach, Nicole

    2005-01-01

    Consistency in the visual appearance of Web pages is often checked by experts, such as designers or reviewers. This article reports a card sort study conducted to determine whether users rather than experts could distinguish visual (in-)consistency in Web elements and pages. The users proved to agre

  16. Putting Consistent Theories Together in Institutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应明生

    1995-01-01

    The problem of putting consistent theories together in institutions is discussed.A general necessary condition for consistency of the resulting theory is carried out,and some sufficient conditions are given for diagrams of theories in which shapes are tree bundles or directed graphs.Moreover,some transformations from complicated cases to simple ones are established.

  17. Adaptive evolution in ecological communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Turcotte

    Full Text Available Understanding how natural selection drives evolution is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. Most studies of adaptation focus on how a single environmental factor, such as increased temperature, affects evolution within a single species. The biological relevance of these experiments is limited because nature is infinitely more complex. Most species are embedded within communities containing many species that interact with one another and the physical environment. To understand the evolutionary significance of such ecological complexity, experiments must test the evolutionary impact of interactions among multiple species during adaptation. Here we highlight an experiment that manipulates species composition and tracks evolutionary responses within each species, while testing for the mechanisms by which species interact and adapt to their environment. We also discuss limitations of previous studies of adaptive evolution and emphasize how an experimental evolution approach can circumvent such shortcomings. Understanding how community composition acts as a selective force will improve our ability to predict how species adapt to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  18. Adaptive evolution in ecological communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Corrin, Michael S C; Johnson, Marc T J

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how natural selection drives evolution is a key challenge in evolutionary biology. Most studies of adaptation focus on how a single environmental factor, such as increased temperature, affects evolution within a single species. The biological relevance of these experiments is limited because nature is infinitely more complex. Most species are embedded within communities containing many species that interact with one another and the physical environment. To understand the evolutionary significance of such ecological complexity, experiments must test the evolutionary impact of interactions among multiple species during adaptation. Here we highlight an experiment that manipulates species composition and tracks evolutionary responses within each species, while testing for the mechanisms by which species interact and adapt to their environment. We also discuss limitations of previous studies of adaptive evolution and emphasize how an experimental evolution approach can circumvent such shortcomings. Understanding how community composition acts as a selective force will improve our ability to predict how species adapt to natural and human-induced environmental change.

  19. Research on Ecological Civilization Evaluation Index System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ecological civilization, which refers to the harmonious development of man and the nature, has the connotation of the ecological material civilization, ecological consciousness civilization, ecological institutional civilization and ecological behavior civilization. The research on ecological civilization evaluation index system is important in that it can provide the guidance for the construction of ecological civilization, and besides it can improve public recognition of the importance of ecological civil...

  20. Ecological engineering: An introduction to ecotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Joergensen, S.E. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    The authors define ecological engineering and ecotechnology as the design of human society with its natural environment for the benefit of both. It is engineering in the sense that it involves the design of this natural environment using quantitative approaches and basing their approaches on basic science. It is a technology with the primary tool being self-designing ecosystems. The components are all of the biological species of the world. H.T. Odum in his book Environment, Power, and Society (1971, John Wiley and Sons, New York) is acknowledged as the developer of this concept. Part 1 of Ecological Engineering consists of seven chapters in which basic concepts are discussed. Four of these chapters deal with examples, principles and underlying theory. The other three chapters discuss ecological modeling, ecological economics and sustainable agriculture. Part 2 of this book presents a series of twelve case studies which are intended to illustrate applications of the principles. Of five case reported four are ongoing and the fifth was a study of the use of estuarine ponds for wastewater treatment. Three other cases, reported by Chinese scientists deal with wastewater treatment, the use of Spartina plantations for land reclamation, and aquaculture. The remaining case studies are either theoretical discussions or reviews.

  1. Modeling and Testing Legacy Data Consistency Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nytun, J. P.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of data sources are available on the Internet, many of which offer semantically overlapping data, but based on different schemas, or models. While it is often of interest to integrate such data sources, the lack of consistency among them makes this integration difficult....... This paper addresses the need for new techniques that enable the modeling and consistency checking for legacy data sources. Specifically, the paper contributes to the development of a framework that enables consistency testing of data coming from different types of data sources. The vehicle is UML and its...... accompanying XMI. The paper presents techniques for modeling consistency requirements using OCL and other UML modeling elements: it studies how models that describe the required consistencies among instances of legacy models can be designed in standard UML tools that support XMI. The paper also considers...

  2. Statistical ecology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T; Morgan, Byron J T; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1-4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data.

  3. Statistical ecology comes of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Olivier; Buckland, Stephen T.; Morgan, Byron J. T.; Bez, Nicolas; Bertrand, Sophie; Choquet, Rémi; Dray, Stéphane; Etienne, Marie-Pierre; Fewster, Rachel; Gosselin, Frédéric; Mérigot, Bastien; Monestiez, Pascal; Morales, Juan M.; Mortier, Frédéric; Munoz, François; Ovaskainen, Otso; Pavoine, Sandrine; Pradel, Roger; Schurr, Frank M.; Thomas, Len; Thuiller, Wilfried; Trenkel, Verena; de Valpine, Perry; Rexstad, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The desire to predict the consequences of global environmental change has been the driver towards more realistic models embracing the variability and uncertainties inherent in ecology. Statistical ecology has gelled over the past decade as a discipline that moves away from describing patterns towards modelling the ecological processes that generate these patterns. Following the fourth International Statistical Ecology Conference (1–4 July 2014) in Montpellier, France, we analyse current trends in statistical ecology. Important advances in the analysis of individual movement, and in the modelling of population dynamics and species distributions, are made possible by the increasing use of hierarchical and hidden process models. Exciting research perspectives include the development of methods to interpret citizen science data and of efficient, flexible computational algorithms for model fitting. Statistical ecology has come of age: it now provides a general and mathematically rigorous framework linking ecological theory and empirical data. PMID:25540151

  4. Behavior analysis and ecological psychology: past, present, and future. a review of Harry Heft's Ecological Psychology in context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Edward K

    2009-09-01

    Relations between behavior analysis and ecological psychology have been strained for years, notwithstanding the occasional comment on their affinities. Harry Heft's (2001)Ecological Psychology in Context provides an occasion for reviewing anew those relations and affinities. It describes the genesis of ecological psychology in James's radical empiricism; addresses Holt's neorealism and Gestalt psychology; and synthesizes Gibson's ecological psychology and Barker's ecobehavioral science as a means for understanding everyday human behavior. Although behavior analysis is excluded from this account, Heft's book warrants a review nonetheless: It describes ecological psychology in ways that are congruent and complementary with behavior analysis (e.g., nonmediational theorizing; the provinces of natural history and natural science). After introducing modern ecological psychology, I comment on (a) Heft's admirable, albeit selective, historiography; (b) his ecological psychology-past and present-as it relates to Skinner's science and system (e.g., affordances, molar behavior); (c) his misunderstandings of Skinner's behaviorism (e.g., reductionistic, mechanistic, molecular); and (d) the theoretical status of Heft's cognitive terms and talk (i.e., in ontology, epistemology, syntax). I conclude by considering the alliance and integration of ecological psychology and behavior analysis, and their implications for unifying and transforming psychology as a life science, albeit more for the future than at present.

  5. GIS Based Measurement and Regulatory Zoning of Urban Ecological Vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaorui Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Urban ecological vulnerability is measured on the basis of ecological sensitivity and resilience based on the concept analysis of vulnerability. GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis (GIS-MCDA methods are used, supported by the spatial analysis tools of GIS, to define different levels of vulnerability for areas of the urban ecology. These areas are further classified into different types of regulatory zones. Taking the city of Hefei in China as the empirical research site, this study uses GIS-MCDA, including the index system, index weights and overlay rules, to measure the degree of its ecological vulnerability on the GIS platform. There are eight indices in the system. Raking and analytical hierarchy process (AHP methods are used to calculate index weights according to the characteristics of the index system. The integrated overlay rule, including selection of the maximum value, and weighted linear combination (WLC are applied as the overlay rules. In this way, five types of vulnerability areas have been classified as follows: very low vulnerability, low vulnerability, medium vulnerability, high vulnerability and very high vulnerability. They can be further grouped into three types of regulatory zone of ecological green line, ecological grey line and ecological red line. The study demonstrates that ecological green line areas are the largest (53.61% of the total study area and can be intensively developed; ecological grey line areas (19.59% of the total area can serve as the ecological buffer zone, and ecological red line areas (26.80% cannot be developed and must be protected. The results indicate that ecological green line areas may provide sufficient room for future urban development in Hefei city. Finally, the respective regulatory countermeasures are put forward. This research provides a scientific basis for decision-making around urban ecological protection, construction and sustainable development. It also provides theoretical method

  6. Characterizing rangeland using multispectral remotely sensed data and multi-scale ecological units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Catherine Cae Lee

    In this study ecological range unit (ERU) delineations combined with multispectral satellite data were examined to address the need for consistent, spatially accurate, and temporally current methods to inventory rangeland and estimate relative biomass productivity in the context of ecologically sensitive site parameters. ERUs, Landsat 7 ETM+ combined band values, and vegetation index data from 13 scenes acquired from June 2000 to August 2002 were used as predictive variables in linear regression estimates of total biomass using field data collected from 263 locations within 24 ecological range sites on 5 Montana ranches. GIS spatial data analysis techniques were applied to certified soils data themes and published landscape level ecological units to produce the ERU categories used to stratify the field data collection and image analysis, and as a method to test the use of an independent data set for addressing the known influence of soil and site variability on the spectral response of vegetation. ERU categories, in combination with the near and mid-infrared bands (Band 4, 0.75--0.90 mum; Band 7 2.09--2.35 mum), were significant independent variables, and in linear regression predictions collectively explained 66% of the variability in total biomass (p -value ERU categories might be accounting for a component of soil variability. This report also introduces an efficient, remote sensing directed method for preliminary identification of locations within ERUs where indicators of soil and site stability or biotic integrity might be outside the established means. A comparison between sites with spectrally anomalous brightness, greenness, and wetness Tasseled Cap indices and selected measurements of spectrally sensitive rangeland ecological health indicators were used to develop a classification method for locating and screening rangeland categories. Pixels where site productivity and exposed soil percentages were within average field ranges (non-anomalous) were

  7. Into the black and back: the ecology of brain investment in Neotropical army ants (Formicidae: Dorylinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulova, S.; Purce, K.; Khodak, P.; Sulger, E.; O'Donnell, S.

    2016-04-01

    Shifts to new ecological settings can drive evolutionary changes in animal sensory systems and in the brain structures that process sensory information. We took advantage of the diverse habitat ecology of Neotropical army ants to test whether evolutionary transitions from below- to above-ground activity were associated with changes in brain structure. Our estimates of genus-typical frequencies of above-ground activity suggested a high degree of evolutionary plasticity in habitat use among Neotropical army ants. Brain structure consistently corresponded to degree of above-ground activity among genera and among species within genera. The most above-ground genera (and species) invested relatively more in visual processing brain tissues; the most subterranean species invested relatively less in central processing higher-brain centers (mushroom body calyces). These patterns suggest a strong role of sensory ecology (e.g., light levels) in selecting for army ant brain investment evolution and further suggest that the subterranean environment poses reduced cognitive challenges to workers. The highly above-ground active genus Eciton was exceptional in having relatively large brains and particularly large and structurally complex optic lobes. These patterns suggest that the transition to above-ground activity from ancestors that were largely subterranean for approximately 60 million years was followed by re-emergence of enhanced visual function in workers.

  8. Spatial dynamics of ecological public goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakano, Joe Yuichiro; Nowak, Martin A; Hauert, Christoph

    2009-05-12

    The production, consumption, and exploitation of common resources ranging from extracellular products in microorganisms to global issues of climate change refer to public goods interactions. Individuals can cooperate and sustain common resources at some cost or defect and exploit the resources without contributing. This generates a conflict of interest, which characterizes social dilemmas: Individual selection favors defectors, but for the community, it is best if everybody cooperates. Traditional models of public goods do not take into account that benefits of the common resource enable cooperators to maintain higher population densities. This leads to a natural feedback between population dynamics and interaction group sizes as captured by "ecological public goods." Here, we show that the spatial evolutionary dynamics of ecological public goods in "selection-diffusion" systems promotes cooperation based on different types of pattern formation processes. In spatial settings, individuals can migrate (diffuse) to populate new territories. Slow diffusion of cooperators fosters aggregation in highly productive patches (activation), whereas fast diffusion enables defectors to readily locate and exploit these patches (inhibition). These antagonistic forces promote coexistence of cooperators and defectors in static or dynamic patterns, including spatial chaos of ever-changing configurations. The local environment of cooperators and defectors is shaped by the production or consumption of common resources. Hence, diffusion-induced self-organization into spatial patterns not only enhances cooperation but also provides simple mechanisms for the spontaneous generation of habitat diversity, which denotes a crucial determinant of the viability of ecological systems.

  9. On the Initial State and Consistency Relations

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, Lasha

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q->0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  10. On the initial state and consistency relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin, E-mail: lashaber@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  11. Self-Consistent Asset Pricing Models

    CERN Document Server

    Malevergne, Y

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alpha's and beta's of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized beta's with zero effective alpha's, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value $\\alpha_i$ at the origin between an asset $i$'s return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces ``orthogonality'' and ``normality'' conditions linking the beta's, alpha's (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy por...

  12. Consistency in the World Wide Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jakob Grauenkjær

    Tim Berners-Lee envisioned that computers will behave as agents of humans on the World Wide Web, where they will retrieve, extract, and interact with information from the World Wide Web. A step towards this vision is to make computers capable of extracting this information in a reliable...... and consistent way. In this dissertation we study steps towards this vision by showing techniques for the specication, the verication and the evaluation of the consistency of information in the World Wide Web. We show how to detect certain classes of errors in a specication of information, and we show how...... the World Wide Web, in order to help perform consistent evaluations of web extraction techniques. These contributions are steps towards having computers reliable and consistently extract information from the World Wide Web, which in turn are steps towards achieving Tim Berners-Lee's vision. ii...

  13. Consistency Relations for Large Field Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Chiba, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Consistency relations for chaotic inflation with a monomial potential and natural inflation and hilltop inflation are given which involve the scalar spectral index $n_s$, the tensor-to-scalar ratio $r$ and the running of the spectral index $\\alpha$. The measurement of $\\alpha$ with $O(10^{-3})$ and the improvement in the measurement of $n_s$ could discriminate monomial model from natural/hilltop inflation models. A consistency region for general large field models is also presented.

  14. Initiatives of Ecological Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Sergeevich Volodin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of environment is one of the global problems for the mankind. The concept of sustainable development presented at the governmental level in 1987 urged to fix at the interstate level the basic principles of development of humanity in harmony with the nature. The Charter signed in 1991 “Business and sustainable development” proclaimed a new stage of development of world entrepreneurship – business had to become ecologicallyoriented and to form the ecologically-oriented demand. In recent years it is possible to state the huge growth of technologies of effective environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency. The leading world corporations include reduction of the ecological aspects in priority strategic objectives, as much as possible promoting transition to the use of green technologies. “Green” experience of the Western companies showed that reduction of influence on environment is not only the task of the state, but also the effective instrument to increase competitiveness of the organization. Besides the growth of favorable perception of the company by consumers, it receives considerable decrease in prime cost of the made production or the rendered services due to effective and economical use of natural resources. Russia is among the first countries who accepted the concept of sustainable development at the legislative level, nevertheless, only recently we can note that technologies of rational environmental management, energy saving and energy efficiency became one of priority problems of its development. In the present article the advanced methods of the state and private initiatives in the field of ecological responsibility are considered, and the methods of overcoming the new challenges are offered.

  15. Size-Energy Relationships in Ecological Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewall, Brent J.; Freestone, Amy L.; Hawes, Joseph E.; Andriamanarina, Ernest

    2013-01-01

    Hypotheses that relate body size to energy use are of particular interest in community ecology and macroecology because of their potential to facilitate quantitative predictions about species interactions and to clarify complex ecological patterns. One prominent size-energy hypothesis, the energetic equivalence hypothesis, proposes that energy use from shared, limiting resources by populations or size classes of foragers will be independent of body size. Alternative hypotheses propose that energy use will increase with body size, decrease with body size, or peak at an intermediate body size. Despite extensive study, however, size-energy hypotheses remain controversial, due to a lack of directly-measured data on energy use, a tendency to confound distinct scaling relationships, and insufficient attention to the ecological contexts in which predicted relationships are likely to occur. Our goal, therefore, was to directly evaluate size-energy hypotheses while clarifying how results would differ with alternate methods and assumptions. We comprehensively tested size-energy hypotheses in a vertebrate frugivore guild in a tropical forest in Madagascar. Our test of size-energy hypotheses, which is the first to examine energy intake directly, was consistent with the energetic equivalence hypothesis. This finding corresponds with predictions of metabolic theory and models of energy distribution in ecological communities, which imply that body size does not confer an advantage in competition for energy among populations or size classes of foragers. This result was robust to different assumptions about energy regulation. Our results from direct energy measurement, however, contrasted with those obtained with conventional methods of indirect inference from size-density relationships, suggesting that size-density relationships do not provide an appropriate proxy for size-energy relationships as has commonly been assumed. Our research also provides insights into mechanisms

  16. Vection Induced by Consistent and Inconsistent Multisensory Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April E. Ash

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined physical and simulated self-motion along the horizontal and depth axes. Subjects viewed optic flow which consisted of: (i a component that simulated constant velocity self-motion; and (ii a component that simulated oscillation of their viewpoint. In active self-motion conditions, the latter flow component was either in- or out-of-phase with the observer's own (tracked oscillatory head movements. In passive self-motion conditions, stationary subjects simply viewed playbacks of the oscillating displays generated in previous physical self-motion conditions. We found that adding active in-phase horizontal oscillation to radial flow resulted in a modest vection advantage compared to active out-of-phase horizontal oscillation and passive horizontal display oscillation conditions. By contrast, when actively generated fore-aft display oscillation was added to either radial or lamellar flow we found similar vection strength ratings for both in-phase and out-of-phase depth oscillation. We conclude that multisensory input can enhance the visual perception of self-motion in some situations, but may not have to be consistent (i.e., ecological to generate compelling vection in depth.

  17. Ecological and general systems an introduction to systems ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Odum, Howard T.

    1994-01-01

    Using an energy systems language that combines energetics, kinetics, information, cybernetics, and simulation, Ecological and General Systems compares models of many fields of science, helping to derive general systems principles. First published as Systems Ecology in 1983, Ecological and General Systems proposes principles of self-organization and the designs that prevail by maximizing power and efficiency. Comparisons to fifty other systems languages are provided. Innovative presentations are given on earth homeostasis (Gaia); the inadequacy of presenting equations without network relationships and energy constraints; the alternative interpretation of high entropy complexity as adaptive structure; basic equations of ecological economics; and the energy basis of scientific hierarchy.

  18. Simulation analysis on the regulation of overflow ecological water consumption in arid areas——A case study in the Canmrik ecological area of the mainstream zone of the Tarim River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xi; HUANG Yue; QIAN Jing; LIU HaiLong; FENG XianWei; LIU Ying; BAO AnMing; WANG WeiSheng

    2007-01-01

    After analyzing the regulation of overflow ecological water consumption in the Canmrik ecological area of mainstream zone of the Tarim River, in this paper a model of ecological bifurcation is developed, the dynamic overflow process of ecological bifurcation is simulated, and the quantitative relationships between the volume of ecological water consumption and the ecological conservation extent and overflow time are analyzed using GIS, advance of freshet and RS means. The results reveal that the effects of discharge and time of ecological bifurcation on the efficiency of ecological water consumption are significant, there is a geometrical exponential relationship between the efficiency of ecological bifurcation and the water supply with different discharges and different times under the same ecological water consumption, hypsography plays an important role in ecological water consumption, the regulation of ecological water consumption cannot be equated with the ordinary farming irrigation system, a serious water waste will result and the prospective ecological benefits will not be able to be achieved if an ordinary ecological bifurcation is implemented. The efficiency of ecological water consumption can be increased by 30% by selecting the bifurcation schemes in an optimized way, which is of the utmost importance for arid areas with shortage of water resources.

  19. Ecology Beyond Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    As the designers of the WWf building in Zeist, The Netherslands a CO2-neutral, self-sufficient office complex, RAU has set the bar for sustainable research and design. Guesteditor Terri Peters visited the firm's studio in Amsterdam to talk to principal Thomas Rau. As Peters relates, Rau prefers t...... to put on the dwindling supply of raw materials rather than the immidiate problems of energy consumption for which there are solutions within reach. With the emphasis on a more far-reaching approach, he places buildings in a wider context of ecological thinking and systems....

  20. Socio-Ecological Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgeman, Rick; Eskildsen, Jacob Kjær

    for Sustainability is (generally) a subset of the enterprise innovation portfolio. Effective and efficient integration of Innovation for Sustainability and Sustainable Innovation aids translation of 3E (equity, ecology, economy) enterprise strategyof the Triple Top Line into 3P (people, planet, profit) Triple Bottom...... feedback is presented. The assessment report is referred to as a SEI News Report and is intended not only to provide feedback to the organization concerning its present SEI performance, but also to deliver significant foresight that will inform future SEI efforts, strengthening the likelihood...

  1. Value pluralism and incommensurability in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirgmaier, Elke; Urhammer, Emil

    2015-01-01

    territory. This is reflected in a value hegemony framing everything from biodiversity to carbon emissions in monetary terms. We consider this a democratic problem since the diversity of values is thus not fairly represented in our current mode of decision-making. We believe that the solutions to the grand...... problems of our time lie in a democracy where multiple values can be communicated. In order to provide inspiration for thinking about such a democracy, this paper provides an overview of a wide range of philosophical positions on values and value pluralism and analyses how values and value pluralism...... are treated in a selection of articles in ecological economics. The paper concludes that the treatment of values and incommensurability in ecological economics can be characterised as ambiguous. There is a need for further research on the theoretical aspects of these issues....

  2. Personalities in great tits, Parus major: stability and consistency

    OpenAIRE

    Carere, C; Drent, PJ; Privitera, L; Koolhaas, JM; Groothuis, TGG; Drent, Piet J; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2005-01-01

    We carried out a longitudinal study on great tits from two lines bidirectionally selected for fast or slow exploratory performance during the juvenile phase, a trait thought to reflect different personalities. We analysed temporal stability and consistency of responses within and between situations involving exploratory and sociosexual behaviour. Exploratory behaviour was assessed both in the juvenile phase and in adulthood (2-3-year interval) by means of a novel object test and an open field...

  3. Ecological effects of environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Gloria M; Hochberg, Michael E; Holyoak, Marcel; Hossaert, Martine; Gaill, Françoise; Courchamp, Franck

    2013-05-01

    This Special Issue of Ecology Letters presents contributions from an international meeting organised by Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Ecology Letters on the broad theme of ecological effects of global environmental change. The objectives of these articles are to synthesise, hypothesise and illustrate the ecological effects of environmental change drivers and their interactions, including habitat loss and fragmentation, pollution, invasive species and climate change. A range of disciplines is represented, including stoichiometry, cell biology, genetics, evolution and biodiversity conservation. The authors emphasise the need to account for several key ecological factors and different spatial and temporal scales in global change research. They also stress the importance of ecosystem complexity through approaches such as functional group and network analyses, and of mechanisms and predictive models with respect to environmental responses to global change across an ecological continuum: population, communities and ecosystems. Lastly, these articles provide important insights and recommendations for environmental conservation and management, as well as highlighting future research priorities.

  4. Five species, many genotypes, broad phenotypic diversity: When agronomy meets functional ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Ivan; Litrico, Isabelle; Violle, Cyrille; Barre, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Current ecological theory can provide insight into the causes and impacts of plant domestication. However, just how domestication has impacted intraspecific genetic variability (ITV) is unknown. We used 50 ecotypes and 35 cultivars from five grassland species to explore how selection drives functional trait coordination and genetic differentiation. We quantified the extent of genetic diversity among different sets of functional traits and determined how much genetic diversity has been generated within populations of natural ecotypes and selected cultivars. In general, the cultivars were larger (e.g., greater height, faster growth rates) and had larger and thinner leaves (greater SLA). We found large (average 63%) and trait-dependent (ranging from 14% for LNC to 95.8% for growth rate) genetic variability. The relative extent of genetic variability was greater for whole-plant than for organ-level traits. This pattern was consistent within ecotypes and within cultivars. However, ecotypes presented greater ITV variability. The results indicated that genetic diversity is large in domesticated species with contrasting levels of heritability among functional traits and that selection for high yield has led to indirect selection of some associated leaf traits. These findings open the way to define which target traits should be the focus in selection programs, especially in the context of community-level selection. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Entropy-based consistent model driven architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    A description of software architecture is a plan of the IT system construction, therefore any architecture gaps affect the overall success of an entire project. The definitions mostly describe software architecture as a set of views which are mutually unrelated, hence potentially inconsistent. Software architecture completeness is also often described in an ambiguous way. As a result most methods of IT systems building comprise many gaps and ambiguities, thus presenting obstacles for software building automation. In this article the consistency and completeness of software architecture are mathematically defined based on calculation of entropy of the architecture description. Following this approach, in this paper we also propose our method of automatic verification of consistency and completeness of the software architecture development method presented in our previous article as Consistent Model Driven Architecture (CMDA). The proposed FBS (Functionality-Behaviour-Structure) entropy-based metric applied in our CMDA approach enables IT architects to decide whether the modelling process is complete and consistent. With this metric, software architects could assess the readiness of undergoing modelling work for the start of IT system building. It even allows them to assess objectively whether the designed software architecture of the IT system could be implemented at all. The overall benefit of such an approach is that it facilitates the preparation of complete and consistent software architecture more effectively as well as it enables assessing and monitoring of the ongoing modelling development status. We demonstrate this with a few industry examples of IT system designs.

  6. ECOLOGY AFFECTED IN OIL EXPLOITATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Mingren; Zeng Dezhang; Zhang Shiquan; Shi Lifeng

    1997-01-01

    @@ Introduction During the Eighth Five-Year Plan period(1991-1995), a study about crude impacts on ecology in oil exploitation was conducted in seven representative onshore oil fields of China. The study discusses crude pollutant's impacts on ecology in terms of its production,movement, transformation and concentration in the ecological system,as well as its toxicity and damage degree on living things , by means of investigation on the spot, test analysis and analogue test.

  7. Sensory Ecology, Evolution, and Behavior

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martin STEVENS; Guest Editor

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Sensory ecology deals with how animals capture in formation from their environment, and the sensory sys tems involved in doing so (Hailman, 1977; Lythgoe, 1979; Dusenbery, 1992; Mappes and Stevens 2010). Although the term sensory ecology itself is compara tively recent, its basis has a long history, in part due to numerous links with subjects such as neurobiology, physiology, ethology, and evolutionary behavioral ecology.

  8. Consistency and Derangements in Brane Tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Hanany, Amihay; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2015-01-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four dimensional $\\mathcal{N}=1$ supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on $N$ D$3$-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  9. Quantifying the consistency of scientific databases

    CERN Document Server

    Šubelj, Lovro; Boshkoska, Biljana Mileva; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In the recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies.

  10. Self-consistent Green's function approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We present the fundamental techniques and working equations of many-body Green's function theory for calculating ground state properties and the spectral strength. Green's function methods closely relate to other polynomial scaling approaches discussed in chapters~8 and ~10. However, here we aim directly at a global view of the many-fermion structure. We derive the working equations for calculating many-body propagators, using both the Algebraic Diagrammatic Construction technique and the self-consistent formalism at finite temperature. Their implementation is discussed, as well as the the inclusion of three-nucleon interactions. The self-consistency feature is essential to guarantee thermodynamic consistency. The paring and neutron matter models introduced in previous chapters are solved and compared with the other methods in this book.

  11. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  12. A Revisit to Probability - Possibility Consistency Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoni Dhar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, our main intention is to highlight the fact that the probable links between probability and possibility which were established by different authors at different point of time on the basis of some well known consistency principles cannot provide the desired result. That is why the paper discussed some prominent works for transformations between probability and possibility and finally aimed to suggest a new principle because none of the existing principles because none of them found the unique transformation. The new consistency principle which is suggested hereby would in turn replace all others that exist in the literature references by providing a reliable estimate of consistency between the two.Furthermore some properties of entropy of fuzzy numbers are also presented in this article.

  13. ECOLOGICAL BUILDING DESIGN DETERMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Vakili-Ardebili

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design. DOI: 10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 Source: Architectural Engineering and Design Management, Volume 6, Number 2, 2010 , pp. 111-131(21

  14. Ecological Growth Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluszcz, Anna

    2017-03-01

    The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natural resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degradation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consumption level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure - the ecological footprint - was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today's generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural environment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies - the Human Development Index (HDI), including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  15. [Landscape and ecological genomics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetushkin, E Ia

    2013-10-01

    Landscape genomics is the modern version of landscape genetics, a discipline that arose approximately 10 years ago as a combination of population genetics, landscape ecology, and spatial statistics. It studies the effects of environmental variables on gene flow and other microevolutionary processes that determine genetic connectivity and variations in populations. In contrast to population genetics, it operates at the level of individual specimens rather than at the level of population samples. Another important difference between landscape genetics and genomics and population genetics is that, in the former, the analysis of gene flow and local adaptations takes quantitative account of landforms and features of the matrix, i.e., hostile spaces that separate species habitats. Landscape genomics is a part of population ecogenomics, which, along with community genomics, is a major part of ecological genomics. One of the principal purposes of landscape genomics is the identification and differentiation of various genome-wide and locus-specific effects. The approaches and computation tools developed for combined analysis of genomic and landscape variables make it possible to detect adaptation-related genome fragments, which facilitates the planning of conservation efforts and the prediction of species' fate in response to expected changes in the environment.

  16. ECOLOGICAL GROWTH BOUNDARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna BLUSZCZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The trends of the society for the continuous growth, combined with the demographic changes, today have led to the important ecological problems on a global scale, which include, among others: the increased use of non-renewable natu-ral resources, an increase of the greenhouse gas emissions, contamination of soil, water, air and the progressive degra-dation of ecosystems. In the face of such serious threats the global initiatives of all countries are important to limit the results of the excessive consumption. The aim of the article is to present the methods of measurement of the consump-tion level of natural resources by the societies and the examination of relationships between the level of development of the societies and the use of resources. The popular measure – the ecological footprint – was used as a measurement method for the consumption of the today’s generations in relation to the regenerative possibilities of the natural envi-ronment. On the other hand, as the assessment method for the level of development of societies – the Human Develop-ment Index (HDI, including three basic areas: the life expectancy, GDP level per capita and education was used. The results of the research indicate that the current trend of the unlimited consumption of the highly developed countries takes place at the expense of the future generations.

  17. Consistency of the group Lasso and multiple kernel learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bach, Francis

    2007-01-01

    We consider the least-square regression problem with regularization by a block 1-norm, i.e., a sum of Euclidean norms over spaces of dimensions larger than one. This problem, referred to as the group Lasso, extends the usual regularization by the 1-norm where all spaces have dimension one, where it is commonly referred to as the Lasso. In this paper, we study the asymptotic model consistency of the group Lasso. We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the consistency of group Lasso under practical assumptions, such as model misspecification. When the linear predictors and Euclidean norms are replaced by functions and reproducing kernel Hilbert norms, the problem is usually referred to as multiple kernel learning and is commonly used for learning from heterogeneous data sources and for non linear variable selection. Using tools from functional analysis, and in particular covariance operators, we extend the consistency results to this infinite dimensional case and also propose an adaptive scheme to obt...

  18. Analytically tractable model for community ecology with many species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Benjamin; Fisher, Charles K.; Mehta, Pankaj

    2016-08-01

    A fundamental problem in community ecology is understanding how ecological processes such as selection, drift, and immigration give rise to observed patterns in species composition and diversity. Here, we analyze a recently introduced, analytically tractable, presence-absence (PA) model for community assembly, and we use it to ask how ecological traits such as the strength of competition, the amount of diversity, and demographic and environmental stochasticity affect species composition in a community. In the PA model, species are treated as stochastic binary variables that can either be present or absent in a community: species can immigrate into the community from a regional species pool and can go extinct due to competition and stochasticity. Building upon previous work, we show that, despite its simplicity, the PA model reproduces the qualitative features of more complicated models of community assembly. In agreement with recent studies of large, competitive Lotka-Volterra systems, the PA model exhibits distinct ecological behaviors organized around a special ("critical") point corresponding to Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity. These results suggest that the concepts of ecological "phases" and phase diagrams can provide a powerful framework for thinking about community ecology, and that the PA model captures the essential ecological dynamics of community assembly.

  19. Stomach cancer incidence in Brazil: an ecologic study with selected risk factors Incidência de câncer de estômago no Brasil: estudo ecológico com fatores de risco selecionados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Koifman

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to many industrialized countries in which a sharp decline in stomach cancer incidence has been observed, Brazil still shows intermediate to high incidence rates. An ecologic analysis was performed to explore variables possibly associated with the development of stomach cancer. Cluster analysis, principal component analysis, and factor analysis were carried out with population data, including the following: stomach cancer incidence rates in the early 1990s obtained from population-based cancer registries in Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém, and Goiânia; and data from a Brazilian national survey on family expenditures (several diet consumption items and availability of home refrigerators carried out in 1974-75. The results suggested that past availability of a home refrigerator, i.e. food preservation, may have played an important role in currently observed differences in stomach cancer incidence among the various populations studied in Brazil. Differences in living standards among populations in these cities also appear to have played an important role in the observed incidence differences.De forma distinta daquela verificada em muitos países industrializados onde se vem observando um marcado declínio das taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago, o Brasil ainda apresenta taxas consideradas intermediárias ou elevadas desta doença. Visando realizar um estudo exploratório das possíveis razões para estas diferenças, se realizou um estudo ecológico através de análise de agrupamento (cluster, análise de componentes principais e análise fatorial. Foram incluídos nestas análises as taxas de incidência de câncer de estômago no início da década de 90 - determinadas pelos registros de câncer de base populacional no país (Porto Alegre, Campinas, Fortaleza, Belém e Goiânia -, bem como aqueles obtidos através de inquérito nacional de despesas familiares (ENDEF realizado em 1974-75. Este levantou dados

  20. Sexual selection on brain size in shorebirds (Charadriiformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Peña, G E; Sol, D; Iwaniuk, A N; Székely, T

    2013-04-01

    Natural selection is considered a major force shaping brain size evolution in vertebrates, whereas the influence of sexual selection remains controversial. On one hand, sexual selection could promote brain enlargement by enhancing cognitive skills needed to compete for mates. On the other hand, sexual selection could favour brain size reduction due to trade-offs between investing in brain tissue and in sexually selected traits. These opposed predictions are mirrored in contradictory relationships between sexual selection proxies and brain size relative to body size. Here, we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis that highlights potential flaws in interpreting relative brain size-mating system associations as effects of sexual selection on brain size in shorebirds (Charadriiformes), a taxonomic group with an outstanding diversity in breeding systems. Considering many ecological effects, relative brain size was not significantly correlated with testis size. In polyandrous species, however, relative brain sizes of males and females were smaller than in monogamous species, and females had smaller brain size than males. Although these findings are consistent with sexual selection reducing brain size, they could also be due to females deserting parental care, which is a common feature of polyandrous species. Furthermore, our analyses suggested that body size evolved faster than brain size, and thus the evolution of body size may be confounding the effect of the mating system on relative brain size. The brain size-mating system association in shorebirds is thus not only due to sexual selection on brain size but rather, to body size evolution and other multiple simultaneous effects.

  1. Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Tennie, Felix

    2010-01-01

    We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein--Cartan gravity. As a byproduct we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.

  2. Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Felix; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.

    2010-11-01

    We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As a by-product we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.

  3. Ecological Effects of Allelopathic Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, M.; Strandberg, M.; Strandberg, B.

    with the environment through spread of GM-plants or transgenes outside agricultural areas. The last chapter discuss GM-allelopathic plants in relation to the ecological risk assessment. Preface: This report is based on a literature review on allelopathy from an ecological impact point of view carried out in 1999...... on allelopathy in these crops. It discusses the ecological effects of allelopathic plants in natural ecosystems and factors of importance for the effects of these plants are pointed out. Finally the report presents suggestions for an ecological risk assessment of crops with an enhanced release of allelochemicals...

  4. Ecological implications of behavioural syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sih, Andrew; Cote, Julien; Evans, Mara; Fogarty, Sean; Pruitt, Jonathan

    2012-03-01

    Interspecific trait variation has long served as a conceptual foundation for our understanding of ecological patterns and dynamics. In particular, ecologists recognise the important role that animal behaviour plays in shaping ecological processes. An emerging area of interest in animal behaviour, the study of behavioural syndromes (animal personalities) considers how limited behavioural plasticity, as well as behavioural correlations affects an individual's fitness in diverse ecological contexts. In this article we explore how insights from the concept and study of behavioural syndromes provide fresh understanding of major issues in population ecology. We identify several general mechanisms for how population ecology phenomena can be influenced by a species or population's average behavioural type, by within-species variation in behavioural type, or by behavioural correlations across time or across ecological contexts. We note, in particular, the importance of behavioural type-dependent dispersal in spatial ecology. We then review recent literature and provide new syntheses for how these general mechanisms produce novel insights on five major issues in population ecology: (1) limits to species' distribution and abundance; (2) species interactions; (3) population dynamics; (4) relative responses to human-induced rapid environmental change; and (5) ecological invasions.

  5. Graduate Education in Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Polimeni

    2004-01-01

    Interest in graduate education in ecological economics is increasing. However, no formal plan of study for a Ph.D. in ecological economics has been disseminated. The lack of a formal plan is problematic as the field of ecological economics matures, interest grows, and new programs are being developed. This paper attempts to fill a void by creating a program of study addressing the proficiencies a graduate student in ecological economics should have upon completion of his/her Ph.D. based on th...

  6. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Daniel Becraft

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species (putative ecotypes, which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation, exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same putative ecotype formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the putative ecotypes are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. Putative ecotypes responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each putative ecotype was maintained as the relative abundances of putative ecotypes changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to putative ecotypes that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for putative ecotypes that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species

  7. The molecular dimension of microbial species: 1. Ecological distinctions among, and homogeneity within, putative ecotypes of Synechococcus inhabiting the cyanobacterial mat of Mushroom Spring, Yellowstone National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becraft, Eric D; Wood, Jason M; Rusch, Douglas B; Kühl, Michael; Jensen, Sheila I; Bryant, Donald A; Roberts, David W; Cohan, Frederick M; Ward, David M

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Stable Ecotype Model, evolution leads to the divergence of ecologically distinct populations (e.g., with different niches and/or behaviors) of ecologically interchangeable membership. In this study, pyrosequencing was used to provide deep sequence coverage of Synechococcus psaA genes and transcripts over a large number of habitat types in the Mushroom Spring microbial mat. Putative ecological species [putative ecotypes (PEs)], which were predicted by an evolutionary simulation based on the Stable Ecotype Model (Ecotype Simulation), exhibited distinct distributions relative to temperature-defined positions in the effluent channel and vertical position in the upper 1 mm-thick mat layer. Importantly, in most cases variants predicted to belong to the same PE formed unique clusters relative to temperature and depth in the mat in canonical correspondence analysis, supporting the hypothesis that while the PEs are ecologically distinct, the members of each ecotype are ecologically homogeneous. PEs responded differently to experimental perturbations of temperature and light, but the genetic variation within each PE was maintained as the relative abundances of PEs changed, further indicating that each population responded as a set of ecologically interchangeable individuals. Compared to PEs that predominate deeper within the mat photic zone, the timing of transcript abundances for selected genes differed for PEs that predominate in microenvironments closer to upper surface of the mat with spatiotemporal differences in light and O2 concentration. All of these findings are consistent with the hypotheses that Synechococcus species in hot spring mats are sets of ecologically interchangeable individuals that are differently adapted, that these adaptations control their distributions, and that the resulting distributions constrain the activities of the species in space and time.

  8. Raman spectroscopy as a tool for ecology and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vipin; Ichimura, Taro; Moreau, Jerome; Furusawa, Chikara; Fujita, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tomonobu M.

    2017-01-01

    Scientists are always on the lookout for new modalities of information which could reveal new biological features that are useful for deciphering the complexity of biological systems. Here, we introduce Raman spectroscopy as a prime candidate for ecology and evolution. To encourage the integration of this microscopy technique in the field of ecology and evolution, it is crucial to discuss first how Raman spectroscopy fits within the conceptual, technical and pragmatic considerations of ecology and evolution. In this paper, we show that the spectral information holds reliable indicators of intra- and interspecies variations, which can be related to the environment, selective pressures and fitness. Moreover, we show how the technical and pragmatic aspects of this modality (non-destructive, non-labelling, speed, relative low cost, etc.) enable it to be combined with more conventional methodologies. With this paper, we hope to open new avenues of research and extend the scope of available methodologies used in ecology and evolution. PMID:28592661

  9. Student-Teachers' Ability to Read Nature: Reflections on their own learning in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magntorn, Ola; Helldén, Gustav

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses student-teachers' ability to read nature in a woodland habitat before and after a 10-week ecology course. Reading nature is our definition of the ability to observe, describe and explain basic ecology in the field. Data consists of field-based pre-course and post-course interviews followed up by metacognitive interviews where students analyse their own learning. A bi-dimensional coding scheme is adopted to examine the range and development of students' ability to read nature. Students find it important to know the ecology of a few key species and they recognize the importance of having learned the language of ecology — ecologish — helping them to describe and discuss ecology. Students generally recognize the excursions as key learning situations in ecology education but they give different reasons for finding excursions so important. This variation will be elaborated in the paper together with the implications for teaching ecology.

  10. Screening-Level Ecological Risk Assessment Methods, Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirenda, Richard J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-08-16

    This document provides guidance for screening-level assessments of potential adverse impacts to ecological resources from release of environmental contaminants at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL or the Laboratory). The methods presented are based on two objectives, namely: to provide a basis for reaching consensus with regulators, managers, and other interested parties on how to conduct screening-level ecological risk investigations at the Laboratory; and to provide guidance for ecological risk assessors under the Environmental Programs (EP) Directorate. This guidance promotes consistency, rigor, and defensibility in ecological screening investigations and in reporting those investigation results. The purpose of the screening assessment is to provide information to the risk managers so informed riskmanagement decisions can be made. This document provides examples of recommendations and possible risk-management strategies.

  11. Optimization of Land Use Structure Based on Ecological GREEN Equivalent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of land use structure consists of economic and social and ecological optimization.Applying the minds of system engineering and principles of ecology,this paper presents such thoughts:the optimal forest-coverage rate calculated according to the reality of a district is set as main standard of ecological rationality in the district;through considering the value of ecosystem services of the land with GREEN equivalent (mainly cultivated land and grassland)and based on the rule,GREEN equivalent,this paper introduces the area conversion between woodland and cultivated land,also between woodland and grassland;this paper establishes a multi-dimension controlling model of optimization of land use structure.In addition,a multi-objective linear programming model for optimization of land use structure is designed.In the end,this paper tests and verifies this theory of ecological optimization,taking Qionghai city in Hainan Province as an example.

  12. Information, Consistent Estimation and Dynamic System Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    the chesis . The rest of Chapter 4 4 is believed to be of theoretical interest and also of practical value, I which is demonstrated in sections 6.1...in the mean of the identification procedures at a certain rate. The condition in (6.3) also involves the system’s coefficients and thus, the selected

  13. Ecology: Insect thermal baggage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    Strong positive selection on cold hardiness and relaxed selection on heat hardiness experienced by range-expanding populations may help to explain why ectothermic animals generally have broader thermal tolerance towards the poles, and shed new light on their climate vulnerabilities.

  14. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, R.M.; Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder’s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint.

  15. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  16. Developing consistent pronunciation models for phonemic variants

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davel, M

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available from a lexicon containing variants. In this paper we (the authors) address both these issues by creating ‘pseudo-phonemes’ associated with sets of ‘generation restriction rules’ to model those pronunciations that are consistently realised as two or more...

  17. On Consistency Maintenance In Service Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Communication and node failures degrade the ability of a service discovery protocol to ensure Users receive the correct service information when the service changes. We propose that service discovery protocols employ a set of recovery techniques to recover from failures and regain consistency. We

  18. On Consistency Maintenance In Service Discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundramoorthy, V.; Hartel, Pieter H.; Scholten, Johan

    Communication and node failures degrade the ability of a service discovery protocol to ensure Users receive the correct service information when the service changes. We propose that service discovery protocols employ a set of recovery techniques to recover from failures and regain consistency. We

  19. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, P.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  20. Computing Rooted and Unrooted Maximum Consistent Supertrees

    CERN Document Server

    van Iersel, Leo

    2009-01-01

    A chief problem in phylogenetics and database theory is the computation of a maximum consistent tree from a set of rooted or unrooted trees. A standard input are triplets, rooted binary trees on three leaves, or quartets, unrooted binary trees on four leaves. We give exact algorithms constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent supertrees in time O(2^n n^5 m^2 log(m)) for a set of m triplets (quartets), each one distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of n labels. The algorithms extend to weighted triplets (quartets). We further present fast exact algorithms for constructing rooted and unrooted maximum consistent trees in polynomial space. Finally, for a set T of m rooted or unrooted trees with maximum degree D and distinctly leaf-labeled by some subset of a set L of n labels, we compute, in O(2^{mD} n^m m^5 n^6 log(m)) time, a tree distinctly leaf-labeled by a maximum-size subset X of L that all trees in T, when restricted to X, are consistent with.

  1. Addendum to "On the consistency of MPS"

    CERN Document Server

    Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; González, Leo M; Cercos-Pita, Jose L

    2013-01-01

    The analogies between the Moving Particle Semi-implicit method (MPS) and Incompressible Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics method (ISPH) are established in this note, as an extension of the MPS consistency analysis conducted in "Souto-Iglesias et al., Computer Physics Communications, 184(3), 2013."

  2. Proteolysis and consistency of Meshanger cheese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de L.

    1978-01-01

    Proteolysis in Meshanger cheese, estimated by quantitative polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is discussed. The conversion of α s1 -casein was proportional to rennet concentration in the cheese. Changes in consistency, after a maximum, were correlated to breakdown of

  3. On the existence of consistent price systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Sayit, Hasanjan

    2014-01-01

    We formulate a sufficient condition for the existence of a consistent price system (CPS), which is weaker than the conditional full support condition (CFS). We use the new condition to show the existence of CPSs for certain processes that fail to have the CFS property. In particular this condition...

  4. A self-consistent Maltsev pulse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buneman, O.

    1985-04-01

    A self-consistent model for an electron pulse propagating through a plasma is presented. In this model, the charge imbalance between plasma ions, plasma electrons and pulse electrons creates the travelling potential well in which the pulse electrons are trapped.

  5. Consistent implementation of decisions in the brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A R Marshall

    Full Text Available Despite the complexity and variability of decision processes, motor responses are generally stereotypical and independent of decision difficulty. How is this consistency achieved? Through an engineering analogy we consider how and why a system should be designed to realise not only flexible decision-making, but also consistent decision implementation. We specifically consider neurobiologically-plausible accumulator models of decision-making, in which decisions are made when a decision threshold is reached. To trade-off between the speed and accuracy of the decision in these models, one can either adjust the thresholds themselves or, equivalently, fix the thresholds and adjust baseline activation. Here we review how this equivalence can be implemented in such models. We then argue that manipulating baseline activation is preferable as it realises consistent decision implementation by ensuring consistency of motor inputs, summarise empirical evidence in support of this hypothesis, and suggest that it could be a general principle of decision making and implementation. Our goal is therefore to review how neurobiologically-plausible models of decision-making can manipulate speed-accuracy trade-offs using different mechanisms, to consider which of these mechanisms has more desirable decision-implementation properties, and then review the relevant neuroscientific data on which mechanism brains actually use.

  6. Consistency in multi-viewpoint architectural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkman, Remco Matthijs

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents a framework that aids in preserving consistency in multi-viewpoint designs. In a multi-viewpoint design each stakeholder constructs his own design part. We call each stakeholder¿s design part the view of that stakeholder. To construct his view, a stakeholder has a viewpoint. Thi

  7. Properties and Update Semantics of Consistent Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    8217 PR.OPERTIES AND UPDATE SEMANTICS OF CONSISTENT VIEWS G. Gottlob Institute for Applied Mathematics C.N.H.., G<•nova, Italy Compnt.<•r Sden... Gottlob G., Paolini P., Zicari R., "Proving Properties of Programs ou Database Views", Dipartiuwnto di Elcttronica, Politecnko di Milano (in

  8. Consistency Analysis of Network Traffic Repositories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, Elmer; Pras, Aiko

    2009-01-01

    Traffic repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffic that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for var

  9. Consistency of Network Traffic Repositories: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lastdrager, E.; Pras, A.

    2009-01-01

    Traffc repositories with TCP/IP header information are very important for network analysis. Researchers often assume that such repositories reliably represent all traffc that has been flowing over the network; little thoughts are made regarding the consistency of these repositories. Still, for vario

  10. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  11. Ecological Research Division Theoretical Ecology Program. [Contains abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-10-01

    This report presents the goals of the Theoretical Ecology Program and abstracts of research in progress. Abstracts cover both theoretical research that began as part of the terrestrial ecology core program and new projects funded by the theoretical program begun in 1988. Projects have been clustered into four major categories: Ecosystem dynamics; landscape/scaling dynamics; population dynamics; and experiment/sample design.

  12. Civic Ecology: Linking Social and Ecological Approaches in Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasny, Marianne E.; Tidball, Keith G.

    2010-01-01

    Civic ecology refers to the philosophy and science of community forestry, community gardening, watershed enhancement, and other volunteer-driven restoration practices in cities and elsewhere. Such practices, although often viewed as initiatives to improve a degraded environment, also foster social attributes of resilient social-ecological systems,…

  13. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in…

  14. Reinventing the Wheel: Teaching Restoration Ecology without the Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speldewinde, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Restoration ecology is "the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged or destroyed." Restoration can range from returning the system to its "natural" state through to restoring some ecological functionality to a system. The University of Western Australia offers an undergraduate degree in Restoration…

  15. Statistical physics and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Igor

    This work addresses the applications of the methods of statistical physics to problems in population ecology. A theoretical framework based on stochastic Markov processes for the unified neutral theory of biodiversity is presented and an analytical solution for the distribution of the relative species abundance distribution both in the large meta-community and in the small local community is obtained. It is shown that the framework of the current neutral theory in ecology can be easily generalized to incorporate symmetric density dependence. An analytically tractable model is studied that provides an accurate description of beta-diversity and exhibits novel scaling behavior that leads to links between ecological measures such as relative species abundance and the species area relationship. We develop a simple framework that incorporates the Janzen-Connell, dispersal and immigration effects and leads to a description of the distribution of relative species abundance, the equilibrium species richness, beta-diversity and the species area relationship, in good accord with data. Also it is shown that an ecosystem can be mapped into an unconventional statistical ensemble and is quite generally tuned in the vicinity of a phase transition where bio-diversity and the use of resources are optimized. We also perform a detailed study of the unconventional statistical ensemble, in which, unlike in physics, the total number of particles and the energy are not fixed but bounded. We show that the temperature and the chemical potential play a dual role: they determine the average energy and the population of the levels in the system and at the same time they act as an imbalance between the energy and population ceilings and the corresponding average values. Different types of statistics (Boltzmann, Bose-Einstein, Fermi-Dirac and one corresponding to the description of a simple ecosystem) are considered. In all cases, we show that the systems may undergo a first or a second order

  16. Choosing appropriate temporal and spatial scales for ecological restoration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Baird Callicott

    2002-07-01

    Classic ecological restoration seems tacitly to have taken the Clementsian ``balance of nature” paradigm for granted: plant succession terminates in a climax community which remains at equilibrium until exogenously disturbed after which the process of succession is restarted until the climax is reached. Human disturbance is regarded as unnatural and to have commenced in the Western Hemisphere at the time of European incursion. Classic ecological restoration thus has a clear and unambiguous target and may be conceived as aiming to foreshorten the natural processes that would eventually lead to the climax of a given site, which may be determined by its state at ``settlement”. According to the new ``flux of nature” paradigm in ecology a given site has no telos and is constantly changing. Human disturbance is ubiquitous and long-standing, and at certain spatial and temporal scales is ``incorporated”. Any moment in the past 10,000 years that may be selected as a benchmark for restoration efforts thus appears to be arbitrary. Two prominent conservationists have therefore suggested that the ecological conditions in North America at the Pleistocene–Holocene boundary, prior to the anthropogenic extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna, be the target for ecological restoration. That suggestion explicitly assumes evolutionary temporal scales and continental spatial scales as the appropriate frame of reference for ecological restoration. However, ecological restoration should be framed in ecological spatio-temporal scales, which may be defined temporally in reference to ecological processes such as disturbance regimes and spatially in reference to ecological units such as landscapes, ecosystems, and biological provinces. Ecological spatio-temporal scales are also useful in achieving a scientifically defensible distinction between native and exotic species, which plays so central a role in the practice of ecological restoration and the conservation of biodiversity

  17. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  18. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Ma, Yi-Bing; Hu, Hang-Wei; Wang, Jun-Tao; Liu, Yu-Rong; He, Ji-Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Copper contamination on China's arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg(-1) in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values) characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM) analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  19. Refining the conditions for sympatric ecological speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Débarre, F

    2012-12-01

    Can speciation occur in a single population when different types of resources are available, in the absence of any geographical isolation, or any spatial or temporal variation in selection? The controversial topics of sympatric speciation and ecological speciation have already stimulated many theoretical studies, most of them agreeing on the fact that mechanisms generating disruptive selection, some level of assortment, and enough heterogeneity in the available resources, are critical for sympatric speciation to occur. Few studies, however, have combined the three factors and investigated their interactions. In this article, I analytically derive conditions for sympatric speciation in a general model where the distribution of resources can be uni- or bimodal, and where a parameter controls the range of resources that an individual can exploit. This approach bridges the gap between models of a unimodal continuum of resources and Levene-type models with discrete resources. I then test these conditions against simulation results from a recently published article (Thibert-Plante & Hendry, 2011, J. Evol. Biol. 24: 2186-2196) and confirm that sympatric ecological speciation is favoured when (i) selection is disruptive (i.e. individuals with an intermediate trait are at a local fitness minimum), (ii) resources are differentiated enough and (iii) mating is assortative. I also discuss the role of mating preference functions and the need (or lack thereof) for bimodality in resource distributions for diversification.

  20. Population Cycles, Disease, and Networks of Ecological Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Susan D

    2017-05-01

    Wildlife populations in the northern reaches of the globe have long been observed to fluctuate or cycle periodically, with dramatic increases followed by catastrophic crashes. Focusing on the early work of Charles S. Elton, this article analyzes how investigations into population cycles shaped the development of Anglo-American animal ecology during the 1920s-1930s. Population cycling revealed patterns that challenged ideas about the "balance" of nature; stimulated efforts to quantify population data; and brought animal ecology into conversation with intellectual debates about natural selection. Elton used the problem of understanding wildlife population cycles to explore a central tension in ecological thought: the relative influences of local conditions (food supply, predation) and universal forces (such as climate change and natural selection) in regulating wild animal populations. He also sought patronage and built research practices and the influential Bureau of Animal Population around questions of population regulation during the 1930s. Focusing on disease as a local population regulator that could interact with global climatic influences, Elton facilitated an interdisciplinary and population-based approach in early animal ecology. Elton created a network of epidemiologists, conservationists, pathologists and mathematicians, who contributed to population cycle research. I argue that, although these people often remained peripheral to ecology, their ideas shaped the young discipline. Particularly important were the concepts of abundance, density, and disease; and the interactions between these factors and natural selection. However, Elton's reliance on density dependence unwittingly helped set up conditions conducive to the development of controversies in animal ecology in later years. While ecologists did not come to consensus on the ultimate causes of population cycles, this phenomenon was an important early catalyst for the development of theory and

  1. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  2. Student Effort, Consistency and Online Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilde Patron

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas effort, or total minutes spent online, is not. Other independent variables include GPA and the difference between a pre-test and a post-test. The GPA is used as a measure of motivation, and the difference between a post-test and pre-test as marginal learning. As expected, the level of motivation is found statistically significant at a 99% confidence level, and marginal learning is also significant at a 95% level.

  3. Consistence beats causality in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Hu, Zheng; Zhang, Ping; Zhou, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The explosive growth of information challenges people's capability in finding out items fitting to their own interests. Recommender systems provide an efficient solution by automatically push possibly relevant items to users according to their past preferences. Recommendation algorithms usually embody the causality from what having been collected to what should be recommended. In this article, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus the previous and future preferences are highly consistent. The temporal order of collections then does not necessarily imply a causality relationship. We further propose a consistence-based algorithm that outperforms the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including \\textit{Netflix}, \\textit{MovieLens}, \\textit{Amazon} and \\textit{Rate Your Music}.

  4. A supersymmetric consistent truncation for conifold solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2010-01-01

    We establish a supersymmetric consistent truncation of type IIB supergravity on the T^{1,1} coset space, based on extending the Papadopoulos-Tseytlin ansatz to the full set of SU(2)xSU(2) invariant Kaluza-Klein modes. The five-dimensional model is a gauged N=4 supergravity with three vector multiplets, which incorporates various conifold solutions and is suitable for the study of their dynamics. By analysing the scalar potential we find a family of new non-supersymmetric AdS_5 extrema interpolating between a solution obtained long ago by Romans and a solution employing an Einstein metric on T^{1,1} different from the standard one. Finally, we discuss some simple consistent subtruncations preserving N=2 supersymmetry. One of them is compatible with the inclusion of smeared D7-branes.

  5. Foundations of consistent couple stress theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the recently developed skew-symmetric couple stress theory and demonstrate its inner consistency, natural simplicity and fundamental connection to classical mechanics. This hopefully will help the scientific community to overcome any ambiguity and skepticism about this theory, especially the validity of the skew-symmetric character of the couple-stress tensor. We demonstrate that in a consistent continuum mechanics, the response of infinitesimal elements of matter at each point decomposes naturally into a rigid body portion, plus the relative translation and rotation of these elements at adjacent points of the continuum. This relative translation and rotation captures the deformation in terms of stretches and curvatures, respectively. As a result, the continuous displacement field and its corresponding rotation field are the primary variables, which remarkably is in complete alignment with rigid body mechanics, thus providing a unifying basis. For further clarification, we also exami...

  6. Global ecological success of Thalassoma fishes in extreme coral reef habitats

    KAUST Repository

    Fulton, Christopher J.

    2016-12-20

    Phenotypic adaptations can allow organisms to relax abiotic selection and facilitate their ecological success in challenging habitats, yet we have relatively little data for the prevalence of this phenomenon at macroecological scales. Using data on the relative abundance of coral reef wrasses and parrotfishes (f. Labridae) spread across three ocean basins and the Red Sea, we reveal the consistent global dominance of extreme wave-swept habitats by fishes in the genus Thalassoma, with abundances up to 15 times higher than any other labrid. A key locomotor modification-a winged pectoral fin that facilitates efficient underwater flight in high-flow environments-is likely to have underpinned this global success, as numerical dominance by Thalassoma was contingent upon the presence of high-intensity wave energy. The ecological success of the most abundant species also varied with species richness and the presence of congeneric competitors. While several fish taxa have independently evolved winged pectoral fins, Thalassoma appears to have combined efficient high-speed swimming (to relax abiotic selection) with trophic versatility (to maximize exploitation of rich resources) to exploit and dominate extreme coral reef habitats around the world.

  7. Ecological explanations to island gigantism: dietary niche divergence, predation, and size in an endemic lizard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runemark, Anna; Sagonas, Kostas; Svensson, Erik I

    2015-08-01

    Although rapid evolution of body size on islands has long been known, the ecological mechanisms behind this island phenomenon remain poorly understood. Diet is an important selective pressure for morphological divergence. Here we investigate if selection for novel diets has contributed to the multiple independent cases of island gigantism in the Skyros wall lizard (Podarcis gaigeae) and if diet, predation, or both factors best explain island gigantism. We combined data on body size, shape, bite force, and realized and available diets to address this. Several lines of evidence suggest that diet has contributed to the island gigantism. The larger islet lizards have relatively wider heads and higher bite performance in relation to mainland lizards than would be expected from size differences alone. The proportions of consumed and available hard prey are higher on islets than mainland localities, and lizard body size is significantly correlated with the proportion of hard prey. Furthermore, the main axis of divergence in head shape is significantly correlated with dietary divergence. Finally, a model with only diet and one including diet and predation regime explain body size divergence equally well. Our results suggest that diet is an important ecological factor behind insular body size divergence, but could be consistent with an additional role for predation.

  8. Consistent Linearized Gravity in Brane Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Aref'eva, I Ya; Mück, W; Viswanathan, K S; Volovich, I V

    2000-01-01

    A globally consistent treatment of linearized gravity in the Randall-Sundrum background with matter on the brane is formulated. Using a novel gauge, in which the transverse components of the metric are non-vanishing, the brane is kept straight. We analyze the gauge symmetries and identify the physical degrees of freedom of gravity. Our results underline the necessity for non-gravitational confinement of matter to the brane.

  9. Self-consistent model of fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, V N

    2002-01-01

    We discuss a composite model of fermions based on three-flavoured preons. We show that the opposite character of the Coulomb and strong interactions between these preons lead to formation of complex structures reproducing three generations of quarks and leptons with all their quantum numbers and masses. The model is self-consistent (it doesn't use input parameters). Nevertheless, the masses of the generated structures match the experimental values.

  10. Consistent formulation of the spacelike axial gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnel, A.; Van der Rest-Jaspers, M.

    1983-12-15

    The usual formulation of the spacelike axial gauge is afflicted with the difficulty that the metric is indefinite while no ghost is involved. We solve this difficulty by introducing a ghost whose elimination is such that the metric becomes positive for physical states. The technique consists in the replacement of the gauge condition nxA = 0 by the weaker one partial/sub 0/nxAroughly-equal0.

  11. Security Policy: Consistency, Adjustments and Restraining Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang; Jiemian

    2004-01-01

    In the 2004 U.S. presidential election, despite well-divided domestic opinions and Kerry's appealing slogan of "Reversing the Trend," a slight majority still voted for George W. Bush in the end. It is obvious that, based on the author's analysis, security agenda such as counter-terrorism and Iraqi issue has contributed greatly to the reelection of Mr. Bush. This also indicates that the security policy of Bush's second term will basically be consistent.……

  12. Self-consistent structure of metallic hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straus, D. M.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1977-01-01

    A calculation is presented of the total energy of metallic hydrogen for a family of face-centered tetragonal lattices carried out within the self-consistent phonon approximation. The energy of proton motion is large and proper inclusion of proton dynamics alters the structural dependence of the total energy, causing isotropic lattices to become favored. For the dynamic lattice the structural dependence of terms of third and higher order in the electron-proton interaction is greatly reduced from static lattice equivalents.

  13. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L.; Y. Han; Jin, X.; Y. Chen; D. A. Tremblay

    2015-01-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly com...

  14. The internal consistency of perfect competition

    OpenAIRE

    Jakob Kapeller; Stephan Pühringer

    2010-01-01

    This article surveys some arguments brought forward in defense of the theory of perfect competition. While some critics propose that the theory of perfect competition, and thus also the theory of the firm, are logically flawed, (mainstream) economists defend their most popular textbook model by a series of apparently different arguments. Here it is examined whether these arguments are comparable, consistent and convincing from the point of view of philosophy of science.

  15. Cloud Standardization: Consistent Business Processes and Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razvan Daniel ZOTA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing represents one of the latest emerging trends in distributed computing that enables the existence of hardware infrastructure and software applications as services. The present paper offers a general approach to the cloud computing standardization as a mean of improving the speed of adoption for the cloud technologies. Moreover, this study tries to show out how organizations may achieve more consistent business processes while operating with cloud computing technologies.

  16. The dimensionality of ecological networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklöf, Anna; Jacob, Ute; Kopp, Jason;

    2013-01-01

    How many dimensions (trait-axes) are required to predict whether two species interact? This unanswered question originated with the idea of ecological niches, and yet bears relevance today for understanding what determines network structure. Here, we analyse a set of 200 ecological networks, incl...

  17. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  18. Ecological Networks in Urban Landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cook, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    This research focuses on the topic of ecological networks in urban landscapes. Analysis and planning of ecological networks is a relatively new phenomenon and is a response to fragmentation and deterioration of quality of natural systems. In agricultural areas and with existing nature preserves this

  19. The Future of Urban Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten

    1998-01-01

    This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won.......This article is discusing the basic conditions for a positive development of urban ecology in Denmark. A number of battles has to be won....

  20. Molecular ecology of aquatic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    Abstracts of reports are presented from a meeting on Molecular Ecology of Aquatic Microbes. Topics included: opportunities offered to aquatic ecology by molecular biology; the role of aquatic microbes in biogeochemical cycles; characterization of the microbial community; the effect of the environment on aquatic microbes; and the targeting of specific biological processes.

  1. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  2. Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Beijing Star Lake Ecology Park is a Five-star hotel which has developed multi-functions of restaurant, lodge, bath, landscape seeing, leisure,body exercise, recreation, Ecology agriculture,etc. Occupying an area of 500 mu, the park is an environmental friendly five-star hotel.

  3. Information Retrieval for Ecological Syntheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Helen R.; Beyer, Fiona R.

    2015-01-01

    Research syntheses are increasingly being conducted within the fields of ecology and environmental management. Information retrieval is crucial in any synthesis in identifying data for inclusion whilst potentially reducing biases in the dataset gathered, yet the nature of ecological information provides several challenges when compared with…

  4. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A. [and others

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  5. Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiene, Richard John; And Others

    A system for evaluating and monitoring child development projects, with possible computerization capabilities, was developed for the State of Pennsylvania in connection with 26 child development projects funded by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The Ecological Monitoring Information System (EMIS), provides a series of ecological measurement…

  6. Dynamic consistency for Stochastic Optimal Control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Carpentier, Pierre; Cohen, Guy; De Lara, Michel; Girardeau, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    For a sequence of dynamic optimization problems, we aim at discussing a notion of consistency over time. This notion can be informally introduced as follows. At the very first time step $t_0$, the decision maker formulates an optimization problem that yields optimal decision rules for all the forthcoming time step $t_0, t_1, ..., T$; at the next time step $t_1$, he is able to formulate a new optimization problem starting at time $t_1$ that yields a new sequence of optimal decision rules. This process can be continued until final time $T$ is reached. A family of optimization problems formulated in this way is said to be time consistent if the optimal strategies obtained when solving the original problem remain optimal for all subsequent problems. The notion of time consistency, well-known in the field of Economics, has been recently introduced in the context of risk measures, notably by Artzner et al. (2007) and studied in the Stochastic Programming framework by Shapiro (2009) and for Markov Decision Processes...

  7. CMB lens sample covariance and consistency relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motloch, Pavel; Hu, Wayne; Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien

    2017-02-01

    Gravitational lensing information from the two and higher point statistics of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization fields are intrinsically correlated because they are lensed by the same realization of structure between last scattering and observation. Using an analytic model for lens sample covariance, we show that there is one mode, separately measurable in the lensed CMB power spectra and lensing reconstruction, that carries most of this correlation. Once these measurements become lens sample variance dominated, this mode should provide a useful consistency check between the observables that is largely free of sampling and cosmological parameter errors. Violations of consistency could indicate systematic errors in the data and lens reconstruction or new physics at last scattering, any of which could bias cosmological inferences and delensing for gravitational waves. A second mode provides a weaker consistency check for a spatially flat universe. Our analysis isolates the additional information supplied by lensing in a model-independent manner but is also useful for understanding and forecasting CMB cosmological parameter errors in the extended Λ cold dark matter parameter space of dark energy, curvature, and massive neutrinos. We introduce and test a simple but accurate forecasting technique for this purpose that neither double counts lensing information nor neglects lensing in the observables.

  8. [Does Darwinism really contribute to ecology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirkin, B M

    2003-01-01

    The author questions Ghilarov's (2003) claim that Darwinism has high explanatory power in ecology. He is agree with S.V. Meyen who believed that beside synthetic theory of evolution (the popular variant on Darwinism) other explanations of evolution are possible. It is emphasized that several processes (e.g., diversification and unification of species at one trophic level, as well as individual and diffusive coadaptations of species of different levels) can contribute to community evolution. Communities cannot be considered as units of natural selection.

  9. Performance and consistency of indicator groups in two biodiversity hotspots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Trindade-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a world limited by data availability and limited funds for conservation, scientists and practitioners must use indicator groups to define spatial conservation priorities. Several studies have evaluated the effectiveness of indicator groups, but still little is known about the consistency in performance of these groups in different regions, which would allow their a priori selection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically examined the effectiveness and the consistency of nine indicator groups in representing mammal species in two top-ranked Biodiversity Hotspots (BH: the Brazilian Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest. To test for group effectiveness we first found the best sets of sites able to maximize the representation of each indicator group in the BH and then calculated the average representation of different target species by the indicator groups in the BH. We considered consistent indicator groups whose representation of target species was not statistically different between BH. We called effective those groups that outperformed the target-species representation achieved by random sets of species. Effective indicator groups required the selection of less than 2% of the BH area for representing target species. Restricted-range species were the most effective indicators for the representation of all mammal diversity as well as target species. It was also the only group with high consistency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We show that several indicator groups could be applied as shortcuts for representing mammal species in the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to develop conservation plans, however, only restricted-range species consistently held as the most effective indicator group for such a task. This group is of particular importance in conservation planning as it captures high diversity of endemic and endangered species.

  10. Ephemeral ecological speciation and the latitudinal biodiversity gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutter, Asher D; Gray, Jeremy C

    2016-10-01

    The richness of biodiversity in the tropics compared to high-latitude parts of the world forms one of the most globally conspicuous patterns in biology, and yet few hypotheses aim to explain this phenomenon in terms of explicit microevolutionary mechanisms of speciation and extinction. We link population genetic processes of selection and adaptation to speciation and extinction by way of their interaction with environmental factors to drive global scale macroecological patterns. High-latitude regions are both cradle and grave with respect to species diversification. In particular, we point to a conceptual equivalence of "environmental harshness" and "hard selection" as eco-evolutionary drivers of local adaptation and ecological speciation. By describing how ecological speciation likely occurs more readily at high latitudes, with such nascent species especially prone to extinction by fusion, we derive the ephemeral ecological speciation hypothesis as an integrative mechanistic explanation for latitudinal gradients in species turnover and the net accumulation of biodiversity.

  11. To sleep or not to sleep: the ecology of sleep in artificial organisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunn Charles L

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background All animals thus far studied sleep, but little is known about the ecological factors that generate differences in sleep characteristics across species, such as total sleep duration or division of sleep into multiple bouts across the 24-hour period (i.e., monophasic or polyphasic sleep activity. Here we address these questions using an evolutionary agent-based model. The model is spatially explicit, with food and sleep sites distributed in two clusters on the landscape. Agents acquire food and sleep energy based on an internal circadian clock coded by 24 traits (one for each hour of the day that correspond to "genes" that evolve by means of a genetic algorithm. These traits can assume three different values that specify the agents' behavior: sleep (or search for a sleep site, eat (or search for a food site, or flexibly decide action based on relative levels of sleep energy and food energy. Individuals with higher fitness scores leave more offspring in the next generation of the simulation, and the model can therefore be used to identify evolutionarily adaptive circadian clock parameters under different ecological conditions. Results We systematically varied input parameters related to the number of food and sleep sites, the degree to which food and sleep sites overlap, and the rate at which food patches were depleted. Our results reveal that: (1 the increased costs of traveling between more spatially separated food and sleep clusters select for monophasic sleep, (2 more rapid food patch depletion reduces sleep times, and (3 agents spend more time attempting to acquire the "rarer" resource, that is, the average time spent sleeping is positively correlated with the number of food patches and negatively correlated with the number of sleep patches. "Flexible" genes, in general, do not appear to be advantageous, though their arrangements in the agents' genome show characteristic patterns that suggest that selection acts on their

  12. Ecology-driven stereotypes override race stereotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Keelah E G; Sng, Oliver; Neuberg, Steven L

    2016-01-12

    Why do race stereotypes take the forms they do? Life history theory posits that features of the ecology shape individuals' behavior. Harsh and unpredictable ("desperate") ecologies induce fast strategy behaviors such as impulsivity, whereas resource-sufficient and predictable ("hopeful") ecologies induce slow strategy behaviors such as future focus. We suggest that individuals possess a lay understanding of ecology's influence on behavior, resulting in ecology-driven stereotypes. Importantly, because race is confounded with ecology in the United States, we propose that Americans' stereotypes about racial groups actually reflect stereotypes about these groups' presumed home ecologies. Study 1 demonstrates that individuals hold ecology stereotypes, stereotyping people from desperate ecologies as possessing faster life history strategies than people from hopeful ecologies. Studies 2-4 rule out alternative explanations for those findings. Study 5, which independently manipulates race and ecology information, demonstrates that when provided with information about a person's race (but not ecology), individuals' inferences about blacks track stereotypes of people from desperate ecologies, and individuals' inferences about whites track stereotypes of people from hopeful ecologies. However, when provided with information about both the race and ecology of others, individuals' inferences reflect the targets' ecology rather than their race: black and white targets from desperate ecologies are stereotyped as equally fast life history strategists, whereas black and white targets from hopeful ecologies are stereotyped as equally slow life history strategists. These findings suggest that the content of several predominant race stereotypes may not reflect race, per se, but rather inferences about how one's ecology influences behavior.

  13. The role of social and ecological processes in structuring animal populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farine, D.R.; Firth, J.A.; Aplin, L.M.; Crates, R.A.; Culina, Antica; Garroway, Colin J.; Hinde, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Both social and ecological factors influence population process and structure, with resultant consequences for phenotypic selection on individuals. Understanding the scale and relative contribution of these two factors is thus a central aim in evolutionary ecology. In this study, we develop a fra

  14. Utility Indifference Pricing: A Time Consistent Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Pirvu, Traian A

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the optimal portfolio selection problem in a dynamic multi-period stochastic framework with regime switching. The risk preferences are of exponential (CARA) type with an absolute coefficient of risk aversion which changes with the regime. The market model is incomplete and there are two risky assets: one tradable and one non-tradable. In this context, the optimal investment strategies are time inconsistent. Consequently, the subgame perfect equilibrium strategies are considered. The utility indifference prices of a contingent claim written on the risky assets are computed via an indifference valuation algorithm. By running numerical experiments, we examine how these prices vary in response to changes in model parameters.

  15. Consistency Relations for the Conformal Mechanism

    CERN Document Server

    Creminelli, Paolo; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko

    2012-01-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB mu-distortion.

  16. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creminelli, Paolo [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151, Trieste (Italy); Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: creminel@ictp.it, E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  17. Improving analytical tomographic reconstructions through consistency conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Arcadu, Filippo; Stampanoni, Marco; Marone, Federica

    2016-01-01

    This work introduces and characterizes a fast parameterless filter based on the Helgason-Ludwig consistency conditions, used to improve the accuracy of analytical reconstructions of tomographic undersampled datasets. The filter, acting in the Radon domain, extrapolates intermediate projections between those existing. The resulting sinogram, doubled in views, is then reconstructed by a standard analytical method. Experiments with simulated data prove that the peak-signal-to-noise ratio of the results computed by filtered backprojection is improved up to 5-6 dB, if the filter is used prior to reconstruction.

  18. Consistency of non-minimal renormalisation schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Jack, I

    2016-01-01

    Non-minimal renormalisation schemes such as the momentum subtraction scheme (MOM) have frequently been used for physical computations. The consistency of such a scheme relies on the existence of a coupling redefinition linking it to MSbar. We discuss the implementation of this procedure in detail for a general theory and show how to construct the relevant redefinition up to three-loop order, for the case of a general theory of fermions and scalars in four dimensions and a general scalar theory in six dimensions.

  19. Gentzen's centenary the quest for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Rathjen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Gerhard Gentzen has been described as logic’s lost genius, whom Gödel called a better logician than himself. This work comprises articles by leading proof theorists, attesting to Gentzen’s enduring legacy to mathematical logic and beyond. The contributions range from philosophical reflections and re-evaluations of Gentzen’s original consistency proofs to the most recent developments in proof theory. Gentzen founded modern proof theory. His sequent calculus and natural deduction system beautifully explain the deep symmetries of logic. They underlie modern developments in computer science such as automated theorem proving and type theory.

  20. Consistent Predictions of Future Forest Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We examined empirical and model based estimates of current and future forest mortality of conifers in the northern hemisphere. Consistent water potential thresholds were found that resulted in mortality of our case study species, pinon pine and one-seed juniper. Extending these results with IPCC climate scenarios suggests that most existing trees in this region (SW USA) will be dead by 2050. Further, independent estimates of future mortality for the entire coniferous biome suggest widespread mortality by 2100. The validity and assumptions and implications of these results are discussed.