WorldWideScience

Sample records for conserved odour-similarity space

  1. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  2. Fold and Fit: Space Conserving Shape Editing

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed; Yan, Dong-Ming

    2017-01-01

    We present a framework that folds man-made objects in a structure-aware manner for space-conserving storage and transportation. Given a segmented 3D mesh of a man-made object, our framework jointly optimizes for joint locations, the folding order

  3. Fold and Fit: Space Conserving Shape Editing

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Mohamed

    2017-09-01

    We present a framework that folds man-made objects in a structure-aware manner for space-conserving storage and transportation. Given a segmented 3D mesh of a man-made object, our framework jointly optimizes for joint locations, the folding order, and folding angles for each part of the model, enabling it to transform into a spatially efficient configuration while keeping its original functionality as intact as possible. That is, if a model is supposed to withstand several forces in its initial state to serve its functionality, our framework places the joints between the parts of the model such that the model can withstand forces with magnitudes that are comparable to the magnitudes applied on the unedited model. Furthermore, if the folded shape is not compact, our framework proposes further segmentation of the model to improve its compactness in its folded state.

  4. Conserved quantities for stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esposito, F.P.; Witten, L.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that every stationary Einstein-Maxwell space-time has eight divergence-free vector fields and these are isolated in general form. The vector fields and associated conserved quantities are calculated for several families of space-times. (Auth.)

  5. Conserving Space Heritage - The Case for Tranquillity Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewer, G.

    One of the most important and spectacular events in the history of space exploration was the first Moon Landing of 1969. Safe from the ravages of erosion, agriculture, industry or the expansion of human settlement, the greatest threat to the site of this momentous event - Tranquillity Base - is likely to be from a meteor impact. However, with the advent of space tourism and commercial space travel, the site of humankind's first visit to a celestial body may come under threat of a different kind - that of souvenir hunters and miners. In this paper, the historical background to the Apollo programme is outlined and the sequence of events that made up the Apollo 11 mission, which conducted the first Moon landing, is described before concluding with a consideration of the heritage conservation issues of Tranquillity Base.

  6. 77 FR 8801 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Request for applications. SUMMARY: The..., requests applications for the Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program (Community Forest...

  7. Non-Noether conserved quantity for differential equations of motion in the phase space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A non-Noether conserved quantity for the differential equations of motion of mechanical systems in the phase space is studied. The differential equations of motion of the systems are established and the determining equations of Lie symmetry are given. An existence theorem of non-Noether conserved quantity is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. Unified Symmetry and Conserved Quantities of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhui; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e., a unified one is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether, the generalized Hojman and the Mei conserved quantities of the unified symmetry of the system are obtained. The unified symmetry contains the Noether, the Lie and the Mei symmetries, and has more generalized significance.

  9. A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2015-01-01

    The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.

  10. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  11. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  12. Efficient conservative ADER schemes based on WENO reconstruction and space-time predictor in primitive variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, Olindo; Dumbser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We present a new version of conservative ADER-WENO finite volume schemes, in which both the high order spatial reconstruction as well as the time evolution of the reconstruction polynomials in the local space-time predictor stage are performed in primitive variables, rather than in conserved ones. To obtain a conservative method, the underlying finite volume scheme is still written in terms of the cell averages of the conserved quantities. Therefore, our new approach performs the spatial WENO reconstruction twice: the first WENO reconstruction is carried out on the known cell averages of the conservative variables. The WENO polynomials are then used at the cell centers to compute point values of the conserved variables, which are subsequently converted into point values of the primitive variables. This is the only place where the conversion from conservative to primitive variables is needed in the new scheme. Then, a second WENO reconstruction is performed on the point values of the primitive variables to obtain piecewise high order reconstruction polynomials of the primitive variables. The reconstruction polynomials are subsequently evolved in time with a novel space-time finite element predictor that is directly applied to the governing PDE written in primitive form. The resulting space-time polynomials of the primitive variables can then be directly used as input for the numerical fluxes at the cell boundaries in the underlying conservative finite volume scheme. Hence, the number of necessary conversions from the conserved to the primitive variables is reduced to just one single conversion at each cell center. We have verified the validity of the new approach over a wide range of hyperbolic systems, including the classical Euler equations of gas dynamics, the special relativistic hydrodynamics (RHD) and ideal magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) equations, as well as the Baer-Nunziato model for compressible two-phase flows. In all cases we have noticed that the new ADER

  13. 77 FR 13261 - Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Request for Applications: The Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program AGENCY: Forest Service. ACTION: Notice; Correction. SUMMARY: The Department..., published a document in the Federal Register of February 15, 2011, concerning requests for applications for...

  14. Nearly auto-parallel maps and conservation laws on curved spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacaru, S.

    1994-01-01

    The theory of nearly auto-parallel maps (na-maps, generalization of conformal transforms) of Einstein-Cartan spaces is formulated. The transformation laws of geometrical objects and gravitational and matter field equations under superpositions of na-maps are considered. A special attention is paid to the very important problem of definition of conservation laws for gravitational fields. (Author)

  15. Mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in urban green spaces: implications for urban wildlife conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Travis; Fidino, Mason; Lehrer, Elizabeth W; Magle, Seth B

    2017-12-01

    As urban growth expands and natural environments fragment, it is essential to understand the ecological roles fulfilled by urban green spaces. To evaluate how urban green spaces function as wildlife habitat, we estimated mammal diversity and metacommunity dynamics in city parks, cemeteries, golf courses, and natural areas throughout the greater Chicago, Illinois, USA region. We found similar α-diversity (with the exception of city parks), but remarkably dissimilar communities in different urban green spaces. Additionally, the type of urban green space greatly influenced species colonization and persistence rates. For example, coyotes (Canis latrans) had the highest, but white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) the lowest probability of persistence in golf courses compared to other green space types. Further, most species had a difficult time colonizing city parks even when sites were seemingly available. Our results indicate that urban green spaces contribute different, but collectively important, habitats for maintaining and conserving biodiversity in cities. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Biodiversity in the City: Fundamental Questions for Understanding the Ecology of Urban Green Spaces for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher A. Lepczyk; Myla F. J. Aronson; Karl L. Evans; Mark A. Goddard; Susannah B. Lerman; J. Scott MacIvor

    2017-01-01

    As urban areas expand, understanding how ecological processes function in cities has become increasingly important for conserving biodiversity. Urban green spaces are critical habitats to support biodiversity, but we still have a limited understanding of their ecology and how they function to conserve biodiversity at local and landscape scales across multiple taxa....

  17. Tetrahedral-Mesh Simulation of Turbulent Flows with the Space-Time Conservative Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chau-Lyan; Venkatachari, Balaji; Cheng, Gary C.

    2015-01-01

    Direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows are predominantly carried out using structured, hexahedral meshes despite decades of development in unstructured mesh methods. Tetrahedral meshes offer ease of mesh generation around complex geometries and the potential of an orientation free grid that would provide un-biased small-scale dissipation and more accurate intermediate scale solutions. However, due to the lack of consistent multi-dimensional numerical formulations in conventional schemes for triangular and tetrahedral meshes at the cell interfaces, numerical issues exist when flow discontinuities or stagnation regions are present. The space-time conservative conservation element solution element (CESE) method - due to its Riemann-solver-free shock capturing capabilities, non-dissipative baseline schemes, and flux conservation in time as well as space - has the potential to more accurately simulate turbulent flows using unstructured tetrahedral meshes. To pave the way towards accurate simulation of shock/turbulent boundary-layer interaction, a series of wave and shock interaction benchmark problems that increase in complexity, are computed in this paper with triangular/tetrahedral meshes. Preliminary computations for the normal shock/turbulence interactions are carried out with a relatively coarse mesh, by direct numerical simulations standards, in order to assess other effects such as boundary conditions and the necessity of a buffer domain. The results indicate that qualitative agreement with previous studies can be obtained for flows where, strong shocks co-exist along with unsteady waves that display a broad range of scales, with a relatively compact computational domain and less stringent requirements for grid clustering near the shock. With the space-time conservation properties, stable solutions without any spurious wave reflections can be obtained without a need for buffer domains near the outflow/farfield boundaries. Computational results for the

  18. Unsplit schemes for hyperbolic conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papalexandris, M.V.; Leonard, A.; Dimotakis, P.E.

    1997-01-01

    The present work is concerned with an application of the theory of characteristics to conservation laws with source terms in one space dimension, such as the Euler equations for reacting flows. Space-time paths are introduced on which the flow/chemistry equations decouple to a characteristic set of ODE's for the corresponding homogeneous laws, thus allowing the introduction of functions analogous to the Riemann invariants in classical theory. The geometry of these paths depends on the spatial gradients of the solution. This particular decomposition can be used in the design of efficient unsplit algorithms for the numerical integration of the equations. As a first step, these ideas are implemented for the case of a scalar conservation law with a nonlinear source term. The resulting algorithm belongs to the class of MUSCL-type, shock-capturing schemes. Its accuracy and robustness are checked through a series of tests. The stiffness of the source term is also studied. Then, the algorithm is generalized for a system of hyperbolic equations, namely the Euler equations for reacting flows. A numerical study of unstable detonations is performed. 57 refs

  19. Energy, Metaphysics, and Space: Ernst Mach's Interpretation of Energy Conservation as the Principle of Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzardi, Luca

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses Ernst Mach's interpretation of the principle of energy conservation (EC) in the context of the development of energy concepts and ideas about causality in nineteenth-century physics and theory of science. In doing this, it focuses on the close relationship between causality, energy conservation and space in Mach's antireductionist view of science. Mach expounds his thesis about EC in his first historical-epistemological essay, Die Geschichte und die Wurzel des Satzes von der Erhaltung der Arbeit (1872): far from being a new principle, it is used from the early beginnings of mechanics independently from other principles; in fact, EC is a pre-mechanical principle which is generally applied in investigating nature: it is, indeed, nothing but a form of the principle of causality. The paper focuses on the scientific-historical premises and philosophical underpinnings of Mach's thesis, beginning with the classic debate on the validity and limits of the notion of cause by Hume, Kant, and Helmholtz. Such reference also implies a discussion of the relationship between causality on the one hand and space and time on the other. This connection plays a major role for Mach, and in the final paragraphs its importance is argued in order to understand his antireductionist perspective, i.e. the rejection of any attempt to give an ultimate explanation of the world via reduction of nature to one fundamental set of phenomena.

  20. Contrasting effects of visiting urban green-space and the countryside on biodiversity knowledge and conservation support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coldwell, Deborah F; Evans, Karl L

    2017-01-01

    Conservation policy frequently assumes that increasing people's exposure to green-space enhances their knowledge of the natural world and desire to protect it. Urban development is, however, considered to be driving declining connectedness to nature. Despite this the evidence base supporting the assumption that visiting green-spaces promotes biodiversity knowledge and conservation support, and the impacts of urbanization on these relationships, is surprisingly limited. Using data from door-to-door surveys of nearly 300 residents in three pairs of small and large urban areas in England we demonstrate that people who visit green-space more regularly have higher biodiversity knowledge and support for conservation (measured using scales of pro-environmental behavior). Crucially these relationships only arise when considering visits to the countryside and not the frequency of visits to urban green-space. These patterns are robust to a suite of confounding variables including nature orientated motivations for visiting green-space, socio-economic and demographic factors, garden-use and engagement with natural history programs. Despite this the correlations that we uncover cannot unambiguously demonstrate that visiting the countryside improves biodiversity knowledge and conservation support. We consider it likely, however, that two mechanisms operate through a positive feedback loop i.e. increased visits to green-space promote an interest in and knowledge of biodiversity and support for conservation, which in turn further increase the desire to visit green-space and experience nature. The intensity of urbanization around peoples' homes, but not city size, is negatively associated with their frequency of countryside visits and biodiversity knowledge. Designing less intensely urbanized cities with good access to the countryside, combined with conservation policies that promote access to the countryside thus seems likely to maximize urban residents' biodiversity knowledge and

  1. Applicability evaluation on the conservative metal-water reaction(MWR) model implemented into the SPACE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk Ho; You, Sung Chang; Kim, Han Gon

    2011-01-01

    The SBLOCA (Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident) evaluation methodology for the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400) is under development using the SPACE code. The goal of the development of this methodology is to set up a conservative evaluation methodology in accordance with Appendix K of 10CFR50 by the end of 2012. In order to develop the Appendix K version of the SPACE code, the code modification is considered through implementation of the code on the required evaluation models. For the conservative models required in the SPACE code, the metal-water reaction (MWR) model, the critical flow model, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) model and the post-CHF model must be implemented in the code. At present, the integration of the model to generate the Appendix K version of SPACE is in its preliminary stage. Among them, the conservative MWR model and its code applicability are introduced in this paper

  2. Fourth-Order Conservative Vlasov-Maxwell Solver for Cartesian and Cylindrical Phase Space Coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogman, Genia

    Plasmas are made up of charged particles whose short-range and long-range interactions give rise to complex behavior that can be difficult to fully characterize experimentally. One of the most complete theoretical descriptions of a plasma is that of kinetic theory, which treats each particle species as a probability distribution function in a six-dimensional position-velocity phase space. Drawing on statistical mechanics, these distribution functions mathematically represent a system of interacting particles without tracking individual ions and electrons. The evolution of the distribution function(s) is governed by the Boltzmann equation coupled to Maxwell's equations, which together describe the dynamics of the plasma and the associated electromagnetic fields. When collisions can be neglected, the Boltzmann equation is reduced to the Vlasov equation. High-fidelity simulation of the rich physics in even a subset of the full six-dimensional phase space calls for low-noise high-accuracy numerical methods. To that end, this dissertation investigates a fourth-order finite-volume discretization of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation system, and addresses some of the fundamental challenges associated with applying these types of computationally intensive enhanced-accuracy numerical methods to phase space simulations. The governing equations of kinetic theory are described in detail, and their conservation-law weak form is derived for Cartesian and cylindrical phase space coordinates. This formulation is well known when it comes to Cartesian geometries, as it is used in finite-volume and finite-element discretizations to guarantee local conservation for numerical solutions. By contrast, the conservation-law weak form of the Vlasov equation in cylindrical phase space coordinates is largely unexplored, and to the author's knowledge has never previously been solved numerically. Thereby the methods described in this dissertation for simulating plasmas in cylindrical phase space

  3. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  4. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Changkui; Gong Yungui; Dong Huining; Reid, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other

  5. Conservation of connectivity of model-space effective interactions under a class of similarity transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chang-Kui; Gong, Yungui; Dong, Hui-Ning; Reid, Michael F

    2004-09-15

    Effective interaction operators usually act on a restricted model space and give the same energies (for Hamiltonian) and matrix elements (for transition operators, etc.) as those of the original operators between the corresponding true eigenstates. Various types of effective operators are possible. Those well defined effective operators have been shown to be related to each other by similarity transformation. Some of the effective operators have been shown to have connected-diagram expansions. It is shown in this paper that under a class of very general similarity transformations, the connectivity is conserved. The similarity transformation between Hermitian and non-Hermitian Rayleigh-Schrodinger perturbative effective operators is one of such transformations and hence the connectivity can be deducted from each other.

  6. NASA Kennedy Space Center: Contributions to Sea Turtle Science and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provancha, Jane A.; Phillips, Lynne V.; Mako, Cheryle L.

    2018-01-01

    , and universities (UCF, University of Toronto, Texas A&M, UF). This presentation will review the various studies and collaborations on sea turtles at KSC that include: nest distributions and success, stranding network development, aerial survey testing for nest counts, predator control assessments, the earliest baseline blood chemistry health determinations on nesting females, stress hormones in nesting females, multi-year study of hatchling sex ratios, genetics, species composition, abundance and distribution of in-water juveniles, turtle cold stun response, exterior lighting impacts and control, and satellite tag tracking of post-nesting turtles in the vicinity of near shore shoals and sand mining sites. Through these studies, monitoring, and recommendations, KSC has provided excellent stewardship and protection of the local environment. While conducting its space program mission, KSC has also made significant contributions of information for agencies charged with the conservation and management of these species

  7. Conservation of brown bear in the Alps: space use and settlement behavior of reintroduced bears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preatoni, Damiano; Mustoni, Andrea; Martinoli, Adriano; Carlini, Eugenio; Chiarenzi, Barbara; Chiozzini, Simonetta; Van Dongen, Stefan; Wauters, Luc A.; Tosi, Guido

    2005-11-01

    Large carnivores typically need large home ranges containing habitats patches of different quality. Consequently, their conservation requires habitat protection and management at the landscape scale. In some cases, reintroduction might be used to support remnant or restore extinct populations. This is the case for the brown bear ( Ursus arctos) in the Italian Alps. We monitored spacing behavior and settlement of reintroduced brown bears in Adamello-Brenta Natural Park, North-Italy, using radio-tracking. Habitat use, dispersion and survival were studied to evaluate the success of reintroduction and possible conflicts with man. All three males and five of seven females settled in the study area. Most bears roamed widely the first months after release, exploring the new habitat. Patterns of home range overlap between seasons and years revealed that home range use stabilized the year after first hibernation. Home ranges were larger in the mating season (May-July) than in spring or autumn. Home ranges varied between 34 and 1813 km 2 the year after release, but core-areas, where feeding activity was concentrated, were much smaller. Some bears had exclusive core-areas in summer and autumn, but most showed considerable core-area overlap with animals of the same and/or the opposite sex. Bears selected deciduous forests, mixed and conifer forests were used according to availability, and areas with anthropogenic disturbance were avoided. Most bears settled and some reproduced successfully at the release site, causing high initial population growth, suggesting that reintroduction can help to re-establish a brown bear population in the Italian Alps.

  8. Maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element scheme applied to compressible multifluids

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua

    2016-10-19

    A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.

  9. Maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element scheme applied to compressible multifluids

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Hua; Wen, Chih-Yung; Parsani, Matteo; Shu, Chi-Wang

    2016-01-01

    A maximum-principle-satisfying space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is constructed to solve a reduced five-equation model coupled with the stiffened equation of state for compressible multifluids. We first derive a sufficient condition for CE/SE schemes to satisfy maximum-principle when solving a general conservation law. And then we introduce a slope limiter to ensure the sufficient condition which is applicative for both central and upwind CE/SE schemes. Finally, we implement the upwind maximum-principle-satisfying CE/SE scheme to solve the volume-fraction-based five-equation model for compressible multifluids. Several numerical examples are carried out to carefully examine the accuracy, efficiency, conservativeness and maximum-principle-satisfying property of the proposed approach.

  10. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  11. Implementation of the Forest Service Open Space Conservation Strategy in Washington State: Exploring the Role of the National Forest System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard J. Pringle; Lee K. Cerveny; Gordon A. Bradley

    2015-01-01

    The loss of open space was declared one of the “four threats to the health of our nation’s forests” by former USDA Forest Service Chief Dale Bosworth in 2004. Since then, the agencywide Open Space Conservation Strategy (OSCS) was released and the “four threats” were incorporated into the agency’s National Strategic Plan. These actions indicate that the OSCS is in the...

  12. Angular momentum in general relativity. 1. Definition and asymptotic behaviour. [axisymmetric space-times, infinity, conservation law, spin coefficient formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, C R [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics

    1977-06-27

    Angular momentum in axisymmetric space-times is investigated. The conclusions lead to a general definition suitable for all asymptotically-flat spaces which is valid both at infinity and on the event horizon of a black hole. This first paper restricts attention to considerations at infinity. Working in terms of the spin coefficient formalism, the field equations are solved asymptotically at large distances and the definition is evaluated. A conservation law is derived and finally the effect on the angular momentum of a supertranslation of the coordinates is discussed.

  13. Lie symmetry analysis, explicit solutions and conservation laws for the space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inc, Mustafa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Baleanu, Dumitru

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the symmetry analysis, explicit solutions, convergence analysis, and conservation laws (Cls) for two different space-time fractional nonlinear evolution equations with Riemann-Liouville (RL) derivative. The governing equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equation (ODE) of fractional order using their Lie point symmetries. In the reduced equations, the derivative is in Erdelyi-Kober (EK) sense, power series technique is applied to derive an explicit solutions for the reduced fractional ODEs. The convergence of the obtained power series solutions is also presented. Moreover, the new conservation theorem and the generalization of the Noether operators are developed to construct the nonlocal Cls for the equations . Some interesting figures for the obtained explicit solutions are presented.

  14. An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element scheme for solving dusty gas flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Asad; Ali, Ishtiaq; Qamar, Shamsul

    An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme.

  15. An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element scheme for solving dusty gas flow model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Rehman

    Full Text Available An upwind space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE scheme is extended to numerically approximate the dusty gas flow model. Unlike central CE/SE schemes, the current method uses the upwind procedure to derive the numerical fluxes through the inner boundary of conservation elements. These upwind fluxes are utilized to calculate the gradients of flow variables. For comparison and validation, the central upwind scheme is also applied to solve the same dusty gas flow model. The suggested upwind CE/SE scheme resolves the contact discontinuities more effectively and preserves the positivity of flow variables in low density flows. Several case studies are considered and the results of upwind CE/SE are compared with the solutions of central upwind scheme. The numerical results show better performance of the upwind CE/SE method as compared to the central upwind scheme. Keywords: Dusty gas flow, Solid particles, Upwind schemes, Rarefaction wave, Shock wave, Contact discontinuity

  16. The Conservation of the Landscape in the Perspective of a Public Open Spaces System in Recife

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, Ana Rita Sá; Duarte, Mirela; Marques, Eliábi A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the relationship between the study of public open spaces and the urban landscape in Recife, according a systemic vision. This relationship is defined with the historical analysis of the natural ecosystems in the site landscape such as rivers, coast vegetation and mangrove, and the atlantic forest, which was occupied by the time. This method was chosen to understand the morphology of open spaces, its typology and which is preserved as natural and cultural heritage. Nowadays...

  17. Bound-Preserving Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Conservative Phase Space Advection in Curvilinear Coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezzacappa, Anthony [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Endeve, Eirik [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hauck, Cory D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Xing, Yulong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We extend the positivity-preserving method of Zhang & Shu [49] to simulate the advection of neutral particles in phase space using curvilinear coordinates. The ability to utilize these coordinates is important for non-equilibrium transport problems in general relativity and also in science and engineering applications with specific geometries. The method achieves high-order accuracy using Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization of phase space and strong stabilitypreserving, Runge-Kutta (SSP-RK) time integration. Special care in taken to ensure that the method preserves strict bounds for the phase space distribution function f; i.e., f ϵ [0, 1]. The combination of suitable CFL conditions and the use of the high-order limiter proposed in [49] is su cient to ensure positivity of the distribution function. However, to ensure that the distribution function satisfies the upper bound, the discretization must, in addition, preserve the divergencefree property of the phase space ow. Proofs that highlight the necessary conditions are presented for general curvilinear coordinates, and the details of these conditions are worked out for some commonly used coordinate systems (i.e., spherical polar spatial coordinates in spherical symmetry and cylindrical spatial coordinates in axial symmetry, both with spherical momentum coordinates). Results from numerical experiments - including one example in spherical symmetry adopting the Schwarzschild metric - demonstrate that the method achieves high-order accuracy and that the distribution function satisfies the maximum principle.

  18. Functionality of system components: Conservation of protein function in protein feature space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ussery, David; Brunak, Søren

    2003-01-01

    well on organisms other than the one on which it was trained. We evaluate the performance of such a method, ProtFun, which relies on protein features as its sole input, and show that the method gives similar performance for most eukaryotes and performs much better than anticipated on archaea......Many protein features useful for prediction of protein function can be predicted from sequence, including posttranslational modifications, subcellular localization, and physical/chemical properties. We show here that such protein features are more conserved among orthologs than paralogs, indicating...... they are crucial for protein function and thus subject to selective pressure. This means that a function prediction method based on sequence-derived features may be able to discriminate between proteins with different function even when they have highly similar structure. Also, such a method is likely to perform...

  19. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff A Tracey

    Full Text Available Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species--giant panda, dugong, and California condor--to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  20. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A.; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fu-Wen; Swaisgood, Ronald R.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species – giant panda, dugong, and California condor – to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  1. Movement-based estimation and visualization of space use in 3D for wildlife ecology and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey, Jeff A; Sheppard, James; Zhu, Jun; Wei, Fuwen; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Fisher, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    Advances in digital biotelemetry technologies are enabling the collection of bigger and more accurate data on the movements of free-ranging wildlife in space and time. Although many biotelemetry devices record 3D location data with x, y, and z coordinates from tracked animals, the third z coordinate is typically not integrated into studies of animal spatial use. Disregarding the vertical component may seriously limit understanding of animal habitat use and niche separation. We present novel movement-based kernel density estimators and computer visualization tools for generating and exploring 3D home ranges based on location data. We use case studies of three wildlife species--giant panda, dugong, and California condor--to demonstrate the ecological insights and conservation management benefits provided by 3D home range estimation and visualization for terrestrial, aquatic, and avian wildlife research.

  2. Effects of atmospheric variability on energy utilization and conservation. [Space heating energy demand modeling; Program HEATLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiter, E.R.; Johnson, G.R.; Somervell, W.L. Jr.; Sparling, E.W.; Dreiseitly, E.; Macdonald, B.C.; McGuirk, J.P.; Starr, A.M.

    1976-11-01

    Research conducted between 1 July 1975 and 31 October 1976 is reported. A ''physical-adaptive'' model of the space-conditioning demand for energy and its response to changes in weather regimes was developed. This model includes parameters pertaining to engineering factors of building construction, to weather-related factors, and to socio-economic factors. Preliminary testing of several components of the model on the city of Greeley, Colorado, yielded most encouraging results. Other components, especially those pertaining to socio-economic factors, are still under development. Expansion of model applications to different types of structures and larger regions is presently underway. A CRT-display model for energy demand within the conterminous United States also has passed preliminary tests. A major effort was expended to obtain disaggregated data on energy use from utility companies throughout the United States. The study of atmospheric variability revealed that the 22- to 26-day vacillation in the potential and kinetic energy modes of the Northern Hemisphere is related to the behavior of the planetary long-waves, and that the midwinter dip in zonal available potential energy is reflected in the development of blocking highs. Attempts to classify weather patterns over the eastern and central United States have proceeded satisfactorily to the point where testing of our method for longer time periods appears desirable.

  3. Notes on Conservation Laws, Equations of Motion of Matter, and Particle Fields in Lorentzian and Teleparallel de Sitter Space-Time Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldyr A. Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the physics of interacting fields and particles living in a de Sitter Lorentzian manifold (dSLM, a submanifold of a 5-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean (5dPE equipped with a metric tensor inherited from the metric of the 5dPE space. The dSLM is naturally oriented and time oriented and is the arena used to study the energy-momentum conservation law and equations of motion for physical systems living there. Two distinct de Sitter space-time structures MdSL and MdSTP are introduced given dSLM, the first equipped with the Levi-Civita connection of its metric field and the second with a metric compatible parallel connection. Both connections are used only as mathematical devices. Thus, for example, MdSL is not supposed to be the model of any gravitational field in the General Relativity Theory (GRT. Misconceptions appearing in the literature concerning the motion of free particles in dSLM are clarified. Komar currents are introduced within Clifford bundle formalism permitting the presentation of Einstein equation as a Maxwell like equation and proving that in GRT there are infinitely many conserved currents. We prove that in GRT even when the appropriate Killing vector fields exist it is not possible to define a conserved energy-momentum covector as in special relativistic theories.

  4. Spacing conservation practice: Place-making, social learning, and adaptive governance in natural resource management [Chapter 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Williams

    2018-01-01

    Nature conservation constitutes an important realm of professional practice with strong connections to the discourses on nature and sustainability. In recent decades much of that discourse has taken an explicitly spatial turn, observable across numerous domains of ecological, social, and political thought (Williams et al., 2013; Wu, 2006). The aim of this chapter is to...

  5. An approach for generating trajectory-based dynamics which conserves the canonical distribution in the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics. II. Thermal correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Miller, William H

    2011-03-14

    We show the exact expression of the quantum mechanical time correlation function in the phase space formulation of quantum mechanics. The trajectory-based dynamics that conserves the quantum canonical distribution-equilibrium Liouville dynamics (ELD) proposed in Paper I is then used to approximately evaluate the exact expression. It gives exact thermal correlation functions (of even nonlinear operators, i.e., nonlinear functions of position or momentum operators) in the classical, high temperature, and harmonic limits. Various methods have been presented for the implementation of ELD. Numerical tests of the ELD approach in the Wigner or Husimi phase space have been made for a harmonic oscillator and two strongly anharmonic model problems, for each potential autocorrelation functions of both linear and nonlinear operators have been calculated. It suggests ELD can be a potentially useful approach for describing quantum effects for complex systems in condense phase.

  6. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Olivier; Ortet, Philippe; Roy, Sylvaine; Maréchal, Eric

    2005-03-10

    Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space) and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP) allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  7. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal Eric

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic reconstruction. Results We have built up a spatial representation of protein sequences using concepts from particle physics (configuration space and respecting a frame of constraints deduced from pair-wise alignment score properties in information theory. The obtained configuration space of homologous proteins (CSHP allows the representation of real and shuffled sequences, and thereupon an expression of the TULIP theorem for Z-score probabilities. Based on the CSHP, we propose a phylogeny reconstruction using Z-scores. Deduced trees, called TULIP trees, are consistent with multiple-alignment based trees. Furthermore, the TULIP tree reconstruction method provides a solution for some previously reported incongruent results, such as the apicomplexan enolase phylogeny. Conclusion The CSHP is a unified model that conserves mutual information between proteins in the way physical models conserve energy. Applications include the reconstruction of evolutionary consistent and robust trees, the topology of which is based on a spatial representation that is not reordered after addition or removal of sequences. The CSHP and its assigned phylogenetic topology, provide a powerful and easily updated representation for massive pair-wise genome comparisons based on Z-score computations.

  8. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  9. Common vacuum conservation amplitude in the theory of the radiation of mirrors in two-dimensional space-time and of charges in four-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in the action (and thus the vacuum conservation amplitudes) in the proper-time representation are found for an accelerated mirror interacting with scalar and spinor vacuum fields in 1+1 space. They are shown to coincide to within a factor of e 2 with changes in the action of electric and scalar charges accelerated in 3+1 space. This coincidence is attributed to the fact that the Bose and Fermi pairs emitted by a mirror have the same spins 1 and 0 as do the photons and scalar quanta emitted by charges. It is shown that the propagation of virtual pairs in 1+1 space can be described by the causal Green's function Δ f (z,μ) of the wave equation for 3+1 space. This is because the pairs can have any positive mass and their propagation function is represented by an integral of the causal propagation function of a massive particle in 1+1 space over mass which coincides with Δ f (z,μ). In this integral the lower limit μ is chosen small, but nonzero, to eliminate the infrared divergence. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the change in the action are related by dispersion relations, in which a mass parameter serves as the dispersion variable. They are a consequence of the same relations for Δ f (z,μ). Therefore, the emergence of a real part in the change in the action is a direct consequence of causality, according to which Re Δ f (z,μ)≠0 only for timelike and lightlike intervals

  10. Past and predicted future effects of housing growth on open space conservation opportunity areas and habitat connectivity around National Wildlife Refuges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Christopher M.; Baumann, Matthias; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Helmers, David P.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Heglund, Patricia J.; Radeloff, Volker C.

    2016-01-01

    ContextHousing growth can alter suitability of matrix habitats around protected areas, strongly affecting movements of organisms and, consequently, threatening connectivity of protected area networks.ObjectivesOur goal was to quantify distribution and growth of housing around the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service National Wildlife Refuge System. This is important information for conservation planning, particularly given promotion of habitat connectivity as a climate change adaptation measure.MethodsWe quantified housing growth from 1940 to 2000 and projected future growth to 2030 within three distances from refuges, identifying very low housing density open space, “opportunity areas” (contiguous areas with habitat corridors within these opportunity areas in 2000.ResultsOur results indicated that the number and area of open space opportunity areas generally decreased with increasing distance from refuges and with the passage of time. Furthermore, total area in habitat corridors was much lower than in opportunity areas. In addition, the number of corridors sometimes exceeded number of opportunity areas as a result of habitat fragmentation, indicating corridors are likely vulnerable to land use change. Finally, regional differences were strong and indicated some refuges may have experienced so much housing growth already that they are effectively too isolated to adapt to climate change, while others may require extensive habitat restoration work.ConclusionsWildlife refuges are increasingly isolated by residential housing development, potentially constraining the movement of wildlife and, therefore, their ability to adapt to a changing climate.

  11. Interactive genetic algorithm for user-centered design of distributed conservation practices in a watershed: An examination of user preferences in objective space and user behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piemonti, Adriana Debora; Babbar-Sebens, Meghna; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis; Kleinberg, Austin

    2017-05-01

    Interactive Genetic Algorithms (IGA) are advanced human-in-the-loop optimization methods that enable humans to give feedback, based on their subjective and unquantified preferences and knowledge, during the algorithm's search process. While these methods are gaining popularity in multiple fields, there is a critical lack of data and analyses on (a) the nature of interactions of different humans with interfaces of decision support systems (DSS) that employ IGA in water resources planning problems and on (b) the effect of human feedback on the algorithm's ability to search for design alternatives desirable to end-users. In this paper, we present results and analyses of observational experiments in which different human participants (surrogates and stakeholders) interacted with an IGA-based, watershed DSS called WRESTORE to identify plans of conservation practices in a watershed. The main goal of this paper is to evaluate how the IGA adapts its search process in the objective space to a user's feedback, and identify whether any similarities exist in the objective space of plans found by different participants. Some participants focused on the entire watershed, while others focused only on specific local subbasins. Additionally, two different hydrology models were used to identify any potential differences in interactive search outcomes that could arise from differences in the numerical values of benefits displayed to participants. Results indicate that stakeholders, in comparison to their surrogates, were more likely to use multiple features of the DSS interface to collect information before giving feedback, and dissimilarities existed among participants in the objective space of design alternatives.

  12. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  13. A configuration space of homologous proteins conserving mutual information and allowing a phylogeny inference based on pair-wise Z-score probabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Maréchal Eric; Ortet Philippe; Roy Sylvaine; Bastien Olivier

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Popular methods to reconstruct molecular phylogenies are based on multiple sequence alignments, in which addition or removal of data may change the resulting tree topology. We have sought a representation of homologous proteins that would conserve the information of pair-wise sequence alignments, respect probabilistic properties of Z-scores (Monte Carlo methods applied to pair-wise comparisons) and be the basis for a novel method of consistent and stable phylogenetic recon...

  14. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  15. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  16. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  17. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  18. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  19. Space, time, matter

    CERN Document Server

    Weyl, Hermann

    1922-01-01

    Excellent introduction probes deeply into Euclidean space, Riemann's space, Einstein's general relativity, gravitational waves and energy, and laws of conservation. "A classic of physics." - British Journal for Philosophy and Science.

  20. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  1. Características produtivas e conservação pós-colheita de cebola em diferentes espaçamentos de plantio Yield characteristics and postharvest conservation of onion under different planting spacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo M. de Resende

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de diferentes espaçamentos entrelinhas e entre plantas, foi avaliado nas características produtivas e na conservação pós-colheita de bulbos de cebola. O experimento foi conduzido de abril a novembro de 1998, na Embrapa Semi-Árido, em Petrolina (PE. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos ao acaso, no esquema fatorial 2x3, compreendendo dois espaçamentos entrelinhas (0,10 e 0,15 m e três espaçamentos entre plantas (0,10; 0,20 e 0,30 m, sendo utilizada a cultivar Franciscana IPA-10 com quatro repetições. O espaçamento entrelinhas com 0,10 m alcançou maior produtividade comercial (39,30 t/ha comparativamente a 0,15 m (37,67 t/ha. Ao se analisar o espaçamento entre plantas verificou-se uma redução linear com o aumento do espaçamento, tendo o espaçamento com 0,10 m propiciado o maior rendimento com 42,88 t/ha. O menor rendimento de bulbos não comerciais foi proporcionado pelos espaçamentos de 0,29 e 0,26 m entre plantas, respectivamente, para os espaçamentos entrelinhas de 0,10 e 0,15 m. O peso fresco dos bulbos aumentou linearmente à medida que se aumentaram os espaçamentos entre plantas. Maior porcentagem de bulbos pequenos e médios foi verificada nos menores espaçamentos. Entretanto, à medida que se incrementou o espaçamento entre plantas ocorreu maior perda de peso pós-colheita.The effect of different planting spacing was observed on the yield characteristics and the postharvest conservation of onion bulbs. The experiment was carried out from April to November/1998, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State, Brazil. The experimental design was of randomized complete blocks in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, with four replications. The cultivar Franciscana IPA-10 was planted in 0.10 and 0.15 m between row spacing and in 0.10; 0.15 and 0.30 m within row spacing. Highest marketable yield (39.30 t/ha was obtained form 0.10 m between row spacing as compared to the row spacing of 0.15 m (37.67 t/ha. A negative linear

  2. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  3. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  4. Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Central American Vegetation/Land Cover Classification and Conservation Status data set consists of GIS coverages of vegetation classes (forests, woodlands,...

  5. Conservation Laws in Biochemical Reaction Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdi, Adam; Ferragut, Antoni; Valls, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    We study the existence of linear and nonlinear conservation laws in biochemical reaction networks with mass-action kinetics. It is straightforward to compute the linear conservation laws as they are related to the left null-space of the stoichiometry matrix. The nonlinear conservation laws...... are difficult to identify and have rarely been considered in the context of mass-action reaction networks. Here, using the Darboux theory of integrability, we provide necessary structural (i.e., parameterindependent) conditions on a reaction network to guarantee the existence of nonlinear conservation laws...

  6. Symmetries and conserved quantities in geodesic motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojman, S.; Nunez, L.; Patino, A.; Rago, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently obtained results linking several constants of motion to one (non-Noetherian) symmetry to the problem of geodesic motion in Riemannian space-times are applied. The construction of conserved quantities in geodesic motion as well as the deduction of geometrical statements about Riemannian space-times are achieved

  7. Conservative systems with ports on contact manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    In this paper we propose an extension of port Hamiltonian systems, called conservative systems with ports, which encompass systems arising from the Irreversible Thermodynamics. Firstly we lift a port Hamiltonian system from its state space manifold to the thermodynamic phase space to a contact

  8. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C 1 . In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q ab , P ab ) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background

  9. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  10. Symmetry mappings concomitant to particle-number-conservation-baryon-number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Four theorem serve to demonstrate that matter fields in space-time admit certain timelike symmetry mappings concomitant to the familiar notion of particle number conservation, which can be more fundamentally accounted for by a type of projective invariance principle. These particular symmetry mappings include a family of symmetry properties that may be admitted by Riemannian space-times. In their strongest form, the results obtained provide some insight relating to the conservation of baryon number

  11. Nonlocal symmetries and nonlocal conservation laws of Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anco, S.C.; Bluman, G.

    1997-01-01

    Nonlocal symmetries are obtained for Maxwell's equations in three space-time dimensions through the use of two potential systems involving scalar and vector potentials for the electromagnetic field. Corresponding nonlocal conservation laws are derived from these symmetries. The conservation laws yield nine functionally independent constants of motion which cannot be expressed in terms of the constants of motion arising from local conservation laws for space-time symmetries. These nine constants of motion represent additional conserved quantities for the electromagnetic field in three space endash time dimensions. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. The Precision Problem in Conservation and Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J Kevin; Jackson, Stephen T; Hobbs, Richard J; Bernhardt, Emily S; Valentine, Leonie E

    2016-11-01

    Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit options for managers trying to balance competing objectives with limited resources. Conservation policies should embrace habitat variability, expand decision-space appropriately, and support adaptation to local circumstances to increase ecological resilience in a rapidly changing world. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The precision problem in conservation and restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiers, J. Kevin; Jackson, Stephen T.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Bernhardt, Emily S.; Valentine, Leonie E.

    2016-01-01

    Within the varied contexts of environmental policy, conservation of imperilled species populations, and restoration of damaged habitats, an emphasis on idealized optimal conditions has led to increasingly specific targets for management. Overly-precise conservation targets can reduce habitat variability at multiple scales, with unintended consequences for future ecological resilience. We describe this dilemma in the context of endangered species management, stream restoration, and climate-change adaptation. Inappropriate application of conservation targets can be expensive, with marginal conservation benefit. Reduced habitat variability can limit options for managers trying to balance competing objectives with limited resources. Conservation policies should embrace habitat variability, expand decision-space appropriately, and support adaptation to local circumstances to increase ecological resilience in a rapidly changing world.

  14. Conservation laws with coinciding smooth solutions but different conserved variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Guerra, Graziano

    2018-04-01

    Consider two hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension with the same eigenvalues and (right) eigenvectors. We prove that solutions to Cauchy problems with the same initial data differ at third order in the total variation of the initial datum. As a first application, relying on the classical Glimm-Lax result (Glimm and Lax in Decay of solutions of systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 101. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1970), we obtain estimates improving those in Saint-Raymond (Arch Ration Mech Anal 155(3):171-199, 2000) on the distance between solutions to the isentropic and non-isentropic inviscid compressible Euler equations, under general equations of state. Further applications are to the general scalar case, where rather precise estimates are obtained, to an approximation by Di Perna of the p-system and to a traffic model.

  15. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  16. Conservative and innovative dialect areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Schwarz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on conservative and innovative (transitional dialect areas and the questions of 1 how such areas can be methodologically visualized and 2 how the outcomes can be interpreted. In the first part of this paper a geostatistical method of representing phonological features in space will be introduced: interpolation. This method is not entirely new to dialectology; it has been quite neglected, though, in comparison to other methods of mapping, such as the isogloss or dot symbol method that was mainly used in traditional dialect atlases. The interpolation method will be applied to a large corpus of spontaneous speech data from rural dialects spoken in southwest Germany. Methodological steps in data processing will be described, resulting in a data set that can be used as input for statistical analysis and the visual depiction of variation in space as interpolated grid plots. In the second part results will be discussed. The major outcome consists of an aggregate interpolation plot that includes variables from fifteen different etymological sound classes. These sound classes can be used for demonstrating the distribution of receding phonological variables in space. The interpolation shows two conservative areas where receding forms are still widespread. They lie within the centers of the two major dialect groups of southwest Germany: Alemannic and Swabian. The conservative areas are separated by a broad transitional zone characterized by intense variation between receding and innovative variants. It will be argued that this transitional zone is not due to the horizontal spread of the dialects into each other’s areas alone. Rather, variation is triggered by vertical standard influence that supports any dialect form to spread out horizontally as long as it is phonologically identical or similar to the standard form.

  17. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  18. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  19. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  20. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  1. Water and the conservation movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1958-01-01

    Every age has its unique touchstone, its hallmark. The Nineties were thought gay. The Twenties had jazz and John Held, Jr. The Thirties had breadlines, dust bowls, the forgotten man. And each recent period has been studded with so many flashy gems, both paste and genuine, that no hallmark would alone be enough to label it.Of the present age, one of the nameplates will carry the word "Conservation." The first time a museum visitor walks by that label he will probably stop, push back the plexiglas globe of his space helmet and say to himself, "I never thought that conservation was a keynote of the Fifties." But I imagine he might agree as the pathetic truth of that label dawned on his tired body, accustomed to canned entertainment, synthetic flavors, and fighting the afternoon traffic of the jet lanes. I can imagine him musing: "Conservation, the hallmark of the Fifties. Somebody about that time said about something or other, 'too little and too late.'"

  2. Synthetic biology and conservation of nature: wicked problems and wicked solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kent H; Adams, William; Mace, Georgina M

    2013-01-01

    So far, conservation scientists have paid little attention to synthetic biology; this is unfortunate as the technology is likely to transform the operating space within which conservation functions, and therefore the prospects for maintaining biodiversity into the future.

  3. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  4. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  5. Conservation Documentation and the Implications of Digitisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Moore

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Conservation documentation can be defined as the textual and visual records collected during the care and treatment of an object. It can include records of the object's condition, any treatment done to the object, any observations or conclusions made by the conservator as well as details on the object's past and present environment. The form of documentation is not universally agreed upon nor has it always been considered an important aspect of the conservation profession. Good documentation tells the complete story of an object thus far and should provide as much information as possible for the future researcher, curator, or conservator. The conservation profession will benefit from digitising its documentation using software such as databases and hardware like digital cameras and scanners. Digital technology will make conservation documentation more easily accessible, cost/time efficient, and will increase consistency and accuracy of the recorded data, and reduce physical storage space requirements. The major drawback to digitising conservation records is maintaining access to the information for the future; the notorious pace of technological change has serious implications for retrieving data from any machine- readable medium.

  6. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  7. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  8. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  9. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  10. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  12. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  13. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  14. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  15. An exactly conservative particle method for one dimensional scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farjoun, Yossi; Seibold, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    A particle scheme for scalar conservation laws in one space dimension is presented. Particles representing the solution are moved according to their characteristic velocities. Particle interaction is resolved locally, satisfying exact conservation of area. Shocks stay sharp and propagate at correct speeds, while rarefaction waves are created where appropriate. The method is variation diminishing, entropy decreasing, exactly conservative, and has no numerical dissipation away from shocks. Solutions, including the location of shocks, are approximated with second order accuracy. Source terms can be included. The method is compared to CLAWPACK in various examples, and found to yield a comparable or better accuracy for similar resolutions.

  16. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  18. Comparison between the United States Soil Conservation Service ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-10-26

    Oct 26, 2005 ... The United States Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number method is used to estimate rainfall .... Precipitation is an important element in many engineering ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

  19. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  20. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  1. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  2. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  4. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  5. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  6. Genealogy of nature conservation: a political perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrjo Haila

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern nature conservation is a product of post-Enlightenment modernity; I explore the heterogeneity of its conceptual and ideological background. The 19th century legacy comprises concern over human-caused extinctions; protests against excessive hunting and cruelty toward animals; utilitarian care for natural resources; and romantic sensibility concerning the value of nature for human health and spirituality. The 20th century added into conservation thinking increasing consciousness about human biospheric dependence; efforts to identify appropriate conservation targets; and most recently concern over the loss of biodiversity. The politics of nature conservation has taken shape within the framework of politics of nature, that is, choices vis-á-vis nature that have been made either as deliberate decisions on resource use or as side-effects of subsistence practices of various types. Because of tensions and conflicts with alternative ways of using nature, formulating realistic conservation policies has been a complicated task. Problems and uncertainties emerge: pursuing material aspirations of the current world society will necessarily bring about damage to ecological systems of the Earth. The way forward is to identify feasible alternatives in the midst of the tensions and ambiguities that arise, and to open up space for carrying through conservation initiatives.

  7. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  8. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  9. Numerical solutions of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    In the computation of conservation laws u/sub t/ + f(u)/sub x/ 0, TVD (total-variation-diminishing) schemes have been very successful. TVB (total-variation-bounded) schemes share most the advantages and may remove some of the disadvantages (e.g. local degeneracy of accuracy at critical points) TVD schemes. Included in this dissertation are a class of m-step Runge-Kutta type TVD schemes with CFL number equaling m; a procedure to obtain uniformly high order in space TVB schemes; a class of TVD high order time discretizations; a special boundary treatment which keeps the high order of the scheme up to the boundary and preserves the TVB properties in the nonlinear scalar and linear system cases; a discrete entropy inequality for a modified Lax-Wendroff scheme applied to Burgers' equation; and discusses about error propagation in large regions

  10. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  11. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  12. The symmetries and conservation laws of some Gordon-type

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conservation laws; Milne space-time; Gordon-type equations. Abstract. In this letter, the Lie point symmetries of a class of Gordon-type wave equations that arise in the Milne space-time are presented ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News.

  13. The benefits of self-governance for nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattijssen, Thomas; Buijs, Arjen; Elands, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    An increased involvement of citizens in the management of European green spaces raises questions about its contributions to nature conservation. In this research, we study the effects of different types of active citizenship in green space. Combining qualitative and quantitative methods, we look at

  14. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  15. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  16. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  17. Conservation laws and symmetries in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Bulnes-Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Phenomenological nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes how fluxes of conserved quantities, such as matter, energy, and charge, flow from outer reservoirs across a system and how they irreversibly degrade from one form to another. Stochastic thermodynamics is formulated in terms of probability fluxes circulating in the system's configuration space. The consistency of the two frameworks is granted by the condition of local detailed balance, which specifies the amount of physical quantities exchanged with the reservoirs during single transitions between configurations. We demonstrate that the topology of the configuration space crucially determines the number of independent thermodynamic affinities (forces) that the reservoirs generate across the system and provides a general algorithm that produces the fundamental affinities and their conjugate currents contributing to the total dissipation, based on the interplay between macroscopic conservations laws for the currents and microscopic symmetries of the affinities.

  18. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  19. Conserving tigers in working landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchani, Pranav; Noon, Barry R; Bailey, Larissa L; Warrier, Rekha A

    2016-06-01

    Tiger (Panthera tigris) conservation efforts in Asia are focused on protected areas embedded in human-dominated landscapes. A system of protected areas is an effective conservation strategy for many endangered species if the network is large enough to support stable metapopulations. The long-term conservation of tigers requires that the species be able to meet some of its life-history needs beyond the boundaries of small protected areas and within the working landscape, including multiple-use forests with logging and high human use. However, understanding of factors that promote or limit the occurrence of tigers in working landscapes is incomplete. We assessed the relative influence of protection status, prey occurrence, extent of grasslands, intensity of human use, and patch connectivity on tiger occurrence in the 5400 km(2) Central Terai Landscape of India, adjacent to Nepal. Two observer teams independently surveyed 1009 km of forest trails and water courses distributed across 60 166-km(2) cells. In each cell, the teams recorded detection of tiger signs along evenly spaced trail segments. We used occupancy models that permitted multiscale analysis of spatially correlated data to estimate cell-scale occupancy and segment-scale habitat use by tigers as a function of management and environmental covariates. Prey availability and habitat quality, rather than protected-area designation, influenced tiger occupancy. Tiger occupancy was low in some protected areas in India that were connected to extensive areas of tiger habitat in Nepal, which brings into question the efficacy of current protection and management strategies in both India and Nepal. At a finer spatial scale, tiger habitat use was high in trail segments associated with abundant prey and large grasslands, but it declined as human and livestock use increased. We speculate that riparian grasslands may provide tigers with critical refugia from human activity in the daytime and thereby promote tiger occurrence

  20. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  1. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  2. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  3. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  4. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  5. Towards the ultimate variance-conserving convection scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Os, J.J.A.M. van; Uittenbogaard, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past various arguments have been used for applying kinetic energy-conserving advection schemes in numerical simulations of incompressible fluid flows. One argument is obeying the programmed dissipation by viscous stresses or by sub-grid stresses in Direct Numerical Simulation and Large Eddy Simulation, see e.g. [Phys. Fluids A 3 (7) (1991) 1766]. Another argument is that, according to e.g. [J. Comput. Phys. 6 (1970) 392; 1 (1966) 119], energy-conserving convection schemes are more stable i.e. by prohibiting a spurious blow-up of volume-integrated energy in a closed volume without external energy sources. In the above-mentioned references it is stated that nonlinear instability is due to spatial truncation rather than to time truncation and therefore these papers are mainly concerned with the spatial integration. In this paper we demonstrate that discretized temporal integration of a spatially variance-conserving convection scheme can induce non-energy conserving solutions. In this paper the conservation of the variance of a scalar property is taken as a simple model for the conservation of kinetic energy. In addition, the derivation and testing of a variance-conserving scheme allows for a clear definition of kinetic energy-conserving advection schemes for solving the Navier-Stokes equations. Consequently, we first derive and test a strictly variance-conserving space-time discretization for the convection term in the convection-diffusion equation. Our starting point is the variance-conserving spatial discretization of the convection operator presented by Piacsek and Williams [J. Comput. Phys. 6 (1970) 392]. In terms of its conservation properties, our variance-conserving scheme is compared to other spatially variance-conserving schemes as well as with the non-variance-conserving schemes applied in our shallow-water solver, see e.g. [Direct and Large-eddy Simulation Workshop IV, ERCOFTAC Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 409-287

  6. Diffusion Processes Satisfying a Conservation Law Constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bakosi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coupled stochastic differential equations governing N nonnegative continuous random variables that satisfy a conservation principle. In various fields a conservation law requires a set of fluctuating variables to be nonnegative and (if appropriately normalized sum to one. As a result, any stochastic differential equation model to be realizable must not produce events outside of the allowed sample space. We develop a set of constraints on the drift and diffusion terms of such stochastic models to ensure that both the nonnegativity and the unit-sum conservation law constraints are satisfied as the variables evolve in time. We investigate the consequences of the developed constraints on the Fokker-Planck equation, the associated system of stochastic differential equations, and the evolution equations of the first four moments of the probability density function. We show that random variables, satisfying a conservation law constraint, represented by stochastic diffusion processes, must have diffusion terms that are coupled and nonlinear. The set of constraints developed enables the development of statistical representations of fluctuating variables satisfying a conservation law. We exemplify the results with the bivariate beta process and the multivariate Wright-Fisher, Dirichlet, and Lochner’s generalized Dirichlet processes.

  7. Conservation value of clustered housing developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenth, Buffy A; Knight, Richard L; Gilgert, Wendell C

    2006-10-01

    Traditionally, exurban lands in Colorado have been subdivided into a grid of parcels ranging from 2 to 16 ha. From an ecological perspective, this dispersed pattern of development effectively maximizes the individual influence of each home on the land. Clustered housing developments, designed to maximize open space, are assumed to benefit plant and wildlife communities of conservation interest. They have become a popular alternative for rural development despite the lack of empirical evidence demonstrating their conservation benefits. To better inform rural land-use planning, we evaluated clustered housing developments by comparing their spatial pattern with that of dispersed housing developments and by comparing their conservation value with that of both dispersed housing developments and undeveloped areas in Boulder County, Colorado. We used four indicators to assess conservation value: (1) densities of songbirds, (2) nest density and survival of ground-nesting birds, (3) presence of mammals, and (4) percent cover and proportion of native and non-native plant species. Clustered and dispersed housing developments did not differ on the majority of variables we examined. Both types of housing development had significantly higher densities of non-native and human-commensal species and significantly lower densities of native and human-sensitive species than undeveloped areas. More rigorous ecological guidelines and planning on a regional scale may help create clustered developments with higher conservation value.

  8. Oil and gas conservation in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sereda, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Saskatchewan's Oil and Gas Conservation Act provides legislative authority for the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations, 1985. The main purposes of the Act are to maximize oil and gas recovery, to allow each owner the opportunity of obtaining his share of oil or gas and to protect the environment and prevent waste. The document under review described how this legislative intent is fulfilled through the spacing of wells, the setting of allowables, and approval of waterflood and enhanced recovery projects, while considering equitable drainage of oil and gas. Specific topics dealt with include: vertical well spacing, infill drilling, off-target drilling, horizontal well spacing, and allowables. The concepts of voluntary and statutory pooling as well as voluntary and statutory unitization were explained. Examples of waterflood and enhanced oil recovery projects were provided. The regulation relating to oil and gas conservation were first implemented in 1952 and evolved to their present form through a series of changes and amendments. The most significant changes to the regulations were made in 1991 when horizontal drilling needed to be accommodated. 1 tab

  9. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  10. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  11. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  12. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  13. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  14. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  15. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  16. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  17. Conservation architecture and the narrative imperative: Birmingham back to backs

    OpenAIRE

    Matthews, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    The paper uses a case study to explore how the opposing logics of conservation architecture and interpretive exhibition design were played out in the shaping of a narrative museum space. The former concerns itself with an archaeological conception of physical space, which is defined through the decipherability of traces and their layering over time. The latter concerns itself with a theatrical notion of event space defined through the mapping and programming of performances and information fl...

  18. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Methods of equipment conservation of a carboelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Higuera, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Several conservation methods are mentioned like they are those of conservation in dry, in humid, conservation of bombs of water conservation, of turbines, of generators, of transformers, of electric motors and conservation of coal piles

  20. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  1. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  2. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  3. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D.; Thorp, Laurie; Coleman, Kayla; Kwame Yeboah, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  4. Notes on the Mass Definition with Covariant Conservation Law

    OpenAIRE

    Fujimura, Jun

    1990-01-01

    Mass definition based on the conservation law of some physical quantities is investigated, adopting the 2nd rank tensor in four space world as the conserving quantity. It is shown that the scalar function appeared as coefficients in the general expression of this tensor quantity should be independent on s, s being the line element of the world line, under the postulate that the trajectories of free particle must be geodesic lines of the world. Discussions are made on this constant factor whic...

  5. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  6. A divergence theorem for pseudo-Finsler spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Minguzzi, E.

    2015-01-01

    We study the divergence theorem on pseudo-Finsler spaces and obtain a completely Finslerian version for spaces having a vanishing mean Cartan torsion. This result helps to clarify the problem of energy-momentum conservation in Finsler gravity theories.

  7. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  8. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  9. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  10. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  11. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  12. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  13. Energy conservations from an environmental viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, Kunio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Ohokayama, Meguroku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    It is not incorrect to state that all major environmental problems, such as the greenhouse effect, destruction of the ozone layer from CFC`s, acid rain due to air pollution by NOx and SOx, etc., are caused by excessive industrial and residential energy consumption. Considering the finite world energy resources and limited global space, the day might be already upon us in which the total amount of energy consumption in the world should be reduced. To maintain a high living standard without increasing energy consumption, waste energy recovery and energy conservation are vitally important. In order to effective use of energy resources, we should really know the meaning of the energy consumption and the characteristics of energy resources. In this paper, the technological aspects of energy conservation are stated from the standpoint of available energy.

  14. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  15. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  16. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  17. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  18. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  19. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  20. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  1. Neighborhood spaces

    OpenAIRE

    D. C. Kent; Won Keun Min

    2002-01-01

    Neighborhood spaces, pretopological spaces, and closure spaces are topological space generalizations which can be characterized by means of their associated interior (or closure) operators. The category NBD of neighborhood spaces and continuous maps contains PRTOP as a bicoreflective subcategory and CLS as a bireflective subcategory, whereas TOP is bireflectively embedded in PRTOP and bicoreflectively embedded in CLS. Initial and final structures are described in these categories, and it is s...

  2. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1990-12-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation and to treat two particular examples

  3. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  4. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  5. 76 FR 65121 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    ..., environmental benefits including clean air, water, and wildlife habitat; benefits from forest-based educational... Program will be removed as deauthorized by the Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, and this... benefits, including wildlife habitat, stewardship demonstration sites for forest landowners, and...

  6. 76 FR 744 - Community Forest and Open Space Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ... landowners; (5) Recreational benefits, such as hiking, hunting and fishing; and (6) Public access. Community...) Recreational benefits, such as hiking, hunting and fishing; and (vi) Public access. (2) Extent and nature of... recreation, environmental and economic benefits, and forest-based educational programs, and to protect...

  7. Conservative image transformations with restoration and scale-space properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weickert, J.A.; Haar Romenij, ter B.M.; Viergever, M.A.; Delogne, P.

    1996-01-01

    Many image processing applications require to solve problems such as denoising with edge enhancement, preprocessing for segmentation, or the completion of interrupted lines. This may be accomplished by applying a suitable nonlinear anisotropic diffusion process to the image. Its diffusion tensor is

  8. Covariant form for the conserved currents of the sine-Gordon and Liouville theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Lerda, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Penati, S.

    1990-01-01

    A conserved covariant fourth rank tensor current J μαβγ is constructed for these models both in flat and constant curvature space. For flat space, ∫ dx + J ++++ and its parity conjugate agree with well known results for the lowest grade sine-Gordon conserved charges. However potentially new charges such as ∫ dx + J +++- and ∫ dx + J +++α ε αβ x β either vanish or fail to be conserved because J μαβγ is not symmetric in μ↔γ. There is one curious exception for sine-Gordon models in anti-de Sitter space. (orig.)

  9. Integrability and symmetric spaces. II- The coset spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.A.

    1987-01-01

    It shown that a sufficient condition for a model describing the motion of a particle on a coset space to possess a fundamental Poisson bracket relation, and consequently charges involution, is that it must be a symmetric space. The conditions a hamiltonian, or any function of the canonical variables, has to satisfy in order to commute with these charges are studied. It is shown that, for the case of non compact symmetric space, these conditions lead to an algebraic structure which plays an important role in the construction of conserved quantities. (author) [pt

  10. Sacred Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelstein, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    A space can be sacred, providing those who inhabit a particular space with sense of transcendence-being connected to something greater than oneself. The sacredness may be inherent in the space, as for a religious institution or a serene place outdoors. Alternatively, a space may be made sacred by the people within it and events that occur there. As medical providers, we have the opportunity to create sacred space in our examination rooms and with our patient interactions. This sacred space can be healing to our patients and can bring us providers opportunities for increased connection, joy, and gratitude in our daily work.

  11. Sobolev spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Robert A

    2003-01-01

    Sobolev Spaces presents an introduction to the theory of Sobolev Spaces and other related spaces of function, also to the imbedding characteristics of these spaces. This theory is widely used in pure and Applied Mathematics and in the Physical Sciences.This second edition of Adam''s ''classic'' reference text contains many additions and much modernizing and refining of material. The basic premise of the book remains unchanged: Sobolev Spaces is intended to provide a solid foundation in these spaces for graduate students and researchers alike.* Self-contained and accessible for readers in other disciplines.* Written at elementary level making it accessible to graduate students.

  12. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  13. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  14. Community markets for conservation: Markets to advance conservation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the function and economics of COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation), discusses the current reality of climate change, and then explores how possible market mechanism approaches to ameliorating climate change may fit into COMACO's work and research. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  15. Symmetries and conservation laws of the damped harmonic oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We work with a formulation of Noether-symmetry analysis which uses the properties of infinitesimal point transformations in the space-time variables to establish the association between symmetries and conservation laws of a dynamical system. Here symmetries are expressed in the form of generators. We have studied the ...

  16. Helicity and other conservation laws in perfect fluid motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serre, Denis

    2018-03-01

    In this review paper, we discuss helicity from a geometrical point of view and see how it applies to the motion of a perfect fluid. We discuss its relation with the Hamiltonian structure, and then its extension to arbitrary space dimensions. We also comment about the existence of additional conservation laws for the Euler equation, and its unlikely integrability in Liouville's sense.

  17. Hood River Conservation Project load analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stovall, T.K.

    1987-11-01

    As a part of the Hood River Conservation Project (HRCP), 314 homes were monitored to measure electrical energy use. The total electrical load, space heating load, water heating load (in about 200 homes), wood-stove heat output (in about 100 homes), and indoor temperature were monitored. Data were collected for one full year before and one full year after these homes were retrofit with conservation measures. Local weather information was also collected on a 15-min basis. This data base was used to evaluate the load savings attributable to HRCP. Two methods of weather normalization were used and showed close agreement. The weather-normalized diversified residential load savings on the Pacific Power and Light system and Hood River area peak days were >0.5 kW/household. The average spring, summer, and fall savings were much smaller, <0.1 kW/household. The load factor for the diversified residential load decreased following the conservation retrofit actions. 11 refs., 40 figs., 13 tabs.

  18. Magnetohydrodynamics and fluid dynamics action principles and conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Gary

    2018-01-01

    This text focuses on conservation laws in magnetohydrodynamics, gasdynamics and hydrodynamics. A grasp of new conservation laws is essential in fusion and space plasmas, as well as in geophysical fluid dynamics; they can be used to test numerical codes, or to reveal new aspects of the underlying physics, e.g., by identifying the time history of the fluid elements as an important key to understanding fluid vorticity or in investigating the stability of steady flows. The ten Galilean Lie point symmetries of the fundamental action discussed in this book give rise to the conservation of energy, momentum, angular momentum and center of mass conservation laws via Noether’s first theorem. The advected invariants are related to fluid relabeling symmetries – so-called diffeomorphisms associated with the Lagrangian map – and are obtained by applying the Euler-Poincare approach to Noether’s second theorem. The book discusses several variants of helicity including kinetic helicity, cross helicity, magnetic helici...

  19. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  20. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  1. Concrete: Too young for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, H.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The 20th century built heritage is one of the new conservation challenges, due to its architectural differences from the traditional heritage and new materials. One major new material is concrete; its quantity and importance for the new heritage requires a tailored conservation approach. Until now,

  2. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  3. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  4. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  5. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  6. Design spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    Digital technologies and media are becoming increasingly embodied and entangled in the spaces and places at work and at home. However, our material environment is more than a geometric abstractions of space: it contains familiar places, social arenas for human action. For designers, the integration...... of digital technology with space poses new challenges that call for new approaches. Creative alternatives to traditional systems methodologies are called for when designers use digital media to create new possibilities for action in space. Design Spaces explores how design and media art can provide creative...... alternatives for integrating digital technology with space. Connecting practical design work with conceptual development and theorizing, art with technology, and usesr-centered methods with social sciences, Design Spaces provides a useful research paradigm for designing ubiquitous computing. This book...

  7. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  8. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Guermond, Jean-Luc; Popov, Bojan

    2013-01-01

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method

  9. Space Commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  10. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  11. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  12. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  13. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  14. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  15. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  16. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  17. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  18. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  19. Learning Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Falmagne, Jean-Claude

    2011-01-01

    Learning spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for practical systems of educational technology. Learning spaces generalize partially ordered sets and are special cases of knowledge spaces. The various structures are investigated from the standpoints of combinatorial properties and stochastic processes. Leaning spaces have become the essential structures to be used in assessing students' competence of various topics. A practical example is offered by ALEKS, a Web-based, artificially intelligent assessment and learning system in mathematics and other scholarly fields. At the heart of A

  20. Elephants - a conservation overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Riddle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss of habitat is one of the most significant problems facing elephants worldwide, leading to clashes over resources between wildlife and humans where elephants receive the largest part of blame - defined as Human Elephant Conflict (HEC. The sub-Saharan region of Africa contains an approximate population of 500,000 elephants that occupy 37 range countries. The African Elephant (Loxodonta africana is categorized as Vulnerable in the Red List of Threatened Species; they are listed there as two distinct subspecies: the Savanna Elephant (L. a. africana and the Forest Elephant (L. a. cyclotis. The Red List of Threatened Species categorizes the Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus as endangered, and today they are found in 13 range states. The Asian Elephant population is estimated to be 30,000 to 50,000 with approximately 60% of the population being present in India. Due to threats of poaching, the elephant ivory debate has been an important part of recent meetings of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES as Parties have debated proposals for one-time sales of legal government stockpiles of elephant tusks. To maintain elephant populations into the future, long-term and large-scale planning is necessary to ensure adequate space and protection for elephants and people living in elephant habitats.

  1. The Space House TM : Space Technologies in Architectural Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, F.; Raitt, D.

    2002-01-01

    The word "space" has always been associated with and had a profound impact upon architectural design. Until relatively recently, however, the term has been used in a different sense to that understood by the aerospace community - for them, space was less abstract, more concrete and used in the context of space flight and space exploration, rather than, say, an empty area or space requiring to be filled by furniture. However, the two senses of the word space have now converged to some extent. Interior designers and architects have been involved in designing the interior of Skylab, the structure of the International Space Station, and futuristic space hotels. Today, architects are designing, and builders are building, houses, offices and other structures which incorporate a plethora of new technologies, materials and production processes in an effort not only to introduce innovative and adventurous ideas but also in an attempt to address environmental and social issues. Foremost among these new technologies and materials being considered today are those that have been developed for and by the space industry. This paper examines some of these space technologies, such as energy efficient solar cells, durable plastics, air and water filtration techniques, which have been adapted to both provide power while reducing energy consumption, conserve resources and so on. Several of these technologies have now been employed by the European Space Agency to develop a Space House TM - the first of its kind, which will be deployed not so much on planets like Mars, but rather here on Earth. The Space House TM, which exhibits many innovative features such as high strength light-weight carbon composites, active noise-damped, (glass and plastic) windows, low-cost solar arrays and latent heat storage, air and water purification systems will be described.

  2. Conservation of topological quantum numbers in energy bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.N.; Liang, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Quantum systems described by parametrized Hamiltinians are studied in a general context. Within this context, the classification scheme of Avron-Seiler-Simon for non-degenerate energy bands is extended to cover general parameter spaces, whole their sum rule is generalized to cover cases with degenerate bands as well. Additive topological quantum numbers are defined, and these are shown to be conserved in energy band ''collisions''. The conservation laws dictate that when some invariants are non-vanishing, no energy gap can develop in a set of degenerate bands. This gives rise to a series of splitting rules

  3. Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.

    2001-01-01

    Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method

  4. 118 CONSERVATION NARRATIVES AND CONTESTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...

  5. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  6. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-01-01

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N t +curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R 3 depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R 4 (t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented

  7. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  8. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  9. Space Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  10. Space psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parin, V. V.; Gorbov, F. D.; Kosmolinskiy, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    Psychological selection of astronauts considers mental responses and adaptation to the following space flight stress factors: (1) confinement in a small space; (2) changes in three dimensional orientation; (3) effects of altered gravity and weightlessness; (4) decrease in afferent nerve pulses; (5) a sensation of novelty and danger; and (6) a sense of separation from earth.

  11. Borel Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Berberian, S K

    2002-01-01

    A detailed exposition of G.W. Mackey's theory of Borel spaces (standard, substandard, analytic), based on results in Chapter 9 of Bourbaki's General Topology. Appended are five informal lectures on the subject (given at the CIMPA/ICPAM Summer School, Nice, 1986), sketching the connection between Borel spaces and representations of operator algebras.

  12. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  13. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  14. Space engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.

    1991-01-01

    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  15. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  16. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  17. Space polypropulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, B. J.; Griffin, D. K.; Bingham, R.; Campbell, R. N.; Forbes, A.; Michaelis, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Hybrid space propulsion has been a feature of most space missions. Only the very early rocket propulsion experiments like the V2, employed a single form of propulsion. By the late fifties multi-staging was routine and the Space Shuttle employs three different kinds of fuel and rocket engines. During the development of chemical rockets, other forms of propulsion were being slowly tested, both theoretically and, relatively slowly, in practice. Rail and gas guns, ion engines, "slingshot" gravity assist, nuclear and solar power, tethers, solar sails have all seen some real applications. Yet the earliest type of non-chemical space propulsion to be thought of has never been attempted in space: laser and photon propulsion. The ideas of Eugen Saenger, Georgii Marx, Arthur Kantrowitz, Leik Myrabo, Claude Phipps and Robert Forward remain Earth-bound. In this paper we summarize the various forms of nonchemical propulsion and their results. We point out that missions beyond Saturn would benefit from a change of attitude to laser-propulsion as well as consideration of hybrid "polypropulsion" - which is to say using all the rocket "tools" available rather than possibly not the most appropriate. We conclude with three practical examples, two for the next decades and one for the next century; disposal of nuclear waste in space; a grand tour of the Jovian and Saturnian moons - with Huygens or Lunoxod type, landers; and eventually mankind's greatest space dream: robotic exploration of neighbouring planetary systems.

  18. Impact loading of a space nuclear powerplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny I. Kraus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Preferred formulation of the problem in two space dimensions are described for solving the three fundamental equations of mechanics (conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, and conservation of energy. Models of the behavior of materials provide the closure to the three fundamentals equations for applications to problems in compressible fluid flow and solid mechanics. Models of fracture and damage are described. A caloric model of the equation of state is proposed to describe thermodynamic properties of solid materials with the phase transitions. Two-dimensional problems of a high-velocity impact of a space nuclear propulsion system reactor are solved. High-velocity impact problems of destruction of reactor are solved for the two cases: 1 at its crash landing on the Earth surface (the impact velocity being up to 400 m/s; 2 at its impact (with velocity up to 16 km/s with the space debris fragments.

  19. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  20. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  1. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  2. Space Bugz!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birke, Alexander; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik; Reng, Lars

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents Space Bugz! - a novel crowd game for large venues or cinemas that utilises the audience's smartphones as controllers for the game. This paper explains what crowd gaming is and describes how the approach used in Space Bugz! enables more advanced gameplay concepts and individual...... player control than current technologies allow. The gameplay of Space Bugz! is then explained along with the technical architecture of the game. After this, the iterative design process used to create the game is described together with future perspectives. The article concludes with links to a video...

  3. Front tracking for hyperbolic conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Holden, Helge

    2015-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book providing the fundamentals of the theory hyperbolic conservation laws. Several chapters have been rewritten, new material has been added, in particular, a chapter on space dependent flux functions, and the detailed solution of the Riemann problem for the Euler equations. Hyperbolic conservation laws are central in the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations and in science and technology. The reader is given a self-contained presentation using front tracking, which is also a numerical method. The multidimensional scalar case and the case of systems on the line are treated in detail. A chapter on finite differences is included. From the reviews of the first edition: "It is already one of the few best digests on this topic. The present book is an excellent compromise between theory and practice. Students will appreciate the lively and accurate style." D. Serre, MathSciNet  "I have read the book with great pleasure, and I can recommend it to experts ...

  4. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of Conserved Moieties in Metabolic Networks by Graph Theoretical Analysis of Atom Transition Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraldsdóttir, Hulda S.; Fleming, Ronan M. T.

    2016-01-01

    Conserved moieties are groups of atoms that remain intact in all reactions of a metabolic network. Identification of conserved moieties gives insight into the structure and function of metabolic networks and facilitates metabolic modelling. All moiety conservation relations can be represented as nonnegative integer vectors in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix corresponding to a biochemical network. Algorithms exist to compute such vectors based only on reaction stoichiometry but their computational complexity has limited their application to relatively small metabolic networks. Moreover, the vectors returned by existing algorithms do not, in general, represent conservation of a specific moiety with a defined atomic structure. Here, we show that identification of conserved moieties requires data on reaction atom mappings in addition to stoichiometry. We present a novel method to identify conserved moieties in metabolic networks by graph theoretical analysis of their underlying atom transition networks. Our method returns the exact group of atoms belonging to each conserved moiety as well as the corresponding vector in the left null space of the stoichiometric matrix. It can be implemented as a pipeline of polynomial time algorithms. Our implementation completes in under five minutes on a metabolic network with more than 4,000 mass balanced reactions. The scalability of the method enables extension of existing applications for moiety conservation relations to genome-scale metabolic networks. We also give examples of new applications made possible by elucidating the atomic structure of conserved moieties. PMID:27870845

  6. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  7. The cost of policy simplification in conservation incentive programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Armsworth, Paul R.; Acs, Szvetlana; Dallimer, Martin

    2012-01-01

    of biodiversity. Common policy simplifications result in a 49100% loss in biodiversity benefits depending on the conservation target chosen. Failure to differentiate prices for conservation improvements in space is particularly problematic. Additional implementation costs that accompany more complicated policies......Incentive payments to private landowners provide a common strategy to conserve biodiversity and enhance the supply of goods and services from ecosystems. To deliver cost-effective improvements in biodiversity, payment schemes must trade-off inefficiencies that result from over-simplified policies...... with the administrative burden of implementing more complex incentive designs. We examine the effectiveness of different payment schemes using field parameterized, ecological economic models of extensive grazing farms. We focus on profit maximising farm management plans and use bird species as a policy-relevant indicator...

  8. How Should Beta-Diversity Inform Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socolar, Jacob B; Gilroy, James J; Kunin, William E; Edwards, David P

    2016-01-01

    To design robust protected area networks, accurately measure species losses, or understand the processes that maintain species diversity, conservation science must consider the organization of biodiversity in space. Central is beta-diversity--the component of regional diversity that accumulates from compositional differences between local species assemblages. We review how beta-diversity is impacted by human activities, including farming, selective logging, urbanization, species invasions, overhunting, and climate change. Beta-diversity increases, decreases, or remains unchanged by these impacts, depending on the balance of processes that cause species composition to become more different (biotic heterogenization) or more similar (biotic homogenization) between sites. While maintaining high beta-diversity is not always a desirable conservation outcome, understanding beta-diversity is essential for protecting regional diversity and can directly assist conservation planning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Theory and Practice in Nature Conservation - Where to Seek Sustainability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirek, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Zbigniew

    2017-12-01

    Contemporary nature conservation is the subject of serious disputes, with biocentrists emphasising the superiority of the good of nature, while anthropocentrists believe that conservation space should also take account of the good of humankind. The dispute concerns two very important values perceived differently, and not resolvable within any scientifi c framework. The authors postulate a return to the Christian roots of our civilisation. It was God who gave human beings the goods He had created, expecting them to be used in line with His plan. The man who lost God's plan, destroys the life of nature as well as his own. The postulated solution is the proper shaping of conscience, to condition biodiversity conservation in line with the idea of sustainable development.

  10. Local conservation laws for principle chiral fields (d=1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherednik, I.V.

    1979-01-01

    The Beklund transformation for chiral fields in the two-dimensional Minkovski space is found. As a result an infinite series of conservation laws for principle chiral Osub(n) fields (d=1) has been built. It is shown that these laws are local, the infinite series of global invariants which do not depend on xi, eta, and which is rather rapidly decrease along xi (or along eta) solutions being connected with these laws (xi, eta - coordinates of the light cone). It is noted that with the help of the construction proposed it is possible to obtain conservation laws of principle chiral G fields, including G in the suitable ortogonal groups. Symmetry permits to exchange xi and eta. The construction of conservation laws may be carried out without supposition that lambda has a multiplicity equal to 1, however the proof of the locality applied does not transfer on the laws obtained

  11. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  12. Motion of gas in highly rarefied space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkunov, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    A model describing a motion of gas in a highly rarefied space received an unlucky number 13 in the list of the basic models of the motion of gas in the three-dimensional space obtained by L.V. Ovsyannikov. For a given initial pressure distribution, a special choice of mass Lagrangian variables leads to the system describing this motion for which the number of independent variables is less by one. Hence, there is a foliation of a highly rarefied gas with respect to pressure. In a strongly rarefied space for each given initial pressure distribution, all gas particles are localized on a two-dimensional surface that moves with time in this space We found some exact solutions of the obtained system that describe the processes taking place inside of the tornado. For this system we found all nontrivial conservation laws of the first order. In addition to the classical conservation laws the system has another conservation law, which generalizes the energy conservation law. With the additional condition we found another one generalized energy conservation law.

  13. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Robert A; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2015-04-01

    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  15. Space dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corno, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Analytical methods for Space Dynamics of fission reactors, are presented. It is shown how a few sample problems in space dynamics can be solved, within the one and two group diffusion model, by purely analytical tools, essentially based on Laplace transform and complex Green function techniques. A quite suggestive generalization of this approach, applicable to the fluid core reactors, whose fuel is undergoing a violent mixing, is reported and briefly discussed. (author)

  16. A graduate education framework for tropical conservation and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainer, Karen A; Schmink, Marianne; Covert, Hannah; Stepp, John Richard; Bruna, Emilio M; Dain, Jonathan L; Espinosa, Santiago; Humphries, Shoana

    2006-02-01

    Conventional graduate training related to tropical conservation and development has typically separated the two fields, with students focusing on either conservation from the perspective of the biophysical sciences or development as an extension of the social sciences. On entering the workforce, however graduates find they are required to work beyond disciplinary boundaries to address the complex interconnectivity between biological conservation and human well-being. We devised a framework for graduate education that broadens students' skill sets to learn outside their immediate disciplines and think in terms of linked socioecological systems, work in teams, communicate in nonacademic formats, and reflect critically on their own perspectives and actions. The University of Florida's Tropical Conservation and Development program has adopted a learning and action platform that blends theory, skills, and praxis to create an intellectual, social, and professionally safe space where students, faculty, and other participants can creatively address the complex challenges of tropical conservation and development. This platform operates within a nondegree-granting program and includes core courses that are taught by a team of biophysical and social scientists. It incorporates a range of alternative learning spaces such as student-led workshops, retreats, visiting professionals, practitioner experiences, and a weekly student-led seminar that collectively encourage students and faculty to enhance their skills and systematically and thoroughly reflect on program activities. Challenges to the described approach include increased service demands on faculty, a redefinition of research excellence to include effective and equitable collaboration with host-country partners, and the trade-offs and uncertainties inherent in more collaborative, interdisciplinary research. Despite these challenges, growing interdisciplinary programs, coupled with adaptive educational approaches that

  17. Stability analysis of explicit entropy viscosity methods for non-linear scalar conservation equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-10-03

    We establish the L2-stability of an entropy viscosity technique applied to nonlinear scalar conservation equations. First-and second-order explicit time-stepping techniques using continuous finite elements in space are considered. The method is shown to be stable independently of the polynomial degree of the space approximation under the standard CFL condition. © 2013 American Mathematical Society.

  18. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  19. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  20. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  1. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Constraints of philanthropy on determining the distribution of biodiversity conservation funding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Eric R; Howell, Stephen; Kareiva, Peter; Armsworth, Paul R

    2016-02-01

    Caught between ongoing habitat destruction and funding shortfalls, conservation organizations are using systematic planning approaches to identify places that offer the highest biodiversity return per dollar invested. However, available tools do not account for the landscape of funding for conservation or quantify the constraints this landscape imposes on conservation outcomes. Using state-level data on philanthropic giving to and investments in land conservation by a large nonprofit organization, we applied linear regression to evaluate whether the spatial distribution of conservation philanthropy better explained expenditures on conservation than maps of biodiversity priorities, which were derived from a planning process internal to the organization and return on investment (ROI) analyses based on data on species richness, land costs, and existing protected areas. Philanthropic fund raising accounted for considerably more spatial variation in conservation spending (r(2) = 0.64) than either of the 2 systematic conservation planning approaches (r(2) = 0.08-0.21). We used results of one of the ROI analyses to evaluate whether increases in flexibility to reallocate funding across space provides conservation gains. Small but plausible "tax" increments of 1-10% on states redistributed to the optimal funding allocation from the ROI analysis could result in gains in endemic species protected of 8.5-80.2%. When such increases in spatial flexibility are not possible, conservation organizations should seek to cultivate increased support for conservation in priority locations. We used lagged correlations of giving to and spending by the organization to evaluate whether investments in habitat protection stimulate future giving to conservation. The most common outcome at the state level was that conservation spending quarters correlated significantly and positively with lagged fund raising quarters. In effect, periods of high fund raising for biodiversity followed (rather than

  3. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  4. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  5. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program participant... conservation plan for the acreage designated under an agreement. (b) The conservation plan is the basis for the...

  6. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  7. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  8. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  9. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  10. public spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this issue is PUBLIC SPACES. It is familiar and clear to every citizen. The streets and courtyards as childhood experiences remain with us forever. And these are the places where we come with our parents at weekends, where we meet friends, where we have dates and where we already come for a walk with our children.The history of public spaces is long and captivating. It was the main city squares where the most important events took place in history. The Agoras of Ancient Greece and the Roman Forums, the squares of Vatican, Paris and London, Moscow and Saint Petersburg… Greve, Trafalgar, Senate, Palace, Red, Bolotnaya – behind every name there is life of capitals, countries and nations.Public spaces, their shapes, image and development greatly influence the perception of the city as a whole. Both visitors and inhabitants can see in public spaces not only the visage but the heart, the soul and the mind of the city.Unfortunately, sometimes we have to prove the value of public spaces and defend them from those who consider them nothing but a blank space, nobody’s land destined for barbarous development.What should happen to make citizens perceive public spaces as their own and to make authorities consider development and maintenance of squares and parks their priority task against the  background of increasing competition between cities and the fight for human capital? Lately they more often say about “a high-quality human capital”. And now, when they say “the city should be liveable” they add “for all groups of citizens, including the creative class”.

  11. Space Rescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratore, John F.

    2007-01-01

    Space Rescue has been a topic of speculation for a wide community of people for decades. Astronauts, aerospace engineers, diplomats, medical and rescue professionals, inventors and science fiction writers have all speculated on this problem. Martin Caidin's 1964 novel Marooned dealt with the problems of rescuing a crew stranded in low earth orbit. Legend at the Johnson Space Center says that Caidin's portrayal of a Russian attempt to save the American crew played a pivotal role in convincing the Russians to join the real joint Apollo-Soyuz mission. Space Rescue has been a staple in science fiction television and movies portrayed in programs such as Star Trek, Stargate-SG1 and Space 1999 and movies such as Mission To Mars and Red Planet. As dramatic and as difficult as rescue appears in fictional accounts, in the real world it has even greater drama and greater difficulty. Space rescue is still in its infancy as a discipline and the purpose of this chapter is to describe the issues associated with space rescue and the work done so far in this field. For the purposes of this chapter, the term space rescue will refer to any system which allows for rescue or escape of personnel from situations which endanger human life in a spaceflight operation. This will span the period from crew ingress prior to flight through crew egress postlanding. For the purposes of this chapter, the term primary system will refer to the spacecraft system that a crew is either attempting to escape from or from which an attempt is being made to rescue the crew.

  12. Underground spaces/cybernetic spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Novljan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern city space is a space where in the vertical and horizontal direction dynamic, non-linear processes exist, similar as in nature. Alongside the “common” city surface, cities have underground spaces as well that are increasingly affecting the functioning of the former. It is the space of material and cybernetic communication/transport. The psychophysical specifics of using underground places have an important role in their conceptualisation. The most evident facts being their limited volume and often limited connections to the surface and increased level of potential dangers of all kinds. An efficient mode for alleviating the effects of these specific features are artistic interventions, such as: shape, colour, lighting, all applications of the basic principles of fractal theory.

  13. Volumetric formulation of lattice Boltzmann models with energy conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Sbragaglia, M.; Sugiyama, K.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a volumetric formulation of lattice Boltzmann for compressible thermal fluid flows. The velocity set is chosen with the desired accuracy, based on the Gauss-Hermite quadrature procedure, and tested against controlled problems in bounded and unbounded fluids. The method allows the simulation of thermohydrodyamical problems without the need to preserve the exact space-filling nature of the velocity set, but still ensuring the exact conservation laws for density, momentum and energy. ...

  14. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. SPACE Code Assessment for FLECHT Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyoung Kyoun; Min, Ji Hong; Park, Chan Eok; Park, Seok Jeong; Kim, Shin Whan [KEPCO E and C, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    According to 10 CFR 50 Appendix K, Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) performance evaluation model during LBLOCA should be based on the data of FLECHT test. Heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and Carryout Rate Fraction (CRF) during reflood period of LBLOCA should be conservative. To develop Mass and Energy Release (MER) methodology using Safety and Performance Analysis CodE (SPACE), FLECHT test results were compared to the results calculated by SPACE. FLECHT test facility is modeled to compare the reflood HTC and CRF using SPACE. Sensitivity analysis is performed with various options for HTC correlation. Based on this result, it is concluded that the reflood HTC and CRF calculated with COBRA-TF correlation during LBLOCA meet the requirement of 10 CFR 50 Appendix K. In this study, the analysis results using SPACE predicts heat transfer phenomena of FLECHT test reasonably and conservatively. Reflood HTC for the test number of 0690, 3541 and 4225 are conservative in the reference case. In case of 6948 HTC using COBRATF is conservative to calculate film boiling region. All of analysis results for CRF have sufficient conservatism. Based on these results, it is possible to apply with COBRA-TF correlation to develop MER methodology to analyze LBLOCA using SPACE.

  16. Frames of Scale Challenges in Finnish and Greek Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Apostolopoulou

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global conservation expansion has been associated with significant changes in cross-scale interactions and in the discourses surrounding them engendering new scale challenges in the field of biodiversity conservation. In this paper, we analyze frames of scale challenges by drawing on evidence from eight focus groups of stakeholders and scientists from Greece and Finland. By following a systematic frame analysis we found three dominant frames. First, framing scale challenges as mainly derived from knowledge gaps regarding ecological scale emphasizes the scale problems occurring when only limited consideration is given to the scale-dependence of ecological phenomena. This prioritizes the formulation of scientifically informed conservation policies, discounting the importance of governance by concentrating on specialized environmental administrations. Second, framing scale challenges as stemming from limited fit highlights the scale problems caused by discrepancies in the alignment of natural and social scales and underlines the need to optimize the match between ecological and governance levels with more or less fixed boundaries. Third, framing scale challenges as primarily derived from inequalities in existing power relationships and learning processes emphasizes scale problems resulting when the dominant perception of scale is seen as a neutral, technical issue. This calls for investigations focused explicitly on how conservation scaling contributes to the production of new social-ecological entities in space and time. Dialogues between aspects of the different frames offer a potential path toward deliberative learning aimed at resolving current contradictions in the spatial patterning of human-environment interactions produced by biodiversity conservation.

  17. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  18. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  19. Environmental spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henrik Gutzon

    Using the development of intergovernmental environmental cooperation in the Baltic Sea area as a concrete example, the aim of this study is to explore how the 'environment' in situations of environmental interdependence is identified and institutionalised as political-geographical objects....... 'Environmental interdependence' is to this end conceptualised as a tension between 'political spaces' of discrete state territories and 'environmental spaces' of spatially nested ecosystems. This tension between geographies of political separateness and environmental wholeness is the implicit or explicit basis...... for a large and varied literature. But in both its critical and problemsolving manifestations, this literature tends to naturalise the spatiality of environmental concerns: environmental spaces are generally taken for granted. On the suggestion that there is a subtle politics to the specification...

  20. Tsirelson's space

    CERN Document Server

    Casazza, Peter G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph provides a structure theory for the increasingly important Banach space discovered by B.S. Tsirelson. The basic construction should be accessible to graduate students of functional analysis with a knowledge of the theory of Schauder bases, while topics of a more advanced nature are presented for the specialist. Bounded linear operators are studied through the use of finite-dimensional decompositions, and complemented subspaces are studied at length. A myriad of variant constructions are presented and explored, while open questions are broached in almost every chapter. Two appendices are attached: one dealing with a computer program which computes norms of finitely-supported vectors, while the other surveys recent work on weak Hilbert spaces (where a Tsirelson-type space provides an example).

  1. Global sea turtle conservation successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Schofield, Gail; Gkazinou, Chrysoula; Almpanidou, Vasiliki; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-09-01

    We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs. This prevalence of more upward than downward trends was also evident in the individual time series, where we found 95 significant increases in abundance and 35 significant decreases. Adding to this encouraging news for sea turtle conservation, we show that even small sea turtle populations have the capacity to recover, that is, Allee effects appear unimportant. Positive trends in abundance are likely linked to the effective protection of eggs and nesting females, as well as reduced bycatch. However, conservation concerns remain, such as the decline in leatherback turtles in the Eastern and Western Pacific. Furthermore, we also show that, often, time series are too short to identify trends in abundance. Our findings highlight the importance of continued conservation and monitoring efforts that underpin this global conservation success story.

  2. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conservation in India. They are ... cuss these with case studies on some cat species in India. Introduction ... fallout since vital resources such as clean air, water, and food ... tion, climate change has become a much-dreaded catchword, and .... (Eastern. Mangroves Total and West- ern). /Inland wetlands. DNA extraction. 66.

  3. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... habits that make them difficultstudy subjects when using conventional field techniques.Molecular tools can be used to decipher distributions andpopulation connectedness in fragmented habitats and identifypopulations of immediate conservation concern. We discussthese with case studies on some cat species in India.

  4. Conservation of South African Rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the proceedings of a three-day workshop at Midmar Dam designed to establish a consensus view of river conservation and to provide professional conservationists, managers and planners with a set of guidelines. These indicate what...

  5. Conservation tax rebates under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes federal legislative response to an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruling that rebates offered as incentives by utilities are taxable as gross income. A bill is being introduced that will reverse the situation. Statements from various conservation and industry organizations are offered in support of the bill. The IRS is also reviewing its ruling

  6. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  7. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  8. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  9. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  10. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  11. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  12. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  13. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne G; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...

  14. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  15. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  16. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  17. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  18. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  19. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  20. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  2. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  3. Ten ways remote sensing can contribute to conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Robert A.; Byler, Dirck; Eastman, J. Ron; Fleishman, Erica; Geller, Gary; Goetz, Scott; Guild, Liane; Hamilton, Healy; Hansen, Matt; Headley, Rachel; Hewson, Jennifer; Horning, Ned; Kaplin, Beth A.; Laporte, Nadine; Leidner, Allison K.; Leimgruber, Peter; Morisette, Jeffrey T.; Musinsky, John; Pintea, Lilian; Prados, Ana; Radeloff, Volker C.; Rowen, Mary; Saatchi, Sassan; Schill, Steve; Tabor, Karyn; Turner, Woody; Vodacek, Anthony; Vogelmann, James; Wegmann, Martin; Wilkie, David; Wilson, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners’ use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to

  4. Space doubt

    OpenAIRE

    Rega, Joseph Mark

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Comunicação e Expressão. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Inglês e Literatura Correspondente. The recent surge in cyberspace science fiction follows previous trends within the genre, i.e. those connected with future city-space and outer space, and is an inevitable result of economic forces. There has always been a close relationship between capitalism and spatial expansion, compelled by technological innovations that ha...

  5. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  6. Urban public space materials. Maintenance and design?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Iglesias Campos

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, certain aspects related to the conservation of materials commonly used in the design of public spaces are analysed and discussed from a starting point of maintenance definition. The main area of discussion is whether materials selection for pavements and urban furniture, and their placement in the designed space, take into account their maintenance needs. Here the definition of maintenance is the cleaning and repair done by municipal services that is always necessary after construction. From certain examples it can be concluded that, in several cases, the form, the organization and the distribution of the different elements within the public space can cause difficulties for its appropriate conservation, giving rise to alterations and consequently having a negative impact on the durability of this space.

  7. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  9. Into Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ China plans to launch an unmanned space module,Tiangong 1,in 2011,said Qi Faren,the chief designer of China's Shenzhou spacecraft,at the sidelines of the annual plenary session of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),the country's top political advisory body,on March 3.

  10. Training Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Margery

    2010-01-01

    Creating a balanced learning space for employees is about more than trying different types of seating. It is a challenge that an affect how well employees absorb the lessons and whether they will be able to product better results for the company. The possible solutions are as diverse as the learners. This article describes how three companies…

  11. Space Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miquel, J. (Editor); Economos, A. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Presentations are given which address the effects of space flght on the older person, the parallels between the physiological responses to weightlessness and the aging process, and experimental possibilities afforded by the weightless environment to fundamental research in gerontology and geriatrics.

  12. Trading Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cort, Cliff

    2006-01-01

    Education administrators face the dual dilemma of crowded, aging facilities and tightening capital budgets. The challenge is to build the necessary classroom, laboratory and activity space while minimizing the length and expense of the construction process. One solution that offers an affordable alternative is modular construction, a method that…

  13. Space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmayer, A.

    2000-01-01

    Space research in Austria began since 1969 and has its roots in Graz. An overview of the projects performed by Austrian organizations such as local network interconnection via satellites systems, MIGMAS (Microanalysis station), ALP-SAT (Autonomous Libration Point-Satellite), MIDAS (Micro-imaging dust analysis system), among others are described. (nevyjel)

  14. Space Conquest

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    An old water tank from the time of the ISR is being converted into a temporary store for ATLAS muon chambers. This is the last chapter in the big programme by the PH Department to make better use of space at CERN.

  15. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    The Pahang and Johore State Governments have agreed to declare the 92,000 hectare Endau-Rompin Forest as a State Park. It had been proposed as a National Park in 1975, but, as usual, this did not prevent logging in the core area in 1977. This was halted after considerable national protest, but

  16. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    CITES: In February 1987 Singapore finally ratified the Washington Treaty on the international trade in threatened species, exceptions have been made for the trade in crocodile products. A serious breach has now been closed that was of some impediment to the trade between Singapore and many of its

  17. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  18. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology

  19. WORKSHOP: Inner space - outer space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1984-09-15

    During the first week of May, the Fermilab theoretical astrophysics group hosted an international conference on science at the interface of particle physics and cosmology/astrophysics. The conference (Inner Space-Outer Space) was attended by a very diverse group of more than 200 physical scientists, including astronomers, astrophysicists, cosmologists, low-temperature physicists, and elementary particle theorists and experimentalists. The common interest which brought this diverse group to gether is the connection between physics on the smallest scale probed by man - the realm of elementary particle physics - and physics on the largest scale imaginable (the entire Universe) - the realm of cosmology.

  20. Scaling and scale invariance of conservation laws in Reynolds transport theorem framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haltas, Ismail; Ulusoy, Suleyman

    2015-07-01

    Scale invariance is the case where the solution of a physical process at a specified time-space scale can be linearly related to the solution of the processes at another time-space scale. Recent studies investigated the scale invariance conditions of hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformations to the governing equations of the processes. Scale invariance of a physical process is usually achieved under certain conditions on the scaling ratios of the variables and parameters involved in the process. The foundational axioms of hydrodynamics are the conservation laws, namely, conservation of mass, conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of energy from continuum mechanics. They are formulated using the Reynolds transport theorem. Conventionally, Reynolds transport theorem formulates the conservation equations in integral form. Yet, differential form of the conservation equations can also be derived for an infinitesimal control volume. In the formulation of the governing equation of a process, one or more than one of the conservation laws and, some times, a constitutive relation are combined together. Differential forms of the conservation equations are used in the governing partial differential equation of the processes. Therefore, differential conservation equations constitute the fundamentals of the governing equations of the hydrodynamic processes. Applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework instead of applying to the governing partial differential equations may lead to more fundamental conclusions on the scaling and scale invariance of the hydrodynamic processes. This study will investigate the scaling behavior and scale invariance conditions of the hydrodynamic processes by applying the one-parameter Lie scaling transformation to the conservation laws in the Reynolds transport theorem framework.

  1. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  2. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  3. Current conservation status of Ratites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Living Ratites, which include several species or subspecies of ostriches, cassowaries, emus, rheas and kiwis, all with an important function in the ecosystem dynamics, endure the danger of extinction similarly to the extinct moas and elephant-birds. Whereas ostriches and emus, except for specific populations, are not seen as being endangered, cassowaries and kiwis are on the brink of extinction. Hunting by humans contributed most to the declining numbers in all families of Ratites. Some conservation management strategies have been developed for conservation of kiwis, one subspecies of cassowary, and some populations of ostriches, emus and rheas. These include captive breeding and release, habitat restoration, and public awareness. However, consideration of the limitations of the above techniques is often ignored.

  4. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  5. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  6. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....

  7. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  8. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  9. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  10. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  11. Space Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Safe breathing air for space faring crews is essential whether they are inside an Extravehicular Mobility Suit (EMU), a small capsule such as Soyuz, or the expansive International Space Station (ISS). Sources of air pollution can include entry of propellants, excess offgassing from polymeric materials, leakage of systems compounds, escape of payload compounds, over-use of utility compounds, microbial metabolism, and human metabolism. The toxicological risk posed by a compound is comprised of the probability of escaping to cause air pollution and the magnitude of adverse effects on human health if escape occurs. The risk from highly toxic compounds is controlled by requiring multiple levels of containment to greatly reduce the probability of escape; whereas compounds that are virtually non-toxic may require little or no containment. The potential for toxicity is determined by the inherent toxicity of the compound and the amount that could potentially escape into the breathing air.

  12. Spacing Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang Våland, Marianne; Georg, Susse

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze how architectural design, and the spatial and material changes this involves, contributes to the continuous shaping of identities in an organization. Based upon a case study of organizational and architectural change in a municipal administration at a time of major public...... sector reforms, we examine how design interventions were used to (re)form work and professional relationships. The paper examines how engagements with spatial arrangements and material artifacts affected people’s sense of both occupational and organizational identity. Taking a relational approach...... to sociomateriality, the paper contributes to the further theorizing of space in organization studies by proposing the concept of spacing identity to capture the fluidity of identity performance....

  13. Communication spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiera, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Annotations to physical workspaces such as signs and notes are ubiquitous. When densely annotated, work areas become communication spaces. This study aims to characterize the types and purpose of such annotations. A qualitative observational study was undertaken in two wards and the radiology department of a 440-bed metropolitan teaching hospital. Images were purposefully sampled; 39 were analyzed after excluding inferior images. Annotation functions included signaling identity, location, capability, status, availability, and operation. They encoded data, rules or procedural descriptions. Most aggregated into groups that either created a workflow by referencing each other, supported a common workflow without reference to each other, or were heterogeneous, referring to many workflows. Higher-level assemblies of such groupings were also observed. Annotations make visible the gap between work done and the capability of a space to support work. Annotations are repairs of an environment, improving fitness for purpose, fixing inadequacy in design, or meeting emergent needs. Annotations thus record the missing information needed to undertake tasks, typically added post-implemented. Measuring annotation levels post-implementation could help assess the fit of technology to task. Physical and digital spaces could meet broader user needs by formally supporting user customization, 'programming through annotation'. Augmented reality systems could also directly support annotation, addressing existing information gaps, and enhancing work with context sensitive annotation. Communication spaces offer a model of how work unfolds. Annotations make visible local adaptation that makes technology fit for purpose post-implementation and suggest an important role for annotatable information systems and digital augmentation of the physical environment.

  14. Space Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corliss, William R.

    1968-01-01

    This booklet discusses three kinds of space radiation, cosmic rays, Van Allen Belts, and solar plasma. Cosmic rays are penetrating particles that we cannot see, hear or feel, which come from distant stars. Van Allen Belts, named after their discoverer are great belts of protons and electrons that the earth has captured in its magnetic trap. Solar plasma is a gaseous, electrically neutral mixture of positive and negative ions that the sun spews out from convulsed regions on its surface.

  15. Space Handbook,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    thle early life * of" the system. Figure 4-2 shows the variation in power output for polonium - 210 (Po- 210 ) with a 138-day half-life, curium-242 (Cm...miles above the earth’s surface. Above this altitude they must take everything they need with them. The environment will supply them with neither food ...can move large payloads through space. The radioisotope heat cycle engines use high-energy particle sources such as plutonium and polonium . The walls

  16. Eleven cases of breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshio; Sekine, Kenshi; Miyagawa, Akira; Sugimoto, Toichi

    1991-01-01

    Eleven patients with T1 and small T2 breast cancer were treated by a combination of quadrantectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 44.6 years. Mean follow-up period was 7.1 months. Six patients had clinical stage I, and five patients had clinical stage II. Four patients had involvement of axillary content (36.3%) on histological examination. There were eight scirrhous carcinomas and three papillotubular carcinomas. The incidence of local and distant recurrence was none in our group. The multifocality of breast cancer based on pathologic studies had been shown. On the basis of these findings we concluded that the patients undergoing breast conservation should be subjected to postoperative radiotherapy. Psychological morbidity was compared in 10 patients treated by breast conservation and 23 patients treated by mastectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in the estimation of adjustment disorder, depression, anxiety and stress. The patients in breast conservation group had a significant excess or nervousness and the patients of the mastectomy group had an anger. (author)

  17. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  18. Genetic conservation and paddlefish propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Klumb, Robert A.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is overwhelmingly one of the central foci of 21st century management practices. Three recommendations related to the conservation of paddlefish Polyodon spathula genetic diversity are to (1) identify genetic diversity at both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci using a suggested list of 20 sampling locations, (2) use genetic diversity estimates to develop genetic management units, and (3) identify broodstock sources to minimize effects of supplemental stocking on the genetic integrity of native paddlefish populations. We review previous genetic work on paddlefish and described key principles and concepts associated with maintaining genetic diversity within and among paddlefish populations and also present a genetic case study of current paddlefish propagation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery. This study confirmed that three potential sources of broodfish were genetically indistinguishable at the loci examined, allowing the management agencies cooperating on this program flexibility in sampling gametes. This study also showed significant bias in the hatchery occurred in terms of male reproductive contribution, which resulted in a shift in the genetic diversity of progeny compared to the broodfish. This shift was shown to result from differential male contributions, partially attributed to the mode of egg fertilization. Genetic insights enable implementation of a paddlefish propagation program within an adaptive management strategy that conserves inherent genetic diversity while achieving demographic goals.

  19. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  20. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  1. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  2. Space Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2009-01-01

    Optimal nutrition will be critical for crew members who embark on space exploration missions. Nutritional assessment provides an opportunity to ensure that crewmembers begin their missions in optimal nutritional status, to document changes during a mission and, if necessary, to provide intervention to maintain that status throughout the mission, and to assesses changes after landing in order to facilitate the return to their normal status as soon as possible after landing. We report here the findings from our nutritional assessment of astronauts who participated in the International Space Station (ISS) missions, along with flight and ground-based research findings. We also present ongoing and planned nutrition research activities. These studies provide evidence that bone loss, compromised vitamin status, and oxidative damage are the critical nutritional concerns for space travelers. Other nutrient issues exist, including concerns about the stability of nutrients in the food system, which are exposed to longterm storage and radiation during flight. Defining nutrient requirements, and being able to provide and maintain those nutrients on exploration missions, will be critical for maintaining crew member health.

  3. Game Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    , called “pervasive games.” These are games that are based on computer technology, but use a physical space as the game space as opposed to video games. Coupling spatial configuration with performance theory of rituals as liminal phenomena, I put forward a model and a new understanding of the magic circle......When we play games of any kind, from tennis to board games, it is easy to notice that games seem to be configured in space, often using stripes or a kind of map on a board. Some games are clearly performed within this marked border, while it may be difficult to pinpoint such a border in games like...... hide-and-seek, but even these games are still spatially configured. The border (visible or not) both seem to separate and uphold the game that it is meant for. This chapter sets out to analyse the possible border that separates a game from the surrounding world. Johan Huizinga noted this “separateness...

  4. Electromagnetic-field equations in the six-dimensional space-time R6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teli, M.T.; Palaskar, D.

    1984-01-01

    Maxwell's equations (without monopoles) for electromagnetic fields are obtained in six-dimensional space-time. The equations possess structural symmetry in space and time, field and source densities. Space-time-symmetric conservation laws and field solutions are obtained. The results are successfully correlated with their four-dimensional space-time counterparts

  5. Beyond Nature Appropriation: Towards Post-development Conservation in the Maya Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose E Martinez-Reyes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of biosphere reserves in Mexico was followed by alternative livelihood conservation/development projects to integrate indigenous groups into Western style conservation under the idea of sustainable development and participation. In this paper, I discuss the outcomes of two forest wildlife management projects in one Maya community along the Sian Ka′an Biosphere Reserve in the state of Quintana Roo. Both projects ultimately failed and the community mobilised and expelled the NGO from the community. I argue that the failure of these projects involved two dynamics: 1 lack of coherence between the objectives of state agencies, conservation NGOs, and the local community; and 2 unequal ethnic relations, reproducing relations of colonial inequality and dictating how indigenous groups can participate in managing a territory for conservation. If collaboration and local participation are key in conservation management programs, these case studies suggest that greater institutional accountability and community autonomy are needed to make the practice of conservation more democratic and participatory. The expulsion of the NGO as a conservation and development broker also opened the space for, and possibilities of, post-development conservation practice that challenges the normalising expectations of Western biodiversity conservation.

  6. Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, conservation laws, and linearization of various field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau Wang, L.L.

    1980-01-01

    The discussion includes: the Sine-Gordon equation, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations and the derivation of local conservation laws; chiral fields, parametric Bianchi-Baecklund transformations, local and non-local conservation laws, and linearization; super chiral fields, a parallel development similar to the chiral field; and self-dual Yang-Mills fields in 4-dimensional Euclidean space; loop-cpace chiral equations, parallel development but with subtlety

  7. Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review: Freshwater conservation planning in South Africa: Milestones to ... Water SA. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ... Since the 1970s, at approximately 10-year intervals, 4 national-scale freshwater conservation ...

  8. State Conservation Lands; StaCons11

    Data.gov (United States)

    University of Rhode Island Geospatial Extension Program — Approximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction. Includes:...

  9. Landscape Conservative Cooperatives for New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Landscape conservation cooperatives (LCCs) are conservation-science partnerships between the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and other...

  10. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  11. Biodiversity conservation in a telecoupled world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Roman Carrasco

    2017-09-01

    Conservation practitioners need to adopt a global perspective on telecoupling and focus on the new conservation opportunities represented by shaping the social norms of affluent consumers in emerging and high-income economies.

  12. Soil conservation: Market failure and program performance

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gary Wyckoff

    1983-01-01

    An examination of the economic rationale behind soil conservation programs, an assessment of the magnitude of the soil erosion problem, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of U.S. soil conservation policies.

  13. communities` attitudes towards conservation in gashakagumti

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tersor

    JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENT VOLUME 7, No.2 SEPTEMBER, 2015. ... and the impact of conservation interventions, as well as to inform the ... The conservation attitudes of local people residing ...

  14. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT THROUGH ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    socio-cultural, economic system constraints for the implementation and maintenance of conservation .... Purpose of natural resource conservation is therefore ... the soil and water resources through traditional and ..... “Integrated Natural.

  15. Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking Practice and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... Book cover Conservation and Sustainable Development: Linking ... to have an influence on conservation and natural resource management. ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  16. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to

  17. Integrated conservation planning for coral reefs: Designing conservation zones for multiple conservation objectives in spatial prioritisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael A. Magris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decision-makers focus on representing biodiversity pattern, maintaining connectivity, and strengthening resilience to global warming when designing marine protected area (MPA systems, especially in coral reef ecosystems. The achievement of these broad conservation objectives will likely require large areas, and stretch limited funds for MPA implementation. We undertook a spatial prioritisation of Brazilian coral reefs that considered two types of conservation zones (i.e. no-take and multiple use areas and integrated multiple conservation objectives into MPA planning, while assessing the potential impact of different sets of objectives on implementation costs. We devised objectives for biodiversity, connectivity, and resilience to global warming, determined the extent to which existing MPAs achieved them, and designed complementary zoning to achieve all objectives combined in expanded MPA systems. In doing so, we explored interactions between different sets of objectives, determined whether refinements to the existing spatial arrangement of MPAs were necessary, and tested the utility of existing MPAs by comparing their cost effectiveness with an MPA system designed from scratch. We found that MPAs in Brazil protect some aspects of coral reef biodiversity pattern (e.g. threatened fauna and ecosystem types more effectively than connectivity or resilience to global warming. Expanding the existing MPA system was as cost-effective as designing one from scratch only when multiple objectives were considered and management costs were accounted for. Our approach provides a comprehensive assessment of the benefits of integrating multiple objectives in the initial stages of conservation planning, and yields insights for planners of MPAs tackling multiple objectives in other regions.

  18. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodrati, M. [University of Michigan, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hajian, K. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS{sub 3}, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  19. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS 3 , charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  20. Residual distribution for general time-dependent conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricchiuto, Mario; Csik, Arpad; Deconinck, Herman

    2005-01-01

    We consider the second-order accurate numerical solution of general time-dependent hyperbolic conservation laws over unstructured grids in the framework of the Residual Distribution method. In order to achieve full conservation of the linear, monotone and first-order space-time schemes of (Csik et al., 2003) and (Abgrall et al., 2000), we extend the conservative residual distribution (CRD) formulation of (Csik et al., 2002) to prismatic space-time elements. We then study the design of second-order accurate and monotone schemes via the nonlinear mapping of the local residuals of linear monotone schemes. We derive sufficient and necessary conditions for the well-posedness of the mapping. We prove that the schemes obtained with the CRD formulation satisfy these conditions by construction. Thus the nonlinear schemes proposed in this paper are always well defined. The performance of the linear and nonlinear schemes are evaluated on a series of test problems involving the solution of the Euler equations and of a two-phase flow model. We consider the resolution of strong shocks and complex interacting flow structures. The results demonstrate the robustness, accuracy and non-oscillatory character of the proposed schemes. d schemes

  1. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the "solution phase space method," conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f( R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS_3, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z=3 Lifshitz black holes.

  2. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and nonlinear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickelsson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group is established. It is shown that each symmetric element of the enveloping algebra of the space-time symmetry group of a linear field equation generates a one-parameter group of symmetries of the field equation. The cases of the Maxwell and Dirac equations are studied in detail. Then it is shown that (at least in the sense of a power series in the 'coupling constant') the conservation laws of the linear case can be deformed to conservation laws of a nonlinear field equation which is obtained from the linear one by adding a nonlinear term invariant under the group of space-time symmetries. As an example, our method is applied to the Korteweg-de Vries equation and to the massless Thirring model. (orig.)

  3. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L; Ando, Amy W; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Climate-change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation-planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk-diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate-change scenarios for carrying out fine-resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate-change information and full climate-change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate-change forecasts such that the best possible risk-return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate-change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Spatially explicit trends in the global conservation status of vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana S L; Brooks, Thomas M; Butchart, Stuart H M; Chanson, Janice; Cox, Neil; Hoffmann, Michael; Stuart, Simon N

    2014-01-01

    The world's governments have committed to preventing the extinction of threatened species and improving their conservation status by 2020. However, biodiversity is not evenly distributed across space, and neither are the drivers of its decline, and so different regions face very different challenges. Here, we quantify the contribution of regions and countries towards recent global trends in vertebrate conservation status (as measured by the Red List Index), to guide action towards the 2020 target. We found that>50% of the global deterioration in the conservation status of birds, mammals and amphibians is concentrated in nations (e.g. Cook Islands, Fiji, Mauritius, Seychelles, and Tonga), have achieved net improvements. Per capita wealth does not explain these patterns, with two of the richest countries - United States and Australia - fairing conspicuously poorly. Different countries were affected by different combinations of threats. Reducing global rates of biodiversity loss will require investment in the regions and countries with the highest responsibility for the world's biodiversity, focusing on conserving those species and areas most in peril and on reducing the drivers with the highest impacts.

  5. Social Network Analysis Identifies Key Participants in Conservation Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, Cooper M; Reed, Sarah E; Pejchar, Liba

    2018-05-01

    Understanding patterns of participation in private lands conservation, which is often implemented voluntarily by individual citizens and private organizations, could improve its effectiveness at combating biodiversity loss. We used social network analysis (SNA) to examine participation in conservation development (CD), a private land conservation strategy that clusters houses in a small portion of a property while preserving the remaining land as protected open space. Using data from public records for six counties in Colorado, USA, we compared CD participation patterns among counties and identified actors that most often work with others to implement CDs. We found that social network characteristics differed among counties. The network density, or proportion of connections in the network, varied from fewer than 2 to nearly 15%, and was higher in counties with smaller populations and fewer CDs. Centralization, or the degree to which connections are held disproportionately by a few key actors, was not correlated strongly with any county characteristics. Network characteristics were not correlated with the prevalence of wildlife-friendly design features in CDs. The most highly connected actors were biological and geological consultants, surveyors, and engineers. Our work demonstrates a new application of SNA to land-use planning, in which CD network patterns are examined and key actors are identified. For better conservation outcomes of CD, we recommend using network patterns to guide strategies for outreach and information dissemination, and engaging with highly connected actor types to encourage widespread adoption of best practices for CD design and stewardship.

  6. Conservative treatment of sciatica : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroomen, PCAJ; de Krom, MCTFM; Slofstra, PD; Knottnerus, JA

    2000-01-01

    Most patients with sciatica (often caused by disc herniations) are managed conservatively at first. The natural course seems to be favorable. The additional value of many conservative therapies remains controversial. Because a systematic review of the conservative treatment of sciatica is lacking,

  7. Wildlife Conservation Society: Myanmar Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) is one of the world's leading NGOS involved in conserving wildlife and ecosystems throughout the world through research, training and education. WCS Myamar Program is trying its best to carry out wide-ranging activities in order to achieve the goal of effective conservation of the flora and fauna of the country

  8. Water Conservation Education with a Rainfall Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Hans; Kessen, Shelly

    1997-01-01

    Describes a program in which a rainfall simulator was used to promote water conservation by showing water infiltration, water runoff, and soil erosion. The demonstrations provided a good background for the discussion of issues such as water conservation, crop rotation, and conservation tillage practices. The program raised awareness of…

  9. Robust network design for multispecies conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan Le Bras; Bistra Dilkina; Yexiang Xue; Carla P. Gomes; Kevin S. McKelvey; Michael K. Schwartz; Claire A. Montgomery

    2013-01-01

    Our work is motivated by an important network design application in computational sustainability concerning wildlife conservation. In the face of human development and climate change, it is important that conservation plans for protecting landscape connectivity exhibit certain level of robustness. While previous work has focused on conservation strategies that result...

  10. 7 CFR 631.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 631.9 Section 631.9 Agriculture... plan. (a) An applicant is responsible for developing a conservation plan, in cooperation with the conservation district, that protects the resource base in a manner acceptable to NRCS. This plan will be used...

  11. Valuation of nature in conservation and restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, JAA; van der Windt, HJ; Keulartz, J

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  12. Valuation of Nature in Conservation and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulartz, F.W.J.; Swart, S.; Windt, v.d. H.

    2001-01-01

    Valuation of nature is an important aspect of nature conservation and restoration. Understanding valuation in a broad sense may contribute to conservation strategies since it may lead to better support from society. In this article we propose a model of valuation with respect to conservation and

  13. 75 FR 18472 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... Initiative AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural Resources Conservation Service, Department of... Energy Act of 2008 (2008 Act) establishes the Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative (CCPI) by... of Agriculture (USDA). The CCPI is a voluntary conservation initiative that enables the use of...

  14. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  15. Space Detectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka, Steph; Saraiva, Jose; Doran, Rosa

    2017-04-01

    NUCLIO is a Portuguese non-profit organization with a strong record of investing in science education and outreach. We have developed and implemented many activities mostly directed to a young audience, in a bid to awaken and reinforce the interest that young people devote to Astronomy and all things spatial. In this framework, we have created a week-long program called Space Detectives, supported by the Municipality of Cascais, based on a story-line that provided a number of challenges and opportunities for learning matters as diverse as the electro-magnetic spectrum, means of communication, space travel, the martian environment, coding and robotics. We report on the first session that took place in December 2016. We had as participants several kids aged 9 to 12, with a mixed background in terms of interest in the sciences. Their response varied from enthusiastic to somewhat less interested, depending on the nature of the subject and the way it was presented - a reaction not necessarily related to its complexity. This week was taken as something of a trial run, in preparation for the European Commission- funded project "Stories of Tomorrow", to be implemented in schools. The individual activities and the way they were related to the story-line, as well as the smooth transition from one to the next, were subject to an analysis that will allow for improvements in the next installments of this program. We believe this is an excellent approach to the goals of using Space and Astronomy as an anchor for generating and keeping interest in the scientific areas, and of finding new and richer ways of learning.

  16. Space polypropulsion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kellett, BJ

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available understandably, fallen by the wayside. NASAs putative atom bomb propelled mission, coincidently also baptized ORION, was also curtailed. And last of all, the use of lasers for propulsion remains firmly “stuck in the doldrums.” This mode of access to space...) Except for LOX, very polluting. V. high ζ Launch costs: $20,000/kg. Gas guns. 1 1-4 km/s Most of the system mass stays on the ground. Recoil problems. Large NASA gas gun project abandoned. (too many “g’s”) E-M guns: rail/coil. 1.5 1-10 km...

  17. Space Technospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Steklov, A. F.; Primak, N. V.

    2000-01-01

    Two main tendencies of making the Solar System habitable are regarding nowadays: (1) making objects of the Solar System habitable; and (2) making the space of the Solar System habitable. We think that it's better to combine them. We should dezine and build settlements ('technospheres') on such objects as asteroids and comets, using their resources. That is, it is necessary to create 'space technospheres' - a long-termed human settlements in the space. To save energy resources it is necessary to use Near-Earth asteroids enriched with water ice (i. e. extinguished comets) with Near-Earth orbits. To realize listed conceptions it is necessary to decrease (up to 100 times) the cost price of the long-termed settlements. That's why even average UN country will be able to create it's own space house - artificial planet ('technosphere') and maintain life activities there. About 50-100 such artificial planets will represent the future civilization of our Solar System. At the same time Earth will stay basic, maternal planet. There is an interesting problem of correcting orbits of that objects. Orbits can be changed into circular or elongated to make them comfortable for living activities of 5000-10000 settlers, and to maintain connection with maternal planet. Technospheres with the elongated orbits are more advantageous to assimilate the Solar System. While technospheres with circular orbits suit to the industrial cycle with certain specialization. The specialization of the technosphere will depend on mine-workings and/or chosen high-technology industrial process. Because it is profitable to convert raw materials at the technosphere and then to transport finished products to the maternal planet. It worth to be mentioned that because of the low gravitation and changed life cycle technosphere settlers, new 'Columb' of the Solar System will transform into new mankind. It will happen though it is difficult to imaging this. Because long ago, when fish left the ocean, they didn

  18. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  19. Space Pharmacology

    CERN Document Server

    Wotring, Virginia E

    2012-01-01

    Space Pharmacology” is a review of the current knowledge regarding the use of pharmaceuticals during spaceflights. It is a comprehensive review of the literature, addressing each area of pharmacokinetics and each major physiological system in turn. Every section begins with a topic overview, and is followed by a discussion of published data from spaceflight, and from ground experiments meant to model the spaceflight situation. Includes a discussion looking forward to the new medical challenges we are likely to face on longer duration exploration missions. This book is a snapshot of our current knowledge that also highlights areas of unknown.

  20. Land Management Restrictions and Options for Change in Perpetual Conservation Easements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  1. Quantifying solute transport processes: are chemically "conservative" tracers electrically conservative?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Kamini; Li, Li; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Regberg, Aaron B.

    2012-01-01

    The concept of a nonreactive or conservative tracer, commonly invoked in investigations of solute transport, requires additional study in the context of electrical geophysical monitoring. Tracers that are commonly considered conservative may undergo reactive processes, such as ion exchange, thus changing the aqueous composition of the system. As a result, the measured electrical conductivity may reflect not only solute transport but also reactive processes. We have evaluated the impacts of ion exchange reactions, rate-limited mass transfer, and surface conduction on quantifying tracer mass, mean arrival time, and temporal variance in laboratory-scale column experiments. Numerical examples showed that (1) ion exchange can lead to resistivity-estimated tracer mass, velocity, and dispersivity that may be inaccurate; (2) mass transfer leads to an overestimate in the mobile tracer mass and an underestimate in velocity when using electrical methods; and (3) surface conductance does not notably affect estimated moments when high-concentration tracers are used, although this phenomenon may be important at low concentrations or in sediments with high and/or spatially variable cation-exchange capacity. In all cases, colocated groundwater concentration measurements are of high importance for interpreting geophysical data with respect to the controlling transport processes of interest.

  2. Cultivating creativity in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Clare E; Pinsky, Malin L; Ryan, Maureen E; Souther, Sara; Terrell, Kimberly A

    2014-04-01

    Conservation practitioners and scientists are often faced with seemingly intractable problems in which traditional approaches fail. While other sectors (e.g., business) frequently emphasize creative thinking to overcome complex challenges, creativity is rarely identified as an essential skill for conservationists. Yet more creative approaches are urgently needed in the effort to sustain Earth's biodiversity. We identified 4 strategies to develop skills in creative thinking and discuss underlying research and examples supporting each strategy. First, by breaking down barriers between disciplines and surrounding oneself with unfamiliar people, concepts, and perspectives, one can expand base knowledge and experiences and increase the potential for new combinations of ideas. Second, by meeting people where they are (both literally and figuratively), one exposes oneself to new environments and perspectives, which again broadens experiences and increases ability to communicate effectively with stakeholders. Third, by embracing risk responsibly, one is more likely to develop new, nontraditional solutions and be open to high-impact outcomes. Finally, by following a cycle of learning, struggle, and reflection, one can trigger neurophysiological changes that allow the brain to become more creative. Creativity is a learned trait, rather than an innate skill. It can be actively developed at both the individual and institutional levels, and learning to navigate the relevant social and practical barriers is key to the process. To maximize the success of conservation in the face of escalating challenges, one must take advantage of what has been learned from other disciplines and foster creativity as both a professional skill and an essential component of career training and individual development. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Conservation physiology of animal migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  4. Water Conservation and Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2016-12-01

    Water has played a vital role in the progress of human civilization throughout history. Both agriculture based economics as well as industry based economics totally rely upon water for survival and prosperity. Water could be a limiting factor in dictating day-to-day human activities and as such one should learn to live within the limits of available natural resources. Most of the water on this earth is either salty or undrinkable. Only one percent of world's water is available for all the needs of human civilization. This includes human personal household needs, community activities, agriculture, industry, plant and animal life sustenance. The supply of usable fresh water is finite and the per capita consumption of fresh water needs to be reduced in particularly in some selected regions of this world. The United States consumes about 450 billion gallons of water every day. The U.S. daily average of water pumped by public water supply systems is 185 gallons per person. The biggest water gobbler in a household is the lawn. Typically, at least 50% of water consumed by households is used outdoors. Even inside a house, bathroom facilities claim nearly 75% of the water used. Here is a short list of economic Incentives that may help water conservation. (1) Providing rebates, refunds or other economic incentives to those consumers that are willing to change to modern technological methods. Examples include, but not limited to energy efficient washing machines, low-flush toilets and improved shower head designs. (2) Communities should provide economic incentives to limit the type and size of landscaping. (3) Need, necessity and nature of outdoor water use could be restricted whenever possible. (4) Sprinkler ban may be deemed appropriate in extreme cases. (5) Set up hotlines that can help penalize those that ignore water conservation guidelines. (6) Incorporating water conservation monitors. References: http://www.nrdc.org/water/http://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sscwd.org/tips.html

  5. Conservation and the botanist effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrends, Antje; Rahbek, Carsten; Bulling, Mark T.

    2011-01-01

    and reliability of inventories. We tested this hypothesis with tropical tree records (n = 24,024) collected from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, between 1980 and 2007 by 13 botanists, whose collections represent 80% of the total plant records for this region. Our results show that botanists with practical...... training in tropical plant identification record both more species and more species of conservation concern (20 more species, two more endemic and one more threatened species per 250 specimens) than untrained botanists. Training and the number of person-days in the field explained 96% of the variation...

  6. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  7. The question of baryon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1983-01-01

    A modern version of the law of baryon conservation might read: the net number of baryons (ΣB-ΣB-bar) does not change spontaneously or in any known interactions. For a long time it was believed that protons are absolutely stable, and neutrons sufficiently strongly bound by nuclei were also considered absolutely stable. Then a few years ago the grand unified theories were proposed in which strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions are combined, leading to the possibility that protons decay. Their lifetime is predictable in some of these theories. An experiment by the Irvine-Michigan-Brookhaven Collaboration to detect proton decays is described. (UK)

  8. Breast conserving surgery versus mastectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peer; Carstensen, Stina Lyck; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2018-01-01

    Background: Observational studies have pointed at a better survival after breast conserving surgery (BCS) compared with mastectomy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether this remains true when more extensive tumor characteristics and treatment data were included. Methods: The cohort...... included patients registered after primary surgery for early invasive breast cancer in the database of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group, in the period 1995–2012. The cohort was divided into three groups: (i) patients who primarily had a mastectomy, (ii) patients treated by BCS, and (iii) patients...

  9. Introduction: Affective Ecologies and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neera M Singh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Engaging the affective and materialist turn in the social sciences, this special section elaborates on how analytical attention on affect and affective relations is central to understanding human-nature relations and to conservation interventions. The contributors to this section use conceptual resources from affect theory, new materialism, and indigenous ontologies to illustrate the practical significance of paying attention to affect in understanding nature-society relations. This introduction reviews these conceptual resources to make a case for affective political ecology.

  10. Energy audit for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetkar, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Energy audit is a very effective management tool for betterment of plant performance. The energy audit has a problem solving approach rather than a fault finding technique. The energy conservation is a rational use of energy. It has been the experience of the developed countries that energy is one issue which results into cost savings with relatively much less efforts/cost in comparison with other resources used in production, development and adoption of energy efficiency equipment and practices in most of production process has been the result of same technique. (author). 1 tab

  11. A Cultural Conscience for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Caroline; Burnham, Dawn; Macdonald, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary This opinion piece explores how implementing a species royalty for the use of animal symbolism in affluent cultural economies could revolutionise conservation funding. A revenue revolution of this scale is urgently necessary to confront the sixth mass extinction that the planet is now facing. But such a revolution can only occur if the approach to conservation now evolves quickly across disciplines, continents, cultures and economies. This piece is a call to action for research-, culture-, and business-communities to implement a new ethical phase in economic policy that recognises the global cultural debt to the world’s most charismatic wildlife species. Abstract On 2 July 2015, the killing of a lion nicknamed “Cecil” prompted the largest global reaction in the history of wildlife conservation. In response to this, it is propitious to consider the ways in which this moment can be developed into a financial movement to transform the conservation of species such as the lion that hold cultural significance and sentiment but whose numbers in the wild are dwindling dangerously. This provocative piece explores how a species royalty could be used effectively by drawing revenue from the heavy symbolic use of charismatic animals in affluent economies. This would, in turn, reduce strain on limited government funds in threatened animals’ native homelands. Three potential areas of lucrative animal symbolism—fashion, sports mascots, and national animals—provide examples of the kind of revenue that could be created from a species royalty. These examples also demonstrate how this royalty could prove to be a desirable means by which both corporations and consumers could positively develop their desired selves while simultaneously contributing to a relevant and urgent cause. These examples intend to ignite a multi-disciplinary conversation on the global cultural economy’s use of endangered species symbols. An overhaul in perspective and practice is

  12. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology...... to different extents, ranging from no explicit consideration to detailed physiological mechanisms, and across scales from a single fish to global fishery resources. Biologists from different sub-disciplines are collaborating to rise to the challenge of projecting future changes in distribution and productivity...

  13. Axelrod Model with Extended Conservativeness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybiec, Bartłomiej

    2012-11-01

    Similarity of opinions and memory about recent interactions are two main factors determining likelihood of social contacts. Here, we explore the Axelrod model with an extended conservativeness which incorporates not only similarity between individuals but also a preference to the last source of accepted information. The additional preference given to the last source of information increases the initial decay of the number of ideas in the system, changes the character of the phase transition between homogeneous and heterogeneous final states and could increase the number of stable regions (clusters) in the final state.

  14. On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1978-01-01

    The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws

  15. 75 FR 11194 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... meetings for the San Diego County Water Authority's (Water Authority/Applicant) draft Natural Communities Conservation Plan (NCCP)/Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) prepared in application to us for an incidental take...

  16. 77 FR 59712 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... amended energy conservation standards, DOE conducted a market survey using all available public... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers AGENCY: Office of Energy... establish amended energy conservation standards for dishwashers in the Federal Register on May 30, 2012. DOE...

  17. Beam phase space and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buon, J.

    1992-02-01

    The classical and elementary results for canonical phase space, the Liouville theorem and the beam emittance are reviewed. Then, the importance of phase portraits to obtain a geometrical description of motion is emphasized, with examples in accelerator physics. Finally, a statistical point of view is used to define beam emittance, to study its law of approximate conservation, with three particular examples, and to introduce a beam envelope-ellipse and the β-function, emphasing the statistical features of its properties. (author) 14 refs.; 11 figs

  18. Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma: Report of a case managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare cause of acute spinal cord compression. A 25-year-old male presented with a history of sudden onset of complete quadriplegia with sensory loss below the neck along with loss of bowel and bladder control. He had no history of any constitutional symptoms. He reported 10 days later. He was managed conservatively and after two weeks of intensive rehabilitation he had complete neural recovery. The spontaneous recovery of neurological impairment is attributed to the spreading of the hematoma throughout the epidural space, thus decreasing the pressure with partial neural recovery. Conservative treatment is a fair option in young patients who present late and show neurological improvement. The neurological status on presentation will guide the further approach to management.

  19. Averaged multivalued solutions and time discretization for conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenier, Y.

    1985-01-01

    It is noted that the correct shock solutions can be approximated by averaging in some sense the multivalued solution given by the method of characteristics for the nonlinear scalar conservation law (NSCL). A time discretization for the NSCL equation based on this principle is considered. An equivalent analytical formulation is shown to lead quite easily to a convergence result, and a third formulation is introduced which can be generalized for the systems of conservation laws. Various numerical schemes are constructed from the proposed time discretization. The first family of schemes is obtained by using a spatial grid and projecting the results of the time discretization. Many known schemes are then recognized (mainly schemes by Osher, Roe, and LeVeque). A second way to discretize leads to a particle scheme without space grid, which is very efficient (at least in the scalar case). Finally, a close relationship between the proposed method and the Boltzmann type schemes is established. 14 references

  20. Conservation archaeogenomics: ancient DNA and biodiversity in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Courtney A; Rick, Torben C; Fleischer, Robert C; Maldonado, Jesús E

    2015-09-01

    There is growing consensus that we have entered the Anthropocene, a geologic epoch characterized by human domination of the ecosystems of the Earth. With the future uncertain, we are faced with understanding how global biodiversity will respond to anthropogenic perturbations. The archaeological record provides perspective on human-environment relations through time and across space. Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses of plant and animal remains from archaeological sites are particularly useful for understanding past human-environment interactions, which can help guide conservation decisions during the environmental changes of the Anthropocene. Here, we define the emerging field of conservation archaeogenomics, which integrates archaeological and genomic data to generate baselines or benchmarks for scientists, managers, and policy-makers by evaluating climatic and human impacts on past, present, and future biodiversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Propagation of multidimensional nonlinear waves and kinematical conservation laws

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Phoolan

    2017-01-01

    This book formulates the kinematical conservation laws (KCL), analyses them and presents their applications to various problems in physics. Finally, it addresses one of the most challenging problems in fluid dynamics: finding successive positions of a curved shock front. The topics discussed are the outcome of collaborative work that was carried out mainly at the Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru, India. The theory presented in the book is supported by referring to extensive numerical results. The book is organised into ten chapters. Chapters 1–4 offer a summary of and briefly discuss the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations and conservation laws. Formulation of equations of a weakly nonlinear wavefront and those of a shock front are briefly explained in Chapter 5, while Chapter 6 addresses KCL theory in space of arbitrary dimensions. The remaining chapters examine various analyses and applications of KCL equations ending in the ultimate goal-propagation of a three-dimensional curved sho...

  2. Adapting the bioblitz to meet conservation needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sophie S; Pauly, Gregory B; Moore, James; Fraga, Naomi S; Knapp, John J; Principe, Zachary; Brown, Brian V; Randall, John M; Cohen, Brian S; Wake, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    When conservation strategies require new, field-based information, practitioners must find the best ways to rapidly deliver high-quality survey data. To address this challenge, several rapid-assessment approaches have been developed since the early 1990s. These typically involve large areas, take many months to complete, and are not appropriate when conservation-relevant survey data are urgently needed for a specific locale. In contrast, bioblitzes are designed for quick collection of site-specific survey data. Although bioblitzes are commonly used to achieve educational or public-engagement goals, conservation practitioners are increasingly using a modified bioblitz approach to generate conservation-relevant data while simultaneously enhancing research capacity and building working partnerships focused on conservation concerns. We term these modified events expert bioblitzes. Several expert bioblitzes have taken place on lands of conservation concern in Southern California and have involved collaborative efforts of government agencies, nonprofit organizations, botanic gardens, museums, and universities. The results of expert bioblitzes directly informed on-the-ground conservation and decision-making; increased capacity for rapid deployment of expert bioblitzes in the future; and fostered collaboration and communication among taxonomically and institutionally diverse experts. As research and conservation funding becomes increasingly scarce, expert bioblitzes can play an increasingly important role in biodiversity conservation. © 2018 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Credibility and advocacy in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Cristi C.; Peterson, Tarla Rai; Banerjee, Paulami

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Conservation policy sits at the nexus of natural science and politics. On the one hand, conservation scientists strive to maintain scientific credibility by emphasizing that their research findings are the result of disinterested observations of reality. On the other hand, conservation scientists are committed to conservation even if they do not advocate a particular policy. The professional conservation literature offers guidance on negotiating the relationship between scientific objectivity and political advocacy without damaging conservation science's credibility. The value of this guidance, however, may be restricted by limited recognition of credibility's multidimensionality and emergent nature: it emerges through perceptions of expertise, goodwill, and trustworthiness. We used content analysis of the literature to determine how credibility is framed in conservation science as it relates to apparent contradictions between science and advocacy. Credibility typically was framed as a static entity lacking dimensionality. Authors identified expertise or trustworthiness as important, but rarely mentioned goodwill. They usually did not identify expertise, goodwill, or trustworthiness as dimensions of credibility or recognize interactions among these 3 dimensions of credibility. This oversimplification may limit the ability of conservation scientists to contribute to biodiversity conservation. Accounting for the emergent quality and multidimensionality of credibility should enable conservation scientists to advance biodiversity conservation more effectively. PMID:26041036

  4. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Richard B.; Russell, Diane; West, Paige; Brosius, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss various vantage points gained through the authors’ experience of approaching conservation through a “cultural lens.” We then draw out more general concerns that many anthropologists hold with respect to conservation, summarizing and commenting on the work of the Conservation and Community Working Group within the Anthropology and Environment Section of the American Anthropological Association. Here we focus on both critiques and contributions the discipline of anthropology makes with regard to conservation, and show how anthropologists are moving beyond conservation critiques to engage actively with conservation practice and policy. We conclude with reflections on the possibilities for enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue and practice through reflexive questioning, the adoption of disciplinary humility, and the realization that “cross-border” collaboration among conservation scholars and practitioners can strengthen the political will necessary to stem the growing commoditization and ensuing degradation of the earth’s ecosystems.

  5. Creating biodiversity partnerships: The Nature Conservancy's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawhill, John C.

    1996-11-01

    The Nature Conservancy is an international organization dedicated to the mission of conserving biodiversity throughout the world. By working in a nonconfrontational manner, an approach that has promoted both government and corporate sponsorship of its activities, The Nature Conservancy has developed symbiotic relationships with many electric utility companies. Drawing on the organization's experiences, and the experiences of the author as the President and Chief Executive Officer of The Nature Conservancy, five broad areas of cooperation between conservation organizations and the utility industry are explored: landmanagement agreements, mitigation projects, conflictavoidance programs, program support, and volunteer activities. The paper is concluded with comments on the future trends of biodiversity conservation, challenging the electric utility industry to become involved with conservation efforts by forming cooperative partnerships.

  6. Conservative treatment of patellofemoral subluxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, J H

    1989-04-01

    As pointed out in the preface of this book, patellofemoral subluxation is probably the most common knee problem seen in many orthopedists' offices today. Whereas the other authors have emphasized the anatomy and diagnosis, this article should serve as a dry but basic instruction on the exercise program that has been used in our clinic. We have had a success rate with this program of approximately 80 per cent. Certainly not all of the 20 per cent that fail require surgery. The classic exercises are quadricep sets, straight leg raises, hip abductors, hip adductors, hip flexors, and hamstring stretches, which have endured the test of time. The prevention of flexion extension activity, such as running the stadium stairs in order to strengthen the quadriceps of the patient with patellofemoral subluxation should be emphasized. Complications of conservative treatment, such as low back pain, iliopsoas tendinitis, and muscle soreness and the treatment of these is described. Finally, the importance of stretching the hamstring muscles is a cornerstone in the treatment of patellofemoral problems. Likewise, a tight IT band can put abnormal stress on the lateral aspect of the patella. In this article I have tried to point out our approach to conservative treatment of patellofemoral subluxation.

  7. Conservation and the Colombian Amazonian

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defler, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Colombia is a special country in terms of its biological wealth, for it has been classified it as one of the three countries of the world with more biodiversity after Brazil and Indonesia; in the number of species of organisms that they are inside the national limits and it surpasses to gigantic countries as Canada, the United States and Russia. Colombia, for its characteristic biotic, is in the entire world the first one in number of species of birds, of frogs and of orchids and probably second in the world (after Brazil) in the number of species of plants superiors (angiosperms) and species of palms; also, worldwide it is classified to the country among the first ones in the number of species of mammals, reptiles, fish of fresh water and insects. This article, it seeks to discuss the problem of the conservation in the Colombian Amazonian, evaluating the necessities for the future and pointing out some of the current problems that impede a healthy conservation

  8. Wildlife conservation and reproductive cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, William V; Pickard, Amanda R; Prather, Randall S

    2004-03-01

    Reproductive cloning, or the production of offspring by nuclear transfer, is often regarded as having potential for conserving endangered species of wildlife. Currently, however, low success rates for reproductive cloning limit the practical application of this technique to experimental use and proof of principle investigations. In this review, we consider how cloning may contribute to wildlife conservation strategies. The cloning of endangered mammals presents practical problems, many of which stem from the paucity of knowledge about their basic reproductive biology. However, situations may arise where resources could be targeted at recovering lost or under-represented genetic lines; these could then contribute to the future fitness of the population. Approaches of this type would be preferable to the indiscriminate generation of large numbers of identical individuals. Applying cloning technology to non-mammalian vertebrates may be more practical than attempting to use conventional reproductive technologies. As the scientific background to cloning technology was pioneered using amphibians, it may be possible to breed imminently threatened amphibians, or even restore extinct amphibian species, by the use of cloning. In this respect species with external embryonic development may have an advantage over mammals as developmental abnormalities associated with inappropriate embryonic reprogramming would not be relevant.

  9. Trace spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fajstrup, Lisbeth; Goubault, Eric; Haucourt, Emmanuel

    2012-01-01

    in the interleaving semantics of a concurrent program, but rather some equivalence classes. The purpose of this paper is to describe a new algorithm to compute such equivalence classes, and a representative per class, which is based on ideas originating in algebraic topology. We introduce a geometric semantics...... of concurrent languages, where programs are interpreted as directed topological spaces, and study its properties in order to devise an algorithm for computing dihomotopy classes of execution paths. In particular, our algorithm is able to compute a control-flow graph for concurrent programs, possibly containing...... loops, which is “as reduced as possible” in the sense that it generates traces modulo equivalence. A preliminary implementation was achieved, showing promising results towards efficient methods to analyze concurrent programs, with very promising results compared to partial-order reduction techniques....

  10. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  11. Conservation of Paintings. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panczyk, E.

    2011-01-01

    Ever since Martin Heinrich Klaproth (1743-1817) performed a chemical analysis of the terracotta from Tiberius's villa on the island of Capri for the first time at the end of the eighteenth century, more and more sensitive and mutually complementary physicochemical methods are being developed to study works of art and archaeological artefacts. Technological studies, studies of manufacturing techniques, of the appearance of ageing and methods for determining the age of objects are performed, firstly, to determine the authenticity of works of art, secondly, to obtain information on the technology and techniques that were used by a given master, and, thirdly, to indicate the optimum conservation techniques that should be used during renovation and conservation work of a given object. The selection of the research method used must each time be well thought out, taking into consideration mainly the purpose of the test and the nature of the tested object. For a long time now, nuclear techniques have been considered to be one of the most important research techniques for identifying works of art, due to their great sensitivity and the possibility of discovering features that are invisible to the naked eye. These methods can generally be divided into three categories: (i) The first category covers various radiography techniques such as X ray radiography, xeroradiography, computed tomography, thermal neutron induced autoradiography, X ray induced autoelectronography, gamma radiography and neutronography. These make it possible to obtain information on the internal construction of an object, they do not require that samples be collected from the object and, in this sense, are nondestructive methods. The information obtained from this type of research often comprises basic information on the object which may be expanded and supplemented using other methods. (ii) The second category includes all the analytical techniques using nuclear techniques which allow microelements to be

  12. Superfield Lax formalism of supersymmetric sigma model on symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, U.; Hassan, M.

    2006-01-01

    We present a superfield Lax formalism of the superspace sigma model based on the target space G/H and show that a one-parameter family of flat superfield connections exists if the target space G/H is a symmetric space. The formalism has been related to the existence of an infinite family of local and non-local superfield conserved quantities. A few examples have been given to illustrate the results. (orig.)

  13. Contractive relaxation systems and interacting particles for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakis, M.A.; Tzavaras, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a class of semi linear hyperbolic systems with relaxation that are contractive in the L 1 -norm and admit invariant regions. We show that, as the relaxation parameter ξ goes to zero, their solutions converge to a weak solution of the scalar multidimensional conversation law that satisfies the Kruzhkov conditions. In the case of one space dimension, we propose certain interacting particle systems, whose mesoscopic limit is the systems with relaxation and their macroscopic dynamics is described by entropy solutions of a scalar conservation law. (author)

  14. Multi-component WKI equations and their conservation laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu Changzheng [Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China) and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)]. E-mail: qu_changzheng@hotmail.com; Yao Ruoxia [Department of Computer Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Department of Computer Sciences, Weinan Teacher' s College, Weinan 715500 (China); Liu Ruochen [Department of Mathematics, Northwest University, Xi' an 710069 (China)

    2004-10-25

    In this Letter, a two-component WKI equation is obtained by using the fact that when curvature and torsion of a space curve satisfy the vector modified KdV equation, a graph of the curve satisfies the two-component WKI equation, which is a natural generalization to the WKI equation. It is shown that the two-component WKI equation can be solved in terms of the extended WKI scheme, and it admits an infinite number of conservation laws. In the same vein, a n-component generalization to the WKI equation is proposed.

  15. Conformal conservation laws for second-order scalar fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blakeskee, J.S.; Logan, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    It is considered an action integral over space-time whose Lagrangian depends upon a scalar field an upon derivatives of the field function up to second order. From invariance identities obtained by the authors in an earlier work it is shown how a new proof of Noether's theorem for this second-order problem follows in the multiple integral case. Finally, conservation laws are written down in the case that the given action integral be invariant under the fifteen-parameter special conformal group

  16. Some applications of SIMS in conservation science, archaeometry and cosmochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhail, D.S.

    2006-01-01

    Some applications of SIMS in conservation science, archaeometry and cosmochemistry are described. Ultra-low energy SIMS depth profiling and TOF-SIMS imaging are used to study the corrosion of low-lime glass vessels from the V and A museum. Static SIMS and focused ion beam (FIB) SIMS are used to study the effects of laser cleaning on museum artefacts. Archaeological glass from Raqqa, Syria is studied with FIB-SIMS and micrometeorite impacts on space vessels are studied with FIB and FIB-SIMS. The new analytical challenges provided to the SIMS community by these materials are presented and the ethical issues associated with sampling and destructive analysis discussed

  17. Systems of conservation laws with third-order Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferapontov, Evgeny V.; Pavlov, Maxim V.; Vitolo, Raffaele F.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate n-component systems of conservation laws that possess third-order Hamiltonian structures of differential-geometric type. The classification of such systems is reduced to the projective classification of linear congruences of lines in P^{n+2} satisfying additional geometric constraints. Algebraically, the problem can be reformulated as follows: for a vector space W of dimension n+2 , classify n-tuples of skew-symmetric 2-forms A^{α } \\in Λ ^2(W) such that φ _{β γ }A^{β }\\wedge A^{γ }=0, for some non-degenerate symmetric φ.

  18. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  19. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  20. Conservation of resources. [16 papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The book is a collection of 16 papers presented at the Annual Chemical Congress which give a very broad picture of the problems of conservation both in the United Kingdom and in the world as a whole. The papers consider energy requirements of different communities and the wide disparity between the demands of the industrialized and Third World countries; the need for economy and the importance in due course of finding renewable forms of energy; very substantial losses of energy that take place when oil and coal are converted into electricity or when sources of energy have to be transported. The problems of nuclear energy are discussed and, in a consideration of the involvement of the chemical industry in energy, proposals are made for reducing the input of energy in the manufacture of chemicals. (MCW)

  1. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  2. [Extensive conservative treatment of obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Caroline; Laederach, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    The treatment of obesity is complex due to the multifactorial etiology. A modern therapy concept must therefore be tailored to the individual needs and problems and depends on various factors such as degree of obesity, the presence of physical complications, psychological co-morbidities, any treatment measures the patient underwent up to now as well as on motivational factors. Before deciding on a therapeutic measure a structured multidisciplinary cooperation is essential including psychosomatic medicine/psychiatry/psychotherapy, endocrinology, sports medicine, nutritional medicine and surgery as well. The treatment must be carried out in a multidisciplinary team and includes an adequate therapy of comorbidities and sometimes a psychopharmacological support. The success of a conservative treatment of obesity is remarkable and long-lasting and can be straightforwardly compared to bariatric surgery in financial as well as ethical terms, although for patients and their physicians the latter often carries the allure of quick success.

  3. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  4. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  5. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  6. Exactly energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapenta, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.lapenta@kuleuven.be

    2017-04-01

    We report a new particle in cell (PIC) method based on the semi-implicit approach. The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its semi-implicit predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. Recent research has presented fully implicit methods where energy conservation is obtained as part of a non-linear iteration procedure. The new method (referred to as Energy Conserving Semi-Implicit Method, ECSIM), instead, does not require any non-linear iteration and its computational cycle is similar to that of explicit PIC. The properties of the new method are: i) it conserves energy exactly to round-off for any time step or grid spacing; ii) it is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency and allowing the user to select any desired time step; iii) it eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length; iv) the particle mover has a computational complexity identical to that of the explicit PIC, only the field solver has an increased computational cost. The new ECSIM is tested in a number of benchmarks where accuracy and computational performance are tested. - Highlights: • We present a new fully energy conserving semi-implicit particle in cell (PIC) method based on the implicit moment method (IMM). The new method is called Energy Conserving Implicit Moment Method (ECIMM). • The novelty of the new method is that unlike any of its predecessors at the same time it retains the explicit computational cycle and conserves energy exactly. • The new method is unconditionally stable in time, freeing the user from the need to resolve the electron plasma frequency. • The new method eliminates the constraint of the finite grid instability, allowing the user to select any desired resolution without being forced to resolve the Debye length. • These

  7. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Wang Jian-Bo; Chen Xiang-Wei; Xie Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system. (general)

  8. Space Science in Action: Space Exploration [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    In this videotape recording, students learn about the human quest to discover what is out in space. Students see the challenges and benefits of space exploration including the development of rocket science, a look back at the space race, and a history of manned space travel. A special section on the Saturn V rocket gives students insight into the…

  9. Large size space construction for space exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondyurin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Space exploitation is impossible without large space structures. We need to make sufficient large volume of pressurized protecting frames for crew, passengers, space processing equipment, & etc. We have to be unlimited in space. Now the size and mass of space constructions are limited by possibility of a launch vehicle. It limits our future in exploitation of space by humans and in development of space industry. Large-size space construction can be made with using of the curing technology of the fibers-filled composites and a reactionable matrix applied directly in free space. For curing the fabric impregnated with a liquid matrix (prepreg) is prepared in terrestrial conditions and shipped in a container to orbit. In due time the prepreg is unfolded by inflating. After polymerization reaction, the durable construction can be fitted out with air, apparatus and life support systems. Our experimental studies of the curing processes in the simulated free space environment showed that the curing of composite in free space is possible. The large-size space construction can be developed. A project of space station, Moon base, Mars base, mining station, interplanet space ship, telecommunication station, space observatory, space factory, antenna dish, radiation shield, solar sail is proposed and overviewed. The study was supported by Humboldt Foundation, ESA (contract 17083/03/NL/SFe), NASA program of the stratospheric balloons and RFBR grants (05-08-18277, 12-08-00970 and 14-08-96011).

  10. Realizing spaces as path-component spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Brazas, Jeremy

    2018-01-01

    The path component space of a topological space $X$ is the quotient space $\\pi_0(X)$ whose points are the path components of $X$. We show that every Tychonoff space $X$ is the path-component space of a Tychonoff space $Y$ of weight $w(Y)=w(X)$ such that the natural quotient map $Y\\to \\pi_0(Y)=X$ is a perfect map. Hence, many topological properties of $X$ transfer to $Y$. We apply this result to construct a compact space $X\\subset \\mathbb{R}^3$ for which the fundamental group $\\pi_1(X,x_0)$ is...

  11. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  12. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: CONSERVATION GENETICS OF FRESHWATER ORGANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    WEISS S.

    2005-01-01

    This manuscript serves as a summary of both the importance of genetics in conservation, and the range of methodological approaches available. Two somewhat distinct realms of conservation genetics are outlined. The first theoretically rests upon the field of population genetics, and primarily concerns itself with the conservation of genetic diversity within and among populations, both in the wild and captivity. Basic concepts such as heterozygosity, genetic drift, and effective population size...

  13. Nature conservation guidelines for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    English Nature commissions this report in order to identify the likely nature conservation implications of renewable energy developments and for wind farm proposals in particular, to give guidance on siting criteria to minimise the nature conservation impact. The report is intended to be of use to developers, local planning authority staff and other interested parties in considering a renewable energy project. In consequence, the report concentrates on planning and nature conservation matters and outlines technical issues where relevant. (UK)

  14. Perverse Market Outcomes from Biodiversity Conservation Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, F.K.S.; Carrasco, L.R.; McHardy, J.; Edwards, D.P.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation interventions are being implemented at various spatial scales to reduce the impacts of rising global population and affluence on biodiversity and ecosystems. While the direct impacts of these conservation efforts are considered, the unintended consequences brought about by market feedback effects are often overlooked. Perverse market outcomes could result in reduced or even reversed net impacts of conservation efforts. We develop an economic framework to describe how the intended...

  15. Parity-non-conserving nuclear forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1979-01-01

    Theoretical and phenomenological approaches to parity-non-conserving nuclear forces are reviewed. Recent developments in the calculation of weak meson-nucleon coupling constants, whose knowledge is necessary to determine theoretically the parity-non-conserving nucleon-nucleon potential, are described. The consistency of different measurements of parity-non-conserving effects is discussed and the information they provide is compared to theoretical predictions

  16. Preferred conservation policies of shark researchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, David S; Hammerschlag, Neil

    2016-08-01

    There is increasing concern about the conservation status of sharks. However, the presence of numerous different (and potentially mutually exclusive) policies complicates management implementation and public understanding of the process. We distributed an online survey to members of the largest professional shark and ray research societies to assess member knowledge of and attitudes toward different conservation policies. Questions covered society member opinions on conservation and management policies, personal histories of involvement in advocacy and management, and perceptions of the approach of conservation nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) to shark conservation. One hundred and two surveys were completed (overall response rate 21%). Respondents considered themselves knowledgeable about and actively involved in conservation and management policy; a majority believed scientists have a responsibility to advocate for conservation (75%), and majorities have sent formal public comments to policymakers (54%) and included policy suggestions in their papers (53%). They believe sustainable shark fisheries are possible, are currently happening today (in a few places), and should be the goal instead of banning fisheries. Respondents were generally less supportive of newer limit-based (i.e., policies that ban exploitation entirely without a species-specific focus) conservation policy tools, such as shark sanctuaries and bans on the sale of shark fins, than of target-based fisheries management tools (i.e., policies that allow for sustainable harvest of species whose populations can withstand it), such as fishing quotas. Respondents were generally supportive of environmental NGO efforts to conserve sharks but raised concerns about some NGOs that they perceived as using incorrect information and focusing on the wrong problems. Our results show there is an ongoing debate in shark conservation and management circles relative to environmental policy on target-based natural

  17. Conservation Through Different Lenses: Reflection, Responsibility, and the Politics of Participation in Conservation Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrash Walton, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the arenas of advocacy, politics, and self-reflection in strengthening conservation and resource management initiatives. It frames key questions that reflective conservation practitioners may address in seeking to enhance the results of conservation projects, including equity and more inclusive participation by nonprivileged groups. The essay touches on the importance of understanding conservation work within particular political and historic dynamics, including the need to understand non-Western and/or indigenous or traditional perspectives on conservation. The author makes the case that Western or privileged conservation practitioners are uniquely situated to advocate effectively for change.

  18. Global conservation laws and femtoscopy of small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand, in detail, two-pion correlations measured in p+p and d+A collisions. In particular, one wishes to understand the femtoscopic correlations to compare to similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions. However, in the low-multiplicity final states of these systems, global conservation laws generate significant N-body correlations that project onto the two-pion space in nontrivial ways and complicate the femtoscopic analysis. We discuss a formalism to calculate and account for these correlations in collisions dominated by a single particle species (e.g., pions). We also discuss effects on two-particle correlations between nonidentical particles, the understanding of which may be important in the study of femtoscopic space-time asymmetries

  19. Reflections Around the Conservation of Sacred Thangkas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Cotte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan thangkas (Buddhist scroll paintings are created as religious ritual objects. The fact that they are mainly considered as artworks in the Western world impacts on the decisions made for their display and conservation. This article explores the current approach to thangkas in Australian public collections and compares it with the views of contemporary Tibetan Buddhism practitioners. It underlines a few misconceptions at the source of conservation decision-making, and discusses practical outcomes of integrating the sacred dimension into professional practice against the backdrop of conservation’s Codes of Ethics. Conserving living religious heritage requires that professional ethical standards are adaptable to the needs of users. Existing frameworks for the conservation of sacred objects of pre-colonised, indigenous cultures provide useful models for the conservation of thangkas. This article argues that engaging with contemporary cultural groups to conserve religious significance is part of the mission of conservators. This is viewed as an expansion of conservation practice into the social realm, in a search for purposeful conservation that establishes the social relevance of our profession.

  20. Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Information (RCRAInfo) system contains information reported to the state environmental programs on activities and cleanup...

  1. Subjective risk assessment for planning conservation projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Game, Edward T; Fitzsimons, James A; Lipsett-Moore, Geoff; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2013-01-01

    Conservation projects occur under many types of uncertainty. Where this uncertainty can affect achievement of a project’s objectives, there is risk. Understanding risks to project success should influence a range of strategic and tactical decisions in conservation, and yet, formal risk assessment rarely features in the guidance or practice of conservation planning. We describe how subjective risk analysis tools can be framed to facilitate the rapid identification and assessment of risks to conservation projects, and how this information should influence conservation planning. Our approach is illustrated with an assessment of risks to conservation success as part of a conservation plan for the work of The Nature Conservancy in northern Australia. Risks can be both internal and external to a project, and occur across environmental, social, economic and political systems. Based on the relative importance of a risk and the level of certainty in its assessment we propose a series of appropriate, project level responses including research, monitoring, and active amelioration. Explicit identification, prioritization, and where possible, management of risks are important elements of using conservation resources in an informed and accountable manner. (letter)

  2. On nonepistemic values in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgaertner, Bert; Holthuijzen, Wieteke

    2017-02-01

    Conservation biology is a uniquely interdisciplinary science with strong roots in ecology, but it also embraces a value-laden and mission-oriented framework. This combination of science and values causes conservation biology to be at the center of critique regarding the discipline's scientific credibility-especially the division between the realms of theory and practice. We identify this dichotomy between seemingly objective (fact-based) and subjective (value-laden) practices as the measure-value dichotomy, whereby measure refers to methods and analyses used in conservation biology (i.e., measuring biodiversity) and value refers to nonepistemic values. We reviewed and evaluated several landmark articles central to the foundation of conservation biology and concepts of biodiversity with respect to their attempts to separate measures and values. We argue that the measure-value dichotomy is false and that conservation biology can make progress in ways unavailable to other disciplines because its practitioners are tasked with engaging in both the realm of theory and the realm of practice. The entanglement of measures and values is by no means a weakness of conservation biology. Because central concepts such as biodiversity contain both factual and evaluative aspects, conservation biologists can make theoretical progress by examining, reviewing, and forming the values that are an integral part of those concepts. We suggest that values should be included and analyzed with respect to the methods, results, and conclusions of scientific work in conservation biology. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Technology for nature conservation: an industry perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, Lucas N

    2015-11-01

    Information age technology has the potential to change the game for conservation by continuously monitoring the pulse of the natural world. Whether or not it will depends on the ability of the conservation sector to build a community of practice, come together to define key technology challenges and work with a wide variety of partners to create, implement, and sustain solutions. I describe why these steps are necessary, outline the latest developments in the field and offer actionable ways forward for conservation agencies, universities, funding bodies, professional societies, and technology corporations to come together to realize the revolution that computational technologies can bring for biodiversity conservation.

  4. Asymptotic Conservation Laws in Classical Field Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, I.M.; Torre, C.G.

    1996-01-01

    A new, general, field theoretic approach to the derivation of asymptotic conservation laws is presented. In this approach asymptotic conservation laws are constructed directly from the field equations according to a universal prescription which does not rely upon the existence of Noether identities or any Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formalisms. The resulting general expressions of the conservation laws enjoy important invariance properties and synthesize all known asymptotic conservation laws, such as the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner energy in general relativity. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Climate change threatens European conservation areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bastos Araujo, Miguel; Alagador, Diogo; Cabeza, Mar

    2011-01-01

    Europe has the world's most extensive network of conservation areas. Conservation areas are selected without taking into account the effects of climate change. How effectively would such areas conserve biodiversity under climate change? We assess the effectiveness of protected areas and the Natura...... 2000 network in conserving a large proportion of European plant and terrestrial vertebrate species under climate change. We found that by 2080, 58 ± 2.6% of the species would lose suitable climate in protected areas, whereas losses affected 63 ± 2.1% of the species of European concern occurring...

  6. Geography of conservation spending, biodiversity, and culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClanahan, T R; Rankin, P S

    2016-10-01

    We used linear and multivariate models to examine the associations between geography, biodiversity, per capita economic output, national spending on conservation, governance, and cultural traits in 55 countries. Cultural traits and social metrics of modernization correlated positively with national spending on conservation. The global distribution of this spending culture was poorly aligned with the distribution of biodiversity. Specifically, biodiversity was greater in the tropics where cultures tended to spend relatively less on conservation and tended to have higher collectivism, formalized and hierarchical leadership, and weaker governance. Consequently, nations lacking social traits frequently associated with modernization, environmentalism, and conservation spending have the largest component of Earth's biodiversity. This has significant implications for setting policies and priorities for resource management given that biological diversity is rapidly disappearing and cultural traits change slowly. Therefore, we suggest natural resource management adapt to and use characteristics of existing social organization rather than wait for or promote social values associated with conservation spending. Supporting biocultural traditions, engaging leaders to increase conservation commitments, cross-national efforts that complement attributes of cultures, and avoiding interference with nature may work best to conserve nature in collective and hierarchical societies. Spending in modernized nations may be a symbolic response to a symptom of economic development and environmental degradation, and here conservation actions need to ensure that biodiversity is not being lost. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. The value of flexibility in conservation financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Gareth D; Fargione, Joseph; Spector, Sacha; Williams, Gwyn; Armsworth, Paul R

    2017-06-01

    Land-acquisition strategies employed by conservation organizations vary in their flexibility. Conservation-planning theory largely fails to reflect this by presenting models that are either extremely inflexible-parcel acquisitions are irreversible and budgets are fixed-or extremely flexible-previously acquired parcels can readily be sold. This latter approach, the selling of protected areas, is infeasible or problematic in many situations. We considered the value to conservation organizations of increasing the flexibility of their land-acquisition strategies through their approach to financing deals. Specifically, we modeled 2 acquisition-financing methods commonly used by conservation organizations: borrowing and budget carry-over. Using simulated data, we compared results from these models with those from an inflexible fixed-budget model and an extremely flexible selling model in which previous acquisitions could be sold to fund new acquisitions. We then examined 3 case studies of how conservation organizations use borrowing and budget carry-over in practice. Model comparisons showed that borrowing and budget carry-over always returned considerably higher rewards than the fixed-budget model. How they performed relative to the selling model depended on the relative conservation value of past acquisitions. Both the models and case studies showed that incorporating flexibility through borrowing or budget carry-over gives conservation organizations the ability to purchase parcels of higher conservation value than when budgets are fixed without the problems associated with the selling of protected areas. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Some guiding concepts for conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David; Hunter, Malcolm

    2010-12-01

    The search for generalities in ecology has often been thwarted by contingency and ecological complexity that limit the development of predictive rules. We present a set of concepts that we believe succinctly expresses some of the fundamental ideas in conservation biology. (1) Successful conservation management requires explicit goals and objectives. (2) The overall goal of biodiversity management will usually be to maintain or restore biodiversity, not to maximize species richness. (3) A holistic approach is needed to solve conservation problems. (4) Diverse approaches to management can provide diverse environmental conditions and mitigate risk. (5) Using nature's template is important for guiding conservation management, but it is not a panacea. (6) Focusing on causes not symptoms enhances efficacy and efficiency of conservation actions. (7) Every species and ecosystem is unique, to some degree. (8) Threshold responses are important but not ubiquitous. (9) Multiple stressors often exert critical effects on species and ecosystems. (10) Human values are variable and dynamic and significantly shape conservation efforts. We believe most conservation biologists will broadly agree these concepts are important. That said, an important part of the maturation of conservation biology as a discipline is constructive debate about additional or alternative concepts to those we have proposed here. Therefore, we have established a web-based, online process for further discussion of the concepts outlined in this paper and developing additional ones. © 2010 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Multispecies genetic objectives in spatial conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Erica S; Beger, Maria; Henriques, Romina; Selkoe, Kimberly A; von der Heyden, Sophie

    2017-08-01

    Growing threats to biodiversity and global alteration of habitats and species distributions make it increasingly necessary to consider evolutionary patterns in conservation decision making. Yet, there is no clear-cut guidance on how genetic features can be incorporated into conservation-planning processes, despite multiple molecular markers and several genetic metrics for each marker type to choose from. Genetic patterns differ between species, but the potential tradeoffs among genetic objectives for multiple species in conservation planning are currently understudied. We compared spatial conservation prioritizations derived from 2 metrics of genetic diversity (nucleotide and haplotype diversity) and 2 metrics of genetic isolation (private haplotypes and local genetic differentiation) in mitochondrial DNA of 5 marine species. We compared outcomes of conservation plans based only on habitat representation with plans based on genetic data and habitat representation. Fewer priority areas were selected for conservation plans based solely on habitat representation than on plans that included habitat and genetic data. All 4 genetic metrics selected approximately similar conservation-priority areas, which is likely a result of prioritizing genetic patterns across a genetically diverse array of species. Largely, our results suggest that multispecies genetic conservation objectives are vital to creating protected-area networks that appropriately preserve community-level evolutionary patterns. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  10. Curved twistor spaces and H-space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.

    1980-01-01

    The curved twistor space construction of Penrose for anti-self-dual solutions to the Einstein vacuum equations is described. Curved twistor spaces are defined and it is shown with the aid of an example how to obtain them by deforming the complex structure of regions of flat twistor space. The connection of this procedure with Newman's H-space construction via asymptotic twistor space is outlined. (Auth.)

  11. Preparing future space leaders - International Space University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Barbara A.; Van Reeth, George P.

    1992-01-01

    The International Space University (ISU) concept of developing a cadre of space professionals that will lead the universities and industries into space is discussed. ISU is an innovative, permanent worldwide organization for training and academic instruction in all aspects of space studies. ISU's major goal is to provide the young professional academic instruction in technical and nontechnical areas of modern space exploration and research, and a forum to exchange ideas and develop both personal and professional ties at an international level.

  12. Infinite sets of conservation laws for linear and non-linear field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederle, J.

    1984-01-01

    The work was motivated by a desire to understand group theoretically the existence of an infinite set of conservation laws for non-interacting fields and to carry over these conservation laws to the case of interacting fields. The relation between an infinite set of conservation laws of a linear field equation and the enveloping algebra of its space-time symmetry group was established. It is shown that in the case of the Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation to each symmetry of the corresponding linear equation delta sub(o)uxxx=u sub() determined by an element of the enveloping algebra of the space translation algebra, there corresponds a symmetry of the full KdV equation

  13. Geographic approaches to biodiversity conservation: implications of scale and error to landscape planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth R. Wilson; Susan A. Shriner

    2009-01-01

    Conservation science is concerned with understanding why distribution and abundance patterns of species vary in time and space. Although these patterns have strong signatures tied to the availability of energy and nutrients, variation in climate, physiographic heterogeneity, and differences in the structural complexity of natural vegetation, it is becoming more...

  14. Three-parameter relativistic dynamics. 1. Equation of motion, energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogachevskii, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    A formally geometric analog of the relativistic dynamics of a point charged particle is constructed. Time as a function of the spatial coordinates is taken as the trajectory equation, i.e., the trajectory is a hypersurface in Minkowski space. The dynamics is presented. The law of open-quotes energyclose quotes conservation is examined

  15. Exact solutions for a discrete unidimensional Boltzmann model satisfying all conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornille, H.

    1989-01-01

    We consider a four-velocity discrete and unidimensional Boltzmann model. The mass, momentum and energy conservation laws being satisfied we can define a temperature. We report the exact positive solutions which have been found: periodic in the space and propagating or not when the time is growing, shock waves similarity solutions and (1 + 1)-dimensional solutions [fr

  16. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  17. Effects of collisions on conservation laws in gyrokinetic field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Nunami, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Watanabe, T.-H. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Effects of collisions on conservation laws for toroidal plasmas are investigated based on the gyrokinetic field theory. Associating the collisional system with a corresponding collisionless system at a given time such that the two systems have the same distribution functions and electromagnetic fields instantaneously, it is shown how the collisionless conservation laws derived from Noether's theorem are modified by the collision term. Effects of the external source term added into the gyrokinetic equation can be formulated similarly with the collisional effects. Particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations including collisional and turbulent transport fluxes are systematically derived using a novel gyrokinetic collision operator, by which the collisional change rates of energy and canonical toroidal angular momentum per unit volume in the gyrocenter space can be given in the conservative forms. The ensemble-averaged transport equations of particles, energy, and toroidal momentum given in the present work are shown to include classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport fluxes which agree with those derived from conventional recursive formulations.

  18. Building dialogue on complex conservation issues in a conference setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jenny; Sparrow, Andrew; Wass, Rob; Moller, Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Dialogue about complex science and society issues is important for contemporary conservation agendas. Conferences provide an appropriate space for such dialogue, but despite its recognized worth, best practices for facilitating active dialogue are still being explored. Face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC) are two approaches to facilitating dialogue that have different strengths. We assessed the use of these approaches to create dialogue on cultural perspectives of conservation and biodiversity at a national ecology conference. In particular, we aimed to evaluate their potential to enhance dialogue through their integrated application. We used an interactive blog to generate CMC on participant-sourced issues and to prime subsequent discussion in an FTF conference workshop. The quantity and quality of both CMC and FTF discussion indicated that both approaches were effective in building dialogue. Prior to the conference the blog averaged 126 views per day, and 44 different authors contributed a total of 127 comments. Twenty-five participants subsequently participated in active FTF discussion during a 3-h workshop. Postconference surveys confirmed that CMC had developed participants' thinking and deepened FTF dialogue; 88% indicated specifically that CMC helped facilitate the FTF discussion. A further 83% of respondents concluded that preliminary blog discussion would be useful for facilitating dialogue at future conferences. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  19. Machine learning of accurate energy-conserving molecular force fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiela, Stefan; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Sauceda, Huziel E.; Poltavsky, Igor; Schütt, Kristof T.; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-01-01

    Using conservation of energy—a fundamental property of closed classical and quantum mechanical systems—we develop an efficient gradient-domain machine learning (GDML) approach to construct accurate molecular force fields using a restricted number of samples from ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) trajectories. The GDML implementation is able to reproduce global potential energy surfaces of intermediate-sized molecules with an accuracy of 0.3 kcal mol−1 for energies and 1 kcal mol−1 Å̊−1 for atomic forces using only 1000 conformational geometries for training. We demonstrate this accuracy for AIMD trajectories of molecules, including benzene, toluene, naphthalene, ethanol, uracil, and aspirin. The challenge of constructing conservative force fields is accomplished in our work by learning in a Hilbert space of vector-valued functions that obey the law of energy conservation. The GDML approach enables quantitative molecular dynamics simulations for molecules at a fraction of cost of explicit AIMD calculations, thereby allowing the construction of efficient force fields with the accuracy and transferability of high-level ab initio methods. PMID:28508076

  20. No Prejudice in Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotta, R.C.; Gainer, J.S.; Hewett, J.L.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2010-08-26

    We present a summary of recent results obtained from a scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM and its implications for dark matter searches. We have generated a large set of points in parameter space (which we call 'models') for the 19-parameter CP-conserving pMSSM, where MFV has been assumed. We subjected these models to numerous experimental and theoretical constraints to obtain a set of {approx}68 K models which are consistent with existing data. We attempted to be somewhat conservative in our implementation of these constraints; in particular we only demanded that the relic density of the LSP not be greater than the measured value of {Omega}H{sup 2} for non-baryonic dark matter, rather than assuming that the LSP must account for the entire observed relic density. Examining the properties of the neutralinos in these models, we find that many are relatively pure gauge eigenstates with Higgsinos being the most common, followed by Winos. The relative prevalence of Higgsino and Wino LSPs leads many of our models to have a chargino as nLSP, often with a relatively small mass splitting between this nLSP and the LSP; this has important consequences in both collider and astroparticle phenomenology. We find that, in general, the LSP in our models provides a relatively small ({approx} 4%) contribution to the dark matter, however there is a long tail to this distribution and a substantial number of models for which the LSP makes up all or most of the dark matter. Typically these neutralinos are mostly Binos. Examining the signatures of our models in direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, we find a wide range of signatures for both cases. In particular, we find a much larger range of WIMP-nucleon cross sections than is found in any particular model of SUSY-breaking. As these cross sections also enter the regions of parameter space suggested by non-SUSY models, it appears that the discovery of WIMPs in direct detection experiments

  1. No Prejudice in Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    We present a summary of recent results obtained from a scan of the 19-dimensional parameter space of the pMSSM and its implications for dark matter searches. We have generated a large set of points in parameter space (which we call 'models') for the 19-parameter CP-conserving pMSSM, where MFV has been assumed. We subjected these models to numerous experimental and theoretical constraints to obtain a set of ∼68 K models which are consistent with existing data. We attempted to be somewhat conservative in our implementation of these constraints; in particular we only demanded that the relic density of the LSP not be greater than the measured value of (Omega)H 2 for non-baryonic dark matter, rather than assuming that the LSP must account for the entire observed relic density. Examining the properties of the neutralinos in these models, we find that many are relatively pure gauge eigenstates with Higgsinos being the most common, followed by Winos. The relative prevalence of Higgsino and Wino LSPs leads many of our models to have a chargino as nLSP, often with a relatively small mass splitting between this nLSP and the LSP; this has important consequences in both collider and astroparticle phenomenology. We find that, in general, the LSP in our models provides a relatively small (∼ 4%) contribution to the dark matter, however there is a long tail to this distribution and a substantial number of models for which the LSP makes up all or most of the dark matter. Typically these neutralinos are mostly Binos. Examining the signatures of our models in direct and indirect dark matter detection experiments, we find a wide range of signatures for both cases. In particular, we find a much larger range of WIMP-nucleon cross sections than is found in any particular model of SUSY-breaking. As these cross sections also enter the regions of parameter space suggested by non-SUSY models, it appears that the discovery of WIMPs in direct detection experiments might not be sufficient to

  2. Achieving open access to conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard A; Lee, Jasmine R; Watson, James E M

    2014-12-01

    Conservation science is a crisis discipline in which the results of scientific enquiry must be made available quickly to those implementing management. We assessed the extent to which scientific research published since the year 2000 in 20 conservation science journals is publicly available. Of the 19,207 papers published, 1,667 (8.68%) are freely downloadable from an official repository. Moreover, only 938 papers (4.88%) meet the standard definition of open access in which material can be freely reused providing attribution to the authors is given. This compares poorly with a comparable set of 20 evolutionary biology journals, where 31.93% of papers are freely downloadable and 7.49% are open access. Seventeen of the 20 conservation journals offer an open access option, but fewer than 5% of the papers are available through open access. The cost of accessing the full body of conservation science runs into tens of thousands of dollars per year for institutional subscribers, and many conservation practitioners cannot access pay-per-view science through their workplace. However, important initiatives such as Research4Life are making science available to organizations in developing countries. We urge authors of conservation science to pay for open access on a per-article basis or to choose publication in open access journals, taking care to ensure the license allows reuse for any purpose providing attribution is given. Currently, it would cost $51 million to make all conservation science published since 2000 freely available by paying the open access fees currently levied to authors. Publishers of conservation journals might consider more cost effective models for open access and conservation-oriented organizations running journals could consider a broader range of options for open access to nonmembers such as sponsorship of open access via membership fees. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of the Society for

  3. Conservation tourism and landscape governance in Kenya: the interdependency of three conservation NGOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellis, A.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2015-01-01

    Tourism plays an increasingly important role in the way non-governmental organisations govern landscapes, especially in decentralised conservation contexts in developing countries. In this paper, we examine the role of three key conservation organisations (the African Wildlife Foundation, the

  4. On RC-spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bielas, Wojciech; Plewik, Szymon

    2018-01-01

    Following Frink's characterization of completely regular spaces, we say that a regular T_1-space is an RC-space whenever the family of all regular open sets constitutes a regular normal base. Normal spaces are RC-spaces and there exist completely regular spaces which are not RC-spaces. So the question arises, which of the known examples of completely regular and not normal spaces are RC-spaces. We show that the Niemytzki plane and the Sorgenfrey plane are RC-spaces.

  5. Accelerated electricity conservation in Juneau, Alaska: A study of household activities that reduced demand 25%

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leighty, Wayne; Meier, Alan

    2011-01-01

    An avalanche destroyed the main hydroelectric transmission line to Juneau, Alaska in April, 2008. Diesel-generated electricity was substituted, causing electricity prices to increase 500% for 45 days. Electricity demand fell by 25% during the supply disruption. Most of the reduction occurred before the higher rates were implemented. Some conservation - about 8% of historic consumption - persisted after the transmission line was repaired and prices returned to normal. Consumers reduced energy use through a combination of new habits and technical improvements. A survey of residential consumers indicated that the average household undertook 10 conservation actions, with major changes in lighting, space heating, fuel switching, and water and appliance use. We propose a method for prioritizing conservation actions for promotion according to their impact in electricity savings (as a function of popularity, effectiveness, and persistence) and a dynamic framework for electricity use before, during, and after a supply disruption (i.e., both the magnitude and rates of change in electricity conservation). - Research highlights: → An electricity supply disruption caused prices to increase 500% for 45 days. → Electricity conservation of 25% occurred in a matter of days. → Electricity conservation of 8% persisted after the supply disruption was repaired. → Conservation occurred through behavior change and technology adoption. → The disruption induced consumers to try new behaviors that became new habits.

  6. Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis R. Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemibatwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, inframammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate.

  7. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, Sueo; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of radiation technology application for environmental conservation. Our group in cooperation with Ebara Mfg. co., Ltd. first found and studied removals of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases by electron beam irradiation. Most of sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides are converted to ammonium sulfate and nitrate by radiation with the addition of ammonia. Feasibility studies of this technology by pilot scale experiments have been carried out in Japan, USA and Germany for flue gases from iron-ore sintering furnace and coal fire power station. About 90 % of CO 2 and NO X are removed with 15 kGy. Organic pollutants in wastewater, drinking water and ground water have been found to be reduced by radiation technology. Synergetic effect of radiation and ozone to remove pollutants was also found. Disinfection of water effluent from sewage water treatment plant by radiation instead of using chlorine to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds has been studied by our group. Efficient composting of sewage sludge using radiation disinfection followed by fermentation has been developed and produced compost can be used as fertilizer. In conclusion, radiation technology can provide new efficient treatment method for wastes. (author)

  8. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machi, S.

    1983-01-01

    The use of radiation technology for environmental conservation is becoming increasingly important. Commercial plants for the radiation treatment of sewage sludge to reduce pathogenic micro-organisms have been operating in the Federal Republic of Germany for the past ten years and their technical and economical feasibility has been demonstrated. Irradiation of dried sludge has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratory (USA) using Cs-137, and the construction of a commercial plant is planned in Albuquerque. At the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), efforts are under way to increase the rate of composting of sludge by radiation. Regarding waste water treatment, a significant synergistic effect of radiation and ozone was found in the reduction of TOC. The construction of a gamma irradiation plant is in the planning stage in Canada, for the disinfection of virus-contaminated waste effluents from the Canadian Animal Disease Research Institute. The treatment of exhaust gases by electron beam has been studied in Japan using a large pilot plant which demonstrated that 90% of SO 2 and 80% of NOsub(x) can be removed from the flue gas of iron ore sintering furnaces. The US Department of Energy is assisting in projects for the further development of this technology for combined removal of SO 2 and NOsub(x) in flue gas from coal burning power stations. (author)

  9. Ecological, biological balances and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perttu, K.L.

    1995-01-01

    The scientific work within the activity ''ecological/biological balances and conservation'' is summarised in this report. The aims of the activity during its existence between 1992 and 1994 have been to: (i) arrange a workshop and publish the presentations on the environmental aspects of energy forest cultivations, (ii) perform joint scientific work together with the activity group on ''biological disposal of wastewaters and sludges'', that is closely related to environmental problems, and (iii) produce ecological guidelines concerning energy forestry, suitable for advisers and farmers dealing with bioenergy problems. The most important results from the workshop were the environmental benefits from energy forestry when compared with intensive agriculture and forestry. Energy forestry has positive influence on the carbon balances, nutrient recycling, and soil sustainability. The effects are also positive on the natural flora and fauna, which in most cases are enriched when compared with agricultural crops. From the joint efforts of the two activities the main result was a study tour, conference and workshop, concentrating on biological purification systems. The most promising system seems to be the vegetation filters of short rotation coppice. The report on ecological guidelines contains a number of ideas and recommendations for establishment, management, and harvesting of energy forests in an environmentally acceptable way. It also gives advice on how to locate the stands to minimise the risk of nutrient leakage from arable land. (Author)

  10. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  11. Radiation technology for environmental conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machi, Sueo; Tokunaga, Okihiro; Arai, Hidehiko; Hashimoto, Shoji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews research and development of radiation technology application for environmental conservation. Our group in cooperation with Ebara Mfg. co., Ltd. first found and studied removals of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from flue gases by electron beam irradiation. Most of sulfer dioxide and nitrogen oxides are converted to ammonium sulfate and nitrate by radiation with the addition of ammonia. Feasibility studies of this technology by pilot scale experiments have been carried out in Japan, USA and Germany for flue gases from iron-ore sintering furnace and coal fire power station. About 90 % of CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} are removed with 15 kGy. Organic pollutants in wastewater, drinking water and ground water have been found to be reduced by radiation technology. Synergetic effect of radiation and ozone to remove pollutants was also found. Disinfection of water effluent from sewage water treatment plant by radiation instead of using chlorine to avoid formation of chlorinated organic compounds has been studied by our group. Efficient composting of sewage sludge using radiation disinfection followed by fermentation has been developed and produced compost can be used as fertilizer. In conclusion, radiation technology can provide new efficient treatment method for wastes. (author).

  12. CONSERVATION STARTERS IN ENGLISH TEACHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Sisbiyanto

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The global issue of environment which needs specific attention has made all countries think about possible solution or creative responses. Indonesia, which is in the process of boosting its economy and people‘s prosperity, is inevitably prone to industrial exposure that leads the country to environmental-deterioration. Consequently, environment should be prioritized in the national-development design. This issue has actually been positively responded by the Indonesian authority of national education program with one of the spirits of curriculum 2013, that is to integrate characters, including ‗caring for the environment‘, in the teaching of discrete subjects including English. However, the theme concerning environmental awareness, though explicitly mentioned in the curriculum, seems to still be ignored by some English teachers due to their being badly preoccupied with the stage of understanding/interpreting the newly-implemented curriculum itself. To fill the gap, this paper tries to offer alternative techniques called ‗conservation starters‘ to be used in English teaching & learning. The techniques are modified from some already familiar activities such as ‗find someone who‘, ‗hunting‘, and ‗word description‘ games. It is expected that the techniques can help English teachers improve students‘ motivation in getting engaged to the English teaching & learning programs, introduce students to environmental issues, and, finally, improve students‘ achievement.

  13. Wolves: Behavior, ecology, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Boitani, Luigi

    2003-01-01

    Wolves are some of the world's most charismatic and controversial animals, capturing the imaginations of their friends and foes alike. Highly intelligent and adaptable, they hunt and play together in close-knit packs, sometimes roaming over hundreds of square miles in search of food. Once teetering on the brink of extinction across much of the United States and Europe, wolves have made a tremendous comeback in recent years, thanks to legal protection, changing human attitudes, and efforts to reintroduce them to suitable habitats in North America.As wolf populations have rebounded, scientific studies of them have also flourished. But there hasn't been a systematic, comprehensive overview of wolf biology since 1970. In Wolves, many of the world's leading wolf experts provide state-of-the-art coverage of just about everything you could want to know about these fascinating creatures. Individual chapters cover wolf social ecology, behavior, communication, feeding habits and hunting techniques, population dynamics, physiology and pathology, molecular genetics, evolution and taxonomy, interactions with nonhuman animals such as bears and coyotes, reintroduction, interactions with humans, and conservation and recovery efforts. The book discusses both gray and red wolves in detail and includes information about wolves around the world, from the United States and Canada to Italy, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Israel, India, and Mongolia. Wolves is also extensively illustrated with black and white photos, line drawings, maps, and fifty color plates.

  14. Energy conservation policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T; Roland, K [ECON-Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (NO)

    1992-02-01

    Energy market developments and the state of the environment will be decisive for economic growth and modernization of Chinese society. Lack of adequate energy supplies could in the future seriously impair the growth potential of the economy, as it has partly done during the 1980s. Environmental damage creates major health problems for the population and hamper the productive capacity of Chinese agriculture and industry. One obvious and effective measure to meet these challenges is a policy that pursues more efficient use of energy supplies. China achieved impressive results in energy efficiency improvements during the 1980s, largely on the back of the cheapest and most obvious conservation opportunities. These are now exhausted. Further improvements will require stronger measures. It is difficult to see how the current rate of economic growth (above 6 per cent) and energy efficiency improvements can be sustained without comprehensive market reforms. Economic growth and development is however, in Chinese policy, subordinate to political stability and continuity. The disruption of the political and economic reform processes in 1988-9 was largely motivated by a perceived fear of political instability and disintegration of the state. Thus, there may exist some degree of conflict between the objective of strong economic growth and the existing 'social order and stability'. To balance the potential conflict inherent in this development process is the big challenge facing Chinese society for the coming decades. (author).

  15. Oncoplastic Approaches to Breast Conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, D.R.; Schooler, W.; Smith, R.

    2011-01-01

    When a woman is diagnosed with breast cancer many aspects of her physical, emotional, and sexual wholeness are threatened. The quickly expanding field of oncoplastic breast surgery aims to enhance the physician commitment to restore the patient's image and self-assurance. By combining a multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment with oncoplastic surgery, successful results in the eyes of the patient and physician are significantly more likely to occur. As a way to aid oncoplastic teams in determining which approach is most suitable for their patient's tumor size, tumor location, body habitus, and desired cosmetic outcome we present a review of several oncoplastic surgical approaches. For resections located anywhere in the breast, the radial ellipse segmentectomy incision and circumareolar approach for segmental resection are discussed. For resections in the upper or central breast, crescent mastopexy, the batwing incision, the hemi batwing incision, donut mastopexy, B-flap resection, and the central quadrantectomy are reviewed. For lesions of the lower breast, the triangle incision, infra mammary incision, and reduction mastopexy are discussed. Surgeons who are interested in adding oncoplastic breast conserving therapies to their skill sets are encouraged to implement these surgical techniques where applicable and to seek out breast fellowships or enhanced training when appropriate

  16. Conservative management of fracture scaphoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Conservative management of fracture scaphoid with cast is still the most common modality of management, but the results following this protocol are not always satisfactory. Methods : Twenty five patients with fracture scaphoid were treated with a below elbow scaphoid cast and were followed up for minimum duration of one year. On follow up patients were examined clinicoradiologically and functional results were evaluated using the modification of the Mayo wrist scoring chart. Results : Nineteen fractures showed union, two were malunited and five went for nonunion. Two fractures developed avascular necrosis and three patients had wrist arthritis on follow up. Nineteen patients had excellent functional results, one had good results and six patients had poor results. Patients with delayed diagnosis had nonunion and poor functional results. Patients with premature removal of cast had comparatively inferior results Conclusion : For displaced unstable fracture, open reduction and internal fixation should be the preferred modality of treatment as cast treatment gives unacceptably high rate of malunion and nonunion with poor functional results.

  17. Blood conservation in cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaudszun, G; Butchart, A; Klein, A A

    2017-09-21

    This article aims at reviewing the currently available evidence about blood conservation strategies in cardiac surgery. Pre-operative anaemia and perioperative allogeneic blood transfusions are associated with worse outcomes after surgery. In addition, transfusions are a scarce and costly resource. As cardiac surgery accounts for a significant proportion of all blood products transfused, efforts should be made to decrease the risk of perioperative transfusion. Pre-operative strategies focus on the detection and treatment of anaemia. The management of haematological abnormalities, most frequently functional iron deficiency, is a matter for debate. However, iron supplementation therapy is increasingly commonly administered. Intra-operatively, antifibrinolytics should be routinely used, whereas the cardiopulmonary bypass strategy should be adapted to minimise haemodilution secondary to circuit priming. There is less evidence to recommend minimally invasive surgery. Cell salvage and point-of-care tests should also be a part of the routine care. Post-operatively, any unnecessary iatrogenic blood loss should be avoided. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Time-space noncommutativity: quantised evolutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, Aiyalam P.; Govindarajan, Thupil R.; Teotonio-Sobrinho, Paulo; Martins, Andrey Gomes

    2004-01-01

    In previous work, we developed quantum physics on the Moyal plane with time-space noncommutativity, basing ourselves on the work of Doplicher et al. Here we extend it to certain noncommutative versions of the cylinder, R 3 and Rx S 3 . In all these models, only discrete time translations are possible, a result known before in the first two cases. One striking consequence of quantised time translations is that even though a time independent hamiltonian is an observable, in scattering processes, it is conserved only modulo 2π/θ, where θ is the noncommutative parameter. (In contrast, on a one-dimensional periodic lattice of lattice spacing a and length L = Na, only momentum mod 2π/L is observable (and can be conserved).) Suggestions for further study of this effect are made. Scattering theory is formulated and an approach to quantum field theory is outlined. (author)

  19. Four Dimensional Trace Space Measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.

    2005-02-10

    Future high energy colliders and FELs (Free Electron Lasers) such as the proposed LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) at SLAC require high brightness electron beams. In general a high brightness electron beam will contain a large number of electrons that occupy a short longitudinal duration, can be focused to a small transverse area while having small transverse divergences. Therefore the beam must have a high peak current and occupy small areas in transverse phase space and so have small transverse emittances. Additionally the beam should propagate at high energy and have a low energy spread to reduce chromatic effects. The requirements of the LCLS for example are pulses which contain 10{sup 10} electrons in a temporal duration of 10 ps FWHM with projected normalized transverse emittances of 1{pi} mm mrad[1]. Currently the most promising method of producing such a beam is the RF photoinjector. The GTF (Gun Test Facility) at SLAC was constructed to produce and characterize laser and electron beams which fulfill the LCLS requirements. Emittance measurements of the electron beam at the GTF contain evidence of strong coupling between the transverse dimensions of the beam. This thesis explores the effects of this coupling on the determination of the projected emittances of the electron beam. In the presence of such a coupling the projected normalized emittance is no longer a conserved quantity. The conserved quantity is the normalized full four dimensional phase space occupied by the beam. A method to determine the presence and evaluate the strength of the coupling in emittance measurements made in the laboratory is developed. A method to calculate the four dimensional volume the beam occupies in phase space using quantities available in the laboratory environment is also developed. Results of measurements made of the electron beam at the GTF that demonstrate these concepts are presented and discussed.

  20. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  1. Conservation of ecosystems : theory and practice

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siegfried, WR

    1982-09-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Conservation of Ecosystems Theory and Practice.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 102 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Conservation of Ecosystems Theory and Practice.pdf.txt Content...-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Plant conservation progress in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayri Havens; Andrea Kramer; Ed. Guerrant

    2017-01-01

    Effective national plant conservation has several basic needs, including: 1) accessible, up-to-date information on species distribution and rarity; 2) research and management capacity to mitigate the impact of threats that make plants rare; 3) effective networks for conserving species in situ and ex situ; 4) education and training to make sure the right people are...

  3. Definition: Conservation Education, Environmental Education, Outdoor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    Conservation education, outdoor education, and environmental education all have as a common goal the understanding and appreciation of the natural world. Outdoor education is a method of teaching wherein established disciplines, topics, and concepts which can best be taught outdoors are taught outdoors. Conservation education is the study of man's…

  4. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowarik, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: → This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. → Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. → Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. → However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. → Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  5. Novel urban ecosystems, biodiversity, and conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarik, Ingo, E-mail: kowarik@tu-berlin.de [Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Rothenburgstr. 12, D 12165 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    With increasing urbanization the importance of cities for biodiversity conservation grows. This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and discusses the consequences of different conservation approaches. Cities can be richer in plant species, including in native species, than rural areas. Alien species can lead to both homogenization and differentiation among urban regions. Urban habitats can harbor self-sustaining populations of rare and endangered native species, but cannot replace the complete functionality of (semi-)natural remnants. While many conservation approaches tend to focus on such relict habitats and native species in urban settings, this paper argues for a paradigm shift towards considering the whole range of urban ecosystems. Although conservation attitudes may be challenged by the novelty of some urban ecosystems, which are often linked to high numbers of nonnative species, it is promising to consider their associated ecosystem services, social benefits, and possible contribution to biodiversity conservation. - Highlights: > This paper reviews biotic responses to urbanization and urban conservation approaches. > Cities may be rich in both native and nonnative species. > Urban habitats cannot replace the functionality of natural remnants. > However, even novel urban habitats may harbour rare and endangered species. > Conservation approaches should consider the perspective of novel urban ecosystems. - This paper reviews the ways in which biodiversity is affected by urbanization and argues for expanding urban conservation approaches.

  6. Mixed method approaches to evaluate conservation impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Burgess, Neil D.; Chamshama, Shabani A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 10% of the world's total forest area is formally owned by communities and indigenous groups, yet knowledge of the effects of decentralized forest management approaches on conservation (and livelihood) impacts remains elusive. In this paper, the conservation impact of decentralized forest m...

  7. Conservation and Development Options existing on Uluguru ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective management of projects on Uluguru Mountains requires that both development and conservation options are weighed and that opportunities and challenges are considered. This study identified various conservation and development options existing on Uluguru Mountains and assessed the perceptions of the local ...

  8. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  9. Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands: Symposium proceedings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel W. Uresk; Greg L. Schenbeck; James T. O' Rourke

    1997-01-01

    These proceedings are the result of a symposium, "Conserving biodiversity on native rangelands" held on August 17, 1995 in Fort Robinson State Park, NE. The purpose of this symposium was to provide a forum to discuss how elements of rangeland biodiversity are being conserved today. We asked, "How resilient and sustainable are rangeland systems to the...

  10. Decision support frameworks and tools for conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Mark W.; Cook, Carly N.; Pressey, Robert L.; Pullin, Andrew S.; Runge, Michael C.; Salafsky, Nick; Sutherland, William J.; Williamson, Matthew A.

    2018-01-01

    The practice of conservation occurs within complex socioecological systems fraught with challenges that require transparent, defensible, and often socially engaged project planning and management. Planning and decision support frameworks are designed to help conservation practitioners increase planning rigor, project accountability, stakeholder participation, transparency in decisions, and learning. We describe and contrast five common frameworks within the context of six fundamental questions (why, who, what, where, when, how) at each of three planning stages of adaptive management (project scoping, operational planning, learning). We demonstrate that decision support frameworks provide varied and extensive tools for conservation planning and management. However, using any framework in isolation risks diminishing potential benefits since no one framework covers the full spectrum of potential conservation planning and decision challenges. We describe two case studies that have effectively deployed tools from across conservation frameworks to improve conservation actions and outcomes. Attention to the critical questions for conservation project planning should allow practitioners to operate within any framework and adapt tools to suit their specific management context. We call on conservation researchers and practitioners to regularly use decision support tools as standard practice for framing both practice and research.

  11. Workplace Energy Conservation at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research contributes to the literature on workplace energy conservation by examining the predictors of individual employee behaviors and policy support in a university. The purpose of this research is to better understand what factors influence energy conservation behaviors in this setting to inform programs and interventions.…

  12. Tenancy and Soil Conservation in Market Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Lichtenberg, Erik

    2001-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of equilibrium contracts between risk neutral landlords and tenants when tenants' soil exploitation is non-contractible indicates that landlords will overinvest in conservation structures. An empirical model using farm-level data provides evidence that investment in contractible soil conservation measures is greater on rental land.

  13. River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    River and wetland classifications for freshwater conservation planning in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... regional- or provincial-scale conservation planning. The hierarchical structure of the classifications provides scope for finer resolution, by the addition of further levels, for application at a sub-regional or municipal scale.

  14. Economics, Ethics, Ecology: Roots of Productive Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Walter E., Ed.

    Forty-seven articles represent most of the papers presented at the annual meeting of the Soil Conservation Society of America. The conference addressed the facts and values from economics, ethics, and ecology as they pertain to critical issues in land and water conservation in North America. Part I includes discussions of economic realities,…

  15. Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Journal of Forestry and Nature Conservation accommodates the current diverse and multidisciplinary approaches towards ecosystem conservation at national and global levels. The journal is published biannually and accepts research and review papers covering technological, physical, biological, social and ...

  16. Promoting Effective Monitoring and Conservation through Online ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... communicates major findings of submitted records to relevant authorities concerned with conservation and advocacy thus contributing to a much wider sharing and dissemination of important aspects while contributing to avifaunal conservation. Through networking the system provides a highly attractive and authoritative, ...

  17. Evolving conservation paradigms for the Anthropocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel E. Lugo

    2014-01-01

    The Anthropocene will have fundamental effects on the species composition, function, and structure of the ecosystems of the world. Land management agencies such as the USDA Forest Service will need to adapt their policies and conservation activities to avoid engaging in continuous conflict with natural processes and unfamiliar biotic assemblages. Conservation paradigms...

  18. Sagebrush-associated species of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary M. Rowland; Lowell H. Suring; Matthias Leu; Steven T. Knick; Michael J. Wisdom

    2011-01-01

    Selection of species of concern is a critical early step in conducting broad-scale ecological assessments for conservation planning and management. Many criteria can be used to guide this selection, such as conservation status, existing knowledge base, and association with plant communities of interest. In conducting the Wyoming Basins Ecoregional Assessment (WBEA), we...

  19. A glossary for avian conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolf R. Koford; John B. Dunning; Christine A. Ribic; Deborah M. Finch

    1994-01-01

    This glossary provides standard definitions for many of the terms used in avian conservation biology. We compiled these definitions to assist communication among researchers, managers, and others involved in the Neotropical Migratory Bird Conservation Program, also known as Partners in Flight. We used existing glossaries and recent literature to prepare this glossary....

  20. Wilderness biology and conservation: future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed F. Noss

    2000-01-01

    The new conservation movement—uniting scientists and activists—seeks to relook at the role of protected land. The result is a redefining of terms, the encompassing of the concept of ecosystems, incorporating both scientific and nonscientific approaches to conservation, and reconsidering management. This philosophical essay speculates on the future of wilderness and...

  1. 18 CFR 430.15 - Conservation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... area of the municipal or public water supply. Such program shall include a program for leakage control... shall be adopted and implemented to provide for the detection and expeditious correction of leakage. (3... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Conservation...

  2. Conservation laws and nuclear transport models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, C.; Das Gupta, S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of energy and angular momentum conservation for nucleon-nucleon scattering in a nuclear environment during high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We describe algorithms that ensure stricter enforcement of such conservation laws within popular microscopic models of intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions. We find that the net effects on global observables are small

  3. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  4. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for small electric motors, which was published on March 9, 2010. In that final rule, the U.S... titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of...

  5. 75 FR 9921 - San Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... Diego County Water Authority Natural Communities Conservation Program/Habitat Conservation Plan, San... the NCCP/HCP's conservation strategy. Covered Activities would include developing new water... permit application, and notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The San Diego County Water Authority (Water...

  6. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  7. Planning for land use and conservation: Assessing GIS-based conservation software for land use planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob Baldwin; Ryan Scherzinger; Don Lipscomb; Miranda Mockrin; Susan Stein

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in planning and ecological software make it possible to conduct highly technical analyses to prioritize conservation investments and inform local land use planning. We review these tools, termed conservation planning tools, and assess the knowledge of a key set of potential users: the land use planning community. We grouped several conservation software...

  8. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-N131; 80221-1112-80221-F2] Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Southern California: Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and..., as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a...

  9. Promoting Conservation Tourism: The Case of the African Wildlife Foundation's Tourism Conservation Enterprises in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van J.J.; Lamers, M.A.J.; Duim, van der V.R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the organizational form of tourism conservation enterprises, which has been developed and promoted by the African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) since the late 1990s. By deploying commercial tourism as a mechanism to attain conservation and livelihood goals, tourism conservation

  10. Maximizing species conservation in continental Ecuador: a case of systematic conservation planning for biodiverse regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessmann, Janeth; Muñoz, Jesús; Bonaccorso, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    Ecuador has the largest number of species by area worldwide, but also a low representation of species within its protected areas. Here, we applied systematic conservation planning to identify potential areas for conservation in continental Ecuador, with the aim of increasing the representation of terrestrial species diversity in the protected area network. We selected 809 terrestrial species (amphibians, birds, mammals, and plants), for which distributions were estimated via species distribution models (SDMs), using Maxent. For each species we established conservation goals based on conservation priorities, and estimated new potential protected areas using Marxan conservation planning software. For each selected area, we determined their conservation priority and feasibility of establishment, two important aspects in the decision-making processes. We found that according to our conservation goals, the current protected area network contains large conservation gaps. Potential areas for conservation almost double the surface area of currently protected areas. Most of the newly proposed areas are located in the Coast, a region with large conservation gaps and irreversible changes in land use. The most feasible areas for conservation were found in the Amazon and Andes regions, which encompass more undisturbed habitats, and already harbor most of the current reserves. Our study allows defining a viable strategy for preserving Ecuador's biodiversity, by combining SDMs, GIS-based decision-support software, and priority and feasibility assessments of the selected areas. This approach is useful for complementing protected area networks in countries with great biodiversity, insufficient biological information, and limited resources for conservation. PMID:25360277

  11. Liouville's theorem and phase-space cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.L.; Sessler, A.M.

    1993-01-01

    A discussion is presented of Liouville's theorem and its consequences for conservative dynamical systems. A formal proof of Liouville's theorem is given. The Boltzmann equation is derived, and the collisionless Boltzmann equation is shown to be rigorously true for a continuous medium. The Fokker-Planck equation is derived. Discussion is given as to when the various equations are applicable and, in particular, under what circumstances phase space cooling may occur

  12. The role of angular momentum conservation law in statistical mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dubrovskii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the limits of Khinchin ideas [A.Y. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. NY, Ed. Dover, 1949] the importance of momentum and angular momentum conservation laws was analyzed for two cases: for uniform magnetic field and when magnetic field is absent. The law of momentum conservation does not change the density of probability distribution in both cases, just as it is assumed in the conventional theory. It is shown that in systems where the kinetic energy depends only on particle momenta canonically conjugated with Cartesian coordinates being their diagonal quadric form,the angular momentum conservation law changes the density of distribution of the system only in case the full angular momentum of a system is not equal to zero. In the gas of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field the density of distribution also varies if the angular momentum is zero [see Dubrovskii I.M., Condensed Matter Physics, 2206, 9, 23]. Two-dimensional gas of charged particles located within a section of an endless strip filled with gas in magnetic field is considered. Under such conditions the angular momentum is not conserved. Directional particle flows take place close to the strip boundaries, and, as a consequence, the phase trajectory of the considered set of particles does not remain within the limited volume of the phase space. In order to apply a statistical thermodynamics method, it was suggested to consider near-boundary trajectories relative to a reference system that moves uniformly. It was shown that if the diameter of an orbit having average thermal energy is much smaller than a strip width, the corrections to thermodynamic functions are small depending on magnetic field. Only the average velocity of near-boundary particles that form near-boundary electric currents creating the paramagnetic moment turn out to be essential.

  13. Watershed Conservation in the Long Run

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    2014-01-01

    We studied unanticipated long-run outcomes of conservation activities that occurred in forested watersheds on O`ahu, Hawaii, in the early twentieth century. The initial general impetus for the conservation activities was to improve irrigation surface water flow for the sugar industry. Industry...... concentration facilitated conservation of entire ecosystems. We investigate the benefits that accrued through dynamic linkages of the hydrological cycle and groundwater aquifer system. This provides a clear example of the need to consider integrated watershed effects, industrial structure, and linkages...... in determining conservation policy. We incorporated remote-sensing data, expert opinion on current watershed quality, and a spatial economic and hydrological model of O`ahu’s freshwater use with reports of conservation activities from 1910–1960 to assess these benefits. We find a 2.3% annual increase...

  14. Is It Time for Synthetic Biodiversity Conservation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, Antoinette J; Segelbacher, Gernot; Seddon, Philip J; Alphey, Luke; Bennett, Elizabeth L; Carlson, Robert H; Friedman, Robert M; Kanavy, Dona; Phelan, Ryan; Redford, Kent H; Rosales, Marina; Slobodian, Lydia; Wheeler, Keith

    2017-02-01

    Evidence indicates that, despite some critical successes, current conservation approaches are not slowing the overall rate of biodiversity loss. The field of synthetic biology, which is capable of altering natural genomes with extremely precise editing, might offer the potential to resolve some intractable conservation problems (e.g., invasive species or pathogens). However, it is our opinion that there has been insufficient engagement by the conservation community with practitioners of synthetic biology. We contend that rapid, large-scale engagement of these two communities is urgently needed to avoid unintended and deleterious ecological consequences. To this point we describe case studies where synthetic biology is currently being applied to conservation, and we highlight the benefits to conservation biologists from engaging with this emerging technology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. A Global Mitigation Hierarchy for Nature Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph W; Addison, Prue F E; Burgass, Michael J; Gianuca, Dimas; Gorham, Taylor M; Jacob, Céline; Watson, James E M; Wilcox, Chris; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Efforts to conserve biodiversity comprise a patchwork of international goals, national-level plans, and local interventions that, overall, are failing. We discuss the potential utility of applying the mitigation hierarchy, widely used during economic development activities, to all negative human impacts on biodiversity. Evaluating all biodiversity losses and gains through the mitigation hierarchy could help prioritize consideration of conservation goals and drive the empirical evaluation of conservation investments through the explicit consideration of counterfactual trends and ecosystem dynamics across scales. We explore the challenges in using this framework to achieve global conservation goals, including operationalization and monitoring and compliance, and we discuss solutions and research priorities. The mitigation hierarchy's conceptual power and ability to clarify thinking could provide the step change needed to integrate the multiple elements of conservation goals and interventions in order to achieve successful biodiversity outcomes. PMID:29731513

  16. Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks

    CERN Document Server

    Nimmrichter, Johann; Schreiner, Manfred; LACONA VI Proceedings

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decades, the use of lasers in artworks conservation became an important tool for many conservators, scientists, architects and other experts, who are involved in the care of monuments and artefacts or laser technology. For the first time in 1995 Professor Costas Fotakis brought together restorers and scientists to discuss the potential of lasers in art conservation. Since then the field of "Lasers in the Conservation of Artworks" has gained enormously in importance. Nowadays restorers and laser scientists work close together in order to develop new fields of applications during the last years. Furthermore a large number of national and international research projects have been carried out by conservator-restorers, architects and scientists. In the last 10 years a number of historical and artistic high quality monuments (e.g. St. Stephens Cathedral in Vienna) have been cleaned or measured by laser and brought the laser in the spectra of tools which are useful in the sensible field of artworks. ...

  17. Conservative treatment of patients with tarsal coalitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sapogoosky

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tarsal coalition is a pathological condition with abnormal fusion between two or more tarsal bones. The aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of conservative treatment in patients with tarsal coalitions. The treatment included reducing the intensity of physical activity, medication, orthotics, physiotherapy. For evaluation of effectiveness of the treatment, we used the AOFAS scale. The results of the study demonstrated that conservative treatment in patients with tarsal coalitions was focused onon temporary pain release. Conservative treatment has limited efficacy for patients with symptomatic tarsal coalitions because of short pain release in the majority of children (98 %. The indications for conservative treatment in patients with symptomatic tarsal coalitions should be pain and hindfoot valgus less than 15°. In other cases, conservative treatment should be considered as preoperative preparation.

  18. Conservation biogeography - foundations, concepts and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richardson, Timothy; Whittaker, R.J.; Whittaker, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation biogeography involves the application of biogeographical principles, theories, and analyses to problems regarding biodiversity conservation. The field was formally defined in 2005, and considerable research has been conducted in the ensuing 5 years. This editorial sets the context...... for 16 contributions in a special issue of Diversity and Distributions on developments and challenges in conservation biogeography. Papers are grouped into the following main themes: species distribution modelling; data requirements; approaches for assigning conservation priorities; approaches...... for integrating information from numerous disparate sources; special challenges involving invasive species; and the crucial issue of determining how elements of biodiversity are likely to respond to rapid climate change. One paper provides a synthesis of requirements for a robust conservation biogeography...

  19. Conservation when landowners have bargaining power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lennox, Gareth D.; Gaston, Kevin J.; Acs, Szvetlana

    2013-01-01

    agreement. Implicitly assumed in such studies is therefore that those who ``produce'' biodiversity (landowners) receive none of the surplus available from trade. Instead, landowners could use their bargaining power to gain profits from conservation investments. We employ game theory to determine the surplus...... landowners could obtain in negotiations over conservation agreements, and the consequent effects on conservation outcomes, when enrolment decisions are governed by continuous variables (e.g. the proportion of a property to enrol). In addition, we consider how landowner uncertainty regarding the opportunity...... costs of other landowners affects these outcomes. Landowners' ability to gain surplus is highly variable and reflects variation in the substitutability of different properties for achieving a specified conservation objective. The ability of landowners to obtain profits from conservation agreements...

  20. Conservation and retrieval of information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1993-01-01

    High-level waste from nuclear power generation will remain radioactive for thousands of years even though 99% of the radioactivity will have decayed within the first millennium. For a hypothetical group involved in future actions to retrieve or repair a repository, information about its location, design, and content would be necessary. The need of such groups can be used to design the information that should be kept in a waste archive. Two main strategies exist for long-germ information transfer, one which links information thorough successive transfers of archived material and other forms of knowledge in society, and one - such as marking the site with a monument - relying upon a direct link from the present to the distant future. Digital methods are not recommended for long-term storage, but digital processing may be a valuable tool to structure information summaries, and in the creation of better long-lasting records. Advances in archive management should also be pursued to widen the choice of information carriers of high durability. In the Nordic countries, during the first few thousand years, and perhaps up to the next period of glaciation, monuments at a repository site may be used to warn the public of the presence of dangerous waste. But messages from such markers may pose interpretation problems as we have today for messages left by earlier societies such as rune inscriptions. Since the national borders may change in the time scale relevant for nuclear waste, the creation of an international archive for all radioactive wastes would represent an improvement as regards conservation and retrieval of information. (EG)