WorldWideScience

Sample records for conserved regulatory sequences

  1. Properties of Sequence Conservation in Upstream Regulatory and Protein Coding Sequences among Paralogs in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Dale N.; Wiehe, Thomas

    Whole genome duplication (WGD) has catalyzed the formation of new species, genes with novel functions, altered expression patterns, complexified signaling pathways and has provided organisms a level of genetic robustness. We studied the long-term evolution and interrelationships of 5’ upstream regulatory sequences (URSs), protein coding sequences (CDSs) and expression correlations (EC) of duplicated gene pairs in Arabidopsis. Three distinct methods revealed significant evolutionary conservation between paralogous URSs and were highly correlated with microarray-based expression correlation of the respective gene pairs. Positional information on exact matches between sequences unveiled the contribution of micro-chromosomal rearrangements on expression divergence. A three-way rank analysis of URS similarity, CDS divergence and EC uncovered specific gene functional biases. Transcription factor activity was associated with gene pairs exhibiting conserved URSs and divergent CDSs, whereas a broad array of metabolic enzymes was found to be associated with gene pairs showing diverged URSs but conserved CDSs.

  2. Detection of Weakly Conserved Ancestral Mammalian RegulatorySequences by Primate Comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qian-fei; Prabhakar, Shyam; Chanan, Sumita; Cheng,Jan-Fang; Rubin, Edward M.; Boffelli, Dario

    2006-06-01

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detectcryptic functional elements, which are too weakly conserved among mammalsto distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem, weexplored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  3. Phylum-Level Conservation of Regulatory Information in Nematodes despite Extensive Non-coding Sequence Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kacy L.; Arthur, Robert K.; Ruvinsky, Ilya

    2015-01-01

    Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2) from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements. PMID:26020930

  4. Phylum-Level Conservation of Regulatory Information in Nematodes despite Extensive Non-coding Sequence Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kacy L Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Gene regulatory information guides development and shapes the course of evolution. To test conservation of gene regulation within the phylum Nematoda, we compared the functions of putative cis-regulatory sequences of four sets of orthologs (unc-47, unc-25, mec-3 and elt-2 from distantly-related nematode species. These species, Caenorhabditis elegans, its congeneric C. briggsae, and three parasitic species Meloidogyne hapla, Brugia malayi, and Trichinella spiralis, represent four of the five major clades in the phylum Nematoda. Despite the great phylogenetic distances sampled and the extensive sequence divergence of nematode genomes, all but one of the regulatory elements we tested are able to drive at least a subset of the expected gene expression patterns. We show that functionally conserved cis-regulatory elements have no more extended sequence similarity to their C. elegans orthologs than would be expected by chance, but they do harbor motifs that are important for proper expression of the C. elegans genes. These motifs are too short to be distinguished from the background level of sequence similarity, and while identical in sequence they are not conserved in orientation or position. Functional tests reveal that some of these motifs contribute to proper expression. Our results suggest that conserved regulatory circuitry can persist despite considerable turnover within cis elements.

  5. WeederH: an algorithm for finding conserved regulatory motifs and regions in homologous sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pesole Graziano

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work addresses the problem of detecting conserved transcription factor binding sites and in general regulatory regions through the analysis of sequences from homologous genes, an approach that is becoming more and more widely used given the ever increasing amount of genomic data available. Results We present an algorithm that identifies conserved transcription factor binding sites in a given sequence by comparing it to one or more homologs, adapting a framework we previously introduced for the discovery of sites in sequences from co-regulated genes. Differently from the most commonly used methods, the approach we present does not need or compute an alignment of the sequences investigated, nor resorts to descriptors of the binding specificity of known transcription factors. The main novel idea we introduce is a relative measure of conservation, assuming that true functional elements should present a higher level of conservation with respect to the rest of the sequence surrounding them. We present tests where we applied the algorithm to the identification of conserved annotated sites in homologous promoters, as well as in distal regions like enhancers. Conclusion Results of the tests show how the algorithm can provide fast and reliable predictions of conserved transcription factor binding sites regulating the transcription of a gene, with better performances than other available methods for the same task. We also show examples on how the algorithm can be successfully employed when promoter annotations of the genes investigated are missing, or when regulatory sites and regions are located far away from the genes.

  6. Asymmetrical distribution of non-conserved regulatory sequences at PHOX2B is reflected at the ENCODE loci and illuminates a possible genome-wide trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCallion Andrew S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcriptional regulatory elements are central to development and interspecific phenotypic variation. Current regulatory element prediction tools rely heavily upon conservation for prediction of putative elements. Recent in vitro observations from the ENCODE project combined with in vivo analyses at the zebrafish phox2b locus suggests that a significant fraction of regulatory elements may fall below commonly applied metrics of conservation. We propose to explore these observations in vivo at the human PHOX2B locus, and also evaluate the potential evidence for genome-wide applicability of these observations through a novel analysis of extant data. Results Transposon-based transgenic analysis utilizing a tiling path proximal to human PHOX2B in zebrafish recapitulates the observations at the zebrafish phox2b locus of both conserved and non-conserved regulatory elements. Analysis of human sequences conserved with previously identified zebrafish phox2b regulatory elements demonstrates that the orthologous sequences exhibit overlapping regulatory control. Additionally, analysis of non-conserved sequences scattered over 135 kb 5' to PHOX2B, provides evidence of non-conserved regulatory elements positively biased with close proximity to the gene. Furthermore, we provide a novel analysis of data from the ENCODE project, finding a non-uniform distribution of regulatory elements consistent with our in vivo observations at PHOX2B. These observations remain largely unchanged when one accounts for the sequence repeat content of the assayed intervals, when the intervals are sub-classified by biological role (developmental versus non-developmental, or by gene density (gene desert versus non-gene desert. Conclusion While regulatory elements frequently display evidence of evolutionary conservation, a fraction appears to be undetected by current metrics of conservation. In vivo observations at the PHOX2B locus, supported by our analyses of in

  7. An atlas of over 90.000 conserved noncoding sequences provides insight into crucifer regulatory regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haudry, A.; Platts, A.E.; Vello, E.; Hoen, D.R.; Leclerq, M.; Williamson, R.J.; Forczek, E.; Joly-Lopez, Z.; Steffen, J.G.; Hazzouri, K.M.; Dewar, K.; Stinchcombe, J.R.; Schoen, D.J.; Wang, X.; Schmutz, J.; Town, C.D.; Edger, P.P.; Pires, J.C.; Schumaker, K.S.; Jarvis, D.E.; Mandakova, T.; Lysak, M.; Bergh, van den E.; Schranz, M.E.; Harrison, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the central importance of noncoding DNA to gene regulation and evolution, understanding of the extent of selection on plant noncoding DNA remains limited compared to that of other organisms. Here we report sequencing of genomes from three Brassicaceae species (Leavenworthia alabamica,

  8. Spatially conserved regulatory elements identified within human and mouse Cd247 gene using high-throughput sequencing data from the ENCODE project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pundhir, Sachin; Hannibal, Tine Dahlbæk; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus Heiner

    2014-01-01

    . In this study, we have utilized the wealth of high-throughput sequencing data produced during the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project to identify spatially conserved regulatory elements within the Cd247 gene from human and mouse. We show the presence of two transcription factor binding sites...

  9. Structural and functional analysis of mouse Msx1 gene promoter: sequence conservation with human MSX1 promoter points at potential regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S M; Ferland, L H; Robert, B; Abdelhay, E

    1998-06-01

    Vertebrate Msx genes are related to one of the most divergent homeobox genes of Drosophila, the muscle segment homeobox (msh) gene, and are expressed in a well-defined pattern at sites of tissue interactions. This pattern of expression is conserved in vertebrates as diverse as quail, zebrafish, and mouse in a range of sites including neural crest, appendages, and craniofacial structures. In the present work, we performed structural and functional analyses in order to identify potential cis-acting elements that may be regulating Msx1 gene expression. To this end, a 4.9-kb segment of the 5'-flanking region was sequenced and analyzed for transcription-factor binding sites. Four regions showing a high concentration of these sites were identified. Transfection assays with fragments of regulatory sequences driving the expression of the bacterial lacZ reporter gene showed that a region of 4 kb upstream of the transcription start site contains positive and negative elements responsible for controlling gene expression. Interestingly, a fragment of 130 bp seems to contain the minimal elements necessary for gene expression, as its removal completely abolishes gene expression in cultured cells. These results are reinforced by comparison of this region with the human Msx1 gene promoter, which shows extensive conservation, including many consensus binding sites, suggesting a regulatory role for them.

  10. Evolutionary conservation of regulatory elements in vertebrate HOX gene clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, Simona; Boore, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Axel

    2003-12-31

    Due to their high degree of conservation, comparisons of DNA sequences among evolutionarily distantly-related genomes permit to identify functional regions in noncoding DNA. Hox genes are optimal candidate sequences for comparative genome analyses, because they are extremely conserved in vertebrates and occur in clusters. We aligned (Pipmaker) the nucleotide sequences of HoxA clusters of tilapia, pufferfish, striped bass, zebrafish, horn shark, human and mouse (over 500 million years of evolutionary distance). We identified several highly conserved intergenic sequences, likely to be important in gene regulation. Only a few of these putative regulatory elements have been previously described as being involved in the regulation of Hox genes, while several others are new elements that might have regulatory functions. The majority of these newly identified putative regulatory elements contain short fragments that are almost completely conserved and are identical to known binding sites for regulatory proteins (Transfac). The conserved intergenic regions located between the most rostrally expressed genes in the developing embryo are longer and better retained through evolution. We document that presumed regulatory sequences are retained differentially in either A or A clusters resulting from a genome duplication in the fish lineage. This observation supports both the hypothesis that the conserved elements are involved in gene regulation and the Duplication-Deletion-Complementation model.

  11. Conserved Transcriptional Regulatory Programs Underlying Rice and Barley Germination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li; Tian, Shulan; Kaeppler, Shawn; Liu, Zongrang; An, Yong-Qiang (Charles)

    2014-01-01

    Germination is a biological process important to plant development and agricultural production. Barley and rice diverged 50 million years ago, but share a similar germination process. To gain insight into the conservation of their underlying gene regulatory programs, we compared transcriptomes of barley and rice at start, middle and end points of germination, and revealed that germination regulated barley and rice genes (BRs) diverged significantly in expression patterns and/or protein sequences. However, BRs with higher protein sequence similarity tended to have more conserved expression patterns. We identified and characterized 316 sets of conserved barley and rice genes (cBRs) with high similarity in both protein sequences and expression patterns, and provided a comprehensive depiction of the transcriptional regulatory program conserved in barley and rice germination at gene, pathway and systems levels. The cBRs encoded proteins involved in a variety of biological pathways and had a wide range of expression patterns. The cBRs encoding key regulatory components in signaling pathways often had diverse expression patterns. Early germination up-regulation of cell wall metabolic pathway and peroxidases, and late germination up-regulation of chromatin structure and remodeling pathways were conserved in both barley and rice. Protein sequence and expression pattern of a gene change quickly if it is not subjected to a functional constraint. Preserving germination-regulated expression patterns and protein sequences of those cBRs for 50 million years strongly suggests that the cBRs are functionally significant and equivalent in germination, and contribute to the ancient characteristics of germination preserved in barley and rice. The functional significance and equivalence of the cBR genes predicted here can serve as a foundation to further characterize their biological functions and facilitate bridging rice and barley germination research with greater confidence. PMID

  12. Identification of conserved regulatory elements by comparative genome analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jareborg Niclas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For genes that have been successfully delineated within the human genome sequence, most regulatory sequences remain to be elucidated. The annotation and interpretation process requires additional data resources and significant improvements in computational methods for the detection of regulatory regions. One approach of growing popularity is based on the preferential conservation of functional sequences over the course of evolution by selective pressure, termed 'phylogenetic footprinting'. Mutations are more likely to be disruptive if they appear in functional sites, resulting in a measurable difference in evolution rates between functional and non-functional genomic segments. Results We have devised a flexible suite of methods for the identification and visualization of conserved transcription-factor-binding sites. The system reports those putative transcription-factor-binding sites that are both situated in conserved regions and located as pairs of sites in equivalent positions in alignments between two orthologous sequences. An underlying collection of metazoan transcription-factor-binding profiles was assembled to facilitate the study. This approach results in a significant improvement in the detection of transcription-factor-binding sites because of an increased signal-to-noise ratio, as demonstrated with two sets of promoter sequences. The method is implemented as a graphical web application, ConSite, which is at the disposal of the scientific community at http://www.phylofoot.org/. Conclusions Phylogenetic footprinting dramatically improves the predictive selectivity of bioinformatic approaches to the analysis of promoter sequences. ConSite delivers unparalleled performance using a novel database of high-quality binding models for metazoan transcription factors. With a dynamic interface, this bioinformatics tool provides broad access to promoter analysis with phylogenetic footprinting.

  13. BLSSpeller: exhaustive comparative discovery of conserved cis-regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witte, Dieter; Van de Velde, Jan; Decap, Dries; Van Bel, Michiel; Audenaert, Pieter; Demeester, Piet; Dhoedt, Bart; Vandepoele, Klaas; Fostier, Jan

    2015-12-01

    The accurate discovery and annotation of regulatory elements remains a challenging problem. The growing number of sequenced genomes creates new opportunities for comparative approaches to motif discovery. Putative binding sites are then considered to be functional if they are conserved in orthologous promoter sequences of multiple related species. Existing methods for comparative motif discovery usually rely on pregenerated multiple sequence alignments, which are difficult to obtain for more diverged species such as plants. As a consequence, misaligned regulatory elements often remain undetected. We present a novel algorithm that supports both alignment-free and alignment-based motif discovery in the promoter sequences of related species. Putative motifs are exhaustively enumerated as words over the IUPAC alphabet and screened for conservation using the branch length score. Additionally, a confidence score is established in a genome-wide fashion. In order to take advantage of a cloud computing infrastructure, the MapReduce programming model is adopted. The method is applied to four monocotyledon plant species and it is shown that high-scoring motifs are significantly enriched for open chromatin regions in Oryza sativa and for transcription factor binding sites inferred through protein-binding microarrays in O.sativa and Zea mays. Furthermore, the method is shown to recover experimentally profiled ga2ox1-like KN1 binding sites in Z.mays. BLSSpeller was written in Java. Source code and manual are available at http://bioinformatics.intec.ugent.be/blsspeller Klaas.Vandepoele@psb.vib-ugent.be or jan.fostier@intec.ugent.be. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  14. Conservation patterns in different functional sequence categoriesof divergent Drosophila species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papatsenko, Dmitri; Kislyuk, Andrey; Levine, Michael; Dubchak, Inna

    2005-10-01

    We have explored the distributions of fully conservedungapped blocks in genome-wide pairwise alignments of recently completedspecies of Drosophila: D.yakuba, D.ananassae, D.pseudoobscura, D.virilisand D.mojavensis. Based on these distributions we have found that nearlyevery functional sequence category possesses its own distinctiveconservation pattern, sometimes independent of the overall sequenceconservation level. In the coding and regulatory regions, the ungappedblocks were longer than in introns, UTRs and non-functional sequences. Atthe same time, the blocks in the coding regions carried 3N+2 signaturecharacteristic to synonymic substitutions in the 3rd codon positions.Larger block sizes in transcription regulatory regions can be explainedby the presence of conserved arrays of binding sites for transcriptionfactors. We also have shown that the longest ungapped blocks, or'ultraconserved' sequences, are associated with specific gene groups,including those encoding ion channels and components of the cytoskeleton.We discussed how restrained conservation patterns may help in mappingfunctional sequence categories and improving genomeannotation.

  15. Evolutionary growth process of highly conserved sequences in vertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Minaka; Noda, Akiko Ogura; Sakate, Ryuichi; Imanishi, Tadashi

    2012-08-01

    Genome sequence comparison between evolutionarily distant species revealed ultraconserved elements (UCEs) among mammals under strong purifying selection. Most of them were also conserved among vertebrates. Because they tend to be located in the flanking regions of developmental genes, they would have fundamental roles in creating vertebrate body plans. However, the evolutionary origin and selection mechanism of these UCEs remain unclear. Here we report that UCEs arose in primitive vertebrates, and gradually grew in vertebrate evolution. We searched for UCEs in two teleost fishes, Tetraodon nigroviridis and Oryzias latipes, and found 554 UCEs with 100% identity over 100 bps. Comparison of teleost and mammalian UCEs revealed 43 pairs of common, jawed-vertebrate UCEs (jUCE) with high sequence identities, ranging from 83.1% to 99.2%. Ten of them retain lower similarities to the Petromyzon marinus genome, and the substitution rates of four non-exonic jUCEs were reduced after the teleost-mammal divergence, suggesting that robust conservation had been acquired in the jawed vertebrate lineage. Our results indicate that prototypical UCEs originated before the divergence of jawed and jawless vertebrates and have been frozen as perfect conserved sequences in the jawed vertebrate lineage. In addition, our comparative sequence analyses of UCEs and neighboring regions resulted in a discovery of lineage-specific conserved sequences. They were added progressively to prototypical UCEs, suggesting step-wise acquisition of novel regulatory roles. Our results indicate that conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) consist of blocks with distinct evolutionary history, each having been frozen since different evolutionary era along the vertebrate lineage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Accelerated Evolution of Conserved Noncoding Sequences in theHuman Genome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prambhakar, Shyam; Noonan, James P.; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, EdwardM.

    2006-07-06

    Genomic comparisons between human and distant, non-primatemammals are commonly used to identify cis-regulatory elements based onconstrained sequence evolution. However, these methods fail to detect"cryptic" functional elements, which are too weakly conserved amongmammals to distinguish from nonfunctional DNA. To address this problem,we explored the potential of deep intra-primate sequence comparisons. Wesequenced the orthologs of 558 kb of human genomic sequence, coveringmultiple loci involved in cholesterol homeostasis, in 6 nonhumanprimates. Our analysis identified 6 noncoding DNA elements displayingsignificant conservation among primates, but undetectable in more distantcomparisons. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed that at least three ofthese 6 elements have regulatory function. Notably, the mouse orthologsof these three functional human sequences had regulatory activity despitetheir lack of significant sequence conservation, indicating that they arecryptic ancestral cis-regulatory elements. These regulatory elementscould still be detected in a smaller set of three primate speciesincluding human, rhesus and marmoset. Since the human and rhesus genomesequences are already available, and the marmoset genome is activelybeing sequenced, the primate-specific conservation analysis describedhere can be applied in the near future on a whole-genome scale, tocomplement the annotation provided by more distant speciescomparisons.

  17. In Vivo Enhancer Analysis Chromosome 16 Conserved NoncodingSequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Ahituv, Nadav; Moses, Alan M.; Nobrega,Marcelo; Prabhakar, Shyam; Shoukry, Malak; Minovitsky, Simon; Visel,Axel; Dubchak, Inna; Holt, Amy; Lewis, Keith D.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Akiyama, Jennifer; De Val, Sarah; Afzal, Veena; Black, Brian L.; Couronne, Olivier; Eisen, Michael B.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2006-02-01

    The identification of enhancers with predicted specificitiesin vertebrate genomes remains a significant challenge that is hampered bya lack of experimentally validated training sets. In this study, weleveraged extreme evolutionary sequence conservation as a filter toidentify putative gene regulatory elements and characterized the in vivoenhancer activity of human-fish conserved and ultraconserved1 noncodingelements on human chromosome 16 as well as such elements from elsewherein the genome. We initially tested 165 of these extremely conservedsequences in a transgenic mouse enhancer assay and observed that 48percent (79/165) functioned reproducibly as tissue-specific enhancers ofgene expression at embryonic day 11.5. While driving expression in abroad range of anatomical structures in the embryo, the majority of the79 enhancers drove expression in various regions of the developingnervous system. Studying a set of DNA elements that specifically droveforebrain expression, we identified DNA signatures specifically enrichedin these elements and used these parameters to rank all ~;3,400human-fugu conserved noncoding elements in the human genome. The testingof the top predictions in transgenic mice resulted in a three-foldenrichment for sequences with forebrain enhancer activity. These datadramatically expand the catalogue of in vivo-characterized human geneenhancers and illustrate the future utility of such training sets for avariety of iological applications including decoding the regulatoryvocabulary of the human genome.

  18. Pleiotropy constrains the evolution of protein but not regulatory sequences in a transcription regulatory network influencing complex social behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria eMolodtsova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly apparent that genes and networks that influence complex behaviour are evolutionary conserved, which is paradoxical considering that behaviour is labile over evolutionary timescales. How does adaptive change in behaviour arise if behaviour is controlled by conserved, pleiotropic, and likely evolutionary constrained genes? Pleiotropy and connectedness are known to constrain the general rate of protein evolution, prompting some to suggest that the evolution of complex traits, including behaviour, is fuelled by regulatory sequence evolution. However, we seldom have data on the strength of selection on mutations in coding and regulatory sequences, and this hinders our ability to study how pleiotropy influences coding and regulatory sequence evolution. Here we use population genomics to estimate the strength of selection on coding and regulatory mutations for a transcriptional regulatory network that influences complex behaviour of honey bees. We found that replacement mutations in highly connected transcription factors and target genes experience significantly stronger negative selection relative to weakly connected transcription factors and targets. Adaptively evolving proteins were significantly more likely to reside at the periphery of the regulatory network, while proteins with signs of negative selection were near the core of the network. Interestingly, connectedness and network structure had minimal influence on the strength of selection on putative regulatory sequences for both transcription factors and their targets. Our study indicates that adaptive evolution of complex behaviour can arise because of positive selection on protein-coding mutations in peripheral genes, and on regulatory sequence mutations in both transcription factors and their targets throughout the network.

  19. Close Sequence Comparisons are Sufficient to Identify Humancis-Regulatory Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Shoukry, Malak; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Couronne, Olivier; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2005-12-01

    Cross-species DNA sequence comparison is the primary method used to identify functional noncoding elements in human and other large genomes. However, little is known about the relative merits of evolutionarily close and distant sequence comparisons, due to the lack of a universal metric for sequence conservation, and also the paucity of empirically defined benchmark sets of cis-regulatory elements. To address this problem, we developed a general-purpose algorithm (Gumby) that detects slowly-evolving regions in primate, mammalian and more distant comparisons without requiring adjustment of parameters, and ranks conserved elements by P-value using Karlin-Altschul statistics. We benchmarked Gumby predictions against previously identified cis-regulatory elements at diverse genomic loci, and also tested numerous extremely conserved human-rodent sequences for transcriptional enhancer activity using reporter-gene assays in transgenic mice. Human regulatory elements were identified with acceptable sensitivity and specificity by comparison with 1-5 other eutherian mammals or 6 other simian primates. More distant comparisons (marsupial, avian, amphibian and fish) failed to identify many of the empirically defined functional noncoding elements. We derived an intuitive relationship between ancient and recent noncoding sequence conservation from whole genome comparative analysis, which explains some of these findings. Lastly, we determined that, in addition to strength of conservation, genomic location and/or density of surrounding conserved elements must also be considered in selecting candidate enhancers for testing at embryonic time points.

  20. Mapping cis-Regulatory Domains in the Human Genome UsingMulti-Species Conservation of Synteny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahituv, Nadav; Prabhakar, Shyam; Poulin, Francis; Rubin, EdwardM.; Couronne, Olivier

    2005-06-13

    Our inability to associate distant regulatory elements with the genes that they regulate has largely precluded their examination for sequence alterations contributing to human disease. One major obstacle is the large genomic space surrounding targeted genes in which such elements could potentially reside. In order to delineate gene regulatory boundaries we used whole-genome human-mouse-chicken (HMC) and human-mouse-frog (HMF) multiple alignments to compile conserved blocks of synteny (CBS), under the hypothesis that these blocks have been kept intact throughout evolution at least in part by the requirement of regulatory elements to stay linked to the genes that they regulate. A total of 2,116 and 1,942 CBS>200 kb were assembled for HMC and HMF respectively, encompassing 1.53 and 0.86 Gb of human sequence. To support the existence of complex long-range regulatory domains within these CBS we analyzed the prevalence and distribution of chromosomal aberrations leading to position effects (disruption of a genes regulatory environment), observing a clear bias not only for mapping onto CBS but also for longer CBS size. Our results provide a genome wide data set characterizing the regulatory domains of genes and the conserved regulatory elements within them.

  1. Statistical approaches to use a model organism for regulatory sequences annotation of newly sequenced species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Liò

    Full Text Available A major goal of bioinformatics is the characterization of transcription factors and the transcriptional programs they regulate. Given the speed of genome sequencing, we would like to quickly annotate regulatory sequences in newly-sequenced genomes. In such cases, it would be helpful to predict sequence motifs by using experimental data from closely related model organism. Here we present a general algorithm that allow to identify transcription factor binding sites in one newly sequenced species by performing Bayesian regression on the annotated species. First we set the rationale of our method by applying it within the same species, then we extend it to use data available in closely related species. Finally, we generalise the method to handle the case when a certain number of experiments, from several species close to the species on which to make inference, are available. In order to show the performance of the method, we analyse three functionally related networks in the Ascomycota. Two gene network case studies are related to the G2/M phase of the Ascomycota cell cycle; the third is related to morphogenesis. We also compared the method with MatrixReduce and discuss other types of validation and tests. The first network is well known and provides a biological validation test of the method. The two cell cycle case studies, where the gene network size is conserved, demonstrate an effective utility in annotating new species sequences using all the available replicas from model species. The third case, where the gene network size varies among species, shows that the combination of information is less powerful but is still informative. Our methodology is quite general and could be extended to integrate other high-throughput data from model organisms.

  2. The relationship of protein conservation and sequence length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panchenko Anna R

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, the length of a protein sequence is determined by its function and the wide variance in the lengths of an organism's proteins reflects the diversity of specific functional roles for these proteins. However, additional evolutionary forces that affect the length of a protein may be revealed by studying the length distributions of proteins evolving under weaker functional constraints. Results We performed sequence comparisons to distinguish highly conserved and poorly conserved proteins from the bacterium Escherichia coli, the archaeon Archaeoglobus fulgidus, and the eukaryotes Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Homo sapiens. For all organisms studied, the conserved and nonconserved proteins have strikingly different length distributions. The conserved proteins are, on average, longer than the poorly conserved ones, and the length distributions for the poorly conserved proteins have a relatively narrow peak, in contrast to the conserved proteins whose lengths spread over a wider range of values. For the two prokaryotes studied, the poorly conserved proteins approximate the minimal length distribution expected for a diverse range of structural folds. Conclusions There is a relationship between protein conservation and sequence length. For all the organisms studied, there seems to be a significant evolutionary trend favoring shorter proteins in the absence of other, more specific functional constraints.

  3. Regulatory sequence of cupin family gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Elizabeth; Teoh, Thomas

    2017-07-25

    This invention is in the field of plant biology and agriculture and relates to novel seed specific promoter regions. The present invention further provide methods of producing proteins and other products of interest and methods of controlling expression of nucleic acid sequences of interest using the seed specific promoter regions.

  4. Identification of putative regulatory upstream ORFs in the yeast genome using heuristics and evolutionary conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilsland Elizabeth

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The translational efficiency of an mRNA can be modulated by upstream open reading frames (uORFs present in certain genes. A uORF can attenuate translation of the main ORF by interfering with translational reinitiation at the main start codon. uORFs also occur by chance in the genome, in which case they do not have a regulatory role. Since the sequence determinants for functional uORFs are not understood, it is difficult to discriminate functional from spurious uORFs by sequence analysis. Results We have used comparative genomics to identify novel uORFs in yeast with a high likelihood of having a translational regulatory role. We examined uORFs, previously shown to play a role in regulation of translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for evolutionary conservation within seven Saccharomyces species. Inspection of the set of conserved uORFs yielded the following three characteristics useful for discrimination of functional from spurious uORFs: a length between 4 and 6 codons, a distance from the start of the main ORF between 50 and 150 nucleotides, and finally a lack of overlap with, and clear separation from, neighbouring uORFs. These derived rules are inherently associated with uORFs with properties similar to the GCN4 locus, and may not detect most uORFs of other types. uORFs with high scores based on these rules showed a much higher evolutionary conservation than randomly selected uORFs. In a genome-wide scan in S. cerevisiae, we found 34 conserved uORFs from 32 genes that we predict to be functional; subsequent analysis showed the majority of these to be located within transcripts. A total of 252 genes were found containing conserved uORFs with properties indicative of a functional role; all but 7 are novel. Functional content analysis of this set identified an overrepresentation of genes involved in transcriptional control and development. Conclusion Evolutionary conservation of uORFs in yeasts can be traced up to 100

  5. DNA watermarks in non-coding regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyka Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA watermarks can be applied to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms. It has been shown that coding regions can be used to encrypt information into living organisms by using the DNA-Crypt algorithm. Yet, if the sequence of interest presents a non-coding DNA sequence, either the function of a resulting functional RNA molecule or a regulatory sequence, such as a promoter, could be affected. For our studies we used the small cytoplasmic RNA 1 in yeast and the lac promoter region of Escherichia coli. Findings The lac promoter was deactivated by the integrated watermark. In addition, the RNA molecules displayed altered configurations after introducing a watermark, but surprisingly were functionally intact, which has been verified by analyzing the growth characteristics of both wild type and watermarked scR1 transformed yeast cells. In a third approach we introduced a second overlapping watermark into the lac promoter, which did not affect the promoter activity. Conclusion Even though the watermarked RNA and one of the watermarked promoters did not show any significant differences compared to the wild type RNA and wild type promoter region, respectively, it cannot be generalized that other RNA molecules or regulatory sequences behave accordingly. Therefore, we do not recommend integrating watermark sequences into regulatory regions.

  6. High-throughput sequencing, characterization and detection of new and conserved cucumber miRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Martínez

    Full Text Available Micro RNAS (miRNAs are a class of endogenous small non coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. In plants, a great number of conserved and specific miRNAs, mainly arising from model species, have been identified to date. However less is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in vegetal species with agricultural and/or horticultural importance. Here we report a combined approach of bioinformatics prediction, high-throughput sequencing data and molecular methods to analyze miRNAs populations in cucumber (Cucumis sativus plants. A set of 19 conserved and 6 known but non-conserved miRNA families were found in our cucumber small RNA dataset. We also identified 7 (3 with their miRNA* strand not previously described miRNAs, candidates to be cucumber-specific. To validate their description these new C. sativus miRNAs were detected by northern blot hybridization. Additionally, potential targets for most conserved and new miRNAs were identified in cucumber genome.In summary, in this study we have identified, by first time, conserved, known non-conserved and new miRNAs arising from an agronomically important species such as C. sativus. The detection of this complex population of regulatory small RNAs suggests that similarly to that observe in other plant species, cucumber miRNAs may possibly play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes.

  7. Highly conserved non-coding sequences are associated with vertebrate development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Woolfe

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In addition to protein coding sequence, the human genome contains a significant amount of regulatory DNA, the identification of which is proving somewhat recalcitrant to both in silico and functional methods. An approach that has been used with some success is comparative sequence analysis, whereby equivalent genomic regions from different organisms are compared in order to identify both similarities and differences. In general, similarities in sequence between highly divergent organisms imply functional constraint. We have used a whole-genome comparison between humans and the pufferfish, Fugu rubripes, to identify nearly 1,400 highly conserved non-coding sequences. Given the evolutionary divergence between these species, it is likely that these sequences are found in, and furthermore are essential to, all vertebrates. Most, and possibly all, of these sequences are located in and around genes that act as developmental regulators. Some of these sequences are over 90% identical across more than 500 bases, being more highly conserved than coding sequence between these two species. Despite this, we cannot find any similar sequences in invertebrate genomes. In order to begin to functionally test this set of sequences, we have used a rapid in vivo assay system using zebrafish embryos that allows tissue-specific enhancer activity to be identified. Functional data is presented for highly conserved non-coding sequences associated with four unrelated developmental regulators (SOX21, PAX6, HLXB9, and SHH, in order to demonstrate the suitability of this screen to a wide range of genes and expression patterns. Of 25 sequence elements tested around these four genes, 23 show significant enhancer activity in one or more tissues. We have identified a set of non-coding sequences that are highly conserved throughout vertebrates. They are found in clusters across the human genome, principally around genes that are implicated in the regulation of development

  8. Sequence conservation and combinatorial complexity of Drosophila neural precursor cell enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuzin Alexander

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of highly conserved sequences within cis-regulatory regions can serve as a valuable starting point for elucidating the basis of enhancer function. This study focuses on regulation of gene expression during the early events of Drosophila neural development. We describe the use of EvoPrinter and cis-Decoder, a suite of interrelated phylogenetic footprinting and alignment programs, to characterize highly conserved sequences that are shared among co-regulating enhancers. Results Analysis of in vivo characterized enhancers that drive neural precursor gene expression has revealed that they contain clusters of highly conserved sequence blocks (CSBs made up of shorter shared sequence elements which are present in different combinations and orientations within the different co-regulating enhancers; these elements contain either known consensus transcription factor binding sites or consist of novel sequences that have not been functionally characterized. The CSBs of co-regulated enhancers share a large number of sequence elements, suggesting that a diverse repertoire of transcription factors may interact in a highly combinatorial fashion to coordinately regulate gene expression. We have used information gained from our comparative analysis to discover an enhancer that directs expression of the nervy gene in neural precursor cells of the CNS and PNS. Conclusion The combined use EvoPrinter and cis-Decoder has yielded important insights into the combinatorial appearance of fundamental sequence elements required for neural enhancer function. Each of the 30 enhancers examined conformed to a pattern of highly conserved blocks of sequences containing shared constituent elements. These data establish a basis for further analysis and understanding of neural enhancer function.

  9. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence are not a frequent cause of micro/anophthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Nicolas; Vigouroux, Adeline; Calvas, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    Microphthalmia and anophthalmia are at the severe end of the spectrum of abnormalities in ocular development. A few genes (SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10) have been implicated in isolated micro/anophthalmia, but causative mutations of these genes explain less than a quarter of these developmental defects. A specifically conserved SOX2/OTX2-mediated RAX expression regulatory sequence has recently been identified. We postulated that mutations in this sequence could lead to micro/anophthalmia, and thus we performed molecular screening of this regulatory element in patients suffering from micro/anophthalmia. Fifty-one patients suffering from nonsyndromic microphthalmia (n = 40) or anophthalmia (n = 11) were included in this study after negative molecular screening for SOX2, OTX2, RAX, and CHX10 mutations. Mutation screening of the RAX regulatory sequence was performed by direct sequencing for these patients. No mutations were identified in the highly conserved RAX regulatory sequence in any of the 51 patients. Mutations in the newly identified RAX regulatory sequence do not represent a frequent cause of nonsyndromic micro/anophthalmia.

  10. Sequencing Conservation Actions Through Threat Assessments in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Sutter; Christopher C. Szell

    2006-01-01

    The identification of conservation priorities is one of the leading issues in conservation biology. We present a project of The Nature Conservancy, called Sequencing Conservation Actions, which prioritizes conservation areas and identifies foci for crosscutting strategies at various geographic scales. We use the term “Sequencing” to mean an ordering of actions over...

  11. Regulatory interventions necessitated by non-conservative operator decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, D.; Chande, S.K.; Sharma, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Presently, India has 15 nuclear power units in operation and 8 units under construction. Though the safety performance of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) in India has been excellent, a few recent events indicate that conservative decision making process can possibly get affected by perceived production goals. In one of the events, a need for some maintenance work arose while reactor start-up was in progress. After it was realized that the maintenance would require considerable time, the proper course of action would have been to shutdown the reactor and add neutron poison to moderator to ensure sufficient sub criticality. This was not done, as it would have delayed the start up of the reactor on completion of maintenance. In another incident, an unintended slow increase in reactor power occurred due to the adjuster rods becoming inoperable on account of blowing-off of fuses in their power supply. Under this condition, the reactor should have been tripped which was not done. Further, the automatic addition of boron poison to the reactor was inhibited. Regulatory review showed that both the incidents were indicative of degradation in safety culture and reflected operator's overriding concern for keeping the units in operation. Appropriate corrective actions were taken to prevent recurrence of such events in the respective units as also in all other operating units of similar type. In the wake of improved production performance operators may develop a tendency to create new operational records and compete with other units. This aspect points out to a need for careful study of events to check the presence of any element of non-conservative decision-making and to identify leading indicators of degradation in safety performance. (author)

  12. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Daniel; Schindler, Detlev

    2011-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M) that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS). In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs), and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  13. Fanconi anemia core complex gene promoters harbor conserved transcription regulatory elements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meier

    Full Text Available The Fanconi anemia (FA gene family is a recent addition to the complex network of proteins that respond to and repair certain types of DNA damage in the human genome. Since little is known about the regulation of this novel group of genes at the DNA level, we characterized the promoters of the eight genes (FANCA, B, C, E, F, G, L and M that compose the FA core complex. The promoters of these genes show the characteristic attributes of housekeeping genes, such as a high GC content and CpG islands, a lack of TATA boxes and a low conservation. The promoters functioned in a monodirectional way and were, in their most active regions, comparable in strength to the SV40 promoter in our reporter plasmids. They were also marked by a distinctive transcriptional start site (TSS. In the 5' region of each promoter, we identified a region that was able to negatively regulate the promoter activity in HeLa and HEK 293 cells in isolation. The central and 3' regions of the promoter sequences harbor binding sites for several common and rare transcription factors, including STAT, SMAD, E2F, AP1 and YY1, which indicates that there may be cross-connections to several established regulatory pathways. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and siRNA experiments confirmed the shared regulatory responses between the prominent members of the TGF-β and JAK/STAT pathways and members of the FA core complex. Although the promoters are not well conserved, they share region and sequence specific regulatory motifs and transcription factor binding sites (TBFs, and we identified a bi-partite nature to these promoters. These results support a hypothesis based on the co-evolution of the FA core complex genes that was expanded to include their promoters.

  14. A conserved regulatory mechanism in bifunctional biotin protein ligases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingheng; Beckett, Dorothy

    2017-08-01

    Class II bifunctional biotin protein ligases (BirA), which catalyze post-translational biotinylation and repress transcription initiation, are broadly distributed in eubacteria and archaea. However, it is unclear if these proteins all share the same molecular mechanism of transcription regulation. In Escherichia coli the corepressor biotinoyl-5'-AMP (bio-5'-AMP), which is also the intermediate in biotin transfer, promotes operator binding and resulting transcription repression by enhancing BirA dimerization. Like E. coli BirA (EcBirA), Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus subtilis BirA (Sa and BsBirA) repress transcription in vivo in a biotin-dependent manner. In this work, sedimentation equilibrium measurements were performed to investigate the molecular basis of this biotin-responsive transcription regulation. The results reveal that, as observed for EcBirA, Sa, and BsBirA dimerization reactions are significantly enhanced by bio-5'-AMP binding. Thus, the molecular mechanism of the Biotin Regulatory System is conserved in the biotin repressors from these three organisms. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  15. HBVRegDB: Annotation, comparison, detection and visualization of regulatory elements in hepatitis B virus sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firth Andrew E

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The many Hepadnaviridae sequences available have widely varied functional annotation. The genomes are very compact (~3.2 kb but contain multiple layers of functional regulatory elements in addition to coding regions. Key regions are subject to purifying selection, as mutations in these regions will produce non-functional viruses. Results These genomic sequences have been organized into a structured database to facilitate research at the molecular level. HBVRegDB is a comparative genomic analysis tool with an integrated underlying sequence database. The database contains genomic sequence data from representative viruses. In addition to INSDC and RefSeq annotation, HBVRegDB also contains expert and systematically calculated annotations (e.g. promoters and comparative genome analysis results (e.g. blastn, tblastx. It also contains analyses based on curated HBV alignments. Information about conserved regions – including primary conservation (e.g. CDS-Plotcon and RNA secondary structure predictions (e.g. Alidot – is integrated into the database. A large amount of data is graphically presented using the GBrowse (Generic Genome Browser adapted for analysis of viral genomes. Flexible query access is provided based on any annotated genomic feature. Novel regulatory motifs can be found by analysing the annotated sequences. Conclusion HBVRegDB serves as a knowledge database and as a comparative genomic analysis tool for molecular biologists investigating HBV. It is publicly available and complementary to other viral and HBV focused datasets and tools http://hbvregdb.otago.ac.nz. The availability of multiple and highly annotated sequences of viral genomes in one database combined with comparative analysis tools facilitates detection of novel genomic elements.

  16. Enhanced regulatory sequence prediction using gapped k-mer features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Mahmoud; Lee, Dongwon; Mohammad-Noori, Morteza; Beer, Michael A

    2014-07-01

    Oligomers of length k, or k-mers, are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties and functions of DNA and protein sequences. However, k-mers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter k is increased to resolve longer features, the probability of observing any specific k-mer becomes very small, and k-mer counts approach a binary variable, with most k-mers absent and a few present once. Thus, any statistical learning approach using k-mers as features becomes susceptible to noisy training set k-mer frequencies once k becomes large. To address this problem, we introduce alternative feature sets using gapped k-mers, a new classifier, gkm-SVM, and a general method for robust estimation of k-mer frequencies. To make the method applicable to large-scale genome wide applications, we develop an efficient tree data structure for computing the kernel matrix. We show that compared to our original kmer-SVM and alternative approaches, our gkm-SVM predicts functional genomic regulatory elements and tissue specific enhancers with significantly improved accuracy, increasing the precision by up to a factor of two. We then show that gkm-SVM consistently outperforms kmer-SVM on human ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets, and further demonstrate the general utility of our method using a Naïve-Bayes classifier. Although developed for regulatory sequence analysis, these methods can be applied to any sequence classification problem.

  17. Enhanced regulatory sequence prediction using gapped k-mer features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Ghandi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oligomers of length k, or k-mers, are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties and functions of DNA and protein sequences. However, k-mers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter k is increased to resolve longer features, the probability of observing any specific k-mer becomes very small, and k-mer counts approach a binary variable, with most k-mers absent and a few present once. Thus, any statistical learning approach using k-mers as features becomes susceptible to noisy training set k-mer frequencies once k becomes large. To address this problem, we introduce alternative feature sets using gapped k-mers, a new classifier, gkm-SVM, and a general method for robust estimation of k-mer frequencies. To make the method applicable to large-scale genome wide applications, we develop an efficient tree data structure for computing the kernel matrix. We show that compared to our original kmer-SVM and alternative approaches, our gkm-SVM predicts functional genomic regulatory elements and tissue specific enhancers with significantly improved accuracy, increasing the precision by up to a factor of two. We then show that gkm-SVM consistently outperforms kmer-SVM on human ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets, and further demonstrate the general utility of our method using a Naïve-Bayes classifier. Although developed for regulatory sequence analysis, these methods can be applied to any sequence classification problem.

  18. Transcriptome sequencing from diverse human populations reveals differentiated regulatory architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia R Martin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale sequencing efforts have documented extensive genetic variation within the human genome. However, our understanding of the origins, global distribution, and functional consequences of this variation is far from complete. While regulatory variation influencing gene expression has been studied within a handful of populations, the breadth of transcriptome differences across diverse human populations has not been systematically analyzed. To better understand the spectrum of gene expression variation, alternative splicing, and the population genetics of regulatory variation in humans, we have sequenced the genomes, exomes, and transcriptomes of EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 45 individuals in the Human Genome Diversity Panel (HGDP. The populations sampled span the geographic breadth of human migration history and include Namibian San, Mbuti Pygmies of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Algerian Mozabites, Pathan of Pakistan, Cambodians of East Asia, Yakut of Siberia, and Mayans of Mexico. We discover that approximately 25.0% of the variation in gene expression found amongst individuals can be attributed to population differences. However, we find few genes that are systematically differentially expressed among populations. Of this population-specific variation, 75.5% is due to expression rather than splicing variability, and we find few genes with strong evidence for differential splicing across populations. Allelic expression analyses indicate that previously mapped common regulatory variants identified in eight populations from the International Haplotype Map Phase 3 project have similar effects in our seven sampled HGDP populations, suggesting that the cellular effects of common variants are shared across diverse populations. Together, these results provide a resource for studies analyzing functional differences across populations by estimating the degree of shared gene expression, alternative splicing, and

  19. Deep sequencing discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Huaping

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. There have been extensive studies to discover miRNAs and analyze their functions in model plant species, such as Arabidopsis and rice. Deep sequencing technologies have facilitated identification of species-specific or lowly expressed as well as conserved or highly expressed miRNAs in plants. Results In this research, we used Solexa sequencing to discover new microRNAs in trifoliate orange (Citrus trifoliata which is an important rootstock of citrus. A total of 13,106,753 reads representing 4,876,395 distinct sequences were obtained from a short RNA library generated from small RNA extracted from C. trifoliata flower and fruit tissues. Based on sequence similarity and hairpin structure prediction, we found that 156,639 reads representing 63 sequences from 42 highly conserved miRNA families, have perfect matches to known miRNAs. We also identified 10 novel miRNA candidates whose precursors were all potentially generated from citrus ESTs. In addition, five miRNA* sequences were also sequenced. These sequences had not been earlier described in other plant species and accumulation of the 10 novel miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR analysis. Potential target genes were predicted for most conserved and novel miRNAs. Moreover, four target genes including one encoding IRX12 copper ion binding/oxidoreductase and three genes encoding NB-LRR disease resistance protein have been experimentally verified by detection of the miRNA-mediated mRNA cleavage in C. trifoliata. Conclusion Deep sequencing of short RNAs from C. trifoliata flowers and fruits identified 10 new potential miRNAs and 42 highly conserved miRNA families, indicating that specific miRNAs exist in C. trifoliata. These results show that regulatory miRNAs exist in agronomically important trifoliate orange

  20. Whole-genome sequencing approaches for conservation biology: Advantages, limitations and practical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pardo, Angela P; Ruzzante, Daniel E

    2017-10-01

    Whole-genome resequencing (WGR) is a powerful method for addressing fundamental evolutionary biology questions that have not been fully resolved using traditional methods. WGR includes four approaches: the sequencing of individuals to a high depth of coverage with either unresolved or resolved haplotypes, the sequencing of population genomes to a high depth by mixing equimolar amounts of unlabelled-individual DNA (Pool-seq) and the sequencing of multiple individuals from a population to a low depth (lcWGR). These techniques require the availability of a reference genome. This, along with the still high cost of shotgun sequencing and the large demand for computing resources and storage, has limited their implementation in nonmodel species with scarce genomic resources and in fields such as conservation biology. Our goal here is to describe the various WGR methods, their pros and cons and potential applications in conservation biology. WGR offers an unprecedented marker density and surveys a wide diversity of genetic variations not limited to single nucleotide polymorphisms (e.g., structural variants and mutations in regulatory elements), increasing their power for the detection of signatures of selection and local adaptation as well as for the identification of the genetic basis of phenotypic traits and diseases. Currently, though, no single WGR approach fulfils all requirements of conservation genetics, and each method has its own limitations and sources of potential bias. We discuss proposed ways to minimize such biases. We envision a not distant future where the analysis of whole genomes becomes a routine task in many nonmodel species and fields including conservation biology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. FDA's Activities Supporting Regulatory Application of "Next Gen" Sequencing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carolyn A; Simonyan, Vahan

    2014-01-01

    Applications of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies require availability and access to an information technology (IT) infrastructure and bioinformatics tools for large amounts of data storage and analyses. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) anticipates that the use of NGS data to support regulatory submissions will continue to increase as the scientific and clinical communities become more familiar with the technologies and identify more ways to apply these advanced methods to support development and evaluation of new biomedical products. FDA laboratories are conducting research on different NGS platforms and developing the IT infrastructure and bioinformatics tools needed to enable regulatory evaluation of the technologies and the data sponsors will submit. A High-performance Integrated Virtual Environment, or HIVE, has been launched, and development and refinement continues as a collaborative effort between the FDA and George Washington University to provide the tools to support these needs. The use of a highly parallelized environment facilitated by use of distributed cloud storage and computation has resulted in a platform that is both rapid and responsive to changing scientific needs. The FDA plans to further develop in-house capacity in this area, while also supporting engagement by the external community, by sponsoring an open, public workshop to discuss NGS technologies and data formats standardization, and to promote the adoption of interoperability protocols in September 2014. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are enabling breakthroughs in how the biomedical community is developing and evaluating medical products. One example is the potential application of this method to the detection and identification of microbial contaminants in biologic products. In order for the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be able to evaluate the utility of this technology, we need to have the information technology infrastructure and

  2. Relationships between residue Voronoi volume and sequence conservation in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Wei; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Yu-Feng; Chen, Shao-Yu; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Yen, Shih-Chung

    2018-02-01

    Functional and biophysical constraints can cause different levels of sequence conservation in proteins. Previously, structural properties, e.g., relative solvent accessibility (RSA) and packing density of the weighted contact number (WCN), have been found to be related to protein sequence conservation (CS). The Voronoi volume has recently been recognized as a new structural property of the local protein structural environment reflecting CS. However, for surface residues, it is sensitive to water molecules surrounding the protein structure. Herein, we present a simple structural determinant termed the relative space of Voronoi volume (RSV); it uses the Voronoi volume and the van der Waals volume of particular residues to quantify the local structural environment. RSV (range, 0-1) is defined as (Voronoi volume-van der Waals volume)/Voronoi volume of the target residue. The concept of RSV describes the extent of available space for every protein residue. RSV and Voronoi profiles with and without water molecules (RSVw, RSV, VOw, and VO) were compared for 554 non-homologous proteins. RSV (without water) showed better Pearson's correlations with CS than did RSVw, VO, or VOw values. The mean correlation coefficient between RSV and CS was 0.51, which is comparable to the correlation between RSA and CS (0.49) and that between WCN and CS (0.56). RSV is a robust structural descriptor with and without water molecules and can quantitatively reflect evolutionary information in a single protein structure. Therefore, it may represent a practical structural determinant to study protein sequence, structure, and function relationships. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of evolutionarily conserved non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in human coding sequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ivanov, Ivaylo P

    2011-05-01

    In eukaryotes, it is generally assumed that translation initiation occurs at the AUG codon closest to the messenger RNA 5\\' cap. However, in certain cases, initiation can occur at codons differing from AUG by a single nucleotide, especially the codons CUG, UUG, GUG, ACG, AUA and AUU. While non-AUG initiation has been experimentally verified for a handful of human genes, the full extent to which this phenomenon is utilized--both for increased coding capacity and potentially also for novel regulatory mechanisms--remains unclear. To address this issue, and hence to improve the quality of existing coding sequence annotations, we developed a methodology based on phylogenetic analysis of predicted 5\\' untranslated regions from orthologous genes. We use evolutionary signatures of protein-coding sequences as an indicator of translation initiation upstream of annotated coding sequences. Our search identified novel conserved potential non-AUG-initiated N-terminal extensions in 42 human genes including VANGL2, FGFR1, KCNN4, TRPV6, HDGF, CITED2, EIF4G3 and NTF3, and also affirmed the conservation of known non-AUG-initiated extensions in 17 other genes. In several instances, we have been able to obtain independent experimental evidence of the expression of non-AUG-initiated products from the previously published literature and ribosome profiling data.

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynch Michael

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa remains a virtually unexplored issue. Results By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Conclusions Our observations 1 shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2 are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3 reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  5. Evolutionary dynamics of a conserved sequence motif in the ribosomal genes of the ciliate Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Francesco; Lynch, Michael

    2010-05-04

    In protozoa, the identification of preserved motifs by comparative genomics is often impeded by difficulties to generate reliable alignments for non-coding sequences. Moreover, the evolutionary dynamics of regulatory elements in 3' untranslated regions (both in protozoa and metazoa) remains a virtually unexplored issue. By screening Paramecium tetraurelia's 3' untranslated regions for 8-mers that were previously found to be preserved in mammalian 3' UTRs, we detect and characterize a motif that is distinctly conserved in the ribosomal genes of this ciliate. The motif appears to be conserved across Paramecium aurelia species but is absent from the ribosomal genes of four additional non-Paramecium species surveyed, including another ciliate, Tetrahymena thermophila. Motif-free ribosomal genes retain fewer paralogs in the genome and appear to be lost more rapidly relative to motif-containing genes. Features associated with the discovered preserved motif are consistent with this 8-mer playing a role in post-transcriptional regulation. Our observations 1) shed light on the evolution of a putative regulatory motif across large phylogenetic distances; 2) are expected to facilitate the understanding of the modulation of ribosomal genes expression in Paramecium; and 3) reveal a largely unexplored--and presumably not restricted to Paramecium--association between the presence/absence of a DNA motif and the evolutionary fate of its host genes.

  6. A ChIP-Seq benchmark shows that sequence conservation mainly improves detection of strong transcription factor binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Håndstad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transcription factors are important controllers of gene expression and mapping transcription factor binding sites (TFBS is key to inferring transcription factor regulatory networks. Several methods for predicting TFBS exist, but there are no standard genome-wide datasets on which to assess the performance of these prediction methods. Also, it is believed that information about sequence conservation across different genomes can generally improve accuracy of motif-based predictors, but it is not clear under what circumstances use of conservation is most beneficial. RESULTS: Here we use published ChIP-seq data and an improved peak detection method to create comprehensive benchmark datasets for prediction methods which use known descriptors or binding motifs to detect TFBS in genomic sequences. We use this benchmark to assess the performance of five different prediction methods and find that the methods that use information about sequence conservation generally perform better than simpler motif-scanning methods. The difference is greater on high-affinity peaks and when using short and information-poor motifs. However, if the motifs are specific and information-rich, we find that simple motif-scanning methods can perform better than conservation-based methods. CONCLUSIONS: Our benchmark provides a comprehensive test that can be used to rank the relative performance of transcription factor binding site prediction methods. Moreover, our results show that, contrary to previous reports, sequence conservation is better suited for predicting strong than weak transcription factor binding sites.

  7. Genome-wide identification of coding and non-coding conserved sequence tags in human and mouse genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggi Giorgio P

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The accurate detection of genes and the identification of functional regions is still an open issue in the annotation of genomic sequences. This problem affects new genomes but also those of very well studied organisms such as human and mouse where, despite the great efforts, the inventory of genes and regulatory regions is far from complete. Comparative genomics is an effective approach to address this problem. Unfortunately it is limited by the computational requirements needed to perform genome-wide comparisons and by the problem of discriminating between conserved coding and non-coding sequences. This discrimination is often based (thus dependent on the availability of annotated proteins. Results In this paper we present the results of a comprehensive comparison of human and mouse genomes performed with a new high throughput grid-based system which allows the rapid detection of conserved sequences and accurate assessment of their coding potential. By detecting clusters of coding conserved sequences the system is also suitable to accurately identify potential gene loci. Following this analysis we created a collection of human-mouse conserved sequence tags and carefully compared our results to reliable annotations in order to benchmark the reliability of our classifications. Strikingly we were able to detect several potential gene loci supported by EST sequences but not corresponding to as yet annotated genes. Conclusion Here we present a new system which allows comprehensive comparison of genomes to detect conserved coding and non-coding sequences and the identification of potential gene loci. Our system does not require the availability of any annotated sequence thus is suitable for the analysis of new or poorly annotated genomes.

  8. Systematic identification of cis-regulatory sequences active in mouse and human embryonic stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Grskovic

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the transcriptional regulation of pluripotent cells is of fundamental interest and will greatly inform efforts aimed at directing differentiation of embryonic stem (ES cells or reprogramming somatic cells. We first analyzed the transcriptional profiles of mouse ES cells and primordial germ cells and identified genes upregulated in pluripotent cells both in vitro and in vivo. These genes are enriched for roles in transcription, chromatin remodeling, cell cycle, and DNA repair. We developed a novel computational algorithm, CompMoby, which combines analyses of sequences both aligned and non-aligned between different genomes with a probabilistic segmentation model to systematically predict short DNA motifs that regulate gene expression. CompMoby was used to identify conserved overrepresented motifs in genes upregulated in pluripotent cells. We show that the motifs are preferentially active in undifferentiated mouse ES and embryonic germ cells in a sequence-specific manner, and that they can act as enhancers in the context of an endogenous promoter. Importantly, the activity of the motifs is conserved in human ES cells. We further show that the transcription factor NF-Y specifically binds to one of the motifs, is differentially expressed during ES cell differentiation, and is required for ES cell proliferation. This study provides novel insights into the transcriptional regulatory networks of pluripotent cells. Our results suggest that this systematic approach can be broadly applied to understanding transcriptional networks in mammalian species.

  9. Massive contribution of transposable elements to mammalian regulatory sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Nirmala Arul; Del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Prabhakar, Shyam

    2016-09-01

    Barbara McClintock discovered the existence of transposable elements (TEs) in the late 1940s and initially proposed that they contributed to the gene regulatory program of higher organisms. This controversial idea gained acceptance only much later in the 1990s, when the first examples of TE-derived promoter sequences were uncovered. It is now known that half of the human genome is recognizably derived from TEs. It is thus important to understand the scope and nature of their contribution to gene regulation. Here, we provide a timeline of major discoveries in this area and discuss how transposons have revolutionized our understanding of mammalian genomes, with a special emphasis on the massive contribution of TEs to primate evolution. Our analysis of primate-specific functional elements supports a simple model for the rate at which new functional elements arise in unique and TE-derived DNA. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges and unresolved questions in the field, which need to be addressed in order to fully characterize the impact of TEs on gene regulation, evolution and disease processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inferring the conservative causal core of gene regulatory networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmert-Streib Frank

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inferring gene regulatory networks from large-scale expression data is an important problem that received much attention in recent years. These networks have the potential to gain insights into causal molecular interactions of biological processes. Hence, from a methodological point of view, reliable estimation methods based on observational data are needed to approach this problem practically. Results In this paper, we introduce a novel gene regulatory network inference (GRNI algorithm, called C3NET. We compare C3NET with four well known methods, ARACNE, CLR, MRNET and RN, conducting in-depth numerical ensemble simulations and demonstrate also for biological expression data from E. coli that C3NET performs consistently better than the best known GRNI methods in the literature. In addition, it has also a low computational complexity. Since C3NET is based on estimates of mutual information values in conjunction with a maximization step, our numerical investigations demonstrate that our inference algorithm exploits causal structural information in the data efficiently. Conclusions For systems biology to succeed in the long run, it is of crucial importance to establish methods that extract large-scale gene networks from high-throughput data that reflect the underlying causal interactions among genes or gene products. Our method can contribute to this endeavor by demonstrating that an inference algorithm with a neat design permits not only a more intuitive and possibly biological interpretation of its working mechanism but can also result in superior results.

  11. Inferring the conservative causal core of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altay, Gökmen; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2010-09-28

    Inferring gene regulatory networks from large-scale expression data is an important problem that received much attention in recent years. These networks have the potential to gain insights into causal molecular interactions of biological processes. Hence, from a methodological point of view, reliable estimation methods based on observational data are needed to approach this problem practically. In this paper, we introduce a novel gene regulatory network inference (GRNI) algorithm, called C3NET. We compare C3NET with four well known methods, ARACNE, CLR, MRNET and RN, conducting in-depth numerical ensemble simulations and demonstrate also for biological expression data from E. coli that C3NET performs consistently better than the best known GRNI methods in the literature. In addition, it has also a low computational complexity. Since C3NET is based on estimates of mutual information values in conjunction with a maximization step, our numerical investigations demonstrate that our inference algorithm exploits causal structural information in the data efficiently. For systems biology to succeed in the long run, it is of crucial importance to establish methods that extract large-scale gene networks from high-throughput data that reflect the underlying causal interactions among genes or gene products. Our method can contribute to this endeavor by demonstrating that an inference algorithm with a neat design permits not only a more intuitive and possibly biological interpretation of its working mechanism but can also result in superior results.

  12. On the relationship between residue structural environment and sequence conservation in proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Wei; Lin, Jau-Ji; Cheng, Chih-Wen; Lin, Yu-Feng; Hwang, Jenn-Kang; Huang, Tsun-Tsao

    2017-09-01

    Residues that are crucial to protein function or structure are usually evolutionarily conserved. To identify the important residues in protein, sequence conservation is estimated, and current methods rely upon the unbiased collection of homologous sequences. Surprisingly, our previous studies have shown that the sequence conservation is closely correlated with the weighted contact number (WCN), a measure of packing density for residue's structural environment, calculated only based on the C α positions of a protein structure. Moreover, studies have shown that sequence conservation is correlated with environment-related structural properties calculated based on different protein substructures, such as a protein's all atoms, backbone atoms, side-chain atoms, or side-chain centroid. To know whether the C α atomic positions are adequate to show the relationship between residue environment and sequence conservation or not, here we compared C α atoms with other substructures in their contributions to the sequence conservation. Our results show that C α positions are substantially equivalent to the other substructures in calculations of various measures of residue environment. As a result, the overlapping contributions between C α atoms and the other substructures are high, yielding similar structure-conservation relationship. Take the WCN as an example, the average overlapping contribution to sequence conservation is 87% between C α and all-atom substructures. These results indicate that only C α atoms of a protein structure could reflect sequence conservation at the residue level. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Conserved gene regulatory module specifies lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongbin; Zhao, Di; Horie, Takeo; Chen, Geng; Bao, Hongcun; Chen, Siyu; Liu, Weihong; Horie, Ryoko; Liang, Tao; Dong, Biyu; Feng, Qianqian; Tao, Qinghua; Liu, Xiao

    2017-08-01

    The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors. First, like in vertebrates, the conserved neuroectoderm lateral border specifier Msx/vab-15 specifies lateral neuroblasts in Caenorhabditis elegans Second, orthologs of the vertebrate NPB specification module ( Msx/vab-15 , Pax3/7/pax-3 , and Zic/ref-2 ) are significantly enriched in worm lateral neuroblasts. In addition, like in other bilaterians, the expression domain of Msx/vab-15 is more lateral than those of Pax3/7/pax-3 and Zic/ref- 2 in C. elegans Third, we show that Msx/vab-15 regulates the development of mechanosensory neurons derived from lateral neural progenitors in multiple invertebrate species, including C. elegans , Drosophila melanogaster , and Ciona intestinalis We also identify a novel lateral neural border specifier, ZNF703/tlp-1 , which functions synergistically with Msx/vab- 15 in both C. elegans and Xenopus laevis These data suggest a common origin of the molecular mechanism specifying lateral neural borders across bilaterians.

  14. BlockLogo: Visualization of peptide and sequence motif conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Kudahl, Ulrich Johan; Simon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    BlockLogo is a web-server application for the visualization of protein and nucleotide fragments, continuous protein sequence motifs, and discontinuous sequence motifs using calculation of block entropy from multiple sequence alignments. The user input consists of a multiple sequence alignment, se...

  15. The interplay of sequence conservation and T cell immune recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, Anne Gøther; Sette, Alessandro; Greenbaum, Jason

    2014-01-01

    examined the hypothesis that conservation of a peptide in bacteria that are part of the healthy human microbiome leads to a reduced level of immunogenicity due to tolerization of T cells to the commensal bacteria. This was done by comparing experimentally characterized T cell epitope recognition data from...... the Immune Epitope Database with their conservation in the human microbiome. Indeed, we did see a lower immunogenicity for conserved peptides conserved. While many aspects how this conservation comparison is done require further optimization, this is a first step towards a better understanding T cell...... recognition of peptides in bacterial pathogens is influenced by their conservation in commensal bacteria. If the further work proves that this approach is successful, the degree of overlap of a peptide with the human proteome or microbiome could be added to the arsenal of tools available to assess peptide...

  16. Sequence-based model of gap gene regulatory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Konstantin; Gursky, Vitaly; Kulakovskiy, Ivan; Samsonova, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The detailed analysis of transcriptional regulation is crucially important for understanding biological processes. The gap gene network in Drosophila attracts large interest among researches studying mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. It implements the most upstream regulatory layer of the segmentation gene network. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms involved in gap gene regulation is far less complete than that of genetics of the system. Mathematical modeling goes beyond insights gained by genetics and molecular approaches. It allows us to reconstruct wild-type gene expression patterns in silico, infer underlying regulatory mechanism and prove its sufficiency. We developed a new model that provides a dynamical description of gap gene regulatory systems, using detailed DNA-based information, as well as spatial transcription factor concentration data at varying time points. We showed that this model correctly reproduces gap gene expression patterns in wild type embryos and is able to predict gap expression patterns in Kr mutants and four reporter constructs. We used four-fold cross validation test and fitting to random dataset to validate the model and proof its sufficiency in data description. The identifiability analysis showed that most model parameters are well identifiable. We reconstructed the gap gene network topology and studied the impact of individual transcription factor binding sites on the model output. We measured this impact by calculating the site regulatory weight as a normalized difference between the residual sum of squares error for the set of all annotated sites and for the set with the site of interest excluded. The reconstructed topology of the gap gene network is in agreement with previous modeling results and data from literature. We showed that 1) the regulatory weights of transcription factor binding sites show very weak correlation with their PWM score; 2) sites with low regulatory weight are important for the model output; 3

  17. On the Concept of Cis-regulatory Information: From Sequence Motifs to Logic Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpine, Ryan; Istrail, Sorin

    The regulatory genome is about the “system level organization of the core genomic regulatory apparatus, and how this is the locus of causality underlying the twin phenomena of animal development and animal evolution” (E.H. Davidson. The Regulatory Genome: Gene Regulatory Networks in Development and Evolution, Academic Press, 2006). Information processing in the regulatory genome is done through regulatory states, defined as sets of transcription factors (sequence-specific DNA binding proteins which determine gene expression) that are expressed and active at the same time. The core information processing machinery consists of modular DNA sequence elements, called cis-modules, that interact with transcription factors. The cis-modules “read” the information contained in the regulatory state of the cell through transcription factor binding, “process” it, and directly or indirectly communicate with the basal transcription apparatus to determine gene expression. This endowment of each gene with the information-receiving capacity through their cis-regulatory modules is essential for the response to every possible regulatory state to which it might be exposed during all phases of the life cycle and in all cell types. We present here a set of challenges addressed by our CYRENE research project aimed at studying the cis-regulatory code of the regulatory genome. The CYRENE Project is devoted to (1) the construction of a database, the cis-Lexicon, containing comprehensive information across species about experimentally validated cis-regulatory modules; and (2) the software development of a next-generation genome browser, the cis-Browser, specialized for the regulatory genome. The presentation is anchored on three main computational challenges: the Gene Naming Problem, the Consensus Sequence Bottleneck Problem, and the Logic Function Inference Problem.

  18. Genome-wide analysis of regulatory proteases sequences identified through bioinformatics data mining in Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-Bin; Lou, Zhong-Zi; Li, Li; Brindley, Paul J; Zheng, Yadong; Luo, Xuenong; Hou, Junling; Guo, Aijiang; Jia, Wan-Zhong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2014-06-04

    Cysticercosis remains a major neglected tropical disease of humanity in many regions, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, Central America and elsewhere. Owing to the emerging drug resistance and the inability of current drugs to prevent re-infection, identification of novel vaccines and chemotherapeutic agents against Taenia solium and related helminth pathogens is a public health priority. The T. solium genome and the predicted proteome were reported recently, providing a wealth of information from which new interventional targets might be identified. In order to characterize and classify the entire repertoire of protease-encoding genes of T. solium, which act fundamental biological roles in all life processes, we analyzed the predicted proteins of this cestode through a combination of bioinformatics tools. Functional annotation was performed to yield insights into the signaling processes relevant to the complex developmental cycle of this tapeworm and to highlight a suite of the proteases as potential intervention targets. Within the genome of this helminth parasite, we identified 200 open reading frames encoding proteases from five clans, which correspond to 1.68% of the 11,902 protein-encoding genes predicted to be present in its genome. These proteases include calpains, cytosolic, mitochondrial signal peptidases, ubiquitylation related proteins, and others. Many not only show significant similarity to proteases in the Conserved Domain Database but have conserved active sites and catalytic domains. KEGG Automatic Annotation Server (KAAS) analysis indicated that ~60% of these proteases share strong sequence identities with proteins of the KEGG database, which are involved in human disease, metabolic pathways, genetic information processes, cellular processes, environmental information processes and organismal systems. Also, we identified signal peptides and transmembrane helices through comparative analysis with classes of important regulatory proteases

  19. A method for selecting cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to small molecule effectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allas Ülar

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several cis-acting regulatory sequences functioning at the level of mRNA or nascent peptide and specifically influencing transcription or translation have been described. These regulatory elements often respond to specific chemicals. Results We have developed a method that allows us to select cis-acting regulatory sequences that respond to diverse chemicals. The method is based on the β-lactamase gene containing a random sequence inserted into the beginning of the ORF. Several rounds of selection are used to isolate sequences that suppress β-lactamase expression in response to the compound under study. We have isolated sequences that respond to erythromycin, troleandomycin, chloramphenicol, meta-toluate and homoserine lactone. By introducing synonymous and non-synonymous mutations we have shown that at least in the case of erythromycin the sequences act at the peptide level. We have also tested the cross-activities of the constructs and found that in most cases the sequences respond most strongly to the compound on which they were isolated. Conclusions Several selected peptides showed ligand-specific changes in amino acid frequencies, but no consensus motif could be identified. This is consistent with previous observations on natural cis-acting peptides, showing that it is often impossible to demonstrate a consensus. Applying the currently developed method on a larger scale, by selecting and comparing an extended set of sequences, might allow the sequence rules underlying the activity of cis-acting regulatory peptides to be identified.

  20. Sequence conservation between porcine and human LRRK2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Knud; Madsen, Lone Bruhn

    2009-01-01

     Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) is a member of the ROCO protein superfamily (Ras of complex proteins (Roc) with a C-terminal Roc domain). Mutations in the LRRK2 gene lead to autosomal dominant Parkinsonism. We have cloned the porcine LRRK2 cDNA in an attempt to characterize conserved...... and expression patterns are conserved across species. The porcine LRRK2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5q25. The results obtained suggest that the LRRK2 gene might be of particular interest in our attempt to generate a transgenic porcine model for Parkinson's disease...

  1. RNA-ID, a Powerful Tool for Identifying and Characterizing Regulatory Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brule, C E; Dean, K M; Grayhack, E J

    2016-01-01

    The identification and analysis of sequences that regulate gene expression is critical because regulated gene expression underlies biology. RNA-ID is an efficient and sensitive method to discover and investigate regulatory sequences in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using fluorescence-based assays to detect green fluorescent protein (GFP) relative to a red fluorescent protein (RFP) control in individual cells. Putative regulatory sequences can be inserted either in-frame or upstream of a superfolder GFP fusion protein whose expression, like that of RFP, is driven by the bidirectional GAL1,10 promoter. In this chapter, we describe the methodology to identify and study cis-regulatory sequences in the RNA-ID system, explaining features and variations of the RNA-ID reporter, as well as some applications of this system. We describe in detail the methods to analyze a single regulatory sequence, from construction of a single GFP variant to assay of variants by flow cytometry, as well as modifications required to screen libraries of different strains simultaneously. We also describe subsequent analyses of regulatory sequences. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genome-wide discovery and differential regulation of conserved and novel microRNAs in chickpea via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukesh; Chevala, V V S Narayana; Garg, Rohini

    2014-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are essential components of complex gene regulatory networks that orchestrate plant development. Although several genomic resources have been developed for the legume crop chickpea, miRNAs have not been discovered until now. For genome-wide discovery of miRNAs in chickpea (Cicer arietinum), we sequenced the small RNA content from seven major tissues/organs employing Illumina technology. About 154 million reads were generated, which represented more than 20 million distinct small RNA sequences. We identified a total of 440 conserved miRNAs in chickpea based on sequence similarity with known miRNAs in other plants. In addition, 178 novel miRNAs were identified using a miRDeep pipeline with plant-specific scoring. Some of the conserved and novel miRNAs with significant sequence similarity were grouped into families. The chickpea miRNAs targeted a wide range of mRNAs involved in diverse cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation (transcription factors), protein modification and turnover, signal transduction, and metabolism. Our analysis revealed several miRNAs with differential spatial expression. Many of the chickpea miRNAs were expressed in a tissue-specific manner. The conserved and differential expression of members of the same miRNA family in different tissues was also observed. Some of the same family members were predicted to target different chickpea mRNAs, which suggested the specificity and complexity of miRNA-mediated developmental regulation. This study, for the first time, reveals a comprehensive set of conserved and novel miRNAs along with their expression patterns and putative targets in chickpea, and provides a framework for understanding regulation of developmental processes in legumes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Fast discovery and visualization of conserved regions in DNA sequences using quasi-alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Anurag; Hahsler, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing techniques are producing enormous amounts of biological sequence data and analysis becomes a major computational problem. Currently, most analysis, especially the identification of conserved regions, relies heavily on Multiple Sequence Alignment and its various heuristics such as progressive alignment, whose run time grows with the square of the number and the length of the aligned sequences and requires significant computational resources. In this work, we present a method to efficiently discover regions of high similarity across multiple sequences without performing expensive sequence alignment. The method is based on approximating edit distance between segments of sequences using p-mer frequency counts. Then, efficient high-throughput data stream clustering is used to group highly similar segments into so called quasi-alignments. Quasi-alignments have numerous applications such as identifying species and their taxonomic class from sequences, comparing sequences for similarities, and, as in this paper, discovering conserved regions across related sequences. In this paper, we show that quasi-alignments can be used to discover highly similar segments across multiple sequences from related or different genomes efficiently and accurately. Experiments on a large number of unaligned 16S rRNA sequences obtained from the Greengenes database show that the method is able to identify conserved regions which agree with known hypervariable regions in 16S rRNA. Furthermore, the experiments show that the proposed method scales well for large data sets with a run time that grows only linearly with the number and length of sequences, whereas for existing multiple sequence alignment heuristics the run time grows super-linearly. Quasi-alignment-based algorithms can detect highly similar regions and conserved areas across multiple sequences. Since the run time is linear and the sequences are converted into a compact clustering model, we are able to

  4. Molecular evidence for increased regulatory conservation during metamorphosis, and against deleterious cascading effects of hybrid breakdown in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artieri Carlo G

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Speculation regarding the importance of changes in gene regulation in determining major phylogenetic patterns continues to accrue, despite a lack of broad-scale comparative studies examining how patterns of gene expression vary during development. Comparative transcriptional profiling of adult interspecific hybrids and their parental species has uncovered widespread divergence of the mechanisms controlling gene regulation, revealing incompatibilities that are masked in comparisons between the pure species. However, this has prompted the suggestion that misexpression in adult hybrids results from the downstream cascading effects of a subset of genes improperly regulated in early development. Results We sought to determine how gene expression diverges over development, as well as test the cascade hypothesis, by profiling expression in males of Drosophila melanogaster, D. sechellia, and D. simulans, as well as the D. simulans (♀ × D. sechellia (♂ male F1 hybrids, at four different developmental time points (3rd instar larval, early pupal, late pupal, and newly-emerged adult. Contrary to the cascade model of misexpression, we find that there is considerable stage-specific autonomy of regulatory breakdown in hybrids, with the larval and adult stages showing significantly more hybrid misexpression as compared to the pupal stage. However, comparisons between pure species indicate that genes expressed during earlier stages of development tend to be more conserved in terms of their level of expression than those expressed during later stages, suggesting that while Von Baer's famous law applies at both the level of nucleotide sequence and expression, it may not apply necessarily to the underlying overall regulatory network, which appears to diverge over the course of ontogeny and which can only be ascertained by combining divergent genomes in species hybrids. Conclusion Our results suggest that complex integration of regulatory

  5. Rare and common regulatory variation in population-scale sequenced human genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen B Montgomery

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Population-scale genome sequencing allows the characterization of functional effects of a broad spectrum of genetic variants underlying human phenotypic variation. Here, we investigate the influence of rare and common genetic variants on gene expression patterns, using variants identified from sequencing data from the 1000 genomes project in an African and European population sample and gene expression data from lymphoblastoid cell lines. We detect comparable numbers of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs when compared to genotypes obtained from HapMap 3, but as many as 80% of the top expression quantitative trait variants (eQTVs discovered from 1000 genomes data are novel. The properties of the newly discovered variants suggest that mapping common causal regulatory variants is challenging even with full resequencing data; however, we observe significant enrichment of regulatory effects in splice-site and nonsense variants. Using RNA sequencing data, we show that 46.2% of nonsynonymous variants are differentially expressed in at least one individual in our sample, creating widespread potential for interactions between functional protein-coding and regulatory variants. We also use allele-specific expression to identify putative rare causal regulatory variants. Furthermore, we demonstrate that outlier expression values can be due to rare variant effects, and we approximate the number of such effects harboured in an individual by effect size. Our results demonstrate that integration of genomic and RNA sequencing analyses allows for the joint assessment of genome sequence and genome function.

  6. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  7. Peptomics, identification of novel cationic Arabidopsis peptides with conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Addie Nina; Mundy, John; Skriver, Karen

    2002-01-01

    Arabidopsis family of 34 genes. The predicted peptides are characterized by a conserved C-terminal sequence motif and additional primary structure conservation in a core region. The majority of these genes had not previously been annotated. A subset of the predicted peptides show high overall sequence...... similarity to Rapid Alkalinization Factor (RALF), a peptide isolated from tobacco. We therefore refer to this peptide family as RALFL for RALF-Like. RT-PCR analysis confirmed that several of the Arabidopsis genes are expressed and that their expression patterns vary. The identification of a large gene family...

  8. Prediction of transcriptional regulatory sites in the complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieffry, D; Salgado, H; Huerta, A M; Collado-Vides, J

    1998-06-01

    As one of the best-characterized free-living organisms, Escherichia coli and its recently completed genomic sequence offer a special opportunity to exploit systematically the variety of regulatory data available in the literature in order to make a comprehensive set of regulatory predictions in the whole genome. The complete genome sequence of E.coli was analyzed for the binding of transcriptional regulators upstream of coding sequences. The biological information contained in RegulonDB (Huerta, A.M. et al., Nucleic Acids Res.,26,55-60, 1998) for 56 different transcriptional proteins was the support to implement a stringent strategy combining string search and weight matrices. We estimate that our search included representatives of 15-25% of the total number of regulatory binding proteins in E.coli. This search was performed on the set of 4288 putative regulatory regions, each 450 bp long. Within the regions with predicted sites, 89% are regulated by one protein and 81% involve only one site. These numbers are reasonably consistent with the distribution of experimental regulatory sites. Regulatory sites are found in 603 regions corresponding to 16% of operon regions and 10% of intra-operonic regions. Additional evidence gives stronger support to some of these predictions, including the position of the site, biological consistency with the function of the downstream gene, as well as genetic evidence for the regulatory interaction. The predictions described here were incorporated into the map presented in the paper describing the complete E.coli genome (Blattner,F.R. et al., Science, 277, 1453-1461, 1997). The complete set of predictions in GenBank format is available at the url: http://www. cifn.unam.mx/Computational_Biology/E.coli-predictions ecoli-reg@cifn.unam.mx, collado@cifn.unam.mx

  9. A conserved RNA structural element within the hepatitis B virus post-transcriptional regulatory element enhance nuclear export of intronless transcripts and repress the splicing mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visootsat, Akasit; Payungporn, Sunchai; T-Thienprasert, Nattanan P

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma and liver cirrhosis worldwide. To develop novel antiviral drugs, a better understanding of HBV gene expression regulation is vital. One important aspect is to understand how HBV hijacks the cellular machinery to export unspliced RNA from the nucleus. The HBV post-transcriptional regulatory element (HBV PRE) has been proposed to be the HBV RNA nuclear export element. However, the function remains controversial, and the core element is unclear. This study, therefore, aimed to identify functional regulatory elements within the HBV PRE and investigate their functions. Using bioinformatics programs based on sequence conservation and conserved RNA secondary structures, three regulatory elements were predicted, namely PRE 1151-1410, PRE 1520-1620 and PRE 1650-1684. PRE 1151-1410 significantly increased intronless and unspliced luciferase activity in both HepG2 and COS-7 cells. Likewise, PRE 1151-1410 significantly elevated intronless and unspliced HBV surface transcripts in liver cancer cells. Moreover, motif analysis predicted that PRE 1151-1410 contains several regulatory motifs. This study reported the roles of PRE 1151-1410 in intronless transcript nuclear export and the splicing mechanism. Additionally, these results provide knowledge in the field of HBV RNA regulation. Moreover, PRE 1151-1410 may be used to enhance the expression of other mRNAs in intronless reporter plasmids.

  10. AlignMiner: a Web-based tool for detection of divergent regions in multiple sequence alignments of conserved sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignments are used to study gene or protein function, phylogenetic relations, genome evolution hypotheses and even gene polymorphisms. Virtually without exception, all available tools focus on conserved segments or residues. Small divergent regions, however, are biologically important for specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction, genotyping, molecular markers and preparation of specific antibodies, and yet have received little attention. As a consequence, they must be selected empirically by the researcher. AlignMiner has been developed to fill this gap in bioinformatic analyses. Results AlignMiner is a Web-based application for detection of conserved and divergent regions in alignments of conserved sequences, focusing particularly on divergence. It accepts alignments (protein or nucleic acid obtained using any of a variety of algorithms, which does not appear to have a significant impact on the final results. AlignMiner uses different scoring methods for assessing conserved/divergent regions, Entropy being the method that provides the highest number of regions with the greatest length, and Weighted being the most restrictive. Conserved/divergent regions can be generated either with respect to the consensus sequence or to one master sequence. The resulting data are presented in a graphical interface developed in AJAX, which provides remarkable user interaction capabilities. Users do not need to wait until execution is complete and can.even inspect their results on a different computer. Data can be downloaded onto a user disk, in standard formats. In silico and experimental proof-of-concept cases have shown that AlignMiner can be successfully used to designing specific polymerase chain reaction primers as well as potential epitopes for antibodies. Primer design is assisted by a module that deploys several oligonucleotide parameters for designing primers "on the fly". Conclusions AlignMiner can be used

  11. Extreme sequence divergence but conserved ligand-binding specificity in Streptococcus pyogenes M protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Many pathogenic microorganisms evade host immunity through extensive sequence variability in a protein region targeted by protective antibodies. In spite of the sequence variability, a variable region commonly retains an important ligand-binding function, reflected in the presence of a highly conserved sequence motif. Here, we analyze the limits of sequence divergence in a ligand-binding region by characterizing the hypervariable region (HVR of Streptococcus pyogenes M protein. Our studies were focused on HVRs that bind the human complement regulator C4b-binding protein (C4BP, a ligand that confers phagocytosis resistance. A previous comparison of C4BP-binding HVRs identified residue identities that could be part of a binding motif, but the extended analysis reported here shows that no residue identities remain when additional C4BP-binding HVRs are included. Characterization of the HVR in the M22 protein indicated that two relatively conserved Leu residues are essential for C4BP binding, but these residues are probably core residues in a coiled-coil, implying that they do not directly contribute to binding. In contrast, substitution of either of two relatively conserved Glu residues, predicted to be solvent-exposed, had no effect on C4BP binding, although each of these changes had a major effect on the antigenic properties of the HVR. Together, these findings show that HVRs of M proteins have an extraordinary capacity for sequence divergence and antigenic variability while retaining a specific ligand-binding function.

  12. Phylogenetic conservation of the regulatory and functional properties of the Vav oncoprotein family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couceiro, Jose R.; Martin-Bermudo, Maria D.; Bustelo, Xose R.

    2005-01-01

    Vav proteins are phosphorylation-dependent GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rho/Rac GTPases. Despite intense characterization of mammalian Vav proteins both biochemically and genetically, there is little information regarding the conservation of their biological properties in lower organisms. To approach this issue, we have performed a characterization of the regulatory, catalytic, and functional properties of the single Vav family member of Drosophila melanogaster. These analyses have shown that the intramolecular mechanisms controlling the enzyme activity of mammalian Vav proteins are already present in Drosophila, suggesting that such properties have been set up before the divergence between protostomes and deuterostomes during evolution. We also show that Drosophila and mammalian Vav proteins have similar catalytic specificities. As a consequence, Drosophila Vav can trigger oncogenic transformation, morphological change, and enhanced cell motility in mammalian cells. Gain-of-function studies using transgenic flies support the implication of this protein in cytoskeletal-dependent processes such as embryonic dorsal closure, myoblast fusion, tracheal development, and the migration/guidance of different cell types. These results highlight the important roles of Vav proteins in the signal transduction pathways regulating cytoskeletal dynamics. Moreover, they indicate that the foundations for the regulatory and enzymatic activities of this protein family have been set up very early during evolution

  13. The PAZAR database of gene regulatory information coupled to the ORCA toolkit for the study of regulatory sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portales-Casamar, Elodie; Arenillas, David; Lim, Jonathan; Swanson, Magdalena I.; Jiang, Steven; McCallum, Anthony; Kirov, Stefan; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2009-01-01

    The PAZAR database unites independently created and maintained data collections of transcription factor and regulatory sequence annotation. The flexible PAZAR schema permits the representation of diverse information derived from experiments ranging from biochemical protein–DNA binding to cellular reporter gene assays. Data collections can be made available to the public, or restricted to specific system users. The data ‘boutiques’ within the shopping-mall-inspired system facilitate the analysis of genomics data and the creation of predictive models of gene regulation. Since its initial release, PAZAR has grown in terms of data, features and through the addition of an associated package of software tools called the ORCA toolkit (ORCAtk). ORCAtk allows users to rapidly develop analyses based on the information stored in the PAZAR system. PAZAR is available at http://www.pazar.info. ORCAtk can be accessed through convenient buttons located in the PAZAR pages or via our website at http://www.cisreg.ca/ORCAtk. PMID:18971253

  14. Next generation sequencing and analysis of a conserved transcriptome of New Zealand's kiwi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Sankar; Huynen, Leon; Millar, Craig D; Lambert, David M

    2010-12-15

    Kiwi is a highly distinctive, flightless and endangered ratite bird endemic to New Zealand. To understand the patterns of molecular evolution of the nuclear protein-coding genes in brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli) and to determine the timescale of avian history we sequenced a transcriptome obtained from a kiwi embryo using next generation sequencing methods. We then assembled the conserved protein-coding regions using the chicken proteome as a scaffold. Using 1,543 conserved protein coding genes we estimated the neutral evolutionary divergence between the kiwi and chicken to be ~45%, which is approximately equal to the divergence computed for the human-mouse pair using the same set of genes. A large fraction of genes was found to be under high selective constraint, as most of the expressed genes appeared to be involved in developmental gene regulation. Our study suggests a significant relationship between gene expression levels and protein evolution. Using sequences from over 700 nuclear genes we estimated the divergence between the two basal avian groups, Palaeognathae and Neognathae to be 132 million years, which is consistent with previous studies using mitochondrial genes. The results of this investigation revealed patterns of mutation and purifying selection in conserved protein coding regions in birds. Furthermore this study suggests a relatively cost-effective way of obtaining a glimpse into the fundamental molecular evolutionary attributes of a genome, particularly when no closely related genomic sequence is available.

  15. Next generation sequencing and analysis of a conserved transcriptome of New Zealand's kiwi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynen Leon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kiwi is a highly distinctive, flightless and endangered ratite bird endemic to New Zealand. To understand the patterns of molecular evolution of the nuclear protein-coding genes in brown kiwi (Apteryx australis mantelli and to determine the timescale of avian history we sequenced a transcriptome obtained from a kiwi embryo using next generation sequencing methods. We then assembled the conserved protein-coding regions using the chicken proteome as a scaffold. Results Using 1,543 conserved protein coding genes we estimated the neutral evolutionary divergence between the kiwi and chicken to be ~45%, which is approximately equal to the divergence computed for the human-mouse pair using the same set of genes. A large fraction of genes was found to be under high selective constraint, as most of the expressed genes appeared to be involved in developmental gene regulation. Our study suggests a significant relationship between gene expression levels and protein evolution. Using sequences from over 700 nuclear genes we estimated the divergence between the two basal avian groups, Palaeognathae and Neognathae to be 132 million years, which is consistent with previous studies using mitochondrial genes. Conclusions The results of this investigation revealed patterns of mutation and purifying selection in conserved protein coding regions in birds. Furthermore this study suggests a relatively cost-effective way of obtaining a glimpse into the fundamental molecular evolutionary attributes of a genome, particularly when no closely related genomic sequence is available.

  16. Remarkable sequence conservation of the last intron in the PKD1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodova, Marianna; Islam, M Rafiq; Peterson, Kenneth R; Calvet, James P

    2003-10-01

    The last intron of the PKD1 gene (intron 45) was found to have exceptionally high sequence conservation across four mammalian species: human, mouse, rat, and dog. This conservation did not extend to the comparable intron in pufferfish. Pairwise comparisons for intron 45 showed 91% identity (human vs. dog) to 100% identity (mouse vs. rat) for an average for all four species of 94% identity. In contrast, introns 43 and 44 of the PKD1 gene had average pairwise identities of 57% and 54%, and exons 43, 44, and 45 and the coding region of exon 46 had average pairwise identities of 80%, 84%, 82%, and 80%. Intron 45 is 90 to 95 bp in length, with the major region of sequence divergence being in a central 4-bp to 9-bp variable region. RNA secondary structure analysis of intron 45 predicts a branching stem-loop structure in which the central variable region lies in one loop and the putative branch point sequence lies in another loop, suggesting that the intron adopts a specific stem-loop structure that may be important for its removal. Although intron 45 appears to conform to the class of small, G-triplet-containing introns that are spliced by a mechanism utilizing intron definition, its high sequence conservation may be a reflection of constraints imposed by a unique mechanism that coordinates splicing of this last PKD1 intron with polyadenylation.

  17. Metazoan Remaining Genes for Essential Amino Acid Biosynthesis: Sequence Conservation and Evolutionary Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor R. Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Essential amino acids (EAA consist of a group of nine amino acids that animals are unable to synthesize via de novo pathways. Recently, it has been found that most metazoans lack the same set of enzymes responsible for the de novo EAA biosynthesis. Here we investigate the sequence conservation and evolution of all the metazoan remaining genes for EAA pathways. Initially, the set of all 49 enzymes responsible for the EAA de novo biosynthesis in yeast was retrieved. These enzymes were used as BLAST queries to search for similar sequences in a database containing 10 complete metazoan genomes. Eight enzymes typically attributed to EAA pathways were found to be ubiquitous in metazoan genomes, suggesting a conserved functional role. In this study, we address the question of how these genes evolved after losing their pathway partners. To do this, we compared metazoan genes with their fungal and plant orthologs. Using phylogenetic analysis with maximum likelihood, we found that acetolactate synthase (ALS and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase (BHMT diverged from the expected Tree of Life (ToL relationships. High sequence conservation in the paraphyletic group Plant-Fungi was identified for these two genes using a newly developed Python algorithm. Selective pressure analysis of ALS and BHMT protein sequences showed higher non-synonymous mutation ratios in comparisons between metazoans/fungi and metazoans/plants, supporting the hypothesis that these two genes have undergone non-ToL evolution in animals.

  18. T-cell recognition is shaped by epitope sequence conservation in the host proteome and microbiome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresciani, Anne Gøther; Paul, Sinu; Schommer, Nina

    2016-01-01

    or allergen with the conservation of its sequence in the human proteome or the healthy human microbiome. Indeed, performing such comparisons on large sets of validated T-cell epitopes, we found that epitopes that are similar with self-antigens above a certain threshold showed lower immunogenicity, presumably...... as a result of negative selection of T cells capable of recognizing such peptides. Moreover, we also found a reduced level of immune recognition for epitopes conserved in the commensal microbiome, presumably as a result of peripheral tolerance. These findings indicate that the existence (and potentially...

  19. kmer-SVM: a web server for identifying predictive regulatory sequence features in genomic data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletez-Brant, Christopher; Lee, Dongwon; McCallion, Andrew S.; Beer, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Massively parallel sequencing technologies have made the generation of genomic data sets a routine component of many biological investigations. For example, Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequence assays detect genomic regions bound (directly or indirectly) by specific factors, and DNase-seq identifies regions of open chromatin. A major bottleneck in the interpretation of these data is the identification of the underlying DNA sequence code that defines, and ultimately facilitates prediction of, these transcription factor (TF) bound or open chromatin regions. We have recently developed a novel computational methodology, which uses a support vector machine (SVM) with kmer sequence features (kmer-SVM) to identify predictive combinations of short transcription factor-binding sites, which determine the tissue specificity of these genomic assays (Lee, Karchin and Beer, Discriminative prediction of mammalian enhancers from DNA sequence. Genome Res. 2011; 21:2167–80). This regulatory information can (i) give confidence in genomic experiments by recovering previously known binding sites, and (ii) reveal novel sequence features for subsequent experimental testing of cooperative mechanisms. Here, we describe the development and implementation of a web server to allow the broader research community to independently apply our kmer-SVM to analyze and interpret their genomic datasets. We analyze five recently published data sets and demonstrate how this tool identifies accessory factors and repressive sequence elements. kmer-SVM is available at http://kmersvm.beerlab.org. PMID:23771147

  20. A Potential Tool for Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) Conservation: Individuality of Long-Range Barking Sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darden, Safi-Kirstine Klem; Dabelsteen, Torben; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2003-01-01

    Vocal individuality has been found in a number canid species. This natural variation can have applications in several aspects of species conservation, from behavioral studies to estimating population density or abundance. The swift fox (Vulpes velox) is a North American canid listed as endangered...... in Canada and extirpated, endangered, or threatened in parts of the United States. The barking sequence is a long-range vocalization in the species' vocal repertoire. It consists of a series of barks and is most common during the mating season. We analyzed barking sequences recorded in a standardized...

  1. Highly conserved non-coding elements on either side of SOX9 associated with Pierre Robin sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benko, Sabina; Fantes, Judy A; Amiel, Jeanne; Kleinjan, Dirk-Jan; Thomas, Sophie; Ramsay, Jacqueline; Jamshidi, Negar; Essafi, Abdelkader; Heaney, Simon; Gordon, Christopher T; McBride, David; Golzio, Christelle; Fisher, Malcolm; Perry, Paul; Abadie, Véronique; Ayuso, Carmen; Holder-Espinasse, Muriel; Kilpatrick, Nicky; Lees, Melissa M; Picard, Arnaud; Temple, I Karen; Thomas, Paul; Vazquez, Marie-Paule; Vekemans, Michel; Roest Crollius, Hugues; Hastie, Nicholas D; Munnich, Arnold; Etchevers, Heather C; Pelet, Anna; Farlie, Peter G; Fitzpatrick, David R; Lyonnet, Stanislas

    2009-03-01

    Pierre Robin sequence (PRS) is an important subgroup of cleft palate. We report several lines of evidence for the existence of a 17q24 locus underlying PRS, including linkage analysis results, a clustering of translocation breakpoints 1.06-1.23 Mb upstream of SOX9, and microdeletions both approximately 1.5 Mb centromeric and approximately 1.5 Mb telomeric of SOX9. We have also identified a heterozygous point mutation in an evolutionarily conserved region of DNA with in vitro and in vivo features of a developmental enhancer. This enhancer is centromeric to the breakpoint cluster and maps within one of the microdeletion regions. The mutation abrogates the in vitro enhancer function and alters binding of the transcription factor MSX1 as compared to the wild-type sequence. In the developing mouse mandible, the 3-Mb region bounded by the microdeletions shows a regionally specific chromatin decompaction in cells expressing Sox9. Some cases of PRS may thus result from developmental misexpression of SOX9 due to disruption of very-long-range cis-regulatory elements.

  2. Stanniocalcin 1 binds hemin through a partially conserved heme regulatory motif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westberg, Johan A.; Jiang, Ji; Andersson, Leif C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) binds heme through novel heme binding motif. → Central iron atom of heme and cysteine-114 of STC1 are essential for binding. → STC1 binds Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ heme. → STC1 peptide prevents oxidative decay of heme. -- Abstract: Hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a necessary component of many proteins, functioning either as a cofactor or an intracellular messenger. Hemoproteins have diverse functions, such as transportation of gases, gas detection, chemical catalysis and electron transfer. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a protein involved in respiratory responses of the cell but whose mechanism of action is still undetermined. We examined the ability of STC1 to bind hemin in both its reduced and oxidized states and located Cys 114 as the axial ligand of the central iron atom of hemin. The amino acid sequence differs from the established (Cys-Pro) heme regulatory motif (HRM) and therefore presents a novel heme binding motif (Cys-Ser). A STC1 peptide containing the heme binding sequence was able to inhibit both spontaneous and H 2 O 2 induced decay of hemin. Binding of hemin does not affect the mitochondrial localization of STC1.

  3. Stanniocalcin 1 binds hemin through a partially conserved heme regulatory motif

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Johan A., E-mail: johan.westberg@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Jiang, Ji, E-mail: ji.jiang@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Andersson, Leif C., E-mail: leif.andersson@helsinki.fi [Department of Pathology, Haartman Institute, University of Helsinki and HUSLAB, P.O. Box 21, Haartmaninkatu 3, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) binds heme through novel heme binding motif. {yields} Central iron atom of heme and cysteine-114 of STC1 are essential for binding. {yields} STC1 binds Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+} heme. {yields} STC1 peptide prevents oxidative decay of heme. -- Abstract: Hemin (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a necessary component of many proteins, functioning either as a cofactor or an intracellular messenger. Hemoproteins have diverse functions, such as transportation of gases, gas detection, chemical catalysis and electron transfer. Stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) is a protein involved in respiratory responses of the cell but whose mechanism of action is still undetermined. We examined the ability of STC1 to bind hemin in both its reduced and oxidized states and located Cys{sup 114} as the axial ligand of the central iron atom of hemin. The amino acid sequence differs from the established (Cys-Pro) heme regulatory motif (HRM) and therefore presents a novel heme binding motif (Cys-Ser). A STC1 peptide containing the heme binding sequence was able to inhibit both spontaneous and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induced decay of hemin. Binding of hemin does not affect the mitochondrial localization of STC1.

  4. Identification of direct regulatory targets of the transcription factor Sox10 based on function and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Sanghyuk

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox10, a member of the Sry-related HMG-Box gene family, is a critical transcription factor for several important cell lineages, most notably the neural crest stem cells and the derivative peripheral glial cells and melanocytes. Thus far, only a handful of direct target genes are known for this transcription factor limiting our understanding of the biological network it governs. Results We describe identification of multiple direct regulatory target genes of Sox10 through a procedure based on function and conservation. By combining RNA interference technique and DNA microarray technology, we have identified a set of genes that show significant down-regulation upon introduction of Sox10 specific siRNA into Schwannoma cells. Subsequent comparative genomics analyses led to potential binding sites for Sox10 protein conserved across several mammalian species within the genomic region proximal to these genes. Multiple sites belonging to 4 different genes (proteolipid protein, Sox10, extracellular superoxide dismutase, and pleiotrophin were shown to directly interact with Sox10 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. We further confirmed the direct regulation through the identified cis-element for one of the genes, extracellular superoxide dismutase, using electrophoretic mobility shift assay and reporter assay. Conclusion In sum, the process of combining differential expression profiling and comparative genomics successfully led to further defining the role of Sox10, a critical transcription factor for the development of peripheral glia. Our strategy utilizing relatively accessible techniques and tools should be applicable to studying the function of other transcription factors.

  5. Sample sequencing of vascular plants demonstrates widespread conservation and divergence of microRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez Montes, Ricardo A; de Fátima Rosas-Cárdenas, Flor; De Paoli, Emanuele; Accerbi, Monica; Rymarquis, Linda A; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Marsch-Martínez, Nayelli; Meyers, Blake C; Green, Pamela J; de Folter, Stefan

    2014-04-23

    Small RNAs are pivotal regulators of gene expression that guide transcriptional and post-transcriptional silencing mechanisms in eukaryotes, including plants. Here we report a comprehensive atlas of sRNA and miRNA from 3 species of algae and 31 representative species across vascular plants, including non-model plants. We sequence and quantify sRNAs from 99 different tissues or treatments across species, resulting in a data set of over 132 million distinct sequences. Using miRBase mature sequences as a reference, we identify the miRNA sequences present in these libraries. We apply diverse profiling methods to examine critical sRNA and miRNA features, such as size distribution, tissue-specific regulation and sequence conservation between species, as well as to predict putative new miRNA sequences. We also develop database resources, computational analysis tools and a dedicated website, http://smallrna.udel.edu/. This study provides new insights on plant sRNAs and miRNAs, and a foundation for future studies.

  6. Conserved regulatory modules in the Sox9 testis-specific enhancer predict roles for SOX, TCF/LEF, Forkhead, DMRT, and GATA proteins in vertebrate sex determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri-Fam, Stefan; Sinclair, Andrew H; Koopman, Peter; Harley, Vincent R

    2010-03-01

    While the primary sex determining switch varies between vertebrate species, a key downstream event in testicular development, namely the male-specific up-regulation of Sox9, is conserved. To date, only two sex determining switch genes have been identified, Sry in mammals and the Dmrt1-related gene Dmy (Dmrt1bY) in the medaka fish Oryzias latipes. In mice, Sox9 expression is evidently up-regulated by SRY and maintained by SOX9 both of which directly activate the core 1.3 kb testis-specific enhancer of Sox9 (TESCO). How Sox9 expression is up-regulated and maintained in species without Sry (i.e. non-mammalian species) is not understood. In this study, we have undertaken an in-depth comparative genomics approach and show that TESCO contains an evolutionarily conserved region (ECR) of 180 bp which is present in marsupials, monotremes, birds, reptiles and amphibians. The ECR contains highly conserved modules that predict regulatory roles for SOX, TCF/LEF, Forkhead, DMRT, and GATA proteins in vertebrate sex determination/differentiation. Our data suggest that tetrapods share common aspects of Sox9 regulation in the testis, despite having different sex determining switch mechanisms. They also suggest that Sox9 autoregulation is an ancient mechanism shared by all tetrapods, raising the possibility that in mammals, SRY evolved by mimicking this regulation. The validation of ECR regulatory sequences conserved from human to frogs will provide new insights into vertebrate sex determination. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of temperature and mass conservation on the typical chemical sequences of hydrogen oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Schuyler B.; Alaghemandi, Mohammad; Green, Jason R.

    2018-01-01

    Macroscopic properties of reacting mixtures are necessary to design synthetic strategies, determine yield, and improve the energy and atom efficiency of many chemical processes. The set of time-ordered sequences of chemical species are one representation of the evolution from reactants to products. However, only a fraction of the possible sequences is typical, having the majority of the joint probability and characterizing the succession of chemical nonequilibrium states. Here, we extend a variational measure of typicality and apply it to atomistic simulations of a model for hydrogen oxidation over a range of temperatures. We demonstrate an information-theoretic methodology to identify typical sequences under the constraints of mass conservation. Including these constraints leads to an improved ability to learn the chemical sequence mechanism from experimentally accessible data. From these typical sequences, we show that two quantities defining the variational typical set of sequences—the joint entropy rate and the topological entropy rate—increase linearly with temperature. These results suggest that, away from explosion limits, data over a narrow range of thermodynamic parameters could be sufficient to extrapolate these typical features of combustion chemistry to other conditions.

  8. A unique genomic sequence in the Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome [WHS] region of humans is conserved in the great apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarzami, S T; Kringstein, A M; Conte, R A; Verma, R S

    1996-10-01

    The Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is caused by a partial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4 band 16.3 (4p 16.3). A unique-sequence human DNA probe (39 kb) localized within this region has been used to search for sequence homology in the apes' equivalent chromosome 3 by FISH-technique. The WHS loci are conserved in higher primates at the expected position. Nevertheless, a control probe, which detects alphoid sequences of the pericentromeric region of humans, is diverged in chimpanzee, gorilla, and orangutan. The conservation of WHS loci and divergence of DNA alphoid sequences have further added to the controversy concerning human descent.

  9. Identification of lignin genes and regulatory sequences involved in secondary cell wall formation in Acacia auriculiformis and Acacia mangium via de novo transcriptome sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Charles H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acacia auriculiformis × Acacia mangium hybrids are commercially important trees for the timber and pulp industry in Southeast Asia. Increasing pulp yield while reducing pulping costs are major objectives of tree breeding programs. The general monolignol biosynthesis and secondary cell wall formation pathways are well-characterized but genes in these pathways are poorly characterized in Acacia hybrids. RNA-seq on short-read platforms is a rapid approach for obtaining comprehensive transcriptomic data and to discover informative sequence variants. Results We sequenced transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium from non-normalized cDNA libraries synthesized from pooled young stem and inner bark tissues using paired-end libraries and a single lane of an Illumina GAII machine. De novo assembly produced a total of 42,217 and 35,759 contigs with an average length of 496 bp and 498 bp for A. auriculiformis and A. mangium respectively. The assemblies of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium had a total length of 21,022,649 bp and 17,838,260 bp, respectively, with the largest contig 15,262 bp long. We detected all ten monolignol biosynthetic genes using Blastx and further analysis revealed 18 lignin isoforms for each species. We also identified five contigs homologous to R2R3-MYB proteins in other plant species that are involved in transcriptional regulation of secondary cell wall formation and lignin deposition. We searched the contigs against public microRNA database and predicted the stem-loop structures of six highly conserved microRNA families (miR319, miR396, miR160, miR172, miR162 and miR168 and one legume-specific family (miR2086. Three microRNA target genes were predicted to be involved in wood formation and flavonoid biosynthesis. By using the assemblies as a reference, we discovered 16,648 and 9,335 high quality putative Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs in the transcriptomes of A. auriculiformis and A. mangium

  10. Regulatory sequences driving expression of the sea urchin Otp homeobox gene in oral ectoderm cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalieri, Vincenzo; Bernardo, Maria Di; Spinelli, Giovanni

    2007-01-01

    PlOtp (Orthopedia), a homeodomain-containing transcription factor, has been recently characterized as a key regulator of the morphogenesis of the skeletal system in the embryo of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Otp acts as a positive regulator in a subset of oral ectodermal cells which transmit short-range signals to the underlying primary mesenchyme cells where skeletal synthesis is initiated. To shed some light on the molecular mechanisms involved in such a process, we begun a functional analysis of the cis-regulatory sequences of the Otp gene. Congruent with the spatial expression profile of the endogenous Otp gene, we found that while a DNA region from -494 to +358 is shown to drive in vivo GFP reporter expression in the oral ectoderm, but also in the foregut, a larger region spanning from -2044 to +358 is needed to give firmly established tissue specificity. Microinjection of PCR-amplified DNA constructs, truncated in the 5' regulatory region, and determination of GFP mRNA level in injected embryos allowed the identification of a 5'-flanking fragment of 184bp in length, essential for expression of the transgene in the oral ectoderm of pluteus stage embryos. Finally, we conducted DNAse I-footprinting assays in nuclear extracts for the 184bp region and detected two protected sequences. Data bank search indicates that these sites contain consensus binding sites for transcription factors.

  11. Transcriptional activation signals found in the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency C promoter are conserved in the latency C promoter sequences from baboon and Rhesus monkey EBV-like lymphocryptoviruses (cercopithicine herpesviruses 12 and 15).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Pananá, E M; Swaminathan, S; Ling, P D

    1999-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EBNA2 protein is a transcriptional activator that controls viral latent gene expression and is essential for EBV-driven B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 is expressed from the viral C promoter (Cp) and regulates its own expression by activating Cp through interaction with the cellular DNA binding protein CBF1. Through regulation of Cp and EBNA2 expression, EBV controls the pattern of latent protein expression and the type of latency established. To gain further insight into the important regulatory elements that modulate Cp usage, we isolated and sequenced the Cp regions corresponding to nucleotides 10251 to 11479 of the EBV genome (-1079 to +144 relative to the transcription initiation site) from the EBV-like lymphocryptoviruses found in baboons (herpesvirus papio; HVP) and Rhesus macaques (RhEBV). Sequence comparison of the approximately 1,230-bp Cp regions from these primate viruses revealed that EBV and HVP Cp sequences are 64% conserved, EBV and RhEBV Cp sequences are 66% conserved, and HVP and RhEBV Cp sequences are 65% conserved relative to each other. Approximately 50% of the residues are conserved among all three sequences, yet all three viruses have retained response elements for glucocorticoids, two positionally conserved CCAAT boxes, and positionally conserved TATA boxes. The putative EBNA2 100-bp enhancers within these promoters contain 54 conserved residues, and the binding sites for CBF1 and CBF2 are well conserved. Cp usage in the HVP- and RhEBV-transformed cell lines was detected by S1 nuclease protection analysis. Transient-transfection analysis showed that promoters of both HVP and RhEBV are responsive to EBNA2 and that they bind CBF1 and CBF2 in gel mobility shift assays. These results suggest that similar mechanisms for regulation of latent gene expression are conserved among the EBV-related lymphocryptoviruses found in nonhuman primates.

  12. PDL1 Signals through Conserved Sequence Motifs to Overcome Interferon-Mediated Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gato-Cañas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available PDL1 blockade produces remarkable clinical responses, thought to occur by T cell reactivation through prevention of PDL1-PD1 T cell inhibitory interactions. Here, we find that PDL1 cell-intrinsic signaling protects cancer cells from interferon (IFN cytotoxicity and accelerates tumor progression. PDL1 inhibited IFN signal transduction through a conserved class of sequence motifs that mediate crosstalk with IFN signaling. Abrogation of PDL1 expression or antibody-mediated PDL1 blockade strongly sensitized cancer cells to IFN cytotoxicity through a STAT3/caspase-7-dependent pathway. Moreover, somatic mutations found in human carcinomas within these PDL1 sequence motifs disrupted motif regulation, resulting in PDL1 molecules with enhanced protective activities from type I and type II IFN cytotoxicity. Overall, our results reveal a mode of action of PDL1 in cancer cells as a first line of defense against IFN cytotoxicity.

  13. Solexa sequencing identification of conserved and novel microRNAs in backfat of Large White and Chinese Meishan pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chen

    Full Text Available The domestic pig (Sus scrofa, an important species in animal production industry, is a right model for studying adipogenesis and fat deposition. In order to expand the repertoire of porcine miRNAs and further explore potential regulatory miRNAs which have influence on adipogenesis, high-throughput Solexa sequencing approach was adopted to identify miRNAs in backfat of Large White (lean type pig and Meishan pigs (Chinese indigenous fatty pig. We identified 215 unique miRNAs comprising 75 known pre-miRNAs, of which 49 miRNA*s were first identified in our study, 73 miRNAs were overlapped in both libraries, and 140 were novelly predicted miRNAs, and 215 unique miRNAs were collectively corresponding to 235 independent genomic loci. Furthermore, we analyzed the sequence variations, seed edits and phylogenetic development of the miRNAs. 17 miRNAs were widely conserved from vertebrates to invertebrates, suggesting that these miRNAs may serve as potential evolutional biomarkers. 9 conserved miRNAs with significantly differential expressions were determined. The expression of miR-215, miR-135, miR-224 and miR-146b was higher in Large White pigs, opposite to the patterns shown by miR-1a, miR-133a, miR-122, miR-204 and miR-183. Almost all novel miRNAs could be considered pig-specific except ssc-miR-1343, miR-2320, miR-2326, miR-2411 and miR-2483 which had homologs in Bos taurus, among which ssc-miR-1343, miR-2320, miR-2411 and miR-2483 were validated in backfat tissue by stem-loop qPCR. Our results displayed a high level of concordance between the qPCR and Solexa sequencing method in 9 of 10 miRNAs comparisons except for miR-1a. Moreover, we found 2 miRNAs, miR-135 and miR-183, may exert impacts on porcine backfat development through WNT signaling pathway. In conclusion, our research develops porcine miRNAs and should be beneficial to study the adipogenesis and fat deposition of different pig breeds based on miRNAs.

  14. Sequence recombination and conservation of Varroa destructor virus-1 and deformed wing virus in field collected honey bees (Apis mellifera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    Full Text Available We sequenced small (s RNAs from field collected honeybees (Apis mellifera and bumblebees (Bombuspascuorum using the Illumina technology. The sRNA reads were assembled and resulting contigs were used to search for virus homologues in GenBank. Matches with Varroadestructor virus-1 (VDV1 and Deformed wing virus (DWV genomic sequences were obtained for A. mellifera but not B. pascuorum. Further analyses suggested that the prevalent virus population was composed of VDV-1 and a chimera of 5'-DWV-VDV1-DWV-3'. The recombination junctions in the chimera genomes were confirmed by using RT-PCR, cDNA cloning and Sanger sequencing. We then focused on conserved short fragments (CSF, size > 25 nt in the virus genomes by using GenBank sequences and the deep sequencing data obtained in this study. The majority of CSF sites confirmed conservation at both between-species (GenBank sequences and within-population (dataset of this study levels. However, conserved nucleotide positions in the GenBank sequences might be variable at the within-population level. High mutation rates (Pi>10% were observed at a number of sites using the deep sequencing data, suggesting that sequence conservation might not always be maintained at the population level. Virus-host interactions and strategies for developing RNAi treatments against VDV1/DWV infections are discussed.

  15. Functional dissection of the promoter of the pollen-specific gene NTP303 reveals a novel pollen-specific, and conserved cis-regulatory element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weterings, K; Schrauwen, J; Wullems, G; Twell, D

    1995-07-01

    Regulatory elements within the promoter of the pollen-specific NTP303 gene from tobacco were analysed by transient and stable expression analyses. Analysis of precisely targeted mutations showed that the NTP303 promoter is not regulated by any of the previously described pollen-specific cis-regulatory elements. However, two adjacent regions from -103 to -86 bp and from -86 to -59 bp were shown to contain sequences which positively regulated the NTP303 promoter. Both of these regions were capable of driving pollen-specific expression from a heterologous promoter, independent of orientation and in an additive manner. The boundaries of the minimal, functional NTP303 promoter were determined to lie within the region -86 to -51 bp. The sequence AAATGA localized from -94 to -89 bp was identified as a novel cis-acting element, of which the TGA triplet was shown to comprise an active part. This element was shown to be completely conserved in the similarly regulated promoter of the Bp 10 gene from Brassica napus encoding a homologue of the NTP303 gene.

  16. Conservation of lipid metabolic gene transcriptional regulatory networks in fish and mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Tocher, Douglas R; Martinez-Rubio, Laura; Leaver, Michael J

    2014-01-15

    Lipid content and composition in aquafeeds have changed rapidly as a result of the recent drive to replace ecologically limited marine ingredients, fishmeal and fish oil (FO). Terrestrial plant products are the most economic and sustainable alternative; however, plant meals and oils are devoid of physiologically important cholesterol and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), docosahexaenoic (DHA) and arachidonic (ARA) acids. Although replacement of dietary FO with vegetable oil (VO) has little effect on growth in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), several studies have shown major effects on the activity and expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis. In vertebrates, sterols and LC-PUFA play crucial roles in lipid metabolism by direct interaction with lipid-sensing transcription factors (TFs) and consequent regulation of target genes. The primary aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of key TFs in the transcriptional regulation of lipid metabolism in fish by transfection and overexpression of TFs. The results show that the expression of genes of LC-PUFA biosynthesis (elovl and fads2) and cholesterol metabolism (abca1) are regulated by Lxr and Srebp TFs in salmon, indicating highly conserved regulatory mechanism across vertebrates. In addition, srebp1 and srebp2 mRNA respond to replacement of dietary FO with VO. Thus, Atlantic salmon adjust lipid metabolism in response to dietary lipid composition through the transcriptional regulation of gene expression. It may be possible to further increase efficient and effective use of sustainable alternatives to marine products in aquaculture by considering these important molecular interactions when formulating diets. © 2013.

  17. Cis-acting regulatory sequences promote high-frequency gene conversion between repeated sequences in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynard, Steven J; Baker, Mark D

    2004-01-01

    In mammalian cells, little is known about the nature of recombination-prone regions of the genome. Previously, we reported that the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) mu locus behaved as a hotspot for mitotic, intrachromosomal gene conversion (GC) between repeated mu constant (Cmu) regions in mouse hybridoma cells. To investigate whether elements within the mu gene regulatory region were required for hotspot activity, gene targeting was used to delete a 9.1 kb segment encompassing the mu gene promoter (Pmu), enhancer (Emu) and switch region (Smu) from the locus. In these cell lines, GC between the Cmu repeats was significantly reduced, indicating that this 'recombination-enhancing sequence' (RES) is necessary for GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. Importantly, the RES fragment stimulated GC when appended to the same Cmu repeats integrated at ectopic genomic sites. We also show that deletion of Emu and flanking matrix attachment regions (MARs) from the RES abolishes GC hotspot activity at the IgH locus. However, no stimulation of ectopic GC was observed with the Emu/MARs fragment alone. Finally, we provide evidence that no correlation exists between the level of transcription and GC promoted by the RES. We suggest a model whereby Emu/MARS enhances mitotic GC at the endogenous IgH mu locus by effecting chromatin modifications in adjacent DNA.

  18. KIRMES: kernel-based identification of regulatory modules in euchromatic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultheiss, Sebastian J; Busch, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Jan U; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Rätsch, Gunnar

    2009-08-15

    Understanding transcriptional regulation is one of the main challenges in computational biology. An important problem is the identification of transcription factor (TF) binding sites in promoter regions of potential TF target genes. It is typically approached by position weight matrix-based motif identification algorithms using Gibbs sampling, or heuristics to extend seed oligos. Such algorithms succeed in identifying single, relatively well-conserved binding sites, but tend to fail when it comes to the identification of combinations of several degenerate binding sites, as those often found in cis-regulatory modules. We propose a new algorithm that combines the benefits of existing motif finding with the ones of support vector machines (SVMs) to find degenerate motifs in order to improve the modeling of regulatory modules. In experiments on microarray data from Arabidopsis thaliana, we were able to show that the newly developed strategy significantly improves the recognition of TF targets. The python source code (open source-licensed under GPL), the data for the experiments and a Galaxy-based web service are available at http://www.fml.mpg.de/raetsch/suppl/kirmes/.

  19. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzan, Heba F; Knowles, Donald P; Suarez, Carlos E

    2016-11-01

    Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i) identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii) identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii) define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv) identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  20. Comparative Bioinformatics Analysis of Transcription Factor Genes Indicates Conservation of Key Regulatory Domains among Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba F Alzan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexa tick-borne hemoparasites, including Babesia bovis, Babesia microti, and Theileria equi are responsible for bovine and human babesiosis and equine theileriosis, respectively. These parasites of vast medical, epidemiological, and economic impact have complex life cycles in their vertebrate and tick hosts. Large gaps in knowledge concerning the mechanisms used by these parasites for gene regulation remain. Regulatory genes coding for DNA binding proteins such as members of the Api-AP2, HMG, and Myb families are known to play crucial roles as transcription factors. Although the repertoire of Api-AP2 has been defined and a HMG gene was previously identified in the B. bovis genome, these regulatory genes have not been described in detail in B. microti and T. equi. In this study, comparative bioinformatics was used to: (i identify and map genes encoding for these transcription factors among three parasites' genomes; (ii identify a previously unreported HMG gene in B. microti; (iii define a repertoire of eight conserved Myb genes; and (iv identify AP2 correlates among B. bovis and the better-studied Plasmodium parasites. Searching the available transcriptome of B. bovis defined patterns of transcription of these three gene families in B. bovis erythrocyte stage parasites. Sequence comparisons show conservation of functional domains and general architecture in the AP2, Myb, and HMG proteins, which may be significant for the regulation of common critical parasite life cycle transitions in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi. A detailed understanding of the role of gene families encoding DNA binding proteins will provide new tools for unraveling regulatory mechanisms involved in B. bovis, B. microti, and T. equi life cycles and environmental adaptive responses and potentially contributes to the development of novel convergent strategies for improved control of babesiosis and equine piroplasmosis.

  1. Conserved cis-regulatory regions in a large genomic landscape control SHH and BMP-regulated Gremlin1 expression in mouse limb buds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuniga Aimée

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mouse limb bud is a prime model to study the regulatory interactions that control vertebrate organogenesis. Major aspects of limb bud development are controlled by feedback loops that define a self-regulatory signalling system. The SHH/GREM1/AER-FGF feedback loop forms the core of this signalling system that operates between the posterior mesenchymal organiser and the ectodermal signalling centre. The BMP antagonist Gremlin1 (GREM1 is a critical node in this system, whose dynamic expression is controlled by BMP, SHH, and FGF signalling and key to normal progression of limb bud development. Previous analysis identified a distant cis-regulatory landscape within the neighbouring Formin1 (Fmn1 locus that is required for Grem1 expression, reminiscent of the genomic landscapes controlling HoxD and Shh expression in limb buds. Results Three highly conserved regions (HMCO1-3 were identified within the previously defined critical genomic region and tested for their ability to regulate Grem1 expression in mouse limb buds. Using a combination of BAC and conventional transgenic approaches, a 9 kb region located ~70 kb downstream of the Grem1 transcription unit was identified. This region, termed Grem1 Regulatory Sequence 1 (GRS1, is able to recapitulate major aspects of Grem1 expression, as it drives expression of a LacZ reporter into the posterior and, to a lesser extent, in the distal-anterior mesenchyme. Crossing the GRS1 transgene into embryos with alterations in the SHH and BMP pathways established that GRS1 depends on SHH and is modulated by BMP signalling, i.e. integrates inputs from these pathways. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed interaction of endogenous GLI3 proteins with the core cis-regulatory elements in the GRS1 region. As GLI3 is a mediator of SHH signal transduction, these results indicated that SHH directly controls Grem1 expression through the GRS1 region. Finally, all cis-regulatory regions within the Grem1

  2. Evolutionary conservation of nuclear and nucleolar targeting sequences in yeast ribosomal protein S6A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsius, Edgar; Walter, Korden; Leicher, Torsten; Phlippen, Wolfgang; Bisotti, Marc-Angelo; Kruppa, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    Over 1 billion years ago, the animal kingdom diverged from the fungi. Nevertheless, a high sequence homology of 62% exists between human ribosomal protein S6 and S6A of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate whether this similarity in primary structure is mirrored in corresponding functional protein domains, the nuclear and nucleolar targeting signals were delineated in yeast S6A and compared to the known human S6 signals. The complete sequence of S6A and cDNA fragments was fused to the 5'-end of the LacZ gene, the constructs were transiently expressed in COS cells, and the subcellular localization of the fusion proteins was detected by indirect immunofluorescence. One bipartite and two monopartite nuclear localization signals as well as two nucleolar binding domains were identified in yeast S6A, which are located at homologous regions in human S6 protein. Remarkably, the number, nature, and position of these targeting signals have been conserved, albeit their amino acid sequences have presumably undergone a process of co-evolution with their corresponding rRNAs

  3. Identification of cis-regulatory sequences that activate transcription in the suspensor of plant embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Tomokazu; Wang, Xingjun; Henry, Kelli F; Bi, Yuping; Weterings, Koen; Goldberg, Robert B

    2009-03-03

    Little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which the embryo proper and suspensor of plant embryos activate specific gene sets shortly after fertilization. We analyzed the upstream region of the scarlet runner bean (Phaseolus coccineus) G564 gene to understand how genes are activated specifically within the suspensor during early embryo development. Previously, we showed that the G564 upstream region has a block of tandem repeats, which contain a conserved 10-bp motif (GAAAAG(C)/(T)GAA), and that deletion of these repeats results in a loss of suspensor transcription. Here, we use gain-of-function (GOF) experiments with transgenic globular-stage tobacco embryos to show that only 1 of the 5 tandem repeats is required to drive suspensor-specific transcription. Fine-scale deletion and scanning mutagenesis experiments with 1 tandem repeat uncovered a 54-bp region that contains all of the sequences required to activate transcription in the suspensor, including the 10-bp motif (GAAAAGCGAA) and a similar 10-bp-like motif (GAAAAACGAA). Site-directed mutagenesis and GOF experiments indicated that both the 10-bp and 10-bp-like motifs are necessary, but not sufficient to activate transcription in the suspensor, and that a sequence (TTGGT) between the 10-bp and the 10-bp-like motifs is also necessary for suspensor transcription. Together, these data identify sequences that are required to activate transcription in the suspensor of a plant embryo after fertilization.

  4. A Conserved MicroRNA Regulatory Circuit Is Differentially Controlled during Limb/Appendage Regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L King

    Full Text Available Although regenerative capacity is evident throughout the animal kingdom, it is not equally distributed throughout evolution. For instance, complex limb/appendage regeneration is muted in mammals but enhanced in amphibians and teleosts. The defining characteristic of limb/appendage regenerative systems is the formation of a dedifferentiated tissue, termed blastema, which serves as the progenitor reservoir for regenerating tissues. In order to identify a genetic signature that accompanies blastema formation, we employ next-generation sequencing to identify shared, differentially regulated mRNAs and noncoding RNAs in three different, highly regenerative animal systems: zebrafish caudal fins, bichir pectoral fins and axolotl forelimbs.These studies identified a core group of 5 microRNAs (miRNAs that were commonly upregulated and 5 miRNAs that were commonly downregulated, as well as 4 novel tRNAs fragments with sequences conserved with humans. To understand the potential function of these miRNAs, we built a network of 1,550 commonly differentially expressed mRNAs that had functional relationships to 11 orthologous blastema-associated genes. As miR-21 was the most highly upregulated and most highly expressed miRNA in all three models, we validated the expression of known target genes, including the tumor suppressor, pdcd4, and TGFβ receptor subunit, tgfbr2 and novel putative target genes such as the anti-apoptotic factor, bcl2l13, Choline kinase alpha, chka and the regulator of G-protein signaling, rgs5.Our extensive analysis of RNA-seq transcriptome profiling studies in three regenerative animal models, that diverged in evolution ~420 million years ago, reveals a common miRNA-regulated genetic network of blastema genes. These comparative studies extend our current understanding of limb/appendage regeneration by identifying previously unassociated blastema genes and the extensive regulation by miRNAs, which could serve as a foundation for future

  5. Correlation between sequence conservation and structural thermodynamics of microRNA precursors from human, mouse, and chicken genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shengqi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that microRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs have considerably more stable secondary structures than other native RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA and artificial RNA sequences. However, pre-miRNAs with ultra stable secondary structures have not been investigated. It is not known if there is a tendency in pre-miRNA sequences towards or against ultra stable structures? Furthermore, the relationship between the structural thermodynamic stability of pre-miRNA and their evolution remains unclear. Results We investigated the correlation between pre-miRNA sequence conservation and structural stability as measured by adjusted minimum folding free energies in pre-miRNAs isolated from human, mouse, and chicken. The analysis revealed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNA sequences had structures with similar average stabilities. However, the relatively ultra stable and unstable pre-miRNAs were more likely to be non-conserved than pre-miRNAs with moderate stability. Non-conserved pre-miRNAs had more G+C than A+U nucleotides, while conserved pre-miRNAs contained more A+U nucleotides. Notably, the U content of conserved pre-miRNAs was especially higher than that of non-conserved pre-miRNAs. Further investigations showed that conserved and non-conserved pre-miRNAs exhibited different structural element features, even though they had comparable levels of stability. Conclusions We proposed that there is a correlation between structural thermodynamic stability and sequence conservation for pre-miRNAs from human, mouse, and chicken genomes. Our analyses suggested that pre-miRNAs with relatively ultra stable or unstable structures were less favoured by natural selection than those with moderately stable structures. Comparison of nucleotide compositions between non-conserved and conserved pre-miRNAs indicated the importance of U nucleotides in the pre-miRNA evolutionary process. Several characteristic structural elements were

  6. Detecting the limits of regulatory element conservation anddivergence estimation using pairwise and multiple alignments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollard, Daniel A.; Moses, Alan M.; Iyer, Venky N.; Eisen,Michael B.

    2006-08-14

    Background: Molecular evolutionary studies of noncodingsequences rely on multiple alignments. Yet how multiple alignmentaccuracy varies across sequence types, tree topologies, divergences andtools, and further how this variation impacts specific inferences,remains unclear. Results: Here we develop a molecular evolutionsimulation platform, CisEvolver, with models of background noncoding andtranscription factor binding site evolution, and use simulated alignmentsto systematically examine multiple alignment accuracy and its impact ontwo key molecular evolutionary inferences: transcription factor bindingsite conservation and divergence estimation. We find that the accuracy ofmultiple alignments is determined almost exclusively by the pairwisedivergence distance of the two most diverged species and that additionalspecies have a negligible influence on alignment accuracy. Conservedtranscription factor binding sites align better than surroundingnoncoding DNA yet are often found to be misaligned at relatively shortdivergence distances, such that studies of binding site gain and losscould easily be confounded by alignment error. Divergence estimates frommultiple alignments tend to be overestimated at short divergencedistances but reach a tool specific divergence at which they cease toincrease, leading to underestimation at long divergences. Our moststriking finding was that overall alignment accuracy, binding sitealignment accuracy and divergence estimation accuracy vary greatly acrossbranches in a tree and are most accurate for terminal branches connectingsister taxa and least accurate for internal branches connectingsub-alignments. Conclusions: Our results suggest that variation inalignment accuracy can lead to errors in molecular evolutionaryinferences that could be construed as biological variation. Thesefindings have implications for which species to choose for analyses, whatkind of errors would be expected for a given set of species and howmultiple alignment tools and

  7. Conserved-peptide upstream open reading frames (CPuORFs are associated with regulatory genes in angiosperms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A Jorgensen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Upstream open reading frames (uORFs are common in eukaryotic transcripts, but those that encode conserved peptides (CPuORFs occur in less than 1% of transcripts. The peptides encoded by three plant CPuORF families are known to control translation of the downstream ORF in response to a small signal molecule (sucrose, polyamines and phosphocholine. In flowering plants, transcription factors are statistically over-represented among genes that possess CPuORFs, and in general it appeared that many CPuORF genes also had other regulatory functions, though the significance of this suggestion was uncertain (Hayden and Jorgensen, 2007. Five years later the literature provides much more information on the functions of many CPuORF genes. Here we reassess the functions of 27 known CPuORF gene families and find that 22 of these families play a variety of different regulatory roles, from transcriptional control to protein turnover, and from small signal molecules to signal transduction kinases. Clearly then, there is indeed a strong association of CPuORFs with regulatory genes. In addition, 16 of these families play key roles in a variety of different biological processes. Most strikingly, the core sucrose response network includes three different CPuORFs, creating the potential for sophisticated balancing of the network in response to three different molecular inputs. We propose that the function of most CPuORFs is to modulate translation of a downstream major ORF (mORF in response to a signal molecule recognized by the conserved peptide and that because the mORFs of CPuORF genes generally encode regulatory proteins, many of them centrally important in the biology of plants, CPuORFs play key roles in balancing such regulatory networks.

  8. Comparative transcriptome analysis within the Lolium/Festuca species complex reveals high sequence conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czaban, Adrian; Sharma, Sapna; Byrne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    species from the Lolium-Festuca complex, ranging from 52,166 to 72,133 transcripts per assembly. We have also predicted a set of proteins and validated it with a high-confidence protein database from three closely related species (H. vulgare, B. distachyon and O. sativa). We have obtained gene family...... clusters for the four species using OrthoMCL and analyzed their inferred phylogenetic relationships. Our results indicate that VRN2 is a candidate gene for differentiating vernalization and non-vernalization types in the Lolium-Festuca complex. Grouping of the gene families based on their BLAST identity...... enabled us to divide ortholog groups into those that are very conserved and those that are more evolutionarily relaxed. The ratio of the non-synonumous to synonymous substitutions enabled us to pinpoint protein sequences evolving in response to positive selection. These proteins may explain some...

  9. Position-specific prediction of methylation sites from sequence conservation based on information theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yinan; Guo, Yanzhi; Hu, Yayun; Li, Menglong

    2015-07-23

    Protein methylation plays vital roles in many biological processes and has been implicated in various human diseases. To fully understand the mechanisms underlying methylation for use in drug design and work in methylation-related diseases, an initial but crucial step is to identify methylation sites. The use of high-throughput bioinformatics methods has become imperative to predict methylation sites. In this study, we developed a novel method that is based only on sequence conservation to predict protein methylation sites. Conservation difference profiles between methylated and non-methylated peptides were constructed by the information entropy (IE) in a wider neighbor interval around the methylation sites that fully incorporated all of the environmental information. Then, the distinctive neighbor residues were identified by the importance scores of information gain (IG). The most representative model was constructed by support vector machine (SVM) for Arginine and Lysine methylation, respectively. This model yielded a promising result on both the benchmark dataset and independent test set. The model was used to screen the entire human proteome, and many unknown substrates were identified. These results indicate that our method can serve as a useful supplement to elucidate the mechanism of protein methylation and facilitate hypothesis-driven experimental design and validation.

  10. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  11. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  12. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  13. Origin and spread of photosynthesis based upon conserved sequence features in key bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Radhey S

    2012-11-01

    The origin of photosynthesis and how this capability has spread to other bacterial phyla remain important unresolved questions. I describe here a number of conserved signature indels (CSIs) in key proteins involved in bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) biosynthesis that provide important insights in these regards. The proteins BchL and BchX, which are essential for Bchl biosynthesis, are derived by gene duplication in a common ancestor of all phototrophs. More ancient gene duplication gave rise to the BchX-BchL proteins and the NifH protein of the nitrogenase complex. The sequence alignment of NifH-BchX-BchL proteins contain two CSIs that are uniquely shared by all NifH and BchX homologs, but not by any BchL homologs. These CSIs and phylogenetic analysis of NifH-BchX-BchL protein sequences strongly suggest that the BchX homologs are ancestral to BchL and that the Bchl-based anoxygenic photosynthesis originated prior to the chlorophyll (Chl)-based photosynthesis in cyanobacteria. Another CSI in the BchX-BchL sequence alignment that is uniquely shared by all BchX homologs and the BchL sequences from Heliobacteriaceae, but absent in all other BchL homologs, suggests that the BchL homologs from Heliobacteriaceae are primitive in comparison to all other photosynthetic lineages. Several other identified CSIs in the BchN homologs are commonly shared by all proteobacterial homologs and a clade consisting of the marine unicellular Cyanobacteria (Clade C). These CSIs in conjunction with the results of phylogenetic analyses and pair-wise sequence similarity on the BchL, BchN, and BchB proteins, where the homologs from Clade C Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria exhibited close relationship, provide strong evidence that these two groups have incurred lateral gene transfers. Additionally, phylogenetic analyses and several CSIs in the BchL-N-B proteins that are uniquely shared by all Chlorobi and Chloroflexi homologs provide evidence that the genes for these proteins have also been

  14. Discovery and profiling of novel and conserved microRNAs during flower development in Carya cathayensis via deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng Jia; Huang, Jian Qin; Huang, You Jun; Li, Zheng; Zheng, Bing Song

    2012-08-01

    Hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.) is an economically important woody plant in China, but its long juvenile phase delays yield. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are critical regulators of genes and important for normal plant development and physiology, including flower development. We used Solexa technology to sequence two small RNA libraries from two floral differentiation stages in hickory to identify miRNAs related to flower development. We identified 39 conserved miRNA sequences from 114 loci belonging to 23 families as well as two novel and ten potential novel miRNAs belonging to nine families. Moreover, 35 conserved miRNA*s and two novel miRNA*s were detected. Twenty miRNA sequences from 49 loci belonging to 11 families were differentially expressed; all were up-regulated at the later stage of flower development in hickory. Quantitative real-time PCR of 12 conserved miRNA sequences, five novel miRNA families, and two novel miRNA*s validated that all were expressed during hickory flower development, and the expression patterns were similar to those detected with Solexa sequencing. Finally, a total of 146 targets of the novel and conserved miRNAs were predicted. This study identified a diverse set of miRNAs that were closely related to hickory flower development and that could help in plant floral induction.

  15. Conserved cell cycle regulatory properties within the amino terminal domain of the Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Nikhil; Knight, Jason S.; Robertson, Erle S.

    2006-01-01

    The gammaherpesviruses Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are closely related phylogenetically. Rhesus LCV efficiently immortalizes Rhesus B cells in vitro. However, despite a high degree of conservation between the Rhesus LCV and EBV genomes, Rhesus LCV fails to immortalize human B cells in vitro. This species restriction may, at least in part, be linked to the EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs) and latent membrane proteins (LMPs), known to be essential for B cell transformation. We compared specific properties of EBNA3C, a well-characterized and essential EBV protein, with its Rhesus counterpart to determine whether EBNA3C phenotypes which contribute to cell cycle regulation are conserved in the Rhesus LCV. We show that both EBNA3C and Rhesus EBNA3C bind to a conserved region of mammalian cyclins, regulate pRb stability, and modulate SCF Skp2 -dependent ubiquitination. These results suggest that Rhesus LCV restriction from human B cell immortalization is independent of the conserved cell cycle regulatory functions of the EBNA3C protein

  16. High throughput sequencing of small RNA component of leaves and inflorescence revealed conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNA loci in chickpea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sangeeta; Zheng, Yun; Kudapa, Himabindu; Jagadeeswaran, Guru; Hivrale, Vandana; Varshney, Rajeev K; Sunkar, Ramanjulu

    2015-06-01

    Among legumes, chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the second most important crop after soybean. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles by regulating target gene expression important for plant development and tolerance to stress conditions. Additionally, recently discovered phased siRNAs (phasiRNAs), a new class of small RNAs, are abundantly produced in legumes. Nevertheless, little is known about these regulatory molecules in chickpea. The small RNA population was sequenced from leaves and flowers of chickpea to identify conserved and novel miRNAs as well as phasiRNAs/phasiRNA loci. Bioinformatics analysis revealed 157 miRNA loci for the 96 highly conserved and known miRNA homologs belonging to 38 miRNA families in chickpea. Furthermore, 20 novel miRNAs belonging to 17 miRNA families were identified. Sequence analysis revealed approximately 60 phasiRNA loci. Potential target genes likely to be regulated by these miRNAs were predicted and some were confirmed by modified 5' RACE assay. Predicted targets are mostly transcription factors that might be important for developmental processes, and others include superoxide dismutases, plantacyanin, laccases and F-box proteins that could participate in stress responses and protein degradation. Overall, this study provides an inventory of miRNA-target gene interactions for chickpea, useful for the comparative analysis of small RNAs among legumes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of new TSGA10 transcript variants in human testis with conserved regulatory RNA elements in 5'untranslated region and distinct expression in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehipour, Pouya; Nematzadeh, Mahsa; Mobasheri, Maryam Beigom; Afsharpad, Mandana; Mansouri, Kamran; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Testis specific gene antigen 10 (TSGA10) is a cancer testis antigen involved in the process of spermatogenesis. TSGA10 could also play an important role in the inhibition of angiogenesis by preventing nuclear localization of HIF-1α. Although it has been shown that TSGA10 messenger RNA (mRNA) is mainly expressed in testis and some tumors, the transcription pattern and regulatory mechanisms of this gene remain largely unknown. Here, we report that human TSGA10 comprises at least 22 exons and generates four different transcript variants. It was identified that using two distinct promoters and splicing of exons 4 and 7 produced these transcript variants, which have the same coding sequence, but the sequence of 5'untanslated region (5'UTR) is different between them. This is significant because conserved regulatory RNA elements like upstream open reading frame (uORF) and putative internal ribosome entry site (IRES) were found in this region which have different combinations in each transcript variant and it may influence translational efficiency of them in normal or unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. To indicate the transcription pattern of TSGA10 in breast cancer, expression of identified transcript variants was analyzed in 62 breast cancer samples. We found that TSGA10 tends to express variants with shorter 5'UTR and fewer uORF elements in breast cancer tissues. Our study demonstrates for the first time the expression of different TSGA10 transcript variants in testis and breast cancer tissues and provides a first clue to a role of TSGA10 5'UTR in regulation of translation in unusual environmental conditions like hypoxia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Effects of using coding potential, sequence conservation and mRNA structure conservation for predicting pyrroly-sine containing genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Christian Theil; Zambach, Sine; Christiansen, Henning

    2013-01-01

    for prediction of pyrrolysine incorporating genes in genomes of bacteria and archaea leading to insights about the factors driving pyrrolysine translation and identification of new gene candidates. The method predicts known conserved genes with high recall and predicts several other promising candidates...... for experimental verification. The method is implemented as a computational pipeline which is available on request....

  19. Conserved antigenic sites between MERS-CoV and Bat-coronavirus are revealed through sequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharmin, Refat; Islam, Abul B M M K

    2016-01-01

    MERS-CoV is a newly emerged human coronavirus reported closely related with HKU4 and HKU5 Bat coronaviruses. Bat and MERS corona-viruses are structurally related. Therefore, it is of interest to estimate the degree of conserved antigenic sites among them. It is of importance to elucidate the shared antigenic-sites and extent of conservation between them to understand the evolutionary dynamics of MERS-CoV. Multiple sequence alignment of the spike (S), membrane (M), enveloped (E) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins was employed to identify the sequence conservation among MERS and Bat (HKU4, HKU5) coronaviruses. We used various in silico tools to predict the conserved antigenic sites. We found that MERS-CoV shared 30 % of its S protein antigenic sites with HKU4 and 70 % with HKU5 bat-CoV. Whereas 100 % of its E, M and N protein's antigenic sites are found to be conserved with those in HKU4 and HKU5. This sharing suggests that in case of pathogenicity MERS-CoV is more closely related to HKU5 bat-CoV than HKU4 bat-CoV. The conserved epitopes indicates their evolutionary relationship and ancestry of pathogenicity.

  20. Sequence analysis of the L protein of the Ebola 2014 outbreak: Insight into conserved regions and mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Gohar; Waheed, Yasir

    2016-06-01

    The 2014 Ebola outbreak was one of the largest that have occurred; it started in Guinea and spread to Nigeria, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Phylogenetic analysis of the current virus species indicated that this outbreak is the result of a divergent lineage of the Zaire ebolavirus. The L protein of Ebola virus (EBOV) is the catalytic subunit of the RNA‑dependent RNA polymerase complex, which, with VP35, is key for the replication and transcription of viral RNA. Earlier sequence analysis demonstrated that the L protein of all non‑segmented negative‑sense (NNS) RNA viruses consists of six domains containing conserved functional motifs. The aim of the present study was to analyze the presence of these motifs in 2014 EBOV isolates, highlight their function and how they may contribute to the overall pathogenicity of the isolates. For this purpose, 81 2014 EBOV L protein sequences were aligned with 475 other NNS RNA viruses, including Paramyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae viruses. Phylogenetic analysis of all EBOV outbreak L protein sequences was also performed. Analysis of the amino acid substitutions in the 2014 EBOV outbreak was conducted using sequence analysis. The alignment demonstrated the presence of previously conserved motifs in the 2014 EBOV isolates and novel residues. Notably, all the mutations identified in the 2014 EBOV isolates were tolerant, they were pathogenic with certain examples occurring within previously determined functional conserved motifs, possibly altering viral pathogenicity, replication and virulence. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that all sequences with the exception of the 2014 EBOV sequences were clustered together. The 2014 EBOV outbreak has acquired a great number of mutations, which may explain the reasons behind this unprecedented outbreak. Certain residues critical to the function of the polymerase remain conserved and may be targets for the development of antiviral therapeutic agents.

  1. Deep sequencing-based identification of small regulatory RNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Xu

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a genetically tractable model organism for photosynthesis research. The genome of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 consists of a circular chromosome and seven plasmids. The importance of small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs as mediators of a number of cellular processes in bacteria has begun to be recognized. However, little is known regarding sRNAs in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. To provide a comprehensive overview of sRNAs in this model organism, the sRNAs of Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 were analyzed using deep sequencing, and 7,951,189 reads were obtained. High quality mapping reads (6,127,890 were mapped onto the genome and assembled into 16,192 transcribed regions (clusters based on read overlap. A total number of 5211 putative sRNAs were revealed from the genome and the 4 megaplasmids, and 27 of these molecules, including four from plasmids, were confirmed by RT-PCR. In addition, possible target genes regulated by all of the putative sRNAs identified in this study were predicted by IntaRNA and analyzed for functional categorization and biological pathways, which provided evidence that sRNAs are indeed involved in many different metabolic pathways, including basic metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, the citrate cycle, fatty acid metabolism and adaptations to environmentally stress-induced changes. The information from this study provides a valuable reservoir for understanding the sRNA-mediated regulation of the complex physiology and metabolic processes of cyanobacteria.

  2. Functional Conservation of the Glide/Gcm Regulatory Network Controlling Glia, Hemocyte, and Tendon Cell Differentiation in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattenoz, Pierre B.; Popkova, Anna; Southall, Tony D.; Aiello, Giuseppe; Brand, Andrea H.; Giangrande, Angela

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput screens allow us to understand how transcription factors trigger developmental processes, including cell specification. A major challenge is identification of their binding sites because feedback loops and homeostatic interactions may mask the direct impact of those factors in transcriptome analyses. Moreover, this approach dissects the downstream signaling cascades and facilitates identification of conserved transcriptional programs. Here we show the results and the validation of a DNA adenine methyltransferase identification (DamID) genome-wide screen that identifies the direct targets of Glide/Gcm, a potent transcription factor that controls glia, hemocyte, and tendon cell differentiation in Drosophila. The screen identifies many genes that had not been previously associated with Glide/Gcm and highlights three major signaling pathways interacting with Glide/Gcm: Notch, Hedgehog, and JAK/STAT, which all involve feedback loops. Furthermore, the screen identifies effector molecules that are necessary for cell-cell interactions during late developmental processes and/or in ontogeny. Typically, immunoglobulin (Ig) domain–containing proteins control cell adhesion and axonal navigation. This shows that early and transiently expressed fate determinants not only control other transcription factors that, in turn, implement a specific developmental program but also directly affect late developmental events and cell function. Finally, while the mammalian genome contains two orthologous Gcm genes, their function has been demonstrated in vertebrate-specific tissues, placenta, and parathyroid glands, begging questions on the evolutionary conservation of the Gcm cascade in higher organisms. Here we provide the first evidence for the conservation of Gcm direct targets in humans. In sum, this work uncovers novel aspects of cell specification and sets the basis for further understanding of the role of conserved Gcm gene regulatory cascades. PMID:26567182

  3. Sequence and structural analysis of the chitinase insertion domain reveals two conserved motifs involved in chitin-binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases are prevalent in life and are found in species including archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They break down chitin, which is the second most abundant carbohydrate in nature after cellulose. Hence, they are important for maintaining a balance between carbon and nitrogen trapped as insoluble chitin in biomass. Chitinases are classified into two families, 18 and 19 glycoside hydrolases. In addition to a catalytic domain, which is a triosephosphate isomerase barrel, many family 18 chitinases contain another module, i.e., chitinase insertion domain. While numerous studies focus on the biological role of the catalytic domain in chitinase activity, the function of the chitinase insertion domain is not completely understood. Bioinformatics offers an important avenue in which to facilitate understanding the role of residues within the chitinase insertion domain in chitinase function.Twenty-seven chitinase insertion domain sequences, which include four experimentally determined structures and span five kingdoms, were aligned and analyzed using a modified sequence entropy parameter. Thirty-two positions with conserved residues were identified. The role of these conserved residues was explored by conducting a structural analysis of a number of holo-enzymes. Hydrogen bonding and van der Waals calculations revealed a distinct subset of four conserved residues constituting two sequence motifs that interact with oligosaccharides. The other conserved residues may be key to the structure, folding, and stability of this domain.Sequence and structural studies of the chitinase insertion domains conducted within the framework of evolution identified four conserved residues which clearly interact with the substrates. Furthermore, evolutionary studies propose a link between the appearance of the chitinase insertion domain and the function of family 18 chitinases in the subfamily A.

  4. Energy conservation, energy efficiency and energy savings regulatory hypotheses - taxation, subsidies and underlying economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumpy, T. [International Legal Counsel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1995-12-01

    More efficient use of energy resources can be promoted by various regulatory means, i.e., taxation, subsidies, and pricing. Various incentives can be provided by income and revenue tax breaks-deductible energy audit fees, energy saving investment credits, breaks for energy saving entrepreneurs, and energy savings accounts run through utility accounts. Value added and excise taxes can also be adjusted to reward energy saving investments and energy saving entrepreneurial activity. Incentives can be provided in the form of cash refunds, including trade-in-and-scrap programs and reimbursements or subsidies on audit costs and liability insurance. Pricing incentives include lower rates for less energy use, prepayment of deposit related to peak load use, electronically dispatched multiple tariffs, savings credits based on prior peak use, and subsidized {open_quotes}leasing{close_quotes} of more efficient appliances and lights. Credits, with an emphasis on pooling small loans, and 5-year energy savings contracts are also discussed.

  5. JDet: interactive calculation and visualization of function-related conservation patterns in multiple sequence alignments and structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Thilo; García-Martín, Juan A; Rausell, Antonio; Juan, David; Valencia, Alfonso; Pazos, Florencio

    2012-02-15

    We have implemented in a single package all the features required for extracting, visualizing and manipulating fully conserved positions as well as those with a family-dependent conservation pattern in multiple sequence alignments. The program allows, among other things, to run different methods for extracting these positions, combine the results and visualize them in protein 3D structures and sequence spaces. JDet is a multiplatform application written in Java. It is freely available, including the source code, at http://csbg.cnb.csic.es/JDet. The package includes two of our recently developed programs for detecting functional positions in protein alignments (Xdet and S3Det), and support for other methods can be added as plug-ins. A help file and a guided tutorial for JDet are also available.

  6. Mitochondrial genome sequences illuminate maternal lineages of conservation concern in a rare carnivore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian J. Knaus; Richard Cronn; Aaron Liston; Kristine Pilgrim; Michael K. Schwartz

    2011-01-01

    Science-based wildlife management relies on genetic information to infer population connectivity and identify conservation units. The most commonly used genetic marker for characterizing animal biodiversity and identifying maternal lineages is the mitochondrial genome. Mitochondrial genotyping figures prominently in conservation and management plans, with much of the...

  7. Identification and Functional Analysis of Gene Regulatory Sequences Interacting with Colorectal Tumor Suppressors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Katja; Troelsen, Jesper

    2018-01-01

    Several tumor suppressors possess gene regulatory activity. Here, we describe how promoter and promoter/enhancer reporter assays can be used to characterize a colorectal tumor suppressor proteins’ gene regulatory activity of possible target genes. In the first part, a bioinformatic approach...... of the quick and efficient In-Fusion cloning method, and how to carry out transient transfections of Caco-2 colon cancer cells with the produced luciferase reporter plasmids using polyethyleneimine (PEI). A plan describing how to set up and carry out the luciferase expression assay is presented. The luciferase...... to identify relevant gene regulatory regions of potential target genes is presented. In the second part, it is demonstrated how to prepare and carry out the functional assay. We explain how to clone the bioinformatically identified gene regulatory regions into luciferase reporter plasmids by the use...

  8. Identification of Conserved and Potentially Regulatory Small RNAs in Heterocystous Cyanobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBrenes-Álvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Small RNAs (sRNAs are a growing class of non-protein-coding transcripts that participate in the regulation of virtually every aspect of bacterial physiology. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are a group of photosynthetic organisms that exhibit multicellular behaviour and developmental alternatives involving specific transcriptomes exclusive of a given physiological condition or even a cell type. In the context of our ongoing effort to understand developmental decisions in these organisms we have undertaken an approach to the global identification of sRNAs. Using differential RNA-Seq we have previously identified transcriptional start sites for the model heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. PCC 7120. Here we combine this dataset with a prediction of Rho-independent transcriptional terminators and an analysis of phylogenetic conservation of potential sRNAs among 89 available cyanobacterial genomes. In contrast to predictive genome-wide approaches, the use of an experimental dataset comprising all active transcriptional start sites (differential RNA-Seq facilitates the identification of bona fide sRNAs. The output of our approach is a dataset of predicted potential sRNAs in Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, with different degrees of phylogenetic conservation across the 89 cyanobacterial genomes analyzed. Previously described sRNAs appear among the predicted sRNAs, demonstrating the performance of the algorithm. In addition, new predicted sRNAs are now identified that can be involved in regulation of different aspects of cyanobacterial physiology, including adaptation to nitrogen stress, the condition that triggers differentiation of heterocysts (specialized nitrogen-fixing cells. Transcription of several predicted sRNAs that appear exclusively in the genomes of heterocystous cyanobacteria is experimentally verified by Northern blot. Cell-specific transcription of one of these sRNAs, NsiR8 (nitrogen stress-induced RNA 8, in developing heterocysts is also

  9. Transcriptome profiling of a curdlan-producing Agrobacterium reveals conserved regulatory mechanisms of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffing Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS is widespread among microorganisms, and microbial EPS play important roles in biofilm formation, pathogen persistence, and applications in the food and medical industries. Although it is well established that EPS synthesis is invariably in response to environmental cues, it remains largely unknown how various environmental signals trigger activation of the biochemical synthesis machinery. Results We report here the transcriptome profiling of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749, a microorganism that produces large amounts of a glucose polymer known as curdlan under nitrogen starvation. Transcriptome analysis revealed a nearly 100-fold upregulation of the curdlan synthesis operon upon transition to nitrogen starvation, thus establishing the prominent role that transcriptional regulation plays in the EPS synthesis. In addition to known mechanisms of EPS regulation such as activation by c-di-GMP, we identify novel mechanisms of regulation in ATCC 31749, including RpoN-independent NtrC regulation and intracellular pH regulation by acidocalcisomes. Furthermore, we show evidence that curdlan synthesis is also regulated by conserved cell stress responses, including polyphosphate accumulation and the stringent response. In fact, the stringent response signal, pppGpp, appears to be indispensible for transcriptional activation of curdlan biosynthesis. Conclusions This study identifies several mechanisms regulating the synthesis of curdlan, an EPS with numerous applications. These mechanisms are potential metabolic engineering targets for improving the industrial production of curdlan from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749. Furthermore, many of the genes identified in this study are highly conserved across microbial genomes, and we propose that the molecular elements identified in this study may serve as universal regulators of microbial EPS synthesis.

  10. Sequence, structure and function relationships in flaviviruses as assessed by evolutive aspects of its conserved non-structural protein domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca, Néli José; Lima Afonso, Marcelo Querino; Pedersolli, Natan Gonçalves; de Oliveira, Lucas Carrijo; Andrade, Dhiego Souto; Bleicher, Lucas

    2017-10-28

    Flaviviruses are responsible for serious diseases such as dengue, yellow fever, and zika fever. Their genomes encode a polyprotein which, after cleavage, results in three structural and seven non-structural proteins. Homologous proteins can be studied by conservation and coevolution analysis as detected in multiple sequence alignments, usually reporting positions which are strictly necessary for the structure and/or function of all members in a protein family or which are involved in a specific sub-class feature requiring the coevolution of residue sets. This study provides a complete conservation and coevolution analysis on all flaviviruses non-structural proteins, with results mapped on all well-annotated available sequences. A literature review on the residues found in the analysis enabled us to compile available information on their roles and distribution among different flaviviruses. Also, we provide the mapping of conserved and coevolved residues for all sequences currently in SwissProt as a supplementary material, so that particularities in different viruses can be easily analyzed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping the transcription start points of the Staphylococcus aureus eap, emp, and vwb promoters reveals a conserved octanucleotide sequence that is essential for expression of these genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harraghy, Niamh; Homerova, Dagmar; Herrmann, Mathias; Kormanec, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Mapping the transcription start points of the eap, emp, and vwb promoters revealed a conserved octanucleotide sequence (COS). Deleting this sequence abolished the expression of eap, emp, and vwb. However, electrophoretic mobility shift assays gave no evidence that this sequence was a binding site for SarA or SaeR, known regulators of eap and emp.

  12. Determination of 5 '-leader sequences from radically disparate strains of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus reveals the presence of highly conserved sequence motifs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleksiewicz, M.B.; Bøtner, Anette; Nielsen, Jens

    1999-01-01

    We determined the untranslated 5'-leader sequence for three different isolates of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV): pathogenic European- and American-types, as well as an American-type vaccine strain. 5'-leader from European- and American-type PRRSV differed in length...... (220 and 190 nt, respectively), and exhibited only approximately 50% nucleotide homology. Nevertheless, highly conserved areas were identified in the leader of all 3 PRRSV isolates, which constitute candidate motifs for binding of protein(s) involved in viral replication. These comparative data provide...

  13. PlantCARE, a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements and a portal to tools for in silico analysis of promoter sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lescot, Magali; Déhais, Patrice; Thijs, Gert; Marchal, Kathleen; Moreau, Yves; Van de Peer, Yves; Rouzé, Pierre; Rombauts, Stephane

    2002-01-01

    PlantCARE is a database of plant cis-acting regulatory elements, enhancers and repressors. Regulatory elements are represented by positional matrices, consensus sequences and individual sites on particular promoter sequences. Links to the EMBL, TRANSFAC and MEDLINE databases are provided when available. Data about the transcription sites are extracted mainly from the literature, supplemented with an increasing number of in silico predicted data. Apart from a general description for specific t...

  14. Detecting remote sequence homology in disordered proteins: discovery of conserved motifs in the N-termini of Mononegavirales phosphoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Karlin

    Full Text Available Paramyxovirinae are a large group of viruses that includes measles virus and parainfluenza viruses. The viral Phosphoprotein (P plays a central role in viral replication. It is composed of a highly variable, disordered N-terminus and a conserved C-terminus. A second viral protein alternatively expressed, the V protein, also contains the N-terminus of P, fused to a zinc finger. We suspected that, despite their high variability, the N-termini of P/V might all be homologous; however, using standard approaches, we could previously identify sequence conservation only in some Paramyxovirinae. We now compared the N-termini using sensitive sequence similarity search programs, able to detect residual similarities unnoticeable by conventional approaches. We discovered that all Paramyxovirinae share a short sequence motif in their first 40 amino acids, which we called soyuz1. Despite its short length (11-16aa, several arguments allow us to conclude that soyuz1 probably evolved by homologous descent, unlike linear motifs. Conservation across such evolutionary distances suggests that soyuz1 plays a crucial role and experimental data suggest that it binds the viral nucleoprotein to prevent its illegitimate self-assembly. In some Paramyxovirinae, the N-terminus of P/V contains a second motif, soyuz2, which might play a role in blocking interferon signaling. Finally, we discovered that the P of related Mononegavirales contain similarly overlooked motifs in their N-termini, and that their C-termini share a previously unnoticed structural similarity suggesting a common origin. Our results suggest several testable hypotheses regarding the replication of Mononegavirales and suggest that disordered regions with little overall sequence similarity, common in viral and eukaryotic proteins, might contain currently overlooked motifs (intermediate in length between linear motifs and disordered domains that could be detected simply by comparing orthologous proteins.

  15. Characterization of the bovine pregnancy-associated glycoprotein gene family – analysis of gene sequences, regulatory regions within the promoter and expression of selected genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Angela M

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs belong to a large family of aspartic peptidases expressed exclusively in the placenta of species in the Artiodactyla order. In cattle, the PAG gene family is comprised of at least 22 transcribed genes, as well as some variants. Phylogenetic analyses have shown that the PAG family segregates into 'ancient' and 'modern' groupings. Along with sequence differences between family members, there are clear distinctions in their spatio-temporal distribution and in their relative level of expression. In this report, 1 we performed an in silico analysis of the bovine genome to further characterize the PAG gene family, 2 we scrutinized proximal promoter sequences of the PAG genes to evaluate the evolution pressures operating on them and to identify putative regulatory regions, 3 we determined relative transcript abundance of selected PAGs during pregnancy and, 4 we performed preliminary characterization of the putative regulatory elements for one of the candidate PAGs, bovine (bo PAG-2. Results From our analysis of the bovine genome, we identified 18 distinct PAG genes and 14 pseudogenes. We observed that the first 500 base pairs upstream of the translational start site contained multiple regions that are conserved among all boPAGs. However, a preponderance of conserved regions, that harbor recognition sites for putative transcriptional factors (TFs, were found to be unique to the modern boPAG grouping, but not the ancient boPAGs. We gathered evidence by means of Q-PCR and screening of EST databases to show that boPAG-2 is the most abundant of all boPAG transcripts. Finally, we provided preliminary evidence for the role of ETS- and DDVL-related TFs in the regulation of the boPAG-2 gene. Conclusion PAGs represent a relatively large gene family in the bovine genome. The proximal promoter regions of these genes display differences in putative TF binding sites, likely contributing to observed

  16. Multi-species sequence comparison reveals conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants encoding a truncated ghrelin peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Inge; Jeffery, Penny L; Thomas, Patrick B; Walpole, Carina M; Maugham, Michelle; Fung, Jenny N T; Yap, Pei-Yi; O'Keeffe, Angela J; Lai, John; Whiteside, Eliza J; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is a potent orexigen produced predominantly in the stomach. It has a number of other biological actions, including roles in appetite stimulation, energy balance, the stimulation of growth hormone release and the regulation of cell proliferation. Recently, several ghrelin gene splice variants have been described. Here, we attempted to identify conserved alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene by cross-species sequence comparisons. We identified a novel human exon 2-deleted variant and provide preliminary evidence that this splice variant and in1-ghrelin encode a C-terminally truncated form of the ghrelin peptide, termed minighrelin. These variants are expressed in humans and mice, demonstrating conservation of alternative splicing spanning 90 million years. Minighrelin appears to have similar actions to full-length ghrelin, as treatment with exogenous minighrelin peptide stimulates appetite and feeding in mice. Forced expression of the exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant mirrors the effect of the canonical preproghrelin, stimulating cell proliferation and migration in the PC3 prostate cancer cell line. This is the first study to characterise an exon 2-deleted preproghrelin variant and to demonstrate sequence conservation of ghrelin gene-derived splice variants that encode a truncated ghrelin peptide. This adds further impetus for studies into the alternative splicing of the ghrelin gene and the function of novel ghrelin peptides in vertebrates.

  17. Lariat sequencing in a unicellular yeast identifies regulated alternative splicing of exons that are evolutionarily conserved with humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Ali R; Manfredo, Amanda; Pleiss, Jeffrey A

    2013-07-30

    Alternative splicing is a potent regulator of gene expression that vastly increases proteomic diversity in multicellular eukaryotes and is associated with organismal complexity. Although alternative splicing is widespread in vertebrates, little is known about the evolutionary origins of this process, in part because of the absence of phylogenetically conserved events that cross major eukaryotic clades. Here we describe a lariat-sequencing approach, which offers high sensitivity for detecting splicing events, and its application to the unicellular fungus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, an organism that shares many of the hallmarks of alternative splicing in mammalian systems but for which no previous examples of exon-skipping had been demonstrated. Over 200 previously unannotated splicing events were identified, including examples of regulated alternative splicing. Remarkably, an evolutionary analysis of four of the exons identified here as subject to skipping in S. pombe reveals high sequence conservation and perfect length conservation with their homologs in scores of plants, animals, and fungi. Moreover, alternative splicing of two of these exons have been documented in multiple vertebrate organisms, making these the first demonstrations of identical alternative-splicing patterns in species that are separated by over 1 billion y of evolution.

  18. Functional promoter upstream p53 regulatory sequence of IGFBP3 that is silenced by tumor specific methylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafusa, Tadashi; Shinji, Toshiyuki; Shiraha, Hidenori; Nouso, Kazuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Yumoto, Eichiro; Ono, Toshiro; Koide, Norio

    2005-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 functions as a carrier of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) in circulation and a mediator of the growth suppression signal in cells. There are two reported p53 regulatory regions in the IGFBP3 gene; one upstream of the promoter and one intronic. We previously reported a hot spot of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-3 in human hepatocellular carcinomas and derivative cell lines. As the hot spot locates at the putative upstream p53 consensus sequences, these p53 consensus sequences are really functional is a question to be answered. In this study, we examined the p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3. Deletion, mutagenesis, and methylation constructs of IGFBP-3 promoter were assessed in the human hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 for promoter activity. Deletions and mutations of these sequences completely abolished the expression of IGFBP-3 in the presence of p53 overexpression. In vitro methylation of these p53 consensus sequences also suppressed IGFBP-3 expression. In contrast, the expression of IGFBP-3 was not affected in the absence of p53 overexpression. Further, we observed by electrophoresis mobility shift assay that p53 binding to the promoter region was diminished when methylated. From these observations, we conclude that four out of eleven p53 consensus sequences upstream of the IGFBP-3 promoter are essential for the p53 induced expression of IGFBP-3, and hypermethylation of these sequences selectively suppresses p53 induced IGFBP-3 expression in HepG2 cells

  19. Structure-Related Roles for the Conservation of the HIV-1 Fusion Peptide Sequence Revealed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Soraya; Huarte, Nerea; Rujas, Edurne; Andreu, David; Nieva, José L; Jiménez, María Angeles

    2017-10-17

    Despite extensive characterization of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) hydrophobic fusion peptide (FP), the structure-function relationships underlying its extraordinary degree of conservation remain poorly understood. Specifically, the fact that the tandem repeat of the FLGFLG tripeptide is absolutely conserved suggests that high hydrophobicity may not suffice to unleash FP function. Here, we have compared the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structures adopted in nonpolar media by two FP surrogates, wtFP-tag and scrFP-tag, which had equal hydrophobicity but contained wild-type and scrambled core sequences LFLGFLG and FGLLGFL, respectively. In addition, these peptides were tagged at their C-termini with an epitope sequence that folded independently, thereby allowing Western blot detection without interfering with FP structure. We observed similar α-helical FP conformations for both specimens dissolved in the low-polarity medium 25% (v/v) 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP), but important differences in contact with micelles of the membrane mimetic dodecylphosphocholine (DPC). Thus, whereas wtFP-tag preserved a helix displaying a Gly-rich ridge, the scrambled sequence lost in great part the helical structure upon being solubilized in DPC. Western blot analyses further revealed the capacity of wtFP-tag to assemble trimers in membranes, whereas membrane oligomers were not observed in the case of the scrFP-tag sequence. We conclude that, beyond hydrophobicity, preserving sequence order is an important feature for defining the secondary structures and oligomeric states adopted by the HIV FP in membranes.

  20. Optimal packaging of FIV genomic RNA depends upon a conserved long-range interaction and a palindromic sequence within gag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, Tahir A; Kenyon, Julia C; Ali, Jahabar; Aktar, Suriya J; Phillip, Pretty S; Ghazawi, Akela; Mustafa, Farah; Lever, Andrew M L

    2010-10-15

    The feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus that is related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), causing a similar pathology in cats. It is a potential small animal model for AIDS and the FIV-based vectors are also being pursued for human gene therapy. Previous studies have mapped the FIV packaging signal (ψ) to two or more discontinuous regions within the 5' 511 nt of the genomic RNA and structural analyses have determined its secondary structure. The 5' and 3' sequences within ψ region interact through extensive long-range interactions (LRIs), including a conserved heptanucleotide interaction between R/U5 and gag. Other secondary structural elements identified include a conserved 150 nt stem-loop (SL2) and a small palindromic stem-loop within gag open reading frame that might act as a viral dimerization initiation site. We have performed extensive mutational analysis of these sequences and structures and ascertained their importance in FIV packaging using a trans-complementation assay. Disrupting the conserved heptanucleotide LRI to prevent base pairing between R/U5 and gag reduced packaging by 2.8-5.5 fold. Restoration of pairing using an alternative, non-wild type (wt) LRI sequence restored RNA packaging and propagation to wt levels, suggesting that it is the structure of the LRI, rather than its sequence, that is important for FIV packaging. Disrupting the palindrome within gag reduced packaging by 1.5-3-fold, but substitution with a different palindromic sequence did not restore packaging completely, suggesting that the sequence of this region as well as its palindromic nature is important. Mutation of individual regions of SL2 did not have a pronounced effect on FIV packaging, suggesting that either it is the structure of SL2 as a whole that is necessary for optimal packaging, or that there is redundancy within this structure. The mutational analysis presented here has further validated the previously predicted RNA secondary structure of FIV

  1. Conserved hypothetical protein Rv1977 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains contains sequence polymorphisms and might be involved in ongoing immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Liu, Haican; Wang, Xuezhi; Li, Guilian; Qiu, Yan; Dou, Xiangfeng; Wan, Kanglin

    2015-01-01

    Host immune pressure and associated parasite immune evasion are key features of host-pathogen co-evolution. A previous study showed that human T cell epitopes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are evolutionarily hyperconserved and thus it was deduced that M. tuberculosis lacks antigenic variation and immune evasion. Here, we selected 151 clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from China, amplified gene encoding Rv1977 and compared the sequences. The results showed that Rv1977, a conserved hypothetical protein, is not conserved in M. tuberculosis strains and there are polymorphisms existed in the protein. Some mutations, especially one frameshift mutation, occurred in the antigen Rv1977, which is uncommon in M.tb strains and may lead to the protein function altering. Mutations and deletion in the gene all affect one of three T cell epitopes and the changed T cell epitope contained more than one variable position, which may suggest ongoing immune evasion.

  2. Structure-sequence based analysis for identification of conserved regions in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemla, Adam T; Zhou, Carol E; Lam, Marisa W; Smith, Jason R; Pardes, Elizabeth

    2013-05-28

    Disclosed are computational methods, and associated hardware and software products for scoring conservation in a protein structure based on a computationally identified family or cluster of protein structures. A method of computationally identifying a family or cluster of protein structures in also disclosed herein.

  3. In situ detection of a heat-shock regulatory element binding protein using a soluble short synthetic enhancer sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harel-Bellan, A; Brini, A T; Farrar, W L [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (USA); Ferris, D K [Program Resources, Inc., Frederick, MD (USA); Robin, P [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France)

    1989-06-12

    In various studies, enhancer binding proteins have been successfully absorbed out by competing sequences inserted into plasmids, resulting in the inhibition of the plasmid expression. Theoretically, such a result could be achieved using synthetic enhancer sequences not inserted into plasmids. In this study, a double stranded DNA sequence corresponding to the human heat shock regulatory element was chemically synthesized. By in vitro retardation assays, the synthetic sequence was shown to bind specifically a protein in extracts from the human T cell line Jurkat. When the synthetic enhancer was electroporated into Jurkat cells, not only the enhancer was shown to remain undegraded into the cells for up to 2 days, but also its was shown to bind intracellularly a protein. The binding was specific and was modulated upon heat shock. Furthermore, the binding protein was shown to be of the expected molecular weight by UV crosslinking. However, when the synthetic enhancer element was co-electroporated with an HSP 70-CAT reporter construct, the expression of the reporter plasmid was consistently enhanced in the presence of the exogenous synthetic enhancer.

  4. Core genome conservation of Staphylococcus haemolyticus limits sequence based population structure analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jorunn Pauline; Klingenberg, Claus; Hanssen, Anne-Merethe; Fredheim, Elizabeth Aarag; Francois, Patrice; Schrenzel, Jacques; Flægstad, Trond; Sollid, Johanna Ericson

    2012-06-01

    The notoriously multi-resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus is an emerging pathogen causing serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Defining the population structure is important to detect outbreaks and spread of antimicrobial resistant clones. Currently, the standard typing technique is pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In this study we describe novel molecular typing schemes for S. haemolyticus using multi locus sequence typing (MLST) and multi locus variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) analysis. Seven housekeeping genes (MLST) and five VNTR loci (MLVF) were selected for the novel typing schemes. A panel of 45 human and veterinary S. haemolyticus isolates was investigated. The collection had diverse PFGE patterns (38 PFGE types) and was sampled over a 20 year-period from eight countries. MLST resolved 17 sequence types (Simpsons index of diversity [SID]=0.877) and MLVF resolved 14 repeat types (SID=0.831). We found a low sequence diversity. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the isolates in three (MLST) and one (MLVF) clonal complexes, respectively. Taken together, neither the MLST nor the MLVF scheme was suitable to resolve the population structure of this S. haemolyticus collection. Future MLVF and MLST schemes will benefit from addition of more variable core genome sequences identified by comparing different fully sequenced S. haemolyticus genomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservation of nucleotide sequences for molecular diagnosis of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Furuse

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Infection due to the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV is widespread. The present study was performed to assess the protocols used for the molecular diagnosis of MERS-CoV by analyzing the nucleotide sequences of viruses detected between 2012 and 2015, including sequences from the large outbreak in eastern Asia in 2015. Although the diagnostic protocols were established only 2 years ago, mismatches between the sequences of primers/probes and viruses were found for several of the assays. Such mismatches could lead to a lower sensitivity of the assay, thereby leading to false-negative diagnosis. A slight modification in the primer design is suggested. Protocols for the molecular diagnosis of viral infections should be reviewed regularly after they are established, particularly for viruses that pose a great threat to public health such as MERS-CoV.

  6. Rapid sequence divergence rates in the 5 prime regulatory regions of young Drosophila melanogaster duplicate gene pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael H. Kohn

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available While it remains a matter of some debate, rapid sequence evolution of the coding sequences of duplicate genes is characteristic for early phases past duplication, but long established duplicates generally evolve under constraint, much like the rest of the coding genome. As for coding sequences, it may be possible to infer evolutionary rate, selection, and constraint via contrasts between duplicate gene divergence in the 5 prime regions and in the corresponding synonymous site divergence in the coding regions. Finding elevated rates for the 5 prime regions of duplicated genes, in addition to the coding regions, would enable statements regarding the early processes of duplicate gene evolution. Here, 1 kb of each of the 5 prime regulatory regions of Drosophila melanogaster duplicate gene pairs were mapped onto one another to isolate shared sequence blocks. Genetic distances within shared sequence blocks (d5’ were found to increase as a function of synonymous (dS, and to a lesser extend, amino-acid (dA site divergence between duplicates. The rate d5’/dS was found to rapidly decay from values > 1 in young duplicate pairs (dS 0.8. Such rapid rates of 5 prime evolution exceeding 1 (~neutral predominantly were found to occur in duplicate pairs with low amino-acid site divergence and that tended to be co-regulated when assayed on microarrays. Conceivably, functional redundancy and relaxation of selective constraint facilitates subsequent positive selection on the 5 prime regions of young duplicate genes. This might promote the evolution of new functions (neofunctionalization or division of labor among duplicate genes (subfunctionalization. In contrast, similar to the vast portion of the non-coding genome, the 5 prime regions of long-established gene duplicates appear to evolve under selective constraint, indicating that these long-established gene duplicates have assumed critical functions.

  7. Comparison of C. elegans and C. briggsae genome sequences reveals extensive conservation of chromosome organization and synteny.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaDeana W Hillier

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether the distinctive features of Caenorhabditis elegans chromosomal organization are shared with the C. briggsae genome, we constructed a single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic map to order and orient the whole genome shotgun assembly along the six C. briggsae chromosomes. Although these species are of the same genus, their most recent common ancestor existed 80-110 million years ago, and thus they are more evolutionarily distant than, for example, human and mouse. We found that, like C. elegans chromosomes, C. briggsae chromosomes exhibit high levels of recombination on the arms along with higher repeat density, a higher fraction of intronic sequence, and a lower fraction of exonic sequence compared with chromosome centers. Despite extensive intrachromosomal rearrangements, 1:1 orthologs tend to remain in the same region of the chromosome, and colinear blocks of orthologs tend to be longer in chromosome centers compared with arms. More strikingly, the two species show an almost complete conservation of synteny, with 1:1 orthologs present on a single chromosome in one species also found on a single chromosome in the other. The conservation of both chromosomal organization and synteny between these two distantly related species suggests roles for chromosome organization in the fitness of an organism that are only poorly understood presently.

  8. The effects of sequence and type of chemotherapy and radiation therapy on cosmesis and complications after breast conservation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markiewicz, Deborah A.; Schultz, Delray J.; Haas, Jonathan A.; Harris, Eleanor E. R.; Fox, Kevin R.; Glick, John H.; Solin, Lawrence J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Chemotherapy plays an increasingly important role in the treatment of both node-negative and node-positive breast cancer patients, but the optimal sequencing of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is not well established. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the interaction of sequence and type of chemotherapy and hormonal therapy given with radiation therapy on the cosmetic outcome and the incidence of complications of Stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with breast-conserving therapy. Methods and Materials: The records of 1053 Stage I and II breast cancer patients treated with curative intent with breast-conserving surgery, axillary dissection, and radiation therapy between 1977-1991 were reviewed. Median follow-up after treatment was 6.7 years. Two hundred fourteen patients received chemotherapy alone, 141 patients received hormonal therapy alone, 86 patients received both, and 612 patients received no adjuvant therapy. Patients who received chemotherapy ± hormonal therapy were grouped according to sequence of chemotherapy: (a) concurrent = concurrent chemotherapy with radiation therapy followed by chemotherapy; (b) sequential = radiation followed by chemotherapy or chemotherapy followed by radiation; and (c) sandwich = chemotherapy followed by concurrent chemotherapy and radiation followed by chemotherapy. Compared to node negative patients, node-positive patients more commonly received chemotherapy (77 vs. 9%, p < 0.0001) and/or hormonal therapy (40 vs. 14%, p < 0.0001). Among patients who received chemotherapy, the majority (243 patients) received concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy with two cycles of cytoxan and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) administered during radiation followed by six cycles of chemotherapy with cytoxan, 5-fluorouracil and either methotrexate(CMF) or doxorubicin(CAF). For analysis of cosmesis, patients included were relapse free with 3 years minimum follow-up. Results: The use of chemotherapy had an adverse effect

  9. The First Myriapod Genome Sequence Reveals Conservative Arthropod Gene Content and Genome Organisation in the Centipede Strigamia maritima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipman, Ariel D.; Ferrier, David E. K.; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S. T.; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C.; Alonso, Claudio R.; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C. J.; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K.; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J.; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D.; Extavour, Cassandra G.; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J.; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A.; Green, Jack E.; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J. P.; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H. L.; Hunn, Julia P.; Hunnekuhl, Vera S.; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N.; Jiggins, Francis M.; Jones, Tamsin E.; Kaiser, Tobias S.; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J.; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L.; Kraus, F. Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L.; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N.; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J.; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H.; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C.; Robertson, Helen E.; Robertson, Hugh M.; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E.; Schurko, Andrew M.; Siggens, Kenneth W.; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J.; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M.; Willis, Judith H.; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M.; Worley, Kim C.; Gibbs, Richard A.; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present an analysis of the genome of the centipede Strigamia maritima. It retains a compact genome that has undergone less gene loss and shuffling than previously sequenced arthropods, and many orthologues of genes conserved from the bilaterian ancestor that have been lost in insects. Our analysis locates many genes in conserved macro-synteny contexts, and many small-scale examples of gene clustering. We describe several examples where S. maritima shows different solutions from insects to similar problems. The insect olfactory receptor gene family is absent from S. maritima, and olfaction in air is likely effected by expansion of other receptor gene families. For some genes S. maritima has evolved paralogues to generate coding sequence diversity, where insects use alternate splicing. This is most striking for the Dscam gene, which in Drosophila generates more than 100,000 alternate splice forms, but in S. maritima is encoded by over 100 paralogues. We see an intriguing linkage between the absence of any known photosensory proteins in a blind organism and the additional absence of canonical circadian clock genes. The phylogenetic position of myriapods allows us to identify where in arthropod phylogeny several particular molecular mechanisms and traits emerged. For example, we conclude that juvenile hormone signalling evolved with the emergence of the exoskeleton in the arthropods and that RR-1 containing cuticle proteins evolved in the lineage leading to Mandibulata. We also identify when various gene expansions and losses occurred. The genome of S. maritima offers us a unique glimpse into the ancestral arthropod genome, while also displaying many adaptations to its specific

  10. Elucidating the Small Regulatory RNA Repertoire of the Sea Anemone Anemonia viridis Based on Whole Genome and Small RNA Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbarova, Ilona; Patel, Hardip; Forêt, Sylvain; Karlsen, Bård Ove; Jørgensen, Tor Erik; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Johansen, Steinar D

    2018-02-01

    Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping-pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  11. Horse domestication and conservation genetics of Przewalski's horse inferred from sex chromosomal and autosomal sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Allison N; Peng, Lei; Goto, Hiroki; Chemnick, Leona; Ryder, Oliver A; Makova, Kateryna D

    2009-01-01

    Despite their ability to interbreed and produce fertile offspring, there is continued disagreement about the genetic relationship of the domestic horse (Equus caballus) to its endangered wild relative, Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii). Analyses have differed as to whether or not Przewalski's horse is placed phylogenetically as a separate sister group to domestic horses. Because Przewalski's horse and domestic horse are so closely related, genetic data can also be used to infer domestication-specific differences between the two. To investigate the genetic relationship of Przewalski's horse to the domestic horse and to address whether evolution of the domestic horse is driven by males or females, five homologous introns (a total of approximately 3 kb) were sequenced on the X and Y chromosomes in two Przewalski's horses and three breeds of domestic horses: Arabian horse, Mongolian domestic horse, and Dartmoor pony. Five autosomal introns (a total of approximately 6 kb) were sequenced for these horses as well. The sequences of sex chromosomal and autosomal introns were used to determine nucleotide diversity and the forces driving evolution in these species. As a result, X chromosomal and autosomal data do not place Przewalski's horses in a separate clade within phylogenetic trees for horses, suggesting a close relationship between domestic and Przewalski's horses. It was also found that there was a lack of nucleotide diversity on the Y chromosome and higher nucleotide diversity than expected on the X chromosome in domestic horses as compared with the Y chromosome and autosomes. This supports the hypothesis that very few male horses along with numerous female horses founded the various domestic horse breeds. Patterns of nucleotide diversity among different types of chromosomes were distinct for Przewalski's in contrast to domestic horses, supporting unique evolutionary histories of the two species.

  12. Mouse transgenesis identifies conserved functional enhancers and cis-regulatory motif in the vertebrate LIM homeobox gene Lhx2 locus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison P Lee

    Full Text Available The vertebrate Lhx2 is a member of the LIM homeobox family of transcription factors. It is essential for the normal development of the forebrain, eye, olfactory system and liver as well for the differentiation of lymphoid cells. However, despite the highly restricted spatio-temporal expression pattern of Lhx2, nothing is known about its transcriptional regulation. In mammals and chicken, Crb2, Dennd1a and Lhx2 constitute a conserved linkage block, while the intervening Dennd1a is lost in the fugu Lhx2 locus. To identify functional enhancers of Lhx2, we predicted conserved noncoding elements (CNEs in the human, mouse and fugu Crb2-Lhx2 loci and assayed their function in transgenic mouse at E11.5. Four of the eight CNE constructs tested functioned as tissue-specific enhancers in specific regions of the central nervous system and the dorsal root ganglia (DRG, recapitulating partial and overlapping expression patterns of Lhx2 and Crb2 genes. There was considerable overlap in the expression domains of the CNEs, which suggests that the CNEs are either redundant enhancers or regulating different genes in the locus. Using a large set of CNEs (810 CNEs associated with transcription factor-encoding genes that express predominantly in the central nervous system, we predicted four over-represented 8-mer motifs that are likely to be associated with expression in the central nervous system. Mutation of one of them in a CNE that drove reporter expression in the neural tube and DRG abolished expression in both domains indicating that this motif is essential for expression in these domains. The failure of the four functional enhancers to recapitulate the complete expression pattern of Lhx2 at E11.5 indicates that there must be other Lhx2 enhancers that are either located outside the region investigated or divergent in mammals and fishes. Other approaches such as sequence comparison between multiple mammals are required to identify and characterize such enhancers.

  13. SNPs in Multi-Species Conserved Sequences (MCS as useful markers in association studies: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pericak-Vance Margaret A

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although genes play a key role in many complex diseases, the specific genes involved in most complex diseases remain largely unidentified. Their discovery will hinge on the identification of key sequence variants that are conclusively associated with disease. While much attention has been focused on variants in protein-coding DNA, variants in noncoding regions may also play many important roles in complex disease by altering gene regulation. Since the vast majority of noncoding genomic sequence is of unknown function, this increases the challenge of identifying "functional" variants that cause disease. However, evolutionary conservation can be used as a guide to indicate regions of noncoding or coding DNA that are likely to have biological function, and thus may be more likely to harbor SNP variants with functional consequences. To help bias marker selection in favor of such variants, we devised a process that prioritizes annotated SNPs for genotyping studies based on their location within Multi-species Conserved Sequences (MCSs and used this process to select SNPs in a region of linkage to a complex disease. This allowed us to evaluate the utility of the chosen SNPs for further association studies. Previously, a region of chromosome 1q43 was linked to Multiple Sclerosis (MS in a genome-wide screen. We chose annotated SNPs in the region based on location within MCSs (termed MCS-SNPs. We then obtained genotypes for 478 MCS-SNPs in 989 individuals from MS families. Results Analysis of our MCS-SNP genotypes from the 1q43 region and comparison to HapMap data confirmed that annotated SNPs in MCS regions are frequently polymorphic and show subtle signatures of selective pressure, consistent with previous reports of genome-wide variation in conserved regions. We also present an online tool that allows MCS data to be directly exported to the UCSC genome browser so that MCS-SNPs can be easily identified within genomic regions of

  14. Maternal Stress, Preterm Birth, and DNA Methylation at Imprint Regulatory Sequences in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In infants exposed to maternal stress in utero, phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic events may mechanistically explain increased risk of preterm birth (PTB, which confers increased risk for neurodevelopmental disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancers in adulthood. We examined associations between prenatal maternal stress and PTB, evaluating the role of DNA methylation at imprint regulatory regions. We enrolled women from prenatal clinics in Durham, NC. Stress was measured in 537 women at 12 weeks of gestation using the Perceived Stress Scale. DNA methylation at differentially methylated regions (DMRs associated with H19, IGF2, MEG3, MEST, SGCE/PEG10, PEG3, NNAT , and PLAGL1 was measured from peripheral and cord blood using bisulfite pyrosequencing in a sub-sample of 79 mother–-infant pairs. We examined associations between PTB and stress and evaluated differences in DNA methylation at each DMR by stress. Maternal stress was not associated with PTB (OR = 0.98; 95% CI, 0.40–-2.40; P = 0.96, after adjustment for maternal body mass index (BMI, income, and raised blood pressure. However, elevated stress was associated with higher infant DNA methylation at the MEST DMR (2.8% difference, P < 0.01 after adjusting for PTB. Maternal stress may be associated with epigenetic changes at MEST , a gene relevant to maternal care and obesity. Reduced prenatal stress may support the epigenomic profile of a healthy infant.

  15. Phylogeny based discovery of regulatory elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen Barak A

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Algorithms that locate evolutionarily conserved sequences have become powerful tools for finding functional DNA elements, including transcription factor binding sites; however, most methods do not take advantage of an explicit model for the constrained evolution of functional DNA sequences. Results We developed a probabilistic framework that combines an HKY85 model, which assigns probabilities to different base substitutions between species, and weight matrix models of transcription factor binding sites, which describe the probabilities of observing particular nucleotides at specific positions in the binding site. The method incorporates the phylogenies of the species under consideration and takes into account the position specific variation of transcription factor binding sites. Using our framework we assessed the suitability of alignments of genomic sequences from commonly used species as substrates for comparative genomic approaches to regulatory motif finding. We then applied this technique to Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species by examining all possible six base pair DNA sequences (hexamers and identifying sequences that are conserved in a significant number of promoters. By combining similar conserved hexamers we reconstructed known cis-regulatory motifs and made predictions of previously unidentified motifs. We tested one prediction experimentally, finding it to be a regulatory element involved in the transcriptional response to glucose. Conclusion The experimental validation of a regulatory element prediction missed by other large-scale motif finding studies demonstrates that our approach is a useful addition to the current suite of tools for finding regulatory motifs.

  16. Conserved properties of dentate gyrus neurogenesis across postnatal development revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochgerner, Hannah; Zeisel, Amit; Lönnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten

    2018-02-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus is a brain region in which neurogenesis persists into adulthood; however, the relationship between developmental and adult dentate gyrus neurogenesis has not been examined in detail. Here we used single-cell RNA sequencing to reveal the molecular dynamics and diversity of dentate gyrus cell types in perinatal, juvenile, and adult mice. We found distinct quiescent and proliferating progenitor cell types, linked by transient intermediate states to neuroblast stages and fully mature granule cells. We observed shifts in the molecular identity of quiescent and proliferating radial glia and granule cells during the postnatal period that were then maintained through adult stages. In contrast, intermediate progenitor cells, neuroblasts, and immature granule cells were nearly indistinguishable at all ages. These findings demonstrate the fundamental similarity of postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus and pinpoint the early postnatal transformation of radial glia from embryonic progenitors to adult quiescent stem cells.

  17. Polyglutamine repeats are associated to specific sequence biases that are conserved among eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Ramazzotti

    Full Text Available Nine human neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington's disease and several spinocerebellar ataxia, are associated to the aggregation of proteins comprising an extended tract of consecutive glutamine residues (polyQs once it exceeds a certain length threshold. This event is believed to be the consequence of the expansion of polyCAG codons during the replication process. This is in apparent contradiction with the fact that many polyQs-containing proteins remain soluble and are encoded by invariant genes in a number of eukaryotes. The latter suggests that polyQs expansion and/or aggregation might be counter-selected through a genetic and/or protein context. To identify this context, we designed a software that scrutinize entire proteomes in search for imperfect polyQs. The nature of residues flanking the polyQs and that of residues other than Gln within polyQs (insertions were assessed. We discovered strong amino acid residue biases robustly associated to polyQs in the 15 eukaryotic proteomes we examined, with an over-representation of Pro, Leu and His and an under-representation of Asp, Cys and Gly amino acid residues. These biases are conserved amongst unrelated proteins and are independent of specific functional classes. Our findings suggest that specific residues have been co-selected with polyQs during evolution. We discuss the possible selective pressures responsible of the observed biases.

  18. Whole Genome Shotgun Sequencing Shows Selection on Leptospira Regulatory Proteins during in vitro Culture Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jason S.; Corey, Victoria C.; Ricaldi, Jessica N.; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Matthias, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide with an estimated 500,000 severe cases reported annually, and case fatality rates of 12–25%, due primarily to acute kidney and lung injuries. Despite its prevalence, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptospirosis pathogenesis remain poorly understood. To identify virulence-related genes in Leptospira interrogans, we delineated cumulative genome changes that occurred during serial in vitro passage of a highly virulent strain of L. interrogans serovar Lai into a nearly avirulent isogenic derivative. Comparison of protein coding and computationally predicted noncoding RNA (ncRNA) genes between these two polyclonal strains identified 15 nonsynonymous single nucleotide variant (nsSNV) alleles that increased in frequency and 19 that decreased, whereas no changes in allelic frequency were observed among the ncRNA genes. Some of the nsSNV alleles were in six genes shown previously to be transcriptionally upregulated during exposure to in vivo-like conditions. Five of these nsSNVs were in evolutionarily conserved positions in genes related to signal transduction and metabolism. Frequency changes of minor nsSNV alleles identified in this study likely contributed to the loss of virulence during serial in vitro culture. The identification of new virulence-associated genes should spur additional experimental inquiry into their potential role in Leptospira pathogenesis. PMID:26711524

  19. The Number, Organization, and Size of Polymorphic Membrane Protein Coding Sequences as well as the Most Conserved Pmp Protein Differ within and across Chlamydia Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lent, Sarah; Creasy, Heather Huot; Myers, Garry S A; Vanrompay, Daisy

    2016-01-01

    Variation is a central trait of the polymorphic membrane protein (Pmp) family. The number of pmp coding sequences differs between Chlamydia species, but it is unknown whether the number of pmp coding sequences is constant within a Chlamydia species. The level of conservation of the Pmp proteins has previously only been determined for Chlamydia trachomatis. As different Pmp proteins might be indispensible for the pathogenesis of different Chlamydia species, this study investigated the conservation of Pmp proteins both within and across C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci. The pmp coding sequences were annotated in 16 C. trachomatis, 6 C. pneumoniae, 2 C. abortus, and 16 C. psittaci genomes. The number and organization of polymorphic membrane coding sequences differed within and across the analyzed Chlamydia species. The length of coding sequences of pmpA,pmpB, and pmpH was conserved among all analyzed genomes, while the length of pmpE/F and pmpG, and remarkably also of the subtype pmpD, differed among the analyzed genomes. PmpD, PmpA, PmpH, and PmpA were the most conserved Pmp in C. trachomatis,C. pneumoniae,C. abortus, and C. psittaci, respectively. PmpB was the most conserved Pmp across the 4 analyzed Chlamydia species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. LDsplit: screening for cis-regulatory motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by analysis of DNA sequence polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Wu, Min; Guo, Jing; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Zheng, Jie

    2014-02-17

    As a fundamental genomic element, meiotic recombination hotspot plays important roles in life sciences. Thus uncovering its regulatory mechanisms has broad impact on biomedical research. Despite the recent identification of the zinc finger protein PRDM9 and its 13-mer binding motif as major regulators for meiotic recombination hotspots, other regulators remain to be discovered. Existing methods for finding DNA sequence motifs of recombination hotspots often rely on the enrichment of co-localizations between hotspots and short DNA patterns, which ignore the cross-individual variation of recombination rates and sequence polymorphisms in the population. Our objective in this paper is to capture signals encoded in genetic variations for the discovery of recombination-associated DNA motifs. Recently, an algorithm called "LDsplit" has been designed to detect the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and proximal meiotic recombination hotspots. The association is measured by the difference of population recombination rates at a hotspot between two alleles of a candidate SNP. Here we present an open source software tool of LDsplit, with integrative data visualization for recombination hotspots and their proximal SNPs. Applying LDsplit on SNPs inside an established 7-mer motif bound by PRDM9 we observed that SNP alleles preserving the original motif tend to have higher recombination rates than the opposite alleles that disrupt the motif. Running on SNP windows around hotspots each containing an occurrence of the 7-mer motif, LDsplit is able to guide the established motif finding algorithm of MEME to recover the 7-mer motif. In contrast, without LDsplit the 7-mer motif could not be identified. LDsplit is a software tool for the discovery of cis-regulatory DNA sequence motifs stimulating meiotic recombination hotspots by screening and narrowing down to hotspot associated SNPs. It is the first computational method that utilizes the genetic variation of

  1. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Diverse Sets of Conserved, Nonconserved, and Species-Specific miRNAs in Jute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Tariqul Islam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play a pivotal role in regulating a broad range of biological processes, acting by cleaving mRNAs or by translational repression. A group of plant microRNAs are evolutionarily conserved; however, others are expressed in a species-specific manner. Jute is an agroeconomically important fibre crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available for microRNAs in jute to date. In this study, Illumina sequencing revealed a total of 227 known microRNAs and 17 potential novel microRNA candidates in jute, of which 164 belong to 23 conserved families and the remaining 63 belong to 58 nonconserved families. Among a total of 81 identified microRNA families, 116 potential target genes were predicted for 39 families and 11 targets were predicted for 4 among the 17 identified novel microRNAs. For understanding better the functions of microRNAs, target genes were analyzed by Gene Ontology and their pathways illustrated by KEGG pathway analyses. The presence of microRNAs identified in jute was validated by stem-loop RT-PCR followed by end point PCR and qPCR for randomly selected 20 known and novel microRNAs. This study exhaustively identifies microRNAs and their target genes in jute which will ultimately pave the way for understanding their role in this crop and other crops.

  2. Structural and Sequence Similarities of Hydra Xeroderma Pigmentosum A Protein to Human Homolog Suggest Early Evolution and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurva Barve

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum group A (XPA is a protein that binds to damaged DNA, verifies presence of a lesion, and recruits other proteins of the nucleotide excision repair (NER pathway to the site. Though its homologs from yeast, Drosophila, humans, and so forth are well studied, XPA has not so far been reported from protozoa and lower animal phyla. Hydra is a fresh-water cnidarian with a remarkable capacity for regeneration and apparent lack of organismal ageing. Cnidarians are among the first metazoa with a defined body axis, tissue grade organisation, and nervous system. We report here for the first time presence of XPA gene in hydra. Putative protein sequence of hydra XPA contains nuclear localization signal and bears the zinc-finger motif. It contains two conserved Pfam domains and various characterized features of XPA proteins like regions for binding to excision repair cross-complementing protein-1 (ERCC1 and replication protein A 70 kDa subunit (RPA70 proteins. Hydra XPA shows a high degree of similarity with vertebrate homologs and clusters with deuterostomes in phylogenetic analysis. Homology modelling corroborates the very close similarity between hydra and human XPA. The protein thus most likely functions in hydra in the same manner as in other animals, indicating that it arose early in evolution and has been conserved across animal phyla.

  3. RNA-ID, a highly sensitive and robust method to identify cis-regulatory sequences using superfolder GFP and a fluorescence-based assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Kimberly M; Grayhack, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-01

    We have developed a robust and sensitive method, called RNA-ID, to screen for cis-regulatory sequences in RNA using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of yeast cells bearing a reporter in which expression of both superfolder green fluorescent protein (GFP) and yeast codon-optimized mCherry red fluorescent protein (RFP) is driven by the bidirectional GAL1,10 promoter. This method recapitulates previously reported progressive inhibition of translation mediated by increasing numbers of CGA codon pairs, and restoration of expression by introduction of a tRNA with an anticodon that base pairs exactly with the CGA codon. This method also reproduces effects of paromomycin and context on stop codon read-through. Five key features of this method contribute to its effectiveness as a selection for regulatory sequences: The system exhibits greater than a 250-fold dynamic range, a quantitative and dose-dependent response to known inhibitory sequences, exquisite resolution that allows nearly complete physical separation of distinct populations, and a reproducible signal between different cells transformed with the identical reporter, all of which are coupled with simple methods involving ligation-independent cloning, to create large libraries. Moreover, we provide evidence that there are sequences within a 9-nt library that cause reduced GFP fluorescence, suggesting that there are novel cis-regulatory sequences to be found even in this short sequence space. This method is widely applicable to the study of both RNA-mediated and codon-mediated effects on expression.

  4. Comparative analysis of function and interaction of transcription factors in nematodes: Extensive conservation of orthology coupled to rapid sequence evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Rama S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Much of the morphological diversity in eukaryotes results from differential regulation of gene expression in which transcription factors (TFs play a central role. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is an established model organism for the study of the roles of TFs in controlling the spatiotemporal pattern of gene expression. Using the fully sequenced genomes of three Caenorhabditid nematode species as well as genome information from additional more distantly related organisms (fruit fly, mouse, and human we sought to identify orthologous TFs and characterized their patterns of evolution. Results We identified 988 TF genes in C. elegans, and inferred corresponding sets in C. briggsae and C. remanei, containing 995 and 1093 TF genes, respectively. Analysis of the three gene sets revealed 652 3-way reciprocal 'best hit' orthologs (nematode TF set, approximately half of which are zinc finger (ZF-C2H2 and ZF-C4/NHR types and HOX family members. Examination of the TF genes in C. elegans and C. briggsae identified the presence of significant tandem clustering on chromosome V, the majority of which belong to ZF-C4/NHR family. We also found evidence for lineage-specific duplications and rapid evolution of many of the TF genes in the two species. A search of the TFs conserved among nematodes in Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens revealed 150 reciprocal orthologs, many of which are associated with important biological processes and human diseases. Finally, a comparison of the sequence, gene interactions and function indicates that nematode TFs conserved across phyla exhibit significantly more interactions and are enriched in genes with annotated mutant phenotypes compared to those that lack orthologs in other species. Conclusion Our study represents the first comprehensive genome-wide analysis of TFs across three nematode species and other organisms. The findings indicate substantial conservation of transcription

  5. cDNA cloning and sequencing of human fibrillarin, a conserved nucleolar protein recognized by autoimmune antisera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aris, J.P.; Blobel, G.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have isolated a 1.1-kilobase cDNA clone that encodes human fibrillarin by screening a hepatoma library in parallel with DNA probes derived from the fibrillarin genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NOP1) and Xenopus laevis. RNA blot analysis indicates that the corresponding mRNA is ∼1,300 nucleotides in length. Human fibrillarin expressed in vitro migrates on SDS gels as a 36-kDa protein that is specifically immunoprecipitated by antisera from humans with scleroderma autoimmune disease. Human fibrillarin contains an amino-terminal repetitive domain ∼75-80 amino acids in length that is rich in glycine and arginine residues and is similar to amino-terminal domains in the yeast and Xenopus fibrillarins. The occurrence of a putative RNA-binding domain and an RNP consensus sequence within the protein is consistent with the association of fibrillarin with small nucleolar RNAs. Protein sequence alignments show that 67% of amino acids from human fibrillarin are identical to those in yeast fibrillarin and that 81% are identical to those in Xenopus fibrillarin. This identity suggests the evolutionary conservation of an important function early in the pathway for ribosome biosynthesis

  6. The putative Leishmania telomerase RNA (LeishTER undergoes trans-splicing and contains a conserved template sequence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton J R Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available Telomerase RNAs (TERs are highly divergent between species, varying in size and sequence composition. Here, we identify a candidate for the telomerase RNA component of Leishmania genus, which includes species that cause leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease. Merging a thorough computational screening combined with RNA-seq evidence, we mapped a non-coding RNA gene localized in a syntenic locus on chromosome 25 of five Leishmania species that shares partial synteny with both Trypanosoma brucei TER locus and a putative TER candidate-containing locus of Crithidia fasciculata. Using target-driven molecular biology approaches, we detected a ∼2,100 nt transcript (LeishTER that contains a 5' spliced leader (SL cap, a putative 3' polyA tail and a predicted C/D box snoRNA domain. LeishTER is expressed at similar levels in the logarithmic and stationary growth phases of promastigote forms. A 5'SL capped LeishTER co-immunoprecipitated and co-localized with the telomerase protein component (TERT in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Prediction of its secondary structure strongly suggests the existence of a bona fide single-stranded template sequence and a conserved C[U/C]GUCA motif-containing helix II, representing the template boundary element. This study paves the way for further investigations on the biogenesis of parasite TERT ribonucleoproteins (RNPs and its role in parasite telomere biology.

  7. The highly conserved codon following the slippery sequence supports -1 frameshift efficiency at the HIV-1 frameshift site.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneeth F Mathew

    Full Text Available HIV-1 utilises -1 programmed ribosomal frameshifting to translate structural and enzymatic domains in a defined proportion required for replication. A slippery sequence, U UUU UUA, and a stem-loop are well-defined RNA features modulating -1 frameshifting in HIV-1. The GGG glycine codon immediately following the slippery sequence (the 'intercodon' contributes structurally to the start of the stem-loop but has no defined role in current models of the frameshift mechanism, as slippage is inferred to occur before the intercodon has reached the ribosomal decoding site. This GGG codon is highly conserved in natural isolates of HIV. When the natural intercodon was replaced with a stop codon two different decoding molecules-eRF1 protein or a cognate suppressor tRNA-were able to access and decode the intercodon prior to -1 frameshifting. This implies significant slippage occurs when the intercodon is in the (perhaps distorted ribosomal A site. We accommodate the influence of the intercodon in a model of frame maintenance versus frameshifting in HIV-1.

  8. A Sequence and Structure Based Method to Predict Putative Substrates, Functions and Regulatory Networks of Endo Proteases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatraman, Prasanna; Balakrishnan, Satish; Rao, Shashidhar; Hooda, Yogesh; Pol, Suyog

    2009-01-01

    Background Proteases play a central role in cellular homeostasis and are responsible for the spatio- temporal regulation of function. Many putative proteases have been recently identified through genomic approaches, leading to a surge in global profiling attempts to characterize their function. Through such efforts and others it has become evident that many proteases play non-traditional roles. Accordingly, the number and the variety of the substrate repertoire of proteases are expected to be much larger than previously assumed. In line with such global profiling attempts, we present here a method for the prediction of natural substrates of endo proteases (human proteases used as an example) by employing short peptide sequences as specificity determinants. Methodology/Principal Findings Our method incorporates specificity determinants unique to individual enzymes and physiologically relevant dual filters namely, solvent accessible surface area-a parameter dependent on protein three-dimensional structure and subcellular localization. By incorporating such hitherto unused principles in prediction methods, a novel ligand docking strategy to mimic substrate binding at the active site of the enzyme, and GO functions, we identify and perform subjective validation on putative substrates of matriptase and highlight new functions of the enzyme. Using relative solvent accessibility to rank order we show how new protease regulatory networks and enzyme cascades can be created. Conclusion We believe that our physiologically relevant computational approach would be a very useful complementary method in the current day attempts to profile proteases (endo proteases in particular) and their substrates. In addition, by using functional annotations, we have demonstrated how normal and unknown functions of a protease can be envisaged. We have developed a network which can be integrated to create a proteolytic world. This network can in turn be extended to integrate other regulatory

  9. Discovery of Putative Herbicide Resistance Genes and Its Regulatory Network in Chickpea Using Transcriptome Sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir A. Iquebal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. contributes 75% of total pulse production. Being cheaper than animal protein, makes it important in dietary requirement of developing countries. Weed not only competes with chickpea resulting into drastic yield reduction but also creates problem of harboring fungi, bacterial diseases and insect pests. Chemical approach having new herbicide discovery has constraint of limited lead molecule options, statutory regulations and environmental clearance. Through genetic approach, transgenic herbicide tolerant crop has given successful result but led to serious concern over ecological safety thus non-transgenic approach like marker assisted selection is desirable. Since large variability in tolerance limit of herbicide already exists in chickpea varieties, thus the genes offering herbicide tolerance can be introgressed in variety improvement programme. Transcriptome studies can discover such associated key genes with herbicide tolerance in chickpea.Results: This is first transcriptomic studies of chickpea or even any legume crop using two herbicide susceptible and tolerant genotypes exposed to imidazoline (Imazethapyr. Approximately 90 million paired-end reads generated from four samples were processed and assembled into 30,803 contigs using reference based assembly. We report 6,310 differentially expressed genes (DEGs, of which 3,037 were regulated by 980 miRNAs, 1,528 transcription factors associated with 897 DEGs, 47 Hub proteins, 3,540 putative Simple Sequence Repeat-Functional Domain Marker (SSR-FDM, 13,778 genic Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP putative markers and 1,174 Indels. Randomly selected 20 DEGs were validated using qPCR. Pathway analysis suggested that xenobiotic degradation related gene, glutathione S-transferase (GST were only up-regulated in presence of herbicide. Down-regulation of DNA replication genes and up-regulation of abscisic acid pathway genes were observed. Study further reveals

  10. Sequence and Expression Analysis of Interferon Regulatory Factor 10 (IRF10 in Three Diverse Teleost Fish Reveals Its Role in Antiviral Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqing Xu

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF 10 was first found in birds and is present in the genome of other tetrapods (but not humans and mice, as well as in teleost fish. The functional role of IRF10 in vertebrate immunity is relatively unknown compared to IRF1-9. The target of this research was to clone and characterize the IRF10 genes in three economically important fish species that will facilitate future evaluation of this molecule in fish innate and adaptive immunity.In the present study, a single IRF10 gene was cloned in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, and two, named IRF10a and IRF10b, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish IRF10 molecules share highest identities to other vertebrate IRF10s, and have a well conserved DNA binding domain, IRF-associated domain, and an 8 exon/7 intron structure with conserved intron phase. The presence of an upstream ATG or open reading frame (ORF in the 5'-untranslated region of different fish IRF10 cDNA sequences suggests potential regulation at the translational level, and this has been verified by in vitro transcription/translation experiments of the trout IRF10a cDNA, but would still need to be validated in fish cells.Both trout IRF10 paralogues are highly expressed in thymus, blood and spleen but are relatively low in head kidney and caudal kidney. Trout IRF10b expression is significantly higher than IRF10a in integumentary tissues i.e. gills, scales, skin, intestine, adipose fin and tail fins, suggesting that IRF10b may be more important in mucosal immunity. The expression of both trout IRF10 paralogues is up-regulated by recombinant IFN-γ. The expression of the IRF10 genes is highly induced by Poly I:C in vitro and in vivo, and by viral infection, but is less responsive to peptidoglycan and bacterial infection, suggesting an important role of fish IRF10 in antiviral defense.

  11. HMMerThread: detecting remote, functional conserved domains in entire genomes by combining relaxed sequence-database searches with fold recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Richard Bradshaw

    Full Text Available Conserved domains in proteins are one of the major sources of functional information for experimental design and genome-level annotation. Though search tools for conserved domain databases such as Hidden Markov Models (HMMs are sensitive in detecting conserved domains in proteins when they share sufficient sequence similarity, they tend to miss more divergent family members, as they lack a reliable statistical framework for the detection of low sequence similarity. We have developed a greatly improved HMMerThread algorithm that can detect remotely conserved domains in highly divergent sequences. HMMerThread combines relaxed conserved domain searches with fold recognition to eliminate false positive, sequence-based identifications. With an accuracy of 90%, our software is able to automatically predict highly divergent members of conserved domain families with an associated 3-dimensional structure. We give additional confidence to our predictions by validation across species. We have run HMMerThread searches on eight proteomes including human and present a rich resource of remotely conserved domains, which adds significantly to the functional annotation of entire proteomes. We find ∼4500 cross-species validated, remotely conserved domain predictions in the human proteome alone. As an example, we find a DNA-binding domain in the C-terminal part of the A-kinase anchor protein 10 (AKAP10, a PKA adaptor that has been implicated in cardiac arrhythmias and premature cardiac death, which upon stress likely translocates from mitochondria to the nucleus/nucleolus. Based on our prediction, we propose that with this HLH-domain, AKAP10 is involved in the transcriptional control of stress response. Further remotely conserved domains we discuss are examples from areas such as sporulation, chromosome segregation and signalling during immune response. The HMMerThread algorithm is able to automatically detect the presence of remotely conserved domains in

  12. Tracing the Evolutionary History of the CAP Superfamily of Proteins Using Amino Acid Sequence Homology and Conservation of Splice Sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Anup; Chandler, Douglas E

    2017-10-01

    Proteins of the CAP superfamily play numerous roles in reproduction, innate immune responses, cancer biology, and venom toxicology. Here we document the breadth of the CAP (Cysteine-RIch Secretory Protein (CRISP), Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-Related) protein superfamily and trace the major events in its evolution using amino acid sequence homology and the positions of exon/intron borders within their genes. Seldom acknowledged in the literature, we find that many of the CAP subfamilies present in mammals, where they were originally characterized, have distinct homologues in the invertebrate phyla. Early eukaryotic CAP genes contained only one exon inherited from prokaryotic predecessors and as evolution progressed an increasing number of introns were inserted, reaching 2-5 in the invertebrate world and 5-15 in the vertebrate world. Focusing on the CRISP subfamily, we propose that these proteins evolved in three major steps: (1) origination of the CAP/PR/SCP domain in bacteria, (2) addition of a small Hinge domain to produce the two-domain SCP-like proteins found in roundworms and anthropoids, and (3) addition of an Ion Channel Regulatory domain, borrowed from invertebrate peptide toxins, to produce full length, three-domain CRISP proteins, first seen in insects and later to diversify into multiple subtypes in the vertebrate world.

  13. Some AFLP amplicons are highly conserved DNA sequences mapping to the same linkage groups in two F2 populations of carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Carlos A.F.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L., Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot, it was hypothesized that DNA 1 digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2 sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.

  14. Strong minor groove base conservation in sequence logos implies DNA distortion or base flipping during replication and transcription initiation | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbed "Tom's T" by Dhruba Chattoraj, the unusually conserved thymine at position +7 in bacteriophage P1 plasmid RepA DNA binding sites rises above repressor and acceptor sequence logos. The T appears to represent base flipping prior to helix opening in this DNA replication initation protein.

  15. Analysis of 90 Mb of the potato genome reveals conservation of gene structures and order with tomato but divergence in repetitive sequence composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Brien Kimberly

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae family contains a number of important crop species including potato (Solanum tuberosum which is grown for its underground storage organ known as a tuber. Albeit the 4th most important food crop in the world, other than a collection of ~220,000 Expressed Sequence Tags, limited genomic sequence information is currently available for potato and advances in potato yield and nutrition content would be greatly assisted through access to a complete genome sequence. While morphologically diverse, Solanaceae species such as potato, tomato, pepper, and eggplant share not only genes but also gene order thereby permitting highly informative comparative genomic analyses. Results In this study, we report on analysis 89.9 Mb of potato genomic sequence representing 10.2% of the genome generated through end sequencing of a potato bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clone library (87 Mb and sequencing of 22 potato BAC clones (2.9 Mb. The GC content of potato is very similar to Solanum lycopersicon (tomato and other dicotyledonous species yet distinct from the monocotyledonous grass species, Oryza sativa. Parallel analyses of repetitive sequences in potato and tomato revealed substantial differences in their abundance, 34.2% in potato versus 46.3% in tomato, which is consistent with the increased genome size per haploid genome of these two Solanum species. Specific classes and types of repetitive sequences were also differentially represented between these two species including a telomeric-related repetitive sequence, ribosomal DNA, and a number of unclassified repetitive sequences. Comparative analyses between tomato and potato at the gene level revealed a high level of conservation of gene content, genic feature, and gene order although discordances in synteny were observed. Conclusion Genomic level analyses of potato and tomato confirm that gene sequence and gene order are conserved between these solanaceous species and that

  16. Genomic dissection of conserved transcriptional regulation in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin R Lickwar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium serves critical physiologic functions that are shared among all vertebrates. However, it is unknown how the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying these functions have changed over the course of vertebrate evolution. We generated genome-wide mRNA and accessible chromatin data from adult intestinal epithelial cells (IECs in zebrafish, stickleback, mouse, and human species to determine if conserved IEC functions are achieved through common transcriptional regulation. We found evidence for substantial common regulation and conservation of gene expression regionally along the length of the intestine from fish to mammals and identified a core set of genes comprising a vertebrate IEC signature. We also identified transcriptional start sites and other putative regulatory regions that are differentially accessible in IECs in all 4 species. Although these sites rarely showed sequence conservation from fish to mammals, surprisingly, they drove highly conserved IEC expression in a zebrafish reporter assay. Common putative transcription factor binding sites (TFBS found at these sites in multiple species indicate that sequence conservation alone is insufficient to identify much of the functionally conserved IEC regulatory information. Among the rare, highly sequence-conserved, IEC-specific regulatory regions, we discovered an ancient enhancer upstream from her6/HES1 that is active in a distinct population of Notch-positive cells in the intestinal epithelium. Together, these results show how combining accessible chromatin and mRNA datasets with TFBS prediction and in vivo reporter assays can reveal tissue-specific regulatory information conserved across 420 million years of vertebrate evolution. We define an IEC transcriptional regulatory network that is shared between fish and mammals and establish an experimental platform for studying how evolutionarily distilled regulatory information commonly controls IEC development

  17. Human developmental enhancers conserved between deuterostomes and protostomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoa L Clarke

    Full Text Available The identification of homologies, whether morphological, molecular, or genetic, is fundamental to our understanding of common biological principles. Homologies bridging the great divide between deuterostomes and protostomes have served as the basis for current models of animal evolution and development. It is now appreciated that these two clades share a common developmental toolkit consisting of conserved transcription factors and signaling pathways. These patterning genes sometimes show common expression patterns and genetic interactions, suggesting the existence of similar or even conserved regulatory apparatus. However, previous studies have found no regulatory sequence conserved between deuterostomes and protostomes. Here we describe the first such enhancers, which we call bilaterian conserved regulatory elements (Bicores. Bicores show conservation of sequence and gene synteny. Sequence conservation of Bicores reflects conserved patterns of transcription factor binding sites. We predict that Bicores act as response elements to signaling pathways, and we show that Bicores are developmental enhancers that drive expression of transcriptional repressors in the vertebrate central nervous system. Although the small number of identified Bicores suggests extensive rewiring of cis-regulation between the protostome and deuterostome clades, additional Bicores may be revealed as our understanding of cis-regulatory logic and sample of bilaterian genomes continue to grow.

  18. Conserved PCR primer set designing for closely-related species to complete mitochondrial genome sequencing using a sliding window-based PSO algorithm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hong Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequencing is becoming increasingly common for phylogenetic reconstruction and as a model for genome evolution. For long template sequencing, i.e., like the entire mtDNA, it is essential to design primers for Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR amplicons which are partly overlapping each other. The presented chromosome walking strategy provides the overlapping design to solve the problem for unreliable sequencing data at the 5' end and provides the effective sequencing. However, current algorithms and tools are mostly focused on the primer design for a local region in the genomic sequence. Accordingly, it is still challenging to provide the primer sets for the entire mtDNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The purpose of this study is to develop an integrated primer design algorithm for entire mt genome in general, and for the common primer sets for closely-related species in particular. We introduce ClustalW to generate the multiple sequence alignment needed to find the conserved sequences in closely-related species. These conserved sequences are suitable for designing the common primers for the entire mtDNA. Using a heuristic algorithm particle swarm optimization (PSO, all the designed primers were computationally validated to fit the common primer design constraints, such as the melting temperature, primer length and GC content, PCR product length, secondary structure, specificity, and terminal limitation. The overlap requirement for PCR amplicons in the entire mtDNA is satisfied by defining the overlapping region with the sliding window technology. Finally, primer sets were designed within the overlapping region. The primer sets for the entire mtDNA sequences were successfully demonstrated in the example of two closely-related fish species. The pseudo code for the primer design algorithm is provided. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In conclusion, it can be said that our proposed sliding window-based PSO

  19. Computational identification of conserved microRNAs and their targets from expression sequence tags of blueberry (Vaccinium corybosum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuyan; Hou, Yanming; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Wenhao; Quan, Chen; Cui, Yuhai; Bian, Shaomin

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous, approximately 21nt in length, non-coding RNA, which mediate the expression of target genes primarily at post-transcriptional levels. miRNAs play critical roles in almost all plant cellular and metabolic processes. Although numerous miRNAs have been identified in the plant kingdom, the miRNAs in blueberry, which is an economically important small fruit crop, still remain totally unknown. In this study, we reported a computational identification of miRNAs and their targets in blueberry. By conducting an EST-based comparative genomics approach, 9 potential vco-miRNAs were discovered from 22,402 blueberry ESTs according to a series of filtering criteria, designated as vco-miR156-5p, vco-miR156-3p, vco-miR1436, vco-miR1522, vco-miR4495, vco-miR5120, vco-miR5658, vco-miR5783, and vco-miR5986. Based on sequence complementarity between miRNA and its target transcript, 34 target ESTs from blueberry and 70 targets from other species were identified for the vco-miRNAs. The targets were found to be involved in transcription, RNA splicing and binding, DNA duplication, signal transduction, transport and trafficking, stress response, as well as synthesis and metabolic process. These findings will greatly contribute to future research in regard to functions and regulatory mechanisms of blueberry miRNAs.

  20. Quantitative statistical analysis of cis-regulatory sequences in ABA/VP1- and CBF/DREB1-regulated genes of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masaharu; Ketterling, Matthew G; McCarty, Donald R

    2005-09-01

    We have developed a simple quantitative computational approach for objective analysis of cis-regulatory sequences in promoters of coregulated genes. The program, designated MotifFinder, identifies oligo sequences that are overrepresented in promoters of coregulated genes. We used this approach to analyze promoter sequences of Viviparous1 (VP1)/abscisic acid (ABA)-regulated genes and cold-regulated genes, respectively, of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We detected significantly enriched sequences in up-regulated genes but not in down-regulated genes. This result suggests that gene activation but not repression is mediated by specific and common sequence elements in promoters. The enriched motifs include several known cis-regulatory sequences as well as previously unidentified motifs. With respect to known cis-elements, we dissected the flanking nucleotides of the core sequences of Sph element, ABA response elements (ABREs), and the C repeat/dehydration-responsive element. This analysis identified the motif variants that may correlate with qualitative and quantitative differences in gene expression. While both VP1 and cold responses are mediated in part by ABA signaling via ABREs, these responses correlate with unique ABRE variants distinguished by nucleotides flanking the ACGT core. ABRE and Sph motifs are tightly associated uniquely in the coregulated set of genes showing a strict dependence on VP1 and ABA signaling. Finally, analysis of distribution of the enriched sequences revealed a striking concentration of enriched motifs in a proximal 200-base region of VP1/ABA and cold-regulated promoters. Overall, each class of coregulated genes possesses a discrete set of the enriched motifs with unique distributions in their promoters that may account for the specificity of gene regulation.

  1. Deletions Involving Long-Range Conserved Nongenic Sequences Upstream and Downstream of FOXL2 as a Novel Disease-Causing Mechanism in Blepharophimosis Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Beysen, D.; Raes, J.; Leroy, B. P.; Lucassen, A.; Yates, J. R. W.; Clayton-Smith, J.; Ilyina, H.; Brooks, S. Sklower; Christin-Maitre, S.; Fellous, M.; Fryns, J. P.; Kim, J. R.; Lapunzina, P.; Lemyre, E.; Meire, F.

    2005-01-01

    The expression of a gene requires not only a normal coding sequence but also intact regulatory regions, which can be located at large distances from the target genes, as demonstrated for an increasing number of developmental genes. In previous mutation studies of the role of FOXL2 in blepharophimosis syndrome (BPES), we identified intragenic mutations in 70% of our patients. Three translocation breakpoints upstream of FOXL2 in patients with BPES suggested a position effect. Here, we identifie...

  2. The Runt domain of AML1 (RUNX1) binds a sequence-conserved RNA motif that mimics a DNA element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukunaga, Junichi; Nomura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Amano, Ryo; Tanaka, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshikazu; Kawai, Gota; Sakamoto, Taiichi; Kozu, Tomoko

    2013-07-01

    AML1 (RUNX1) is a key transcription factor for hematopoiesis that binds to the Runt-binding double-stranded DNA element (RDE) of target genes through its N-terminal Runt domain. Aberrations in the AML1 gene are frequently found in human leukemia. To better understand AML1 and its potential utility for diagnosis and therapy, we obtained RNA aptamers that bind specifically to the AML1 Runt domain. Enzymatic probing and NMR analyses revealed that Apt1-S, which is a truncated variant of one of the aptamers, has a CACG tetraloop and two stem regions separated by an internal loop. All the isolated aptamers were found to contain the conserved sequence motif 5'-NNCCAC-3' and 5'-GCGMGN'N'-3' (M:A or C; N and N' form Watson-Crick base pairs). The motif contains one AC mismatch and one base bulged out. Mutational analysis of Apt1-S showed that three guanines of the motif are important for Runt binding as are the three guanines of RDE, which are directly recognized by three arginine residues of the Runt domain. Mutational analyses of the Runt domain revealed that the amino acid residues used for Apt1-S binding were similar to those used for RDE binding. Furthermore, the aptamer competed with RDE for binding to the Runt domain in vitro. These results demonstrated that the Runt domain of the AML1 protein binds to the motif of the aptamer that mimics DNA. Our findings should provide new insights into RNA function and utility in both basic and applied sciences.

  3. Human T-cell recognition of synthetic peptides representing conserved and variant sequences from the merozoite surface protein 2 of Plasmodium falciparum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theander, T G; Hviid, L; Dodoo, D

    1997-01-01

    Merozoite surface protein 2 (MSP2) is a malaria vaccine candidate currently undergoing clinical trials. We analyzed the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) response to synthetic peptides corresponding to conserved and variant regions of the FCQ-27 allelic form of MSP2 in Ghanaian individuals....... The findings are encouraging for the development of a vaccine based on these T-epitope containing regions of MSP2, as the peptides were broadly recognized suggesting that they can bind to diverse HLA alleles and also because they include conserved MSP2 sequences. Immunisation with a vaccine construct...

  4. Low-pass shotgun sequencing of the barley genome facilitates rapid identification of genes, conserved non-coding sequences and novel repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graner Andreas

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley has one of the largest and most complex genomes of all economically important food crops. The rise of new short read sequencing technologies such as Illumina/Solexa permits such large genomes to be effectively sampled at relatively low cost. Based on the corresponding sequence reads a Mathematically Defined Repeat (MDR index can be generated to map repetitive regions in genomic sequences. Results We have generated 574 Mbp of Illumina/Solexa sequences from barley total genomic DNA, representing about 10% of a genome equivalent. From these sequences we generated an MDR index which was then used to identify and mark repetitive regions in the barley genome. Comparison of the MDR plots with expert repeat annotation drawing on the information already available for known repetitive elements revealed a significant correspondence between the two methods. MDR-based annotation allowed for the identification of dozens of novel repeat sequences, though, which were not recognised by hand-annotation. The MDR data was also used to identify gene-containing regions by masking of repetitive sequences in eight de-novo sequenced bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones. For half of the identified candidate gene islands indeed gene sequences could be identified. MDR data were only of limited use, when mapped on genomic sequences from the closely related species Triticum monococcum as only a fraction of the repetitive sequences was recognised. Conclusion An MDR index for barley, which was obtained by whole-genome Illumina/Solexa sequencing, proved as efficient in repeat identification as manual expert annotation. Circumventing the labour-intensive step of producing a specific repeat library for expert annotation, an MDR index provides an elegant and efficient resource for the identification of repetitive and low-copy (i.e. potentially gene-containing sequences regions in uncharacterised genomic sequences. The restriction that a particular

  5. Optimizing multiple sequence alignments using a genetic algorithm based on three objectives: structural information, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, Francisco M; Valenzuela, Olga; Rojas, Fernando; Pomares, Hector; Florido, Javier P; Urquiza, Jose M; Rojas, Ignacio

    2013-09-01

    Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are widely used approaches in bioinformatics to carry out other tasks such as structure predictions, biological function analyses or phylogenetic modeling. However, current tools usually provide partially optimal alignments, as each one is focused on specific biological features. Thus, the same set of sequences can produce different alignments, above all when sequences are less similar. Consequently, researchers and biologists do not agree about which is the most suitable way to evaluate MSAs. Recent evaluations tend to use more complex scores including further biological features. Among them, 3D structures are increasingly being used to evaluate alignments. Because structures are more conserved in proteins than sequences, scores with structural information are better suited to evaluate more distant relationships between sequences. The proposed multiobjective algorithm, based on the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm, aims to jointly optimize three objectives: STRIKE score, non-gaps percentage and totally conserved columns. It was significantly assessed on the BAliBASE benchmark according to the Kruskal-Wallis test (P algorithm also outperforms other aligners, such as ClustalW, Multiple Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (MSA-GA), PRRP, DIALIGN, Hidden Markov Model Training (HMMT), Pattern-Induced Multi-sequence Alignment (PIMA), MULTIALIGN, Sequence Alignment Genetic Algorithm (SAGA), PILEUP, Rubber Band Technique Genetic Algorithm (RBT-GA) and Vertical Decomposition Genetic Algorithm (VDGA), according to the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (P 0.05) with the advantage of being able to use less structures. Structural information is included within the objective function to evaluate more accurately the obtained alignments. The source code is available at http://www.ugr.es/~fortuno/MOSAStrE/MO-SAStrE.zip.

  6. Production of recombinant AAV vectors encoding insulin-like growth factor I is enhanced by interaction among AAV rep regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilley Robert

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are promising tools for gene therapy. Currently, their potential is limited by difficulties in producing high vector yields with which to generate transgene protein product. AAV vector production depends in part upon the replication (Rep proteins required for viral replication. We tested the hypothesis that mutations in the start codon and upstream regulatory elements of Rep78/68 in AAV helper plasmids can regulate recombinant AAV (rAAV vector production. We further tested whether the resulting rAAV vector preparation augments the production of the potentially therapeutic transgene, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I. Results We constructed a series of AAV helper plasmids containing different Rep78/68 start codon in combination with different gene regulatory sequences. rAAV vectors carrying the human IGF-I gene were prepared with these vectors and the vector preparations used to transduce HT1080 target cells. We found that the substitution of ATG by ACG in the Rep78/68 start codon in an AAV helper plasmid (pAAV-RC eliminated Rep78/68 translation, rAAV and IGF-I production. Replacement of the heterologous sequence upstream of Rep78/68 in pAAV-RC with the AAV2 endogenous p5 promoter restored translational activity to the ACG mutant, and restored rAAV and IGF-I production. Insertion of the AAV2 p19 promoter sequence into pAAV-RC in front of the heterologous sequence also enabled ACG to function as a start codon for Rep78/68 translation. The data further indicate that the function of the AAV helper construct (pAAV-RC, that is in current widespread use for rAAV production, may be improved by replacement of its AAV2 unrelated heterologous sequence with the native AAV2 p5 promoter. Conclusion Taken together, the data demonstrate an interplay between the start codon and upstream regulatory sequences in the regulation of Rep78/68 and indicate that selective mutations in Rep78/68 regulatory elements

  7. Duplications involving a conserved regulatory element downstream of BMP2 are associated with brachydactyly type A2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dathe, Katarina; Kjaer, Klaus W; Brehm, Anja

    2009-01-01

    Autosomal-dominant brachydactyly type A2 (BDA2), a limb malformation characterized by hypoplastic middle phalanges of the second and fifth fingers, has been shown to be due to mutations in the Bone morphogenetic protein receptor 1B (BMPR1B) or in its ligand Growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF5......). A linkage analysis performed in a mutation-negative family identified a novel locus for BDA2 on chromosome 20p12.3 that incorporates the gene for Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). No point mutation was identified in BMP2, so a high-density array CGH analysis covering the critical interval...... within the identified duplication. Our results reveal an additional functional mechanism for the pathogenesis of BDA2, which is duplication of a regulatory element that affects the expression of BMP2 in the developing limb....

  8. Cytoplasmic protein binding to highly conserved sequences in the 3' untranslated region of mouse protamine 2 mRNA, a translationally regulated transcript of male germ cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y.K.; Hecht, N.B.

    1991-01-01

    The expression of the protamines, the predominant nuclear proteins of mammalian spermatozoa, is regulated translationally during male germ-cell development. The 3' untranslated region (UTR) of protamine 1 mRNA has been reported to control its time of translation. To understand the mechanisms controlling translation of the protamine mRNAs, we have sought to identify cis elements of the 3' UTR of protamine 2 mRNA that are recognized by cytoplasmic factors. From gel retardation assays, two sequence elements are shown to form specific RNA-protein complexes. Protein binding sites of the two complexes were determined by RNase T1 mapping, by blocking the putative binding sites with antisense oligonucleotides, and by competition assays. The sequences of these elements, located between nucleotides + 537 and + 572 in protamine 2 mRNA, are highly conserved among postmeiotic translationally regulated nuclear proteins of the mammalian testis. Two closely linked protein binding sites were detected. UV-crosslinking studies revealed that a protein of about 18 kDa binds to one of the conserved sequences. These data demonstrate specific protein binding to a highly conserved 3' UTR of translationally regulated testicular mRNA

  9. The upstream regulatory sequence of the light harvesting complex Lhcf2 gene of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum enhances transcription in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Monia Teresa; Annunziata, Rossella; Sanges, Remo; Ferrante, Maria Immacolata; Falciatore, Angela

    2015-12-01

    Diatoms are a key phytoplankton group in the contemporary ocean, showing extraordinary adaptation capacities to rapidly changing environments. The recent availability of whole genome sequences from representative species has revealed distinct features in their genomes, like novel combinations of genes encoding distinct metabolisms and a significant number of diatom-specific genes. However, the regulatory mechanisms driving diatom gene expression are still largely uncharacterized. Considering the wide variety of fields of study orbiting diatoms, ranging from ecology, evolutionary biology to biotechnology, it is thus essential to increase our understanding of fundamental gene regulatory processes such as transcriptional regulation. To this aim, we explored the functional properties of the 5'-flanking region of the Phaeodatylum tricornutum Lhcf2 gene, encoding a member of the Light Harvesting Complex superfamily and we showed that this region enhances transcription of a GUS reporter gene in an orientation- and distance-independent fashion. This represents the first example of a cis-regulatory sequence with enhancer-like features discovered in diatoms and it is instrumental for the generation of novel genetic tools and diatom exploitation in different areas of study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  11. Molecular dissection of a contiguous gene syndrome: Frequent submicroscopic deletions, evolutionarily conserved sequences, and a hypomethylated island in the Miller-Dieker chromosome region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, D.H.; Ledbetter, S.A.; vanTuinen, P.

    1989-01-01

    The Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS), composed of characteristic facial abnormalities and a severe neuronal migration disorder affecting the cerebral cortex, is caused by visible or submicroscopic deletions of chromosome band 17p13. Twelve anonymous DNA markers were tested against a panel of somatic cell hybrids containing 17p deletions from seven MDS patients. All patients, including three with normal karyotypes, are deleted for a variable set of 5-12 markers. Two highly polymorphic VNTR (variable number of tandem repeats) probes, YNZ22 and YNH37, are codeleted in all patients tested and make molecular diagnosis for this disorder feasible. By pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, YNZ22 and YNH37 were shown to be within 30 kilobases (kb) of each other. Cosmid clones containing both VNTR sequences were identified, and restriction mapping showed them to be 100 kb were completely deleted in all patients, providing a minimum estimate of the size of the MDS critical region. A hypomethylated island and evolutionarily conserved sequences were identified within this 100-kb region, indications of the presence of one or more expressed sequences potentially involved in the pathophysiology of this disorder. The conserved sequences were mapped to mouse chromosome 11 by using mouse-rat somatic cell hybrids, extending the remarkable homology between human chromosome 17 and mouse chromosome 11 by 30 centimorgans, into the 17p telomere region

  12. G-quadruplex DNA sequences are evolutionarily conserved and associated with distinct genomic features in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Capra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available G-quadruplex DNA is a four-stranded DNA structure formed by non-Watson-Crick base pairing between stacked sets of four guanines. Many possible functions have been proposed for this structure, but its in vivo role in the cell is still largely unresolved. We carried out a genome-wide survey of the evolutionary conservation of regions with the potential to form G-quadruplex DNA structures (G4 DNA motifs across seven yeast species. We found that G4 DNA motifs were significantly more conserved than expected by chance, and the nucleotide-level conservation patterns suggested that the motif conservation was the result of the formation of G4 DNA structures. We characterized the association of conserved and non-conserved G4 DNA motifs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with more than 40 known genome features and gene classes. Our comprehensive, integrated evolutionary and functional analysis confirmed the previously observed associations of G4 DNA motifs with promoter regions and the rDNA, and it identified several previously unrecognized associations of G4 DNA motifs with genomic features, such as mitotic and meiotic double-strand break sites (DSBs. Conserved G4 DNA motifs maintained strong associations with promoters and the rDNA, but not with DSBs. We also performed the first analysis of G4 DNA motifs in the mitochondria, and surprisingly found a tenfold higher concentration of the motifs in the AT-rich yeast mitochondrial DNA than in nuclear DNA. The evolutionary conservation of the G4 DNA motif and its association with specific genome features supports the hypothesis that G4 DNA has in vivo functions that are under evolutionary constraint.

  13. The phenotypic and molecular assessment of the non-conserved Arabidopsis MICRORNA163/S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE regulatory module during biotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litholdo, Celso Gaspar; Eamens, Andrew Leigh; Waterhouse, Peter Michael

    2018-04-01

    In plants, microRNAs (miRNAs) have evolved in parallel to the protein-coding genes that they target for expression regulation, and miRNA-directed gene expression regulation is central to almost every cellular process. MicroRNA, miR163, is unique to the Arabidopsis genus and is processed into a 24-nucleotide (nt) mature small regulatory RNA (sRNA) from a single precursor transcript transcribed from a single locus, the MIR163 gene. The MIR163 locus is a result of a recent inverted duplication event of one of the five closely related S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE genes that the mature miR163 sRNA targets for expression regulation. Currently, however, little is known about the role of the miR163/S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE regulatory module in response to biotic stress. Here, we document the expression domains of MIR163 and the S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE target genes following fusion of their putative promoter sequences to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene and subsequent in planta expression. Further, we report on our phenotypic and molecular assessment of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with altered miR163 accumulation, namely the mir163-1 and mir163-2 insertion knockout mutants and the miR163 overexpression line, the MIR163-OE plant. Finally, we reveal miR163 accumulation and S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE target gene expression post treatment with the defence elicitors, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, and following Fusarium oxysporum infection, wounding, and herbivory attack. Together, the work presented here provides a comprehensive new biological insight into the role played by the Arabidopsis genus-specific miR163/S-ADENOSYL-METHYLTRANSFERASE regulatory module in normal A. thaliana development and during the exposure of A. thaliana plants to biotic stress.

  14. Comparative anatomy of the human APRT gene and enzyme: nucleotide sequence divergence and conservation of a nonrandom CpG dinucleotide arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, T.P.; Schaff, D.A.; Bertino, A.M.; Dush, M.K.; Tischfield, J.A.; Stambrook, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    The functional human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene is <2.6 kilobases in length and contains five exons. The amino acid sequences of APRTs have been highly conserved throughout evolution. The human enzyme is 82%, 90%, and 40% identical to the mouse, hamster, and Escherichia coli enzymes, respectively. The promoter region of the human APRT gene, like that of several other housekeeping genes, lacks TATA and CCAAT boxes but contains five GC boxes that are potential binding sites for the Sp1 transcription factor. The distal three, however, are dispensable for gene expression. Comparison between human and mouse APRT gene nucleotide sequences reveals a high degree of homology within protein coding regions but an absence of significant homology in 5' flanking, 3' untranslated, and intron sequences, except for similarly positioned GC boxes in the promoter region and a 26-base-pair region in intron 3. This 26-base-pair sequence is 92% identical with a similarly positioned sequence in the mouse gene and is also found in intron 3 of the hamster gene, suggesting that its retention may be a consequence of stringent selection. The positions of all introns have been precisely retained in the human and both rodent genes. Retention of an elevated CpG dinucleotide content, despite loss of sequence homology, suggests that there may be selection for CpG dinucleotides in these regions and that their maintenance may be important for APRT gene function

  15. An effective approach for annotation of protein families with low sequence similarity and conserved motifs: identifying GDSL hydrolases across the plant kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujaklija, Ivan; Bielen, Ana; Paradžik, Tina; Biđin, Siniša; Goldstein, Pavle; Vujaklija, Dušica

    2016-02-18

    The massive accumulation of protein sequences arising from the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing, coupled with automatic annotation, results in high levels of incorrect annotations. In this study, we describe an approach to decrease annotation errors of protein families characterized by low overall sequence similarity. The GDSL lipolytic family comprises proteins with multifunctional properties and high potential for pharmaceutical and industrial applications. The number of proteins assigned to this family has increased rapidly over the last few years. In particular, the natural abundance of GDSL enzymes reported recently in plants indicates that they could be a good source of novel GDSL enzymes. We noticed that a significant proportion of annotated sequences lack specific GDSL motif(s) or catalytic residue(s). Here, we applied motif-based sequence analyses to identify enzymes possessing conserved GDSL motifs in selected proteomes across the plant kingdom. Motif-based HMM scanning (Viterbi decoding-VD and posterior decoding-PD) and the here described PD/VD protocol were successfully applied on 12 selected plant proteomes to identify sequences with GDSL motifs. A significant number of identified GDSL sequences were novel. Moreover, our scanning approach successfully detected protein sequences lacking at least one of the essential motifs (171/820) annotated by Pfam profile search (PfamA) as GDSL. Based on these analyses we provide a curated list of GDSL enzymes from the selected plants. CLANS clustering and phylogenetic analysis helped us to gain a better insight into the evolutionary relationship of all identified GDSL sequences. Three novel GDSL subfamilies as well as unreported variations in GDSL motifs were discovered in this study. In addition, analyses of selected proteomes showed a remarkable expansion of GDSL enzymes in the lycophyte, Selaginella moellendorffii. Finally, we provide a general motif-HMM scanner which is easily accessible through

  16. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Maayan

    Full Text Available Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks. Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  17. Osmostress induces autophosphorylation of Hog1 via a C-terminal regulatory region that is conserved in p38α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maayan, Inbal; Beenstock, Jonah; Marbach, Irit; Tabachnick, Shira; Livnah, Oded; Engelberg, David

    2012-01-01

    Many protein kinases require phosphorylation at their activation loop for induction of catalysis. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated by a unique mode of phosphorylation, on neighboring Tyrosine and Threonine residues. Whereas many kinases obtain their activation via autophosphorylation, MAPKs are usually phosphorylated by specific, dedicated, MAPK kinases (MAP2Ks). Here we show however, that the yeast MAPK Hog1, known to be activated by the MAP2K Pbs2, is activated in pbs2Δ cells via an autophosphorylation activity that is induced by osmotic pressure. We mapped a novel domain at the Hog1 C-terminal region that inhibits this activity. Removal of this domain provides a Hog1 protein that is partially independent of MAP2K, namely, partially rescues osmostress sensitivity of pbs2Δ cells. We further mapped a short domain (7 amino acid residues long) that is critical for induction of autophosphorylation. Its removal abolishes autophosphorylation, but maintains Pbs2-mediated phosphorylation. This 7 amino acids stretch is conserved in the human p38α. Similar to the case of Hog1, it's removal from p38α abolishes p38α's autophosphorylation capability, but maintains, although reduces, its activation by MKK6. This study joins a few recent reports to suggest that, like many protein kinases, MAPKs are also regulated via induced autoactivation.

  18. Functional comparison of the nematode Hox gene lin-39 in C. elegans and P. pacificus reveals evolutionary conservation of protein function despite divergence of primary sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandien, K; Sommer, R J

    2001-08-15

    Hox transcription factors have been implicated in playing a central role in the evolution of animal morphology. Many studies indicate the evolutionary importance of regulatory changes in Hox genes, but little is known about the role of functional changes in Hox proteins. In the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental processes can be compared at the cellular, genetic, and molecular levels and differences in gene function can be identified. The Hox gene lin-39 is involved in the regulation of nematode vulva development. Comparison of known lin-39 mutations in P. pacificus and C. elegans revealed both conservation and changes of gene function. Here, we study evolutionary changes of lin-39 function using hybrid transgenes and site-directed mutagenesis in an in vivo assay using C. elegans lin-39 mutants. Our data show that despite the functional differences of LIN-39 between the two species, Ppa-LIN-39, when driven by Cel-lin-39 regulatory elements, can functionally replace Cel-lin-39. Furthermore, we show that the MAPK docking and phosphorylation motifs unique for Cel-LIN-39 are dispensable for Cel-lin-39 function. Therefore, the evolution of lin-39 function is driven by changes in regulatory elements rather than changes in the protein itself.

  19. Mechanisms controlling mRNA processing and translation : decoding the regulatory layers defining gene expression through RNA sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klerk, Eleonora de

    2015-01-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the mechanisms that give rise to alternative mRNAs and their alternative translation into proteins. Each of the described studies has been based on a specific set of high-throughput RNA sequencing technologies. An overview of the available RNA sequencing

  20. Maps of open chromatin highlight cell type-restricted patterns of regulatory sequence variation at hematological trait loci

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, D.S.; Albers, C.A.; Rendon, A.; Voss, K.; Stephens, J.; Akkerman, J.W.; Algra, A.; Al-Hussani, A.; Allayee, H.; Anni, F.; Asselbergs, F.W.; Attwood, A.; Balkau, B.; Bandinelli, S.; Bastardot, F.; Basu, S.; Baumeister, S.E.; Beckmann, J.; Benyamin, B.; Biino, G.; Bis, J.C.; Bomba, L.; Bonnefond, A.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bradley, J.R.; Cambien, F.; Ciullo, M.; Cookson, W.O.; Cucca, F.; Cvejic, A.; d'Adamo, A.P.; Danesh, J.; Danjou, F.; Das, D.; Davies, G.; de Bakker, P.I.; de Boer, R.A.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Deary, I.J.; Dedoussis, G.V.; Dimitriou, M.; Dina, C.; Döring, A.; Elling, U.; Ellinghaus, D.; Elliott, P.; Engström, G.; Erdmann, J.; Esko, T.; Evans, D.M.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Falchi, M.; Feng, W.W.; Ferreira, M.A.; Ferrucci, L.; Fischer, K.; Folsom, A.R.; Fortina, P.; Franke, A.; Franke, L.; Frazer, I.H.; Froguel, P.; Galanello, R.; Ganesh, S.; Garner, S.F.; Gasparini, P.; Genser, B.; Gibson, Q.D.; Gieger, C.; Girotto, G.; Glazer, N.L.; Gögele, M.; Goodall, A.H.; Greinacher, A.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Hammond, C.J.; Harris, S.E.; Hartiala, J.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Hazen, S.L.; Heckbert, S.R.; Hedblad, B.; Hengstenberg, C.; Hersch, M.; Hicks, A.A.; Holm, H.; Hottenga, J.J.; Illig, T.; Järvelin, M.R.; Jolley, J.; Jupe, S.; Kähönen, M.; Kamatani, N.; Kanoni, S.; Kema, I.P.; Kemp, J.P.; Khadake, J.; Khaw, K.T.; Kleber, M.E.; Kooner, J.S.; Kovacs, P.; Kühnel, B.; Kyrtsonis, M.C.; Labrune, Y.; Lagou, V.; Langenberg, C.; Lehtimäki, T.; Li, X.; Liang, L.; Lloyd-Jones, H.; Loos, R.J.; Lopez, L.M.; Lumley, T.; Lyytikäinen, L.P.; Maerz, W.; Mägi, R.; Mangino, M.; Martin, N.G.; Maschio, A.; Mateo Leach, I.; McKnight, B.; Meacham, S.; Medland, S.E.; Meisinger, C.; Melander, O.; Memari, Y.; Metspalu, A.; Miller, K.; Mitchell, B.D.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Moore, C.; Murgia, F.; Nakamura, Y.; Nauck, M.; Navis, G.; Nolte, I.M.; Nöthlings, U.; Nutile, T.; Okada, Y.; Olafsson, I.; Onundarson, P.T.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Parracciani, D.; Parsa, A.; Penninger, J.M.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pirastu, M.; Pirastu, N.; Pistis, G.; Porcu, E.; Portas, L.; Porteous, D.J.; Pouta, A.; Pramstaller, P.P.; Prokopenko, I.; Psaty, B.M.; Pullat, J.; Radhakrishnan, A.; Raitakari, O.; Ramirez-Solis, R.; Ried, J.S.; Ring, S.M.; Robino, A.; Rotter, J.I.; Ruggiero, D.; Ruokonen, A.; Sala, C.; Saluments, A.; Samani, N.J.; Sambrook, J.; Sanna, S.; Schlessinger, D.; Schmidt, C.O.; Schreiber, S; Schunkert, H.; Scott, J.; Sehmi, J.; Serbanovic-Canic, J.; Shin, S.Y.; Shuldiner, A.R.; Sladek, R.; Smit, J.H.; Smith, G.D.; Smith, J.G.; Smith, N.L.; Snieder, H.; Sorice, R.; Spector, T.D.; Starr, J.M.; Stefansson, K.; Stemple, D.; Stumvoll, M.; Sulem, P.; Takahashi, A.; Tan, S.T.; Tanaka, T.; Tang, C.; Tang, W.; Tang, W.H.; Taylor, K.; Tenesa, A.; Teumer, A.; Thein, S.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Toniolo, D.; Tönjes, A.; Traglia, M.; Uda, M.; Ulivi, S.; van der Schoot, E.; van Gilst, W.H.; van Pelt, L.J.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Verweij, N.; Visscher, P.M.; Völker, U.; Vollenweider, P.; Wareham, N.J.; Wernisch, L.; Westra, H.J.; Whitfield, J.B.; Wichmann, H.E.; Wiggins, K.L.; Willemsen, G.; Winkelmann, B.R.; Wirnsberger, G.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.; Yang, J.; Yang, T.P.; Zhang, J.H.; Zhao, J.H.; Zitting, P.; Zwaginga, JJ; van der Harst, P.; Chambers, J.C.; Soranzo, N.; Ouwehand, W.H.; Deloukas, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly three-quarters of the 143 genetic signals associated with platelet and erythrocyte phenotypes identified by metaanalyses of genome-wide association (GWA) studies are located at non-protein-coding regions. Here, we assessed the role of candidate regulatory variants associated with cell

  1. Exploring Temporal Sequences of Regulatory Phases and Associated Interactions in Low- and High-Challenge Collaborative Learning Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobocinski, Márta; Malmberg, Jonna; Järvelä, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Investigating the temporal order of regulatory processes can explain in more detail the mechanisms behind success or lack of success during collaborative learning. The aim of this study is to explore the differences between high- and low-challenge collaborative learning sessions. This is achieved through examining how the three phases of…

  2. Impaired RNA splicing of 5'-regulatory sequences of the astroglial glutamate transporter EAAT2 in human astrocytoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Münch, C.; Penndorf, A.; Schwalenstöcker, B.; Troost, D.; Ludolph, A. C.; Ince, P.; Meyer, T.

    2001-01-01

    A loss of the glutamate transporter EAAT2 has been reported in the neoplastic transformation of astrocytic cells and astrocytoma. The RNA expression of EAAT2 and five 5'-regulatory splice variants was investigated to identify alterations of the post-transcriptional EAAT2 gene regulation in human

  3. RegTransBase - A Database Of Regulatory Sequences and Interactionsin a Wide Range of Prokaryotic Genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazakov, Alexei E.; Cipriano, Michael J.; Novichkov, Pavel S.; Minovitsky, Simon; Vinogradov, Dmitry V.; Arkin, Adam; Mironov, AndreyA.; Gelfand, Mikhail S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2006-07-01

    RegTransBase, a manually curated database of regulatoryinteractions in prokaryotes, captures the knowledge in publishedscientific literature using a controlled vocabulary. Although a number ofdatabases describing interactions between regulatory proteins and theirbinding sites are currently being maintained, they focus mostly on themodel organisms Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, or are entirelycomputationally derived. RegTransBase describes a large number ofregulatory interactions reported in many organisms and contains varioustypes of experimental data, in particular: the activation or repressionof transcription by an identified direct regulator; determining thetranscriptional regulatory function of a protein (or RNA) directlybinding to DNA (RNA); mapping or prediction of binding site for aregulatory protein; characterization of regulatory mutations. Currently,the RegTransBase content is derived from about 3000 relevant articlesdescribing over 7000 experiments in relation to 128 microbes. It containsdata on the regulation of about 7500 genes and evidence for 6500interactions with 650 regulators. RegTransBase also contains manuallycreated position weight matrices (PWM) that can be used to identifycandidate regulatory sites in over 60 species. RegTransBase is availableat http://regtransbase.lbl.gov.

  4. Highly conserved intragenic HSV-2 sequences: Results from next-generation sequencing of HSV-2 UL and US regions from genital swabs collected from 3 continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Magaret, Amalia; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Greninger, Alexander L; Cheng, Anqi; Diem, Kurt; Fitzgibbon, Matthew P; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Lingappa, Jairam R; Celum, Connie; Jerome, Keith R; Wald, Anna; Koelle, David M

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the variability in circulating herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) genomic sequences is critical to the development of HSV-2 vaccines. Genital lesion swabs containing ≥ 10 7 log 10 copies HSV DNA collected from Africa, the USA, and South America underwent next-generation sequencing, followed by K-mer based filtering and de novo genomic assembly. Sites of heterogeneity within coding regions in unique long and unique short (U L _U S ) regions were identified. Phylogenetic trees were created using maximum likelihood reconstruction. Among 46 samples from 38 persons, 1468 intragenic base-pair substitutions were identified. The maximum nucleotide distance between strains for concatenated U L_ U S segments was 0.4%. Phylogeny did not reveal geographic clustering. The most variable proteins had non-synonymous mutations in < 3% of amino acids. Unenriched HSV-2 DNA can undergo next-generation sequencing to identify intragenic variability. The use of clinical swabs for sequencing expands the information that can be gathered directly from these specimens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative sequence analysis of Solanum and Arabidopsis in a hot spot for pathogen resistance on potato chromosome V reveals a patchwork of conserved and rapidly evolving genome segments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruggmann Rémy

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative phenotypic variation of agronomic characters in crop plants is controlled by environmental and genetic factors (quantitative trait loci = QTL. To understand the molecular basis of such QTL, the identification of the underlying genes is of primary interest and DNA sequence analysis of the genomic regions harboring QTL is a prerequisite for that. QTL mapping in potato (Solanum tuberosum has identified a region on chromosome V tagged by DNA markers GP21 and GP179, which contains a number of important QTL, among others QTL for resistance to late blight caused by the oomycete Phytophthora infestans and to root cyst nematodes. Results To obtain genomic sequence for the targeted region on chromosome V, two local BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome contigs were constructed and sequenced, which corresponded to parts of the homologous chromosomes of the diploid, heterozygous genotype P6/210. Two contiguous sequences of 417,445 and 202,781 base pairs were assembled and annotated. Gene-by-gene co-linearity was disrupted by non-allelic insertions of retrotransposon elements, stretches of diverged intergenic sequences, differences in gene content and gene order. The latter was caused by inversion of a 70 kbp genomic fragment. These features were also found in comparison to orthologous sequence contigs from three homeologous chromosomes of Solanum demissum, a wild tuber bearing species. Functional annotation of the sequence identified 48 putative open reading frames (ORF in one contig and 22 in the other, with an average of one ORF every 9 kbp. Ten ORFs were classified as resistance-gene-like, 11 as F-box-containing genes, 13 as transposable elements and three as transcription factors. Comparing potato to Arabidopsis thaliana annotated proteins revealed five micro-syntenic blocks of three to seven ORFs with A. thaliana chromosomes 1, 3 and 5. Conclusion Comparative sequence analysis revealed highly conserved collinear regions

  6. PipY, a Member of the Conserved COG0325 Family of PLP-Binding Proteins, Expands the Cyanobacterial Nitrogen Regulatory Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José I. Labella

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a paradigmatic model organism for nitrogen regulation in cyanobacteria. Expression of genes involved in nitrogen assimilation is positively regulated by the 2-oxoglutarate receptor and global transcriptional regulator NtcA. Maximal activation requires the subsequent binding of the co-activator PipX. PII, a protein found in all three domains of life as an integrator of signals of the nitrogen and carbon balance, binds to PipX to counteract NtcA activity at low 2-oxoglutarate levels. PII-PipX complexes can also bind to the transcriptional regulator PlmA, whose regulon remains unknown. Here we expand the nitrogen regulatory network to PipY, encoded by the bicistronic operon pipXY in S. elongatus. Work with PipY, the cyanobacterial member of the widespread family of COG0325 proteins, confirms the conserved roles in vitamin B6 and amino/keto acid homeostasis and reveals new PLP-related phenotypes, including sensitivity to antibiotics targeting essential PLP-holoenzymes or synthetic lethality with cysK. In addition, the related phenotypes of pipY and pipX mutants are consistent with genetic interactions in the contexts of survival to PLP-targeting antibiotics and transcriptional regulation. We also showed that PipY overexpression increased the length of S. elongatus cells. Taken together, our results support a universal regulatory role for COG0325 proteins, paving the way to a better understanding of these proteins and of their connections with other biological processes.

  7. Analysis of tomato plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase gene family suggests a mycorrhiza-mediated regulatory mechanism conserved in diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junli; Liu, Jianjian; Chen, Aiqun; Ji, Minjie; Chen, Jiadong; Yang, Xiaofeng; Gu, Mian; Qu, Hongye; Xu, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    In plants, the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase (HA) is considered to play a crucial role in regulating plant growth and respoding to environment stresses. Multiple paralogous genes encoding different isozymes of HA have been identified and characterized in several model plants, while limited information of the HA gene family is available to date for tomato. Here, we describe the molecular and expression features of eight HA-encoding genes (SlHA1-8) from tomato. All these genes are interrupted by multiple introns with conserved positions. SlHA1, 2, and 4 were widely expressed in all tissues, while SlHA5, 6, and 7 were almost only expressed in flowers. SlHA8, the transcripts of which were barely detectable under normal or nutrient-/salt-stress growth conditions, was strongly activated in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal-colonized roots. Extreme lack of SlHA8 expression in M161, a mutant defective to AM fungal colonization, provided genetic evidence towards the dependence of its expression on AM symbiosis. A 1521-bp SlHA8 promoter could direct the GUS reporter expression specifically in colonized cells of transgenic tobacco, soybean, and rice mycorrhizal roots. Promoter deletion assay revealed a 223-bp promoter fragment of SlHA8 containing a variant of AM-specific cis-element MYCS (vMYCS) sufficient to confer the AM-induced activity. Targeted deletion of this motif in the corresponding promoter region causes complete abolishment of GUS staining in mycorrhizal roots. Together, these results lend cogent evidence towards the evolutionary conservation of a potential regulatory mechanism mediating the activation of AM-responsive HA genes in diverse mycorrhizal plant species.

  8. A cis-regulatory sequence driving metabolic insecticide resistance in mosquitoes: functional characterisation and signatures of selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilding, Craig S; Smith, Ian; Lynd, Amy; Yawson, Alexander Egyir; Weetman, David; Paine, Mark J I; Donnelly, Martin J

    2012-09-01

    Although cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes are frequently up-regulated in mosquitoes resistant to insecticides, no regulatory motifs driving these expression differences with relevance to wild populations have been identified. Transposable elements (TEs) are often enriched upstream of those CYP450s involved in insecticide resistance, leading to the assumption that they contribute regulatory motifs that directly underlie the resistance phenotype. A partial CuRE1 (Culex Repetitive Element 1) transposable element is found directly upstream of CYP9M10, a cytochrome P450 implicated previously in larval resistance to permethrin in the ISOP450 strain of Culex quinquefasciatus, but is absent from the equivalent genomic region of a susceptible strain. Via expression of CYP9M10 in Escherichia coli we have now demonstrated time- and NADPH-dependant permethrin metabolism, prerequisites for confirmation of a role in metabolic resistance, and through qPCR shown that CYP9M10 is >20-fold over-expressed in ISOP450 compared to a susceptible strain. In a fluorescent reporter assay the region upstream of CYP9M10 from ISOP450 drove 10× expression compared to the equivalent region (lacking CuRE1) from the susceptible strain. Close correspondence with the gene expression fold-change implicates the upstream region including CuRE1 as a cis-regulatory element involved in resistance. Only a single CuRE1 bearing allele, identical to the CuRE1 bearing allele in the resistant strain, is found throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, in contrast to the diversity encountered in non-CuRE1 alleles. This suggests a single origin and subsequent spread due to selective advantage. CuRE1 is detectable using a simple diagnostic. When applied to C. quinquefasciatus larvae from Ghana we have demonstrated a significant association with permethrin resistance in multiple field sites (mean Odds Ratio = 3.86) suggesting this marker has relevance to natural populations of vector mosquitoes. However, when CuRE1 was excised

  9. Structural Conservation Despite Huge Sequence Diversity Allows EPCR Binding by the PfEMP1 Family Implicated in Severe Childhood Malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Clinton K.Y.; Turner, Louise; Jespersen, Jakob S.

    2015-01-01

    with severe childhood malaria. We combine crystal structures of CIDRa1:EPCR complexes with analysis of 885 CIDRa1 sequences, showing that the EPCR-binding surfaces of CIDRa1 domains are conserved in shape and bonding potential, despite dramatic sequence diversity. Additionally, these domains mimic features...... of the natural EPCR ligand and can block this ligand interaction. Using peptides corresponding to the EPCR-binding region, antibodies can be purified from individuals in malaria-endemic regions that block EPCR binding of diverse CIDRa1 variants. This highlights the extent to which such a surface protein family......The PfEMP1 family of surface proteins is central for Plasmodium falciparum virulence and must retain the ability to bind to host receptors while also diversifying to aid immune evasion. The interaction between CIDRa1 domains of PfEMP1 and endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR) is associated...

  10. Novel sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes modulating cis-acting regulatory elements and RNA secondary structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Siala

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we detected new sequence variations in LAMA2 and SGCG genes in 5 ethnic populations, and analysed their effect on enhancer composition and mRNA structure. PCR amplification and DNA sequencing were performed and followed by bioinformatics analyses using ESEfinder as well as MFOLD software. We found 3 novel sequence variations in the LAMA2 (c.3174+22_23insAT and c.6085 +12delA and SGCG (c.*102A/C genes. These variations were present in 210 tested healthy controls from Tunisian, Moroccan, Algerian, Lebanese and French populations suggesting that they represent novel polymorphisms within LAMA2 and SGCG genes sequences. ESEfinder showed that the c.*102A/C substitution created a new exon splicing enhancer in the 3'UTR of SGCG genes, whereas the c.6085 +12delA deletion was situated in the base pairing region between LAMA2 mRNA and the U1snRNA spliceosomal components. The RNA structure analyses showed that both variations modulated RNA secondary structure. Our results are suggestive of correlations between mRNA folding and the recruitment of spliceosomal components mediating splicing, including SR proteins. The contribution of common sequence variations to mRNA structural and functional diversity will contribute to a better study of gene expression.

  11. Requirement of Sequences outside the Conserved Kinase Domain of Fission Yeast Rad3p for Checkpoint Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Carolyn Riley; Evans, Sarah Tyler; Carr, Antony M.; Enoch, Tamar

    1999-01-01

    The fission yeast Rad3p checkpoint protein is a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family of protein kinases, which includes human ATMp. Mutation of the ATM gene is responsible for the disease ataxia-telangiectasia. The kinase domain of Rad3p has previously been shown to be essential for function. Here, we show that although this domain is necessary, it is not sufficient, because the isolated kinase domain does not have kinase activity in vitro and cannot complement a rad3 deletion strain. Using dominant negative alleles of rad3, we have identified two sites N-terminal to the conserved kinase domain that are essential for Rad3p function. One of these sites is the putative leucine zipper, which is conserved in other phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related family members. The other is a novel motif, which may also mediate Rad3p protein–protein interactions. PMID:10512862

  12. Violation of an evolutionarily conserved immunoglobulin diversity gene sequence preference promotes production of dsDNA-specific IgG antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Silva-Sanchez

    Full Text Available Variability in the developing antibody repertoire is focused on the third complementarity determining region of the H chain (CDR-H3, which lies at the center of the antigen binding site where it often plays a decisive role in antigen binding. The power of VDJ recombination and N nucleotide addition has led to the common conception that the sequence of CDR-H3 is unrestricted in its variability and random in its composition. Under this view, the immune response is solely controlled by somatic positive and negative clonal selection mechanisms that act on individual B cells to promote production of protective antibodies and prevent the production of self-reactive antibodies. This concept of a repertoire of random antigen binding sites is inconsistent with the observation that diversity (DH gene segment sequence content by reading frame (RF is evolutionarily conserved, creating biases in the prevalence and distribution of individual amino acids in CDR-H3. For example, arginine, which is often found in the CDR-H3 of dsDNA binding autoantibodies, is under-represented in the commonly used DH RFs rearranged by deletion, but is a frequent component of rarely used inverted RF1 (iRF1, which is rearranged by inversion. To determine the effect of altering this germline bias in DH gene segment sequence on autoantibody production, we generated mice that by genetic manipulation are forced to utilize an iRF1 sequence encoding two arginines. Over a one year period we collected serial serum samples from these unimmunized, specific pathogen-free mice and found that more than one-fifth of them contained elevated levels of dsDNA-binding IgG, but not IgM; whereas mice with a wild type DH sequence did not. Thus, germline bias against the use of arginine enriched DH sequence helps to reduce the likelihood of producing self-reactive antibodies.

  13. Integrated mRNA and microRNA transcriptome sequencing characterizes sequence variants and mRNA–microRNA regulatory network in nasopharyngeal carcinoma model systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Ying-Ying Szeto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC is a prevalent malignancy in Southeast Asia among the Chinese population. Aberrant regulation of transcripts has been implicated in many types of cancers including NPC. Herein, we characterized mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes by RNA sequencing (RNASeq of NPC model systems. Matched total mRNA and small RNA of undifferentiated Epstein–Barr virus (EBV-positive NPC xenograft X666 and its derived cell line C666, well-differentiated NPC cell line HK1, and the immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP460 were sequenced by Solexa technology. We found 2812 genes and 149 miRNAs (human and EBV to be differentially expressed in NP460, HK1, C666 and X666 with RNASeq; 533 miRNA–mRNA target pairs were inversely regulated in the three NPC cell lines compared to NP460. Integrated mRNA/miRNA expression profiling and pathway analysis show extracellular matrix organization, Beta-1 integrin cell surface interactions, and the PI3K/AKT, EGFR, ErbB, and Wnt pathways were potentially deregulated in NPC. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed on selected mRNA/miRNAs in order to validate their expression. Transcript sequence variants such as short insertions and deletions (INDEL, single nucleotide variant (SNV, and isomiRs were characterized in the NPC model systems. A novel TP53 transcript variant was identified in NP460, HK1, and C666. Detection of three previously reported novel EBV-encoded BART miRNAs and their isomiRs were also observed. Meta-analysis of a model system to a clinical system aids the choice of different cell lines in NPC studies. This comprehensive characterization of mRNA and miRNA transcriptomes in NPC cell lines and the xenograft provides insights on miRNA regulation of mRNA and valuable resources on transcript variation and regulation in NPC, which are potentially useful for mechanistic and preclinical studies.

  14. FeatureMap3D - a tool to map protein features and sequence conservation onto homologous structures in the PDB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wernersson, Rasmus; Rapacki, Krzysztof; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    FeatureMap3D is a web-based tool that maps protein features onto 3D structures. The user provides sequences annotated with any feature of interest, such as post-translational modifications, protease cleavage sites or exonic structure and FeatureMap3D will then search the Protein Data Bank (PDB) f...

  15. The first myriapod genome sequence reveals conservative arthropod gene content and genome organisation in the centipede Strigamia maritima

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chipman, Ariel D; Ferrier, David E K; Brena, Carlo; Qu, Jiaxin; Hughes, Daniel S T; Schröder, Reinhard; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Znassi, Nadia; Jiang, Huaiyang; Almeida, Francisca C; Alonso, Claudio R; Apostolou, Zivkos; Aqrawi, Peshtewani; Arthur, Wallace; Barna, Jennifer C J; Blankenburg, Kerstin P; Brites, Daniela; Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Coyle, Marcus; Dearden, Peter K; Du Pasquier, Louis; Duncan, Elizabeth J; Ebert, Dieter; Eibner, Cornelius; Erikson, Galina; Evans, Peter D; Extavour, Cassandra G; Francisco, Liezl; Gabaldón, Toni; Gillis, William J; Goodwin-Horn, Elizabeth A; Green, Jack E; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Grimmelikhuijzen, Cornelis J P; Gubbala, Sai; Guigó, Roderic; Han, Yi; Hauser, Frank; Havlak, Paul; Hayden, Luke; Helbing, Sophie; Holder, Michael; Hui, Jerome H L; Hunn, Julia P; Hunnekuhl, Vera S; Jackson, LaRonda; Javaid, Mehwish; Jhangiani, Shalini N; Jiggins, Francis M; Jones, Tamsin E; Kaiser, Tobias S; Kalra, Divya; Kenny, Nathan J; Korchina, Viktoriya; Kovar, Christie L; Kraus, F Bernhard; Lapraz, François; Lee, Sandra L; Lv, Jie; Mandapat, Christigale; Manning, Gerard; Mariotti, Marco; Mata, Robert; Mathew, Tittu; Neumann, Tobias; Newsham, Irene; Ngo, Dinh N; Ninova, Maria; Okwuonu, Geoffrey; Ongeri, Fiona; Palmer, William J; Patil, Shobha; Patraquim, Pedro; Pham, Christopher; Pu, Ling-Ling; Putman, Nicholas H; Rabouille, Catherine; Ramos, Olivia Mendivil; Rhodes, Adelaide C; Robertson, Helen E; Robertson, Hugh M; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Rozas, Julio; Saada, Nehad; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Scherer, Steven E; Schurko, Andrew M; Siggens, Kenneth W; Simmons, DeNard; Stief, Anna; Stolle, Eckart; Telford, Maximilian J; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin; Thornton, Rebecca; van der Zee, Maurijn; von Haeseler, Arndt; Williams, James M; Willis, Judith H; Wu, Yuanqing; Zou, Xiaoyan; Lawson, Daniel; Muzny, Donna M; Worley, Kim C; Gibbs, Richard A; Akam, Michael; Richards, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Myriapods (e.g., centipedes and millipedes) display a simple homonomous body plan relative to other arthropods. All members of the class are terrestrial, but they attained terrestriality independently of insects. Myriapoda is the only arthropod class not represented by a sequenced genome. We present

  16. Comparison of loline alkaloid gene clusters across fungal endophytes: predicting the co-regulatory sequence motifs and the evolutionary history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutil, Brandi L; Greenwald, Charles; Liu, Gang; Spiering, Martin J; Schardl, Christopher L; Wilkinson, Heather H

    2007-10-01

    LOL, a fungal secondary metabolite gene cluster found in Epichloë and Neotyphodium species, is responsible for production of insecticidal loline alkaloids. To analyze the genetic architecture and to predict the evolutionary history of LOL, we compared five clusters from four fungal species (single clusters from Epichloë festucae, Neotyphodium sp. PauTG-1, Neotyphodium coenophialum, and two clusters we previously characterized in Neotyphodium uncinatum). Using PhyloCon to compare putative lol gene promoter regions, we have identified four motifs conserved across the lol genes in all five clusters. Each motif has significant similarity to known fungal transcription factor binding sites in the TRANSFAC database. Conservation of these motifs is further support for the hypothesis that the lol genes are co-regulated. Interestingly, the history of asexual Neotyphodium spp. includes multiple interspecific hybridization events. Comparing clusters from three Neotyphodium species and E. festucae allowed us to determine which Epichloë ancestors are the most likely contributors of LOL in these asexual species. For example, while no present day Epichloë typhina isolates are known to produce lolines, our data support the hypothesis that the E. typhina ancestor(s) of three asexual endophyte species contained a LOL gene cluster. Thus, these data support a model of evolution in which the polymorphism in loline alkaloid production phenotypes among endophyte species is likely due to the loss of the trait over time.

  17. An erythrocyte-specific DNA-binding factor recognizes a regulatory sequence common to all chicken globin genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.; Reitman, M.; Felsenfeld, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have identified a protein present only in erythroid cells that binds to two adjacent sites within an enhancer region of the chicken β-globin locus. Mutation of the sites, so that binding by the factor can no longer be detected in vitro, leads to a loss of enhancing ability, assayed by transient expression in primary erythrocytes. Binding sites for the erythroid-specific factor (Eryf1) are found within regulatory regions for all chicken globin genes. A strong Eryf1 binding site is also present within the enhancer of at least one human globin gene, and proteins from human erythroid cells (but not HeLa cells) bind to both the chicken and the human sites

  18. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Mice by a Small Interfering RNA Targeting a Highly Conserved Sequence in Viral IRES Pseudoknot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Su Moon

    Full Text Available The hepatitis C virus (HCV internal ribosome entry site (IRES that directs cap-independent viral translation is a primary target for small interfering RNA (siRNA-based HCV antiviral therapy. However, identification of potent siRNAs against HCV IRES by bioinformatics-based siRNA design is a challenging task given the complexity of HCV IRES secondary and tertiary structures and association with multiple proteins, which can also dynamically change the structure of this cis-acting RNA element. In this work, we utilized siRNA tiling approach whereby siRNAs were tiled with overlapping sequences that were shifted by one or two nucleotides over the HCV IRES stem-loop structures III and IV spanning nucleotides (nts 277-343. Based on their antiviral activity, we mapped a druggable region (nts 313-343 where the targets of potent siRNAs were enriched. siIE22, which showed the greatest anti-HCV potency, targeted a highly conserved sequence across diverse HCV genotypes, locating within the IRES subdomain IIIf involved in pseudoknot formation. Stepwise target shifting toward the 5' or 3' direction by 1 or 2 nucleotides reduced the antiviral potency of siIE22, demonstrating the importance of siRNA accessibility to this highly structured and sequence-conserved region of HCV IRES for RNA interference. Nanoparticle-mediated systemic delivery of the stability-improved siIE22 derivative gs_PS1 siIE22, which contains a single phosphorothioate linkage on the guide strand, reduced the serum HCV genome titer by more than 4 log10 in a xenograft mouse model for HCV replication without generation of resistant variants. Our results provide a strategy for identifying potent siRNA species against a highly structured RNA target and offer a potential pan-HCV genotypic siRNA therapy that might be beneficial for patients resistant to current treatment regimens.

  19. Linkage disequilibrium of evolutionarily conserved regions in the human genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Todd A

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The strong linkage disequilibrium (LD recently found in genic or exonic regions of the human genome demonstrated that LD can be increased by evolutionary mechanisms that select for functionally important loci. This suggests that LD might be stronger in regions conserved among species than in non-conserved regions, since regions exposed to natural selection tend to be conserved. To assess this hypothesis, we used genome-wide polymorphism data from the HapMap project and investigated LD within DNA sequences conserved between the human and mouse genomes. Results Unexpectedly, we observed that LD was significantly weaker in conserved regions than in non-conserved regions. To investigate why, we examined sequence features that may distort the relationship between LD and conserved regions. We found that interspersed repeats, and not other sequence features, were associated with the weak LD tendency in conserved regions. To appropriately understand the relationship between LD and conserved regions, we removed the effect of repetitive elements and found that the high degree of sequence conservation was strongly associated with strong LD in coding regions but not with that in non-coding regions. Conclusion Our work demonstrates that the degree of sequence conservation does not simply increase LD as predicted by the hypothesis. Rather, it implies that purifying selection changes the polymorphic patterns of coding sequences but has little influence on the patterns of functional units such as regulatory elements present in non-coding regions, since the former are generally restricted by the constraint of maintaining a functional protein product across multiple exons while the latter may exist more as individually isolated units.

  20. The mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponini: sequence, gene organization and a unique tRNA translocation event conserved across the tribe Meliponini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Silvestre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At present a complete mtDNA sequence has been reported for only two hymenopterans, the Old World honey bee, Apis mellifera and the sawfly Perga condei. Among the bee group, the tribe Meliponini (stingless bees has some distinction due to its Pantropical distribution, great number of species and large importance as main pollinators in several ecosystems, including the Brazilian rain forest. However few molecular studies have been conducted on this group of bees and few sequence data from mitochondrial genomes have been described. In this project, we PCR amplified and sequenced 78% of the mitochondrial genome of the stingless bee Melipona bicolor (Apidae, Meliponini. The sequenced region contains all of the 13 mitochondrial protein-coding genes, 18 of 22 tRNA genes, and both rRNA genes (one of them was partially sequenced. We also report the genome organization (gene content and order, gene translation, genetic code, and other molecular features, such as base frequencies, codon usage, gene initiation and termination. We compare these characteristics of M. bicolor to those of the mitochondrial genome of A. mellifera and other insects. A highly biased A+T content is a typical characteristic of the A. mellifera mitochondrial genome and it was even more extreme in that of M. bicolor. Length and compositional differences between M. bicolor and A. mellifera genes were detected and the gene order was compared. Eleven tRNA gene translocations were observed between these two species. This latter finding was surprising, considering the taxonomic proximity of these two bee tribes. The tRNA Lys gene translocation was investigated within Meliponini and showed high conservation across the Pantropical range of the tribe.

  1. Sequence of cDNAs for mammalian H2A. Z, an evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal histone H2A isoprotein species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatch, C L; Bonner, W M

    1988-02-11

    The nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the evolutionarily diverged but highly conserved basal H2A isoprotein, H2A.Z, have been determined for the rat, cow, and human. As a basal histone, H2A.Z is synthesized throughout the cell cycle at a constant rate, unlinked to DNA replication, and at a much lower rate in quiescent cells. Each of the cDNA isolates encodes the entire H2A.Z polypeptide. The human isolate is about 1.0 kilobases long. It contains a coding region of 387 nucleotides flanked by 106 nucleotides of 5'UTR and 376 nucleotides of 3'UTR, which contains a polyadenylation signal followed by a poly A tail. The bovine and rat cDNAs have 97 and 94% nucleotide positional identity to the human cDNA in the coding region and 98% in the proximal 376 nucleotides of the 3'UTR which includes the polyadenylation signal. A potential stem-forming sequence imbedded in a direct repeat is found centered at 261 nucleotides into the 3'UTR. Each of the cDNA clones could be transcribed and translated in vitro to yield H2A.Z protein. The mammalian H2A.Z cDNA coding sequences are approximately 80% similar to those in chicken and 75% to those in sea urchin.

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis Reveals Conservation of Intrinsic Disorder in the Linker Sequences of Prokaryotic Dual-family Immunophilin Chaperones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Sailen

    2018-01-01

    The two classical immunophilin families, found essentially in all living cells, are: cyclophilin (CYN) and FK506-binding protein (FKBP). We previously reported a novel class of immunophilins that are natural chimera of these two, which we named dual-family immunophilin (DFI). The DFIs were found in either of two conformations: CYN-linker-FKBP (CFBP) or FKBP-3TPR-CYN (FCBP). While the 3TPR domain can serve as a flexible linker between the FKBP and CYN modules in the FCBP-type DFI, the linker sequences in the CFBP-type DFIs are relatively short, diverse in sequence, and contain no discernible motif or signature. Here, I present several lines of computational evidence that, regardless of their primary structure, these CFBP linkers are intrinsically disordered. This report provides the first molecular foundation for the model that the CFBP linker acts as an unstructured, flexible loop, allowing the two flanking chaperone modules function independently while linked in cis , likely to assist in the folding of multisubunit client complexes.

  3. Next-Generation Sequencing of Genomic DNA Fragments Bound to a Transcription Factor in Vitro Reveals Its Regulatory Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Kurihara

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several transcription factors (TFs coordinate to regulate expression of specific genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana it is estimated that approximately 10% of all genes encode TFs or TF-like proteins. It is important to identify target genes that are directly regulated by TFs in order to understand the complete picture of a plant’s transcriptome profile. Here, we investigate the role of the LONG HYPOCOTYL5 (HY5 transcription factor that acts as a regulator of photomorphogenesis. We used an in vitro genomic DNA binding assay coupled with immunoprecipitation and next-generation sequencing (gDB-seq instead of the in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-based methods. The results demonstrate that the HY5-binding motif predicted here was similar to the motif reported previously and that in vitro HY5-binding loci largely overlapped with the HY5-targeted candidate genes identified in previous ChIP-chip analysis. By combining these results with microarray analysis, we identified hundreds of HY5-binding genes that were differentially expressed in hy5. We also observed delayed induction of some transcripts of HY5-binding genes in hy5 mutants in response to blue-light exposure after dark treatment. Thus, an in vitro gDNA-binding assay coupled with sequencing is a convenient and powerful method to bridge the gap between identifying TF binding potential and establishing function.

  4. Mouse Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster sequence and expression analyses reveal conservation of tissue-specific MHC-independent immunosurveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zhang

    Full Text Available The Nkrp1 (Klrb1-Clr (Clec2 genes encode a receptor-ligand system utilized by NK cells as an MHC-independent immunosurveillance strategy for innate immune responses. The related Ly49 family of MHC-I receptors displays extreme allelic polymorphism and haplotype plasticity. In contrast, previous BAC-mapping and aCGH studies in the mouse suggest the neighboring and related Nkrp1-Clr cluster is evolutionarily stable. To definitively compare the relative evolutionary rate of Nkrp1-Clr vs. Ly49 gene clusters, the Nkrp1-Clr gene clusters from two Ly49 haplotype-disparate inbred mouse strains, BALB/c and 129S6, were sequenced. Both Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster sequences are highly similar to the C57BL/6 reference sequence, displaying the same gene numbers and order, complete pseudogenes, and gene fragments. The Nkrp1-Clr clusters contain a strikingly dissimilar proportion of repetitive elements compared to the Ly49 clusters, suggesting that certain elements may be partly responsible for the highly disparate Ly49 vs. Nkrp1 evolutionary rate. Focused allelic polymorphisms were found within the Nkrp1b/d (Klrb1b, Nkrp1c (Klrb1c, and Clr-c (Clec2f genes, suggestive of possible immune selection. Cell-type specific transcription of Nkrp1-Clr genes in a large panel of tissues/organs was determined. Clr-b (Clec2d and Clr-g (Clec2i showed wide expression, while other Clr genes showed more tissue-specific expression patterns. In situ hybridization revealed specific expression of various members of the Clr family in leukocytes/hematopoietic cells of immune organs, various tissue-restricted epithelial cells (including intestinal, kidney tubular, lung, and corneal progenitor epithelial cells, as well as myocytes. In summary, the Nkrp1-Clr gene cluster appears to evolve more slowly relative to the related Ly49 cluster, and likely regulates innate immunosurveillance in a tissue-specific manner.

  5. Sequence-based Screening for Rare Enzymes: New Insights into the World of AMDases Reveal a Conserved Motif and 58 Novel Enzymes Clustering in Eight Distinct Families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine Maimanakos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Arylmalonate-Decarboxylases (AMDases, EC 4.1.1.76 are very rare and mostly underexplored enzymes. Currently only four known and biochemically characterized representatives exist. However, their ability to decarboxylate α-disubstituted malonic acid derivatives to optically pure products without cofactors makes them attractive and promising candidates for the use as biocatalysts in industrial processes. Until now, AMDases could not be separated from other members of the aspartate/glutamate racemase superfamily based on their gene sequences. Within this work, a search algorithm was developed that enables a reliable prediction of AMDase activity for potential candidates. Based on specific sequence patterns and screening methods 58 novel AMDase candidate genes could be identified in this work. Thereby, AMDases with the conserved sequence pattern of Bordetella bronchiseptica’s prototype appeared to be limited to the classes of Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria. Amino acid homologies and comparison of gene surrounding sequences enabled the classification of eight enzyme clusters. Particularly striking is the accumulation of genes coding for different transporters of the TTT family, TRAP transporters and ABC transporters as well as genes coding for mandelate racemases/muconate lactonizing enzymes that might be involved in substrate uptake or degradation of AMDase products. Further, three novel AMDases were characterized which showed a high enantiomeric excess (>99% of the (R-enantiomer of flurbiprofen. These are the recombinant AmdA and AmdV from Variovorax sp. strains HH01 and HH02, originated from soil, and AmdP from Polymorphum gilvum found by a data base search. Altogether our findings give new insights into the class of AMDases and reveal many previously unknown enzyme candidates with high potential for bioindustrial processes.

  6. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  7. Chromosome-wide mapping of DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells reveals pervasive methylation of gene-associated and conserved intergenic sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Marzo Angelo M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation has been linked to genome regulation and dysregulation in health and disease respectively, and methods for characterizing genomic DNA methylation patterns are rapidly emerging. We have developed/refined methods for enrichment of methylated genomic fragments using the methyl-binding domain of the human MBD2 protein (MBD2-MBD followed by analysis with high-density tiling microarrays. This MBD-chip approach was used to characterize DNA methylation patterns across all non-repetitive sequences of human chromosomes 21 and 22 at high-resolution in normal and malignant prostate cells. Results Examining this data using computational methods that were designed specifically for DNA methylation tiling array data revealed widespread methylation of both gene promoter and non-promoter regions in cancer and normal cells. In addition to identifying several novel cancer hypermethylated 5' gene upstream regions that mediated epigenetic gene silencing, we also found several hypermethylated 3' gene downstream, intragenic and intergenic regions. The hypermethylated intragenic regions were highly enriched for overlap with intron-exon boundaries, suggesting a possible role in regulation of alternative transcriptional start sites, exon usage and/or splicing. The hypermethylated intergenic regions showed significant enrichment for conservation across vertebrate species. A sampling of these newly identified promoter (ADAMTS1 and SCARF2 genes and non-promoter (downstream or within DSCR9, C21orf57 and HLCS genes hypermethylated regions were effective in distinguishing malignant from normal prostate tissues and/or cell lines. Conclusions Comparison of chromosome-wide DNA methylation patterns in normal and malignant prostate cells revealed significant methylation of gene-proximal and conserved intergenic sequences. Such analyses can be easily extended for genome-wide methylation analysis in health and disease.

  8. Strong conservation of rhoptry-associated-protein-1 (RAP-1) locus organization and sequence among Babesia isolates infecting sheep from China (Babesia motasi-like phylogenetic group).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Qingli; Valentin, Charlotte; Bonsergent, Claire; Malandrin, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    Rhoptry-associated-protein 1 (RAP-1) is considered as a potential vaccine candidate due to its involvement in red blood cell invasion by parasites in the genus Babesia. We examined its value as a vaccine candidate by studying RAP-1 conservation in isolates of Babesia sp. BQ1 Ningxian, Babesia sp. Tianzhu and Babesia sp. Hebei, responsible for ovine babesiosis in different regions of China. The rap-1 locus in these isolates has very similar features to those described for Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan, another Chinese isolate also in the B. motasi-like phylogenetic group, namely the presence of three types of rap-1 genes (rap-1a, rap-1b and rap-1c), multiple conserved rap-1b copies (5) interspaced with more or less variable rap-1a copies (6), and the 3' localization of one rap-1c. The isolates Babesia sp. Tianzhu, Babesia sp. BQ1 Lintan and Ningxian were almost identical (average nucleotide identity of 99.9%) over a putative locus of about 31 Kb, including the intergenic regions. Babesia sp. Hebei showed a similar locus organization but differed in the rap-1 locus sequence, for each gene and intergenic region, with an average nucleotide identity of 78%. Our results are in agreement with 18S rDNA phylogenetic studies performed on these isolates. However, in extremely closely related isolates the rap-1 locus seems more conserved (99.9%) than the 18S rDNA (98.7%), whereas in still closely related isolates the identities are much lower (78%) compared with the 18S rDNA (97.7%). The particularities of the rap-1 locus in terms of evolution, phylogeny, diagnosis and vaccine development are discussed. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Deletion of a conserved regulatory element required for Hmx1 expression in craniofacial mesenchyme in the dumbo rat: a newly identified cause of congenital ear malformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lely A. Quina

    2012-11-01

    Hmx1 is a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the developing eye, peripheral ganglia, and branchial arches of avian and mammalian embryos. Recent studies have identified a loss-of-function allele at the HMX1 locus as the causative mutation in the oculo-auricular syndrome (OAS in humans, characterized by ear and eye malformations. The mouse dumbo (dmbo mutation, with similar effects on ear and eye development, also results from a loss-of-function mutation in the Hmx1 gene. A recessive dmbo mutation causing ear malformation in rats has been mapped to the chromosomal region containing the Hmx1 gene, but the nature of the causative allele is unknown. Here we show that dumbo rats and mice exhibit similar neonatal ear and eye phenotypes. In midgestation embryos, dumbo rats show a specific loss of Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived craniofacial mesenchyme (CM, whereas Hmx1 is expressed normally in retinal progenitors, sensory ganglia and in CM, which is derived from mesoderm. High-throughput resequencing of 1 Mb of rat chromosome 14 from dmbo/dmbo rats, encompassing the Hmx1 locus, reveals numerous divergences from the rat genomic reference sequence, but no coding changes in Hmx1. Fine genetic mapping narrows the dmbo critical region to an interval of ∼410 kb immediately downstream of the Hmx1 transcription unit. Further sequence analysis of this region reveals a 5777-bp deletion located ∼80 kb downstream in dmbo/dmbo rats that is not apparent in 137 other rat strains. The dmbo deletion region contains a highly conserved domain of ∼500 bp, which is a candidate distal enhancer and which exhibits a similar relationship to Hmx genes in all vertebrate species for which data are available. We conclude that the rat dumbo phenotype is likely to result from loss of function of an ultraconserved enhancer specifically regulating Hmx1 expression in neural-crest-derived CM. Dysregulation of Hmx1 expression is thus a candidate mechanism for congenital ear

  10. Mutation of a Conserved Nuclear Export Sequence in Chikungunya Virus Capsid Protein Disrupts Host Cell Nuclear Import.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Susan C; Taylor, Adam; Herrero, Lara J; Mahalingam, Suresh; Fazakerley, John K

    2017-10-20

    Transmitted by mosquitoes; chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is responsible for frequent outbreaks of arthritic disease in humans. CHIKV is an arthritogenic alphavirus of the Togaviridae family. Capsid protein, a structural protein encoded by the CHIKV RNA genome, is able to translocate to the host cell nucleus. In encephalitic alphaviruses nuclear translocation induces host cell shut off; however, the role of capsid protein nuclear localisation in arthritogenic alphaviruses remains unclear. Using replicon systems, we investigated a nuclear export sequence (NES) in the N-terminal region of capsid protein; analogous to that found in encephalitic alphavirus capsid but uncharacterised in CHIKV. The chromosomal maintenance 1 (CRM1) export adaptor protein mediated CHIKV capsid protein export from the nucleus and a region within the N-terminal part of CHIKV capsid protein was required for active nuclear targeting. In contrast to encephalitic alphaviruses, CHIKV capsid protein did not inhibit host nuclear import; however, mutating the NES of capsid protein (∆NES) blocked host protein access to the nucleus. Interactions between capsid protein and the nucleus warrant further investigation.

  11. H-Ras and K-Ras Oncoproteins Induce Different Tumor Spectra When Driven by the Same Regulatory Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosten, Matthias; Simón-Carrasco, Lucía; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Lechuga, Carmen G; Blasco, María T; Jacob, Harrys K C; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Potenza, Nicoletta; Bustelo, Xosé R; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2017-02-01

    Genetic studies in mice have provided evidence that H-Ras and K-Ras proteins are bioequivalent. However, human tumors display marked differences in the association of RAS oncogenes with tumor type. Thus, to further assess the bioequivalence of oncogenic H-Ras and K-Ras, we replaced the coding region of the murine K-Ras locus with H-Ras G12V oncogene sequences. Germline expression of H-Ras G12V or K-Ras G12V from the K-Ras locus resulted in embryonic lethality. However, expression of these genes in adult mice led to different tumor phenotypes. Whereas H-Ras G12V elicited papillomas and hematopoietic tumors, K-Ras G12V induced lung tumors and gastric lesions. Pulmonary expression of H-Ras G12V created a senescence-like state caused by excessive MAPK signaling. Likewise, H-Ras G12V but not K-Ras G12V induced senescence in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Label-free quantitative analysis revealed that minor differences in H-Ras G12V expression levels led to drastically different biological outputs, suggesting that subtle differences in MAPK signaling confer nonequivalent functions that influence tumor spectra induced by RAS oncoproteins. Cancer Res; 77(3); 707-18. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Novel nonphosphorylated peptides with conserved sequences selectively bind to Grb7 SH2 domain with affinity comparable to its phosphorylated ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Grb7 (growth factor receptor-bound 7 protein, a member of the Grb7 protein family, is found to be highly expressed in such metastatic tumors as breast cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, etc. The src-homology 2 (SH2 domain in the C-terminus is reported to be mainly involved in Grb7 signaling pathways. Using the random peptide library, we identified a series of Grb7 SH2 domain-binding nonphosphorylated peptides in the yeast two-hybrid system. These peptides have a conserved GIPT/K/N sequence at the N-terminus and G/WD/IP at the C-terminus, and the region between the N-and C-terminus contains fifteen amino acids enriched with serines, threonines and prolines. The association between the nonphosphorylated peptides and the Grb7 SH2 domain occurred in vitro and ex vivo. When competing for binding to the Grb7 SH2 domain in a complex, one synthesized nonphosphorylated ligand, containing the twenty-two amino acid-motif sequence, showed at least comparable affinity to the phosphorylated ligand of ErbB3 in vitro, and its overexpression inhibited the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells. Such nonphosphorylated peptides may be useful for rational design of drugs targeted against cancers that express high levels of Grb7 protein.

  13. Lanthanum-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks for Specific Detection of Sudan Virus RNA Conservative Sequences down to Single-Base Mismatch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shui-Ping; Zhao, Wei; Hu, Pei-Pei; Wu, Ke-Yang; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Bai, Li-Ping; Li, Min-Min; Chen, Jin-Xiang

    2017-12-18

    Reactions of La(NO 3 ) 3 ·6H 2 O with the polar, tritopic quaternized carboxylate ligands N-carboxymethyl-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H 3 CmdcpBr) and N-(4-carboxybenzyl)-3,5-dicarboxylpyridinium bromide (H 3 CbdcpBr) afford two water-stable metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of {[La 4 (Cmdcp) 6 (H 2 O) 9 ]} n (1, 3D) and {[La 2 (Cbdcp) 3 (H 2 O) 10 ]} n (2, 2D). MOFs 1 and 2 absorb the carboxyfluorescein (FAM)-tagged probe DNA (P-DNA) and quench the fluorescence of FAM via a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) process. The nonemissive P-DNA@MOF hybrids thus formed in turn function as sensing platforms to distinguish conservative linear, single-stranded RNA sequences of Sudan virus with high selectivity and low detection limits of 112 and 67 pM, respectively (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3). These hybrids also exhibit high specificity and discriminate down to single-base mismatch RNA sequences.

  14. Conservation of Tcrg-V5 and limited allelic sequence polymorphism of the other Tcrg-V genes used by mouse tissue-specific gd-T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger, T.; Morisset, J.; Seman, M. [Universite Denis Diderot, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The mouse Tcrg locus comprises seven Tcrg-V, four Tcrg-J, and four Tcrg-C segments which generate only six major types of functional g chains, Vg7-, Vg4-, Vg6-, or Vg5-Jg1-Cg1, Vg2-Jg2-Cg2, and Vg1-Jg4-Cg4. A complete analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of the Tcrg locus in wild and inbred mice suggested its relative conservation compared to other loci of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family. Three haplotypes have been characterized in laboratory mice: gA, gB, and gC, represented by BALB/c, DBA/2, and AKR prototypes. Tcr-gA and -gC haplotypes are highly related. By contrast, Tcr-gB, likely inherited from Asian mouse subspecies, appeared very different by RFLP analysis. Yet only partial sequence data have been reported on gA and gB Tcrg-V genes. Here, the complete sequence of all Tcrg-V genes of the two haplotypes is described. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Identification of novel and conserved microRNAs related to drought stress in potato by deep sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Jiangwei; Wang, Zemin; Wen, Yikai; Wang, Jie; He, Wenhui; Liu, Bailin; Si, Huaijun; Wang, Di

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small, non-coding RNAs that play important roles in plant growth, development and stress response. There have been an increasing number of investigations aimed at discovering miRNAs and analyzing their functions in model plants (such as Arabidopsis thaliana and rice). In this research, we constructed small RNA libraries from both polyethylene glycol (PEG 6,000) treated and control potato samples, and a large number of known and novel miRNAs were identified. Differential expression analysis showed that 100 of the known miRNAs were down-regulated and 99 were up-regulated as a result of PEG stress, while 119 of the novel miRNAs were up-regulated and 151 were down-regulated. Based on target prediction, annotation and expression analysis of the miRNAs and their putative target genes, 4 miRNAs were identified as regulating drought-related genes (miR811, miR814, miR835, miR4398). Their target genes were MYB transcription factor (CV431094), hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (TC225721), quaporin (TC223412) and WRKY transcription factor (TC199112), respectively. Relative expression trends of those miRNAs were the same as that predicted by Solexa sequencing and they showed a negative correlation with the expression of the target genes. The results provide molecular evidence for the possible involvement of miRNAs in the process of drought response and/or tolerance in the potato plant.

  16. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  17. Comparative genome sequencing of Drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene, and cis-element evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.

    2005-01-01

    years (Myr) since the pseudoobscura/melanogaster divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome-wide average, consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than random and nearby sequences......We have sequenced the genome of a second Drosophila species, Drosophila pseudoobscura, and compared this to the genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster, a primary model organism. Throughout evolution the vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same chromosome arm, but within each...... between the species-but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a pattern of repeat-mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high coadaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence...

  18. The genome sequence of the commercially cultivated mushroom Agrocybe aegerita reveals a conserved repertoire of fruiting-related genes and a versatile suite of biopolymer-degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak K; Rühl, Martin; Mishra, Bagdevi; Kleofas, Vanessa; Hofrichter, Martin; Herzog, Robert; Pecyna, Marek J; Sharma, Rahul; Kellner, Harald; Hennicke, Florian; Thines, Marco

    2018-01-15

    Agrocybe aegerita is an agaricomycete fungus with typical mushroom features, which is commercially cultivated for its culinary use. In nature, it is a saprotrophic or facultative pathogenic fungus causing a white-rot of hardwood in forests of warm and mild climate. The ease of cultivation and fructification on solidified media as well as its archetypal mushroom fruit body morphology render A. aegerita a well-suited model for investigating mushroom developmental biology. Here, the genome of the species is reported and analysed with respect to carbohydrate active genes and genes known to play a role during fruit body formation. In terms of fruit body development, our analyses revealed a conserved repertoire of fruiting-related genes, which corresponds well to the archetypal fruit body morphology of this mushroom. For some genes involved in fruit body formation, paralogisation was observed, but not all fruit body maturation-associated genes known from other agaricomycetes seem to be conserved in the genome sequence of A. aegerita. In terms of lytic enzymes, our analyses suggest a versatile arsenal of biopolymer-degrading enzymes that likely account for the flexible life style of this species. Regarding the amount of genes encoding CAZymes relevant for lignin degradation, A. aegerita shows more similarity to white-rot fungi than to litter decomposers, including 18 genes coding for unspecific peroxygenases and three dye-decolourising peroxidase genes expanding its lignocellulolytic machinery. The genome resource will be useful for developing strategies towards genetic manipulation of A. aegerita, which will subsequently allow functional genetics approaches to elucidate fundamentals of fruiting and vegetative growth including lignocellulolysis.

  19. Characterisation of mutations of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit, PIK3R2, in perisylvian polymicrogyria: a next-generation sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Conti, Valerio; Timms, Andrew E; Smyser, Christopher D; Ahmed, Sarah; Carter, Melissa; Barnett, Sarah; Hufnagel, Robert B; Goldstein, Amy; Narumi-Kishimoto, Yoko; Olds, Carissa; Collins, Sarah; Johnston, Kathreen; Deleuze, Jean-François; Nitschké, Patrick; Friend, Kathryn; Harris, Catharine; Goetsch, Allison; Martin, Beth; Boyle, Evan August; Parrini, Elena; Mei, Davide; Tattini, Lorenzo; Slavotinek, Anne; Blair, Ed; Barnett, Christopher; Shendure, Jay; Chelly, Jamel; Dobyns, William B; Guerrini, Renzo

    2015-12-01

    Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP), the most common form of regional polymicrogyria, causes the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, featuring oromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and epilepsy. The causes of BPP are heterogeneous, but only a few genetic causes have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic causes of BPP and characterise their frequency in this population. Children (aged ≤18 years) with polymicrogyria were enrolled into our research programme from July, 1980, to October, 2015, at two centres (Florence, Italy, and Seattle, WA, USA). We obtained samples (blood and saliva) throughout this period at both centres and did whole-exome sequencing on DNA from eight trios (two parents and one affected child) with BPP in 2014. After the identification of mosaic PIK3R2 mutations in two of these eight children, we performed targeted screening of PIK3R2 by two methods in a cohort of 118 children with BPP. First, we performed targeted sequencing of the entire PIK3R2 gene by single molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) on 38 patients with BPP with normal to large head size. Second, we did amplicon sequencing of the recurrent PIK3R2 mutation (Gly373Arg) in 80 children with various types of polymicrogyria including BPP. One additional patient had clinical whole-exome sequencing done independently, and was included in this study because of the phenotypic similarity to our cohort. We identified a mosaic mutation (Gly373Arg) in a regulatory subunit of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway, PIK3R2, in two children with BPP. Of the 38 patients with BPP and normal to large head size who underwent targeted next-generation sequencing by smMIPs, we identified constitutional and mosaic PIK3R2 mutations in 17 additional children. In parallel, one patient had the recurrent PIK3R2 mutation identified by clinical whole-exome sequencing. Seven of these 20 patients had BPP alone, and 13 had BPP in association with features of the

  20. Vision from next generation sequencing: multi-dimensional genome-wide analysis for producing gene regulatory networks underlying retinal development, aging and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyun-Jin; Ratnapriya, Rinki; Cogliati, Tiziana; Kim, Jung-Woong; Swaroop, Anand

    2015-05-01

    Genomics and genetics have invaded all aspects of biology and medicine, opening uncharted territory for scientific exploration. The definition of "gene" itself has become ambiguous, and the central dogma is continuously being revised and expanded. Computational biology and computational medicine are no longer intellectual domains of the chosen few. Next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, together with novel methods of pattern recognition and network analyses, has revolutionized the way we think about fundamental biological mechanisms and cellular pathways. In this review, we discuss NGS-based genome-wide approaches that can provide deeper insights into retinal development, aging and disease pathogenesis. We first focus on gene regulatory networks (GRNs) that govern the differentiation of retinal photoreceptors and modulate adaptive response during aging. Then, we discuss NGS technology in the context of retinal disease and develop a vision for therapies based on network biology. We should emphasize that basic strategies for network construction and analyses can be transported to any tissue or cell type. We believe that specific and uniform guidelines are required for generation of genome, transcriptome and epigenome data to facilitate comparative analysis and integration of multi-dimensional data sets, and for constructing networks underlying complex biological processes. As cellular homeostasis and organismal survival are dependent on gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, we believe that network-based biology will provide the foundation for deciphering disease mechanisms and discovering novel drug targets for retinal neurodegenerative diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Packaging of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV) genomic RNA depends upon conserved long-range interactions (LRIs) between U5 and gag sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloush, Rawan M; Vivet-Boudou, Valérie; Ali, Lizna M; Mustafa, Farah; Marquet, Roland; Rizvi, Tahir A

    2016-06-01

    MPMV has great potential for development as a vector for gene therapy. In this respect, precisely defining the sequences and structural motifs that are important for dimerization and packaging of its genomic RNA (gRNA) are of utmost importance. A distinguishing feature of the MPMV gRNA packaging signal is two phylogenetically conserved long-range interactions (LRIs) between U5 and gag complementary sequences, LRI-I and LRI-II. To test their biological significance in the MPMV life cycle, we introduced mutations into these structural motifs and tested their effects on MPMV gRNA packaging and propagation. Furthermore, we probed the structure of key mutants using SHAPE (selective 2'hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension). Disrupting base-pairing of the LRIs affected gRNA packaging and propagation, demonstrating their significance to the MPMV life cycle. A double mutant restoring a heterologous LRI-I was fully functional, whereas a similar LRI-II mutant failed to restore gRNA packaging and propagation. These results demonstrate that while LRI-I acts at the structural level, maintaining base-pairing is not sufficient for LRI-II function. In addition, in vitro RNA dimerization assays indicated that the loss of RNA packaging in LRI mutants could not be attributed to the defects in dimerization. Our findings suggest that U5-gag LRIs play an important architectural role in maintaining the structure of the 5' region of the MPMV gRNA, expanding the crucial role of LRIs to the nonlentiviral group of retroviruses. © 2016 Kalloush et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  2. Use of genotyping by sequencing data to develop a high-throughput and multifunctional SNP panel for conservation applications in Pacific lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Jon E; Campbell, Nathan R; Docker, Margaret F; Baker, Cyndi; Jackson, Aaron; Lampman, Ralph; McIlraith, Brian; Moser, Mary L; Statler, David P; Young, William P; Wildbill, Andrew J; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing data can be mined for highly informative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to develop high-throughput genomic assays for nonmodel organisms. However, choosing a set of SNPs to address a variety of objectives can be difficult because SNPs are often not equally informative. We developed an optimal combination of 96 high-throughput SNP assays from a total of 4439 SNPs identified in a previous study of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) and used them to address four disparate objectives: parentage analysis, species identification and characterization of neutral and adaptive variation. Nine of these SNPs are FST outliers, and five of these outliers are localized within genes and significantly associated with geography, run-timing and dwarf life history. Two of the 96 SNPs were diagnostic for two other lamprey species that were morphologically indistinguishable at early larval stages and were sympatric in the Pacific Northwest. The majority (85) of SNPs in the panel were highly informative for parentage analysis, that is, putatively neutral with high minor allele frequency across the species' range. Results from three case studies are presented to demonstrate the broad utility of this panel of SNP markers in this species. As Pacific lamprey populations are undergoing rapid decline, these SNPs provide an important resource to address critical uncertainties associated with the conservation and recovery of this imperiled species. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. National gas survey: report to the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission by the Conservation-Technical Advisory Task Force on Efficiency in the Use of Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-06-01

    As the available supplies of natural gas diminish, it is imperative that existing supplies of gas be utilized in the most prudent manner. The most important stimulus to promote the wise use of gas is the price of gas itself. The inevitable rising prices of natural gas will continue to enhance the cost-effectiveness of many natural gas conservation strategies. It is widely recognized that there are significant opportunities to reduce the wasteful and inefficient use of gas and that some of the most cost-effective conservation strategies are being applied only locally or regionally. This paper identifies and analyzes methods that promote the efficient use of and conservation of natural gas. To assist in the evaluation of the methods, the relative cost of implementing each strategy and the impact on gas usage were identified. The Task Force has identified 25 energy-conservation strategies that may be useful to the homeowner. Solar-assisted gas hot-water heating is reviewed. In the near future, solar hot-water heating with natural gas as a backup may prove to be economically viable. Many of the strategies that may benefit the residential sector can be directly applied to many small commercial and industrial customers. Individual metering of tenants of a commercial building makes each user cognizant of his consumption. A methodology for identifying potential energy savings in commercial buildings is presented in Appendix C. Large commercial and industrial consumers often have unique process requirements for gas and no generalized approaches are available. Moreover, most of these consumers have the in-house technical expertise to identify gas-saving measures on a case-by-case basis. Appendix D provides a guide to energy conservation for industrial consumers. Incentives for implementing energy conservation are discussed in detail. (MCW)

  4. Alignment and prediction of cis-regulatory modules based on a probabilistic model of evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin He

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species comparison has emerged as a powerful paradigm for predicting cis-regulatory modules (CRMs and understanding their evolution. The comparison requires reliable sequence alignment, which remains a challenging task for less conserved noncoding sequences. Furthermore, the existing models of DNA sequence evolution generally do not explicitly treat the special properties of CRM sequences. To address these limitations, we propose a model of CRM evolution that captures different modes of evolution of functional transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs and the background sequences. A particularly novel aspect of our work is a probabilistic model of gains and losses of TFBSs, a process being recognized as an important part of regulatory sequence evolution. We present a computational framework that uses this model to solve the problems of CRM alignment and prediction. Our alignment method is similar to existing methods of statistical alignment but uses the conserved binding sites to improve alignment. Our CRM prediction method deals with the inherent uncertainties of binding site annotations and sequence alignment in a probabilistic framework. In simulated as well as real data, we demonstrate that our program is able to improve both alignment and prediction of CRM sequences over several state-of-the-art methods. Finally, we used alignments produced by our program to study binding site conservation in genome-wide binding data of key transcription factors in the Drosophila blastoderm, with two intriguing results: (i the factor-bound sequences are under strong evolutionary constraints even if their neighboring genes are not expressed in the blastoderm and (ii binding sites in distal bound sequences (relative to transcription start sites tend to be more conserved than those in proximal regions. Our approach is implemented as software, EMMA (Evolutionary Model-based cis-regulatory Module Analysis, ready to be applied in a broad biological context.

  5. ChIP-Seq-Annotated Heliconius erato Genome Highlights Patterns of cis-Regulatory Evolution in Lepidoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Lewis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Uncovering phylogenetic patterns of cis-regulatory evolution remains a fundamental goal for evolutionary and developmental biology. Here, we characterize the evolution of regulatory loci in butterflies and moths using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-seq annotation of regulatory elements across three stages of head development. In the process we provide a high-quality, functionally annotated genome assembly for the butterfly, Heliconius erato. Comparing cis-regulatory element conservation across six lepidopteran genomes, we find that regulatory sequences evolve at a pace similar to that of protein-coding regions. We also observe that elements active at multiple developmental stages are markedly more conserved than elements with stage-specific activity. Surprisingly, we also find that stage-specific proximal and distal regulatory elements evolve at nearly identical rates. Our study provides a benchmark for genome-wide patterns of regulatory element evolution in insects, and it shows that developmental timing of activity strongly predicts patterns of regulatory sequence evolution.

  6. An in vivo cis-regulatory screen at the type 2 diabetes associated TCF7L2 locus identifies multiple tissue-specific enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Savic

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have repeatedly shown an association between non-coding variants in the TCF7L2 locus and risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D, implicating a role for cis-regulatory variation within this locus in disease etiology. Supporting this hypothesis, we previously localized complex regulatory activity to the TCF7L2 T2D-associated interval using an in vivo bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC enhancer-trapping reporter strategy. To follow-up on this broad initial survey of the TCF7L2 regulatory landscape, we performed a fine-mapping enhancer scan using in vivo mouse transgenic reporter assays. We functionally interrogated approximately 50% of the sequences within the T2D-associated interval, utilizing sequence conservation within this 92-kb interval to determine the regulatory potential of all evolutionary conserved sequences that exhibited conservation to the non-eutherian mammal opossum. Included in this study was a detailed functional interrogation of sequences spanning both protective and risk alleles of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7903146, which has exhibited allele-specific enhancer function in pancreatic beta cells. Using these assays, we identified nine segments regulating various aspects of the TCF7L2 expression profile and that constitute nearly 70% of the sequences tested. These results highlight the regulatory complexity of this interval and support the notion that a TCF7L2 cis-regulatory disruption leads to T2D predisposition.

  7. Sequence analysis of the MYC oncogene involved in the t(8;14)(q24;q11) chromosome translocation in a human leukemia T-cell line indicates that putative regulatory regions are not altered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finver, S.N.; Nishikura, K.; Finger, L.R.; Haluska, F.G.; Finan, J.; Nowell, P.C.; Croce, C.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors cloned the translocation-associated and homologous normal MYC alleles from SKW-3, a leukemia T-cell line with the t(8; 14)(q24; q11) translocation, and determined the sequence of the MYC oncogene first exon and flanking 5' putative regulatory regions. S1 nuclease protection experiments utilizing a MYC first exon probe demonstrated transcriptional deregulation of the MYC gene associated with the T-cell receptor α locus on the 8q + chromosome of SKW-3 cells. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the translocation-associated (8q +) MYC allele identified a single base substitution within the upstream flanking region; the homologous nontranslocated allele contained an additional substitution and a two-base deletion. None of the deletions or substitutions localized to putative 5' regulatory regions. The MYC first exon sequence was germ line in both alleles. These results demonstrate that alterations within the putative 5' MYC regulatory regions are not necessarily involved in MYC deregulation in T-cell leukemias, and they show that juxtaposition of the T-cell receptor α locus to a germ-line MYC oncogene results in MYC deregulation

  8. Genes involved in complex adaptive processes tend to have highly conserved upstream regions in mammalian genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohane Isaac

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genome sequencing suggest a remarkable conservation in gene content of mammalian organisms. The similarity in gene repertoire present in different organisms has increased interest in studying regulatory mechanisms of gene expression aimed at elucidating the differences in phenotypes. In particular, a proximal promoter region contains a large number of regulatory elements that control the expression of its downstream gene. Although many studies have focused on identification of these elements, a broader picture on the complexity of transcriptional regulation of different biological processes has not been addressed in mammals. The regulatory complexity may strongly correlate with gene function, as different evolutionary forces must act on the regulatory systems under different biological conditions. We investigate this hypothesis by comparing the conservation of promoters upstream of genes classified in different functional categories. Results By conducting a rank correlation analysis between functional annotation and upstream sequence alignment scores obtained by human-mouse and human-dog comparison, we found a significantly greater conservation of the upstream sequence of genes involved in development, cell communication, neural functions and signaling processes than those involved in more basic processes shared with unicellular organisms such as metabolism and ribosomal function. This observation persists after controlling for G+C content. Considering conservation as a functional signature, we hypothesize a higher density of cis-regulatory elements upstream of genes participating in complex and adaptive processes. Conclusion We identified a class of functions that are associated with either high or low promoter conservation in mammals. We detected a significant tendency that points to complex and adaptive processes were associated with higher promoter conservation, despite the fact that they have emerged

  9. A conserved two-component regulatory system, PidS/PidR, globally regulates pigmentation and virulence-related phenotypes of Burkholderia glumae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Hari Sharan; Barphagha, Inderjit Kaur; Ham, Jong Hyun

    2012-09-01

    Burkholderia glumae is a rice pathogenic bacterium that causes bacterial panicle blight. Some strains of this pathogen produce dark brown pigments when grown on casamino-acid peptone glucose (CPG) agar medium. A pigment-positive and highly virulent strain of B. glumae, 411gr-6, was randomly mutagenized with mini-Tn5gus, and the resulting mini-Tn5gus derivatives showing altered pigmentation phenotypes were screened on CPG agar plates to identify the genetic elements governing the pigmentation of B. glumae. In this study, a novel two-component regulatory system (TCRS) composed of the PidS sensor histidine kinase and the PidR response regulator was identified as an essential regulatory factor for pigmentation. Notably, the PidS/PidR TCRS was also required for the elicitation of the hypersensitive response on tobacco leaves, indicating the dependence of the hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (Hrp) type III secretion system of B. glumae on this regulatory factor. In addition, B. glumae mutants defective in the PidS/PidR TCRS showed less production of the phytotoxin, toxoflavin, and less virulence on rice panicles and onion bulbs relative to the parental strain, 411gr-6. The presence of highly homologous PidS and PidR orthologues in other Burkholderia species suggests that PidS/PidR-family TCRSs may exert the same or similar functions in different Burkholderia species, including both plant and animal pathogens. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY © 2012 BSPP AND BLACKWELL PUBLISHING LTD.

  10. SRD: a Staphylococcus regulatory RNA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassi, Mohamed; Augagneur, Yoann; Mauro, Tony; Ivain, Lorraine; Chabelskaya, Svetlana; Hallier, Marc; Sallou, Olivier; Felden, Brice

    2015-05-01

    An overflow of regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) was identified in a wide range of bacteria. We designed and implemented a new resource for the hundreds of sRNAs identified in Staphylococci, with primary focus on the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. The "Staphylococcal Regulatory RNA Database" (SRD, http://srd.genouest.org/) compiled all published data in a single interface including genetic locations, sequences and other features. SRD proposes novel and simplified identifiers for Staphylococcal regulatory RNAs (srn) based on the sRNA's genetic location in S. aureus strain N315 which served as a reference. From a set of 894 sequences and after an in-depth cleaning, SRD provides a list of 575 srn exempt of redundant sequences. For each sRNA, their experimental support(s) is provided, allowing the user to individually assess their validity and significance. RNA-seq analysis performed on strains N315, NCTC8325, and Newman allowed us to provide further details, upgrade the initial annotation, and identified 159 RNA-seq independent transcribed sRNAs. The lists of 575 and 159 sRNAs sequences were used to predict the number and location of srns in 18 S. aureus strains and 10 other Staphylococci. A comparison of the srn contents within 32 Staphylococcal genomes revealed a poor conservation between species. In addition, sRNA structure predictions obtained with MFold are accessible. A BLAST server and the intaRNA program, which is dedicated to target prediction, were implemented. SRD is the first sRNA database centered on a genus; it is a user-friendly and scalable device with the possibility to submit new sequences that should spread in the literature. © 2015 Sassi et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  11. Selective constraints in experimentally defined primate regulatory regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Gaffney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in gene regulation may be important in evolution. However, the evolutionary properties of regulatory mutations are currently poorly understood. This is partly the result of an incomplete annotation of functional regulatory DNA in many species. For example, transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs, a major component of eukaryotic regulatory architecture, are typically short, degenerate, and therefore difficult to differentiate from randomly occurring, nonfunctional sequences. Furthermore, although sites such as TFBSs can be computationally predicted using evolutionary conservation as a criterion, estimates of the true level of selective constraint (defined as the fraction of strongly deleterious mutations occurring at a locus in regulatory regions will, by definition, be upwardly biased in datasets that are a priori evolutionarily conserved. Here we investigate the fitness effects of regulatory mutations using two complementary datasets of human TFBSs that are likely to be relatively free of ascertainment bias with respect to evolutionary conservation but, importantly, are supported by experimental data. The first is a collection of almost >2,100 human TFBSs drawn from the literature in the TRANSFAC database, and the second is derived from several recent high-throughput chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with genomic microarray (ChIP-chip analyses. We also define a set of putative cis-regulatory modules (pCRMs by spatially clustering multiple TFBSs that regulate the same gene. We find that a relatively high proportion ( approximately 37% of mutations at TFBSs are strongly deleterious, similar to that at a 2-fold degenerate protein-coding site. However, constraint is significantly reduced in human and chimpanzee pCRMS and ChIP-chip sequences, relative to macaques. We estimate that the fraction of regulatory mutations that have been driven to fixation by positive selection in humans is not significantly different from zero. We also find

  12. Genome-wide comparative analysis reveals human-mouse regulatory landscape and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denas, Olgert; Sandstrom, Richard; Cheng, Yong; Beal, Kathryn; Herrero, Javier; Hardison, Ross C; Taylor, James

    2015-02-14

    Because species-specific gene expression is driven by species-specific regulation, understanding the relationship between sequence and function of the regulatory regions in different species will help elucidate how differences among species arise. Despite active experimental and computational research, relationships among sequence, conservation, and function are still poorly understood. We compared transcription factor occupied segments (TFos) for 116 human and 35 mouse TFs in 546 human and 125 mouse cell types and tissues from the Human and the Mouse ENCODE projects. We based the map between human and mouse TFos on a one-to-one nucleotide cross-species mapper, bnMapper, that utilizes whole genome alignments (WGA). Our analysis shows that TFos are under evolutionary constraint, but a substantial portion (25.1% of mouse and 25.85% of human on average) of the TFos does not have a homologous sequence on the other species; this portion varies among cell types and TFs. Furthermore, 47.67% and 57.01% of the homologous TFos sequence shows binding activity on the other species for human and mouse respectively. However, 79.87% and 69.22% is repurposed such that it binds the same TF in different cells or different TFs in the same cells. Remarkably, within the set of repurposed TFos, the corresponding genome regions in the other species are preferred locations of novel TFos. These events suggest exaptation of some functional regulatory sequences into new function. Despite TFos repurposing, we did not find substantial changes in their predicted target genes, suggesting that CRMs buffer evolutionary events allowing little or no change in the TFos - target gene associations. Thus, the small portion of TFos with strictly conserved occupancy underestimates the degree of conservation of regulatory interactions. We mapped regulatory sequences from an extensive number of TFs and cell types between human and mouse using WGA. A comparative analysis of this correspondence unveiled the

  13. The identification and functional annotation of RNA structures conserved in vertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, Ernst Stefan; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain; Hansen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure-b......-structured counterparts. Our findings of transcribed uncharacterized regulatory regions that contain CRSs support their RNA-mediated functionality.......Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for Conserved RNA Structures (CRSs), leveraging structure......-based, rather than sequence-based, alignments. After careful correction for sequence identity and GC content, we predict ~516k human genomic regions containing CRSs. We find that a substantial fraction of human-mouse CRS regions (i) co-localize consistently with binding sites of the same RNA binding proteins...

  14. Comparative analysis of the full genome sequence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 and type 2 with other lyssaviruses and evidence for a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation motif in the G-L 3' non-translated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, D A; McElhinney, L M; Johnson, N; Müller, T; Conzelmann, K K; Tordo, N; Fooks, A R

    2007-04-01

    We report the first full-length genomic sequences for European bat lyssavirus type-1 (EBLV-1) and type-2 (EBLV-2). The EBLV-1 genomic sequence was derived from a virus isolated from a serotine bat in Hamburg, Germany, in 1968 and the EBLV-2 sequence was derived from a virus isolate from a human case of rabies that occurred in Scotland in 2002. A long-distance PCR strategy was used to amplify the open reading frames (ORFs), followed by standard and modified RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) techniques to amplify the 3' and 5' ends. The lengths of each complete viral genome for EBLV-1 and EBLV-2 were 11 966 and 11 930 base pairs, respectively, and follow the standard rhabdovirus genome organization of five viral proteins. Comparison with other lyssavirus sequences demonstrates variation in degrees of homology, with the genomic termini showing a high degree of complementarity. The nucleoprotein was the most conserved, both intra- and intergenotypically, followed by the polymerase (L), matrix and glyco- proteins, with the phosphoprotein being the most variable. In addition, we have shown that the two EBLVs utilize a conserved transcription termination and polyadenylation (TTP) motif, approximately 50 nt upstream of the L gene start codon. All available lyssavirus sequences to date, with the exception of Pasteur virus (PV) and PV-derived isolates, use the second TTP site. This observation may explain differences in pathogenicity between lyssavirus strains, dependent on the length of the untranslated region, which might affect transcriptional activity and RNA stability.

  15. Regulatory agencies and regulatory risk

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Weiß, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that regulatory risk is due to the discretionary behaviour of regulatory agencies, caused by a too extensive regulatory mandate provided by the legislator. The normative point of reference and a behavioural model of regulatory agencies based on the positive theory of regulation are presented. Regulatory risk with regard to the future behaviour of regulatory agencies is modelled as the consequence of the ex ante uncertainty about the relative influence of inter...

  16. Primary structure and promoter analysis of leghemoglobin genes of the stem-nodulated tropical legume Sesbania rostrata: conserved coding sequences, cis-elements and trans-acting factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metz, B A; Welters, P; Hoffmann, H J

    1988-01-01

    The primary structure of a leghemoglobin (lb) gene from the stem-nodulated, tropical legume Sesbania rostrata and two lb gene promoter regions was analysed. The S. rostrata lb gene structure and Lb amino acid composition were found to be highly conserved with previously described lb genes and Lb ...

  17. Implications of duplicated cis-regulatory elements in the evolution of metazoans: the DDI model or how simplicity begets novelty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Delgado, Senda; Pascual-Anaya, Juan; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The discovery that most regulatory genes were conserved among animals from distant phyla challenged the ideas that gene duplication and divergence of homologous coding sequences were the basis for major morphological changes in metazoan evolution. In recent years, however, the interest for the roles, conservation and changes of non-coding sequences grew-up in parallel with genome sequencing projects. Presently, many independent studies are highlighting the importance that subtle changes in cis-regulatory regions had in the evolution of morphology trough the Animal Kingdom. Here we will show and discuss some of these studies, and underscore the future of cis-Evo-Devo research. Nevertheless, we would also explore how gene duplication, which includes duplication of regulatory regions, may have been critical for spatial or temporal co-option of new regulatory networks, causing the deployment of new transcriptome scenarios, and how these induced morphological changes were critical for the evolution of new forms. Forty years after Susumu Ohno famous sentence 'natural selection merely modifies, while redundancy creates', we suggest the alternative: 'natural selection modifies, while redundancy of cis-regulatory elements innovates', and propose the Duplication-Degeneration-Innovation model to explain the increased evolvability of duplicated cis-regulatory regions. Paradoxically, making regulation simpler by subfunctionalization paved the path for future complexity or, in other words, 'to make it simple to make it complex'.

  18. Functional comparison of the nematode Hox gene lin-39 in C. elegans and P. pacificus reveals evolutionary conservation of protein function despite divergence of primary sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Grandien, Kaj; Sommer, Ralf J.

    2001-01-01

    Hox transcription factors have been implicated in playing a central role in the evolution of animal morphology. Many studies indicate the evolutionary importance of regulatory changes in Hox genes, but little is known about the role of functional changes in Hox proteins. In the nematodes Pristionchus pacificus and Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental processes can be compared at the cellular, genetic, and molecular levels and differences in gene function can be identified. The Hox gene lin-3...

  19. Comparative genome sequencing of drosophila pseudoobscura: Chromosomal, gene and cis-element evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Stephen; Liu, Yue; Bettencourt, Brian R.; Hradecky, Pavel; Letovsky, Stan; Nielsen, Rasmus; Thornton, Kevin; Todd, Melissa J.; Chen, Rui; Meisel, Richard P.; Couronne, Olivier; Hua, Sujun; Smith, Mark A.; Bussemaker, Harmen J.; van Batenburg, Marinus F.; Howells, Sally L.; Scherer, Steven E.; Sodergren, Erica; Matthews, Beverly B.; Crosby, Madeline A.; Schroeder, Andrew J.; Ortiz-Barrientos, Daniel; Rives, Catherine M.; Metzker, Michael L.; Muzny, Donna M.; Scott, Graham; Steffen, David; Wheeler, David A.; Worley, Kim C.; Havlak, Paul; Durbin, K. James; Egan, Amy; Gill, Rachel; Hume, Jennifer; Morgan, Margaret B.; Miner, George; Hamilton, Cerissa; Huang, Yanmei; Waldron, Lenee; Verduzco, Daniel; Blankenburg, Kerstin P.; Dubchak, Inna; Noor, Mohamed A.F.; Anderson, Wyatt; White, Kevin P.; Clark, Andrew G.; Schaeffer, Stephen W.; Gelbart, William; Weinstock, George M.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2004-04-01

    The genome sequence of a second fruit fly, D. pseudoobscura, presents an opportunity for comparative analysis of a primary model organism D. melanogaster. The vast majority of Drosophila genes have remained on the same arm, but within each arm gene order has been extensively reshuffled leading to the identification of approximately 1300 syntenic blocks. A repetitive sequence is found in the D. pseudoobscura genome at many junctions between adjacent syntenic blocks. Analysis of this novel repetitive element family suggests that recombination between offset elements may have given rise to many paracentric inversions, thereby contributing to the shuffling of gene order in the D. pseudoobscura lineage. Based on sequence similarity and synteny, 10,516 putative orthologs have been identified as a core gene set conserved over 35 My since divergence. Genes expressed in the testes had higher amino acid sequence divergence than the genome wide average consistent with the rapid evolution of sex-specific proteins. Cis-regulatory sequences are more conserved than control sequences between the species but the difference is slight, suggesting that the evolution of cis-regulatory elements is flexible. Overall, a picture of repeat mediated chromosomal rearrangement, and high co-adaptation of both male genes and cis-regulatory sequences emerges as important themes of genome divergence between these species of Drosophila.

  20. Validation of Skeletal Muscle cis-Regulatory Module Predictions Reveals Nucleotide Composition Bias in Functional Enhancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Andrew T.; Chou, Alice Yi; Arenillas, David J.; Wasserman, Wyeth W.

    2011-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs) using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions. PMID:22144875

  1. Validation of skeletal muscle cis-regulatory module predictions reveals nucleotide composition bias in functional enhancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Kwon

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a genome-wide scan for muscle-specific cis-regulatory modules (CRMs using three computational prediction programs. Based on the predictions, 339 candidate CRMs were tested in cell culture with NIH3T3 fibroblasts and C2C12 myoblasts for capacity to direct selective reporter gene expression to differentiated C2C12 myotubes. A subset of 19 CRMs validated as functional in the assay. The rate of predictive success reveals striking limitations of computational regulatory sequence analysis methods for CRM discovery. Motif-based methods performed no better than predictions based only on sequence conservation. Analysis of the properties of the functional sequences relative to inactive sequences identifies nucleotide sequence composition can be an important characteristic to incorporate in future methods for improved predictive specificity. Muscle-related TFBSs predicted within the functional sequences display greater sequence conservation than non-TFBS flanking regions. Comparison with recent MyoD and histone modification ChIP-Seq data supports the validity of the functional regions.

  2. Mechanistically Distinct Pathways of Divergent Regulatory DNA Creation Contribute to Evolution of Human-Specific Genomic Regulatory Networks Driving Phenotypic Divergence of Homo sapiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinsky, Gennadi V

    2016-09-19

    Thousands of candidate human-specific regulatory sequences (HSRS) have been identified, supporting the hypothesis that unique to human phenotypes result from human-specific alterations of genomic regulatory networks. Collectively, a compendium of multiple diverse families of HSRS that are functionally and structurally divergent from Great Apes could be defined as the backbone of human-specific genomic regulatory networks. Here, the conservation patterns analysis of 18,364 candidate HSRS was carried out requiring that 100% of bases must remap during the alignments of human, chimpanzee, and bonobo sequences. A total of 5,535 candidate HSRS were identified that are: (i) highly conserved in Great Apes; (ii) evolved by the exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA; (iii) defined by either the acceleration of mutation rates on the human lineage or the functional divergence from non-human primates. The exaptation of highly conserved ancestral DNA pathway seems mechanistically distinct from the evolution of regulatory DNA segments driven by the species-specific expansion of transposable elements. Genome-wide proximity placement analysis of HSRS revealed that a small fraction of topologically associating domains (TADs) contain more than half of HSRS from four distinct families. TADs that are enriched for HSRS and termed rapidly evolving in humans TADs (revTADs) comprise 0.8-10.3% of 3,127 TADs in the hESC genome. RevTADs manifest distinct correlation patterns between placements of human accelerated regions, human-specific transcription factor-binding sites, and recombination rates. There is a significant enrichment within revTAD boundaries of hESC-enhancers, primate-specific CTCF-binding sites, human-specific RNAPII-binding sites, hCONDELs, and H3K4me3 peaks with human-specific enrichment at TSS in prefrontal cortex neurons (P sapiens is driven by the evolution of human-specific genomic regulatory networks via at least two mechanistically distinct pathways of creation of

  3. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  4. CodonLogo: a sequence logo-based viewer for codon patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Virag; Murphy, David P; Provan, Gregory; Baranov, Pavel V

    2012-07-15

    Conserved patterns across a multiple sequence alignment can be visualized by generating sequence logos. Sequence logos show each column in the alignment as stacks of symbol(s) where the height of a stack is proportional to its informational content, whereas the height of each symbol within the stack is proportional to its frequency in the column. Sequence logos use symbols of either nucleotide or amino acid alphabets. However, certain regulatory signals in messenger RNA (mRNA) act as combinations of codons. Yet no tool is available for visualization of conserved codon patterns. We present the first application which allows visualization of conserved regions in a multiple sequence alignment in the context of codons. CodonLogo is based on WebLogo3 and uses the same heuristics but treats codons as inseparable units of a 64-letter alphabet. CodonLogo can discriminate patterns of codon conservation from patterns of nucleotide conservation that appear indistinguishable in standard sequence logos. The CodonLogo source code and its implementation (in a local version of the Galaxy Browser) are available at http://recode.ucc.ie/CodonLogo and through the Galaxy Tool Shed at http://toolshed.g2.bx.psu.edu/.

  5. Identification of bacteria pathogenic to or associated with onion (Allium cepa) based on sequence differences in a portion of the conserved gyrase B gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasera, Jean M; Asselin, Jo Ann E; Beer, Steven V

    2014-08-01

    We have developed a method for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria, particularly members of the Enterobacteriaceae, based on sequence variation in a portion of the gyrB gene. Thus, we identified, in most cases to species level, over 1000 isolates from onion bulbs and leaves and soil in which onions were grown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Multiple regulatory mechanisms of hepatocyte growth factor expression in malignant cells with a short poly(dA) sequence in the HGF gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kazuko; Takeda, Masayuki; Okamoto, Isamu; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nishio, Kazuto

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) expression is a poor prognostic factor in various types of cancer. Expression levels of HGF have been reported to be regulated by shorter poly(dA) sequences in the promoter region. In the present study, the poly(dA) mononucleotide tract in various types of human cancer cell lines was examined and compared with the HGF expression levels in those cells. Short deoxyadenosine repeat sequences were detected in five of the 55 cell lines used in the present study. The H69, IM95, CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells exhibited a truncated poly(dA) sequence in which the number of poly(dA) repeats was reduced by ≥5 bp. Two of the cell lines exhibited high HGF expression, determined by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells with shorter poly(dA) sequences exhibited low HGF expression. The cause of the suppression of HGF expression in the CCK-81, Sui73 and H28 cells was clarified by two approaches, suppression by methylation and single nucleotide polymorphisms in the HGF gene. Exposure to 5-Aza-dC, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase 1, induced an increased expression of HGF in the CCK-81 cells, but not in the other cells. Single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs72525097 in intron 1 was detected in the Sui73 and H28 cells. Taken together, it was found that the defect of poly(dA) in the HGF promoter was present in various types of cancer, including lung, stomach, colorectal, pancreas and mesothelioma. The present study proposes the negative regulation mechanisms by methylation and SNP in intron 1 of HGF for HGF expression in cancer cells with short poly(dA).

  7. Identification of co-expression gene networks, regulatory genes and pathways for obesity based on adipose tissue RNA Sequencing in a porcine model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogelman, Lisette; Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Zhernakova, Daria V.

    2014-01-01

    interactions. Identification of co-expressed and regulatory genes in RNA extracted from relevant tissues representing lean and obese individuals provides an entry point for the identification of genes and pathways of importance to the development of obesity. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is an excellent model...... (modules). Additionally, regulator genes were detected using Lemon-Tree algorithms. Results WGCNA revealed five modules which were strongly correlated with at least one obesity-related phenotype (correlations ranging from -0.54 to 0.72, P ... the association between obesity and other diseases, like osteoporosis (osteoclast differentiation, P = 1.4E-7), and immune-related complications (e.g. Natural killer cell mediated cytotoxity, P = 3.8E-5; B cell receptor signaling pathway, P = 7.2E-5). Lemon-Tree identified three potential regulator genes, using...

  8. Functional evolution of cis-regulatory modules at a homeotic gene in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret C W Ho

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is a long-held belief in evolutionary biology that the rate of molecular evolution for a given DNA sequence is inversely related to the level of functional constraint. This belief holds true for the protein-coding homeotic (Hox genes originally discovered in Drosophila melanogaster. Expression of the Hox genes in Drosophila embryos is essential for body patterning and is controlled by an extensive array of cis-regulatory modules (CRMs. How the regulatory modules functionally evolve in different species is not clear. A comparison of the CRMs for the Abdominal-B gene from different Drosophila species reveals relatively low levels of overall sequence conservation. However, embryonic enhancer CRMs from other Drosophila species direct transgenic reporter gene expression in the same spatial and temporal patterns during development as their D. melanogaster orthologs. Bioinformatic analysis reveals the presence of short conserved sequences within defined CRMs, representing gap and pair-rule transcription factor binding sites. One predicted binding site for the gap transcription factor KRUPPEL in the IAB5 CRM was found to be altered in Superabdominal (Sab mutations. In Sab mutant flies, the third abdominal segment is transformed into a copy of the fifth abdominal segment. A model for KRUPPEL-mediated repression at this binding site is presented. These findings challenge our current understanding of the relationship between sequence evolution at the molecular level and functional activity of a CRM. While the overall sequence conservation at Drosophila CRMs is not distinctive from neighboring genomic regions, functionally critical transcription factor binding sites within embryonic enhancer CRMs are highly conserved. These results have implications for understanding mechanisms of gene expression during embryonic development, enhancer function, and the molecular evolution of eukaryotic regulatory modules.

  9. The Activity of Escherichia coli Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase Is Dependent on a Conserved Loop Identified by Sequence Homology, Mutagenesis, and Limited Proteolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnberg, Olof; Grüner, Anne Charlotte; Roepstorff, Peter

    1999-01-01

    of dihydroorotate dehydrogenases, but sedimentation in sucrose gradients suggests a dimeric structure also of the E. coli enzyme. Product inhibition showed that the E. coli enzyme, in contrast to the L. lactis enzyme, has separate binding sites for dihydroorotate and the electron acceptor. Trypsin readily cleaved...... the E. coli enzyme into two fragments of 182 and 154 residues, respectively. Cleavage reduced the activity more than 100-fold but left other molecular properties, including the heat stability, intact. The trypsin cleavage site, at R182, is positioned in a conserved region that, in the L. lactis enzyme......, forms a loop where a cysteine residue is very critical for activity. In the corresponding position, the enzyme from E. coli has a serine residue. Mutagenesis of this residue (S175) to alanine or cysteine reduced the activities 10000- and 500-fold, respectively. The S175C mutant was also defective...

  10. Global MLST of Salmonella Typhi Revisited in Post-Genomic Era: Genetic conservation, Population Structure and Comparative genomics of rare sequence types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien-Pong eYap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, remains an important public health burden in Southeast Asia and other endemic countries. Various genotyping methods have been applied to study the genetic variations of this human-restricted pathogen. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST is one of the widely accepted methods, and recently, there is a growing interest in the re-application of MLST in the post-genomic era. In this study, we provide the global MLST distribution of S. Typhi utilizing both publicly available 1,826 S. Typhi genome sequences in addition to performing conventional MLST on S. Typhi strains isolated from various endemic regions spanning over a century. Our global MLST analysis confirms the predominance of two sequence types (ST1 and ST2 co-existing in the endemic regions. Interestingly, S. Typhi strains with ST8 are currently confined within the African continent. Comparative genomic analyses of ST8 and other rare STs with genomes of ST1/ST2 revealed unique mutations in important virulence genes such as flhB, sipC and tviD that may explain the variations that differentiate between seemingly successful (widespread and unsuccessful (poor dissemination S. Typhi populations. Large scale whole-genome phylogeny demonstrated evidence of phylogeographical structuring and showed that ST8 may have diverged from the earlier ancestral population of ST1 and ST2, which later lost some of its fitness advantages, leading to poor worldwide dissemination. In response to the unprecedented increase in genomic data, this study demonstrates and highlights the utility of large-scale genome-based MLST as a quick and effective approach to narrow the scope of in-depth comparative genomic analysis and consequently provide new insights into the fine scale of pathogen evolution and population structure.

  11. B and T Cell Epitope-Based Peptides Predicted from Evolutionarily Conserved and Whole Protein Sequences of Ebola Virus as Vaccine Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasmin, T; Nabi, A H M Nurun

    2016-05-01

    Ebola virus (EBV) has become a serious threat to public health. Different approaches were applied to predict continuous and discontinuous B cell epitopes as well as T cell epitopes from the sequence-based and available three-dimensional structural analyses of each protein of EBV. Peptides '(79) VPSATKRWGFRSGVPP(94) ' from GP1 and '(515) LHYWTTQDEGAAIGLA(530) ' from GP2 of Ebola were found to be the consensus peptidic sequences predicted as linear B cell epitope of which the latter contains a region (519) TTQDEG(524) that fulfilled all the criteria of accessibility, hydrophilicity, flexibility and beta turn region for becoming an ideal B cell epitope. Different nonamers as T cell epitopes were obtained that interacted with different numbers of MHC class I and class II alleles with a binding affinity of <100 nm. Interestingly, these alleles also bound to the MHC class I alleles mostly prevalent in African and South Asian regions. Of these, 'LANETTQAL' and 'FLYDRLAST' nonamers were predicted to be the most potent T cell epitopes and they, respectively, interacted with eight and twelve class I alleles that covered 63.79% and 54.16% of world population, respectively. These nonamers were found to be the core sequences of 15mer peptides that interacted with the most common class II allele, HLA-DRB1*01:01. They were further validated for their binding to specific class I alleles using docking technique. Thus, these predicted epitopes may be used as vaccine targets against EBV and can be validated in model hosts to verify their efficacy as vaccine. © 2016 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  12. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  13. Genomic Investigation Reveals Highly Conserved, Mosaic, Recombination Events Associated with Capsular Switching among Invasive Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup W Sequence Type (ST)-11 Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mustapha M; Marsh, Jane W; Krauland, Mary G; Fernandez, Jorge O; de Lemos, Ana Paula S; Dunning Hotopp, Julie C; Wang, Xin; Mayer, Leonard W; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Hiller, N Luisa; Harrison, Lee H

    2016-07-03

    Neisseria meningitidis is an important cause of meningococcal disease globally. Sequence type (ST)-11 clonal complex (cc11) is a hypervirulent meningococcal lineage historically associated with serogroup C capsule and is believed to have acquired the W capsule through a C to W capsular switching event. We studied the sequence of capsule gene cluster (cps) and adjoining genomic regions of 524 invasive W cc11 strains isolated globally. We identified recombination breakpoints corresponding to two distinct recombination events within W cc11: A 8.4-kb recombinant region likely acquired from W cc22 including the sialic acid/glycosyl-transferase gene, csw resulted in a C→W change in capsular phenotype and a 13.7-kb recombinant segment likely acquired from Y cc23 lineage includes 4.5 kb of cps genes and 8.2 kb downstream of the cps cluster resulting in allelic changes in capsule translocation genes. A vast majority of W cc11 strains (497/524, 94.8%) retain both recombination events as evidenced by sharing identical or very closely related capsular allelic profiles. These data suggest that the W cc11 capsular switch involved two separate recombination events and that current global W cc11 meningococcal disease is caused by strains bearing this mosaic capsular switch. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  14. 14 CFR 313.4 - Major regulatory actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT § 313.4 Major regulatory... of actions shall not be deemed as major regulatory actions requiring an energy statement: (1) Tariff...

  15. Characterization of mutations of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit, PIK3R2, in perisylvian polymicrogyria: a next generation sequencing study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaa, Ghayda; Conti, Valerio; Timms, Andrew E.; Smyser, Christopher D.; Ahmed, Sarah; Carter, Melissa; Barnett, Sarah; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Goldstein, Amy; Narumi-Kishimoto, Yoko; Olds, Carissa; Collins, Sarah; Johnston, Kathreen; Deleuze, Jean-François; Nitschké, Patrick; Friend, Kathryn; Harris, Catharine; Goetsch, Allison; Martin, Beth; Boyle, Evan August; Parrini, Elena; Mei, Davide; Tattini, Lorenzo; Slavotinek, Anne; Blair, Ed; Barnett, Christopher; Shendure, Jay; Chelly, Jamel; Dobyns, William B.; Guerrini, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP), the most common form of regional polymicrogyria, causes the congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome, featuring oromotor dysfunction, cognitive impairment and epilepsy. BPP is etiologically heterogeneous, but only a few genetic causes have been reported. The aim of this study was to identify additional genetic etiologies of BPP and delineate their frequency in this patient population. Methods We performed child-parent (trio)-based whole exome sequencing (WES) on eight children with BPP. Following the identification of mosaic PIK3R2 mutations in two of these eight children, we performed targeted screening of PIK3R2 in a cohort of 118 children with BPP who were ascertained from 1980 until 2015 using two methods. First, we performed targeted sequencing of the entire PIK3R2 gene by single molecule molecular inversion probes (smMIPs) on 38 patients with BPP with normal-large head size. Second, we performed amplicon sequencing of the recurrent PIK3R2 mutation (p.Gly373Arg) on 80 children with various types of polymicrogyria including BPP. One additional patient underwent clinical WES independently, and was included in this study given the phenotypic similarity to our cohort. All patients included in this study were children (BPP. Of the 38 patients with BPP and normal-large head size who underwent targeted next generation sequencing by smMIPs, we identified constitutional and mosaic PIK3R2 mutations in 17 additional children. In parallel, one patient was found to have the recurrent PIK3R2 mutation by clinical WES. Seven patients had BPP alone, and 13 had BPP in association with features of the megalencephaly-polymicrogyria-polydactyly-hydrocephalus syndrome (MPPH). Nineteen patients had the same mutation (Gly373Arg), and one had a nearby missense mutation (p.Lys376Glu). Across the entire cohort, mutations were constitutional in 12 and mosaic in eight patients. Among mosaic patients, we observed substantial

  16. A phase III randomized study on the sequencing of radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the conservative management of early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcangeli, Giorgio; Pinnaro, Paola; Rambone, Rita; Giannarelli, Diana; Benassi, Marcello

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To compare two different timings of radiation treatment in patients with breast cancer who underwent conservative surgery and were candidates to receive adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 206 patients who had quadrantectomy and axillary dissection for breast cancer and were planned to receive adjuvant CMF chemotherapy were randomized to concurrent or sequential radiotherapy. Radiotherapy was delivered only to the whole breast through tangential fields to a dose of 50 Gy in 20 fractions over 4 weeks, followed by an electron boost of 10-15 Gy in 4-6 fractions to the tumor bed. Results: No differences in 5-year breast recurrence-free, metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival were observed in the two treatment groups. All patients completed the planned radiotherapy. No evidence of an increased risk of toxicity was observed between the two arms. No difference in radiotherapy and in the chemotherapy dose intensity was observed in the two groups. Conclusions: In patients with negative surgical margins receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy can be delayed to up to 7 months. Concurrent administration of CMF chemotherapy and radiotherapy is safe and might be reserved for patients at high risk of local recurrence, such as those with positive surgical margins or larger tumor diameters

  17. A Regulatory MDM4 Genetic Variant Locating in the Binding Sequence of Multiple MicroRNAs Contributes to Susceptibility of Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gao

    Full Text Available A functional rs4245739 A>C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP locating in the MDM43'-untranslated (3'-UTR region creates a miR-191-5p or miR-887-3p targeting sites. This change results in decreased expression of oncogene MDM4. Therefore, we examined the association between this SNP and small cell lung cancer (SCLC risk as well as its regulatory function in SCLC cells. Genotypes were determined in two independent case-control sets consisted of 520SCLC cases and 1040 controls from two regions of China. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated by logistic regression. The impact of the rs4245739 SNP on miR-191-5p/miR-887-3p mediated MDM4 expression regulation was investigated using luciferase reporter gene assays. We found that the MDM4 rs4245739AC and CC genotypes were significantly associated with decreased SCLC susceptibility compared with the AA genotype in both case-control sets (Shandong set: OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.32-0.89, P = 0.014; Jiangsu set: OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.26-0.879, P = 0.017. Stratified analyses indicated that there was a significantly multiplicative interaction between rs4245739 and smoking (Pinteractioin = 0.048. After co-tranfection of miRNAs and different allelic-MDM4 reporter constructs into SCLC cells, we found that the both miR-191-5p and miR-887-3p can lead to significantly decreased MDM4 expression activities in the construct with C-allelic 3'-UTR but not A-allelic 3'-UTR, suggesting a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation. Our data illuminate that the MDM4rs4245739SNP contributes to SCLC risk and support the notion that gene 3'-UTR genetic variants, impacting miRNA-binding, might modify SCLC susceptibility.

  18. Initial high-resolution microscopic mapping of active and inactive regulatory sequences proves non-random 3D arrangements in chromatin domain clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Marion; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Markaki, Yolanda; Hellmann, Ines; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; John, Sam; Stamatoyannopoulos, John; Cremer, Thomas

    2017-08-07

    The association of active transcription regulatory elements (TREs) with DNAse I hypersensitivity (DHS[+]) and an 'open' local chromatin configuration has long been known. However, the 3D topography of TREs within the nuclear landscape of individual cells in relation to their active or inactive status has remained elusive. Here, we explored the 3D nuclear topography of active and inactive TREs in the context of a recently proposed model for a functionally defined nuclear architecture, where an active and an inactive nuclear compartment (ANC-INC) form two spatially co-aligned and functionally interacting networks. Using 3D structured illumination microscopy, we performed 3D FISH with differently labeled DNA probe sets targeting either sites with DHS[+], apparently active TREs, or DHS[-] sites harboring inactive TREs. Using an in-house image analysis tool, DNA targets were quantitatively mapped on chromatin compaction shaped 3D nuclear landscapes. Our analyses present evidence for a radial 3D organization of chromatin domain clusters (CDCs) with layers of increasing chromatin compaction from the periphery to the CDC core. Segments harboring active TREs are significantly enriched at the decondensed periphery of CDCs with loops penetrating into interchromatin compartment channels, constituting the ANC. In contrast, segments lacking active TREs (DHS[-]) are enriched toward the compacted interior of CDCs (INC). Our results add further evidence in support of the ANC-INC network model. The different 3D topographies of DHS[+] and DHS[-] sites suggest positional changes of TREs between the ANC and INC depending on their functional state, which might provide additional protection against an inappropriate activation. Our finding of a structural organization of CDCs based on radially arranged layers of different chromatin compaction levels indicates a complex higher-order chromatin organization beyond a dichotomic classification of chromatin into an 'open,' active and 'closed

  19. Systematic discovery of regulatory motifs in Fusarium graminearum by comparing four Fusarium genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kistler Corby

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fusarium graminearum (Fg, a major fungal pathogen of cultivated cereals, is responsible for billions of dollars in agriculture losses. There is a growing interest in understanding the transcriptional regulation of this organism, especially the regulation of genes underlying its pathogenicity. The generation of whole genome sequence assemblies for Fg and three closely related Fusarium species provides a unique opportunity for such a study. Results Applying comparative genomics approaches, we developed a computational pipeline to systematically discover evolutionarily conserved regulatory motifs in the promoter, downstream and the intronic regions of Fg genes, based on the multiple alignments of sequenced Fusarium genomes. Using this method, we discovered 73 candidate regulatory motifs in the promoter regions. Nearly 30% of these motifs are highly enriched in promoter regions of Fg genes that are associated with a specific functional category. Through comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc and Schizosaccharomyces pombe (Sp, we observed conservation of transcription factors (TFs, their binding sites and the target genes regulated by these TFs related to pathways known to respond to stress conditions or phosphate metabolism. In addition, this study revealed 69 and 39 conserved motifs in the downstream regions and the intronic regions, respectively, of Fg genes. The top intronic motif is the splice donor site. For the downstream regions, we noticed an intriguing absence of the mammalian and Sc poly-adenylation signals among the list of conserved motifs. Conclusion This study provides the first comprehensive list of candidate regulatory motifs in Fg, and underscores the power of comparative genomics in revealing functional elements among related genomes. The conservation of regulatory pathways among the Fusarium genomes and the two yeast species reveals their functional significance, and provides new insights in their

  20. A regulatory code for neuron-specific odor receptor expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandasankar Ray

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs must select-from a large repertoire-which odor receptors to express. In Drosophila, most ORNs express one of 60 Or genes, and most Or genes are expressed in a single ORN class in a process that produces a stereotyped receptor-to-neuron map. The construction of this map poses a problem of receptor gene regulation that is remarkable in its dimension and about which little is known. By using a phylogenetic approach and the genome sequences of 12 Drosophila species, we systematically identified regulatory elements that are evolutionarily conserved and specific for individual Or genes of the maxillary palp. Genetic analysis of these elements supports a model in which each receptor gene contains a zip code, consisting of elements that act positively to promote expression in a subset of ORN classes, and elements that restrict expression to a single ORN class. We identified a transcription factor, Scalloped, that mediates repression. Some elements are used in other chemosensory organs, and some are conserved upstream of axon-guidance genes. Surprisingly, the odor response spectra and organization of maxillary palp ORNs have been extremely well-conserved for tens of millions of years, even though the amino acid sequences of the receptors are not highly conserved. These results, taken together, define the logic by which individual ORNs in the maxillary palp select which odor receptors to express.

  1. Genome-wide identification and comparative analysis of conserved and novel microRNAs in grafted watermelon by high-throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Yang, Jinghua; Guo, Shaogui; Xu, Yong; Zhang, Mingfang

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenous small non-coding RNAs involved in the post-transcriptional gene regulation and play a critical role in plant growth, development and stresses response. However less is known about miRNAs involvement in grafting behaviors, especially with the watermelon (Citrullus lanatus L.) crop, which is one of the most important agricultural crops worldwide. Grafting method is commonly used in watermelon production in attempts to improve its adaptation to abiotic and biotic stresses, in particular to the soil-borne fusarium wilt disease. In this study, Solexa sequencing has been used to discover small RNA populations and compare miRNAs on genome-wide scale in watermelon grafting system. A total of 11,458,476, 11,614,094 and 9,339,089 raw reads representing 2,957,751, 2,880,328 and 2,964,990 unique sequences were obtained from the scions of self-grafted watermelon and watermelon grafted on-to bottle gourd and squash at two true-leaf stage, respectively. 39 known miRNAs belonging to 30 miRNA families and 80 novel miRNAs were identified in our small RNA dataset. Compared with self-grafted watermelon, 20 (5 known miRNA families and 15 novel miRNAs) and 47 (17 known miRNA families and 30 novel miRNAs) miRNAs were expressed significantly different in watermelon grafted on to bottle gourd and squash, respectively. MiRNAs expressed differentially when watermelon was grafted onto different rootstocks, suggesting that miRNAs might play an important role in diverse biological and metabolic processes in watermelon and grafting may possibly by changing miRNAs expressions to regulate plant growth and development as well as adaptation to stresses. The small RNA transcriptomes obtained in this study provided insights into molecular aspects of miRNA-mediated regulation in grafted watermelon. Obviously, this result would provide a basis for further unravelling the mechanism on how miRNAs information is exchanged between scion and rootstock in grafted

  2. Phylogenetic analysis reveals conservation and diversification of micro RNA166 genes among diverse plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, Suvakanta; SarkarDas, Shabari; Singh, Archita; Gautam, Vibhav; Kumar, Pramod; Majee, Manoj; Sarkar, Ananda K

    2014-01-01

    Similar to the majority of the microRNAs, mature miR166s are derived from multiple members of MIR166 genes (precursors) and regulate various aspects of plant development by negatively regulating their target genes (Class III HD-ZIP). The evolutionary conservation or functional diversification of miRNA166 family members remains elusive. Here, we show the phylogenetic relationships among MIR166 precursor and mature sequences from three diverse model plant species. Despite strong conservation, some mature miR166 sequences, such as ppt-miR166m, have undergone sequence variation. Critical sequence variation in ppt-miR166m has led to functional diversification, as it targets non-HD-ZIPIII gene transcript (s). MIR166 precursor sequences have diverged in a lineage specific manner, and both precursors and mature osa-miR166i/j are highly conserved. Interestingly, polycistronic MIR166s were present in Physcomitrella and Oryza but not in Arabidopsis. The nature of cis-regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of MIR166 genes indicates their possible contribution to the functional variation observed among miR166 species. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis Implicate the Regulatory Role of a Long Noncoding RNA-mRNA Network in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Can-Jie; Xiao, Xiao; Sheng, Li; Chen, Lili; Zhong, Wei; Li, Hai; Hua, Jing; Ma, Xiong

    2017-01-01

    To analyze the long noncoding (lncRNA)-mRNA expression network and potential roles in rat hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) during activation. LncRNA expression was analyzed in quiescent and culture-activated HSCs by RNA sequencing, and differentially expressed lncRNAs verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) were subjected to bioinformatics analysis. In vivo analyses of differential lncRNA-mRNA expression were performed on a rat model of liver fibrosis. We identified upregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 155 mRNAs and downregulation of 12 lncRNAs and 374 mRNAs in activated HSCs. Additionally, we identified the differential expression of upregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT012636.2, NONRATT016788.2, and NONRATT021402.2) and downregulated lncRNAs (NONRATT007863.2, NONRATT019720.2, and NONRATT024061.2) in activated HSCs relative to levels observed in quiescent HSCs, and Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses showed that changes in lncRNAs associated with HSC activation revealed 11 significantly enriched pathways according to their predicted targets. Moreover, based on the predicted co-expression network, the relative dynamic levels of NONRATT013819.2 and lysyl oxidase (Lox) were compared during HSC activation both in vitro and in vivo. Our results confirmed the upregulation of lncRNA NONRATT013819.2 and Lox mRNA associated with the extracellular matrix (ECM)-related signaling pathway in HSCs and fibrotic livers. Our results detailing a dysregulated lncRNA-mRNA network might provide new treatment strategies for hepatic fibrosis based on findings indicating potentially critical roles for NONRATT013819.2 and Lox in ECM remodeling during HSC activation. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. The regulatory network of cluster-root function and development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus) identified by transcriptome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengrui; Straub, Daniel; Yang, Huaiyu; Kania, Angelika; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2014-07-01

    Lupinus albus serves as model plant for root-induced mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphates via the formation of cluster-roots (CRs) that mediate secretion of protons, citrate, phenolics and acid phosphatases (APases). This study employed next-generation sequencing to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind these complex adaptive responses at the transcriptome level. We compared different stages of CR development, including pre-emergent (PE), juvenile (JU) and the mature (MA) stages. The results confirmed that the primary metabolism underwent significant modifications during CR maturation, promoting the biosynthesis of organic acids, as had been deduced from physiological studies. Citrate catabolism was downregulated, associated with citrate accumulation in MA clusters. Upregulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway reflected the accumulation of phenolics. Specific transcript expression of ALMT and MATE transporter genes correlated with the exudation of citrate and flavonoids. The expression of transcripts related to nucleotide degradation and APases in MA clusters coincided with the re-mobilization and hydrolysis of organic phosphate resources. Most interestingly, hormone-related gene expression suggested a central role of ethylene during CR maturation. This was associated with the upregulation of the iron (Fe)-deficiency regulated network that mediates ethylene-induced expression of Fe-deficiency responses in other species. Finally, transcripts related to abscisic acid and jasmonic acid were upregulated in MA clusters, while auxin- and brassinosteroid-related genes and cytokinin receptors were most strongly expressed during CR initiation. Key regulations proposed by the RNA-seq data were confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and some physiological analyses. A model for the gene network regulating CR development and function is presented. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Sequencing of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) following conservative surgery (CS) for patients with early-stage breast cancer: results of a randomized trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR

    1995-07-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of different sequences of CT and RT following CS for pts with clinical Stage I or II breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 6/84-12/92, 244 pts were randomized following CS to receive CT (4 cycles of CAMFP at 3-wk intervals) either before or after RT. Median pt age was 45 yrs (range, 20-68). 164 pts were pre-, 18 pts peri-, and 62 pts were postmenopausal. 209 pts were node-positive (61 had 4 or more positive nodes); after 6/88, 35 selected node-negative pts were also included. 45 Gy was prescribed to the entire breast, followed by a boost of 16 Gy; nodal RT was optional. The medians ( and ranges) of the surgery-radiotherapy interval (SRI) according to assigned arm were: RT-first, 36 days (14-234); CT-first, 126 days (98-185). Drug doses were based on ideal body weight. Doses (per square meter) and schedule were: methotrexate, 200 mg, d.1 and 15; leucovorin, 10 mg, q6H x 12, start d.2 and 16; 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, d.1; cyclophosphamide, 500 mg, d.1; prednisone, 40 mg/day x 5d, start d.1; and doxorubicin, 45 mg, d.3. All except leucovorin and prednisone were given by IV bolus. Dose reductions were based on the granulocyte nadir from the previous cycle, with an attempt to reescalate doses in subsequent cycles. Tamoxifen 10 mg BID was prescribed to postmenopausal pts with ER+ tumors following both RT and CT. 4 pts were ineligible due to prior malignancies, 2 pts on the RT-first arm refused their assigned sequence and received CT first, 2 pts on the RT-first arm and 1 pt on the CT-first arm refused to start or complete CT, 1 pt on the CT-arm underwent elective mastectomy prior to starting RT, and 1 pt on each arm received nonprotocol CT. Possible prognostic factors including age, menopausal status, ERP status, nodal status, and lymphatic vessel invasion were distributed nearly uniformly between the 2 arms. There was an excess of pts with EIC-positive tumors on the RT-first arm (25%) compared to the CT-first arm (11%) (p-bar=0

  6. Sequencing of chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) following conservative surgery (CS) for patients with early-stage breast cancer: results of a randomized trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recht, A; Come, SE; Silver, B; Gelman, RS; Hayes, DF; Shulman, LN; Henderson, IC; Harris, JR

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the effects of different sequences of CT and RT following CS for pts with clinical Stage I or II breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 6/84-12/92, 244 pts were randomized following CS to receive CT (4 cycles of CAMFP at 3-wk intervals) either before or after RT. Median pt age was 45 yrs (range, 20-68). 164 pts were pre-, 18 pts peri-, and 62 pts were postmenopausal. 209 pts were node-positive (61 had 4 or more positive nodes); after 6/88, 35 selected node-negative pts were also included. 45 Gy was prescribed to the entire breast, followed by a boost of 16 Gy; nodal RT was optional. The medians ( and ranges) of the surgery-radiotherapy interval (SRI) according to assigned arm were: RT-first, 36 days (14-234); CT-first, 126 days (98-185). Drug doses were based on ideal body weight. Doses (per square meter) and schedule were: methotrexate, 200 mg, d.1 and 15; leucovorin, 10 mg, q6H x 12, start d.2 and 16; 5-fluorouracil, 500 mg, d.1; cyclophosphamide, 500 mg, d.1; prednisone, 40 mg/day x 5d, start d.1; and doxorubicin, 45 mg, d.3. All except leucovorin and prednisone were given by IV bolus. Dose reductions were based on the granulocyte nadir from the previous cycle, with an attempt to reescalate doses in subsequent cycles. Tamoxifen 10 mg BID was prescribed to postmenopausal pts with ER+ tumors following both RT and CT. 4 pts were ineligible due to prior malignancies, 2 pts on the RT-first arm refused their assigned sequence and received CT first, 2 pts on the RT-first arm and 1 pt on the CT-first arm refused to start or complete CT, 1 pt on the CT-arm underwent elective mastectomy prior to starting RT, and 1 pt on each arm received nonprotocol CT. Possible prognostic factors including age, menopausal status, ERP status, nodal status, and lymphatic vessel invasion were distributed nearly uniformly between the 2 arms. There was an excess of pts with EIC-positive tumors on the RT-first arm (25%) compared to the CT-first arm (11%) (p-bar=0

  7. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, François; Strömvik, Martina V

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP) gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards), Fabaceae (legumes) and Poaceae (grasses) using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like) in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination of conserved motifs

  8. Seed storage protein gene promoters contain conserved DNA motifs in Brassicaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauteux François

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs is difficult, particularly in eukaryotic promoters, which typically contain multiple short and degenerate DNA sequences bound by several interacting factors. Enrichment in combinations of rare motifs in the promoter sequence of functionally or evolutionarily related genes among several species is an indicator of conserved transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. This provides a basis for the computational identification of cis-regulatory motifs. Results We have used a discriminative seeding DNA motif discovery algorithm for an in-depth analysis of 54 seed storage protein (SSP gene promoters from three plant families, namely Brassicaceae (mustards, Fabaceae (legumes and Poaceae (grasses using backgrounds based on complete sets of promoters from a representative species in each family, namely Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. and rice (Oryza sativa L. respectively. We have identified three conserved motifs (two RY-like and one ACGT-like in Brassicaceae and Fabaceae SSP gene promoters that are similar to experimentally characterized seed-specific cis-regulatory elements. Fabaceae SSP gene promoter sequences are also enriched in a novel, seed-specific E2Fb-like motif. Conserved motifs identified in Poaceae SSP gene promoters include a GCN4-like motif, two prolamin-box-like motifs and an Skn-1-like motif. Evidence of the presence of a variant of the TATA-box is found in the SSP gene promoters from the three plant families. Motifs discovered in SSP gene promoters were used to score whole-genome sets of promoters from Arabidopsis, soybean and rice. The highest-scoring promoters are associated with genes coding for different subunits or precursors of seed storage proteins. Conclusion Seed storage protein gene promoter motifs are conserved in diverse species, and different plant families are characterized by a distinct combination

  9. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  10. Complete genome sequence and comparative genomic analysis of Mycobacterium massiliense JCM 15300 in the Mycobacterium abscessus group reveal a conserved genomic island MmGI-1 related to putative lipid metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sekizuka

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium abscessus group subsp., such as M. massiliense, M. abscessus sensu stricto and M. bolletii, are an environmental organism found in soil, water and other ecological niches, and have been isolated from respiratory tract infection, skin and soft tissue infection, postoperative infection of cosmetic surgery. To determine the unique genetic feature of M. massiliense, we sequenced the complete genome of M. massiliense type strain JCM 15300 (corresponding to CCUG 48898. Comparative genomic analysis was performed among Mycobacterium spp. and among M. abscessus group subspp., showing that additional ß-oxidation-related genes and, notably, the mammalian cell entry (mce operon were located on a genomic island, M. massiliense Genomic Island 1 (MmGI-1, in M. massiliense. In addition, putative anaerobic respiration system-related genes and additional mycolic acid cyclopropane synthetase-related genes were found uniquely in M. massiliense. Japanese isolates of M. massiliense also frequently possess the MmGI-1 (14/44, approximately 32% and three unique conserved regions (26/44; approximately 60%, 34/44; approximately 77% and 40/44; approximately 91%, as well as isolates of other countries (Malaysia, France, United Kingdom and United States. The well-conserved genomic island MmGI-1 may play an important role in high growth potential with additional lipid metabolism, extra factors for survival in the environment or synthesis of complex membrane-associated lipids. ORFs on MmGI-1 showed similarities to ORFs of phylogenetically distant M. avium complex (MAC, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer or genetic recombination events might have occurred within MmGI-1 among M. massiliense and MAC.

  11. Expression profiling and comparative sequence derived insights into lipid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callow, Matthew J.; Rubin, Edward M.

    2001-12-19

    Expression profiling and genomic DNA sequence comparisons are increasingly being applied to the identification and analysis of the genes involved in lipid metabolism. Not only has genome-wide expression profiling aided in the identification of novel genes involved in important processes in lipid metabolism such as sterol efflux, but the utilization of information from these studies has added to our understanding of the regulation of pathways participating in the process. Coupled with these gene expression studies, cross species comparison, searching for sequences conserved through evolution, has proven to be a powerful tool to identify important non-coding regulatory sequences as well as the discovery of novel genes relevant to lipid biology. An example of the value of this approach was the recent chance discovery of a new apolipoprotein gene (apo AV) that has dramatic effects upon triglyceride metabolism in mice and humans.

  12. The Evolution of Bony Vertebrate Enhancers at Odds with Their Coding Sequence Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Aisha; Sohail Raza, Muhammad; Ali Abbasi, Amir

    2015-08-06

    Enhancers lie at the heart of transcriptional and developmental gene regulation. Therefore, changes in enhancer sequences usually disrupt the target gene expression and result in disease phenotypes. Despite the well-established role of enhancers in development and disease, evolutionary sequence studies are lacking. The current study attempts to unravel the puzzle of bony vertebrates' conserved noncoding elements (CNE) enhancer evolution. Bayesian phylogenetics of enhancer sequences spotlights promising interordinal relationships among placental mammals, proposing a closer relationship between humans and laurasiatherians while placing rodents at the basal position. Clock-based estimates of enhancer evolution provided a dynamic picture of interspecific rate changes across the bony vertebrate lineage. Moreover, coelacanth in the study augmented our appreciation of the vertebrate cis-regulatory evolution during water-land transition. Intriguingly, we observed a pronounced upsurge in enhancer evolution in land-dwelling vertebrates. These novel findings triggered us to further investigate the evolutionary trend of coding as well as CNE nonenhancer repertoires, to highlight the relative evolutionary dynamics of diverse genomic landscapes. Surprisingly, the evolutionary rates of enhancer sequences were clearly at odds with those of the coding and the CNE nonenhancer sequences during vertebrate adaptation to land, with land vertebrates exhibiting significantly reduced rates of coding sequence evolution in comparison to their fast evolving regulatory landscape. The observed variation in tetrapod cis-regulatory elements caused the fine-tuning of associated gene regulatory networks. Therefore, the increased evolutionary rate of tetrapods' enhancer sequences might be responsible for the variation in developmental regulatory circuits during the process of vertebrate adaptation to land. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  13. GANN: Genetic algorithm neural networks for the detection of conserved combinations of features in DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beiko Robert G

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The multitude of motif detection algorithms developed to date have largely focused on the detection of patterns in primary sequence. Since sequence-dependent DNA structure and flexibility may also play a role in protein-DNA interactions, the simultaneous exploration of sequence- and structure-based hypotheses about the composition of binding sites and the ordering of features in a regulatory region should be considered as well. The consideration of structural features requires the development of new detection tools that can deal with data types other than primary sequence. Results GANN (available at http://bioinformatics.org.au/gann is a machine learning tool for the detection of conserved features in DNA. The software suite contains programs to extract different regions of genomic DNA from flat files and convert these sequences to indices that reflect sequence and structural composition or the presence of specific protein binding sites. The machine learning component allows the classification of different types of sequences based on subsamples of these indices, and can identify the best combinations of indices and machine learning architecture for sequence discrimination. Another key feature of GANN is the replicated splitting of data into training and test sets, and the implementation of negative controls. In validation experiments, GANN successfully merged important sequence and structural features to yield good predictive models for synthetic and real regulatory regions. Conclusion GANN is a flexible tool that can search through large sets of sequence and structural feature combinations to identify those that best characterize a set of sequences.

  14. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes, and transcriptomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaochun; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yao, Qiuju; Yuan, Yuxiang; Li, Xixiang; Wei, Fang; Zhao, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wusheng; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2015-01-01

    Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis) is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS) has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa) and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H (+) -ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants from a mi

  15. The miRNAs and their regulatory networks responsible for pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS Chinese cabbage revealed by high-throughput sequencing of miRNAs, degradomes and transcriptomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun eWei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis is one of the most important vegetables in Asia and is cultivated across the world. Ogura-type cytoplasmic male sterility (Ogura-CMS has been widely used in the hybrid breeding industry for Chinese cabbage and many other cruciferous vegetables. Although, the cause of Ogura-CMS has been localized to the orf138 locus in the mitochondrial genome, however, the mechanism by which nuclear genes respond to the mutation of the mitochondrial orf138 locus is unclear. In this study, a series of whole genome small RNA, degradome and transcriptome analyses were performed on both Ogura-CMS and its maintainer Chinese cabbage buds using deep sequencing technology. A total of 289 known miRNAs derived from 69 families (including 23 new families first reported in B. rapa and 426 novel miRNAs were identified. Among these novel miRNAs, both 3-p and 5-p miRNAs were detected on the hairpin arms of 138 precursors. Ten known and 49 novel miRNAs were down-regulated, while one known and 27 novel miRNAs were up-regulated in Ogura-CMS buds compared to the fertile plants. Using degradome analysis, a total of 376 mRNAs were identified as targets of 30 known miRNA families and 100 novel miRNAs. A large fraction of the targets were annotated as reproductive development related. Our transcriptome profiling revealed that the expression of the targets was finely tuned by the miRNAs. Two novel miRNAs were identified that were specifically highly expressed in Ogura-CMS buds and sufficiently suppressed two pollen development essential genes: sucrose transporter SUC1 and H+-ATPase 6. These findings provide clues for the contribution of a potential miRNA regulatory network to bud development and pollen engenderation. This study contributes new insights to the communication between the mitochondria and chromosome and takes one step toward filling the gap in the regulatory network from the orf138 locus to pollen abortion in Ogura-CMS plants

  16. The Evolution of the Secreted Regulatory Protein Progranulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger G E Palfree

    Full Text Available Progranulin is a secreted growth factor that is active in tumorigenesis, wound repair, and inflammation. Haploinsufficiency of the human progranulin gene, GRN, causes frontotemporal dementia. Progranulins are composed of chains of cysteine-rich granulin modules. Modules may be released from progranulin by proteolysis as 6kDa granulin polypeptides. Both intact progranulin and some of the granulin polypeptides are biologically active. The granulin module occurs in certain plant proteases and progranulins are present in early diverging metazoan clades such as the sponges, indicating their ancient evolutionary origin. There is only one Grn gene in mammalian genomes. More gene-rich Grn families occur in teleost fish with between 3 and 6 members per species including short-form Grns that have no tetrapod counterparts. Our goals are to elucidate progranulin and granulin module evolution by investigating (i: the origins of metazoan progranulins (ii: the evolutionary relationships between the single Grn of tetrapods and the multiple Grn genes of fish (iii: the evolution of granulin module architectures of vertebrate progranulins (iv: the conservation of mammalian granulin polypeptide sequences and how the conserved granulin amino acid sequences map to the known three dimensional structures of granulin modules. We report that progranulin-like proteins are present in unicellular eukaryotes that are closely related to metazoa suggesting that progranulin is among the earliest extracellular regulatory proteins still employed by multicellular animals. From the genomes of the elephant shark and coelacanth we identified contemporary representatives of a precursor for short-from Grn genes of ray-finned fish that is lost in tetrapods. In vertebrate Grns pathways of exon duplication resulted in a conserved module architecture at the amino-terminus that is frequently accompanied by an unusual pattern of tandem nearly identical module repeats near the carboxyl

  17. The Evolution of the Secreted Regulatory Protein Progranulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfree, Roger G E; Bennett, Hugh P J; Bateman, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Progranulin is a secreted growth factor that is active in tumorigenesis, wound repair, and inflammation. Haploinsufficiency of the human progranulin gene, GRN, causes frontotemporal dementia. Progranulins are composed of chains of cysteine-rich granulin modules. Modules may be released from progranulin by proteolysis as 6kDa granulin polypeptides. Both intact progranulin and some of the granulin polypeptides are biologically active. The granulin module occurs in certain plant proteases and progranulins are present in early diverging metazoan clades such as the sponges, indicating their ancient evolutionary origin. There is only one Grn gene in mammalian genomes. More gene-rich Grn families occur in teleost fish with between 3 and 6 members per species including short-form Grns that have no tetrapod counterparts. Our goals are to elucidate progranulin and granulin module evolution by investigating (i): the origins of metazoan progranulins (ii): the evolutionary relationships between the single Grn of tetrapods and the multiple Grn genes of fish (iii): the evolution of granulin module architectures of vertebrate progranulins (iv): the conservation of mammalian granulin polypeptide sequences and how the conserved granulin amino acid sequences map to the known three dimensional structures of granulin modules. We report that progranulin-like proteins are present in unicellular eukaryotes that are closely related to metazoa suggesting that progranulin is among the earliest extracellular regulatory proteins still employed by multicellular animals. From the genomes of the elephant shark and coelacanth we identified contemporary representatives of a precursor for short-from Grn genes of ray-finned fish that is lost in tetrapods. In vertebrate Grns pathways of exon duplication resulted in a conserved module architecture at the amino-terminus that is frequently accompanied by an unusual pattern of tandem nearly identical module repeats near the carboxyl-terminus. Polypeptide

  18. RNA expression in a cartilaginous fish cell line reveals ancient 3′ noncoding regions highly conserved in vertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest, David; Nishikawa, Ryuhei; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Parton, Angela; Bayne, Christopher J.; Barnes, David W.

    2007-01-01

    We have established a cartilaginous fish cell line [Squalus acanthias embryo cell line (SAE)], a mesenchymal stem cell line derived from the embryo of an elasmobranch, the spiny dogfish shark S. acanthias. Elasmobranchs (sharks and rays) first appeared >400 million years ago, and existing species provide useful models for comparative vertebrate cell biology, physiology, and genomics. Comparative vertebrate genomics among evolutionarily distant organisms can provide sequence conservation information that facilitates identification of critical coding and noncoding regions. Although these genomic analyses are informative, experimental verification of functions of genomic sequences depends heavily on cell culture approaches. Using ESTs defining mRNAs derived from the SAE cell line, we identified lengthy and highly conserved gene-specific nucleotide sequences in the noncoding 3′ UTRs of eight genes involved in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Conserved noncoding 3′ mRNA regions detected by using the shark nucleotide sequences as a starting point were found in a range of other vertebrate orders, including bony fish, birds, amphibians, and mammals. Nucleotide identity of shark and human in these regions was remarkably well conserved. Our results indicate that highly conserved gene sequences dating from the appearance of jawed vertebrates and representing potential cis-regulatory elements can be identified through the use of cartilaginous fish as a baseline. Because the expression of genes in the SAE cell line was prerequisite for their identification, this cartilaginous fish culture system also provides a physiologically valid tool to test functional hypotheses on the role of these ancient conserved sequences in comparative cell biology. PMID:17227856

  19. Third-Generation Sequencing and Analysis of Four Complete Pig Liver Esterase Gene Sequences in Clones Identified by Screening BAC Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiongqiong; Sun, Wenjuan; Liu, Xiyan; Wang, Xiliang; Xiao, Yuncai; Bi, Dingren; Yin, Jingdong; Shi, Deshi

    2016-01-01

    Pig liver carboxylesterase (PLE) gene sequences in GenBank are incomplete, which has led to difficulties in studying the genetic structure and regulation mechanisms of gene expression of PLE family genes. The aim of this study was to obtain and analysis of complete gene sequences of PLE family by screening from a Rongchang pig BAC library and third-generation PacBio gene sequencing. After a number of existing incomplete PLE isoform gene sequences were analysed, primers were designed based on conserved regions in PLE exons, and the whole pig genome used as a template for Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Specific primers were then selected based on the PCR amplification results. A three-step PCR screening method was used to identify PLE-positive clones by screening a Rongchang pig BAC library and PacBio third-generation sequencing was performed. BLAST comparisons and other bioinformatics methods were applied for sequence analysis. Five PLE-positive BAC clones, designated BAC-10, BAC-70, BAC-75, BAC-119 and BAC-206, were identified. Sequence analysis yielded the complete sequences of four PLE genes, PLE1, PLE-B9, PLE-C4, and PLE-G2. Complete PLE gene sequences were defined as those containing regulatory sequences, exons, and introns. It was found that, not only did the PLE exon sequences of the four genes show a high degree of homology, but also that the intron sequences were highly similar. Additionally, the regulatory region of the genes contained two 720bps reverse complement sequences that may have an important function in the regulation of PLE gene expression. This is the first report to confirm the complete sequences of four PLE genes. In addition, the study demonstrates that each PLE isoform is encoded by a single gene and that the various genes exhibit a high degree of sequence homology, suggesting that the PLE family evolved from a single ancestral gene. Obtaining the complete sequences of these PLE genes provides the necessary foundation for

  20. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  1. Regulatory Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.; Vetterlein, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Regulatory governance frameworks have become essential building blocks of world society. From supply chains to the regimes surrounding international organizations, extensive governance frameworks have emerged which structure and channel a variety of social exchanges, including economic, political...... by the International Transitional Administrations (ITAs) in Kosovo and Iraq as well as global supply chains and their impact on the garment industry in Bangladesh....

  2. Comparative analysis of regulatory elements between Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae by genome-wide transcription start site profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghyuk Kim

    Full Text Available Genome-wide transcription start site (TSS profiles of the enterobacteria Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were experimentally determined through modified 5' RACE followed by deep sequencing of intact primary mRNA. This identified 3,746 and 3,143 TSSs for E. coli and K. pneumoniae, respectively. Experimentally determined TSSs were then used to define promoter regions and 5' UTRs upstream of coding genes. Comparative analysis of these regulatory elements revealed the use of multiple TSSs, identical sequence motifs of promoter and Shine-Dalgarno sequence, reflecting conserved gene expression apparatuses between the two species. In both species, over 70% of primary transcripts were expressed from operons having orthologous genes during exponential growth. However, expressed orthologous genes in E. coli and K. pneumoniae showed a strikingly different organization of upstream regulatory regions with only 20% identical promoters with TSSs in both species. Over 40% of promoters had TSSs identified in only one species, despite conserved promoter sequences existing in the other species. 662 conserved promoters having TSSs in both species resulted in the same number of comparable 5' UTR pairs, and that regulatory element was found to be the most variant region in sequence among promoter, 5' UTR, and ORF. In K. pneumoniae, 48 sRNAs were predicted and 36 of them were expressed during exponential growth. Among them, 34 orthologous sRNAs between two species were analyzed in depth, and the analysis showed that many sRNAs of K. pneumoniae, including pleiotropic sRNAs such as rprA, arcZ, and sgrS, may work in the same way as in E. coli. These results reveal a new dimension of comparative genomics such that a comparison of two genomes needs to be comprehensive over all levels of genome organization.

  3. A Simple Predictive Enhancer Syntax for Hindbrain Patterning Is Conserved in Vertebrate Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Grice

    Full Text Available Determining the function of regulatory elements is fundamental for our understanding of development, disease and evolution. However, the sequence features that mediate these functions are often unclear and the prediction of tissue-specific expression patterns from sequence alone is non-trivial. Previous functional studies have demonstrated a link between PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP binding interactions and hindbrain enhancer activity, but the defining grammar of these sites, if any exists, has remained elusive.Here, we identify a shared sequence signature (syntax within a heterogeneous set of conserved vertebrate hindbrain enhancers composed of spatially co-occurring PBX-HOX and MEIS/PREP transcription factor binding motifs. We use this syntax to accurately predict hindbrain enhancers in 89% of cases (67/75 predicted elements from a set of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs. Furthermore, mutagenesis of the sites abolishes activity or generates ectopic expression, demonstrating their requirement for segmentally restricted enhancer activity in the hindbrain. We refine and use our syntax to predict over 3,000 hindbrain enhancers across the human genome. These sequences tend to be located near developmental transcription factors and are enriched in known hindbrain activating elements, demonstrating the predictive power of this simple model.Our findings support the theory that hundreds of CNEs, and perhaps thousands of regions across the human genome, function to coordinate gene expression in the developing hindbrain. We speculate that deeply conserved sequences of this kind contributed to the co-option of new genes into the hindbrain gene regulatory network during early vertebrate evolution by linking patterns of hox expression to downstream genes involved in segmentation and patterning, and evolutionarily newer instances may have continued to contribute to lineage-specific elaboration of the hindbrain.

  4. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  5. 78 FR 44275 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... Rights. National Park Service--Completed Actions Regulation Sequence No. Title Identifier No. 200 Winter.... Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/13 Final Action 05/00/14 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required...: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 10/00/14 Final Action 10/00/14 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes...

  6. Discovery of Conservation and Diversification of miR171 Genes by Phylogenetic Analysis based on Global Genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The microRNA171 (miR171 family is widely distributed and highly conserved in a range of species and plays critical roles in regulating plant growth and development through repressing expression of ( transcription factors. However, information on the evolutionary conservation and functional diversification of the miRNA171 family members remains scanty. We reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among miR171 precursor and mature sequences so as to investigate the extent and degree of evolutionary conservation of miR171 in (L. Heynh. (ath, grape ( L. (vvi, poplar ( Torr. & A.Gray ex Hook. (ptc, and rice ( L. (osa. Despite strong conservation of over 80%, some mature miR171 sequences, such as , and and , -, and -, have undergone critical sequence variation, leading to functional diversification, since they target non gene transcript(s. Phylogenetic analyses revealed a combination of old ancestral relationships and recent lineage-specific diversification in the miR171 family within the four model plants. The -regulatory motifs on the upstream promoter sequences of genes were highly divergent and shared some similar elements, indicating their possible contribution to the functional variation observed within the miR171 family. This study will buttress our understanding of the functional differentiation of miRNAs and the relationships of miRNA–target pairs based on the evolutionary history of genes.

  7. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  8. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  9. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  10. Analysis of the conservation of synteny between Fugu and human chromosome 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koop Ben F

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pufferfish Fugu rubripes (Fugu with its compact genome is increasingly recognized as an important vertebrate model for comparative genomic studies. In particular, large regions of conserved synteny between human and Fugu genomes indicate its utility to identify disease-causing genes. The human chromosome 12p12 is frequently deleted in various hematological malignancies and solid tumors, but the actual tumor suppressor gene remains unidentified. Results We investigated approximately 200 kb of the genomic region surrounding the ETV6 locus in Fugu (fETV6 in order to find conserved functional features, such as genes or regulatory regions, that could give insight into the nature of the genes targeted by deletions in human cancer cells. Seven genes were identified near the fETV6 locus. We found that the synteny with human chromosome 12 was conserved, but extensive genomic rearrangements occurred between the Fugu and human ETV6 loci. Conclusion This comparative analysis led to the identification of previously uncharacterized genes in the human genome and some potentially important regulatory sequences as well. This is a good indication that the analysis of the compact Fugu genome will be valuable to identify functional features that have been conserved throughout the evolution of vertebrates.

  11. Computational identification of developmental enhancers:conservation and function of transcription factor binding-site clustersin drosophila melanogaster and drosophila psedoobscura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Benjamin P.; Pfeiffer, Barret D.; Laverty, Todd R.; Salzberg, Steven L.; Rubin, Gerald M.; Eisen, Michael B.; Celniker, SusanE.

    2004-08-06

    The identification of sequences that control transcription in metazoans is a major goal of genome analysis. In a previous study, we demonstrated that searching for clusters of predicted transcription factor binding sites could discover active regulatory sequences, and identified 37 regions of the Drosophila melanogaster genome with high densities of predicted binding sites for five transcription factors involved in anterior-posterior embryonic patterning. Nine of these clusters overlapped known enhancers. Here, we report the results of in vivo functional analysis of 27 remaining clusters. We generated transgenic flies carrying each cluster attached to a basal promoter and reporter gene, and assayed embryos for reporter gene expression. Six clusters are enhancers of adjacent genes: giant, fushi tarazu, odd-skipped, nubbin, squeeze and pdm2; three drive expression in patterns unrelated to those of neighboring genes; the remaining 18 do not appear to have enhancer activity. We used the Drosophila pseudoobscura genome to compare patterns of evolution in and around the 15 positive and 18 false-positive predictions. Although conservation of primary sequence cannot distinguish true from false positives, conservation of binding-site clustering accurately discriminates functional binding-site clusters from those with no function. We incorporated conservation of binding-site clustering into a new genome-wide enhancer screen, and predict several hundred new regulatory sequences, including 85 adjacent to genes with embryonic patterns. Measuring conservation of sequence features closely linked to function--such as binding-site clustering--makes better use of comparative sequence data than commonly used methods that examine only sequence identity.

  12. Predictive regulatory models in Drosophila melanogaster by integrative inference of transcriptional networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Daniel; Roy, Sushmita; Ay, Ferhat; Meyer, Patrick E.; Candeias, Rogerio; Kahveci, Tamer; Bristow, Christopher A.; Kellis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Gaining insights on gene regulation from large-scale functional data sets is a grand challenge in systems biology. In this article, we develop and apply methods for transcriptional regulatory network inference from diverse functional genomics data sets and demonstrate their value for gene function and gene expression prediction. We formulate the network inference problem in a machine-learning framework and use both supervised and unsupervised methods to predict regulatory edges by integrating transcription factor (TF) binding, evolutionarily conserved sequence motifs, gene expression, and chromatin modification data sets as input features. Applying these methods to Drosophila melanogaster, we predict ∼300,000 regulatory edges in a network of ∼600 TFs and 12,000 target genes. We validate our predictions using known regulatory interactions, gene functional annotations, tissue-specific expression, protein–protein interactions, and three-dimensional maps of chromosome conformation. We use the inferred network to identify putative functions for hundreds of previously uncharacterized genes, including many in nervous system development, which are independently confirmed based on their tissue-specific expression patterns. Last, we use the regulatory network to predict target gene expression levels as a function of TF expression, and find significantly higher predictive power for integrative networks than for motif or ChIP-based networks. Our work reveals the complementarity between physical evidence of regulatory interactions (TF binding, motif conservation) and functional evidence (coordinated expression or chromatin patterns) and demonstrates the power of data integration for network inference and studies of gene regulation at the systems level. PMID:22456606

  13. Predictive regulatory models in Drosophila melanogaster by integrative inference of transcriptional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marbach, Daniel; Roy, Sushmita; Ay, Ferhat; Meyer, Patrick E; Candeias, Rogerio; Kahveci, Tamer; Bristow, Christopher A; Kellis, Manolis

    2012-07-01

    Gaining insights on gene regulation from large-scale functional data sets is a grand challenge in systems biology. In this article, we develop and apply methods for transcriptional regulatory network inference from diverse functional genomics data sets and demonstrate their value for gene function and gene expression prediction. We formulate the network inference problem in a machine-learning framework and use both supervised and unsupervised methods to predict regulatory edges by integrating transcription factor (TF) binding, evolutionarily conserved sequence motifs, gene expression, and chromatin modification data sets as input features. Applying these methods to Drosophila melanogaster, we predict ∼300,000 regulatory edges in a network of ∼600 TFs and 12,000 target genes. We validate our predictions using known regulatory interactions, gene functional annotations, tissue-specific expression, protein-protein interactions, and three-dimensional maps of chromosome conformation. We use the inferred network to identify putative functions for hundreds of previously uncharacterized genes, including many in nervous system development, which are independently confirmed based on their tissue-specific expression patterns. Last, we use the regulatory network to predict target gene expression levels as a function of TF expression, and find significantly higher predictive power for integrative networks than for motif or ChIP-based networks. Our work reveals the complementarity between physical evidence of regulatory interactions (TF binding, motif conservation) and functional evidence (coordinated expression or chromatin patterns) and demonstrates the power of data integration for network inference and studies of gene regulation at the systems level.

  14. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  15. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  16. Discovery of cis-elements between sorghum and rice using co-expression and evolutionary conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haberer Georg

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression largely depends on the presence and absence of cis-regulatory sites in the promoter. In the economically highly important grass family, our knowledge of transcription factor binding sites and transcriptional networks is still very limited. With the completion of the sorghum genome and the available rice genome sequence, comparative promoter analyses now allow genome-scale detection of conserved cis-elements. Results In this study, we identified thousands of phylogenetic footprints conserved between orthologous rice and sorghum upstream regions that are supported by co-expression information derived from three different rice expression data sets. In a complementary approach, cis-motifs were discovered by their highly conserved co-occurrence in syntenic promoter pairs. Sequence conservation and matches to known plant motifs support our findings. Expression similarities of gene pairs positively correlate with the number of motifs that are shared by gene pairs and corroborate the importance of similar promoter architectures for concerted regulation. This strongly suggests that these motifs function in the regulation of transcript levels in rice and, presumably also in sorghum. Conclusion Our work provides the first large-scale collection of cis-elements for rice and sorghum and can serve as a paradigm for cis-element analysis through comparative genomics in grasses in general.

  17. Yeast genome sequencing:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piskur, Jure; Langkjær, Rikke Breinhold

    2004-01-01

    For decades, unicellular yeasts have been general models to help understand the eukaryotic cell and also our own biology. Recently, over a dozen yeast genomes have been sequenced, providing the basis to resolve several complex biological questions. Analysis of the novel sequence data has shown...... of closely related species helps in gene annotation and to answer how many genes there really are within the genomes. Analysis of non-coding regions among closely related species has provided an example of how to determine novel gene regulatory sequences, which were previously difficult to analyse because...... they are short and degenerate and occupy different positions. Comparative genomics helps to understand the origin of yeasts and points out crucial molecular events in yeast evolutionary history, such as whole-genome duplication and horizontal gene transfer(s). In addition, the accumulating sequence data provide...

  18. CONREAL web server: identification and visualization of conserved transcription factor binding sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berezikov, E.; Guryev, V.; Cuppen, E.

    2005-01-01

    The use of orthologous sequences and phylogenetic footprinting approaches have become popular for the recognition of conserved and potentially functional sequences. Several algorithms have been developed for the identification of conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs), which are

  19. Functional conservation of the Drosophila gooseberry gene and its evolutionary alleles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    Full Text Available The Drosophila Pax gene gooseberry (gsb is required for development of the larval cuticle and CNS, survival to adulthood, and male fertility. These functions can be rescued in gsb mutants by two gsb evolutionary alleles, gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3, which express the Drosophila Paired and mouse Pax3 proteins under the control of gooseberry cis-regulatory region. Therefore, both Paired and Pax3 proteins have conserved all the Gsb functions that are required for survival of embryos to fertile adults, despite the divergent primary sequences in their C-terminal halves. As gsb-Prd and gsb-Pax3 uncover a gsb function involved in male fertility, construction of evolutionary alleles may provide a powerful strategy to dissect hitherto unknown gene functions. Our results provide further evidence for the essential role of cis-regulatory regions in the functional diversification of duplicated genes during evolution.

  20. Biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation: What role can economic instruments play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ring, I.; Drechsler, M.; Teeffelen, van A.J.A.; Irawan, S.; Venter, O.

    2010-01-01

    Tradable permits and intergovernmental fiscal transfers play an increasing role in both biodiversity conservation and climate mitigation. In comparison to regulatory and planning approaches these economic instruments offer a more flexible and cost-effective approach to biodiversity conservation.

  1. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  2. The Regulatory Independence of FANR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ALNuaimi, Fatema; Choi, Kwang Shik [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Regulatory independence is meant to provide a conservative system of policy making in order to comply with the problems that are forecasted upon the basis of assumptions. The Federal Authorization of Nuclear Regulation (FANR) is a regulatory commission that was formed to be regulatory body that governs the generation of nuclear power in United Arab Emirates. It was established under the UAE nuclear law (9/2009) as an independent regulatory body that was tasked with the regulation of all nuclear activities in the United Arab Emirates. As an independent body, FANR was tasked with ensuring that the regulation of the nuclear sector is done in effective and transparent manner to ensure its accountability to the people. Being independent, the regulatory body develops national nuclear regulations based on laid down safety standards by the International Atomic Energy Agency, ensuring that they are based on scientific and proven technologies The role of FANR is to ensure that the all corporations that undertake nuclear activities follow the laid down procedures and objectives and ensure safety measures are taken keenly to ensure the safety of the workers and the general public while at the same time ensuring the environment is free from nuclear radiations

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of bench-marking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  5. Regulatory Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per J.; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators. The appli......Benchmarking methods, and in particular Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), have become well-established and informative tools for economic regulation. DEA is now routinely used by European regulators to set reasonable revenue caps for energy transmission and distribution system operators....... The application of benchmarking in regulation, however, requires specific steps in terms of data validation, model specification and outlier detection that are not systematically documented in open publications, leading to discussions about regulatory stability and economic feasibility of these techniques...

  6. Characterization of Cer-1 cis-regulatory region during early Xenopus development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana Cristina; Filipe, Mário; Steinbeisser, Herbert; Belo, José António

    2011-05-01

    Cerberus-related molecules are well-known Wnt, Nodal, and BMP inhibitors that have been implicated in different processes including anterior–posterior patterning and left–right asymmetry. In both mouse and frog, two Cerberus-related genes have been isolated, mCer-1 and mCer-2, and Xcer and Xcoco, respectively. Until now, little is known about the mechanisms involved in their transcriptional regulation. Here, we report a heterologous analysis of the mouse Cerberus-1 gene upstream regulatory regions, responsible for its expression in the visceral endodermal cells. Our analysis showed that the consensus sequences for a TATA, CAAT, or GC boxes were absent but a TGTGG sequence was present at position -172 to -168 bp, relative to the ATG. Using a series of deletion constructs and transient expression in Xenopus embryos, we found that a fragment of 1.4 kb of Cer-1 promoter sequence could reproduce the endogenous expression pattern of Xenopus cerberus. A 0.7-kb mcer-1 upstream region was able to drive reporter expression to the involuting mesendodermal cells, while further deletions abolished reporter gene expression. Our results suggest that although no sequence similarity was found between mouse and Xenopus cerberus cis-regulatory regions, the signaling cascades regulating cerberus expression, during gastrulation, is conserved.

  7. Identification and mapping of conserved ortholog set(COS) II sequences of cacao and their conversion to SNP markers for marker-assisted selection in Theobroma cocoa and comparative genomics studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao is a tree cultivated in the tropics around the world for its seeds that are the source of both chocolate and cocoa butter. The cacao genome sequencing project initiated as a collaboration between USDA, Mars, Inc. and IBM has generated a great deal of transcriptome and genome sequenc...

  8. How conserved are the conserved 16S-rRNA regions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Martinez-Porchas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 16S rRNA gene has been used as master key for studying prokaryotic diversity in almost every environment. Despite the claim of several researchers to have the best universal primers, the reality is that no primer has been demonstrated to be truly universal. This suggests that conserved regions of the gene may not be as conserved as expected. The aim of this study was to evaluate the conservation degree of the so-called conserved regions flanking the hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Data contained in SILVA database (release 123 were used for the study. Primers reported as matches of each conserved region were assembled to form contigs; sequences sizing 12 nucleotides (12-mers were extracted from these contigs and searched into the entire set of SILVA sequences. Frequency analysis shown that extreme regions, 1 and 10, registered the lowest frequencies. 12-mer frequencies revealed segments of contigs that were not as conserved as expected (≤90%. Fragments corresponding to the primer contigs 3, 4, 5b and 6a were recovered from all sequences in SILVA database. Nucleotide frequency analysis in each consensus demonstrated that only a small fraction of these so-called conserved regions is truly conserved in non-redundant sequences. It could be concluded that conserved regions of the 16S rRNA gene exhibit considerable variation that has to be considered when using this gene as biomarker.

  9. Identification and characterization of putative conserved IAM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Available putative AMI sequences from a wide array of monocot and dicot plants were identified and the phylogenetic tree was constructed and analyzed. We identified in this tree, a clade that contained sequences from species across the plant kingdom suggesting that AMI is conserved and may have a primary role in plant ...

  10. 5' Region of the human interleukin 4 gene: structure and potential regulatory elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eder, A; Krafft-Czepa, H; Krammer, P H

    1988-01-25

    The lymphokine Interleukin 4 (IL-4) is secreted by antigen or mitogen activated T lymphocytes. IL-4 stimulates activation and differentiation of B lymphocytes and growth of T lymphocytes and mast cells. The authors isolated the human IL-4 gene from a lambda EMBL3 genomic library. As a probe they used a synthetic oligonucleotide spanning position 40 to 79 of the published IL-4 cDNA sequence. The 5' promoter region contains several sequence elements which may have a cis-acting regulatory function for IL-4 gene expression. These elements include a TATA-box, three CCAAT-elements (two are on the non-coding strand) and an octamer motif. A comparison of the 5' flanking region of the human murine IL-4 gene (4) shows that the region between position -306 and +44 is highly conserved (83% homology).

  11. 77 FR 58022 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    ... precludes in situ gasification projects from including carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) under the... Conservation as the regulatory authority for CCS activities within the State. SB498 generally established that..., the Board would regulate any proposed CCS activities appropriately. CCS operations have potential...

  12. Molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer myostatin gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Keune Carolyn

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myostatin (MSTN is a member of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily that negatively regulates growth of skeletal muscle tissue. The gene encoding for the MSTN peptide is a consolidate candidate for the enhancement of productivity in terrestrial livestock. This gene potentially represents an important target for growth improvement of cultured finfish. Results Here we report molecular characterization, tissue expression and sequence variability of the barramundi (Lates calcarifer MSTN-1 gene. The barramundi MSTN-1 was encoded by three exons 379, 371 and 381 bp in length and translated into a 376-amino acid peptide. Intron 1 and 2 were 412 and 819 bp in length and presented typical GT...AG splicing sites. The upstream region contained cis-regulatory elements such as TATA-box and E-boxes. A first assessment of sequence variability suggested that higher mutation rates are found in the 5' flanking region with several SNP's present in this species. A putative micro RNA target site has also been observed in the 3'UTR (untranslated region and is highly conserved across teleost fish. The deduced amino acid sequence was conserved across vertebrates and exhibited characteristic conserved putative functional residues including a cleavage motif of proteolysis (RXXR, nine cysteines and two glycosilation sites. A qualitative analysis of the barramundi MSTN-1 expression pattern revealed that, in adult fish, transcripts are differentially expressed in various tissues other than skeletal muscles including gill, heart, kidney, intestine, liver, spleen, eye, gonad and brain. Conclusion Our findings provide valuable insights such as sequence variation and genomic information which will aid the further investigation of the barramundi MSTN-1 gene in association with growth. The finding for the first time in finfish MSTN of a miRNA target site in the 3'UTR provides an opportunity for the identification of regulatory mutations on the

  13. Identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Cryptosporidium parvum by de novo pattern finding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kissinger Jessica C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cryptosporidium parvum is a unicellular eukaryote in the phylum Apicomplexa. It is an obligate intracellular parasite that causes diarrhea and is a significant AIDS-related pathogen. Cryptosporidium parvum is not amenable to long-term laboratory cultivation or classical molecular genetic analysis. The parasite exhibits a complex life cycle, a broad host range, and fundamental mechanisms of gene regulation remain unknown. We have used data from the recently sequenced genome of this organism to uncover clues about gene regulation in C. parvum. We have applied two pattern finding algorithms MEME and AlignACE to identify conserved, over-represented motifs in the 5' upstream regions of genes in C. parvum. To support our findings, we have established comparative real-time -PCR expression profiles for the groups of genes examined computationally. Results We find that groups of genes that share a function or belong to a common pathway share upstream motifs. Different motifs are conserved upstream of different groups of genes. Comparative real-time PCR studies show co-expression of genes within each group (in sub-sets during the life cycle of the parasite, suggesting co-regulation of these genes may be driven by the use of conserved upstream motifs. Conclusion This is one of the first attempts to characterize cis-regulatory elements in the absence of any previously characterized elements and with very limited expression data (seven genes only. Using de novo pattern finding algorithms, we have identified specific DNA motifs that are conserved upstream of genes belonging to the same metabolic pathway or gene family. We have demonstrated the co-expression of these genes (often in subsets using comparative real-time-PCR experiments thus establishing evidence for these conserved motifs as putative cis-regulatory elements. Given the lack of prior information concerning expression patterns and organization of promoters in C. parvum we

  14. A unified architecture of transcriptional regulatory elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Robin; Sandelin, Albin Gustav; Danko, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression is precisely controlled in time and space through the integration of signals that act at gene promoters and gene-distal enhancers. Classically, promoters and enhancers are considered separate classes of regulatory elements, often distinguished by histone modifications. However...... and enhancers are considered a single class of functional element, with a unified architecture for transcription initiation. The context of interacting regulatory elements and the surrounding sequences determine local transcriptional output as well as the enhancer and promoter activities of individual elements....

  15. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  16. Further results on universal properties in conservative dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benettin, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Galgani, L; Giorgilli, A [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica)

    1980-10-11

    In conservative dynamical systems depending on a parameter, sequences of period-doubling bifurcations can be observed by varying the parameter, starting from a stable fixed point. These sequences are analogous to those already known for dissipative systems. The paper shows some new results obtained for two-dimensional conservative mappings.

  17. Repetitive sequences: the hidden diversity of heterochromatin in prochilodontid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria L. Terencio

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The structure and organization of repetitive elements in fish genomes are still relatively poorly understood, although most of these elements are believed to be located in heterochromatic regions. Repetitive elements are considered essential in evolutionary processes as hotspots for mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, among other functions – thus providing new genomic alternatives and regulatory sites for gene expression. The present study sought to characterize repetitive DNA sequences in the genomes of Semaprochilodus insignis (Jardine & Schomburgk, 1841 and Semaprochilodus taeniurus (Valenciennes, 1817 and identify regions of conserved syntenic blocks in this genome fraction of three species of Prochilodontidae (S. insignis, S. taeniurus, and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 by cross-FISH using Cot-1 DNA (renaturation kinetics probes. We found that the repetitive fractions of the genomes of S. insignis and S. taeniurus have significant amounts of conserved syntenic blocks in hybridization sites, but with low degrees of similarity between them and the genome of P. lineatus, especially in relation to B chromosomes. The cloning and sequencing of the repetitive genomic elements of S. insignis and S. taeniurus using Cot-1 DNA identified 48 fragments that displayed high similarity with repetitive sequences deposited in public DNA databases and classified as microsatellites, transposons, and retrotransposons. The repetitive fractions of the S. insignis and S. taeniurus genomes exhibited high degrees of conserved syntenic blocks in terms of both the structures and locations of hybridization sites, but a low degree of similarity with the syntenic blocks of the P. lineatus genome. Future comparative analyses of other prochilodontidae species will be needed to advance our understanding of the organization and evolution of the genomes in this group of fish.

  18. Conserved genomic organisation of Group B Sox genes in insects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woerfel Gertrud

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sox domain containing genes are important metazoan transcriptional regulators implicated in a wide rage of developmental processes. The vertebrate B subgroup contains the Sox1, Sox2 and Sox3 genes that have early functions in neural development. Previous studies show that Drosophila Group B genes have been functionally conserved since they play essential roles in early neural specification and mutations in the Drosophila Dichaete and SoxN genes can be rescued with mammalian Sox genes. Despite their importance, the extent and organisation of the Group B family in Drosophila has not been fully characterised, an important step in using Drosophila to examine conserved aspects of Group B Sox gene function. Results We have used the directed cDNA sequencing along with the output from the publicly-available genome sequencing projects to examine the structure of Group B Sox domain genes in Drosophila melanogaster, Drosophila pseudoobscura, Anopheles gambiae and Apis mellifora. All of the insect genomes contain four genes encoding Group B proteins, two of which are intronless, as is the case with vertebrate group B genes. As has been previously reported and unusually for Group B genes, two of the insect group B genes, Sox21a and Sox21b, contain introns within their DNA-binding domains. We find that the highly unusual multi-exon structure of the Sox21b gene is common to the insects. In addition, we find that three of the group B Sox genes are organised in a linked cluster in the insect genomes. By in situ hybridisation we show that the pattern of expression of each of the four group B genes during embryogenesis is conserved between D. melanogaster and D. pseudoobscura. Conclusion The DNA-binding domain sequences and genomic organisation of the group B genes have been conserved over 300 My of evolution since the last common ancestor of the Hymenoptera and the Diptera. Our analysis suggests insects have two Group B1 genes, SoxN and

  19. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  20. [Analysis of cis-regulatory element distribution in gene promoters of Gossypium raimondii and Arabidopsis thaliana].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gao-Fei; He, Shou-Pu; Du, Xiong-Ming

    2013-10-01

    Cotton genomic studies have boomed since the release of Gossypium raimondii draft genome. In this study, cis-regulatory element (CRE) in 1 kb length sequence upstream 5' UTR of annotated genes were selected and scanned in the Arabidopsis thaliana (At) and Gossypium raimondii (Gr) genomes, based on the database of PLACE (Plant cis-acting Regulatory DNA Elements). According to the definition of this study, 44 (12.3%) and 57 (15.5%) CREs presented "peak-like" distribution in the 1 kb selected sequences of both genomes, respectively. Thirty-four of them were peak-like distributed in both genomes, which could be further categorized into 4 types based on their core sequences. The coincidence of TATABOX peak position and their actual position ((-) -30 bp) indicated that the position of a common CRE was conservative in different genes, which suggested that the peak position of these CREs was their possible actual position of transcription factors. The position of a common CRE was also different between the two genomes due to stronger length variation of 5' UTR in Gr than At. Furthermore, most of the peak-like CREs were located in the region of -110 bp-0 bp, which suggested that concentrated distribution might be conductive to the interaction of transcription factors, and then regulate the gene expression in downstream.

  1. REDfly: a Regulatory Element Database for Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Steven M; Li, Long; Hu, Zihua; Halfon, Marc S

    2006-02-01

    Bioinformatics studies of transcriptional regulation in the metazoa are significantly hindered by the absence of readily available data on large numbers of transcriptional cis-regulatory modules (CRMs). Even the richly annotated Drosophila melanogaster genome lacks extensive CRM information. We therefore present here a database of Drosophila CRMs curated from the literature complete with both DNA sequence and a searchable description of the gene expression pattern regulated by each CRM. This resource should greatly facilitate the development of computational approaches to CRM discovery as well as bioinformatics analyses of regulatory sequence properties and evolution.

  2. RegRNA: an integrated web server for identifying regulatory RNA motifs and elements

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hsi-Yuan; Chien, Chia-Hung; Jen, Kuan-Hua; Huang, Hsien-Da

    2006-01-01

    Numerous regulatory structural motifs have been identified as playing essential roles in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. RegRNA is an integrated web server for identifying the homologs of regulatory RNA motifs and elements against an input mRNA sequence. Both sequence homologs and structural homologs of regulatory RNA motifs can be recognized. The regulatory RNA motifs supported in RegRNA are categorized into several classes: (i) motifs in mRNA 5′-untra...

  3. As to achieve regulatory action, regulatory approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cid, R.; Encinas, D.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement of the effectiveness in the performance of a nuclear regulatory body has been a permanent challenge in the recent history of nuclear regulation. In the post-Fukushima era this challenge is even more important. This article addresses the subject from two complementary points of view: the characteristics of an effective regulatory body and the regulatory approaches. This work is based on the most recent studies carried out by the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities, CNRA (OECD/NEA), as well as on the experience of the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, CSN, the Spanish regulatory body. Rafael Cid is the representative of CSN in these project: Diego Encinas has participated in the study on regulatory approaches. (Author)

  4. Structural and functional conservation of CLEC-2 with the species-specific regulation of transcript expression in evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Ren, Shifang; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhang, Dongmei; Hao, Yuqing; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Lei; Lee, Chiayu; Qiu, Lin; Yun, Xiaojing; Xie, Jianhui

    2012-08-01

    CLEC-2 was first identified by sequence similarity to C-type lectin-like molecules with immune functions and has been reported as a receptor for the platelet-aggregating snake venom toxin rhodocytin and the endogenous sialoglycoprotein podoplanin. Recent researches indicate that CLEC-2-deficient mice were lethal at the embryonic stage associated with disorganized and blood-filled lymphatic vessels and severe edema. In view of a necessary role of CLEC-2 in the individual development, it is of interest to investigate its phylogenetic homology and highly conserved functional regions. In this work, we reported that CLEC-2 from different species holds with an extraordinary conservation by sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis. The functional structures including N-linked oligosaccharide sites and ligand-binding domain implement a structural and functional conservation in a variety of species. The glycosylation sites (N120 and N134) are necessary for the surface expression CLEC-2. CLEC-2 from different species possesses the binding activity of mouse podoplanin. Nevertheless, the expression of CLEC-2 is regulated with a species-specific manner. The alternative splicing of pre-mRNA, a regulatory mechanism of gene expression, and the binding sites on promoter for several key transcription factors vary between different species. Therefore, CLEC-2 shares high sequence homology and functional identity. However the transcript expression might be tightly regulated by different mechanisms in evolution.

  5. The identification and functional annotation of RNA structures conserved in vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Stefan E; Mirza, Aashiq H; Hansen, Claus; Bang-Berthelsen, Claus H; Garde, Christian; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Mikkel; Torarinsson, Elfar; Yao, Zizhen; Workman, Christopher T; Pociot, Flemming; Nielsen, Henrik; Tommerup, Niels; Ruzzo, Walter L; Gorodkin, Jan

    2017-08-01

    Structured elements of RNA molecules are essential in, e.g., RNA stabilization, localization, and protein interaction, and their conservation across species suggests a common functional role. We computationally screened vertebrate genomes for conserved RNA structures (CRSs), leveraging structure-based, rather than sequence-based, alignments. After careful correction for sequence identity and GC content, we predict ∼516,000 human genomic regions containing CRSs. We find that a substantial fraction of human-mouse CRS regions (1) colocalize consistently with binding sites of the same RNA binding proteins (RBPs) or (2) are transcribed in corresponding tissues. Additionally, a CaptureSeq experiment revealed expression of many of our CRS regions in human fetal brain, including 662 novel ones. For selected human and mouse candidate pairs, qRT-PCR and in vitro RNA structure probing supported both shared expression and shared structure despite low abundance and low sequence identity. About 30,000 CRS regions are located near coding or long noncoding RNA genes or within enhancers. Structured (CRS overlapping) enhancer RNAs and extended 3' ends have significantly increased expression levels over their nonstructured counterparts. Our findings of transcribed uncharacterized regulatory regions that contain CRSs support their RNA-mediated functionality. © 2017 Seemann et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  6. CONDOR: a database resource of developmentally associated conserved non-coding elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics is currently one of the most popular approaches to study the regulatory architecture of vertebrate genomes. Fish-mammal genomic comparisons have proved powerful in identifying conserved non-coding elements likely to be distal cis-regulatory modules such as enhancers, silencers or insulators that control the expression of genes involved in the regulation of early development. The scientific community is showing increasing interest in characterizing the function, evolution and language of these sequences. Despite this, there remains little in the way of user-friendly access to a large dataset of such elements in conjunction with the analysis and the visualization tools needed to study them. Description Here we present CONDOR (COnserved Non-coDing Orthologous Regions available at: http://condor.fugu.biology.qmul.ac.uk. In an interactive and intuitive way the website displays data on > 6800 non-coding elements associated with over 120 early developmental genes and conserved across vertebrates. The database regularly incorporates results of ongoing in vivo zebrafish enhancer assays of the CNEs carried out in-house, which currently number ~100. Included and highlighted within this set are elements derived from duplication events both at the origin of vertebrates and more recently in the teleost lineage, thus providing valuable data for studying the divergence of regulatory roles between paralogs. CONDOR therefore provides a number of tools and facilities to allow scientists to progress in their own studies on the function and evolution of developmental cis-regulation. Conclusion By providing access to data with an approachable graphics interface, the CONDOR database presents a rich resource for further studies into the regulation and evolution of genes involved in early development.

  7. Brachyury, Foxa2 and the cis-Regulatory Origins of the Notochord.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana S José-Edwards

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A main challenge of modern biology is to understand how specific constellations of genes are activated to differentiate cells and give rise to distinct tissues. This study focuses on elucidating how gene expression is initiated in the notochord, an axial structure that provides support and patterning signals to embryos of humans and all other chordates. Although numerous notochord genes have been identified, the regulatory DNAs that orchestrate development and propel evolution of this structure by eliciting notochord gene expression remain mostly uncharted, and the information on their configuration and recurrence is still quite fragmentary. Here we used the simple chordate Ciona for a systematic analysis of notochord cis-regulatory modules (CRMs, and investigated their composition, architectural constraints, predictive ability and evolutionary conservation. We found that most Ciona notochord CRMs relied upon variable combinations of binding sites for the transcription factors Brachyury and/or Foxa2, which can act either synergistically or independently from one another. Notably, one of these CRMs contains a Brachyury binding site juxtaposed to an (AC microsatellite, an unusual arrangement also found in Brachyury-bound regulatory regions in mouse. In contrast, different subsets of CRMs relied upon binding sites for transcription factors of widely diverse families. Surprisingly, we found that neither intra-genomic nor interspecific conservation of binding sites were reliably predictive hallmarks of notochord CRMs. We propose that rather than obeying a rigid sequence-based cis-regulatory code, most notochord CRMs are rather unique. Yet, this study uncovered essential elements recurrently used by divergent chordates as basic building blocks for notochord CRMs.

  8. Brachyury, Foxa2 and the cis-Regulatory Origins of the Notochord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    José-Edwards, Diana S; Oda-Ishii, Izumi; Kugler, Jamie E; Passamaneck, Yale J; Katikala, Lavanya; Nibu, Yutaka; Di Gregorio, Anna

    2015-12-01

    A main challenge of modern biology is to understand how specific constellations of genes are activated to differentiate cells and give rise to distinct tissues. This study focuses on elucidating how gene expression is initiated in the notochord, an axial structure that provides support and patterning signals to embryos of humans and all other chordates. Although numerous notochord genes have been identified, the regulatory DNAs that orchestrate development and propel evolution of this structure by eliciting notochord gene expression remain mostly uncharted, and the information on their configuration and recurrence is still quite fragmentary. Here we used the simple chordate Ciona for a systematic analysis of notochord cis-regulatory modules (CRMs), and investigated their composition, architectural constraints, predictive ability and evolutionary conservation. We found that most Ciona notochord CRMs relied upon variable combinations of binding sites for the transcription factors Brachyury and/or Foxa2, which can act either synergistically or independently from one another. Notably, one of these CRMs contains a Brachyury binding site juxtaposed to an (AC) microsatellite, an unusual arrangement also found in Brachyury-bound regulatory regions in mouse. In contrast, different subsets of CRMs relied upon binding sites for transcription factors of widely diverse families. Surprisingly, we found that neither intra-genomic nor interspecific conservation of binding sites were reliably predictive hallmarks of notochord CRMs. We propose that rather than obeying a rigid sequence-based cis-regulatory code, most notochord CRMs are rather unique. Yet, this study uncovered essential elements recurrently used by divergent chordates as basic building blocks for notochord CRMs.

  9. Sequence assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Hoffmann, S.; Frankel, Annett Maria

    2009-01-01

    Despite the rapidly increasing number of sequenced and re-sequenced genomes, many issues regarding the computational assembly of large-scale sequencing data have remain unresolved. Computational assembly is crucial in large genome projects as well for the evolving high-throughput technologies and...... in genomic DNA, highly expressed genes and alternative transcripts in EST sequences. We summarize existing comparisons of different assemblers and provide a detailed descriptions and directions for download of assembly programs at: http://genome.ku.dk/resources/assembly/methods.html....

  10. Genome Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sato, Shusei; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj

    2014-01-01

    The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based on transcr......The current Lotus japonicus reference genome sequence is based on a hybrid assembly of Sanger TAC/BAC, Sanger shotgun and Illumina shotgun sequencing data generated from the Miyakojima-MG20 accession. It covers nearly all expressed L. japonicus genes and has been annotated mainly based...

  11. Identification of functional SNPs in the 5-prime flanking sequences of human genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Boris

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over 4 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are currently reported to exist within the human genome. Only a small fraction of these SNPs alter gene function or expression, and therefore might be associated with a cell phenotype. These functional SNPs are consequently important in understanding human health. Information related to functional SNPs in candidate disease genes is critical for cost effective genetic association studies, which attempt to understand the genetics of complex diseases like diabetes, Alzheimer's, etc. Robust methods for the identification of functional SNPs are therefore crucial. We report one such experimental approach. Results Sequence conserved between mouse and human genomes, within 5 kilobases of the 5-prime end of 176 GPCR genes, were screened for SNPs. Sequences flanking these SNPs were scored for transcription factor binding sites. Allelic pairs resulting in a significant score difference were predicted to influence the binding of transcription factors (TFs. Ten such SNPs were selected for mobility shift assays (EMSA, resulting in 7 of them exhibiting a reproducible shift. The full-length promoter regions with 4 of the 7 SNPs were cloned in a Luciferase based plasmid reporter system. Two out of the 4 SNPs exhibited differential promoter activity in several human cell lines. Conclusions We propose a method for effective selection of functional, regulatory SNPs that are located in evolutionary conserved 5-prime flanking regions (5'-FR regions of human genes and influence the activity of the transcriptional regulatory region. Some SNPs behave differently in different cell types.

  12. Cis-regulatory signatures of orthologous stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice, sorghum and Arabidopsis based on phylogenetic footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Fuyu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential contribution of upstream sequence variation to the unique features of orthologous genes is just beginning to be unraveled. A core subset of stress-associated bZIP transcription factors from rice (Oryza sativa formed ten clusters of orthologous groups (COG with genes from the monocot sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and dicot Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana. The total cis-regulatory information content of each stress-associated COG was examined by phylogenetic footprinting to reveal ortholog-specific, lineage-specific and species-specific conservation patterns. Results The most apparent pattern observed was the occurrence of spatially conserved ‘core modules’ among the COGs but not among paralogs. These core modules are comprised of various combinations of two to four putative transcription factor binding site (TFBS classes associated with either developmental or stress-related functions. Outside the core modules are specific stress (ABA, oxidative, abiotic, biotic or organ-associated signals, which may be functioning as ‘regulatory fine-tuners’ and further define lineage-specific and species-specific cis-regulatory signatures. Orthologous monocot and dicot promoters have distinct TFBS classes involved in disease and oxidative-regulated expression, while the orthologous rice and sorghum promoters have distinct combinations of root-specific signals, a pattern that is not particularly conserved in Arabidopsis. Conclusions Patterns of cis-regulatory conservation imply that each ortholog has distinct signatures, further suggesting that they are potentially unique in a regulatory context despite the presumed conservation of broad biological function during speciation. Based on the observed patterns of conservation, we postulate that core modules are likely primary determinants of basal developmental programming, which may be integrated with and further elaborated by additional intrinsic or extrinsic signals in

  13. A New Approach to Sequence Analysis Exemplified by Identification of cis-Elements in Abscisic Acid Inducible Promoters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Hallin, Peter Fischer; Salomon, Jesper

    -regulatory elements. We have developed a method for identifying short, conserved motifs in biological sequences such as proteins, DNA and RNA5. This method was used for analysis of approximately 2000 Arabidopsis thaliana promoters that have been shown by DNA array analysis to be induced by abscisic acid6....... These promoters were compared to 28000 promoters that are not induced by abscisic acid. The analysis identified previously described ABA-inducible promoter elements such as ABRE, CE3 and CRT1 but also new cis-elements were found. Furthermore, the list of DNA elements could be used to predict ABA...

  14. Short sequence motifs, overrepresented in mammalian conservednon-coding sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minovitsky, Simon; Stegmaier, Philip; Kel, Alexander; Kondrashov,Alexey S.; Dubchak, Inna

    2007-02-21

    Background: A substantial fraction of non-coding DNAsequences of multicellular eukaryotes is under selective constraint. Inparticular, ~;5 percent of the human genome consists of conservednon-coding sequences (CNSs). CNSs differ from other genomic sequences intheir nucleotide composition and must play important functional roles,which mostly remain obscure.Results: We investigated relative abundancesof short sequence motifs in all human CNSs present in the human/mousewhole-genome alignments vs. three background sets of sequences: (i)weakly conserved or unconserved non-coding sequences (non-CNSs); (ii)near-promoter sequences (located between nucleotides -500 and -1500,relative to a start of transcription); and (iii) random sequences withthe same nucleotide composition as that of CNSs. When compared tonon-CNSs and near-promoter sequences, CNSs possess an excess of AT-richmotifs, often containing runs of identical nucleotides. In contrast, whencompared to random sequences, CNSs contain an excess of GC-rich motifswhich, however, lack CpG dinucleotides. Thus, abundance of short sequencemotifs in human CNSs, taken as a whole, is mostly determined by theiroverall compositional properties and not by overrepresentation of anyspecific short motifs. These properties are: (i) high AT-content of CNSs,(ii) a tendency, probably due to context-dependent mutation, of A's andT's to clump, (iii) presence of short GC-rich regions, and (iv) avoidanceof CpG contexts, due to their hypermutability. Only a small number ofshort motifs, overrepresented in all human CNSs are similar to bindingsites of transcription factors from the FOX family.Conclusion: Human CNSsas a whole appear to be too broad a class of sequences to possess strongfootprints of any short sequence-specific functions. Such footprintsshould be studied at the level of functional subclasses of CNSs, such asthose which flank genes with a particular pattern of expression. Overallproperties of CNSs are affected by

  15. Current status of herbal product: Regulatory overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    A review of the regulatory status of herbal drugs/products was done for few countries forming part of Asia, Africa, America, Europe, and Australia, to understand various categories under which the trade of herbal products is permitted and their premarketing requirements. A critical assessment was done, to know the hindrances in the process of harmonization of herbal products. It has been found that there is a lack of harmonization in the regulatory requirements of herbal products internationally, besides the issues of availability of herbs and their conservation. These are hindering the international trade and growth of the herbal products segment. PMID:26681886

  16. Identification of Conserved and Novel MicroRNAs in Blueberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junyang Yue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small endogenous RNAs that play important regulatory roles in cells by negatively affecting gene expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. There have been extensive studies aiming to identify miRNAs and to elucidate their functions in various plant species. In the present study, we employed the high-throughput sequencing technology to profile miRNAs in blueberry fruits. A total of 9,992,446 small RNA tags with sizes ranged from 18 to 30 nt were obtained, indicating that blueberry fruits have a large and diverse small RNA population. Bioinformatic analysis identified 412 conserved miRNAs belonging to 29 families, and 35 predicted novel miRNAs that are likely to be unique to blueberries. Among them, expression profiles of five conserved miRNAs were validated by stem loop qRT-PCR. Furthermore, the potential target genes of conserved and novel miRNAs were predicted and subjected to Gene Ontology (GO annotation. Enrichment analysis of the GO-represented biological processes and molecular functions revealed that these target genes were potentially involved in a wide range of metabolic pathways and developmental processes. Particularly, anthocyanin biosynthesis has been predicted to be directly or indirectly regulated by diverse miRNA families. This study is the first report on genome-wide miRNA profile analysis in blueberry and it provides a useful resource for further elucidation of the functional roles of miRNAs during fruit development and ripening.

  17. Structural classification of endogenous regulatory oligopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamyatnin, A A

    1991-07-01

    Based on the criteria of 50% identity in the amino acid sequence, a new method for grouping endogenous regulatory oligopeptides into structural families is presented. Data from the EROP-Moscow data bank on 579 oligopeptides fitting a preset spectrum of functional activities revealed 73 structural oligopeptide groups, 36 of which were called families.

  18. 77 FR 7968 - Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Regulation Sequence No. Title Identifier No. 392 Non-Federal Oil and Gas 1024-AD78 Rights. National Park.... Timetable: Action Date FR Cite NPRM 07/00/12 Regulatory Flexibility Analysis Required: Yes. Agency Contact... anaconda, and Beni anaconda. Timetable: Action Date FR Cite ANPRM 01/31/08 73 FR 5784 ANPRM Comment Period...

  19. Professional and Regulatory Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Professional and Regulatory search are designed for people who use EPA web resources to do their job. You will be searching collections where information that is not relevant to Environmental and Regulatory professionals.

  20. [Clonage of the "malA" region of "Escherichia coli" K12: nucleotide sequence of the regulatory region and the promoters, identification and purification of the MalT-activator protein (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raibaud, O; Débarbouillé, M; Cossart, P

    1982-01-01

    A 5,800-bp (base pair) HindIII-EcoRI DNA fragment containing malT, the positive regulator gene of the maltose regulon, and most of malP, the structural gene for maltodextrin phosphorylase, was cloned into pBR322. A sequence of 802 bp was established in a DNA segment containing the promotor for malPQ and the promoter for malT. A total of 611 bp separates the initiation codons for these two genes, which are transcribed in opposite directions. The malT product was identified as a 94,000 dalton polypeptide.

  1. Conservation and diversification of Msx protein in metazoan evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kamiya, Akiko; Ishiguro, Akira; Suzuki, Atsushi C; Saitou, Naruya; Toyoda, Atsushi; Aruga, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Msx (/msh) family genes encode homeodomain (HD) proteins that control ontogeny in many animal species. We compared the structures of Msx genes from a wide range of Metazoa (Porifera, Cnidaria, Nematoda, Arthropoda, Tardigrada, Platyhelminthes, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, Annelida, Echiura, Echinodermata, Hemichordata, and Chordata) to gain an understanding of the role of these genes in phylogeny. Exon-intron boundary analysis suggested that the position of the intron located N-terminally to the HDs was widely conserved in all the genes examined, including those of cnidarians. Amino acid (aa) sequence comparison revealed 3 new evolutionarily conserved domains, as well as very strong conservation of the HDs. Two of the three domains were associated with Groucho-like protein binding in both a vertebrate and a cnidarian Msx homolog, suggesting that the interaction between Groucho-like proteins and Msx proteins was established in eumetazoan ancestors. Pairwise comparison among the collected HDs and their C-flanking aa sequences revealed that the degree of sequence conservation varied depending on the animal taxa from which the sequences were derived. Highly conserved Msx genes were identified in the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, Hemichordata, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and Anthozoa. The wide distribution of the conserved sequences in the animal phylogenetic tree suggested that metazoan ancestors had already acquired a set of conserved domains of the current Msx family genes. Interestingly, although strongly conserved sequences were recovered from the Vertebrata, Cephalochordata, and Anthozoa, the sequences from the Urochordata and Hydrozoa showed weak conservation. Because the Vertebrata-Cephalochordata-Urochordata and Anthozoa-Hydrozoa represent sister groups in the Chordata and Cnidaria, respectively, Msx sequence diversification may have occurred differentially in the course of evolution. We speculate that selective loss of the conserved domains in Msx family

  2. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  3. Future nuclear regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen, J.

    1998-01-01

    In December 1996, the NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities concluded that changes resulting from economic deregulation and other recent developments affecting nuclear power programmes have consequences both for licensees and regulatory authorities. A number of potential problems and issues which will present a challenge to nuclear regulatory bodies over the next ten years have been identified in a report just released. (author)

  4. Identification of microRNAs from Eugenia uniflora by high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Frank; Almerão, Mauricio P; Körbes, Ana P; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Margis, Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    microRNAs or miRNAs are small non-coding regulatory RNAs that play important functions in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by targeting mRNAs for degradation or inhibiting protein translation. Eugenia uniflora is a plant native to tropical America with pharmacological and ecological importance, and there have been no previous studies concerning its gene expression and regulation. To date, no miRNAs have been reported in Myrtaceae species. Small RNA and RNA-seq libraries were constructed to identify miRNAs and pre-miRNAs in Eugenia uniflora. Solexa technology was used to perform high throughput sequencing of the library, and the data obtained were analyzed using bioinformatics tools. From 14,489,131 small RNA clean reads, we obtained 1,852,722 mature miRNA sequences representing 45 conserved families that have been identified in other plant species. Further analysis using contigs assembled from RNA-seq allowed the prediction of secondary structures of 25 known and 17 novel pre-miRNAs. The expression of twenty-seven identified miRNAs was also validated using RT-PCR assays. Potential targets were predicted for the most abundant mature miRNAs in the identified pre-miRNAs based on sequence homology. This study is the first large scale identification of miRNAs and their potential targets from a species of the Myrtaceae family without genomic sequence resources. Our study provides more information about the evolutionary conservation of the regulatory network of miRNAs in plants and highlights species-specific miRNAs.

  5. Evolution of Cis-Regulatory Elements and Regulatory Networks in Duplicated Genes of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsovski, Andrej A; Pradinuk, Julian; Guo, Xu Qiu; Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-12-01

    Plant genomes contain large numbers of duplicated genes that contribute to the evolution of new functions. Following duplication, genes can exhibit divergence in their coding sequence and their expression patterns. Changes in the cis-regulatory element landscape can result in changes in gene expression patterns. High-throughput methods developed recently can identify potential cis-regulatory elements on a genome-wide scale. Here, we use a recent comprehensive data set of DNase I sequencing-identified cis-regulatory binding sites (footprints) at single-base-pair resolution to compare binding sites and network connectivity in duplicated gene pairs in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We found that duplicated gene pairs vary greatly in their cis-regulatory element architecture, resulting in changes in regulatory network connectivity. Whole-genome duplicates (WGDs) have approximately twice as many footprints in their promoters left by potential regulatory proteins than do tandem duplicates (TDs). The WGDs have a greater average number of footprint differences between paralogs than TDs. The footprints, in turn, result in more regulatory network connections between WGDs and other genes, forming denser, more complex regulatory networks than shown by TDs. When comparing regulatory connections between duplicates, WGDs had more pairs in which the two genes are either partially or fully diverged in their network connections, but fewer genes with no network connections than the TDs. There is evidence of younger TDs and WGDs having fewer unique connections compared with older duplicates. This study provides insights into cis-regulatory element evolution and network divergence in duplicated genes. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  6. A DNA-binding-site landscape and regulatory network analysis for NAC transcription factors in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemose, Søren; Jensen, Michael Krogh; de Velde, Jan Van

    2014-01-01

    regulatory networks of 12 NAC transcription factors. Our data offer specific single-base resolution fingerprints for most TFs studied and indicate that NAC DNA-binding specificities might be predicted from their DNA-binding domain's sequence. The developed methodology, including the application......Target gene identification for transcription factors is a prerequisite for the systems wide understanding of organismal behaviour. NAM-ATAF1/2-CUC2 (NAC) transcription factors are amongst the largest transcription factor families in plants, yet limited data exist from unbiased approaches to resolve...... the DNA-binding preferences of individual members. Here, we present a TF-target gene identification workflow based on the integration of novel protein binding microarray data with gene expression and multi-species promoter sequence conservation to identify the DNA-binding specificities and the gene...

  7. A novel method for in silico identification of regulatory SNPs in human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhong, Dexing; Liu, Ruiling; Lv, Hongqiang; Zhang, Xinman; Liu, Jun; Han, Jiuqiang

    2017-02-21

    Regulatory single nucleotide polymorphisms (rSNPs), kind of functional noncoding genetic variants, can affect gene expression in a regulatory way, and they are thought to be associated with increased susceptibilities to complex diseases. Here a novel computational approach to identify potential rSNPs is presented. Different from most other rSNPs finding methods which based on hypothesis that SNPs causing large allele-specific changes in transcription factor binding affinities are more likely to play regulatory functions, we use a set of documented experimentally verified rSNPs and nonfunctional background SNPs to train classifiers, so the discriminating features are found. To characterize variants, an extensive range of characteristics, such as sequence context, DNA structure and evolutionary conservation etc. are analyzed. Support vector machine is adopted to build the classifier model together with an ensemble method to deal with unbalanced data. 10-fold cross-validation result shows that our method can achieve accuracy with sensitivity of ~78% and specificity of ~82%. Furthermore, our method performances better than some other algorithms based on aforementioned hypothesis in handling false positives. The original data and the source matlab codes involved are available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/rsnppredict/. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The origins and evolutionary history of human non-coding RNA regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafatian, Masih; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2017-04-01

    The evolutionary history and origin of the regulatory function of animal non-coding RNAs are not well understood. Lack of conservation of long non-coding RNAs and small sizes of microRNAs has been major obstacles in their phylogenetic analysis. In this study, we tried to shed more light on the evolution of ncRNA regulatory networks by changing our phylogenetic strategy to focus on the evolutionary pattern of their protein coding targets. We used available target databases of miRNAs and lncRNAs to find their protein coding targets in human. We were able to recognize evolutionary hallmarks of ncRNA targets by phylostratigraphic analysis. We found the conventional 3'-UTR and lesser known 5'-UTR targets of miRNAs to be enriched at three consecutive phylostrata. Firstly, in eukaryata phylostratum corresponding to the emergence of miRNAs, our study revealed that miRNA targets function primarily in cell cycle processes. Moreover, the same overrepresentation of the targets observed in the next two consecutive phylostrata, opisthokonta and eumetazoa, corresponded to the expansion periods of miRNAs in animals evolution. Coding sequence targets of miRNAs showed a delayed rise at opisthokonta phylostratum, compared to the 3' and 5' UTR targets of miRNAs. LncRNA regulatory network was the latest to evolve at eumetazoa.

  9. Regulatory activities; Actividades regulatorias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information.

  10. AKAP18:PKA-RIIα structure reveals crucial anchor points for recognition of regulatory subunits of PKA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, Frank; Roske, Yvette; Schulz, Maike Svenja; Autenrieth, Karolin; Bertinetti, Daniela; Faelber, Katja; Zühlke, Kerstin; Kreuchwig, Annika; Kennedy, Eileen J; Krause, Gerd; Daumke, Oliver; Herberg, Friedrich W; Heinemann, Udo; Klussmann, Enno

    2016-07-01

    A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs) interact with the dimerization/docking (D/D) domains of regulatory subunits of the ubiquitous protein kinase A (PKA). AKAPs tether PKA to defined cellular compartments establishing distinct pools to increase the specificity of PKA signalling. Here, we elucidated the structure of an extended PKA-binding domain of AKAP18β bound to the D/D domain of the regulatory RIIα subunits of PKA. We identified three hydrophilic anchor points in AKAP18β outside the core PKA-binding domain, which mediate contacts with the D/D domain. Such anchor points are conserved within AKAPs that bind regulatory RII subunits of PKA. We derived a different set of anchor points in AKAPs binding regulatory RI subunits of PKA. In vitro and cell-based experiments confirm the relevance of these sites for the interaction of RII subunits with AKAP18 and of RI subunits with the RI-specific smAKAP. Thus we report a novel mechanism governing interactions of AKAPs with PKA. The sequence specificity of each AKAP around the anchor points and the requirement of these points for the tight binding of PKA allow the development of selective inhibitors to unequivocally ascribe cellular functions to the AKAP18-PKA and other AKAP-PKA interactions. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunner Sigbjørn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequencing of the Atlantic salmon genome is now being planned by an international research consortium. Full-length sequenced inserts from cDNAs (FLIcs are an important tool for correct annotation and clustering of the genomic sequence in any species. The large amount of highly similar duplicate sequences caused by the relatively recent genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor represents a particular challenge for the genome project. FLIcs will therefore be an extremely useful resource for the Atlantic salmon sequencing project. In addition to be helpful in order to distinguish between duplicate genome regions and in determining correct gene structures, FLIcs are an important resource for functional genomic studies and for investigation of regulatory elements controlling gene expression. In contrast to the large number of ESTs available, including the ESTs from 23 developmental and tissue specific cDNA libraries contributed by the Salmon Genome Project (SGP, the number of sequences where the full-length of the cDNA insert has been determined has been small. Results High quality full-length insert sequences from 560 pre-smolt white muscle tissue specific cDNAs were generated, accession numbers [GenBank: BT043497 - BT044056]. Five hundred and ten (91% of the transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms and 440 of the FLIcs are likely to contain a complete coding sequence (cCDS. The sequence information was used to identify putative paralogs, characterize salmon Kozak motifs, polyadenylation signal variation and to identify motifs likely to be involved in the regulation of particular genes. Finally, conserved 7-mers in the 3'UTRs were identified, of which some were identical to miRNA target sequences. Conclusion This paper describes the first Atlantic salmon FLIcs from a tissue and developmental stage specific cDNA library. We have demonstrated that many FLIcs contained a complete coding sequence (cCDS. This

  12. Characterization of full-length sequenced cDNA inserts (FLIcs) from Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Rune; Lunner, Sigbjørn; Høyheim, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    Background Sequencing of the Atlantic salmon genome is now being planned by an international research consortium. Full-length sequenced inserts from cDNAs (FLIcs) are an important tool for correct annotation and clustering of the genomic sequence in any species. The large amount of highly similar duplicate sequences caused by the relatively recent genome duplication in the salmonid ancestor represents a particular challenge for the genome project. FLIcs will therefore be an extremely useful resource for the Atlantic salmon sequencing project. In addition to be helpful in order to distinguish between duplicate genome regions and in determining correct gene structures, FLIcs are an important resource for functional genomic studies and for investigation of regulatory elements controlling gene expression. In contrast to the large number of ESTs available, including the ESTs from 23 developmental and tissue specific cDNA libraries contributed by the Salmon Genome Project (SGP), the number of sequences where the full-length of the cDNA insert has been determined has been small. Results High quality full-length insert sequences from 560 pre-smolt white muscle tissue specific cDNAs were generated, accession numbers [GenBank: BT043497 - BT044056]. Five hundred and ten (91%) of the transcripts were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO) terms and 440 of the FLIcs are likely to contain a complete coding sequence (cCDS). The sequence information was used to identify putative paralogs, characterize salmon Kozak motifs, polyadenylation signal variation and to identify motifs likely to be involved in the regulation of particular genes. Finally, conserved 7-mers in the 3'UTRs were identified, of which some were identical to miRNA target sequences. Conclusion This paper describes the first Atlantic salmon FLIcs from a tissue and developmental stage specific cDNA library. We have demonstrated that many FLIcs contained a complete coding sequence (cCDS). This suggests that the remaining c

  13. A waste package strategy for regulatory compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahl, D.; Cloninger, M.O.

    1990-01-01

    This paper summarizes the strategy given in the Site Characterization Plan for demonstrating compliance with the post closure performance objectives for the waste package and the Engineered Barrier System contained in the Code of Federal Regulations. The strategy consists of the development of a conservative waste package design that will meet the regulatory requirements with sufficient margin for uncertainty using a multi-barrier approach that takes advantage of the unsaturated nature of the Yucca Mountain site. 7 refs., 1 fig

  14. Divergent evolutionary rates in vertebrate and mammalian specific conserved non-coding elements (CNEs) in echolocating mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kalina T J; Tsagkogeorga, Georgia; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2014-12-19

    The majority of DNA contained within vertebrate genomes is non-coding, with a certain proportion of this thought to play regulatory roles during development. Conserved Non-coding Elements (CNEs) are an abundant group of putative regulatory sequences that are highly conserved across divergent groups and thus assumed to be under strong selective constraint. Many CNEs may contain regulatory factor binding sites, and their frequent spatial association with key developmental genes - such as those regulating sensory system development - suggests crucial roles in regulating gene expression and cellular patterning. Yet surprisingly little is known about the molecular evolution of CNEs across diverse mammalian taxa or their role in specific phenotypic adaptations. We examined 3,110 vertebrate-specific and ~82,000 mammalian-specific CNEs across 19 and 9 mammalian orders respectively, and tested for changes in the rate of evolution of CNEs located in the proximity of genes underlying the development or functioning of auditory systems. As we focused on CNEs putatively associated with genes underlying the development/functioning of auditory systems, we incorporated echolocating taxa in our dataset because of their highly specialised and derived auditory systems. Phylogenetic reconstructions of concatenated CNEs broadly recovered accepted mammal relationships despite high levels of sequence conservation. We found that CNE substitution rates were highest in rodents and lowest in primates, consistent with previous findings. Comparisons of CNE substitution rates from several genomic regions containing genes linked to auditory system development and hearing revealed differences between echolocating and non-echolocating taxa. Wider taxonomic sampling of four CNEs associated with the homeobox genes Hmx2 and Hmx3 - which are required for inner ear development - revealed family-wise variation across diverse bat species. Specifically within one family of echolocating bats that utilise

  15. Mutational robustness of gene regulatory networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D J van Dijk

    Full Text Available Mutational robustness of gene regulatory networks refers to their ability to generate constant biological output upon mutations that change network structure. Such networks contain regulatory interactions (transcription factor-target gene interactions but often also protein-protein interactions between transcription factors. Using computational modeling, we study factors that influence robustness and we infer several network properties governing it. These include the type of mutation, i.e. whether a regulatory interaction or a protein-protein interaction is mutated, and in the case of mutation of a regulatory interaction, the sign of the interaction (activating vs. repressive. In addition, we analyze the effect of combinations of mutations and we compare networks containing monomeric with those containing dimeric transcription factors. Our results are consistent with available data on biological networks, for example based on evolutionary conservation of network features. As a novel and remarkable property, we predict that networks are more robust against mutations in monomer than in dimer transcription factors, a prediction for which analysis of conservation of DNA binding residues in monomeric vs. dimeric transcription factors provides indirect evidence.

  16. Universal sequence map (USM of arbitrary discrete sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Jonas S

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For over a decade the idea of representing biological sequences in a continuous coordinate space has maintained its appeal but not been fully realized. The basic idea is that any sequence of symbols may define trajectories in the continuous space conserving all its statistical properties. Ideally, such a representation would allow scale independent sequence analysis – without the context of fixed memory length. A simple example would consist on being able to infer the homology between two sequences solely by comparing the coordinates of any two homologous units. Results We have successfully identified such an iterative function for bijective mappingψ of discrete sequences into objects of continuous state space that enable scale-independent sequence analysis. The technique, named Universal Sequence Mapping (USM, is applicable to sequences with an arbitrary length and arbitrary number of unique units and generates a representation where map distance estimates sequence similarity. The novel USM procedure is based on earlier work by these and other authors on the properties of Chaos Game Representation (CGR. The latter enables the representation of 4 unit type sequences (like DNA as an order free Markov Chain transition table. The properties of USM are illustrated with test data and can be verified for other data by using the accompanying web-based tool:http://bioinformatics.musc.edu/~jonas/usm/. Conclusions USM is shown to enable a statistical mechanics approach to sequence analysis. The scale independent representation frees sequence analysis from the need to assume a memory length in the investigation of syntactic rules.

  17. Defining the plasticity of transcription factor binding sites by Deconstructing DNA consensus sequences: the PhoP-binding sites among gamma/enterobacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Harari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional regulators recognize specific DNA sequences. Because these sequences are embedded in the background of genomic DNA, it is hard to identify the key cis-regulatory elements that determine disparate patterns of gene expression. The detection of the intra- and inter-species differences among these sequences is crucial for understanding the molecular basis of both differential gene expression and evolution. Here, we address this problem by investigating the target promoters controlled by the DNA-binding PhoP protein, which governs virulence and Mg(2+ homeostasis in several bacterial species. PhoP is particularly interesting; it is highly conserved in different gamma/enterobacteria, regulating not only ancestral genes but also governing the expression of dozens of horizontally acquired genes that differ from species to species. Our approach consists of decomposing the DNA binding site sequences for a given regulator into families of motifs (i.e., termed submotifs using a machine learning method inspired by the "Divide & Conquer" strategy. By partitioning a motif into sub-patterns, computational advantages for classification were produced, resulting in the discovery of new members of a regulon, and alleviating the problem of distinguishing functional sites in chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNA microarray genome-wide analysis. Moreover, we found that certain partitions were useful in revealing biological properties of binding site sequences, including modular gains and losses of PhoP binding sites through evolutionary turnover events, as well as conservation in distant species. The high conservation of PhoP submotifs within gamma/enterobacteria, as well as the regulatory protein that recognizes them, suggests that the major cause of divergence between related species is not due to the binding sites, as was previously suggested for other regulators. Instead, the divergence may be attributed to the fast evolution of orthologous target

  18. Properties of non-coding DNA and identification of putative cis-regulatory elements in Theileria parva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiang

    2008-12-01

    regulatory motifs in other species. These results suggest that these two motifs are likely to represent transcription factor binding sites in Theileria. Conclusion Theileria genomes are highly compact, with selection seemingly favoring short introns and intergenic regions. Three over-represented sequence motifs were independently identified in intergenic regions of both Theileria species, and the evidence suggests that at least two of them play a role in transcriptional control in T. parva. These are prime candidates for experimental validation of transcription factor binding sites in this single-celled eukaryotic parasite. Sequences similar to two of these Theileria motifs are conserved in Plasmodium hinting at the possibility of common regulatory machinery across the phylum Apicomplexa.

  19. Molecular Identification and Historic Demography of the Marine Tucuxi (Sotalia guianensis at the Amazon River’s Mouth by Means of Mitochondrial Control Region Gene Sequences and Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mark Shostell

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2005, three fishermen, with artisan fishing vessels and drift gillnets, accidentally captured around 200 dolphins between Vigia and Salinópolis in the Amazon River estuary. The dolphins died and they then prepared their vaginas and penises in order to sell them in the Ver-ao-Peso market in the city of Belem within the Brazilian state of Pará. We randomly sampled a minimal quantity of tissue of these sexual organs from 78 of these 200 dolphins and we determined the following results after sequencing 689 base pairs (bp from the mitochondrial control region gene: (1 96.15% (75/78 of these dolphins belonged to the species Sotalia guianensis. The other species detected were Steno brenadensis, Stenella coeruleoalba and Tursiops truncatus; (2 The levels of gene diversity found in this sample of S. guianensis were high (33 haplotypes, haplotype diversity of 0.917 and nucleotide diversity of 0.0045 compared to gene diversities found in other Brazilian S. guianensis locations; (3 All the population genetics methods employed indicated a clear population expansion in this population. This population expansion could have begun 400,000 years ago; (4 The haplotype divergence within this population could have begun around 2.1 millions of years ago (MYA, with posterior splits around 2.0–1.8 MYA, 1.7–1.8 MYA, 1–1.5 MYA, 0.6–0.8 MYA, 0.4–0.2 MYA and 0.16–0.02 MYA, all during the Pleistocene.

  20. Large-scale chromatin immunoprecipitation with promoter sequence microarray analysis of the interaction of the NSs protein of Rift Valley fever virus with regulatory DNA regions of the host genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benferhat, Rima; Josse, Thibaut; Albaud, Benoit; Gentien, David; Mansuroglu, Zeyni; Marcato, Vasco; Souès, Sylvie; Le Bonniec, Bernard; Bouloy, Michèle; Bonnefoy, Eliette

    2012-10-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a highly pathogenic Phlebovirus that infects humans and ruminants. Initially confined to Africa, RVFV has spread outside Africa and presently represents a high risk to other geographic regions. It is responsible for high fatality rates in sheep and cattle. In humans, RVFV can induce hepatitis, encephalitis, retinitis, or fatal hemorrhagic fever. The nonstructural NSs protein that is the major virulence factor is found in the nuclei of infected cells where it associates with cellular transcription factors and cofactors. In previous work, we have shown that NSs interacts with the promoter region of the beta interferon gene abnormally maintaining the promoter in a repressed state. In this work, we performed a genome-wide analysis of the interactions between NSs and the host genome using a genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with promoter sequence microarray, the ChIP-on-chip technique. Several cellular promoter regions were identified as significantly interacting with NSs, and the establishment of NSs interactions with these regions was often found linked to deregulation of expression of the corresponding genes. Among annotated NSs-interacting genes were present not only genes regulating innate immunity and inflammation but also genes regulating cellular pathways that have not yet been identified as targeted by RVFV. Several of these pathways, such as cell adhesion, axonal guidance, development, and coagulation were closely related to RVFV-induced disorders. In particular, we show in this work that NSs targeted and modified the expression of genes coding for coagulation factors, demonstrating for the first time that this hemorrhagic virus impairs the host coagulation cascade at the transcriptional level.

  1. Regulatory aspects of sludge management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharples, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of radioactive waste land disposal restrictions by discussing the following topics: highlights of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act history; purposes of land disposal restrictions; regulatory definition of land disposal; US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implementation of land disposal restrictions; schedules for implementing land disposal restrictions; solvent and dioxin wastes; classification of liquid hazardous and radioactive wastes; generator and treatment, storage, and disposal responsibilities; variances and extensions; and options for mixed waste management. Land disposal restrictions take into account the long-term uncertainties associated with land disposal, the need to manage waste right the first time they are disposed, and the persistence toxicity, mobility, propensity to bioaccumulate, and volume. In the Department of Energy system land disposal restrictions affect mixed waste management and site remedial action programs

  2. Research and regulatory review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macleod, J.S.; Fryer, D.R.H.

    1979-01-01

    To enable the regulatory review to be effectively undertaken by the regulatory body, there is a need for it to have ready access to information generated by research activities. Certain advantages have been seen to be gained by the regulatory body itself directly allocating and controlling some portion of these activities. The princial reasons for reaching this conclusion are summarised and a brief description of the Inspectorates directly sponsored programme outlined. (author)

  3. Search for 5'-leader regulatory RNA structures based on gene annotation aided by the RiboGap database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Mohammad Reza; Smail, Katia; Wang, Joy X; Wade, Fallou; Breaker, Ronald R; Perreault, Jonathan

    2017-03-15

    The discovery of noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) and their importance for gene regulation led us to develop bioinformatics tools to pursue the discovery of novel ncRNAs. Finding ncRNAs de novo is challenging, first due to the difficulty of retrieving large numbers of sequences for given gene activities, and second due to exponential demands on calculation needed for comparative genomics on a large scale. Recently, several tools for the prediction of conserved RNA secondary structure were developed, but many of them are not designed to uncover new ncRNAs, or are too slow for conducting analyses on a large scale. Here we present various approaches using the database RiboGap as a primary tool for finding known ncRNAs and for uncovering simple sequence motifs with regulatory roles. This database also can be used to easily extract intergenic sequences of eubacteria and archaea to find conserved RNA structures upstream of given genes. We also show how to extend analysis further to choose the best candidate ncRNAs for experimental validation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulatory Commission of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Map Help Regulatory Commission of Alaska Login Forgot Password Arrow Image Forgot password? View Cart login Procedures for Requesting Login For Consumers General Information Telephone Electric Natural Gas

  5. In Vivo Characterization of a Vertebrate Ultra-conserved Enhancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulin, Francis; Nobrega, Marcelo A.; Plajzer-Frick, Ingrid; Holt, Amy; Afzal, Veena; Rubin, Edward M.; Pennacchio, Len

    2004-10-01

    Genomic sequence comparisons between human, mouse and pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes (Fugu))have revealed a set of extremely conserved noncoding sequences. While this high degree of sequence conservation suggests severe evolutionary constraint and predicts a lack of tolerance to change in order to retain in vivo functionality, such elements have been minimally explored experimentally. In this study, we describe the in-depth characterization of an ancient conserved enhancer, Dc2 located near the dachshund gene, which displays a human-Fugu identity of 84 percent over 424 basepairs (bp). In addition to this large overall conservation, we find that Dc2 is characterized by the presence of a large block of sequence (144 bp) that is completely identical between human, mouse, chicken, zebrafish and Fugu. Through the testing of reporter vector constructs in transgenic mice, we observed that the 424 bp Dc2 conserved element is necessary and sufficient for brain tissue enhancer activity. In vivo analyses also revealed that the 144 bp 100 percent conserved sequence is necessary, but not sufficient, to replicate Dc2 enhancer function. However, the introduction of two separate 16 bp insertions into the highly conserved enhancer core did not cause any detectable modification of its in vivo activity. Our observations indicate that the 144 bp 100 percent conserved element is tolerant of change at least at the resolution of this transgenic mouse assay and suggest that purifying selection on Dc2 sequence might not be as strong as we predicted or that some unknown property also constrains this highly conserved enhancer sequence.

  6. African wildlife conservation and the evolution of hunting institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    't Sas-Rolfes, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Hunting regulation presents a significant challenge for contemporary global conservation governance. Motivated by various incentives, hunters may act legally or illegally, for or against the interests of conservation. Hunter incentives are shaped by the interactions between unevenly evolving formal and informal institutions, embedded in socio-ecological systems. To work effectively for conservation, regulatory interventions must take these evolving institutional interactions into account. Drawing on analytical tools from evolutionary institutional economics, this article examines the trajectory of African hunting regulation and its consequences. Concepts of institutional dynamics, fit, scale, and interplay are applied to case studies of rhinoceros and lion hunting to highlight issues of significance to conservation outcomes. These include important links between different forms of hunting and dynamic interplay with institutions of trade. The case studies reveal that inappropriate formal regulatory approaches may be undermined by adaptive informal market responses. Poorly regulated hunting may lead to calls for stricter regulations or bans, but such legal restrictions may in turn perversely lead to more intensified and organised illegal hunting activity, further undermining conservation objectives. I conclude by offering insights and recommendations to guide more effective future regulatory interventions and priorities for further research. Specifically, I advocate approaches that move beyond simplistic regulatory interventions toward more complex, but supportive, institutional arrangements that align formal and informal institutions through inclusive stakeholder engagement.

  7. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  8. Overlapping positive and negative regulatory domains of the human β-interferon gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodbourn, S.; Maniatis, T.

    1988-01-01

    Virus of poly(I) x poly(C) induction of human β-interferon gene expression requires a 40-base-pair DNA sequence designated the interferon gene regulatory element (IRE). Previous studies have shown that the IRE contains both positive and negative regulatory DNA sequences. To localize these sequences and study their interactions, the authors have examined the effects of a large number of single-base mutations within the IRE on β-interferon gene regulation. They find that the IRE consists of two genetically separable positive regulatory domains and an overlapping negative control sequence. They propose that the β-interferon gene is switched off in uninduced cells by a repressor that blocks the interaction between one of the two positive regulatory sequences and a specific transcription factor. Induction would then lead to inactivation or displacement of the repressor and binding of transcription factors to both positive regulatory domains

  9. Pollution prevention: A regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walzer, A.E.; Maynard, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Pollution prevention is the emphasis of the 1990s environmental philosophy. This new environmental era was ushered in when President Bush signed the Pollution Prevention Act in October 1990. This law, with its accompanying philosophy, was in response to the realization that end-of-the-pipe treatment, which frequently changed the media in which a pollutant or waste was discharged, was inadequate to protect the environment and human health. Pollution prevention advocates source reduction, where material substitutions and engineering solutions are sought to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste and pollutants. This proactive approach reduces environmental impacts such as those of former waste sites which have produced environmental legacies that will cost billions of dollars and take decades to remediate. This paper describes pollution prevention philosophy and summarizes regulatory pollution prevention requirements. It describes current regulatory trends in the area of pollution prevention, including voluntary programs and enforcement actions. The Pollution Prevention Act of 1990 is described, and pollution prevention initiatives embodied in other laws, including the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, and the Toxic Substances Control Act, are discussed. A historical overview of waste minimization initiatives within the Department of Energy is given, and other pollution prevention initiatives that affect federal facilities, such as Executive Order 12780, which mandates recycling and the procurement of recycled materials, are also outlined

  10. Analysis of Pteridium ribosomal RNA sequences by rapid direct sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M K

    1991-08-01

    A total of 864 bases from 5 regions interspersed in the 18S and 26S rRNA molecules from various clones of Pteridium covering the general geographical distribution of the genus was analysed using a rapid rRNA sequencing technique. No base difference has been detected amongst the three major lineages, two of which apparently separated before the breakup of the ancient supercontinent, Pangaea. These regions of the rRNA sequences have thus been conserved for at least 160 million years and are here compared with other eukaryotic, especially plant rRNAs.

  11. Probabilistic safety assessment - regulatory perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solanki, R.B.; Paul, U.K.; Hajra, P.; Agarwal, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Nuclear power plants (NPPs) have been designed, constructed and operated mainly based on deterministic safety analysis philosophy. In this approach, a substantial amount of safety margin is incorporated in the design and operational requirements. Additional margin is incorporated by applying the highest quality engineering codes, standards and practices, and the concept of defence-in-depth in design and operating procedures, by including conservative assumptions and acceptance criteria in plant response analysis of postulated initiating events (PIEs). However, as the probabilistic approach has been improved and refined over the years, it is possible for the designer, operator and regulator to get a more detailed and realistic picture of the safety importance of plant design features, operating procedures and operational practices by using probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) along with the deterministic methodology. At present, many countries including USA, UK and France are using PSA insights in their decision making along with deterministic basis. India has also made substantial progress in the development of methods for carrying out PSA. However, consensus on the use of PSA in regulatory decision-making has not been achieved yet. This paper emphasises on the requirements (e.g.,level of details, key modelling assumptions, data, modelling aspects, success criteria, sensitivity and uncertainty analysis) for improving the quality and consistency in performance and use of PSA that can facilitate meaningful use of the PSA insights in the regulatory decision-making in India. This paper also provides relevant information on international scenario and various application areas of PSA along with progress made in India. The PSA perspective presented in this paper may help in achieving consensus on the use of PSA for regulatory / utility decision-making in design and operation of NPPs

  12. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Karen I; Heinrichs, Jeffrey; Cheung, Karen; Srayko, Martin

    2013-01-15

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B', B″) but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly) is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts), and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  13. Suppressor mutations identify amino acids in PAA-1/PR65 that facilitate regulatory RSA-1/B″ subunit targeting of PP2A to centrosomes in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen I. Lange

    2012-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is a key mechanism for the spatial and temporal regulation of many essential developmental processes and is especially prominent during mitosis. The multi-subunit protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A enzyme plays an important, yet poorly characterized role in dephosphorylating proteins during mitosis. PP2As are heterotrimeric complexes comprising a catalytic, structural, and regulatory subunit. Regulatory subunits are mutually exclusive and determine subcellular localization and substrate specificity of PP2A. At least 3 different classes of regulatory subunits exist (termed B, B′, B″ but there is no obvious similarity in primary sequence between these classes. Therefore, it is not known how these diverse regulatory subunits interact with the same holoenzyme to facilitate specific PP2A functions in vivo. The B″ family of regulatory subunits is the least understood because these proteins lack conserved structural domains. RSA-1 (regulator of spindle assembly is a regulatory B″ subunit required for mitotic spindle assembly in Caenorhabditis elegans. In order to address how B″ subunits interact with the PP2A core enzyme, we focused on a conditional allele, rsa-1(or598ts, and determined that this mutation specifically disrupts the protein interaction between RSA-1 and the PP2A structural subunit, PAA-1. Through genetic screening, we identified a putative interface on the PAA-1 structural subunit that interacts with a defined region of RSA-1/B″. In the context of previously published results, these data propose a mechanism of how different PP2A B-regulatory subunit families can bind the same holoenzyme in a mutually exclusive manner, to perform specific tasks in vivo.

  14. Structural imprints in vivo decode RNA regulatory mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitale, Robert C; Flynn, Ryan A; Zhang, Qiangfeng Cliff; Crisalli, Pete; Lee, Byron; Jung, Jong-Wha; Kuchelmeister, Hannes Y; Batista, Pedro J; Torre, Eduardo A; Kool, Eric T; Chang, Howard Y

    2015-03-26

    Visualizing the physical basis for molecular behaviour inside living cells is a great challenge for biology. RNAs are central to biological regulation, and the ability of RNA to adopt specific structures intimately controls every step of the gene expression program. However, our understanding of physiological RNA structures is limited; current in vivo RNA structure profiles include only two of the four nucleotides that make up RNA. Here we present a novel biochemical approach, in vivo click selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation and profiling experiment (icSHAPE), which enables the first global view, to our knowledge, of RNA secondary structures in living cells for all four bases. icSHAPE of the mouse embryonic stem cell transcriptome versus purified RNA folded in vitro shows that the structural dynamics of RNA in the cellular environment distinguish different classes of RNAs and regulatory elements. Structural signatures at translational start sites and ribosome pause sites are conserved from in vitro conditions, suggesting that these RNA elements are programmed by sequence. In contrast, focal structural rearrangements in vivo reveal precise interfaces of RNA with RNA-binding proteins or RNA-modification sites that are consistent with atomic-resolution structural data. Such dynamic structural footprints enable accurate prediction of RNA-protein interactions and N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification genome wide. These results open the door for structural genomics of RNA in living cells and reveal key physiological structures controlling gene expression.

  15. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  16. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action, or has proposed action, or is considering action, and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  17. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has proposed or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  18. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the Commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  19. NRC Regulatory Agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    The NRC Regulatory Agenda is a compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and all petitions for rulemaking which have been received by the commission and are pending disposition by the Commission. The Regulatory Agenda is updated and issued each quarter

  20. Trust in regulatory regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Six, Frédérique; Verhoest, Koen

    2017-01-01

    Within political and administrative sciences generally, trust as a concept is contested, especially in the field of regulatory governance. This groundbreaking book is the first to systematically explore the role and dynamics of trust within regulatory regimes. Conceptualizing, mapping and analyzing

  1. Nuclear Regulatory legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This compilation of statutes and material pertaining to nuclear regulatory legislation through the 97th Congress, 2nd Session, has been prepared by the Office of the Executive Legal Director, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, with the assistance of staff, for use as an internal resource document

  2. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) regulatory region variation in non-human primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roodgar, Morteza; Ross, Cody T; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Marcelino, Gretchen; Smith, David Glenn

    2015-04-01

    Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is an enzyme that plays a key role in intracellular immune response against respiratory infections. Since various species of nonhuman primates exhibit different levels of susceptibility to infectious respiratory diseases, and since variation in regulatory regions of genes is thought to play a key role in expression levels of genes, two candidate regulatory regions of iNOS were mapped, sequenced, and compared across five species of nonhuman primates: African green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus), pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina), cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), Indian rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), and Chinese rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). In addition, we conducted an in silico analysis of the transcription factor binding sites associated with genetic variation in these two candidate regulatory regions across species. We found that only one of the two candidate regions showed strong evidence of involvement in iNOS regulation. Specifically, we found evidence of 13 conserved binding site candidates linked to iNOS regulation: AP-1, C/EBPB, CREB, GATA-1, GATA-3, NF-AT, NF-AT5, NF-κB, KLF4, Oct-1, PEA3, SMAD3, and TCF11. Additionally, we found evidence of interspecies variation in binding sites for several regulatory elements linked to iNOS (GATA-3, GATA-4, KLF6, SRF, STAT-1, STAT-3, OLF-1 and HIF-1) across species, especially in African green monkeys relative to other species. Given the key role of iNOS in respiratory immune response, the findings of this study might help guide the direction of future studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanisms underlying the increased susceptibility of African green monkeys to several viral and bacterial respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  4. Improving nuclear regulatory effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Ensuring that nuclear installations are operated and maintained in such a way that their impact on public health and safety is as low as reasonably practicable has been and will continue to be the cornerstone of nuclear regulation. In the past, nuclear incidents provided the main impetus for regulatory change. Today, economic factors, deregulation, technological advancements, government oversight and the general requirements for openness and accountability are leading regulatory bodies to review their effectiveness. In addition, seeking to enhance the present level of nuclear safety by continuously improving the effectiveness of regulatory bodies is seen as one of the ways to strengthen public confidence in the regulatory systems. This report covers the basic concepts underlying nuclear regulatory effectiveness, advances being made and future requirements. The intended audience is primarily nuclear safety regulators, but government authorities, nuclear power plant operators and the general public may also be interested. (author)

  5. Cis-regulatory control of the nuclear receptor Coup-TF gene in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus embryo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini G Kalampoki

    Full Text Available Coup-TF, an orphan member of the nuclear receptor super family, has a fundamental role in the development of metazoan embryos. The study of the gene's regulatory circuit in the sea urchin embryo will facilitate the placement of this transcription factor in the well-studied embryonic Gene Regulatory Network (GRN. The Paracentrotus lividus Coup-TF gene (PlCoup-TF is expressed throughout embryonic development preferentially in the oral ectoderm of the gastrula and the ciliary band of the pluteus stage. Two overlapping λ genomic clones, containing three exons and upstream sequences of PlCoup-TF, were isolated from a genomic library. The transcription initiation site was determined and 5' deletions and individual segments of a 1930 bp upstream region were placed ahead of a GFP reporter cassette and injected into fertilized P.lividus eggs. Module a (-532 to -232, was necessary and sufficient to confer ciliary band expression to the reporter. Comparison of P.lividus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus upstream Coup-TF sequences, revealed considerable conservation, but none within module a. 5' and internal deletions into module a, defined a smaller region that confers ciliary band specific expression. Putative regulatory cis-acting elements (RE1, RE2 and RE3 within module a, were specifically bound by proteins in sea urchin embryonic nuclear extracts. Site-specific mutagenesis of these elements resulted in loss of reporter activity (RE1 or ectopic expression (RE2, RE3. It is proposed that sea urchin transcription factors, which bind these three regulatory sites, are necessary for spatial and quantitative regulation of the PlCoup-TF gene at pluteus stage sea urchin embryos. These findings lead to the future identification of these factors and to the hierarchical positioning of PlCoup-TF within the embryonic GRN.

  6. Two estrogen response element sequences near the PCNA gene are not responsible for its estrogen-enhanced expression in MCF7 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wang

    Full Text Available The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA is an essential component of DNA replication, cell cycle regulation, and epigenetic inheritance. High expression of PCNA is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. The 5'-region of the PCNA gene contains two computationally-detected estrogen response element (ERE sequences, one of which is evolutionarily conserved. Both of these sequences are of undocumented cis-regulatory function. We recently demonstrated that estradiol (E2 enhances PCNA mRNA expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. MCF7 cells proliferate in response to E2.Here, we demonstrate that E2 rapidly enhanced PCNA mRNA and protein expression in a process that requires ERalpha as well as de novo protein synthesis. One of the two upstream ERE sequences was specifically bound by ERalpha-containing protein complexes, in vitro, in gel shift analysis. Yet, each ERE sequence, when cloned as a single copy, or when engineered as two tandem copies of the ERE-containing sequence, was not capable of activating a luciferase reporter construct in response to E2. In MCF7 cells, neither ERE-containing genomic region demonstrated E2-dependent recruitment of ERalpha by sensitive ChIP-PCR assays.We conclude that E2 enhances PCNA gene expression by an indirect process and that computational detection of EREs, even when evolutionarily conserved and when near E2-responsive genes, requires biochemical validation.

  7. Two estrogen response element sequences near the PCNA gene are not responsible for its estrogen-enhanced expression in MCF7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Yu, Jie; Kallen, Caleb B

    2008-01-01

    The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is an essential component of DNA replication, cell cycle regulation, and epigenetic inheritance. High expression of PCNA is associated with poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer. The 5'-region of the PCNA gene contains two computationally-detected estrogen response element (ERE) sequences, one of which is evolutionarily conserved. Both of these sequences are of undocumented cis-regulatory function. We recently demonstrated that estradiol (E2) enhances PCNA mRNA expression in MCF7 breast cancer cells. MCF7 cells proliferate in response to E2. Here, we demonstrate that E2 rapidly enhanced PCNA mRNA and protein expression in a process that requires ERalpha as well as de novo protein synthesis. One of the two upstream ERE sequences was specifically bound by ERalpha-containing protein complexes, in vitro, in gel shift analysis. Yet, each ERE sequence, when cloned as a single copy, or when engineered as two tandem copies of the ERE-containing sequence, was not capable of activating a luciferase reporter construct in response to E2. In MCF7 cells, neither ERE-containing genomic region demonstrated E2-dependent recruitment of ERalpha by sensitive ChIP-PCR assays. We conclude that E2 enhances PCNA gene expression by an indirect process and that computational detection of EREs, even when evolutionarily conserved and when near E2-responsive genes, requires biochemical validation.

  8. Organization of nuclear regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blidaru, Valentin

    2008-01-01

    facilities; - Accident analyses; - Criticality calculations; - Licensing process for TRIGA research reactor; - Application of RESP code for CANDU type power reactors. The main tasks, objectives and methodologies applied by the Regulatory Authority are presented. The main nuclear facilities to which specific regulatory approaches are applied are: - Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1; - Cernavoda NPP Unit 2; - TRIGA Research reactor; - WWR-S research reactor (in conservation); - Specific installations related to the nuclear safety area of licensing, namely; - devices as C-2, C-5, C-6, by the TRIGA research reactor; - criticality aspects relating to transportation and storage of the fresh and spent fuels; - CANDU6 fuel plant; - dry storage facilities for spent fuel. The second half of the paper deals with specific aspects concerning the TRIGA research reactors. There are described the regulatory approaches and the licensing process, it is given a presentation of the configuration of the reactor, the operation of replacing the HEU fuel by LEU fuel, operation and applications of the reactor and finally specific aspects of the licensing process. These aspects concern the following issues: - reactivity accidents; - core interaction; - fuel temperature; prompt negative temperature coefficient. The regulatory approach for further licensing process deals with the following aspects: - nuclear safety documentation assessment for the reactor and each experimental device; - the operational licence to be issued for the whole nuclear unit; - technical nuclear safety documentation to be revised by the licensee and additional safety assessment to be performed for the reactor itself and also for the experimental devices in order to establish the concordance with the design changes (conversion to LEU from HEU fuel, 6 control rods in the reactor control system); - technical limits and conditions to be well established according to the tests conclusions or independent calculations and safety

  9. Alu-mediated deletion of SOX10 regulatory elements in Waardenburg syndrome type 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondurand, Nadége; Fouquet, Virginie; Baral, Viviane; Lecerf, Laure; Loundon, Natalie; Goossens, Michel; Duriez, Benedicte; Labrune, Philippe; Pingault, Veronique

    2012-09-01

    Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4) is a rare neural crest disorder defined by the combination of Waardenburg syndrome (sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentation defects) and Hirschsprung disease (intestinal aganglionosis). Three genes are known to be involved in this syndrome, that is, EDN3 (endothelin-3), EDNRB (endothelin receptor type B), and SOX10. However, 15-35% of WS4 remains unexplained at the molecular level, suggesting that other genes could be involved and/or that mutations within known genes may have escaped previous screenings. Here, we searched for deletions within recently identified SOX10 regulatory sequences and describe the first characterization of a WS4 patient presenting with a large deletion encompassing three of these enhancers. Analysis of the breakpoint region suggests a complex rearrangement involving three Alu sequences that could be mediated by a FosTes/MMBIR replication mechanism. Taken together with recent reports, our results demonstrate that the disruption of highly conserved non-coding elements located within or at a long distance from the coding sequences of key genes can result in several neurocristopathies. This opens up new routes to the molecular dissection of neural crest disorders.

  10. Distinct forms of the β subunit of GTP-binding regulatory proteins identified by molecular cloning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, H.K.W.; Amatruda, T.T. III; Birren, B.W.; Simon, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    Two distinct β subunits of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins have been identified by cDNA cloning and are referred to as β 1 and β 1 subunits. The bovine transducin β subunit (β 1 ) has been cloned previously. The author now isolated and analyzed cDNA clones that encode the β 2 subunit from bovine adrenal, bovine brain, and a human myeloid leukemia cell line, HL-60. The 340-residue M/sub r/ 37,329 Β 2 protein is 90% identical with β 1 in predicted amino acid sequence, and it is also organized as a series of repetitive homologous segments. The major mRNA that encodes the bovine β 2 subunit is 1.7 kilobases in length. It is expressed at lower levels than β 1 subunit mRNA in all tissues examined. The β 1 and β 2 messages are expressed in cloned human cell lines. Hybridization of cDNA probes to bovine DNA showed that β 1 and β 2 are encoded by separate genes. The amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 2 subunit are identical, as are the amino acid sequences for the bovine and human β 1 subunit. This evolutionary conservation suggests that the two β subunits have different roles in the signal transduction process

  11. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  12. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  13. Assessing the structural conservation of protein pockets to study functional and allosteric sites: implications for drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the classical, active-site oriented drug-development approach reaching its limits, protein ligand-binding sites in general and allosteric sites in particular are increasingly attracting the interest of medicinal chemists in the search for new types of targets and strategies to drug development. Given that allostery represents one of the most common and powerful means to regulate protein function, the traditional drug discovery approach of targeting active sites can be extended by targeting allosteric or regulatory protein pockets that may allow the discovery of not only novel drug-like inhibitors, but activators as well. The wealth of available protein structural data can be exploited to further increase our understanding of allosterism, which in turn may have therapeutic applications. A first step in this direction is to identify and characterize putative effector sites that may be present in already available structural data. Results We performed a large-scale study of protein cavities as potential allosteric and functional sites, by integrating publicly available information on protein sequences, structures and active sites for more than a thousand protein families. By identifying common pockets across different structures of the same protein family we developed a method to measure the pocket's structural conservation. The method was first parameterized using known active sites. We characterized the predicted pockets in terms of sequence and structural conservation, backbone flexibility and electrostatic potential. Although these different measures do not tend to correlate, their combination is useful in selecting functional and regulatory sites, as a detailed analysis of a handful of protein families shows. We finally estimated the numbers of potential allosteric or regulatory pockets that may be present in the data set, finding that pockets with putative functional and effector characteristics are widespread across

  14. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  15. The utility of transcriptomics in fish conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connon, Richard E; Jeffries, Ken M; Komoroske, Lisa M; Todgham, Anne E; Fangue, Nann A

    2018-01-29

    There is growing recognition of the need to understand the mechanisms underlying organismal resilience (i.e. tolerance, acclimatization) to environmental change to support the conservation management of sensitive and economically important species. Here, we discuss how functional genomics can be used in conservation biology to provide a cellular-level understanding of organismal responses to environmental conditions. In particular, the integration of transcriptomics with physiological and ecological research is increasingly playing an important role in identifying functional physiological thresholds predictive of compensatory responses and detrimental outcomes, transforming the way we can study issues in conservation biology. Notably, with technological advances in RNA sequencing, transcriptome-wide approaches can now be applied to species where no prior genomic sequence information is available to develop species-specific tools and investigate sublethal impacts that can contribute to population declines over generations and undermine prospects for long-term conservation success. Here, we examine the use of transcriptomics as a means of determining organismal responses to environmental stressors and use key study examples of conservation concern in fishes to highlight the added value of transcriptome-wide data to the identification of functional response pathways. Finally, we discuss the gaps between the core science and policy frameworks and how thresholds identified through transcriptomic evaluations provide evidence that can be more readily used by resource managers. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Sequence analysis of cereal sucrose synthase genes and isolation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-18

    Oct 18, 2007 ... sequencing of sucrose synthase gene fragment from sor- ghum using primers designed at their conserved exons. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Multiple sequence alignment. Sucrose synthase gene sequences of various cereals like rice, maize, and barley were accessed from NCBI Genbank database.

  17. Isolation, sequence identification and tissue expression profile of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete expressed sequence tag (CDS) sequence of Banna mini-pig inbred line (BMI) ribokinase gene (RBKS) was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based on the conserved sequence information of the cattle or other mammals and known highly homologous swine ESTs.

  18. Genomic regulatory landscapes and chromosomal rearrangements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Elisabete L Engenheiro

    2008-01-01

    The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes is that they ......The main objectives of the PhD study are to identify and characterise chromosomal rearrangements within evolutionarily conserved regulatory landscapes around genes involved in the regulation of transcription and/or development (trans-dev genes). A frequent feature of trans-dev genes...... the complex spatio-temporal expression of the associated trans-dev gene. Rare chromosomal breakpoints that disrupt the integrity of these regulatory landscapes may be used as a tool, not only to make genotype-phenotype associations, but also to link the associated phenotype with the position and tissue...... specificity of the individual CNEs. In this PhD study I have studied several chromosomal rearrangements with breakpoints in the vicinity of trans-dev genes. This included chromosomal rearrangements compatible with known phenotype-genotype associations (Rieger syndrome-PITX2, Mowat-Wilson syndrome-ZEB2...

  19. Regulatory guidance document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM's evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7

  20. Evaluation of the conserve flavin reductase gene from three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... means of PCR technique. The nucleic acid sequences of the PCR primers were designed using conserved nucleic acid sequences of the flavin reductase enzyme from. Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. The oligonucleotide primers were as follows: 5'-GAA TTC ATG TCT GAC. AAG CCG AAT GCC-3' (forward) ...

  1. Managing Regulatory Body Competence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In 2001, the IAEA published TECDOC 1254, which examined the way in which the recognized functions of a regulatory body for nuclear facilities results in competence needs. Using the systematic approach to training (SAT), TECDOC 1254 provided a framework for regulatory bodies for managing training and developing and their maintaining their competence. It has been successfully used by many regulators. The IAEA has also introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Guidelines for Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. In 2009, the IAEA established a steering committee (supported by a bureau) with the mission to advise the IAEA on how it could best assist Member States to develop suitable competence management systems for their regulatory bodies. The committee recommended the development of a safety report on managing staff competence as an integral part of a regulatory body's management system. This Safety Report was developed in response to this request. It supersedes TECDOC 1254, broadens its application to regulatory bodies for all facilities and activities, and builds upon the experience gained through the application of TECDOC 1254 and SARCoN and the feedback received from Member States. This Safety Report applies to the management of adequate competence as needs change, and as such is equally applicable to the needs of States 'embarking' on a nuclear power programme. It also deals with the special case of building up the competence of regulatory bodies as part of the overall process of establishing an 'embarking' State's regulatory system

  2. Highly accessible AU-rich regions in 3’ untranslated regions are hotspots for binding of regulatory factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Post-transcriptional regulation is regarded as one of the major processes involved in the regulation of gene expression. It is mainly performed by RNA binding proteins and microRNAs, which target RNAs and typically affect their stability. Recent efforts from the scientific community have aimed at understanding post-transcriptional regulation at a global scale by using high-throughput sequencing techniques such as cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP), which facilitates identification of binding sites of these regulatory factors. However, the diversity in the experimental procedures and bioinformatics analyses has hindered the integration of multiple datasets and thus limited the development of an integrated view of post-transcriptional regulation. In this work, we have performed a comprehensive analysis of 107 CLIP datasets from 49 different RBPs in HEK293 cells to shed light on the complex interactions that govern post-transcriptional regulation. By developing a more stringent CLIP analysis pipeline we have discovered the existence of conserved regulatory AU-rich regions in the 3’UTRs where miRNAs and RBPs that regulate several processes such as polyadenylation or mRNA stability bind. Analogous to promoters, many factors have binding sites overlapping or in close proximity in these hotspots and hence the regulation of the mRNA may depend on their relative concentrations. This hypothesis is supported by RBP knockdown experiments that alter the relative concentration of RBPs in the cell. Upon AGO2 knockdown (KD), transcripts containing “free” target sites show increased expression levels compared to those containing target sites in hotspots, which suggests that target sites within hotspots are less available for miRNAs to bind. Interestingly, these hotspots appear enriched in genes with regulatory functions such as DNA binding and RNA binding. Taken together, our results suggest that hotspots are functional regulatory elements that define an extra layer

  3. NRC regulatory uses of PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murley, T.E.

    1991-01-01

    The publication in 1975 of WASH-1400, with its new probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methodology, had the effect of presenting a pair of eyeglasses to a man with poor eyesight. Suddenly, it gave us a view of nuclear safety with a new clarity, and it allowed us to sort out the important safety issues from the unimportant. In the intervening years, PSA insights have permeated the fabric of nearly all our safety judgments. This acceptance can be seen from the following list of broad areas where the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff uses PSA insights and methodology: evaluating the safety significance of operating events and recommending safety improvements where warranted; requesting licensees to systematically look for design vulnerabilities in each operating reactor; evaluating the safety significance of design weaknesses or non-compliances when judging the time frame for necessary improvements; conducting sensitivity analyses to judge where safety improvements are most effective; assessing the relative safety benefits of design features for future reactors. In judging where PSA methodology can be improved to give better safety insights, it is believed that the following areas need more attention: better modeling of cognitive errors; more comprehensive modeling of accident sequences initiated from conditions other than full power; more comprehensive modeling of inter-system loss of coolant accident (ISLOCA) sequences. Although PSA is widely used in the staff's regulatory activities, the NRC deliberately chooses not to include probabilistic prescriptions in regulations or guidance documents. The staff finds the bottom line risk estimates to be one of the least reliable products of a PSA. The reason for this view is that PSA cannot adequately address cognitive errors nor assess the effects of a pervasive poor safety attitude

  4. H-2RIIBP, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily that binds to both the regulatory element of major histocompatibility class I genes and the estrogen response element.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamada, K; Gleason, S L; Levi, B Z; Hirschfeld, S; Appella, E; Ozato, K

    1989-01-01

    Transcription of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I genes is regulated by the conserved MHC class I regulatory element (CRE). The CRE has two factor-binding sites, region I and region II, both of which elicit enhancer function. By screening a mouse lambda gt 11 library with the CRE as a probe, we isolated a cDNA clone that encodes a protein capable of binding to region II of the CRE. This protein, H-2RIIBP (H-2 region II binding protein), bound to the native region II sequence, bu...

  5. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  6. Deep sequencing of Brachypodium small RNAs at the global genome level identifies microRNAs involved in cold stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Kang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenous small RNAs having large-scale regulatory effects on plant development and stress responses. Extensive studies of miRNAs have only been performed in a few model plants. Although miRNAs are proved to be involved in plant cold stress responses, little is known for winter-habit monocots. Brachypodium distachyon, with close evolutionary relationship to cool-season cereals, has recently emerged as a novel model plant. There are few reports of Brachypodium miRNAs. Results High-throughput sequencing and whole-genome-wide data mining led to the identification of 27 conserved miRNAs, as well as 129 predicted miRNAs in Brachypodium. For multiple-member conserved miRNA families, their sizes in Brachypodium were much smaller than those in rice and Populus. The genome organization of miR395 family in Brachypodium was quite different from that in rice. The expression of 3 conserved miRNAs and 25 predicted miRNAs showed significant changes in response to cold stress. Among these miRNAs, some were cold-induced and some were cold-suppressed, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated under cold stress condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that Brachypodium miRNAs are composed of a set of conserved miRNAs and a large proportion of non-conserved miRNAs with low expression levels. Both kinds of miRNAs were involved in cold stress response, but all the conserved miRNAs were up-regulated, implying an important role for cold-induced miRNAs. The different size and genome organization of miRNA families in Brachypodium and rice suggest that the frequency of duplication events or the selection pressure on duplicated miRNAs are different between these two closely related plant species.

  7. Model uncertainty from a regulatory point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, L.R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses model uncertainty in the larger context of knowledge and random uncertainty. It explores some regulatory implications of model uncertainty and argues that, from a regulator's perspective, a conservative approach must be taken. As a consequence of this perspective, averaging over model results is ruled out

  8. Relative Stabilities of Conserved and Non-Conserved Structures in the OB-Fold Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei T. Alexandrescu

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The OB-fold is a diverse structure superfamily based on a β-barrel motif that is often supplemented with additional non-conserved secondary structures. Previous deletion mutagenesis and NMR hydrogen exchange studies of three OB-fold proteins showed that the structural stabilities of sites within the conserved β-barrels were larger than sites in non-conserved segments. In this work we examined a database of 80 representative domain structures currently classified as OB-folds, to establish the basis of this effect. Residue-specific values were obtained for the number of Cα-Cα distance contacts, sequence hydrophobicities, crystallographic B-factors, and theoretical B-factors calculated from a Gaussian Network Model. All four parameters point to a larger average flexibility for the non-conserved structures compared to the conserved β-barrels. The theoretical B-factors and contact densities show the highest sensitivity.Our results suggest a model of protein structure evolution in which novel structural features develop at the periphery of conserved motifs. Core residues are more resistant to structural changes during evolution since their substitution would disrupt a larger number of interactions. Similar factors are likely to account for the differences in stability to unfolding between conserved and non-conserved structures.

  9. RNA SURVEILLANCE– AN EMERGING ROLE FOR RNA REGULATORY NETWORKS IN AGING

    OpenAIRE

    Montano, Monty; Long, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we describe recent advances in the field of RNA regulatory biology and relate these advances to aging science. We introduce a new term, RNA surveillance, an RNA regulatory process that is conserved in metazoans, and describe how RNA surveillance represents molecular cross-talk between two emerging RNA regulatory systems – RNA interference and RNA editing. We discuss how RNA surveillance mechanisms influence mRNA and microRNA expression and activity during lifespan. Additionall...

  10. De novo prediction of structured RNAs from genomic sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Þórarinsson, Elfar

    2010-01-01

    currently available, because evolutionary conservation highlights functionally important regions. Conserved secondary structure, rather than primary sequence, is the hallmark of many functionally important RNAs, because compensatory substitutions in base-paired regions preserve structure. Unfortunately...

  11. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  12. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  13. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  14. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  15. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  17. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  18. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  19. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  20. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  1. NRC regulatory agenda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The Regulatory Agenda is a quarterly compilation of all rules on which the NRC has recently completed action or has proposed, or is considering action and of all petitions for rulemaking that the NRC has received that are pending disposition

  2. Through the regulatory hoop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirner, N.P.

    1985-01-01

    There are many regulatory hoops through which waste generators, brokers, and disposal site operators must jump to dispose of waste safely. As the proposed exclusionary date of January 1, 1986, approaches, these regulatory hoops have the distinct possibility of multiplying or at least changing shape. The state of Washington, in its role as an Agreement State with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, licenses and inspects the commercial operator of the Northwest Compact's low-level radioactive waste disposal site on the Hanford Reservation. Washington has received as much as 53%, or 1.4 million cubic feet per year, of the nation's total volume of waste disposed. To control such a large volume of waste, a regulatory program involving six agencies has developed over the years in Washington

  3. HLA-E regulatory and coding region variability and haplotypes in a Brazilian population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Jaqueline; Veiga-Castelli, Luciana C; Donadi, Eduardo A; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Castelli, Erick C

    2017-11-01

    The HLA-E gene is characterized by low but wide expression on different tissues. HLA-E is considered a conserved gene, being one of the least polymorphic class I HLA genes. The HLA-E molecule interacts with Natural Killer cell receptors and T lymphocytes receptors, and might activate or inhibit immune responses depending on the peptide associated with HLA-E and with which receptors HLA-E interacts to. Variable sites within the HLA-E regulatory and coding segments may influence the gene function by modifying its expression pattern or encoded molecule, thus, influencing its interaction with receptors and the peptide. Here we propose an approach to evaluate the gene structure, haplotype pattern and the complete HLA-E variability, including regulatory (promoter and 3'UTR) and coding segments (with introns), by using massively parallel sequencing. We investigated the variability of 420 samples from a very admixed population such as Brazilians by using this approach. Considering a segment of about 7kb, 63 variable sites were detected, arranged into 75 extended haplotypes. We detected 37 different promoter sequences (but few frequent ones), 27 different coding sequences (15 representing new HLA-E alleles) and 12 haplotypes at the 3'UTR segment, two of them presenting a summed frequency of 90%. Despite the number of coding alleles, they encode mainly two different full-length molecules, known as E*01:01 and E*01:03, which corresponds to about 90% of all. In addition, differently from what has been previously observed for other non classical HLA genes, the relationship among the HLA-E promoter, coding and 3'UTR haplotypes is not straightforward because the same promoter and 3'UTR haplotypes were many times associated with different HLA-E coding haplotypes. This data reinforces the presence of only two main full-length HLA-E molecules encoded by the many HLA-E alleles detected in our population sample. In addition, this data does indicate that the distal HLA-E promoter is by

  4. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  5. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  6. Decoding the regulatory landscape of medulloblastoma using DNA methylation sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovestadt, Volker; Jones, David T. W.; Picelli, Simone; Wang, Wei; Kool, Marcel; Northcott, Paul A.; Sultan, Marc; Stachurski, Katharina; Ryzhova, Marina; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Ralser, Meryem; Brun, Sonja; Bunt, Jens; Jäger, Natalie; Kleinheinz, Kortine; Erkek, Serap; Weber, Ursula D.; Bartholomae, Cynthia C.; von Kalle, Christof; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Schmidt, Sabine; Wolf, Stephan; Pietsch, Torsten; Rutkowski, Stefan; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Taylor, Michael D.; Brors, Benedikt; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Borkhardt, Arndt; Lehrach, Hans; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Eils, Roland; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Landgraf, Pablo; Korshunov, Andrey; Zapatka, Marc; Radlwimmer, Bernhard; Pfister, Stefan M.; Lichter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations, that is, disruption of DNA methylation and chromatin architecture, are now acknowledged as a universal feature of tumorigenesis. Medulloblastoma, a clinically challenging, malignant childhood brain tumour, is no exception. Despite much progress from recent genomics studies,

  7. MotifMark: Finding regulatory motifs in DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Kolhe, Pushkar; Isbell, Charles L; Wang, May D

    2017-07-01

    The interaction between proteins and DNA is a key driving force in a significant number of biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, repair, recombination, splicing, and DNA modification. The identification of DNA-binding sites and the specificity of target proteins in binding to these regions are two important steps in understanding the mechanisms of these biological activities. A number of high-throughput technologies have recently emerged that try to quantify the affinity between proteins and DNA motifs. Despite their success, these technologies have their own limitations and fall short in precise characterization of motifs, and as a result, require further downstream analysis to extract useful and interpretable information from a haystack of noisy and inaccurate data. Here we propose MotifMark, a new algorithm based on graph theory and machine learning, that can find binding sites on candidate probes and rank their specificity in regard to the underlying transcription factor. We developed a pipeline to analyze experimental data derived from compact universal protein binding microarrays and benchmarked it against two of the most accurate motif search methods. Our results indicate that MotifMark can be a viable alternative technique for prediction of motif from protein binding microarrays and possibly other related high-throughput techniques.

  8. MotifMark: Finding Regulatory Motifs in DNA Sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid Reza; Kolhe, Pushkar; Isbell, Charles L.; Wang, May D.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between proteins and DNA is a key driving force in a significant number of biological processes such as transcriptional regulation, repair, recombination, splicing, and DNA modification. The identification of DNA-binding sites and the specificity of target proteins in binding to these regions are two important steps in understanding the mechanisms of these biological activities. A number of high-throughput technologies have recently emerged that try to quantify the affinity be...

  9. Conservation of HIV-1 T cell epitopes across time and clades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levitz, Lauren; Koita, Ousmane A; Sangare, Kotou

    2012-01-01

    HIV genomic sequence variability has complicated efforts to generate an effective globally relevant vaccine. Regions of the viral genome conserved in sequence and across time may represent the "Achilles' heel" of HIV. In this study, highly conserved T-cell epitopes were selected using immunoinfor...

  10. Simple connection between conservation laws in the Korteweg--de Vriesand sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodos, A.

    1980-01-01

    An infinite sequence of conserved quantities follows from the Lax representation in both the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems. We show that these two sequences are related by a simple substitution. In an appendix, two different methods of deriving conservation laws from the Lax representation are presented

  11. Identification of microRNAs and their targets in Finger millet by high throughput sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, S; Jyothi, M N; Sharadamma, N; Dixit, Rekha; Devaraj, V R; Nagesh Babu, R

    2015-12-15

    MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs which play an important role in regulating gene expression by mRNA cleavage or by translational repression. The majority of identified miRNAs were evolutionarily conserved; however, others expressed in a species-specific manner. Finger millet is an important cereal crop; nonetheless, no practical information is available on microRNAs to date. In this study, we have identified 95 conserved microRNAs belonging to 39 families and 3 novel microRNAs by high throughput sequencing. For the identified conserved and novel miRNAs a total of 507 targets were predicted. 11 miRNAs were validated and tissue specificity was determined by stem loop RT-qPCR, Northern blot. GO analyses revealed targets of miRNA were involved in wide range of regulatory functions. This study implies large number of known and novel miRNAs found in Finger millet which may play important role in growth and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Facilitating genome navigation : survey sequencing and dense radiation-hybrid gene mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hitte, C; Madeoy, J; Kirkness, EF; Priat, C; Lorentzen, TD; Senger, F; Thomas, D; Derrien, T; Ramirez, C; Scott, C; Evanno, G; Pullar, B; Cadieu, E; Oza, [No Value; Lourgant, K; Jaffe, DB; Tacher, S; Dreano, S; Berkova, N; Andre, C; Deloukas, P; Fraser, C; Lindblad-Toh, K; Ostrander, EA; Galibert, F

    Accurate and comprehensive sequence coverage for large genomes has been restricted to only a few species of specific interest. Lower sequence coverage (survey sequencing) of related species can yield a wealth of information about gene content and putative regulatory elements. But survey sequences

  13. Computational Analysis of an Evolutionarily Conserved VertebrateMuscle Alternative Splicing Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Debopriya; Clark, Tyson A.; Schweitzer, Anthony; Marr,Henry; Yamamoto, Miki L.; Parra, Marilyn K.; Arribere, Josh; Minovitsky,Simon; Dubchak, Inna; Blume, John E.; Conboy, John G.

    2006-06-15

    A novel exon microarray format that probes gene expression with single exon resolution was employed to elucidate critical features of a vertebrate muscle alternative splicing program. A dataset of 56 microarray-defined, muscle-enriched exons and their flanking introns were examined computationally in order to investigate coordination of the muscle splicing program. Candidate intron regulatory motifs were required to meet several stringent criteria: significant over-representation near muscle-enriched exons, correlation with muscle expression, and phylogenetic conservation among genomes of several vertebrate orders. Three classes of regulatory motifs were identified in the proximal downstream intron, within 200nt of the target exons: UGCAUG, a specific binding site for Fox-1 related splicing factors; ACUAAC, a novel branchpoint-like element; and UG-/UGC-rich elements characteristic of binding sites for CELF splicing factors. UGCAUG was remarkably enriched, being present in nearly one-half of all cases. These studies suggest that Fox and CELF splicing factors play a major role in enforcing the muscle-specific alternative splicing program, facilitating expression of a set of unique isoforms of cytoskeletal proteins that are critical to muscle cell differentiation. Supplementary materials: There are four supplementary tables and one supplementary figure. The tables provide additional detailed information concerning the muscle-enriched datasets, and about over-represented oligonucleotide sequences in the flanking introns. The supplementary figure shows RT-PCR data confirming the muscle-enriched expression of exons predicted from the microarray analysis.

  14. Characterization of Putative cis-Regulatory Elements in Genes Preferentially Expressed in Arabidopsis Male Meiocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhua Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meiosis is essential for plant reproduction because it is the process during which homologous chromosome pairing, synapsis, and meiotic recombination occur. The meiotic transcriptome is difficult to investigate because of the size of meiocytes and the confines of anther lobes. The recent development of isolation techniques has enabled the characterization of transcriptional profiles in male meiocytes of Arabidopsis. Gene expression in male meiocytes shows unique features. The direct interaction of transcription factors (TFs with DNA regulatory sequences forms the basis for the specificity of transcriptional regulation. Here, we identified putative cis-regulatory elements (CREs associated with male meiocyte-expressed genes using in silico tools. The upstream regions (1 kb of the top 50 genes preferentially expressed in Arabidopsis meiocytes possessed conserved motifs. These motifs are putative binding sites of TFs, some of which share common functions, such as roles in cell division. In combination with cell-type-specific analysis, our findings could be a substantial aid for the identification and experimental verification of the protein-DNA interactions for the specific TFs that drive gene expression in meiocytes.

  15. Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigova, Alla A; Abraham, Brian J; Ji, Xiong; Molinie, Benoit; Hannett, Nancy M; Guo, Yang Eric; Jangi, Mohini; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Sharp, Phillip A; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-20

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Local synteny and codon usage contribute to asymmetric sequence divergence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene duplicates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergthorsson Ulfar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duplicated genes frequently experience asymmetric rates of sequence evolution. Relaxed selective constraints and positive selection have both been invoked to explain the observation that one paralog within a gene-duplicate pair exhibits an accelerated rate of sequence evolution. In the majority of studies where asymmetric divergence has been established, there is no indication as to which gene copy, ancestral or derived, is evolving more rapidly. In this study we investigated the effect of local synteny (gene-neighborhood conservation and codon usage on the sequence evolution of gene duplicates in the S. cerevisiae genome. We further distinguish the gene duplicates into those that originated from a whole-genome duplication (WGD event (ohnologs versus small-scale duplications (SSD to determine if there exist any differences in their patterns of sequence evolution. Results For SSD pairs, the derived copy evolves faster than the ancestral copy. However, there is no relationship between rate asymmetry and synteny conservation (ancestral-like versus derived-like in ohnologs. mRNA abundance and optimal codon usage as measured by the CAI is lower in the derived SSD copies relative to ancestral paralogs. Moreover, in the case of ohnologs, the faster-evolving copy has lower CAI and lowered expression. Conclusions Together, these results suggest that relaxation of selection for codon usage and gene expression contribute to rate asymmetry in the evolution of duplicated genes and that in SSD pairs, the relaxation of selection stems from the loss of ancestral regulatory information in the derived copy.

  17. In Silico Analysis of Gene Expression Network Components Underlying Pigmentation Phenotypes in the Python Identified Evolutionarily Conserved Clusters of Transcription Factor Binding Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher J. L. Irizarry

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Color variation provides the opportunity to investigate the genetic basis of evolution and selection. Reptiles are less studied than mammals. Comparative genomics approaches allow for knowledge gained in one species to be leveraged for use in another species. We describe a comparative vertebrate analysis of conserved regulatory modules in pythons aimed at assessing bioinformatics evidence that transcription factors important in mamm