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Sample records for conserved crustacean c-type

  1. Sequence Conservation and Sexually Dimorphic Expression of the Ftz-F1 Gene in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

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    Nur Syafiqah Mohamad Ishak

    Full Text Available Identifying the genes required for environmental sex determination is important for understanding the evolution of diverse sex determination mechanisms in animals. Orthologs of Drosophila orphan receptor Fushi tarazu factor-1 (Ftz-F1 are known to function in genetic sex determination. In contrast, their roles in environmental sex determination remain unknown. In this study, we have cloned and characterized the Ftz-F1 ortholog in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. Similar to that observed in Drosophila, D. magna Ftz-F1 (DapmaFtz-F1 produces two splicing variants, αFtz-F1 and βFtz-F1, which encode 699 and 777 amino acids, respectively. Both isoforms share a DNA-binding domain, a ligand-binding domain, and an AF-2 activation domain and differ only at the A/B domain. The phylogenetic position and genomic structure of DapmaFtz-F1 suggested that this gene has diverged from an ancestral gene common to branchiopod crustacean and insect Ftz-F1 genes. qRT-PCR showed that at the one cell and gastrulation stages, both DapmaFtz-F1 isoforms are two-fold more abundant in males than in females. In addition, in later stages, their sexual dimorphic expressions were maintained in spite of reduced expression. Time-lapse imaging of DapmaFtz-F1 RNAi embryos was performed in H2B-GFP expressing transgenic Daphnia, demonstrating that development of the RNAi embryos slowed down after the gastrulation stage and stopped at 30-48 h after ovulation. DapmaFtz-F1 shows high homology to insect Ftz-F1 orthologs based on its amino acid sequence and exon-intron organization. The sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaFtz-F1 suggests that it plays a role in environmental sex determination of D. magna.

  2. Environmental sex determination in the branchiopod crustacean Daphnia magna: deep conservation of a Doublesex gene in the sex-determining pathway.

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    Yasuhiko Kato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sex-determining mechanisms are diverse among animal lineages and can be broadly divided into two major categories: genetic and environmental. In contrast to genetic sex determination (GSD, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying environmental sex determination (ESD. The Doublesex (Dsx genes play an important role in controlling sexual dimorphism in genetic sex-determining organisms such as nematodes, insects, and vertebrates. Here we report the identification of two Dsx genes from Daphnia magna, a freshwater branchiopod crustacean that parthenogenetically produces males in response to environmental cues. One of these genes, designated DapmaDsx1, is responsible for the male trait development when expressed during environmental sex determination. The domain organization of DapmaDsx1 was similar to that of Dsx from insects, which are thought to be the sister group of branchiopod crustaceans. Intriguingly, the molecular basis for sexually dimorphic expression of DapmaDsx1 is different from that of insects. Rather than being regulated sex-specifically at the level of pre-mRNA splicing in the coding region, DapmaDsx1 exhibits sexually dimorphic differences in the abundance of its transcripts. During embryogenesis, expression of DapmaDsx1 was increased only in males and its transcripts were primarily detected in male-specific structures. Knock-down of DapmaDsx1 in male embryos resulted in the production of female traits including ovarian maturation, whereas ectopic expression of DapmaDsx1 in female embryos resulted in the development of male-like phenotypes. Expression patterns of another D. magna Dsx gene, DapmaDsx2, were similar to those of DapmaDsx1, but silencing and overexpression of this gene did not induce any clear phenotypic changes. These results establish DapmaDsx1 as a key regulator of the male phenotype. Our findings reveal how ESD is implemented by selective expression of a fundamental genetic component that is

  3. Learning in Stomatopod Crustaceans

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    Cronin, Thomas W.; Caldwell, Roy L.; Marshall, Justin

    2006-01-01

    The stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, are marine predators that stalk or ambush prey and that have complex intraspecific communication behavior. Their active lifestyles, means of predation, and intricate displays all require unusual flexibility in interacting with the world around them, implying a well-developed ability to learn. Stomatopods have highly evolved sensory systems, including some of the most specialized visual systems known for any animal group. Some species have been de...

  4. Ionotropic crustacean olfactory receptors.

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    Elizabeth A Corey

    Full Text Available The nature of the olfactory receptor in crustaceans, a major group of arthropods, has remained elusive. We report that spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, express ionotropic receptors (IRs, the insect chemosensory variants of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Unlike insects IRs, which are expressed in a specific subset of olfactory cells, two lobster IR subunits are expressed in most, if not all, lobster olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs, as confirmed by antibody labeling and in situ hybridization. Ligand-specific ORN responses visualized by calcium imaging are consistent with a restricted expression pattern found for other potential subunits, suggesting that cell-specific expression of uncommon IR subunits determines the ligand sensitivity of individual cells. IRs are the only type of olfactory receptor that we have detected in spiny lobster olfactory tissue, suggesting that they likely mediate olfactory signaling. Given long-standing evidence for G protein-mediated signaling in activation of lobster ORNs, this finding raises the interesting specter that IRs act in concert with second messenger-mediated signaling.

  5. Scattering of acoustic waves by small crustaceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, I. B.; Tarasov, L. L.

    2003-03-01

    Features of underwater sound scattering by small crustaceans are considered. The scattering data are obtained with the use of unique instrumentation that allows one to measure quantitative scattering characteristics (backscattering cross sections and angular scattering patterns) for crustaceans of different sizes, at different frequencies (20 200 kHz) and different insonification aspects. A computational model of crustaceans is considered with allowance for both the soft tissues of the main massive part of the animal's body and the stiff armour. The model proves to be advantageous for explaining some scattering features observed in the experiments. The scattering cross sections of crustaceans measured by other researchers are presented in a unified form appropriate for comparison. Based on such a quantitative comparison, relatively simple approximate empirical formulas are proposed for estimating the backscattering cross sections of small (within several centimeters) marine crustaceans in a broad frequency range.

  6. Molecular evolution of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family in ecdysozoans

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    Soyez Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH family peptides are neurohormones known to regulate several important functions in decapod crustaceans such as ionic and energetic metabolism, molting and reproduction. The structural conservation of these peptides, together with the variety of functions they display, led us to investigate their evolutionary history. CHH family peptides exist in insects (Ion Transport Peptides and may be present in all ecdysozoans as well. In order to extend the evolutionary study to the entire family, CHH family peptides were thus searched in taxa outside decapods, where they have been, to date, poorly investigated. Results CHH family peptides were characterized by molecular cloning in a branchiopod crustacean, Daphnia magna, and in a collembolan, Folsomia candida. Genes encoding such peptides were also rebuilt in silico from genomic sequences of another branchiopod, a chelicerate and two nematodes. These sequences were included in updated datasets to build phylogenies of the CHH family in pancrustaceans. These phylogenies suggest that peptides found in Branchiopoda and Collembola are more closely related to insect ITPs than to crustacean CHHs. Datasets were also used to support a phylogenetic hypothesis about pancrustacean relationships, which, in addition to gene structures, allowed us to propose two evolutionary scenarios of this multigenic family in ecdysozoans. Conclusions Evolutionary scenarios suggest that CHH family genes of ecdysozoans originate from an ancestral two-exon gene, and genes of arthropods from a three-exon one. In malacostracans, the evolution of the CHH family has involved several duplication, insertion or deletion events, leading to neuropeptides with a wide variety of functions, as observed in decapods. This family could thus constitute a promising model to investigate the links between gene duplications and functional divergence.

  7. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  8. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  9. Cretaceous and Cenozoic decapod crustaceans of Jamaica

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    Donovan, Stephen K.; Portell, Roger W.; Collins, Joe S.H.

    2003-01-01

    In the last decade, a rebirth in interest of Jamaican fossil crustaceans has occurred. A summary of known material is provided together with some indications of the directions that future studies should take.

  10. Market integration in the crustaceans market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah-Yeboah, Isaac; Bronnmann, Julia

    2018-01-01

    are substitutes. Price determination processes for the shrimp markets vary with the level of the value chain. The results imply that the wild and farmed crustaceans markets are interacting through substitution effects. Hence, the markets have the capability to shield volatile and rising prices that would emanate......In this paper the price dynamics and the degree of market integration in the German crustaceans market is examined using cointegration methods. The study focuses on wild caught cold water shrimp, farmed warm water shrimp as well as lobster and derives implications for the fisheries sector....... In the analysis, both the import market and the retail market price reactions are distinguished. Therefore, it is evaluated how price changes affect competing commodities within and between the value chain of a given crustaceans commodity. Evidence of partial market integration is found for all species under...

  11. Crustacean Larvae-Vision in the Plankton.

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    Cronin, Thomas W; Bok, Michael J; Lin, Chan

    2017-11-01

    We review the visual systems of crustacean larvae, concentrating on the compound eyes of decapod and stomatopod larvae as well as the functional and behavioral aspects of their vision. Larval compound eyes of these macrurans are all built on fundamentally the same optical plan, the transparent apposition eye, which is eminently suitable for modification into the abundantly diverse optical systems of the adults. Many of these eyes contain a layer of reflective structures overlying the retina that produces a counterilluminating eyeshine, so they are unique in being camouflaged both by their transparency and by their reflection of light spectrally similar to background light to conceal the opaque retina. Besides the pair of compound eyes, at least some crustacean larvae have a non-imaging photoreceptor system based on a naupliar eye and possibly other frontal eyes. Larval compound-eye photoreceptors send axons to a large and well-developed optic lobe consisting of a series of neuropils that are similar to those of adult crustaceans and insects, implying sophisticated analysis of visual stimuli. The visual system fosters a number of advanced and flexible behaviors that permit crustacean larvae to survive extended periods in the plankton and allows them to reach acceptable adult habitats, within which to metamorphose. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. C-Type Lectin Receptors in Asthma

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    Sabelo Hadebe

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that affects approximately 300 million people worldwide, largely in developed countries. The etiology of the disease is poorly understood, but is likely to involve specific innate and adaptive responses to inhaled microbial components that are found in allergens. Fungal-derived allergens represent a major contributing factor in the initiation, persistence, exacerbation, and severity of allergic asthma. C-type lectin like receptors, such as dectin-1, dectin-2, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin, and mannose receptor, recognize many fungal-derived allergens and other structurally similar allergens derived from house dust mites (HDM. In some cases, the fungal derived allergens have been structurally and functionally identified alongside their respective receptors in both humans and mice. In this review, we discuss recent understanding on how selected fungal and HDM derived allergens as well as their known or unknown receptors shape allergic airway diseases.

  13. C-type Nd2Se3

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, neodymium sesquiselenide, is isotypic with the other known rare-earth metal(III selenides M2Se3 (M = La–Pr and Sm–Lu with the cubic C-type structure. It adopts a cation-defective Th3P4-type arrangement with close to 8/9 of the unique neodymium-cation site occupied, leading to the composition Nd2.667Se4 (Z = 4 or Nd2Se3 (Z = 5.333, respectively. The Nd3+ cations are thus surrounded by eight selenide anions, forming trigonal [NdSe8]13− dodecahedra, whereas the Se2− anions exhibit a sixfold coordination, but due to the under-occupation of neodymium, each one is statistically surrounded by only 5.333 cations. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin with a 0.31 (6:0.69 (6 domain ratio.

  14. Widespread Wolbachia infection in terrestrial isopods and other crustaceans

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    Richard Cordaux

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Wolbachia bacteria are obligate intracellular alpha-Proteobacteria of arthropods and nematodes. Although widespread among isopod crustaceans, they have seldom been found in non-isopod crustacean species. Here, we report Wolbachia infection in fourteen new crustacean species. Our results extend the range of Wolbachia infections in terrestrial isopods and amphipods (class Malacostraca. We report the occurrence of two different Wolbachia strains in two host species (a terrestrial isopod and an amphipod. Moreover, the discovery of Wolbachia in the goose barnacle Lepas anatifera (subclass Thecostraca establishes Wolbachia infection in class Maxillopoda. The new bacterial strains are closely related to B-supergroup Wolbachia strains previously reported from crustacean hosts. Our results suggest that Wolbachia infection may be much more widespread in crustaceans than previously thought. The presence of related Wolbachia strains in highly divergent crustacean hosts suggests that Wolbachia endosymbionts can naturally adapt to a wide range of crustacean hosts. Given the ability of isopod Wolbachia strains to induce feminization of genetic males or cytoplasmic incompatibility, we speculate that manipulation of crustacean-borne Wolbachia bacteria might represent potential tools for controlling crustacean species of commercial interest and crustacean or insect disease vectors.

  15. Planktonic Crustacean Culture - Live Planktonic Crustaceans as Live Feed for Finfish and Shrimps in Aquaculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Syberg, Kristian; Drillet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    The cultivation of planktonic crustaceans as live feed is of paramount importance for the aquaculture and aquarium industries. The use of live cladocerans as feed for freshwater fish is limited to the aquarium industry, whereas Artemia and copepods are used to feed edible marine fish larvae...... assessments for hazardous chemicals. Cladocerans are widely used for ecotoxicology testing but Artemia and copepods are emerging new model species. In the present chapter, we review the culturing procedures of these important planktonic crustaceans: Artemia, cladocerans and copepods and discuss their use...

  16. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

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    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Some crustacean zooplankton of Wular lake in Kashmir Himalaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a taxonomic survey of crustacean zooplankton collected from Wular lake of Kashmir, a pictorial key was developed. Thirty-six (36) pictures of 25 species of crustacean zooplankton, out of which 21 represented 16 Cladocera taxa belonging to Chydoridae (Alona affinis, A. rectangula and A. monacantha, Chydorus ...

  18. Characteristics and value of the Thukela Banks crustacean and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the Thukela Banks crustacean and linefish fisheries and investigates the potential impacts of reduced flow from the Thukela River on the value of these fisheries. Data were obtained from published and unpublished material, key informants and government records. The crustacean fishery employs ...

  19. Structure-activity relationship of crustacean peptide hormones.

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    Katayama, Hidekazu

    2016-01-01

    In crustaceans, various physiological events, such as molting, vitellogenesis, and sex differentiation, are regulated by peptide hormones. To understanding the functional sites of these hormones, many structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies have been published. In this review, the author focuses the SAR of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone-family peptides and androgenic gland hormone and describes the detailed results of our and other research groups. The future perspectives will be also discussed.

  20. Effects of Organotins on Crustaceans: Update and Perspectives

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    Éverton L. Vogt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Organotins (OTs are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull’s paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs’ deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction. Crustaceans are key members of zooplankton and benthic communities and have vital roles in food chains, so the endocrine-disrupting effects of tributyltin (TBT on crustaceans can affect other organisms. TBT can disrupt carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis of crustaceans by interacting with retinoid X receptor (RXR and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH signaling. Moreover, it can also interact with other nuclear receptors, disrupting methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid signaling, thereby altering growth and sexual maturity, respectively. This compound also interferes in cytochrome P450 system disrupting steroid synthesis and reproduction. Crustaceans are also important fisheries worldwide, and its consumption can pose risks to human health. However, some questions remain unanswered. This mini review aims to update information about the effects of OTs on the metabolism, growth, and reproduction of crustaceans; to compare with known effects in mammals; and to point aspects that still needs to be addressed in future studies. Since both macrocrustaceans and microcrustaceans are good models to study the effects of sublethal TBT contamination, novel studies should be developed using multibiomarkers and omics technology.

  1. Effects of Organotins on Crustaceans: Update and Perspectives

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    Vogt, Éverton L.; Model, Jorge F. A.; Vinagre, Anapaula S.

    2018-01-01

    Organotins (OTs) are considered some of the most toxic chemicals introduced into aquatic environments by anthropogenic activities. They are widely used for agricultural and industrial purposes and as antifouling additives on boat hull’s paints. Even though the use of OTs was banned in 2008, elevated levels of OTs can still be detected in aquatic environments. OTs’ deleterious effects upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, and metabolic dysfunction. Crustaceans are key members of zooplankton and benthic communities and have vital roles in food chains, so the endocrine-disrupting effects of tributyltin (TBT) on crustaceans can affect other organisms. TBT can disrupt carbohydrate and lipid homeostasis of crustaceans by interacting with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) signaling. Moreover, it can also interact with other nuclear receptors, disrupting methyl farnesoate and ecdysteroid signaling, thereby altering growth and sexual maturity, respectively. This compound also interferes in cytochrome P450 system disrupting steroid synthesis and reproduction. Crustaceans are also important fisheries worldwide, and its consumption can pose risks to human health. However, some questions remain unanswered. This mini review aims to update information about the effects of OTs on the metabolism, growth, and reproduction of crustaceans; to compare with known effects in mammals; and to point aspects that still needs to be addressed in future studies. Since both macrocrustaceans and microcrustaceans are good models to study the effects of sublethal TBT contamination, novel studies should be developed using multibiomarkers and omics technology. PMID:29535684

  2. Behavioural indicators of pain in crustacean decapods

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    Francesca Gherardi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Whether invertebrates are able or not to experience pain is a highly controversial issue. An operative way to solve such a controversy might be to investigate their responses to potentially noxious stimuli and to collect evidence of their behavioural complexities as proxies of cognitive capacities. The principle of argument-by-analogy can be then applied to these data: the behaviour displayed by invertebrates is compared with that of "higher" animals, its similarity denoting the former's capacity to have analogous experiences. Here, the author discusses some examples, extracted from the literature on crustacean decapods, that pinpoint their nature of "sentient" animals. This review, however, also shows that research is still scanty in the field. The studies that examine the potential links between stress responses and pain experience are few, and the several papers that help elucidate cognitive abilities in decapods have been limited to a few taxa and are not specifically directed to the question of "sentience". On the contrary, also in the light of the expected revision of the current EU legislation in the matter, more scientific efforts should be expended on exploring the issue of pain experience in invertebrates.

  3. Human surfactant protein D: SP-D contains a C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain.

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    Rust, K; Grosso, L; Zhang, V; Chang, D; Persson, A; Longmore, W; Cai, G Z; Crouch, E

    1991-10-01

    Lung surfactant protein D (SP-D) shows calcium-dependent binding to specific saccharides, and is similar in domain structure to certain members of the calcium-dependent (C-type) lectin family. Using a degenerate oligomeric probe corresponding to a conserved peptide sequence derived from the amino-terminus of the putative carbohydrate binding domain of rat and bovine SP-D, we screened a human lung cDNA library and isolated a 1.4-kb cDNA for the human protein. The relationship of the cDNA to SP-D was established by several techniques including amino-terminal microsequencing of SP-D-derived peptides, and immunoprecipitation of translation products of transcribed mRNA with monospecific antibodies to SP-D. In addition, antibodies to a synthetic peptide derived from a predicted unique epitope within the carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-D specifically reacted with SP-D. DNA sequencing demonstrated a noncollagenous carboxy-terminal domain that is highly homologous with the carboxy-terminal globular domain of previously described C-type lectins. This domain contains all of the so-called "invariant residues," including four conserved cysteine residues, and shows high homology with the mannose-binding subfamily of C-type lectins. Sequencing also demonstrated an amino-terminal collagenous domain that contains an uninterrupted sequence of 59 Gly-X-Y triplets and that also contains the only identified consensus for asparagine-linked oligosaccharides. The studies demonstrate that SP-D is a member of the C-type lectin family, and confirm predicted structural similarities to conglutinin, SP-D, and the serum mannose binding proteins.

  4. Tetranectin, a trimeric plasminogen-binding C-type lectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtet, T L; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Clemmensen, I

    1997-01-01

    -linking analysis and SDS-PAGE to be a homo-trimer in solution as are other known members of the collectin family of C-type lectins. Biochemical evidence is presented showing that an N-terminal domain encoded within exons 1 and 2 of the tetranectin gene is necessary and sufficient to govern subunit trimerization....

  5. Signalling through C-type lectin receptors: shaping immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2009-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells are crucial for tailoring immune responses to pathogens. Following pathogen binding, CLRs trigger distinct signalling pathways that induce the expression of specific cytokines which determine T cell polarization fates. Some CLRs can induce

  6. Host partitioning by parasites in an intertidal crustacean community.

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    Koehler, Anson V; Poulin, Robert

    2010-10-01

    Patterns of host use by parasites throughout a guild community of intermediate hosts can depend on several biological and ecological factors, including physiology, morphology, immunology, and behavior. We looked at parasite transmission in the intertidal crustacean community of Lower Portobello Bay, Dunedin, New Zealand, with the intent of: (1) mapping the flow of parasites throughout the major crustacean species, (2) identifying hosts that play the most important transmission role for each parasite, and (3) assessing the impact of parasitism on host populations. The most prevalent parasites found in 14 species of crustaceans (635 specimens) examined were the trematodes Maritrema novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp., the acanthocephalans Profilicollis spp., the nematode Ascarophis sp., and an acuariid nematode. Decapods were compatible hosts for M. novaezealandensis, while other crustaceans demonstrated lower host suitability as shown by high levels of melanized and immature parasite stages. Carapace thickness, gill morphology, and breathing style may contribute to the differential infection success of M. novaezealandensis and Microphallus sp. in the decapod species. Parasite-induced host mortality appears likely with M. novaezealandensis in the crabs Austrohelice crassa, Halicarcinus varius, Hemigrapsus sexdentatus, and Macrophthalmus hirtipes, and also with Microphallus sp. in A. crassa. Overall, the different parasite species make different use of available crustacean intermediate hosts and possibly contribute to intertidal community structure.

  7. Crotacetin, a novel snake venom C-type lectin, is homolog of convulxin

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    G. Rádis-Baptista

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Snake venom (sv C-type lectins encompass a group of hemorrhagic toxins, which are able to interfere with hemostasis. They share significant similarity in their primary structures with C-type lectins of other animals, and also present a conserved carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD. A very well studied sv C-type lectin is the heterodimeric toxin, convulxin (CVX, from the venoms of South American rattlesnakes, Crotalus durissus terrificus and C. d. cascavella. It consists of two subunits, alfa (CVXalpha , 13.9 kDa and beta (CVXbeta , 12.6 kDa, joined by inter and intra-chain disulfide bounds, and is arranged in a tetrameric alpha4beta4 conformation. Convulxin is able to activate platelet and induce their aggregation by acting via p62/GPVI collagen receptor. Several cDNA precursors, homolog of CVX subunits, were cloned by PCR homology screening. As determined by computational analysis, one of them, named crotacetin beta subunit, was predicted as a polypeptide with a tridimensional conformation very similar to other subunits of convulxin-like snake toxins. Crotacetin was purified from C. durissus venoms by gel permeation and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The heterodimeric crotacetin is expressed in the venoms of several C. durissus subspecies, but it is prevalent in the venom of C. durissus cascavella. As inferred from homology modeling, crotacetin induces platelet aggregation but noticeably exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (cHH as a modulator of aggression in crustacean decapods.

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    Laura Aquiloni

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines, particularly serotonin, are recognised to play an important role in controlling the aggression of invertebrates, whereas the effect of neurohormones is still underexplored. The crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (cHH is a multifunctional member of the eyestalk neuropeptide family. We expect that this neuropeptide influences aggression either directly, by controlling its expression, or indirectly, by mobilizing the energetic stores needed for the increased activity of an animal. Our study aims at testing such an influence and the possible reversion of hierarchies in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, as a model organism. Three types of pairs of similarly sized males were formed: (1 'control pairs' (CP, n = 8: both individuals were injected with a phosphate saline solution (PBS; (2 'reinforced pairs' (RP, n = 9: the alpha alone was injected with native cHH, and the beta with PBS; (3 'inverted pairs' (IP, n = 9: the opposite of (2. We found that, independently of the crayfish's prior social experience, cHH injections induced (i the expression of dominance behaviour, (ii higher glycemic levels, and (iii lower time spent motionless. In CP and RP, fight intensity decreased with the establishment of dominance. On the contrary, in IP, betas became increasingly likely to initiate and escalate fights and, consequently, increased their dominance till a temporary reversal of the hierarchy. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, that, similarly to serotonin, cHH enhances individual aggression, up to reverse, although transitorily, the hierarchical rank. New research perspectives are thus opened in our intriguing effort of understanding the role of cHH in the modulation of agonistic behaviour in crustaceans.

  9. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  10. C-type lectin B (SpCTL-B) regulates the expression of antimicrobial peptides and promotes phagocytosis in mud crab Scylla paramamosain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Limin; Sun, Wanwei; Zhang, Ming; Ma, Hongyu; Zhang, Yueling; Zhang, Xinxu; Li, Shengkang

    2018-07-01

    As pattern recognition receptors, C-type lectins (CTLs) play important roles in immune system of crustaceans through identifying and binding to the conservative pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) on pathogen surfaces. In this study, a new CTL, SpCTL-B, was identified from the hemocytes of mud crab Scylla paramamosain. The full-length of SpCTL-B cDNA was 1278 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp. The predicted SpCTL-B protein contains a single carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD). SpCTL-B transcripts were distributed in all examined tissues with the highest levels in hepatopancreas. After challenged with Vibrio parahaemolyticus, LPS, polyI:C and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the mRNA levels of SpCTL-B in hemocytes and hepatopancreas were up-regulated. The recombinant SpCTL-B (rSpCTL-B) purified by Ni-affinity chromatography showed stronger binding activities with Staphylococcus aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, Vibrio alginolyticus than those with V. parahaemolyticus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. rSpCTL-B exhibited a broad spectrum of microorganism-agglutination activities against Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus, β-hemolytic Streptococcus) and Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli, V. parahaemolyticus, A. hydrophila, V. alginolyticus) in a Ca 2+ -dependent manner. The agglutination activities of rSpCTL-B could be inhibited by D-mannose and LPS, but not by d-fructose and galactose. The antimicrobial assay showed that rSpCTL-B exhibited the growth inhibition against all examined gram-positive bacteria and gram-negative bacteria. When SpCTL-B was silenced by RNAi, the bacterial clearance ability in mud crab was decreased and the transcript levels of five antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) (SpCrustin, SpHistin, SpALF4 (anti-lipopolysaccharide factor), SpALF5 and SpALF6) were significantly decreased in hemocytes. In our study, knockdown of SpCTL-B could down-regulate the expression of SpSTAT at m

  11. C-type lectins in immunity: recent developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambuza, Ivy M; Brown, Gordon D

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) comprise a large superfamily of proteins, which recognise a diverse range of ligands, and are defined by the presence of at least one C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). Of particular interest are the single extracellular CTLD-containing receptors of the ‘Dectin-1’ and ‘Dectin-2’ clusters, which associate with signalling adaptors or possess integral intracellular signalling domains. These CLRs have traditionally been associated with the recognition of fungi, but recent discoveries have revealed diverse and unexpected functions. In this review, we describe their newly identified roles in anti-microbial host defence, homeostasis, autoimmunity, allergy and their functions in the recognition and response to dead and cancerous cells. PMID:25553393

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of C Type Lectin from Toxocara canis Infective Larvae and Comparison with the C Type Lectin Fam-ily in the Immune System of Mouse and Human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeleh ETEBAR

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: C type lectin (CTL family is a type of calcium-dependent proteins found in vertebrates and invertebrates. The objective of this study was to perform a comparative analysis and phylogenetic inferring for understanding the similarities and differences of carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD domain of Toxocara canis CTL and other nematodes, and similar C type lectin involved in the immune system of mouse and human as their host.Methods: The female T. canis was retrieved from the 2-6 months puppies (Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tehran, 2015. To collect T. canis eggs, the worms were cultured for 5 d until they were embryonated. The hatching process was accelerated for collecting the stage 2 larvae, and the larvae were cultured for a week. A cDNA library was made from the total mRNA of T. canis infective larvae. The PCR amplification for C type lectin gene was performed and the amino acids were analyzed using the alignment method and the construction of phylogenetic tree.Results: The suspension sample maintained at 30 ºC for four weeks could embryonate 90%-100% of eggs. T. canis CTL gene was 657 bp in length and encoded a protein with 219 amino acids. The CTL of species of Strongylida order were closely placed in the tree, whereas the members of Ascaridida orders were located in a separate branch. High levels of similarity (36%-44% and conservation of C type lectin from T. canis with mouse and human C type lectins. Its C type lectin showed a higher similarity with asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR, macrophage lectin, dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN, MINCLE receptor of mouse and human.Conclusion: Analysis of CRD domain of C type lectin protein could make a better understanding of their role in the interaction of nematode parasite with their hosts.

  13. Diversity of decapod crustaceans at the interface of unconsolidated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decapod crustacean assemblages from unconsolidated seabed areas located near rocky shores in the Ubatuba region on the south-east coast of Brazil were analysed by investigating the abundance, richness, diversity and dominance of species. The relationships of the sediment and bottom-water temperature to total ...

  14. The crustacean zooplankton assemblage of a relatively pristine Utor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The water quality and crustacean zooplankton of Utor River, a relatively pristine freshwater body in Edo State, Nigeria was investigated at four stations. The Utor River is slightly acidic, well oxygenated, oligotrophic and low in solids, conductivity, cations and heavy metals. A total of 380 individuals comprising eleven taxa ...

  15. Red pigment-concentrating hormone is not limited to crustaceans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gäde, G.; Auerswald, L.; Šimek, Petr; Marcoa, H. G.; Kodrík, Dalibor

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 309, - (2003), s. 967-973 ISSN 0006-291X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IPP1050128; GA AV ČR IAA6007202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : Arthropods * Crustaceans * insects Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.836, year: 2003

  16. Astakine 2--the dark knight linking melatonin to circadian regulation in crustaceans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apiruck Watthanasurorot

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Daily, circadian rhythms influence essentially all living organisms and affect many physiological processes from sleep and nutrition to immunity. This ability to respond to environmental daily rhythms has been conserved along evolution, and it is found among species from bacteria to mammals. The hematopoietic process of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus is under circadian control and is tightly regulated by astakines, a new family of cytokines sharing a prokineticin (PROK domain. The expression of AST1 and AST2 are light-dependent, and this suggests an evolutionarily conserved function for PROK domain proteins in mediating circadian rhythms. Vertebrate PROKs are transmitters of circadian rhythms of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN in the brain of mammals, but the mechanism by which they function is unknown. Here we demonstrate that high AST2 expression is induced by melatonin in the brain. We identify RACK1 as a binding protein of AST2 and further provide evidence that a complex between AST2 and RACK1 functions as a negative-feedback regulator of the circadian clock. By DNA mobility shift assay, we showed that the AST2-RACK1 complex will interfere with the binding between BMAL1 and CLK and inhibit the E-box binding activity of the complex BMAL1-CLK. Finally, we demonstrate by gene knockdown that AST2 is necessary for melatonin-induced inhibition of the complex formation between BMAL1 and CLK during the dark period. In summary, we provide evidence that melatonin regulates AST2 expression and thereby affects the core clock of the crustacean brain. This process may be very important in all animals that have AST2 molecules, i.e. spiders, ticks, crustaceans, scorpions, several insect groups such as Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Blattodea, but not Diptera and Coleoptera. Our findings further reveal an ancient evolutionary role for the prokineticin superfamily protein that links melatonin to direct regulation of the core clock gene feedback loops.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a c-type lysozyme from the nurse shark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds Vaughan, Nichole; Smith, Sylvia L

    2013-12-01

    Lysozyme is a ubiquitous antibacterial enzyme that occurs in numerous invertebrate and vertebrate species. Three forms have been described c-type, g-type and i-type which differ in primary structure. Shark lysozyme has not been characterized; here we report on the isolation and characterization of lysozyme from unstimulated shark (Ginglymostoma cirratum) leukocytes and provide amino acid sequence data across the highly conserved active site of the molecule identifying it to be a c-type lysozyme. A leukocyte lysate was applied either (a) to the first of two sequential DE-52 cellulose columns or alternatively, (b) to a DEAE-Sepharose column. Lysozyme activity in lysate and active fractions was identified by zones of lysis of Micrococcus lysodeikticus cell walls on lysoplates and zones of growth inhibition in agar diffusion assays using Planococcus citreus as the target organism. SDS-PAGE analysis revealed a 14 kDa protein which was identified as lysozyme by mass spectroscopic analysis of peptides, reactivity against anti-HEWL antibodies on a Western blot, hydrolysis of M. lysodeikticus cell walls, and inhibition of growth of P. citreus on AU-gel blots in which the area of growth inhibition correlated to a 14 kDa protein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. C-type natriuretic peptide and its precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Solvej; Iversen, Peter; Brasso, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Seminal plasma offer a more organ-specific matrix for markers in prostatic disease. We hypothesized that C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) expression may constitute such a new target. METHODS: Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, clinically localized and metastatic prostate cancer were...... examined for CNP and CNP precursor (proCNP) concentrations in blood and seminal plasma. Furthermore, CNP and the CNP receptor (NPR-B) mRNA contents in tissue from prostate and seminal vesicles were analyzed by qPCR. RESULTS: CNP and NPR-B concentrations decreased with increasing tumor burden (p = 0.......0027 and p = 0.0096, respectively). In contrast, seminal plasma CNP and proCNP concentrations were markedly increased with increased tumor burden (p prostate cancer....

  19. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  20. Horizontal transfer of transposons between and within crustaceans and insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupeyron, Mathilde; Leclercq, Sébastien; Cerveau, Nicolas; Bouchon, Didier; Gilbert, Clément

    2014-01-29

    Horizontal transfer of transposable elements (HTT) is increasingly appreciated as an important source of genome and species evolution in eukaryotes. However, our understanding of HTT dynamics is still poor in eukaryotes because the diversity of species for which whole genome sequences are available is biased and does not reflect the global eukaryote diversity. In this study we characterized two Mariner transposable elements (TEs) in the genome of several terrestrial crustacean isopods, a group of animals particularly underrepresented in genome databases. The two elements have a patchy distribution in the arthropod tree and they are highly similar (>93% over the entire length of the element) to insect TEs (Diptera and Hymenoptera), some of which were previously described in Ceratitis rosa (Crmar2) and Drosophila biarmipes (Mariner-5_Dbi). In addition, phylogenetic analyses and comparisons of TE versus orthologous gene distances at various phylogenetic levels revealed that the taxonomic distribution of the two elements is incompatible with vertical inheritance. We conclude that the two Mariner TEs each underwent at least three HTT events. Both elements were transferred once between isopod crustaceans and insects and at least once between isopod crustacean species. Crmar2 was also transferred between tephritid and drosophilid flies and Mariner-5 underwent HT between hymenopterans and dipterans. We demonstrate that these various HTTs took place recently (most likely within the last 3 million years), and propose iridoviruses and/or Wolbachia endosymbionts as potential vectors of these transfers.

  1. C-type Lectin Receptors for Tumor Eradication: Future Directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streng-Ouwehand, Ingeborg; Unger, Wendy W. J.; Kooyk, Yvette van, E-mail: y.vankooyk@vumc.nl [Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, VU University Medical Center, P.O. Box 7057, 1007 MB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2011-08-08

    Dendritic cells are key regulators in directing immune responses and therefore are under extensive research for the induction of anti-tumor responses. DCs express a large array of receptors by which they scan their surroundings for recognition and uptake of pathogens. One of the receptor-families is the C-type lectins (CLR), which bind carbohydrate structures and internalize antigens upon recognition. Intracellular routing of antigen through CLR enhances loading and presentation of antigen through MHC class I and II, inducing antigen-specific CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T-cell proliferation and skewing T-helper cells. These characteristics make CLRs very interesting targets for DC-based immunotherapy. Profound research has been done on targeting specific tumor antigens to CLR using either antibodies or the natural ligands such as glycan structures. In this review we will focus on the current data showing the potency of CLR-targeting and discuss improvements that can be achieved to enhance anti-tumor activity in the near future.

  2. C-type natriuretic peptide in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Soeren Junge; Iversen, Peter; Rehfeld, Jens F.

    2009-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is expressed in the male reproductive organs in pigs. To examine whether the human prostate also expresses the CNP gene, we measured CNP and N-terminal proCNP in prostate cancer tissue extracts and performed immunohistochemical biopsy staining. Additionally, pro......CNP-derived peptides were quantitated in plasma from patients with prostate cancer. Blood was collected from healthy controls and patients before surgery for localized prostate cancer. Tissue extracts were prepared from tissue biopsies obtained from radical prostatectomy surgery. N-terminal proCNP, proCNP (1......-50) and CNP were measured in plasma and tissue extracts. Biopsies were stained for CNP-22 and N-terminal proCNP. Tissue extracts from human prostate cancer contained mostly N-terminal proCNP [median 5.3 pmol/g tissue (range 1.0-12.9)] and less CNP [0.14 pmol/g tissue (0.01-1.34)]. Immunohistochemistry...

  3. Crustacean fauna of a mussel cultivated raft system in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Sezgin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to make a faunistic analysis of the crustaceans associated with cultivated mussels grown on ropes. Mussel samples from 30 cm ropes were collected from rope-grown mussel beds by hand. The crustacean fauna associated with mussel population were quantified. The density of crustacean fauna associated with mussels was significantly greater within rope-grown mussel assemblages than on other biotopes around.

  4. The First Complete Mitochondrial Genome Sequences for Stomatopod Crustaceans: Implications for Phylogeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinstrom, Kirsten; Caldwell, Roy; Fourcade, H. Matthew; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-09-07

    We report the first complete mitochondrial genome sequences of stomatopods and compare their features to each other and to those of other crustaceans. Phylogenetic analyses of the concatenated mitochondrial protein-coding sequences were used to explore relationships within the Stomatopoda, within the malacostracan crustaceans, and among crustaceans and insects. Although these analyses support the monophyly of both Malacostraca and, within it, Stomatopoda, it also confirms the view of a paraphyletic Crustacea, with Malacostraca being more closely related to insects than to the branchiopod crustaceans.

  5. C-Type Natriuretic Peptide Analog as Therapy for Achondroplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeai-Mallet, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is an important regulator of bone formation. Gain-of-function mutations in the FGFR3 gene result in chondrodysplasias which include achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of dwarfism, in which skull, appendicular and axial skeletons are affected. The skeletal phenotype of patients with ACH showed defective proliferation and differentiation of the chondrocytes in the growth plate cartilage. Both endochondral and membranous ossification processes are disrupted during development. At cellular level, Fgfr3 mutations induce increased phosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3, which correlate with an enhanced activation of its downstream signaling pathways. Potential therapeutic strategies have emerged for ACH. Several preclinical studies have been conducted such as the C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) analog (BMN111), intermittent parathyroid hormone injections, soluble FGFR3 therapy, and meclozine and statin treatments. Among the putative targets to antagonize FGFR3 signaling, CNP (or BMN111) is one of the most promising strategies. BMN111 acts as a key regulator of longitudinal bone growth by downregulating the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, which is activated as a result of a FGFR3 gain-of-function mutation. Preclinical studies showed that BMN111 treatment led to a large improvement in skeletal parameters in Fgfr3Y367C/+ mice mimicking ACH. In 2014, a clinical trial (phase 2) of BMN111 in pediatric patients with ACH has started. This first clinical trial marks the first big step towards real treatment for these patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Molecular Characterization and Biological Effects of a C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Jingqun; Ding, Yang; Chen, Yuanyuan; Mu, Yinnan; Chen, Xinhua

    2015-12-10

    The C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs) play important roles in innate immunity as one type of pattern recognition receptors. Here, we cloned and characterized a C-type lectin-like receptor (LycCTLR) from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The full-length cDNA of LycCTLR is 880 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 215 amino acids. The deduced LycCTLR contains a C-terminal C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a transmembrane region. The CTLD of LycCTLR possesses six highly conserved cysteine residues (C1-C6), a conserved WI/MGL motif, and two sugar binding motifs, EPD (Glu-Pro-Asp) and WYD (Trp-Tyr-Asp). Ca(2+) binding site 1 and 2 were also found in the CTLD. The LycCTLR gene consists of five exons and four introns, showing the same genomic organization as tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and guppy (Poecilia retitculata) CTLRs. LycCTLR was constitutively expressed in various tissues tested, and its transcripts significantly increased in the head kidney and spleen after stimulation with inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. Recombinant LycCTLR (rLycCTLR) protein produced in Escherichia coli BL21 exhibited not only the hemagglutinating activity and a preference for galactose, but also the agglutinating activity against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria E. coli and Bacillus cereus in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner. These results indicate that LycCTLR is a potential galactose-binding C-type lectin that may play a role in the antibacterial immunity in fish.

  7. Molecular Characterization and Biological Effects of a C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor in Large Yellow Croaker (Larimichthys crocea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingqun Ao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The C-type lectin-like receptors (CTLRs play important roles in innate immunity as one type of pattern recognition receptors. Here, we cloned and characterized a C-type lectin-like receptor (LycCTLR from large yellow croaker Larimichthys crocea. The full-length cDNA of LycCTLR is 880 nucleotides long, encoding a protein of 215 amino acids. The deduced LycCTLR contains a C-terminal C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD, an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and a transmembrane region. The CTLD of LycCTLR possesses six highly conserved cysteine residues (C1–C6, a conserved WI/MGL motif, and two sugar binding motifs, EPD (Glu-Pro-Asp and WYD (Trp-Tyr-Asp. Ca2+ binding site 1 and 2 were also found in the CTLD. The LycCTLR gene consists of five exons and four introns, showing the same genomic organization as tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus and guppy (Poecilia retitculata CTLRs. LycCTLR was constitutively expressed in various tissues tested, and its transcripts significantly increased in the head kidney and spleen after stimulation with inactivated trivalent bacterial vaccine. Recombinant LycCTLR (rLycCTLR protein produced in Escherichia coli BL21 exhibited not only the hemagglutinating activity and a preference for galactose, but also the agglutinating activity against two food-borne pathogenic bacteria E. coli and Bacillus cereus in a Ca2+-dependent manner. These results indicate that LycCTLR is a potential galactose-binding C-type lectin that may play a role in the antibacterial immunity in fish.

  8. MIO-PLIOCENE CRUSTACEANS FROM THE CANARY ISLANDS, SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN FRANCISCO BETANCORT

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There are few previous references to fossil crustaceans for the Neogene marine layers of the Canary Islands (Spain. The Mio-Pliocene marine sedimentary layers in the eastern islands (Gran Canaria, Fuerteventura and Lanzarote were previously characterised by the presence of numerous fossil fauna, mainly anthozoans and molluscs, which correspond to an equatorial-typepalaeoclimate, warmer than the present climate. This Mio-Pliocene transition dated between 9.3 and 4.1 Ma. In this paper, 12 fossil crustacean taxa are identified and classified, including decapods and barnacles: Balanus concavus Bronn, 1831, Balanus spongicola Brown, 1827, Balanus perforatus Bruguière, 1789, Chenolobia testudinaria Linnè, 1767, Tetraclita cf. rubescens Darwin, 1854, Callianassa matsoni Rathbun, 1935, Callianassa sp., Upogebia sp, Eriphia aff. verrucosa (Forskal, 1775 , Maja sp., Scylla michelini Milne-Edwards, 1861 and Ocypode sp. Some of these taxa mean new references for the Atlantic islands and the North African Atlantic and definitely enlarge the palaeographic distribution of Neogene crustaceans beyond the Mediterranean region, extending it to the North Atlantic. Particularly significant are the presence of Tetraclita cf. rubescens ,this being the first reported fossil occurrence of this barnacle outside the North America Pacific coasts, and Chenolobia testudinaria , indicating for the first time the existence of marine turtles in these islands during the Neogene. These results are coherent with previous research hypothesising the existence of a flow of surface water between the Pacific and Atlantic in the Mio-Pliocene transition (Central American Seaway, CAS which explains the arrival of organisms, in larval stage, from Central America to the Canary Islands.

  9. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase. PMID:27391425

  10. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rodríguez-Viera

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  11. Molecular, Biochemical, and Dietary Regulation Features of α-Amylase in a Carnivorous Crustacean, the Spiny Lobster Panulirus argus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Viera, Leandro; Perera, Erick; Martos-Sitcha, Juan Antonio; Perdomo-Morales, Rolando; Casuso, Antonio; Montero-Alejo, Vivian; García-Galano, Tsai; Martínez-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Mancera, Juan Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-amylases are ubiquitously distributed throughout microbials, plants and animals. It is widely accepted that omnivorous crustaceans have higher α-amylase activity and number of isoforms than carnivorous, but contradictory results have been obtained in some species, and carnivorous crustaceans have been less studied. In addition, the physiological meaning of α-amylase polymorphism in crustaceans is not well understood. In this work we studied α-amylase in a carnivorous lobster at the gene, transcript, and protein levels. It was showed that α-amylase isoenzyme composition (i.e., phenotype) in lobster determines carbohydrate digestion efficiency. Most frequent α-amylase phenotype has the lowest digestion efficiency, suggesting this is a favoured trait. We revealed that gene and intron loss have occurred in lobster α-amylase, thus lobsters express a single 1830 bp cDNA encoding a highly conserved protein with 513 amino acids. This protein gives rise to two isoenzymes in some individuals by glycosylation but not by limited proteolysis. Only the glycosylated isoenzyme could be purified by chromatography, with biochemical features similar to other animal amylases. High carbohydrate content in diet down-regulates α-amylase gene expression in lobster. However, high α-amylase activity occurs in lobster gastric juice irrespective of diet and was proposed to function as an early sensor of the carbohydrate content of diet to regulate further gene expression. We concluded that gene/isoenzyme simplicity, post-translational modifications and low Km, coupled with a tight regulation of gene expression, have arose during evolution of α-amylase in the carnivorous lobster to control excessive carbohydrate digestion in the presence of an active α-amylase.

  12. DMPD: C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18160296 C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Willment JA, Brown GD. Tre...nds Microbiol. 2008 Jan;16(1):27-32. Epub 2007 Dec 21. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show C-type lectin receptors in antifun...gal immunity. PubmedID 18160296 Title C-type lectin receptors in antifungal immunity. Author

  13. Role of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) in the environmental stressor-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Jeong, Chang-Bum; Han, Jeonghoon; Kim, Il-Chan; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2013-09-01

    To identify and characterize CHH (TJ-CHH) gene in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, we analyzed the full-length cDNA sequence, genomic structure, and promoter region. The full-length TJ-CHH cDNA was 716 bp in length, encoding 136 amino acid residues. The deduced amino acid sequences of TJ-CHH showed a high similarity of the CHH mature domain to other crustaceans. Six conserved cysteine residues and five conserved structural motifs in the CHH mature peptide domain were also observed. The genomic structure of the TJ-CHH gene contained three exons and two introns in its open reading frame (ORF), and several transcriptional elements were detected in the promoter region of the TJ-CHH gene. To investigate transcriptional change of TJ-CHH under environmental stress, T. japonicus were exposed to heat treatment, UV-B radiation, heavy metals, and water-accommodated fractions (WAFs) of Iranian crude oil. Upon heat stress, TJ-CHH transcripts were elevated at 30 °C and 35 °C for 96 h in a time-course experiment. UV-B radiation led to a decreased pattern of the TJ-CHH transcript 48 h and more after radiation (12 kJ/m(2)). After exposure of a fixed dose (12 kJ/m(2)) in a time-course experiment, TJ-CHH transcript was down-regulated in time-dependent manner with a lowest value at 12h. However, the TJ-CHH transcript level was increased in response to five heavy metal exposures for 96 h. Also, the level of the TJ-CHH transcript was significantly up-regulated at 20% of WAFs after exposure to WAFs for 48 h and then remarkably reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that the enhanced TJ-CHH transcript level is associated with a cellular stress response of the TJ-CHH gene as shown in decapod crustaceans. This study is also helpful for a better understanding of the detrimental effects of environmental changes on the CHH-triggered copepod metabolism. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef (Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SANTELLI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge on the distribution of decapod crustaceans associated with an artificial reef positioned on sandy-mud bottoms in the central Adriatic Sea. The reef is constituted of concrete modules assembled in pyramids and concrete poles. Hard and soft bottom samples were collected from 2001, just after reef construction, to 2005 (4 surveys per year. Regarding the soft seabed, three sites close to a pyramid, three inside the reef area at a distance of 10-15 m from the structures, and three 200 m outside the reef (control sites were randomly sampled during each survey. At the same time, three pyramids (vertical and horizontal walls and three poles were also investigated. After taxonomical analysis, decapod crustaceans were analysed using abundance and species richness. Sites and years were compared using a balanced, fixed effect, 2-way ANOVA and PERMANOVA. In addition, SIMPER analysis was performed to identify those species typifying each community inhabiting both the soft bottom and the artificial substrates. The results showed that the artificial reef induced an increase in both abundance and diversity of the decapods of the natural habitat. In fact, man-made substrates may offer new available space for biological colonization and allow the settlement of new species usually living on hard bottoms, thus increasing the complexity of the original benthic communities.

  15. Null point of discrimination in crustacean polarisation vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Christy, John; Roberts, Nicholas W; Marshall, N Justin

    2014-07-15

    The polarisation of light is used by many species of cephalopods and crustaceans to discriminate objects or to communicate. Most visual systems with this ability, such as that of the fiddler crab, include receptors with photopigments that are oriented horizontally and vertically relative to the outside world. Photoreceptors in such an orthogonal array are maximally sensitive to polarised light with the same fixed e-vector orientation. Using opponent neural connections, this two-channel system may produce a single value of polarisation contrast and, consequently, it may suffer from null points of discrimination. Stomatopod crustaceans use a different system for polarisation vision, comprising at least four types of polarisation-sensitive photoreceptor arranged at 0, 45, 90 and 135 deg relative to each other, in conjunction with extensive rotational eye movements. This anatomical arrangement should not suffer from equivalent null points of discrimination. To test whether these two systems were vulnerable to null points, we presented the fiddler crab Uca heteropleura and the stomatopod Haptosquilla trispinosa with polarised looming stimuli on a modified LCD monitor. The fiddler crab was less sensitive to differences in the degree of polarised light when the e-vector was at -45 deg than when the e-vector was horizontal. In comparison, stomatopods showed no difference in sensitivity between the two stimulus types. The results suggest that fiddler crabs suffer from a null point of sensitivity, while stomatopods do not. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Anticholinesterase effect of eserine (physostigmine in fish and crustacean species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat José M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The kinetic characteristic (Km of cholinesterase from the crab Chasmagnathus granulata, the shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis and the fish Odontesthes bonaeriensis were compared and correlated with the anticholinesterasic effect of eserine (physostigmine. For the crustaceans, the estimated Km values were about 5-8 times higher than that estimated for the fish (0.04 mM. In the crab and the shrimp, the concentration of eserine which inhibited 50% of cholinesterase activity (IC50 was estimated as 5.33x10-4 and 4.33x10-4 mM, respectively. In both cases, it was significantly higher (P < 0.05 than that estimated for the fish larvae (7.43x10-5 mM. A high Km could reflect a lower affinity of the cholinesterase for its natural substrate, acetylcholine, or for substrate analogues such as carbamates and organophosphorous pesticides. If we consider the IC50 for eserine as an index of enzyme susceptibility to pesticide inhibition, the cholinesterase from the fish larvae may be a better useful tool in assays for pesticide biomonitoring than that from crustacean species.

  17. Sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic individuals can indicate allergy to molluscs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, C; Bartolomé, B; Rodríguez, V

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the sensitization pattern of crustacean-allergic patients according to tolerance to molluscs. Thirty-one patients with anaphylaxis to crustaceans (14 with mollusc allergy and 17 with mollusc tolerance) were studied using skin prick tests (SPTs), specific IgEs (sIgEs) and SDS-PAGE...

  18. Role of pelagic crustaceans in the diet of the longnose lancetfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary trends of lancetfish are consistent with opportunistic feeding on the most abundant prey. They exploit short food chains based on carnivorous crustaceans, and play an important role in the pelagic trophic functioning of the western Indian Ocean. Keywords: crustaceans, feeding habits, lancetfish, seasonality, ...

  19. Usage of energy reserves in crustaceans during starvation: status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Paz, Arturo; García-Carreño, Fernando; Muhlia-Almazán, Adriana; Peregrino-Uriarte, Alma B; Hernández-López, Jorge; Yepiz-Plascencia, Gloria

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, we review the current knowledge about the usage of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins as energy source by marine crustaceans during starvation. Crustaceans are a large and diverse group including some economically important species. The efforts to culture them for human consumption has prompted the interest to understand the preferences of energy sources to be applied for feed formulation and cost reduction. Important differences have been found among species and appear to be related not only to the biochemistry and physiology of nutrition, but also to the living environment of the crustaceans. Furthermore, crustaceans undergo morphological, physiological and behavioral changes due to their natural growing process that affect their feeding habits, an aspect that should be carefully considered. We discuss the current information on marine crustaceans about energy usage and describe areas of future research, where starvation studies render important insights.

  20. Chronobiology of deep-water decapod crustaceans on continental margins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguzzi, Jacopo; Company, Joan B

    2010-01-01

    Species have evolved biological rhythms in behaviour and physiology with a 24-h periodicity in order to increase their fitness, anticipating the onset of unfavourable habitat conditions. In marine organisms inhabiting deep-water continental margins (i.e. the submerged outer edges of continents), day-night activity rhythms are often referred to in three ways: vertical water column migrations (i.e. pelagic), horizontal displacements within benthic boundary layer of the continental margin, along bathymetric gradients (i.e. nektobenthic), and endobenthic movements (i.e. rhythmic emergence from the substrate). Many studies have been conducted on crustacean decapods that migrate vertically in the water column, but much less information is available for other endobenthic and nektobenthic species. Also, the types of displacement and major life habits of most marine species are still largely unknown, especially in deep-water continental margins, where steep clines in habitat factors (i.e. light intensity and its spectral quality, sediment characteristics, and hydrography) take place. This is the result of technical difficulties in performing temporally scheduled sampling and laboratory testing on living specimens. According to this scenario, there are several major issues that still need extensive research in deep-water crustacean decapods. First, the regulation of their behaviour and physiology by a biological clock is almost unknown compared to data for coastal species that are easily accessible to direct observation and sampling. Second, biological rhythms may change at different life stages (i.e. size-related variations) or at different moments of the reproductive cycle (e.g. at egg-bearing) based on different intra- and interspecific interactions. Third, there is still a major lack of knowledge on the links that exist among the observed bathymetric distributions of species and selected autoecological traits that are controlled by their biological clock, such as the

  1. Inorganic Biominerals in Crustaceans are Structurally Independent of Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergelsberg, S. T.; Michel, F. M.; Mukhopadhyay, B.; Dove, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as crystalline calcite or amorphous CaCO3 (ACC) occurs in the exoskeletons of all crustaceans. These cuticles are complex composites of inorganic mineral and organic macromolecules with highly divergent morphologies that are adapted to the extreme variations in environmental pressures within their diverse ecological niches. The remarkable variations and adaptations that form, infer a highly efficient and regulated mechanism for biomineralization that is most likely orchestrated by a myriad of biomacromolecules (Ziegler A 2012). The roles of these peptides and organic metabolites during CaCO3 biomineralization are not well understood. In part, this is due to a lack of knowledge of crustacean homeostasis. In a step toward understanding cuticle mineralization in crustaceans, this study asks: Which molecules affect biomineralization? Do the biomineral-active molecules vary greatly between species and body parts? Recent studies of polysaccharide controls on mineralization also raise the question of whether small heterogeneities in chitin, the most abundant biopolymer of the composite, could be primarily responsible for differences in CaCO3 crystallinity. This study used a novel spectroscopic approach to characterize the mineral and organic components of exoskeletons from three Malacostraca organisms — American Lobster (Homarus americanus), Dungeness Crab (Metacarcinus magister), and Red Rock Crab (Cancer productus). Using high-energy x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, the cuticles of three major body parts from these organisms were analyzed for the structure and bulk chemistry of its chitin and CaCO3 components. The findings indicate that Raman spectroscopy provides adequate resolution to show that crystallinity of chitin and the CaCO3 mineral component are chemically independent of each other, although their crystallinities co-vary for Brachyura species (Dungeness and Red Rock Crabs). Insights from this study

  2. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde; Smith, Jim T.; Ford, Alex T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  3. The biological effects of ionising radiation on Crustaceans: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Neil; Lerebours, Adélaïde [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom); Smith, Jim T. [School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO1 3QL (United Kingdom); Ford, Alex T., E-mail: alex.ford@port.ac.uk [Institute of Marine Sciences, School of Biological Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO4 9LY (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We comprehensively review the effects of ionising radiation in crustaceans. • Current environmental radioprotection levels found to be inadequate in some cases. • Mutation is shown to be a sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure. • Lowest observed effect dose rate varies by orders of magnitude. - Abstract: Historic approaches to radiation protection are founded on the conjecture that measures to safeguard humans are adequate to protect non-human organisms. This view is disparate with other toxicants wherein well-developed frameworks exist to minimise exposure of biota. Significant data gaps for many organisms, coupled with high profile nuclear incidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima, have prompted the re-evaluation of our approach toward environmental radioprotection. Elucidating the impacts of radiation on biota has been identified as priority area for future research within both scientific and regulatory communities. The crustaceans are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, comprising greater than 66,000 species of ecological and commercial importance. This paper aims to assess the available literature of radiation-induced effects within this subphylum and identify knowledge gaps. A literature search was conducted pertaining to radiation effects on four endpoints as stipulated by a number of regulatory bodies: mortality, morbidity, reproduction and mutation. A major finding of this review was the paucity of data regarding the effects of environmentally relevant radiation doses on crustacean biology. Extremely few studies utilising chronic exposure durations or wild populations were found across all four endpoints. The dose levels at which effects occur was found to vary by orders of magnitude thus presenting difficulties in developing phyla-specific benchmark values and reference levels for radioprotection. Based on the limited data, mutation was found to be the most sensitive endpoint of radiation exposure, with mortality the least sensitive

  4. C-type lectins: their network and roles in pathogen recognition and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Sabine; Raulf, Marie-Kristin; Lepenies, Bernd

    2017-02-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) represent the most complex family of animal/human lectins that comprises 17 different groups. During evolution, CTLs have developed by diversification to cover a broad range of glycan ligands. However, ligand binding by CTLs is not necessarily restricted to glycans as some CTLs also bind to proteins, lipids, inorganic molecules, or ice crystals. CTLs share a common fold that harbors a Ca 2+ for contact to the sugar and about 18 invariant residues in a phylogenetically conserved pattern. In vertebrates, CTLs have numerous functions, including serum glycoprotein homeostasis, pathogen sensing, and the initiation of immune responses. Myeloid CTLs in innate immunity are mainly expressed by antigen-presenting cells and play a prominent role in the recognition of a variety of pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and parasites. However, myeloid CTLs such as the macrophage inducible CTL (Mincle) or Clec-9a may also bind to self-antigens and thus contribute to immune homeostasis. While some CTLs induce pro-inflammatory responses and thereby lead to activation of adaptive immune responses, other CTLs act as inhibitory receptors and dampen cellular functions. Since CTLs are key players in pathogen recognition and innate immunity, targeting CTLs may be a promising strategy for cell-specific delivery of drugs or vaccine antigens and to modulate immune responses.

  5. Use of the Crustacean Artemia franciscana for Alternative Biotests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Dvořák

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of the crustacean Artemia franciscana for alternative biotests of the second generation was studied, and possible experimental design and applications of such tests outlined. In addition to the classical use in ecotoxicology, the test can be used in pharmacology as well, or to monitor the effects of ionizing radiation in co-exposure with some chemical compounds. The synergistic effect of co-exposure of PCB (DELOR 103, cadmium chloride and potassium dichromate with beta 89Sr irradiation was shown. We also demonstrated the anti-oxidative and pro-oxidative effects of the ascorbic acid in dependence on its concentration. Use of the pharmaco-toxicological screening in search for the novel inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases was demonstrated as well, showing that Artemia franciscana may be used as a suitable biosensor instead of the expensive tests on higher vertebrates.

  6. Ontogeny of decapod crustacean hemocyanin: effects of temperature and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terwilliger, N; Dumler, K

    2001-03-01

    Hemocyanin is present throughout the decapod crustacean's life, usually as one-hexamer and two-hexamer oligomers. Hemocyanins of some decapod crustaceans undergo changes in subunit composition and oxygen affinity during development. Maternal hemocyanin is taken up from the hemolymph via endocytosis by the oocyte. Embryo hemocyanin differs in subunit composition from hemocyanin of oocyte and adult crab and may represent the onset of hemocyanin synthesis. Complex changes in expression of hemocyanin subunits occur through megalopa and early juvenile stages of the crab Cancer magister, culminating in the pattern of adult hemocyanin. The influences of food availability and temperature on development, growth and hemocyanin ontogeny in early juvenile C. magister have been studied. Crabs were raised in warm or cold sea water and fed high or low levels of food for 6 months. While intermolt period was shorter in crabs fed high food levels, especially those raised in warm water, crabs reared in cold water with high food levels attained the largest sizes. Thus increased food availability affects growth more than increased temperature. Adult hemocyanin appeared at about the same number of weeks after the start of the experiment for crabs in the warm water/high food, warm water/low food and cold water/high food groups, even though warm water/low food crabs had molted fewer times. Crabs in the cold water/low food group expressed adult hemocyanin much later than the other groups. Molt stage and maturation from juvenile to adult are not absolutely coupled, and food availability has a greater influence than temperature on hemocyanin ontogeny.

  7. Extinction, recolonization, and dispersal through time in a planktonic crustacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergeay, Joachim; Vanoverbeke, Joost; Verschuren, Dirk; De Meester, Luc

    2007-12-01

    Dormant propagule banks are important reservoirs of biological and genetic diversity of local communities and populations and provide buffering mechanisms against extinction. Although dormant stages of various plant and animal species are known to remain viable for decades and even centuries, little is known about the effective influence of recolonization from such old sources on the genetic continuity of intermittent populations under natural conditions. Using recent and old dormant eggs recovered from a dated lake sediment core in Kenya, we traced the genetic composition of a local population of the planktonic crustacean Daphnia barbata through a sequence of extinction and recolonization events. This was combined with a phylogeographic and population-genetic survey of regional populations. Four successive populations, fully separated in time, inhabited Lake Naivasha from ca. 1330 to 1570 AD, from ca. 1610 to 1720 AD, from ca. 1840 to 1940 AD, and from 1995 to the present (2001 AD). Our results strongly indicate genetic continuity between the 1840-1940 and 1995-2001 populations, which are separated in time by at least 50 years, and close genetic relatedness of them both to the 1330-1580 population. A software tool (Colonize) was developed to find the most likely source population of the refounded 1995-2001 population and to test the number of colonists involved in the recolonization event. The results confirmed that the 1995-2001 population most probably developed out of a limited number of surviving local dormant eggs from the previous population, rather than out of individuals from regional (central and southern Kenya) or more distant (Ethiopia, Zimbabwe) populations that may have immigrated to Lake Naivasha through passive dispersal. These results emphasize the importance of prolonged dormancy for the natural long-term dynamics of crustacean zooplankton in fluctuating environments and suggest an important role of old local dormant egg banks in aquatic habitat

  8. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan); Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Irimura, Tatsuro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Feldmann, Heinz [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Takada, Ayato, E-mail: atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  9. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. → Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. → Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. → C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. → Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  10. 75 FR 1597 - Western Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... Pacific Crustacean Fisheries; 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY.... ACTION: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year...

  11. POLYCLONAL ANTISERA AGAINST ESTUARINE CRUSTACEAN VITELLINS: A MOLECULAR APPROACH TO REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY AND TOXICOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To fully elucidate the action of crustacean hormones, or their agonists, on vitellogenesis and reproduction, it has become increasingly important to develop sensitive assays that indicate a stimulatory or inhibitory effect on easily measured endpoints. Because of the relative ab...

  12. Endocrine regulation of the reproduction in crustaceans: Identification of potential targets for toxicants and environmental contaminants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazurová, E.; Hilscherová, Klára; Triebskorn, R.; Kohler, H.R.; Maršálek, Blahoslav; Bláha, Luděk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 2 (2008), s. 139-150 ISSN 0006-3088 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : crustaceans * reproduction * endocrine disruption Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.406, year: 2008

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF INSECT JUVENILE HORMONE AGONISTTS ON METAMORPHOSIS AND REPRODUCTION IN ESTUARINE CRUSTACEANS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comparative developmental and reproductive studies were performed on several species of estuarine crustaceans in response to three juvenile hormone agonists (JHAs) (methoprene, fenoxycarb, and pyriproxyfen). Larval development of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was greater ...

  14. 78 FR 9327 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XC453 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2013 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  15. 76 FR 4551 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 665 RIN 0648-XA159 Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2011 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce...

  16. Biodegradation of the chitin-protein complex in crustacean cuticle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artur, Stankiewicz B.; Mastalerz, Maria; Hof, C.H.J.; Bierstedt, A.; Flannery, M.B.; Briggs, D.E.G.; Evershed, R.P.

    1998-01-01

    Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative analysis of amino acids (by HPLC) and chitin showed that the major loss of proteins and chitin occurred between weeks 1 and 2. After 8 weeks tyrosine, tryptophan and valine are the most prominent amino acid moieties, showing their resistance to degradation. The presence of cyclic ketones in the pyrolysates indicates that mucopolysaccharides or other bound non-chitinous carbohydrates are also resistant to decay. There is no evidence of structural degradation of chitin prior to 8 weeks when FTIR revealed a reduction in chitin-specific bands. The chemical changes are paralleled by structural changes in the cuticle, which becomes an increasingly open structure consisting of loose chitinous fibres. The rapid rate of decay in the experiments suggests that where chitin and protein are preserved in fossil cuticles degradation must have been inhibited.Arthropod cuticles consist predominantly of chitin cross-linked with proteins. While there is some experimental evidence that this chitin-protein complex may resist decay, the chemical changes that occur during degradation have not been investigated in detail. The stomatopod crustacean Neogonodactylus oerstedii was decayed in the laboratory under anoxic conditions. A combination of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and FTIR revealed extensive chemical changes after just 2 weeks that resulted in a cuticle composition dominated by chitin. Quantitative

  17. Global diversity of marine isopods (except Asellota and crustacean symbionts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary C B Poore

    Full Text Available The crustacean order Isopoda (excluding Asellota, crustacean symbionts and freshwater taxa comprise 3154 described marine species in 379 genera in 37 families according to the WoRMS catalogue. The history of taxonomic discovery over the last two centuries is reviewed. Although a well defined order with the Peracarida, their relationship to other orders is not yet resolved but systematics of the major subordinal taxa is relatively well understood. Isopods range in size from less than 1 mm to Bathynomus giganteus at 365 mm long. They inhabit all marine habitats down to 7280 m depth but with few doubtful exceptions species have restricted biogeographic and bathymetric ranges. Four feeding categories are recognised as much on the basis of anecdotal evidence as hard data: detritus feeders and browsers, carnivores, parasites, and filter feeders. Notable among these are the Cymothooidea that range from predators and scavengers to external blood-sucking micropredators and parasites. Isopods brood 10-1600 eggs depending on individual species. Strong sexual dimorphism is characteristic of several families, notably in Gnathiidae where sessile males live with a harem of females while juvenile praniza stages are ectoparasites of fish. Protandry is known in Cymothoidae and protogyny in Anthuroidea. Some Paranthuridae are neotenous. About half of all coastal, shelf and upper bathyal species have been recorded in the MEOW temperate realms, 40% in tropical regions and the remainder in polar seas. The greatest concentration of temperate species is in Australasia; more have been recorded from temperate North Pacific than the North Atlantic. Of tropical regions, the Central Indo-Pacific is home to more species any other region. Isopods are decidedly asymmetrical latitudinally with 1.35 times as many species in temperate Southern Hemisphere than the temperate North Atlantic and northern Pacific, and almost four times as many Antarctic as Arctic species. More species

  18. Histological techniques for marine bivalve mollusks and crustaceans, 2nd edition

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, Dorothy W.; Lewis, Earl J.; Keller, B. Jane; Smith, Cecelia S.

    2004-01-01

    Investigators at the Cooperative Oxford Laboratory (COL) diagnose and study crustaceans, mollusks, finfish, and a variety of other marine and estuarine invertebrates to assess animal health. This edition updates the Histological Techniques for Marine Bivalve Mollusks manual by Howard and Smith (1983) with additional chapters on molluscan and crustacean techniques. The new edition is intended to serve as a guide for histological processing of shellfish, principally bivalve mollusks and crustac...

  19. Null models for study Rotifers and Crustaceans Zooplankton species richness in Chilean Patagonian lakes

    OpenAIRE

    Escalante, Patricio de los Ríos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aims The Patagonian lakes are characterized by their oligotrophy that is the cause of low species number in their zooplankton assemblage. The aim of the present study is to analyze the crustacean and rotifers species number pattern in Patagonian lakes among a latitudinal gradient (40-51 °S). Results The results revealed that there are direct significant correlations between total species with rotifer species, and chlorophyll concentration with crustacean species number, and an inve...

  20. External morphology of Lightiella monniotae (Crustacea, Cephalocarida) in the light of Cambrian 'Orsten' crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen; Haug, Joachim T.; Maas, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The species-poor meiofaunal Cephalocarida have played an important role in discussions of the phylogeny and evolution of Crustacea since their discovery in 1955. One reason may be that the morphology of cephalocarids includes some aspects of putatively ancient appearance, such as the simple roof-...... has again proved to be especially appropriate because of the small size of these animals, and because it permits direct comparisons with other similarly small crustaceans and the ‘Orsten’ crustaceans and their larvae....

  1. Bycatch of crustacean and fish bottom trawl fisheries from southern Portugal (Algarve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Esmeralda Costa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of two research projects for analysing bycatch and discards, we quantified catch composition, catch rates, bycatch and discards in two important commercial bottom trawl fisheries (crustacean and fish trawls off the southern coast of Portugal (Algarve. Stratified sampling by onboard observers took place from February 1999 to March 2001 and data were collected from 165 tows during 52 fishing trips. Commercial target species included crustaceans: blue and red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus, deep-water rose shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris, Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus; and fishes: seabreams (Diplodus spp. and Pagellus spp., horse mackerels (Trachurus spp. and European hake (Merluccius merluccius. The trawl fisheries are characterised by considerable amounts of bycatch: 59.5% and 80.4% of the overall total catch for crustacean and fish trawlers respectively. A total of 255 species were identified, which belonged to 15 classes of organisms (137 vertebrates, 112 invertebrates and 6 algae. Crustacean trawlers had higher bycatch biodiversity. Bony fish (45.6% and 37.8% followed by crustaceans (14.6% and 11.5% were the dominant bycatch components of both crustacean and fish trawlers respectively. The influence of a number of factors (e.g. depth, fishing gear, tow duration and season on bycatch and discards is discussed.

  2. Identification of a c-Type Cytochrome Specific for Manganese Dioxide (MnO2) Reduction in Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans Strain 2CP-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfiffner, S. M.; Nissen, S.; Liu, X.; Chourey, K.; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Hettich, R.; Loeffler, F.

    2014-12-01

    Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans is a metabolically versatile Deltaproteobacterium and conserves energy from the reduction of various electron acceptors, including insoluble MnO2 and ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides (FeOOH). The goal of this study was to identify c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to MnO2. The characterization of deletion mutants has revealed a number of c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to solid metal oxides in Shewanella spp. and Geobacter spp; however, a genetic system for Anaeromyxobacter is not available. The A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C genome encodes 68 putative c-type cytochromes, which all lack functional assignments. To identify c-type cytochromes involved in electron transfer to solid MnO2, protein expression profiles of A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C cells grown with acetate as electron donor and MnO2, ferric citrate, FeOOH, nitrate or fumarate as electron acceptors were compared. Whole cell proteomes were analyzed after trypsin proteolysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Distinct c-type cytochrome expression patterns were observed with cells grown with different electron acceptors. A. dehalogenans str. 2CP-C grown with MnO2 expressed 25 out of the 68 c-type cytochromes encoded on the genome. The c-type cytochrome Adeh_1278 was only expressed in strain 2CP-C grown with MnO2. Reverse transcription PCR confirmed that the Adeh_1278 gene was transcribed in MnO2-grown cells but not in cells grown with other terminal electron acceptors. The expression of the Adeh_1278 gene correlated with Mn(IV) reduction activity. Adeh_1278 has three heme binding motifs and is predicted to be located in the periplasm. The identification of Adeh_1278 as a protein uniquely expressed when MnO2 serves as electron acceptor suggests its utility as a biomarker for MnO2 reduction. This example demonstrates the value of the LC-MS/MS approach for identifying specific proteins of interest and making functional assignments

  3. Sulfate uptake by crustacean hepatopancreatic brush border membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerencser, G.A.; Cattey, M.A; Ahearn, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Purified brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were prepared from Atlantic lobster (Homarus americanus) hepatopancreas using differential centrifugation and Mg +2 precipitation techniques. Uptake of 0.1 mM 35 SO 4 -2 was stimulated by pre-loading vesicles with Cl - leading to a transient accumulation of isotope more than twice that at equilibrium. Pre-loading with HCO 3 - or gluconate had no effect on sulfate uptake. No stimulation of 35 SO 4 -2 was observed in the presence of inwardly directed Na + or tetramethylammonium + gradients. Uptake of the divalent anion was strongly stimulated by inwardly directed proton gradients (pH o i ) and markedly inhibited by outwardly directed proton gradients (pH o > pH i ). 35 SO 4 -2 /Cl - exchange was enhanced by imposing a transmembrane inside positive K + diffusion potential and inhibited by a membrane potential of the opposite polarity (K + /valinomycin). Results suggest the presence of a proton-dependent, electrogenic anion antiport mechanism in BBMV isolated from the crustacean hepatopancreas

  4. The cartilage-derived, C-type lectin (CLECSF1): structure of the gene and chromosomal location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neame, P J; Tapp, H; Grimm, D R

    1999-09-03

    Cartilage is a tissue that is primarily extracellular matrix, the bulk of which consists of proteoglycan aggregates constrained within a collagen framework. Candidate components that organize the extracellular assembly of the matrix consist of collagens, proteoglycans and multimeric glycoproteins. We describe the human gene structure of a potential organizing factor, a cartilage-derived member of the C-type lectin superfamily (CLECSF1; C-type lectin superfamily) related to the serum protein, tetranectin. We show by Northern analysis that this protein is restricted to cartilage and locate the gene on chromosome 16q23. We have characterized 10.9 kb of sequence upstream of the first exon. Similarly to human tetranectin, there are three exons. The residues that are conserved between CLECSF1 and tetranectin suggest that the cartilage-derived protein forms a trimeric structure similar to that of tetranectin, with three N-terminal alpha-helical domains aggregating through hydrophobic faces. The globular, C-terminal domain that has been shown to bind carbohydrate in some members of the family and plasminogen in tetranectin, is likely to have a similar overall structure to that of tetranectin.

  5. Macroscale patterns in body size of intertidal crustaceans provide insights on climate change effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Jenifer E.; Hubbard, David M.; Contreras, Heraldo; Duarte, Cristian; Acuña, Emilio; Schoeman, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Predicting responses of coastal ecosystems to altered sea surface temperatures (SST) associated with global climate change, requires knowledge of demographic responses of individual species. Body size is an excellent metric because it scales strongly with growth and fecundity for many ectotherms. These attributes can underpin demographic as well as community and ecosystem level processes, providing valuable insights for responses of vulnerable coastal ecosystems to changing climate. We investigated contemporary macroscale patterns in body size among widely distributed crustaceans that comprise the majority of intertidal abundance and biomass of sandy beach ecosystems of the eastern Pacific coasts of Chile and California, USA. We focused on ecologically important species representing different tidal zones, trophic guilds and developmental modes, including a high-shore macroalga-consuming talitrid amphipod (Orchestoidea tuberculata), two mid-shore scavenging cirolanid isopods (Excirolana braziliensis and E. hirsuticauda), and a low-shore suspension-feeding hippid crab (Emerita analoga) with an amphitropical distribution. Significant latitudinal patterns in body sizes were observed for all species in Chile (21° - 42°S), with similar but steeper patterns in Emerita analoga, in California (32°- 41°N). Sea surface temperature was a strong predictor of body size (-4% to -35% °C-1) in all species. Beach characteristics were subsidiary predictors of body size. Alterations in ocean temperatures of even a few degrees associated with global climate change are likely to affect body sizes of important intertidal ectotherms, with consequences for population demography, life history, community structure, trophic interactions, food-webs, and indirect effects such as ecosystem function. The consistency of results for body size and temperature across species with different life histories, feeding modes, ecological roles, and microhabitats inhabiting a single widespread coastal

  6. A novel C-type lysozyme from Mytilus galloprovincialis: insight into innate immunity and molecular evolution of invertebrate C-type lysozymes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    Full Text Available A c-type lysozyme (named as MgCLYZ gene was cloned from the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. Blast analysis indicated that MgCLYZ was a salivary c-type lysozyme which was mainly found in insects. The nucleotide sequence of MgCLYZ was predicted to encode a polypeptide of 154 amino acid residues with the signal peptide comprising the first 24 residues. The deduced mature peptide of MgCLYZ was of a calculated molecular weight of 14.4 kD and a theoretical isoelectric point (pI of 8.08. Evolution analysis suggested that bivalve branch of the invertebrate c-type lysozymes phylogeny tree underwent positive selection during evolution. By quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR analysis, MgCLYZ transcript was widely detected in all examined tissues and responded sensitively to bacterial challenge in hemocytes and hepatopancreas. The optimal temperature and pH of recombinant MgCLYZ (rMgCLYZ were 20°C and 4, respectively. The rMgCLYZ displayed lytic activities against Gram-positive bacteria including Micrococcus luteus and Staphyloccocus aureus, and Gram-negative bacteria including Vibrio anguillarum, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas putida, Proteus mirabilis and Bacillus aquimaris. These results suggest that MgCLYZ perhaps play an important role in innate immunity of M. galloprovincialis, and invertebrate c-type lysozymes might be under positive selection in a species-specific manner during evolution for undergoing adaptation to different environment and diverse pathogens.

  7. Extended parental care in crustaceans: an update Cuidado parental extendido en crustáceos: conocimiento actual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARTIN THIEL

    2003-06-01

    increase in dispersal distances of crustaceans with XPC via rafting, surpassing that of crustaceans with pelagic larvae. Since crustaceans with XPC may be particularly susceptible to changing environmental conditions, especially in the terrestrial environment where populations are often small and locally restricted, conservation of biodiversity should focus on these (and other invertebrate species with XPCMuchas especies de crustáceos presentan cuidado parental extendido (XPC, donde individuos juveniles completamente desarrollados son cuidados por los padres. En la presente contribución se revisa el conocimiento actual del XPC, sus consecuencias y además se identifican tópicos importantes para ser investigados en el futuro. Los crustáceos que presentan XPC pueden ser encontrados en ambientes marinos, límnicos y terrestres, pero el XPC es más conspicuo y aparentemente más común en el ambiente terrestre. En todas las especies analizadas, las hembras desarrollan las principales tareas relacionadas con el XPC. Crustáceos que portan sus juveniles en alguna estructura del cuerpo (i.e. marsupio durante el XPC liberan a estos tempranamente, mientras que las especies que habitan refugios pueden albergar a sus crías incluso cuando éstas alcanzan estadios tardíos de desarrollo, o bien, la adultez. Además de proveer un microhabitat adecuado y seguro para las crías, las madres comparten el alimento con, limpian y/o defienden activamente a sus juveniles. Entre los beneficios más importantes del XPC figura el incremento de las tasas de crecimiento y sobrevivencia de los juveniles. El XPC puede producir conflictos entre las crías o entre los padres y sus crías, especialmente durante la etapa tardía del XPC, cuando algunos recursos (alimento y espacio pueden llegar a ser aún más limitantes. De manera similar, debido a la proximidad y frecuente interacción entre padres y crías, epibiontes (e.g., parásitos pueden ser transferidos desde los padres hacia los juveniles

  8. Relation between physico-chemical limnology and crustacean community in Wular Lake of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Javaid Ahmad; Pandit, Ashok K

    2013-10-01

    The present study scrutinizes the seasonal variation in the distribution of crustacean zooplankton in relation to physico-chemical liminology of Wular lake. Water samples were collected from five study sites during September 2010-August 2011. Remarkable spatial and temporal variations were observed among the different study sites. Among the parameters recorded water temperature showed positive correlation with pH (p<0.01) and orthophosphate (p<0.05).Transparency showed a significant negative correlation with total alkalinity (p<0.01), free carbon dioxide (p<0.01) and ammonical nitrogen (p<0.01). Crustacean zooplankton were collected by filtering 100 L lake water through a 30 microm nytal mesh and preserved in 4% formalin. A total of 42 taxa of crustacean were recorded, among them 23 species belonged to Cladocera, 16 to Copepoda and only 3 to Ostracoda. Species diversity and density depicted an abrupt up surge on the advent of warmer period (extending from March). Among the various sites a maximum of 40 species were recorded from a single biotope (site III) against the minimum of only 17 species being recorded from site I. Bray-Curtis cluster analysis showed close similarity (0.928-0.944%) between summer and autumn in terms of species diversity. Pearson correlation coefficient of the various physico-chemical parameters of water with crustacean zooplankton depicted that not only a single but multiple factors govern over the distribution and diversity of crustacean in the lake.

  9. [Diversity and faunal analysis of crustaceans in Potatso National Park, Shangri-La, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Shu-Sen; Chen, Fei-Zhou; Yang, Jun-Xing; Yang, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Xiao-Yong

    2013-06-01

    Potatso National Park was the first national park in mainland China, preceded by the earlier Bitahai Nature Reserve. Located in the northwest of Yunnan and on the southeast of Qinghai-Tibet plateau, Potatso is a typical low latitude and high elevation wetland nature reserve, with large areas of coniferous forest around alpine lakes and both wetland and water area ecosystems. In August, 2011, we undertook a survey of crustaceans in the park, sampling lakes, ponds, streams, and rivers throughout Potatso. We found a total of 29 species (including varieties) belonging to 24 genera and 11 families. Notable discoveries include Parartemiopsis sp, Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Simocephalus congener, which are the first examples of these species to be recorded in China. Likewise, Gammarus bitaensis is a unique crustacean found only in Potatso National Park and Thermocyclops dumonti and Gammarus paucispinus are both endemic species to northwestern Yunnan. The overall faunal characteristics of crustaceans in the park also revealed several things about Potatso: (1) Cosmopolitan and Palaearctic elements reach 48.27% and 37.93%, clearly showing the Palaearctic element as the dominant fauna; (2) most of the crustacean, such as Arctodiaptomus parvispinus and Gammarus, are typical alpine types, confirming that Potatso has feature typical of alpine and plateau fauna; and (3) the proportion of endemic and rare crustacean species in Potatso National Park is approximately 10%, suggesting that the Potatso National Park in particular and the northwest of Yunnan in general have a unique geological and evolutionary history.

  10. The Structure of the Poxvirus A33 Protein Reveals a Dimer of Unique C-Type Lectin-Like Domains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Singh, Kavita; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Garboczi, David N. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The current vaccine against smallpox is an infectious form of vaccinia virus that has significant side effects. Alternative vaccine approaches using recombinant viral proteins are being developed. A target of subunit vaccine strategies is the poxvirus protein A33, a conserved protein in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae that is expressed on the outer viral envelope. Here we have determined the structure of the A33 ectodomain of vaccinia virus. The structure revealed C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) that occur as dimers in A33 crystals with five different crystal lattices. Comparison of the A33 dimer models shows that the A33 monomers have a degree of flexibility in position within the dimer. Structural comparisons show that the A33 monomer is a close match to the Link module class of CTLDs but that the A33 dimer is most similar to the natural killer (NK)-cell receptor class of CTLDs. Structural data on Link modules and NK-cell receptor-ligand complexes suggest a surface of A33 that could interact with viral or host ligands. The dimer interface is well conserved in all known A33 sequences, indicating an important role for the A33 dimer. The structure indicates how previously described A33 mutations disrupt protein folding and locates the positions of N-linked glycosylations and the epitope of a protective antibody.

  11. Fast real-time PCR for the detection of crustacean allergen in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Beatriz; Vieites, Juan M; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2012-02-29

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; there are various regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers. In the present work a fast real-time PCR, by a LNA probe, was developed. This allows the detection of crustaceans in all kinds of products, including processed products in which very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure during the manufacturing process are used. This methodology provides greater sensitivity and specificity and reduces the analysis time of real-time PCR to 40 min. This methodology was further validated by means of simulating products likely to contain this allergen. For this, products present on the market were spiked with crustacean cooking water. The assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.

  12. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Odilichukwu R. Okpala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported. Objective: This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either chemical-treated and or free of chemicals, incorporating price comparisons using a descriptive approach. Design: The study design employed a questionnaire approach via interview using a computer-assisted telephone system and sampled 1,540 participants across five key locations in Italy. To actualize consumer sensitivity, ‘price’ was the focus given its crucial role as a consumption barrier. Prior to this, variables such as demographic characteristics of participants, frequency of purchasing, quality attributes/factors that limit the consumption of crustaceans were equally considered. Results: By price comparisons, consumers are likely to favor chemical-free (modified atmosphere packaging crustacean products amid a price increase of up to 15%. But, a further price increase such as by 25% could markedly damage consumers’ feelings, which might lead to a considerable number opting out in favor of either chemical-treated or other seafood products. Comparing locations, the studied variables showed no statistical differences (p>0.05. On the contrary, the response weightings fluctuated across the studied categories. Both response weightings and coefficient of variation helped reveal more about how responses deviated per variable categories. Conclusions: This study has revealed some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that were either chemical-treated or subject to chemical-free preservative up to price

  13. Toward crustacean without chemicals: a descriptive analysis of consumer response using price comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, Charles Odilichukwu R; Bono, Gioacchino; Pipitone, Vito; Vitale, Sergio; Cannizzaro, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    To date, there seems to be limited-to-zero emphasis about how consumers perceive crustacean products subject to either chemical and or non-chemical preservative treatments. In addition, studies that investigated price comparisons of crustacean products subject to either chemical or chemical-free preservative methods seem unreported. This study focused on providing some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that are either chemical-treated and or free of chemicals, incorporating price comparisons using a descriptive approach. The study design employed a questionnaire approach via interview using a computer-assisted telephone system and sampled 1,540 participants across five key locations in Italy. To actualize consumer sensitivity, 'price' was the focus given its crucial role as a consumption barrier. Prior to this, variables such as demographic characteristics of participants, frequency of purchasing, quality attributes/factors that limit the consumption of crustaceans were equally considered. By price comparisons, consumers are likely to favor chemical-free (modified atmosphere packaging) crustacean products amid a price increase of up to 15%. But, a further price increase such as by 25% could markedly damage consumers' feelings, which might lead to a considerable number opting out in favor of either chemical-treated or other seafood products. Comparing locations, the studied variables showed no statistical differences ( p >0.05). On the contrary, the response weightings fluctuated across the studied categories. Both response weightings and coefficient of variation helped reveal more about how responses deviated per variable categories. This study has revealed some foundational knowledge about how consumers perceive traditionally harvested crustaceans that were either chemical-treated or subject to chemical-free preservative up to price sensitivity using Italy as a reference case, which is applicable to other parts

  14. Respiratory and Metabolic Impacts of Crustacean Immunity: Are there Implications for the Insects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Karen G; Burnett, Louis E

    2015-11-01

    Extensive similarities in the molecular architecture of the crustacean immune system to that of insects give credence to the current view that the Hexapoda, including Insecta, arose within the clade Pancrustacea. The crustacean immune system is mediated largely by hemocytes, relying on suites of pattern recognition receptors, effector functions, and signaling pathways that parallel those of insects. In crustaceans, as in insects, the cardiovascular system facilitates movement of hemocytes and delivery of soluble immune factors, thereby supporting immune surveillance and defense along with other physiological functions such as transport of nutrients, wastes, and hormones. Crustaceans also rely heavily on their cardiovascular systems to mediate gas exchange; insects are less reliant on internal circulation for this function. Among the largest crustaceans, the decapods have developed a condensed heart and a highly arteriolized cardiovascular system that supports the metabolic demands of their often large body size. However, recent studies indicate that mounting an immune response can impair gas exchange and metabolism in their highly developed vascular system. When circulating hemocytes detect the presence of potential pathogens, they aggregate rapidly with each other and with the pathogen. These growing aggregates can become trapped in the microvasculature of the gill where they are melanized and may be eliminated at the next molt. Prior to molting, trapped aggregates of hemocytes also can impair hemolymph flow and oxygenation at the gill. Small shifts to anaerobic metabolism only partially compensate for this decrease in oxygen uptake. The resulting metabolic depression is likely to impact other energy-expensive cellular processes and whole-animal performance. For crustaceans that often live in microbially-rich, but oxygen-poor aquatic environments, there appear to be distinct tradeoffs, based on the gill's multiple roles in respiration and immunity. Insects have

  15. Expression of C-type lectin receptor mRNA in chronic otitis media with cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hoon; Han, Seung-Ho; Byun, Jae Yong; Park, Moon Suh; Kim, Young Il; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2017-06-01

    The levels of expression of various C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) messenger ribo nucleic acids (mRNAs) were significantly higher in cholesteatomas than in normal skin, suggesting that these CLRs may be involved in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. Altered expression of pattern recognition receptors may be associated with immune responses in patients with cholesteatoma. This study assessed the levels of expression of CLR mRNAs in normal skin and in cholesteatoma. Cholesteatoma specimens were obtained from 38 patients with acquired cholesteatoma. The levels of expression of various CLR mRNAs were assessed quantitatively using real-time RT-PCR (Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and correlated with age, sex, the presence of bacteria, hearing level, frequency of surgery, and degree of ossicle destruction. The levels of CD206 (cluster of differentiation 206), DEC-205 (Dendritic and epithelial cell-205), MGL (monoacylglycerol lipase), CLEC5A (C-type lectin domain family 5 member A), Dectin-2 (dendrite cell-associated C-type lectin-2), BDCA2 (Blood dendritic cell antigen 2), Mincle, DCIR (dendritic cell immunoreceptor), Dectin-1, MICL (Myeloid inhibitory C type-like lectin), and CLEC12B (C-type lectin domain family 12, member B) mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatoma than in control skin samples (p C-type lectin domain family 5 member) and Dectin-1 mRNAs were significantly higher in cholesteatomas with ≥2 than ≤1 destroyed ossicles (p < 0.05), and the levels of MGL, Mincle, Dectin-1, and CLEC12B mRNAs were significantly higher in recurrent than initial cholesteatoma specimens (p < 0.05). The level of CLEC5A mRNAs was significantly higher in patients with severe than mild-to-moderate hearing loss (p < 0.05).

  16. [Effects of large bio-manipulation fish pen on community structure of crustacean zooplankton in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhi-Xin; Xie, Ping; Guo, Long-Gen; Xu, Jun; Zhou, Qiong

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, a large bio-manipulation pen with the stock of silver carp and bighead carp was built to control the cyanobacterial bloom in Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake. This paper investigated the seasonal variation of the community structure of crustacean zooplankton and the water quality within and outside the pen. There were no significant differences in the environmental parameters and phytoplankton biomass within and outside the pen. The species composition and seasonal dynamics of crustacean zooplankton within and outside the pen were similar, but the biomass of crustacean zooplankton was greatly suppressed by silver carp and bighead carp. The total crustacean zooplankton biomass and cladocerans biomass were significantly lower in the pen (P < 0.05). In general, silver carp and bighead carp exerted more pressure on cladoceran species than on copepod species. A distinct seasonal succession of crustacean zooplankton was observed in the Bay. Many crustacean species were only dominated in given seasons. Large-sized crustacean (mainly Daphnia sp. and Cyclops vicnus) dominated in winter and spring, while small-sized species (mainly Bosmina sp., Ceriodaphnia cornuta, and Limnoithona sinensis) dominated in summer and autumn. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that water transparency, temperature, and phytoplankton biomass were the most important factors affecting the seasonal succession of the crustacean.

  17. Macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin receptor for DC targeting of antitumor glycopeptide vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuti, M; Zizzari, I; Napoletano, C

    2011-01-01

    e13528 Background: Dendritic cells (DCs) are the most potent antigen presenting cells and are employed in cancer vaccination. Several receptors are being studied in order to identif strategies to increase DCs activating capacity. The C-type lectin macrophage galactose type C-type lectin (MGL...... of IFNg and IL-2 secretion by both CD8 and CD4 T cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that MGL engagement profoundly affects DC plasticity inducing and directing a Th1 immune response. Moreover, MGL receptor expressed on human DC can be targeted by glycopeptide based vaccines with adjuvant...

  18. Transmission-Blocking Antibodies against Mosquito C-Type Lectins for Dengue Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Zhang, Fuchun; Liu, Jianying; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Siyin; Qin, Chengfeng; Xiang, Ye; Wang, Penghua; Cheng, Gong

    2014-01-01

    C-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. Several C-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. We previously identified a C-type lectin in Aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific C-type lectin-1 (mosGCTL-1), facilitating the attachment of West Nile virus (WNV) on the cell membrane. Here, we first identified that 9 A. aegypti mosGCTL genes were key susceptibility factors facilitating DENV-2 infection, of which mosGCTL-3 exhibited the most significant effect. We found that mosGCTL-3 was induced in mosquito tissues with DENV-2 infection, and that the protein interacted with DENV-2 surface envelop (E) protein and virions in vitro and in vivo. In addition, the other identified mosGCTLs interacted with the DENV-2 E protein, indicating that DENV may employ multiple mosGCTLs as ligands to promote the infection of vectors. The vectorial susceptibility factors that facilitate pathogen invasion may potentially be explored as a target to disrupt the acquisition of microbes from the vertebrate host. Indeed, membrane blood feeding of antisera against mosGCTLs dramatically reduced mosquito infective ratio. Hence, the immunization against mosGCTLs is a feasible approach for preventing dengue infection. Our study provides a future avenue for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine that interrupts the life cycle of dengue virus and reduces disease burden. PMID:24550728

  19. Functional environmental proteomics: elucidating the role of a c-type cytochrome abundant during uranium bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jiae; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-02-01

    Studies with pure cultures of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms have demonstrated that outer-surface c-type cytochromes are important electron transfer agents for the reduction of metals, but previous environmental proteomic studies have typically not recovered cytochrome sequences from subsurface environments in which metal reduction is important. Gel-separation, heme-staining and mass spectrometry of proteins in groundwater from in situ uranium bioremediation experiments identified a putative c-type cytochrome, designated Geobacter subsurface c-type cytochrome A (GscA), encoded within the genome of strain M18, a Geobacter isolate previously recovered from the site. Homologs of GscA were identified in the genomes of other Geobacter isolates in the phylogenetic cluster known as subsurface clade 1, which predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments. Most of the gscA sequences recovered from groundwater genomic DNA clustered in a tight phylogenetic group closely related to strain M18. GscA was most abundant in groundwater samples in which Geobacter sp. predominated. Expression of gscA in a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens that lacked the gene for the c-type cytochrome OmcS, thought to facilitate electron transfer from conductive pili to Fe(III) oxide, restored the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Atomic force microscopy provided evidence that GscA was associated with the pili. These results demonstrate that a c-type cytochrome with an apparent function similar to that of OmcS is abundant when Geobacter sp. are abundant in the subsurface, providing insight into the mechanisms for the growth of subsurface Geobacter sp. on Fe(III) oxide and suggesting an approach for functional analysis of other Geobacter proteins found in the subsurface.

  20. Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of rhizophora mangle (rhizophoraceae) at Cispata Bay, Cordoba, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiros R, Jorge Alexander; Arias, Jorge Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existing knowledge on the ecology of mangroves at Cispata Bay, few studies have focused on the association of invertebrates on red mangrove roots, so between December 2010 and September 2011, it was characterized Taxocenosis of mollusks and crustaceans on roots of rhizophora mangle in two study sites at Cispata Bay, Colombia. For the collections of biological material were randomly taken three red mangrove roots with a diameter homogeneous by sampling station. Mollusks and crustaceans were obtained from the root surface with a scraping knife then were removed and fixed in 10 % formalin for later identification to species using specialized taxonomic keys. of the 12289 individuals collected in the four samples, 10470 belonged to the phylum Mollusca (85,2 %) and the remaining 1819 to subphylum Crustacea (14,8 %). for mollusks were identified 14 species distributed in 11 families and two classes; bivalvia and gastropoda. for crustaceans were identified 24 species distributed in 16 families and four orders; sessillia, decapoda, isopoda and amphipoda. in both sectors sampling mytella charruana, balanuseburneus and crassostrea rhizophorae were the most important species in terms of abundance, however mollusks like m. charruana and B. eburneus have a great ability to adapt and adjust to changing hydroclimatic, which was reflected in the dominance of these species in the sector with the greatest influence Sinu River. The presence of crustaceans Petrolisthes armatus and Aratus pisonii in the sector with more proximity to the Caribbean Sea indicate that are species with great mobility and physiological adaptation mechanisms.

  1. Predation by crustaceans on native and non-native Baltic clams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ejdung, G.; Flach, E.; Byrén, L.; Hummel, H.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of crustacean predators on native/non-native Macoma balthica bivalves in aquarium experiments. North Sea M. balthica (NS Macoma) were recently observed in the southern Baltic Sea. They differ genetically and in terms of morphology, behaviour and evolutionary history from Baltic

  2. 76 FR 77214 - Hawaii Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... Crustacean Fisheries; 2012 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lobster Harvest Guideline AGENCY: National Marine...: Notification of lobster harvest guideline. SUMMARY: NMFS establishes the annual harvest guideline for the commercial lobster fishery in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for calendar year 2012 at zero...

  3. Crustacean plankton communities in forty-five lakes in the experimental lakes area, northwestern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patalas, K

    1971-01-01

    Zooplankton communities were characterized on the basis of samples taken in summer as vertical net hauls in the central part of lakes. Twenty-eight species of crustaceans were found in the 45 lakes studied. The highest number of species as well as the highest numbers of individuals (per unit of area) usually occurred in the largest deepest lakes with most transparent water.

  4. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stentiford, G.D.; Neil, D.M.; Peeler, E.J.; Shields, J.D.; Small, H.J.; Flegel, T.W.; Vlak, J.M.; Jones, B.; Morado, F.; Moss, S.; Lotz, J.; Bartholomay, L.; Behringer, D.C.; Hauton, C.; Lightner, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global

  5. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  6. Decapod crustaceans from the Neogene of the Caribbean: diversity, distribution and prospectus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, J.S.H.; Portell, R.W.; Donovan, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    The Neogene decapod crustaceans are reviewed from Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao, Anguilla, Barbados, Carriacou, Costa Rica, Cuba, Florida, Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic), Jamaica, Mexico, Panama, Puerto Rico, St. Kitts, Tintamare Island, Trinidad and Venezuela. The most widely distributed

  7. 19 CFR 12.26 - Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., reptiles, mollusks, and crustaceans; prohibited and endangered and threatened species; designated ports of..., Birds, and Insects § 12.26 Importations of wild animals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, mollusks, and... crustacea), amphibians, reptiles, or the offspring or eggs of any of the foregoing which the Secretary of...

  8. Reef-associated crustacean fauna: biodiversity estimates using semi-quantitative sampling and DNA barcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaisance, L.; Knowlton, N.; Paulay, G.; Meyer, C.

    2009-12-01

    The cryptofauna associated with coral reefs accounts for a major part of the biodiversity in these ecosystems but has been largely overlooked in biodiversity estimates because the organisms are hard to collect and identify. We combine a semi-quantitative sampling design and a DNA barcoding approach to provide metrics for the diversity of reef-associated crustacean. Twenty-two similar-sized dead heads of Pocillopora were sampled at 10 m depth from five central Pacific Ocean localities (four atolls in the Northern Line Islands and in Moorea, French Polynesia). All crustaceans were removed, and partial cytochrome oxidase subunit I was sequenced from 403 individuals, yielding 135 distinct taxa using a species-level criterion of 5% similarity. Most crustacean species were rare; 44% of the OTUs were represented by a single individual, and an additional 33% were represented by several specimens found only in one of the five localities. The Northern Line Islands and Moorea shared only 11 OTUs. Total numbers estimated by species richness statistics (Chao1 and ACE) suggest at least 90 species of crustaceans in Moorea and 150 in the Northern Line Islands for this habitat type. However, rarefaction curves for each region failed to approach an asymptote, and Chao1 and ACE estimators did not stabilize after sampling eight heads in Moorea, so even these diversity figures are underestimates. Nevertheless, even this modest sampling effort from a very limited habitat resulted in surprisingly high species numbers.

  9. Consumption of crustaceans by megaherbivorous dinosaurs: dietary flexibility and dinosaur life history strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Karen; Feldmann, Rodney M; Tashman, Jessica N

    2017-09-21

    Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs. These multi-liter coprolites from the Kaiparowits Formation are primarily composed of comminuted conifer wood tissues that were fungally degraded before ingestion. Thick fragments of laminar crustacean cuticle are scattered within the coprolite contents and suggest that the dinosaurian defecators consumed sizeable crustaceans that sheltered in rotting logs. The diet of decayed wood and crustaceans offered a substantial supply of plant polysaccharides, with added dividends of animal protein and calcium. Nevertheless, it is unlikely that the fossilized fecal residues depict year-round feeding habits. It is more reasonable to infer that these coprolites reflected seasonal dietary shifts-possibly related to the dinosaurs' oviparous breeding activities. This surprising fossil evidence challenges conventional notions of herbivorous dinosaur diets and reveals a degree of dietary flexibility that is consistent with that of extant herbivorous birds.

  10. A new genus and two new species of the crustacean order Thermosbaebacea from the West Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.

    1976-01-01

    Up to now, the crustacean order Thermosbaenacea contained two genera with only six valid species, five from the panmediterranean region, one from Texas. Two new members of this curious group of “living fossils” have been discovered in the West Indies. The one, from two deep wells not far from the

  11. Biosynthesis of Single Thioether c-Type Cytochromes Provides Insight into Mechanisms Intrinsic to Holocytochrome c Synthase (HCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbitt, Shalon E; Hsu, Jennifer; Mendez, Deanna L; Kranz, Robert G

    2017-07-05

    C-type cytochromes (cyts c) are generally characterized by the presence of two thioether attachments between heme and two cysteine residues within a highly conserved CXXCH motif. Most eukaryotes use the System III cyt c biogenesis pathway composed of holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS) to catalyze thioether formation. Some protozoan organisms express a functionally equivalent, natural variant of cyt c with an XXXCH heme-attachment motif, resulting in a single covalent attachment. Previous studies have shown that recombinant HCCS can produce low levels of the XXXCH single thioether variant. However, cyt c variants containing substitutions at the C-terminal cysteine of the heme-attachment site (i.e., resulting in CXXXH) have never been observed in nature, and attempts to biosynthesize a recombinant version of this cyt c variant have been largely unsuccessful. In this study, we report the biochemical analyses of an HCCS-matured CXXXH cyt c variant, comparing its biosynthesis and properties to those of the XXXCH variant. The results indicate that although HCCS mediates heme attachment to the N-terminal cysteine in CXXXH cyt c variants, up to 50% of the cyt c produced is modified in an oxygen-dependent manner, resulting in a mixed population of cyt c. Since this aerobic modification occurs only in the context of CXXXH, we also propose that natural HCCS-mediated heme attachment to CXXCH likely initiates at the C-terminal cysteine.

  12. Structure of the C-type lectin carbohydrate recognition domain of human Tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen; Nielsen, Bettina Bryde; Rasmussen, Hanne B.

    1998-01-01

    Tetranectin (TN) is a C-type lectin involved in fibrinolysis, being the only endogenous ligand known to bind specifically to the kringle 4 domain of plasminogen. TN was originally isolated from plasma, but shows a wide tissue distribution. Furthermore, TN has been found in the extracellular matri...... molecules. One sulfate ion has been located at the surface of TN3, forming contacts to Glu120, Lys148, Asn106 of a symmetry-related molecule, and to an ethanol molecule....

  13. Prenatal diagnosis of methymalonic aciduria and homocystinuria cblC type using DNA analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonietta Zappu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type is the most frequent inborn error of vitamin B12. CblC patients present with a heterogeneous clinical picture.To date, the early prenatal diagnosis of MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type is performed by determination of methylmalonic acid and total homocysteine (Hcy in amniotic fluid supernatant. In this paper we report a case of prenatal diagnosis, using genetic analysis, of MMA and homocystinuria, cblC type in an at risk couple. Direct sequencing analysis of the amplified products of chorionic villi biopsy extracted DNA showed normal sequence in the fetal DNA. Mutation analysis of the MMACHC gene is more cost-effective and less time-consuming than the biochemical approach. Early prenatal treatment may have an impact on the long-term complications associated with cblC disease. Future studies with the aim of determining the long-term benefits of daily parenteral OHCbl started soon after conception in at risk mothers should be considered. In this context early prenatal diagnosis could determine whether therapy needs to be continued.

  14. Occurrence and molecular characterisation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustaceans commercialised in Venice area, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caburlotto, Greta; Suffredini, Elisabetta; Toson, Marica; Fasolato, Luca; Antonetti, Paolo; Zambon, Michela; Manfrin, Amedeo

    2016-03-02

    Infections due to the pathogenic human vibrios, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio vulnificus, are mainly associated with consumption of raw or partially cooked bivalve molluscs. At present, little is known about the presence of Vibrio species in crustaceans and the risk of vibriosis associated with the consumption of these products. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence and concentration of the main pathogenic Vibrio spp. in samples of crustaceans (n=143) commonly eaten in Italy, taking into account the effects of different variables such as crustacean species, storage conditions and geographic origin. Subsequently, the potential pathogenicity of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans (n=88) was investigated, considering the classic virulence factors (tdh and trh genes) and four genes coding for relevant proteins of the type III secretion systems 2 (T3SS2α and T3SS2β). In this study, the presence of V. cholerae and V. vulnificus was never detected, whereas 40 samples (28%) were positive for V. parahaemolyticus with an overall prevalence of 41% in refrigerated products and 8% in frozen products. The highest prevalence and average contamination levels were detected in Crangon crangon (prevalence 58% and median value 3400 MPN/g) and in products from the northern Adriatic Sea (35%), with the samples from the northern Venetian Lagoon reaching a median value of 1375 MPN/g. While genetic analysis confirmed absence of the tdh gene, three of the isolates contained the trh gene and, simultaneously, the T3SS2β genes. Moreover three possibly clonal tdh-negative/trh-negative isolates carried the T3SS2α apparatus. The detection of both T3SS2α and T3SS2β apparatuses in V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from crustaceans emphasised the importance of considering new genetic markers associated with virulence besides the classical factors. Moreover this study represents the first report dealing with Vibrio spp. in

  15. Late Devonian (Frasnian) phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields from Belgium reinterpreted as ammonoid anaptychi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goolaerts, Stijn; Denayer, Julien; Mottequin, Bernard

    2017-12-01

    The taxonomic affinities of fossils from the Frasnian succession of Belgium previously described as phyllopod and phyllocarid crustacean shields are discussed. The rediscovery of the holotype of Ellipsocaris dewalquei, the type species of the genus Ellipsocaris Woodward in Dewalque, 1882, allows to end the discussion on the taxonomic assignation of the genus Ellipsocaris. It is removed from the phyllopod crustaceans as interpreted originally and considered here as an ammonoid anaptychus. Furthermore, it is considered to be a junior synonym of the genus Sidetes Giebel, 1847. Similarly, Van Straelen's (1933) lower to middle Frasnian record Spathiocaris chagrinensis Ruedemann, 1916, is also an ammonoid anaptychus. Although ammonoids can be relatively frequent in some Frasnian horizons of Belgium, anaptychi remain particularly scarce and the attribution to the present material to peculiar ammonoid species is not possible.

  16. Chitin Extraction from Crustacean Shells Using Biological Methods – A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wassila Arbia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After cellulose, chitin is the most widespread biopolymer in nature. Chitin and its derivatives have great economic value because of their biological activities and their industrial and biomedical applications. It can be extracted from three sources, namely crustaceans, insects and microorganisms. However, the main commercial sources of chitin are shells of crustaceans such as shrimps, crabs, lobsters and krill that are supplied in large quantities by the shellfish processing industries. Extraction of chitin involves two steps, demineralisation and deproteinisation, which can be conducted by two methods, chemical or biological. The chemical method requires the use of acids and bases, while the biological method involves microorganisms. Although lactic acid bacteria are mainly applied, other microbial species including proteolytic bacteria have also been successfully implemented, as well as mixed cultures involving lactic acid-producing bacteria and proteolytic microorganisms. The produced lactic acid allows shell demineralisation, since lactic acid reacts with calcium carbonate, the main mineral component, to form calcium lactate.

  17. Crustaceans from bitumen clast in Carboniferous glacial diamictite extend fossil record of copepods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Paul A; Huys, Rony; Stephenson, Michael H; Heward, Alan P; Taylor, Paul N

    2010-08-10

    Copepod crustaceans are extremely abundant but, because of their small size and fragility, they fossilize poorly. Their fossil record consists of one Cretaceous (c. 115 Ma) parasite and a few Miocene (c. 14 Ma) fossils. In this paper, we describe abundant crustacean fragments, including copepods, from a single bitumen clast in a glacial diamictite of late Carboniferous age (c. 303 Ma) from eastern Oman. Geochemistry identifies the source of the bitumen as an oilfield some 100-300 km to the southwest, which is consistent with an ice flow direction from glacial striae. The bitumen likely originated as an oil seep into a subglacial lake. This find extends the fossil record of copepods by some 188 Ma, and of free-living forms by 289 Ma. The copepods include evidence of the extant family Canthocamptidae, believed to have colonized fresh water in Pangaea during Carboniferous times.

  18. Effects of temperature and salinity on the development of the amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Suyan; Fang, Jianguang; Zhang, Jihong; Jiang, Zengjie; Mao, Yuze; Zhao, Fazhen

    2013-09-01

    The amphipod crustacean Eogammarus sinensis has useful features that make it suitable for use in the aquaculture of fish and large decapod crustaceans. In this study, we investigated the effects of temperature and salinity on the development, fecundity, survival, and growth rate of E. sinensis. The results show that temperature significantly affected E. sinensis development, but salinity. As temperature increased, the duration of E. sinensis embryonic development decreased. Fecundity was affected significantly by temperature and the combination of temperature and salinity, but by salinity alone. In addition, high temperatures accelerated E. sinensis juvenile growth rates, whereas high salinity reduced it. Therefore, our data suggest that E. sinensis tolerates a wide range of salinities and that temperature has more significant effects than salinity on the embryonic development, fecundity, and growth of E. sinensis. Our results shall be useful for mass production of this species for use in aquaculture.

  19. Scale Dependence of the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Crustaceans Thin Films as Biomimetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Qu, Tao; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    The exoskeletons of crustacean species in the form of thin films have been investigated by several researchers to better understand the role played by the exoskeletal structure in affecting the functioning of species such as shrimps, crabs, and lobsters. These species exhibit similar designs in their exoskeleton microstructure, such as a Bouligand pattern (twisted plywood structure), layers of different thickness across cross section, change in mineral content through the layers, etc. Different parts of crustaceans exhibit a significant variation in mechanical properties based on the variation in the above-mentioned parameters. This change in mechanical properties has been analyzed by using imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and by using mechanical characterization techniques such as nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. In this article, the design principles of these biological composites are discussed based on two shrimp species: Rimicaris exoculata and Pandalus platyceros.

  20. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

    OpenAIRE

    Mayorga,Pablo; Pérez,Karen R.; Cruz,Sully M.; Cáceres,Armando

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  1. Cardioacceleratory Neurons of the Isopod Crustacean, Ligia exotica : Visualization of Peripheral Projection onto the Heart Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Sakurai; Hiroshi, Yamagishi; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba; Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Tsukuba

    1998-01-01

    Innervation of the heart muscle by the cardioacceleratory neurons was morphologically and electrophysiologically examined in the isopod crustacean, Ligia exotica. Intracellular injection of neurobiotin into the first and second cardioacceleratory neurons(CA1 and CA2)revealed their peripheral axonal projections. Inside the heart, the CA1 and CA2 axons ran along the trunk of the cardiac ganglion. Finely arborized branches with many varicosities arose from the axon and projected over the heart m...

  2. [Faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zi-Rong; Sun, Dian-Rong; Chen, Zuo-Zhi; Zhang, Han-Hua; Wang, Xue-Hui; Wang, Yue-Zhong; Fang, Hong-Da; Dong, Yan-Hong

    2009-10-01

    Based on the data of bottom trawl surveys in the vicinity of Pearl River estuary in August (summer), October (autumn), December (winter) 2006, and April (spring) 2007, the faunal characteristics and distribution pattern of crustaceans were analyzed. A total of 54 species belonging to 25 genera, 17 families, and 2 orders were collected, including 22 species of shrimps, 22 species of crabs, and 10 species of squills. Most of the crustaceans were tropical-subtropical warm-water species, a few of them were eurythermal species, and no warm-water and cold-water species occurred. Euryhaline species were most abundant, followed by halophile species, and the low-salinity species were the least. Most of the crustacean species belonged to the fauna of Indian Ocean-western Pacific Ocean. The faunal assemblages were closer to those of the East China Sea, Philippine Sea, Indonesia Sea, and the Japan Sea, and estranger with those of the Yellow Sea, Bohai Sea, and Korea Sea. The dominant species were Metapenaeus joyner, Oratosquilla oratoria, Charybdis miles, Portunus sanguinolentus, Harpiosquilla harpax, Charybdis feriatus, Charybdis japonica, Oratosquilla nepa, Solenocera crassicornis, Portunus trituberculatus, and Calappa philargius. The crustaceans had the largest species number (33) in autumn and the least one (26) in spring, and the highest stock density at the water depth of crabs had the highest stock density (41.81 kg x km(-2)), followed by shrimps (38.91 kg x km(-2)), and squills (18.88 kg x km(-2)). The stock densities of the 3 species groups showed an obvious seasonal variation. Shrimps had the highest stock density (120.32 kg x km(-2)) in summer and the lowest density (0.67 kg x km(-2)) in spring, while crabs and squills had the highest density (62.01 and 29.49 kg x km(-2), respectively) in winter and the lowest density (24.64 and 6.30 kg x km(-2), respectively) in autumn.

  3. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton <53µm. Crustaceans were sampled using a PVC tube (1.2m long and 10cm in diameter, filtering 50L of water through a 53µm-mesh. Microcrustaceans were counted in Bogorov chambers under a stereoscopic microscope. The infested organisms were separated and observed with a photonic microscope to determine density and biovolume of epibionts, by analyzing their distribution on the exoskeleton. The prevalence of C. vesiculosum was higher in adult crustaceans than in their larvae and juveniles. The most infested group was that of calanoid copepods, related to their high density. The attachment sites on the exoskeleton were found to be the portions of the body which have a higher probability of encounter with epibionts during locomotion and feeding, i.e., antennae and thoracic legs in copepods, and thoracic legs and postabdomen in cladocerans. The similar values found in the filtering rate of infested and uninfested individuals of N. spiniger and the constant prevalence (<40% of epibiont algae, suggest that C. vesiculosum does not condition the life of planktonic crustaceans of Paiva Lake. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1295-1306. Epub 2011 September 01.

  4. Consumption of crustaceans by megaherbivorous dinosaurs: dietary flexibility and dinosaur life history strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, Karen; Feldmann, Rodney M.; Tashman, Jessica N.

    2017-01-01

    Large plant-eating dinosaurs are usually presumed to have been strictly herbivorous, because their derived teeth and jaws were capable of processing fibrous plant foods. This inferred feeding behavior offers a generalized view of dinosaur food habits, but rare direct fossil evidence of diet provides more nuanced insights into feeding behavior. Here we describe fossilized feces (coprolites) that demonstrate recurring consumption of crustaceans and rotted wood by large Late Cretaceous dinosaurs...

  5. DIFFERENT ORIGINS OR DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONS? DECODING THE SPECTRAL DIVERSITY AMONG C-TYPE ASTEROIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Mousis, O.; Delsanti, A.; Castillo-Rogez, J.; Beck, P.; Emery, J.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Dionnet, Z.; Delbo, M.; Carry, B.; Marchis, F.; Zanda, B.; Borondics, F.

    2017-01-01

    Anhydrous pyroxene-rich interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have been proposed as surface analogs for about two-thirds of all C-complex asteroids. However, this suggestion appears to be inconsistent with the presence of hydrated silicates on the surfaces of some of these asteroids, including Ceres. Here, we report the presence of enstatite (pyroxene) on the surface of two C-type asteroids (Ceres and Eugenia) based on their spectral properties in the mid-infrared range. The presence of this component is particularly unexpected in the case of Ceres, because most thermal evolution models predict a surface consisting of hydrated compounds only. The most plausible scenario is that Ceres’ surface has been partially contaminated by exogenous enstatite-rich material, possibly coming from the Beagle asteroid family. This scenario questions a similar origin for Ceres and the remaining C-types, and it possibly supports recent results obtained by the Dawn mission (NASA) that Ceres may have formed in the very outer solar system. Concerning the smaller D  ∼ 200 km C-types such as Eugenia, both their derived surface composition (enstatite and amorphous silicates) and low density (<1.5 g cm −3 ) suggest that these bodies accreted from the same building blocks, namely chondritic porous, pyroxene-rich IDPs and volatiles (mostly water ice), and that a significant volume fraction of these bodies has remained unaffected by hydrothermal activity likely implying a late accretion. In addition, their current heliocentric distance may best explain the presence or absence of water ice at their surfaces. Finally, we raise the possibility that CI chondrites, Tagish-Lake-like material, or hydrated IDPs may be representative samples of the cores of these bodies.

  6. A C-Type Lectin from Bothrops jararacussu Venom Disrupts Staphylococcal Biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Raphael Contelli; Fabres-Klein, Mary Hellen; de Oliveira, Leandro Licursi; Feio, Renato Neves; Malouin, François; Ribon, Andréa de Oliveira Barros

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16) showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model. PMID:25811661

  7. A C-type lectin from Bothrops jararacussu venom disrupts Staphylococcal biofilms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Contelli Klein

    Full Text Available Bovine mastitis is a major threat to animal health and the dairy industry. Staphylococcus aureus is a contagious pathogen that is usually associated with persistent intramammary infections, and biofilm formation is a relevant aspect of the outcome of these infections. Several biological activities have been described for snake venoms, which led us to screen secretions of Bothrops jararacussu for antibiofilm activity against S. aureus NRS155. Crude venom was fractionated by size-exclusion chromatography, and the fractions were tested against S. aureus. Biofilm growth, but not bacterial growth, was affected by several fractions. Two fractions (15 and 16 showed the best activities and were also assayed against S. epidermidis NRS101. Fraction 15 was identified by TripleTOF mass spectrometry as a galactose-binding C-type lectin with a molecular weight of 15 kDa. The lectin was purified from the crude venom by D-galactose affinity chromatography, and only one peak was observed. This pure lectin was able to inhibit 75% and 80% of S. aureus and S. epidermidis biofilms, respectively, without affecting bacterial cell viability. The lectin also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on both bacterial biofilms. The antibiofilm activity was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy. A pre-formed S. epidermidis biofilm was significantly disrupted by the C-type lectin in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, the lectin demonstrated the ability to inhibit biofilm formation by several mastitis pathogens, including different field strains of S. aureus, S. hyicus, S. chromogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Escherichia coli. These findings reveal a new activity for C-type lectins. Studies are underway to evaluate the biological activity of these lectins in a mouse mastitis model.

  8. DIFFERENT ORIGINS OR DIFFERENT EVOLUTIONS? DECODING THE SPECTRAL DIVERSITY AMONG C-TYPE ASTEROIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernazza, P.; Marsset, M.; Groussin, O.; Lamy, P.; Jorda, L.; Mousis, O.; Delsanti, A. [Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LAM, Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Marseille (France); Castillo-Rogez, J. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Beck, P. [UJF-Grenoble 1, CNRS-INSU, Institut de Planétologie et d’Astrophysique de Grenoble (IPAG), UMR 5274, Grenoble F-38041 (France); Emery, J. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and Planetary Geosciences Institute, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-1410 (United States); Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Dionnet, Z. [Institut d’Astrophysique Spatiale, CNRS, UMR-8617, Université Paris-Sud, bâtiment 121, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Delbo, M.; Carry, B. [Laboratoire Lagrange, UNS-CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d’Azur, Boulevard de l’Observatoire-CS 34229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Marchis, F. [Carl Sagan Center at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States); Zanda, B. [IMCCE, Observatoire de Paris, 77 avenue Denfert-Rochereau, F-75014 Paris Cedex (France); Borondics, F., E-mail: pierre.vernazza@lam.fr [SMIS Beamline, Soleil Synchrotron, BP48, L’Orme des Merisiers, F-91192 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France)

    2017-02-01

    Anhydrous pyroxene-rich interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) have been proposed as surface analogs for about two-thirds of all C-complex asteroids. However, this suggestion appears to be inconsistent with the presence of hydrated silicates on the surfaces of some of these asteroids, including Ceres. Here, we report the presence of enstatite (pyroxene) on the surface of two C-type asteroids (Ceres and Eugenia) based on their spectral properties in the mid-infrared range. The presence of this component is particularly unexpected in the case of Ceres, because most thermal evolution models predict a surface consisting of hydrated compounds only. The most plausible scenario is that Ceres’ surface has been partially contaminated by exogenous enstatite-rich material, possibly coming from the Beagle asteroid family. This scenario questions a similar origin for Ceres and the remaining C-types, and it possibly supports recent results obtained by the Dawn mission (NASA) that Ceres may have formed in the very outer solar system. Concerning the smaller D  ∼ 200 km C-types such as Eugenia, both their derived surface composition (enstatite and amorphous silicates) and low density (<1.5 g cm{sup −3}) suggest that these bodies accreted from the same building blocks, namely chondritic porous, pyroxene-rich IDPs and volatiles (mostly water ice), and that a significant volume fraction of these bodies has remained unaffected by hydrothermal activity likely implying a late accretion. In addition, their current heliocentric distance may best explain the presence or absence of water ice at their surfaces. Finally, we raise the possibility that CI chondrites, Tagish-Lake-like material, or hydrated IDPs may be representative samples of the cores of these bodies.

  9. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  10. Endogenous ligands for C-type lectin receptors: the true regulators of immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2009-07-01

    C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) have long been known as pattern-recognition receptors implicated in the recognition of pathogens by the innate immune system. However, evidence is accumulating that many CLRs are also able to recognize endogenous 'self' ligands and that this recognition event often plays an important role in immune homeostasis. In the present review, we focus on the human and mouse CLRs for which endogenous ligands have been described. Special attention is given to the signaling events initiated upon recognition of the self ligand and the regulation of glycosylation as a switch modulating CLR recognition, and therefore, immune homeostasis.

  11. Algal Diet of Small-Bodied Crustacean Zooplankton in a Cyanobacteria-Dominated Eutrophic Lake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilmar Tõnno

    Full Text Available Small-bodied cladocerans and cyclopoid copepods are becoming increasingly dominant over large crustacean zooplankton in eutrophic waters where they often coexist with cyanobacterial blooms. However, relatively little is known about their algal diet preferences. We studied grazing selectivity of small crustaceans (the cyclopoid copepods Mesocyclops leuckarti, Thermocyclops oithonoides, Cyclops kolensis, and the cladocerans Daphnia cucullata, Chydorus sphaericus, Bosmina spp. by liquid chromatographic analyses of phytoplankton marker pigments in the shallow, highly eutrophic Lake Võrtsjärv (Estonia during a seasonal cycle. Copepods (mainly C. kolensis preferably consumed cryptophytes (identified by the marker pigment alloxanthin in gut contents during colder periods, while they preferred small non-filamentous diatoms and green algae (identified mainly by diatoxanthin and lutein, respectively from May to September. All studied cladoceran species showed highest selectivity towards colonial cyanobacteria (identified by canthaxanthin. For small C. sphaericus, commonly occuring in the pelagic zone of eutrophic lakes, colonial cyanobacteria can be their major food source, supporting their coexistence with cyanobacterial blooms. Pigments characteristic of filamentous cyanobacteria and diatoms (zeaxanthin and fucoxanthin, respectively, algae dominating in Võrtsjärv, were also found in the grazers' diet but were generally avoided by the crustaceans commonly dominating the zooplankton assemblage. Together these results suggest that the co-occurring small-bodied cyclopoid and cladoceran species have markedly different algal diets and that the cladocera represent the main trophic link transferring cyanobacterial carbon to the food web in a highly eutrophic lake.

  12. Fast Real-Time PCR for the Detection of Crustacean Allergens in Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santaclara, Francisco J; Espiñeira, Montserrat

    2017-01-01

    Crustaceans are one of the most common allergens causing severe food reaction. Hypersensitivity reactions associated with seafood intake are one of the most common food allergies in adults. Crustaceans including shrimps, prawns, crabs, lobster, and crayfish are a common cause of anaphylaxis or hypersensitivity, with shrimps and crabs being the most common causes of allergy. Symptoms occur most often when food or cooking water are ingested.These food allergens are a health problem, and they have become very important; as evidenced by the existence of several regulations that establish that labeling must be present regarding these allergens to warn consumers.The methodology herein exposed allows the detection of crustaceans in any type of product, including those where very aggressive treatments of temperature and pressure are used during the manufacturing process.The main features of this method are its high sensitivity and specificity, and reduced analysis time of real-time PCR (40 min). This assay is a potential tool in issues related to the labeling of products and food security to protect the allergic consumer.

  13. The relationship between C-type natriuretic peptide and cognitive impairment in older patients with Type 2 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinling; Zhu Xiangyang; Huang Huaiyu; Jin Yan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between C-type natriuretic peptide and cognitive impairment in older patients with type 2 diabetes, and to explore the pathogenesis of diabetic cognitive impairment. Methods: According to the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores, 80 type 2 diabetic patients over the age of 60 years were divided into two groups, one group including 31 cases with cognitive impairment, the other 49 patients with non-cognitive impairment. And 80 normal participants were selected as the control group. Plasma level of C-type natriuretic peptide was measured by radio-immunity assay in all subjects. The changes and associations of the plasma C-type natriuretic peptide level among three groups was analyzed. Result: In the non-cognitive impairment group, plasma level of C-type natriuretic peptide was higher than that in the control group (P<0.01). But the plasma level of C-type natriuretic peptide in the cognitive impairment group was degraded, significantly deferent with those in the control group and the non-cognitive impairment group (P<0.01). MoCA scores of the cognitive impairment group positively correlated with plasma level of C-type natriuretic peptide (r=0.513, P<0.01). Conclusion: In the early period of type 2 diabetes,the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide was increased. When diabetic cognitive impairment complicated,the secretion of C-type natriuretic peptide was decompensated. Then plasma level of C-type natriuretic peptide become low. The level of C-type natriuretic peptide closely correlated with diabetic cognitive impairment. It was suggested that diabetic angiopathies may act an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cognitive impairment. (authors)

  14. Supercapacitors based on c-type cytochromes using conductive nanostructured networks of living bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvankar, Nikhil S; Mester, Tünde; Tuominen, Mark T; Lovley, Derek R

    2012-02-01

    Supercapacitors have attracted interest in energy storage because they have the potential to complement or replace batteries. Here, we report that c-type cytochromes, naturally immersed in a living, electrically conductive microbial biofilm, greatly enhance the device capacitance by over two orders of magnitude. We employ genetic engineering, protein unfolding and Nernstian modeling for in vivo demonstration of charge storage capacity of c-type cytochromes and perform electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge cycling to confirm the pseudocapacitive, redox nature of biofilm capacitance. The biofilms also show low self-discharge and good charge/discharge reversibility. The superior electrochemical performance of the biofilm is related to its high abundance of cytochromes, providing large electron storage capacity, its nanostructured network with metallic-like conductivity, and its porous architecture with hydrous nature, offering prospects for future low cost and environmentally sustainable energy storage devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Importance of c-Type cytochromes for U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leang Ching

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to study the mechanism of U(VI reduction, the effect of deleting c-type cytochrome genes on the capacity of Geobacter sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI with acetate serving as the electron donor was investigated. Results The ability of several c-type cytochrome deficient mutants to reduce U(VI was lower than that of the wild type strain. Elimination of two confirmed outer membrane cytochromes and two putative outer membrane cytochromes significantly decreased (ca. 50–60% the ability of G. sulfurreducens to reduce U(VI. Involvement in U(VI reduction did not appear to be a general property of outer membrane cytochromes, as elimination of two other confirmed outer membrane cytochromes, OmcB and OmcC, had very little impact on U(VI reduction. Among the periplasmic cytochromes, only MacA, proposed to transfer electrons from the inner membrane to the periplasm, appeared to play a significant role in U(VI reduction. A subpopulation of both wild type and U(VI reduction-impaired cells, 24–30%, accumulated amorphous uranium in the periplasm. Comparison of uranium-accumulating cells demonstrated a similar amount of periplasmic uranium accumulation in U(VI reduction-impaired and wild type G. sulfurreducens. Assessment of the ability of the various suspensions to reduce Fe(III revealed no correlation between the impact of cytochrome deletion on U(VI reduction and reduction of Fe(III hydroxide and chelated Fe(III. Conclusion This study indicates that c-type cytochromes are involved in U(VI reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The data provide new evidence for extracellular uranium reduction by G. sulfurreducens but do not rule out the possibility of periplasmic uranium reduction. Occurrence of U(VI reduction at the cell surface is supported by the significant impact of elimination of outer membrane cytochromes on U(VI reduction and the lack of correlation between periplasmic uranium accumulation and the capacity for uranium

  16. Evolution of the C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor Genes of the DECTIN-1 Cluster in the NK Gene Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Sattler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition receptors are crucial in initiating and shaping innate and adaptive immune responses and often belong to families of structurally and evolutionarily related proteins. The human C-type lectin-like receptors encoded in the DECTIN-1 cluster within the NK gene complex contain prominent receptors with pattern recognition function, such as DECTIN-1 and LOX-1. All members of this cluster share significant homology and are considered to have arisen from subsequent gene duplications. Recent developments in sequencing and the availability of comprehensive sequence data comprising many species showed that the receptors of the DECTIN-1 cluster are not only homologous to each other but also highly conserved between species. Even in Caenorhabditis elegans, genes displaying homology to the mammalian C-type lectin-like receptors have been detected. In this paper, we conduct a comprehensive phylogenetic survey and give an up-to-date overview of the currently available data on the evolutionary emergence of the DECTIN-1 cluster genes.

  17. Reduced ability of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) to activate natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Andrea R.; Kruse, Andrew C.; Earhart, Cathleen A.; Ohlendorf, Douglas H.; Potter, Lincoln R.

    2015-01-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates endochondrial ossification by activating the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase, natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B). Recently, a spontaneous autosomal recessive mutation that causes severe dwarfism in mice was identified. The mutant, called long bone abnormality (lbab), contains a single point mutation that converts an arginine to a glycine in a conserved coding region of the CNP gene, but how this mutation affects CNP activity has not been reported. Here, we determined that thirty to greater than one hundred-fold more CNPlbab was required to activate NPR-B as compared to wild-type CNP in whole cell cGMP elevation and membrane guanylyl cyclase assays. The reduced ability of CNPlbab to activate NPR-B was explained, at least in part, by decreased binding since ten-fold more CNPlbab than wild-type CNP was required to compete with [125I][Tyr0]CNP for receptor binding. Molecular modeling suggested that the conserved arginine is critical for binding to an equally conserved acidic pocket in NPR-B. These results indicate that reduced binding to and activation of NPR-B causes dwarfism in lbab−/− mice. PMID:18554750

  18. Signaling by myeloid C-type lectin receptors in immunity and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, David; Reis e Sousa, Caetano

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid cells are key drivers of physiological responses to pathogen invasion or tissue damage. Members of the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family stand out among the specialized receptors utilized by myeloid cells to orchestrate these responses. CLR ligands include carbohydrate, protein, and lipid components of both pathogens and self, which variably trigger endocytic, phagocytic, proinflammatory, or anti-inflammatory reactions. These varied outcomes rely on a versatile system for CLR signaling that includes tyrosine-based motifs that recruit kinases, phosphatases, or endocytic adaptors as well as nontyrosine-based signals that modulate the activation of other pathways or couple to the uptake machinery. Here, we review the signaling properties of myeloid CLRs and how they impact the role of myeloid cells in innate and adaptive immunity.

  19. Identification and Biological Activity of Synthetic Macrophage Inducible C-Type Lectin Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chriselle D. Braganza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle is a pattern recognition receptor able to recognize both damage-associated and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and in this respect, there has been much interest in determining the scope of ligands that bind Mincle and how structural modifications to these ligands influence ensuing immune responses. In this review, we will present Mincle ligands of known chemical structure, with a focus on ligands that have been synthetically prepared, such as trehalose glycolipids, glycerol-based ligands, and 6-acylated glucose and mannose derivatives. The ability of the different classes of ligands to influence the innate, and consequently, the adaptive, immune response will be described, and where appropriate, structure–activity relationships within each class of Mincle ligands will be presented.

  20. Targeting of macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin (MGL) induces DC signaling and activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Napoletano, Chiara; Zizzari, Ilaria G; Rughetti, Aurelia

    2012-01-01

    NAc or Tn)-carrying tumor-associated antigens to improve DC performance. MGL expressed by ex vivo-generated iDCs from healthy donors was engaged by a 60-mer MUC1(9Tn) -glycopeptide as a Tn-carrying tumor-associated antigen, and an anti-MGL antibody, as a specific MGL binder. We demonstrated that MGL......Dendritic cells (DCs) sense the microenvironment through several types of receptors recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In particular, C-type lectins, expressed by distinct subsets of DCs, recognize and internalize specific carbohydrate antigen in a Ca(2+) -dependent manner....... Targeting of these receptors is becoming an efficient strategy of delivering antigens in DC-based anticancer immunotherapy. Here we investigated the role of the macrophage galactose type C-lectin receptor (MGL), expressed by immature DCs (iDCs), as a molecular target for a-N-acetylgalactosamine (Gal...

  1. Rewiring monocyte glucose metabolism via C-type lectin signaling protects against disseminated candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Andrés, Jorge; Arts, Rob J W; Ter Horst, Rob; Gresnigt, Mark S; Smeekens, Sanne P; Ratter, Jacqueline M; Lachmandas, Ekta; Boutens, Lily; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Joosten, Leo A B; Notebaart, Richard A; Ardavín, Carlos; Netea, Mihai G

    2017-09-01

    Monocytes are innate immune cells that play a pivotal role in antifungal immunity, but little is known regarding the cellular metabolic events that regulate their function during infection. Using complementary transcriptomic and immunological studies in human primary monocytes, we show that activation of monocytes by Candida albicans yeast and hyphae was accompanied by metabolic rewiring induced through C-type lectin-signaling pathways. We describe that the innate immune responses against Candida yeast are energy-demanding processes that lead to the mobilization of intracellular metabolite pools and require induction of glucose metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and glutaminolysis, while responses to hyphae primarily rely on glycolysis. Experimental models of systemic candidiasis models validated a central role for glucose metabolism in anti-Candida immunity, as the impairment of glycolysis led to increased susceptibility in mice. Collectively, these data highlight the importance of understanding the complex network of metabolic responses triggered during infections, and unveil new potential targets for therapeutic approaches against fungal diseases.

  2. Comparison of the Window-Frame RHIC-abort kicker with C-type Kicker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; McMahan, Brandon

    2014-01-01

    The high intensity proton bunches (~2.5x10 11 p/bunch ) circulating in RHIC increase the temperature of the ferrite-made RHIC-abort-kickers above the Curie point; as a result, the kickers cannot provide the required field to abort the beam at the beam dump. A team of experts in the CAD department worked on modifying the design of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker to minimize the hysteresis losses responsible for the increase of the ferrite's temperature. In this technical note we report some results from the study of two possible modifications of the window-frame RHIC-abort kicker, and we compare these results with those of a propose C-type RHIC-abort kicker. We also include an Appendix where we describe a method which may further reduce the hysteresis losses of the window-frame kicker.

  3. Identification of a Novel Human Rhinovirus C Type by Antibody Capture VIDISCA-454

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri Farsani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Causative agents for more than 30 percent of respiratory infections remain unidentified, suggesting that unknown respiratory pathogens might be involved. In this study, antibody capture VIDISCA-454 (virus discovery cDNA-AFLP combined with Roche 454 high-throughput sequencing resulted in the discovery of a novel type of rhinovirus C (RV-C. The virus has an RNA genome of at least 7054 nt and carries the characteristics of rhinovirus C species. The gene encoding viral protein 1, which is used for typing, has only 81% nucleotide sequence identity with the closest known RV-C type, and, therefore, the virus represents the first member of a novel type, named RV-C54.

  4. Quantitative Expression of C-Type Lectin Receptors in Humans and Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Maciej; Susanti, Heni Eka; Römmele, Christoph; Gröbmayr, Regina; Günthner, Roman; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2012-01-01

    C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules are involved in the recognition of glycosylated self-antigens and pathogens. However, little is known about the species- and organ-specific expression profiles of these molecules. We therefore determined the mRNA expression levels of Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN, Syk, Card-9, Bcl-10, Malt-1, Src, Dec-205, Galectin-1, Tim-3, Trem-1, and DAP-12 in 11 solid organs of human and mice. Mouse organs revealed lower mRNA levels of most molecules compared to spleen. However, Dec-205 and Galectin-1 in thymus, Src in brain, MR2, Card-9, Bcl-10, Src, and Dec-205 in small intestine, MR2, Bcl-10, Src, Galectin-1 in kidney, and Src and Galectin-1 in muscle were at least 2-fold higher expressed compared to spleen. Human lung, liver and heart expressed higher mRNA levels of most genes compared to spleen. Dectin-1, MR1, Syk and Trem-1 mRNA were strongly up-regulated upon ischemia-reperfusion injury in murine kidney. Tim3, DAP-12, Card-9, DC-SIGN and MR2 were further up-regulated during renal fibrosis. Murine kidney showed higher DAP-12, Syk, Card-9 and Dectin-1 mRNA expression during the progression of lupus nephritis. Thus, the organ-, and species-specific expression of C-type lectin receptors is different between mice and humans which must be considered in the interpretation of related studies. PMID:22949850

  5. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of a New C-type Lysozyme Gene from Yak Mammary Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Feng Jiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk lysozyme is the ubiquitous enzyme in milk of mammals. In this study, the cDNA sequence of a new chicken-type (c-type milk lysozyme gene (YML, was cloned from yak mammary gland tissue. A 444 bp open reading frames, which encodes 148 amino acids (16.54 kDa with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids, was sequenced. Further analysis indicated that the nucleic acid and amino acid sequences identities between yak and cow milk lysozyme were 89.04% and 80.41%, respectively. Recombinant yak milk lysozyme (rYML was produced by Escherichia coli BL21 and Pichia pastoris X33. The highest lysozyme activity was detected for heterologous protein rYML5 (M = 1,864.24 U/mg, SD = 25.75 which was expressed in P. pastoris with expression vector pPICZαA and it clearly inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus. Result of the YML gene expression using quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the YML gene was up-regulated to maximum at 30 day postpartum, that is, comparatively high YML can be found in initial milk production. The phylogenetic tree indicated that the amino acid sequence was similar to cow kidney lysozyme, which implied that the YML may have diverged from a different ancestor gene such as cow mammary glands. In our study, we suggest that YML be a new c-type lysozyme expressed in yak mammary glands that plays a role as host immunity.

  6. Disease will limit future food supply from the global crustacean fishery and aquaculture sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stentiford, G D; Neil, D M; Peeler, E J; Shields, J D; Small, H J; Flegel, T W; Vlak, J M; Jones, B; Morado, F; Moss, S; Lotz, J; Bartholomay, L; Behringer, D C; Hauton, C; Lightner, D V

    2012-06-01

    Seafood is a highly traded food commodity. Farmed and captured crustaceans contribute a significant proportion with annual production exceeding 10 M metric tonnes with first sale value of $40bn. The sector is dominated by farmed tropical marine shrimp, the fastest growing sector of the global aquaculture industry. It is significant in supporting rural livelihoods and alleviating poverty in producing nations within Asia and Latin America while forming an increasing contribution to aquatic food supply in more developed countries. Nations with marine borders often also support important marine fisheries for crustaceans that are regionally traded as live animals and commodity products. A general separation of net producing and net consuming nations for crustacean seafood has created a truly globalised food industry. Projections for increasing global demand for seafood in the face of level or declining fisheries requires continued expansion and intensification of aquaculture while ensuring best utilisation of captured stocks. Furthermore, continued pressure from consuming nations to ensure safe products for human consumption are being augmented by additional legislative requirements for animals (and their products) to be of low disease status. As a consequence, increasing emphasis is being placed on enforcement of regulations and better governance of the sector; currently this is a challenge in light of a fragmented industry and less stringent regulations associated with animal disease within producer nations. Current estimates predict that up to 40% of tropical shrimp production (>$3bn) is lost annually, mainly due to viral pathogens for which standard preventative measures (e.g. such as vaccination) are not feasible. In light of this problem, new approaches are urgently required to enhance yield by improving broodstock and larval sourcing, promoting best management practices by farmer outreach and supporting cutting-edge research that aims to harness the natural

  7. Crustacean zooplankton release copious amounts of dissolved organic matter as taurine in the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifford, Elisabeth L; Hansell, Dennis A; Varela, Marta M; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Herndl, Gerhard J; Sintes, Eva

    2017-11-01

    Taurine (Tau), an amino acid-like compound, is present in almost all marine metazoans including crustacean zooplankton. It plays an important physiological role in these organisms and is released into the ambient water throughout their life cycle. However, limited information is available on the release rates by marine organisms, the concentrations and turnover of Tau in the ocean. We determined dissolved free Tau concentrations throughout the water column and its release by abundant crustacean mesozooplankton at two open ocean sites (Gulf of Alaska and North Atlantic). At both locations, the concentrations of dissolved free Tau were in the low nM range (up to 15.7 nM) in epipelagic waters, declining sharply in the mesopelagic to about 0.2 nM and remaining fairly stable throughout the bathypelagic waters. Pacific amphipod-copepod assemblages exhibited lower dissolved free Tau release rates per unit biomass (0.8 ± 0.4 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 ) than Atlantic copepods (ranging between 1.3 ± 0.4 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 and 9.5 ± 2.1 μmol g -1 C-biomass h -1 ), in agreement with the well-documented inverse relationship between biomass-normalized excretion rates and body size. Our results indicate that crustacean zooplankton might contribute significantly to the dissolved organic matter flux in marine ecosystems via dissolved free Tau release. Based on the release rates and assuming steady state dissolved free Tau concentrations, turnover times of dissolved free Tau range from 0.05 d to 2.3 d in the upper water column and are therefore similar to those of dissolved free amino acids. This rapid turnover indicates that dissolved free Tau is efficiently consumed in oceanic waters, most likely by heterotrophic bacteria.

  8. Reproduction in the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus along a gradient of radionuclide contamination at Chernobyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Neil; Ford, Alex T; Nagorskaya, Liubov L; Gudkov, Dmitri I; Smith, Jim T

    2018-07-01

    Nuclear accidents such as Chernobyl and Fukushima have led to contamination of the environment that will persist for many years. The consequences of chronic low-dose radiation exposure for non-human organisms inhabiting contaminated environments remain unclear. In radioecology, crustaceans are important model organisms for the development of environmental radioprotection. Previous laboratory studies have demonstrated deleterious effects of radiation exposure on crustacean reproduction. However, no studies have documented the effects of chronic radiation exposure on the reproduction of natural crustacean populations. Based on data from laboratory exposures, we hypothesised that populations of the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus exposed to radiation for thirty years at Chernobyl would display reduced reproductive output and altered timing of reproduction. To test this hypothesis, A. aquaticus was collected from six lakes at Chernobyl over two years with total dose rates ranging from 0.06-27.1μGy/h. No significant differences in the fecundity, mass of broods or proportion of reproducing female A. aquaticus were recorded. Significant differences in the body mass of gravid females were recorded suggesting different timings of reproduction, however this was not related to radiation contamination. No significant effect of a range of environmental parameters on A. aquaticus reproduction was recorded. Our data suggests current dose rates at Chernobyl are not causing discernible effects on the reproductive output of A. aquaticus. This study is the first to assess the effects of chronic low-dose radiation exposure on the reproductive output of an aquatic invertebrate at Chernobyl. These findings are consistent with proposed radiological protection benchmarks for the maintenance of wildlife populations and will assist in management of environments impacted by radiation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. New records of Decapod Crustaceans (Decapoda: Pontoniinae and Inachidae associated with sea anemones in Turkish waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. DURIS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Three anemone-associated decapod crustaceans, two shrimp species, Periclimenes amethysteus and P. aegylios (Caridea: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae, and the crab Inachus phalangium (Brachyura: Inachidae, all collected from the Dardanelles, are reported for the first time from Turkish coasts. Another inachid crab, Macropodia czernjawskii is also reported for the first time to occur in association with the sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. Periclimenes scriptus was the fifth decapod species recorded associated with sea anemones within the present study, and while this species has already been reported from Turkish waters, this is the first time it is recorded from the Dardanelles (the Turkish Straits System.

  10. Ultraviolet Radiation Induces Dose-Dependent Pigment Dispersion in Crustacean Chromatophores

    OpenAIRE

    Gouveia, Glauce Ribeiro; Lopes, Thaís Martins; Neves, Carla Amorim; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Trindade, Gilma Santos

    2004-01-01

    Pigment dispersion in chromatophores as a response to UV radiation was investigated in two species of crustaceans, the crab Chasmagnathus granulata and the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus. Eyestalkless crabs and shrimps maintained on either a black or a white background were irradiated with different UV bands. In eyestalkless crabs the significant minimal effective dose inducing pigment dispersion was 0.42 J/cm2 for UVA and 2.15 J/cm2 for UVB. Maximal response was achieved with 10.0 J/cm...

  11. A novel C-type lectin identified by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Nagayasu, Eiji; Horii, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2012-04-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of proteins which bind to carbohydrate epitopes in the presence of Ca(2+), which have been described in a wide range of species. In this study, a cDNA sequence coding a putative CTL has been identified from the cDNA library constructed from the pig round worm Ascaris suum lung L3 (LL3) larvae, which was designated as A. suum C-type lectin-1 (As-CTL-1). The 510 nucleotide open reading frame of As-CTL-1 cDNA encoded the predicted 169 amino acid protein including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues and C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CLECT) at residue 26 to 167. As-CTL-1 was most similar to Toxocara canis C-type lectin-1 and 4 (Tc-CTL-1 and 4), and highly homologous to namatode CTLs and mammalian CTLs as well, such as human C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLECG4). In addition, As-CTL-1 was strongly expressed in tissue migrating LL3 and the L4 larvae, which were developmental larvae stages within the mammalian host. These results suggest that A. suum larvae might utilize As-CTL-1 to avoid pathogen recognition mechanisms in mammalian hosts due to it is similarity to host immune cell receptors.

  12. Records of new localities and hosts for crustacean parasites in fish from the eastern Amazon in northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima; Oliveira Ferreira, Drielly; Neves, Lígia Rigor; Tavares-Dias, Marcos

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate parasites crustacean fauna in Arapaima gigas , Cichla monoculus , Cichla ocellaris , Cichla jariina , Satanoperca jurupari , Leporinus friderici , Leporinus fasciatus , Hoplias malabaricus , Phractocephalus hemioliopterus , Serrasalmus altispinis , Pseudoplatystoma tigrinum and Potamotrygon motoro of the State Amapá and Pará, in northern Brazil. A total of 242 parasites, including Argulus elongatus , Argulus multicolor, Argulus juparanaensis , Argulus nattereri , Dolops discoidalis , Dolops longicauda , Braga patagonica , Braga fluviatilis , Livoneca guianensis and undetermined Lernaeidae, were collected from these hosts. The Argulus species had the greatest richness among the community of parasitic crustaceans. There was a low abundance of parasites among the hosts, other than D. discoidalis , was most abundant in the integument of A. gigas and P. tigrinum . Finally, the present study reported nine new hosts for the crustacean parasite species and expanded knowledge of the occurrence of some parasite species in the Jari River basin, in eastern Amazon.

  13. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  14. Macrophage Inducible C-Type Lectin As a Multifunctional Player in Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Patin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle is an innate immune receptor on myeloid cells sensing diverse entities including pathogens and damaged cells. Mincle was first described as a receptor for the mycobacterial cell wall glycolipid, trehalose-6,6′-dimycolate, or cord factor, and the mammalian necrotic cell-derived alarmin histone deacetylase complex unit Sin3-associated protein 130. Upon engagement by its ligands, Mincle induces secretion of innate cytokines and other immune mediators modulating inflammation and immunity. Since its discovery more than 25 years ago, the understanding of Mincle’s immune function has made significant advances in recent years. In addition to mediating immune responses to infectious agents, Mincle has been linked to promote tumor progression, autoimmunity, and sterile inflammation; however, further studies are required to completely unravel the complex role of Mincle in these distinct host responses. In this review, we discuss recent findings on Mincle’s biology with an emphasis on its diverse functions in immunity.

  15. Dwarfism and early death in mice lacking C-type natriuretic peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusho, Hideki; Tamura, Naohisa; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Yasoda, Akihiro; Suda, Michio; Miyazawa, Takashi; Nakamura, Kenji; Nakao, Kazuki; Kurihara, Tatsuya; Komatsu, Yasato; Itoh, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Saito, Yoshihiko; Katsuki, Motoya; Nakao, Kazuwa

    2001-01-01

    Longitudinal bone growth is determined by endochondral ossification that occurs as chondrocytes in the cartilaginous growth plate undergo proliferation, hypertrophy, cell death, and osteoblastic replacement. The natriuretic peptide family consists of three structurally related endogenous ligands, atrial, brain, and C-type natriuretic peptides (ANP, BNP, and CNP), and is thought to be involved in a variety of homeostatic processes. To investigate the physiological significance of CNP in vivo, we generated mice with targeted disruption of CNP (Nppc−/− mice). The Nppc−/− mice show severe dwarfism as a result of impaired endochondral ossification. They are all viable perinatally, but less than half can survive during postnatal development. The skeletal phenotypes are histologically similar to those seen in patients with achondroplasia, the most common genetic form of human dwarfism. Targeted expression of CNP in the growth plate chondrocytes can rescue the skeletal defect of Nppc−/− mice and allow their prolonged survival. This study demonstrates that CNP acts locally as a positive regulator of endochondral ossification in vivo and suggests its pathophysiological and therapeutic implication in some forms of skeletal dysplasia. PMID:11259675

  16. Circulating osteocrin stimulates bone growth by limiting C-type natriuretic peptide clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Yugo; Yasoda, Akihiro; Mori, Keita P; Watanabe-Takano, Haruko; Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Yamashita, Yui; Hirota, Keisho; Ueda, Yohei; Yamauchi, Ichiro; Kondo, Eri; Yamanaka, Shigeki; Sakane, Yoriko; Nakao, Kazumasa; Fujii, Toshihito; Yokoi, Hideki; Minamino, Naoto; Mukoyama, Masashi; Mochizuki, Naoki; Inagaki, Nobuya

    2017-11-01

    Although peptides are safe and useful as therapeutics, they are often easily degraded or metabolized. Dampening the clearance system for peptide ligands is a promising strategy for increasing the efficacy of peptide therapies. Natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B) and its naturally occurring ligand, C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), are potent stimulators of endochondral bone growth, and activating the CNP/NPR-B system is expected to be a powerful strategy for treating impaired skeletal growth. CNP is cleared by natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C); therefore, we investigated the effect of reducing the rate of CNP clearance on skeletal growth by limiting the interaction between CNP and NPR-C. Specifically, we generated transgenic mice with increased circulating levels of osteocrin (OSTN) protein, a natural NPR-C ligand without natriuretic activity, and observed a dose-dependent skeletal overgrowth phenotype in these animals. Skeletal overgrowth in OSTN-transgenic mice was diminished in either CNP- or NPR-C-depleted backgrounds, confirming that CNP and NPR-C are indispensable for the bone growth-stimulating effect of OSTN. Interestingly, double-transgenic mice of CNP and OSTN had even higher levels of circulating CNP and additional increases in bone length, as compared with mice with elevated CNP alone. Together, these results support OSTN administration as an adjuvant agent for CNP therapy and provide a potential therapeutic approach for diseases with impaired skeletal growth.

  17. Role of C-type natriuretic peptide in the function of normal human sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP is a newly discovered type of local regulatory factor that mediates its biological effects through the specific, membrane-bound natriuretic peptide receptor-B (NPR-B. Recent studies have established that CNP is closely related to male reproductive function. The aims of this study were to determine the distribution of CNP/NPR-B in human ejaculated spermatozoa through different methods (such as immunolocalization, real time polymerase chain reaction and Western Blot, and then to evaluate the influence of CNP on sperm function i n vitro, such as motility and acrosome reaction. Human semen samples were collected from consenting donors who met the criteria of the World Health Organization for normozoospermia. Our results show that the specific receptor NPR-B of CNP is localized in the acrosomal region of the head and the membrane of the front-end tail of the sperm, and there is no signal of CNP in human sperm. Compared with the control, CNP can induce a significant dose-dependent increase in spermatozoa motility and acrosome reaction. In summary, CNP/NPR-B can affect sperm motility and acrosome reaction, thus regulating the reproductive function of males. CNP may be a new key factor in regulating sperm function.

  18. The C-type lectin of the aggrecan G3 domain activates complement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Melin Fürst

    Full Text Available Excessive complement activation contributes to joint diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis during which cartilage proteins are fragmented and released into the synovial fluid. Some of these proteins and fragments activate complement, which may sustain inflammation. The G3 domain of large cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan interacts with other extracellular matrix proteins, fibulins and tenascins, via its C-type lectin domain (CLD and has important functions in matrix organization. Fragments containing G3 domain are released during normal aggrecan turnover, but increasingly so in disease. We now show that the aggrecan CLD part of the G3 domain activates the classical and to a lesser extent the alternative pathway of complement, via binding of C1q and C3, respectively. The complement control protein (CCP domain adjacent to the CLD showed no effect on complement initiation. The binding of C1q to G3 depended on ionic interactions and was decreased in D2267N mutant G3. However, the observed complement activation was attenuated due to binding of complement inhibitor factor H to CLD and CCP domains. This was most apparent at the level of deposition of terminal complement components. Taken together our observations indicate aggrecan CLD as one factor involved in the sustained inflammation of the joint.

  19. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  20. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  1. Checklist of fossil decapod crustaceans from tropical America. Part I: Anomura and Brachyura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Luque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our knowledge of fossil crustaceans from the tropics has increased considerably during recent decades, thanks to novel findings and the re-examination of museum specimens. However, several previous records have been misidentified, numerous museum specimens have never been reported, and many new discoveries are yet to be published. Here, we present a detailed, up-to-date, and revised checklist for every marine, terrestrial, or freshwater fossil decapod crustacean occurrence from tropical America known to us, including their age, geographic occurrences, and related literature. We recognize the occurrence of at least 32 superfamilies, 69 families, 190 genera, and 415 species of brachyurans (‘true’ crabs, and anomurans (‘false’ crabs, hermit crabs, squat lobsters, and allies, several of them previously unknown. The checklist comprises records from three main geographic regions: 1 northern South America (Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela; 2 Central America and southern North America (Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, Panama, Mexico, southern and central Florida; and 3 the Caribbean Islands + Bermuda (Anguilla, Antigua, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bonaire, Cuba, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, The Grenadines, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Saint Bartélemy, Saint Martin, Trinidad. Previous findings, new occurrences, and the revised systematic placement for several problematic/misidentified records, indicate that the fossil record of anomurans and brachyurans in tropical America is more diverse than previously envisioned, with a considerable degree of endemism at the genus- and species-levels.

  2. Decapod crustaceans associated with the snakelock anemone Anemonia sulcata. Living there or just passing by?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Calado

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies the decapod crustaceans that associate with Anemonia sulcata on the southwestern Atlantic coast of Portugal and characterises their host use pattern. It determines whether the anemone is monopolised by any species, resulting in the exclusion of conspecifics or other decapods and, under laboratory conditions, it evaluates the degree of association between each species and A. sulcata. From all sampled anemones, 79% harboured at least 1 decapod crustacean, with the majority displaying either one or two specimens (32 and 24%, respectively. The most abundant species were the shrimp Periclimenes sagittifer and the crab Inachus phalangium (representing 36 and 31% of collected specimens, respectively, which displayed lasting associations and were commonly recorded among the tentacles of the host. The species Eualus occultus, E. complex cranchii, Clibanarius erythropus, Maja brachydactyla, Pilumnus hirtellus and Polybius (Necora puber displayed short-term associations, were mainly present on the substratum near the base, and avoided the tentacles of A. sulcata. Periclimenes sagittifer and I. phalangium were only recorded alone or in heterosexual pairs, appearing to efficiently defend their host against conspecifics. The majority of recorded species only seem to temporarily associate with A. sulcata, in order to seek protection from predators when other shelters are unavailable.

  3. On the distribution of decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique E. Boschi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of decapod crustaceans in the southernmost areas of South America and the Antarctic is assessed considering the Magellan Biogeographic Province instead of the antiboreal region. Possible associations between decapod crustaceans from the Magellan Biogeographic Province and those from the Antarctic region are analysed. Species records were assigned to seven geographic regions that were clustered using multivariate analyses based on species presence/absence and Bray-Curtis similarity. The results showed two well-established clusters, one of which included the Pacific and Atlantic areas of the Magellan Province, the southern tip of South America and the Kerguelen Arc islands, with the highest similarity between the southern tip and the Atlantic area. Another cluster was well separated and included the Antarctic and South Georgia with the highest similarity index. Earlier studies and results obtained here suggest that the faunas of southern Chile and southern Argentina are biogeographically related. There is a low level of association among decapod species from the circum-Antarctic region and the Magellan Province.

  4. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  5. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  6. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  7. c-Type cytochrome-dependent formation of U(IV nanoparticles by Shewanella oneidensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Marshall

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern approaches for bioremediation of radionuclide contaminated environments are based on the ability of microorganisms to effectively catalyze changes in the oxidation states of metals that in turn influence their solubility. Although microbial metal reduction has been identified as an effective means for immobilizing highly-soluble uranium(VI complexes in situ, the biomolecular mechanisms of U(VI reduction are not well understood. Here, we show that c-type cytochromes of a dissimilatory metal-reducing bacterium, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, are essential for the reduction of U(VI and formation of extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles. In particular, the outer membrane (OM decaheme cytochrome MtrC (metal reduction, previously implicated in Mn(IV and Fe(III reduction, directly transferred electrons to U(VI. Additionally, deletions of mtrC and/or omcA significantly affected the in vivo U(VI reduction rate relative to wild-type MR-1. Similar to the wild-type, the mutants accumulated UO(2 nanoparticles extracellularly to high densities in association with an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS. In wild-type cells, this UO(2-EPS matrix exhibited glycocalyx-like properties and contained multiple elements of the OM, polysaccharide, and heme-containing proteins. Using a novel combination of methods including synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence microscopy and high-resolution immune-electron microscopy, we demonstrate a close association of the extracellular UO(2 nanoparticles with MtrC and OmcA (outer membrane cytochrome. This is the first study to our knowledge to directly localize the OM-associated cytochromes with EPS, which contains biogenic UO(2 nanoparticles. In the environment, such association of UO(2 nanoparticles with biopolymers may exert a strong influence on subsequent behavior including susceptibility to oxidation by O(2 or transport in soils and sediments.

  8. Urinary C-type natriuretic peptide excretion: a potential novel biomarker for renal fibrosis during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Heublein, Denise M; Grande, Joseph P; Cataliotti, Alessandro; Rule, Andrew D; McKie, Paul M; Martin, Fernando L; Burnett, John C

    2011-11-01

    Renal aging is characterized by structural changes in the kidney including fibrosis, which contributes to the increased risk of kidney and cardiac failure in the elderly. Studies involving healthy kidney donors demonstrated subclinical age-related nephropathy on renal biopsy that was not detected by standard diagnostic tests. Thus there is a high-priority need for novel noninvasive biomarkers to detect the presence of preclinical age-associated renal structural and functional changes. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) possesses renoprotective properties and is present in the kidney; however, its modulation during aging remains undefined. We assessed circulating and urinary CNP in a Fischer rat model of experimental aging and also determined renal structural and functional adaptations to the aging process. Histological and electron microscopic analysis demonstrated significant renal fibrosis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, and mesangial matrix expansion with aging. While plasma CNP levels progressively declined with aging, urinary CNP excretion increased, along with the ratio of urinary to plasma CNP, which preceded significant elevations in proteinuria and blood pressure. Also, CNP immunoreactivity was increased in the distal and proximal tubules in both the aging rat and aging human kidneys. Our findings provide evidence that urinary CNP and its ratio to plasma CNP may represent a novel biomarker for early age-mediated renal structural alterations, particularly fibrosis. Thus urinary CNP could potentially aid in identifying subjects with preclinical structural changes before the onset of symptoms and disease, allowing for the initiation of strategies designed to prevent the progression of chronic kidney disease particularly in the aging population.

  9. Dexamethasone stimulates expression of C-type Natriuretic Peptide in chondrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beier Frank

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth of endochondral bones is regulated through the activity of cartilaginous growth plates. Disruption of the physiological patterns of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation – such as in endocrine disorders or in many different genetic diseases (e.g. chondrodysplasias – generally results in dwarfism and skeletal defects. For example, glucocorticoid administration in children inhibits endochondral bone growth, but the molecular targets of these hormones in chondrocytes remain largely unknown. In contrast, recent studies have shown that C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP is an important anabolic regulator of cartilage growth, and loss-of-function mutations in the human CNP receptor gene cause dwarfism. We asked whether glucocorticoids could exert their activities by interfering with the expression of CNP or its downstream signaling components. Methods Primary mouse chondrocytes in monolayer where incubated with the synthetic glucocorticoid Dexamethasone (DEX for 12 to 72 hours. Cell numbers were determined by counting, and real-time PCR was performed to examine regulation of genes in the CNP signaling pathway by DEX. Results We show that DEX does influence expression of key genes in the CNP pathway. Most importantly, DEX significantly increases RNA expression of the gene encoding CNP itself (Nppc. In addition, DEX stimulates expression of Prkg2 (encoding cGMP-dependent protein kinase II and Npr3 (natriuretic peptide decoy receptor genes. Conversely, DEX was found to down-regulate the expression of the gene encoding its receptor, Nr3c1 (glucocorticoid receptor, as well as the Npr2 gene (encoding the CNP receptor. Conclusion Our data suggest that the growth-suppressive activities of DEX are not due to blockade of CNP signaling. This study reveals a novel, unanticipated relationship between glucocorticoid and CNP signaling and provides the first evidence that CNP expression in chondrocytes is regulated by endocrine

  10. MCL and mincle: C-type lectin receptors that sense damaged self and pathogen associated molecular patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B Richardson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available MCL (macrophage C-type lectin and mincle (macrophage inducible C-type lectin comprise part of an extensive repertoire of pattern recognition receptors with the ability to sense damage associated and pathogen associated molecular patterns. In this review we cover the discovery and molecular characterization of these C-type lectin receptors, and highlight recent advances in the understanding of their roles in orchestrating the response of the immune system to bacterial and fungal infection, and damaged self. We also discuss the identification and structure-activity relationships of activating ligands, particularly trehalose dimycolate (TDM and related mycobacterial glycolipids, which have significant potential in the development of TH1/TH17 vaccination strategies.

  11. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  12. Hypothesis for heritable, anti-viral immunity in crustaceans and insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flegel Timothy W

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that crustaceans and insects can persistently carry one or more viral pathogens at low levels, without signs of disease. They may transmit them to their offspring or to naïve individuals, often with lethal consequences. The underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated, but the process has been called viral accommodation. Since tolerance to one virus does not confer tolerance to another, tolerance is pathogen-specific, so the requirement for a specific pathogen response mechanism (memory was included in the original viral accommodation concept. Later, it was hypothesized that specific responses were based on the presence of viruses in persistent infections. However, recent developments suggest that specific responses may be based on viral sequences inserted into the host genome. Presentation of the hypothesis Non-retroviral fragments of both RNA and DNA viruses have been found in insect and crustacean genomes. In addition, reverse-transcriptase (RT and integrase (IN sequences are also common in their genomes. It is hypothesized that shrimp and other arthropods use these RT to recognize "foreign" mRNA of both RNA and DNA viruses and use the integrases (IN to randomly insert short cDNA sequences into their genomes. By chance, some of these sequences result in production of immunospecific RNA (imRNA capable of stimulating RNAi that suppresses viral propagation. Individuals with protective inserts would pass these on to the next generation, together with similar protective inserts for other viruses that could be amalgamated rapidly in individual offspring by random assortment of chromosomes. The most successful individuals would be environmentally selected from billions of offspring. Conclusion This hypothesis for immunity based on an imRNA generation mechanism fits with the general principle of invertebrate immunity based on a non-host, "pattern recognition" process. If proven correct, understanding the

  13. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wai Hoong; Lai, Alvina G

    2018-01-01

    The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  14. Decapod crustaceans inhabiting live and dead colonies of three species of Acropora in the Roques Archipelago, Venezuela

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grajal, P. Alejandro; Laughlin, G. Roger

    1984-01-01

    A systematic account is given of the decapod crustaceans found in live and dead colonies of three species of the scleractinian coral Acropora (A. cervicornis, A. palmata, A. prolifera), collected during a 9 month period in a shallow reef flat in the southwestern portion of the Archipelago Los

  15. C-type natriuretic peptide ameliorates pulmonary fibrosis by acting on lung fibroblasts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Toru; Nojiri, Takashi; Hino, Jun; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Miura, Koichi; Shintani, Yasushi; Inoue, Masayoshi; Zenitani, Masahiro; Takabatake, Hiroyuki; Miyazato, Mikiya; Okumura, Meinoshin; Kangawa, Kenji

    2016-02-19

    Pulmonary fibrosis has high rates of mortality and morbidity; however, no effective pharmacological therapy has been established. C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a member of the natriuretic peptide family, selectively binds to the transmembrane guanylyl cyclase (GC)-B receptor and exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects in various organs through vascular endothelial cells and fibroblasts that have a cell-surface GC-B receptor. Given the pathophysiological importance of fibroblast activation in pulmonary fibrosis, we hypothesized that the anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory effects of exogenous CNP against bleomycin (BLM)-induced pulmonary fibrosis were exerted in part by the effect of CNP on pulmonary fibroblasts. C57BL/6 mice were divided into two groups, CNP-treated (2.5 μg/kg/min) and vehicle, to evaluate BLM-induced (1 mg/kg) pulmonary fibrosis and inflammation. A periostin-CNP transgenic mouse model exhibiting CNP overexpression in fibroblasts was generated and examined for the anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of CNP via fibroblasts in vivo. Additionally, we assessed CNP attenuation of TGF-β-induced differentiation into myofibroblasts by using immortalized human lung fibroblasts stably expressing GC-B receptors. Furthermore, to investigate whether CNP acts on human lung fibroblasts in a clinical setting, we obtained primary-cultured fibroblasts from surgically resected lungs of patients with lung cancer and analyzed levels of GC-B mRNA transcription. CNP reduced mRNA levels of the profibrotic cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, as well as collagen deposition and the fibrotic area in lungs of mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. Furthermore, similar CNP effects were observed in transgenic mice exhibiting fibroblast-specific CNP overexpression. In cultured-lung fibroblasts, CNP treatment attenuated TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Smad2 and increased mRNA and protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin and SM22

  16. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  17. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  18. Molecular identification of a Drosophila G protein-coupled receptor specific for crustacean cardioactive peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cazzamali, Giuseppe; Hauser, Frank; Kobberup, Sune

    2003-01-01

    The Drosophila Genome Project website (www.flybase.org) contains the sequence of an annotated gene (CG6111) expected to code for a G protein-coupled receptor. We have cloned this receptor and found that its gene was not correctly predicted, because an annotated neighbouring gene (CG14547) was also...... part of the receptor gene. DNA corresponding to the corrected gene CG6111 was expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, where it was found to code for a receptor that could be activated by low concentrations of crustacean cardioactive peptide, which is a neuropeptide also known to occur in Drosophila...... and other insects (EC(50), 5.4 x 10(-10)M). Other known Drosophila neuropeptides, such as adipokinetic hormone, did not activate the receptor. The receptor is expressed in all developmental stages from Drosophila, but only very weakly in larvae. In adult flies, the receptor is mainly expressed in the head...

  19. Crustacean zooplankton species richness in Chilean lakes and ponds (23°-51°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio De los Ríos-Escalante

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chilean inland-water ecosystems are characterized by their low species-level biodiversity. This study analyses available data on surface area, maximum depth, conductivity, chlorophyll-α concentration, and zooplankton crustacean species number in lakes and ponds between 23° and 51°S. The study uses multiple regression analysis to identify the potential factors affecting the species number. The partial correlation analysis indicated a direct significant correlation between chlorophyll-α concentration and species number, whereas the multiple regression analysis indicated a direct significant response of species number to latitude and chlorophyll-α concentration. These results agree with findings from comparable ecosystems in Argentina and New Zealand.

  20. Long-term effects to ionizing radiation in crustacean Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarapul'tseva, E.I.

    2016-01-01

    The results of this study have provided strong evidence for the trans generational effects of parental exposure to ionizing radiation in crustacean Daphnia magna. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival, life span and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their non-exposed offspring, D. magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000 mGy of acute γ-rays. MTT-assay was first applied for the investigation in vivo of the mechanisms of trans generational low doses effects of radiation and development of stress in Daphnia. Our dates strongly support MTT assay results as a good bio marker of survival and fertility effects at D. magna. (authors)

  1. Genotyping of white spot syndrome virus on wild and farm crustaceans from Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González-Galaviz José Reyes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available White spot syndrome is a viral disease affecting wild and farm crustaceans that serve as reservoirs. Previous reports have demonstrated high genomic variation in WSS viruses (WSSV isolated from distinct geographical regions. In this study, we collected wild shrimps (Litopenaeus stylirostris, crabs (Callinectes arcuatus and farmed shrimp (L. vannamei in Sonora, Mexico, between 2008 and 2010. DNA was extracted, and the variable regions and transposase genes were subjected to PCR and sequencing. Compared to strains of WSSV from other sites, Mexican samples exhibited a distinct number of repeat units (RUs in ORF94, ORF75 and ORF125, which ranged between 1-11, 3-15, and 8-11 RUs respectively, and a unique single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP at position 48 of ORF94. A total of six Mexican genotypes were found in organism from shrimp farm and natural environment.

  2. Combined toxicity of mercury and plastic wastes to crustacean and gastropod inhabiting the waters in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Thomas, B V

    2015-11-01

    The present study determined total mercury (T-Hg) in crustacean Portunus pelagicus (blue crab) and mollusc Tapes sulcarius (Furrowed Venus: Cockle) following suspected rise in beach plastic wastes and their effect on marine organisms. Live samples were collected from beaches representing six Kuwait Governorate areas and exposed to toxicity (96hr) and bio accumulation tests for 180 d with inclusion of plastic wastes and environmental conditions simulated in laboratory. Results revealed high T-Hg concentrations in T sulcarius (1.44ng l(-1)) compared to P. pelagicus (1.03ng l(-1)) during winter than summer, with bio accumulation factor (BAF) > 1 labelled these species as hyper-accumulators. Significantly, combination of T-Hg concentrations from plastic wastes and in seawater validated the possibilities of detrimental effects of other marine lives besides deteriorating the aesthetic values of scenic beaches and likelihood of invasive species in such coastal areas.

  3. Visualization of ecdysteroid activity using a reporter gene in the crustacean, Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Miki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2014-02-01

    Ecdysone is a hormone known to play a pivotal role in crustaceans and insects. In order to evaluate the ecdysone activities in the environment and within the organism, we have developed a biomonitoring Daphnia strain by introducing a reporter gene. In this study, the ecdysone response element was inserted in the upstream region of a reporter gene, and the DNA construct was injected into Daphnia eggs. The expression of the reporter gene was detected during the early embryonic development stage. In addition, when the eggs expressing the reporter gene were exposed to ecdysone, there was enhanced expression of the reporter gene at detectable levels, while the presence of an antagonist led to its downregulation. These results suggested that this system could be potentially developed for monitoring ecdysone activities in media. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A Phylogenomic Solution to the Origin of Insects by Resolving Crustacean-Hexapod Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwentner, Martin; Combosch, David J; Pakes Nelson, Joey; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2017-06-19

    Insects, the most diverse group of organisms, are nested within crustaceans, arguably the most abundant group of marine animals. However, to date, no consensus has been reached as to which crustacean taxon is the closest relative of hexapods. A majority of studies have proposed that Branchiopoda (e.g., fairy shrimps) is the sister group of Hexapoda [1-7]. However, these investigations largely excluded two equally important taxa, Remipedia and Cephalocarida. Other studies suggested Remipedia [8-11] or Remipedia + Cephalocarida [12, 13] as potential sister groups of hexapods, but they either did not include Cephalocarida or used only Sanger sequence data and morphology [9, 12]. Here we present the first phylogenomic study specifically addressing the origins of hexapods, including transcriptomes for two species each of Cephalocarida and Remipedia. Phylogenetic analyses of selected matrices, ranging from 81 to 1,675 orthogroups and up to 510,982 amino acid positions, clearly reject a sister-group relationship between Hexapoda and Branchiopoda [1-7]. Nonetheless, support for a hexapod sister-group relationship to Remipedia or to Cephalocarida-Remipedia was highly dependent on the employed analytical methodology. Further analyses assessing the effects of gene evolutionary rate and targeted taxon exclusion support Remipedia as the sole sister taxon of Hexapoda and suggest that the prior grouping of Remipedia + Cephalocarida is an artifact, possibly due to long branch attraction and compositional heterogeneity. We further conclude that terrestrialization of Hexapoda probably occurred in the late Cambrian to early Ordovician, an estimate that is independent of their proposed sister group [4, 8, 12, 14]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Obesogens beyond Vertebrates: Lipid Perturbation by Tributyltin in the Crustacean Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, Rita; Casas, Josefina; Fabrias, Gemma; Campos, Bruno; Piña, Benjamín; Lemos, Marco F.L.; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Tauler, Romà

    2015-01-01

    Background The analysis of obesogenic effects in invertebrates is limited by our poor knowledge of the regulatory pathways of lipid metabolism. Recent data from the crustacean Daphnia magna points to three signaling hormonal pathways related to the molting and reproductive cycles [retinoic X receptor (RXR), juvenile hormone (JH), and ecdysone] as putative targets for exogenous obesogens. Objective The present study addresses the disruptive effects of the model obesogen tributyltin (TBT) on the lipid homeostasis in Daphnia during the molting and reproductive cycle, its genetic control, and health consequences of its disruption. Methods D. magna individuals were exposed to low and high levels of TBT. Reproductive effects were assessed by Life History analysis methods. Quantitative and qualitative changes in lipid droplets during molting and the reproductive cycle were studied using Nile red staining. Lipid composition and dynamics were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Relative abundances of mRNA from different genes related to RXR, ecdysone, and JH signaling pathways were studied by qRT-PCR. Results and Conclusions TBT disrupted the dynamics of neutral lipids, impairing the transfer of triacylglycerols to eggs and hence promoting their accumulation in adult individuals. TBT’s disruptive effects translated into a lower fitness for offspring and adults. Co-regulation of gene transcripts suggests that TBT activates the ecdysone, JH, and RXR receptor signaling pathways, presumably through the already proposed interaction with RXR. These findings indicate the presence of obesogenic effects in a nonvertebrate species. Citation Jordão R, Casas J, Fabrias G, Campos B, Piña B, Lemos MF, Soares AM, Tauler R, Barata C. 2015. Obesogens beyond vertebrates: lipid perturbation by tributyltin in the crustacean Daphnia magna. Environ Health Perspect 123:813–819; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1409163 PMID

  6. C-type lectins on dendritic cells and their interaction with pathogen-derived and endogenous glycoconjugates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijzen, K.; Cambi, A.; Torensma, R.; Figdor, C.G.

    2006-01-01

    Human C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) characteristically bind glycosylated ligands in a Ca(2+)-dependent way via their carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Their carbohydrate preference is dependent on the amino acid sequence in the CRD domain and on the ability and flexibility of the CRD domain to

  7. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin on dendritic cells that unveils many aspects of dendritic cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Engering, Anneke; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are present in essentially every tissue where they operate at the interface of innate and acquired immunity by recognizing pathogens and presenting pathogen-derived peptides to T cells. It is becoming clear that not all C-type lectins on DC serve as antigen receptors recognizing

  8. Magnetite Compensates for the Lack of a Pilin-Associated c-Type Cytochrome in Extracellular Electron Exchange

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fanghua; Rotaru, Amelia-Elena; Shrestha, Pravin

    2015-01-01

    investigation revealed that magnetite attached to the electrically conductive pili of Geobacter species in a manner reminiscent of the association of the multi-heme c-type cytochrome OmcS with the pili of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Magnetite conferred extracellular electron capabilities on an Omc...

  9. Molecular cloning, genomic organization, and expression of a C-type (Manduca sexta-type) allatostatin preprohormone from Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williamson, M; Lenz, C; Winther, A M

    2001-01-01

    neurons of the brain and abdominal ganglia and in endocrine cells of the midgut. This is the first publication on the structure of a C-type allatostatin from insects other than moths and the first report on the presence of all three types of allatostatins in a representative of the insect order Diptera...

  10. Urinary osteocalcin and serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide predict linear catch-up growth in infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpeläinen, Leena; Ivaska, Kaisa K; Kuiri-Hänninen, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    of this longitudinal study was to determine the extent to which postnatal levels of circulating cartilage (serum pro-C-type natriuretic peptide [S-proCNP]) and urinary bone metabolic markers (urinary osteocalcin [MidOC] and two forms of C-terminal cross-linked telopeptide of type I collagen [U-α-CTX-I and U...

  11. Non-amidated and amidated members of the C-type allatostatin (AST-C) family are differentially distributed in the stomatogastric nervous system of the American lobster, Homarus americanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E; Miller, Alexandra; Fernandez, Rebecca; Dickinson, Evyn S; Jordan, Audrey; Kohn, Jessica; Youn, Mina C; Dickinson, Patsy S

    2018-01-13

    The crustacean stomatogastric nervous system (STNS) is a well-known model for investigating neuropeptidergic control of rhythmic behavior. Among the peptides known to modulate the STNS are the C-type allatostatins (AST-Cs). In the lobster, Homarus americanus, three AST-Cs are known. Two of these, pQIRYHQCYFNPISCF (AST-C I) and GNGDGRLYWRCYFNAVSCF (AST-C III), have non-amidated C-termini, while the third, SYWKQCAFNAVSCFamide (AST-C II), is C-terminally amidated. Here, antibodies were generated against one of the non-amidated peptides (AST-C I) and against the amidated isoform (AST-C II). Specificity tests show that the AST-C I antibody cross-reacts with both AST-C I and AST-C III, but not AST-C II; the AST-C II antibody does not cross-react with either non-amidated peptide. Wholemount immunohistochemistry shows that both subclasses (non-amidated and amidated) of AST-C are distributed throughout the lobster STNS. Specifically, the antibody that cross-reacts with the two non-amidated peptides labels neuropil in the CoGs and the stomatogastric ganglion (STG), axons in the superior esophageal (son) and stomatogastric (stn) nerves, and ~ 14 somata in each commissural ganglion (CoG). The AST-C II-specific antibody labels neuropil in the CoGs, STG and at the junction of the sons and stn, axons in the sons and stn, ~ 42 somata in each CoG, and two somata in the STG. Double immunolabeling shows that, except for one soma in each CoG, the non-amidated and amidated peptides are present in distinct sets of neuronal profiles. The differential distributions of the two AST-C subclasses suggest that the two peptide groups are likely to serve different modulatory roles in the lobster STNS.

  12. Crustaceans from a tropical estuarine sand-mud flat, Pacific, Costa Rica, (1984-1988 revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Vargas-Zamora

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The availability of data sets for time periods of more than a year is scarce for tropical environments. Advances in hardware and software speed-up the re-analysis of old data sets and facilitates the description of population oscillations. Using recent taxonomic literature and software we have updated and re-analized the information on crustacean diversity and population fluctuations from a set of cores collected at a mud-sand flat in the mid upper Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica (1984-1988. A total of 112 morphological species of macroinvertebrates was found, of which 29 were crustaceans. Taxonomic problems, maily with the peracarids, prevented the identification of a group of species. The abundance patterns of the crab Pinnixa valerii, the ostracod Cyprideis pacifica, and the cumacean Coricuma nicoyensis were analized with the Generalized Additive Models of the free software R. The models evidenced a variety of population oscillations during the sampling period. These oscillations probably included perturbations induced by external factors, like the strong red tide events of 1985. In additon, early on 1984 the populations might have been at an altered state due to the inpact of El Niño 1982-83. Thus, the oscillations observed during the study period departed from the expected seasonality (dry vs rainy pattern and are thus considered atypical for this tropical estuarine tidal-flat. Crustacean diversity and population peaks were within the range of examples found in worldwide literature. However, abundances of the cumacean C. nicoyensis, an endemic species, are the highest reported for a tropical estuary. Comparative data from tropical tidal flat crustaceans continues to be scarce. Crustaceans (total vs groups had population changes in response to the deployment of predator exclusion cages during the dry and rainy seasons of 1985. Temporal and spatial patchiness characterized the abundances of P. valeri, C. pacifica and C

  13. Regulation of Fumonisin B1 Biosynthesis and Conidiation in Fusarium verticillioides by a Cyclin-Like (C-Type) Gene, FCC1†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Won-Bo; Woloshuk, Charles P.

    2001-01-01

    Fumonisins are a group of mycotoxins produced in corn kernels by the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides. A mutant of the fungus, FT536, carrying a disrupted gene named FCC1 (for Fusarium cyclin C1) resulting in altered fumonisin B1 biosynthesis was generated. FCC1 contains an open reading frame of 1,018 bp, with one intron, and encodes a putative 319-amino-acid polypeptide. This protein is similar to UME3 (also called SRB11 or SSN8), a cyclin C of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and contains three conserved motifs: a cyclin box, a PEST-rich region, and a destruction box. Also similar to the case for C-type cyclins, FCC1 was constitutively expressed during growth. When strain FT536 was grown on corn kernels or on defined minimal medium at pH 6, conidiation was reduced and FUM5, the polyketide synthase gene involved in fumonisin B1 biosynthesis, was not expressed. However, when the mutant was grown on a defined minimal medium at pH 3, conidiation was restored, and the blocks in expression of FUM5 and fumonisin B1 production were suppressed. Our data suggest that FCC1 plays an important role in signal transduction regulating secondary metabolism (fumonisin biosynthesis) and fungal development (conidiation) in F. verticillioides. PMID:11282612

  14. Hazard identification of contaminated sites. Ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in crustacean and fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, J.; Sundberg, H.; Aakerman, G.; Grunder, K.; Eklund, B.; Breitholtz, M. [Dept. of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2008-09-15

    Background, aim, and scope: It is well known that contaminated sediments represent a potential long-term source of pollutants to the aquatic environment. To protect human and ecosystem health, it is becoming common to remediate contaminated sites. However, the great cost associated with, e.g., dredging in combination with the large numbers of contaminated sites makes it crucial to pinpoint those sites that are in greatest need of remediation. In most European countries, this prioritization process has almost exclusively been based on chemical analyses of known substances; only seldom toxicity data has been considered. The main objective of the current study was therefore to develop a tool for hazard identification of sediment by ranking potential toxicity of organic sediment extracts in a crustacean and a fish. A secondary objective was to investigate the difference in potential toxicity between compounds with different polarities. Materials and methods Early life stages of the crustacean Nitocra spinipes and the fish Oncorhynchus mykiss, which represent organisms from different trophic levels (primary and secondary consumer) and with different routes of exposure (i.e. ingestion through food, diffusive uptake, and maternal transfer), were exposed to hexane and acetone fractions (semi-polar compounds) of sediment from five locations, ranging from heavily to low contaminated. Preliminary tests showed that the extracts were non-bioavailable to the crustacean when exposed via water, and the extracts were therefore loaded on silica gel. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed using nano-injection technique. Results and discussion Clear concentration-response relationships of both mortality and larval development were observed in all tests with N. spinipes. Also for rainbow trout, the observed effects (e.g., abnormality, hemorrhage, asymmetric yolk sac) followed a dose-related pattern. Interestingly, our results indicate that some of the locations contained toxic semi

  15. Ingestion and selection of suprabenthic crustaceans by small-sized fishes in a lower saltmarsh system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Wakabara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in the lower saltmarsh system of the Arrozal, in the Cananéia lagoon estuarine region (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brazil. Suprabenthic fauna was surveyed Wlth a small sledge and fishes were captured with casting and set nets to analyse: crustacean fauna as food for local fish species; difference in the diet at different times of the year; if there is diet overlap between species and the feeding behaviour of the species analysed. The fauna of Arrozal is poor in species, dominated mainly by Metamysidopsis alongata atlantica, Acartia lilljeborgi, Atylus minikoi, decapod larvae, and reveals a strong seasonal variation. The fishes were ali camivorous with suprabenthic crustacean as their main food resource. Seasonal changes in food supply are also reflected in the diet. Of the 12 flSh species collected six were opportunistlc feeders whereas six others were selective feeders. Food overlap value of 0.08 for ali of the fish community indicates an almost completely distinct food niches. The increased overlapping of summer food between Cathorops spixii and species of Group 11 and between Oligoplites sp and species of Group I seems to have two different explanations: 1 the mmIDishing of food supply for species feeding on benthic originated suprabenthic crustaceans and 2 overabundance of planktonic forms of suprabenthos as well as a period of high feeding activity of fishes with such diet.O presente estudo foi realizado no infralitoral contíguo à marisma, na Ponta do Arrozal, região estuarina lagunar de Cananéia (25º02'S - 47º56'W, Brasil. A fauna suprabêntica foi amostrada com uma pequena draga e os peixes capturados com tarrafa e rede de espera, com a finalidade de analisar: a composição de espécies dos crustáceos suprabênticos como itens alimentares dos peixes; diferenças na dieta em diferentes época do ano; se ocorre sobreposição alimentar entre as espécies e o comportamento alimentar: das espécies de peixes

  16. Experimental study of the occurence and properties of C-type retroviruses in radiation-induced osteosarcomas in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erfle, V.

    1981-01-01

    In the radiation induced osteosarcomas of the C 3 Hx101/F 1 -mouse C-type virus particles had been found regularly with a density of 1.16 g/cm 3 , with high molecular RNA, a reverse transcriptase and the murine group-specific antigen p 30. Osteosarcomas of the NMRI-mouse, however, had only p 30 protein and so-called intra-cisternal A-type particles. After 'in vitro' cultivation retroviruses had been liberated from the osteosarcoma cells of the C 3 Hx101/F 1 -mice as well as from the NMRI-mice type C. During the tumour latency period a virus expression of the C-type retroviruses had been found for a certain period in the first month after irradiation of the bone tissue had begun; then followed an antibody-reaction which continued to persist until the 8th month. Another virus expression was observed in the skeleton during the period when the osteosarcomas appeared. This virus expression was accompanied by a decrease in antibodies and a temporary increase of the viral p 30 protein in the serum. The viruses which had been isolated from the radiation induced osteosarcomas showed the properties which are typical for ecotropic C-type retroviruses of mice. After infection of new-born mice these viruses produced fibrosarcomas (C 3 Hx 101/F 1 -mice) or lymphomas and osteomas (NMRI-mice). The results make it obvious that the endogenetic C-type retroviruses participate in the formation of radiation-induced sarcomas in mice. (orig./MG) [de

  17. Biodiversity patterns of crustacean suprabenthic assemblages along an oligotrophic gradient in the bathyal Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Mariana; Frutos, Inmaculada; Tecchio, Samuele; Lampadariou, Nikolaos; Company, Joan B.; Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; Cunha, Marina R.

    2017-03-01

    Crustacean suprabenthic abundance, community structure, α-diversity (both taxonomic and trophic) and β-diversity were studied along a West-East gradient of oligotrophy in the deep Mediterranean Sea. The assemblages were sampled with a suprabenthic sledge in three regions (western, central and eastern basins) at three water depths (1200, 2000 and 3000 m) in May-June 2009. Environmental data were obtained at each sampling location including sediment properties, oceanographic variables near the seafloor and in the water column, and proxies of epipelagic productivity at the surface. Our results, concerning the crustacean component of the suprabenthos, showed complex trends in community structure and biodiversity across different spatial scales (longitudinal, bathymetric, and near-bottom distribution). A decrease in the number of species and abundance, accompanied by changes in the trophic structure of the assemblages were observed from West to East. In the eastern region the assemblages were impoverished in number of trophic guilds and trophic diversity. The West-East oligotrophic gradient was identified as the main driver in community structure as shown by the significant correlation with trophic environmental variables. Differences in community structure across regions were more marked at greater depths, while at the shallower sites assemblages were more similar. Within each basin, abundance, number of species and number of trophic groups decreased with depth, showing high turnover rates between 1200 and 2000 m depths. The small-scale (0-150 cm) vertical distribution of the suprabenthos was interpreted in relation to the species' functional traits (e.g. swimming activity, migratory behaviour, bottom dependence, feeding habits). Bottom-dependent and more mobile components of the suprabenthos were apparently responding differently to the various environmental challenges imposed by the large-scale longitudinal and bathymetric gradients. We propose that the bathyal

  18. A long-term study on crustacean plankton of a shallow tropical lake: the role of invertebrate predation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene S. Arcifa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor that governs the size and species composition of zooplankton is still a controversial issue and temperature is considered the main factor responsible for latitudinal differences. In waters with a narrow temperature range, such as in the tropics, predation may be a more important factor. Nearly three decades of intermittent studies of the crustacean plankton in a shallow tropical lake revealed that the main event that led to their restructuring was the appearance of a second predator, the water mite Krendowskia sp. The new predator and larvae of the dipteran Chaoborus brasiliensis Theobald exerted a combined, although asymmetrical effect on microcrustaceans. The period when the mite was detected was followed by the restructuring of the crustacean plankton community. Predation by these two invertebrates emerged as the factor responsible for community changes, involving an increased contribution of copepods and decreases in the relative abundance of smaller cladoceran species. In the short term, the mite caused a decrease in species richness and the annual mean instantaneous composition of cladocerans, a predominance of large-sized species (Daphnia ambigua Scourfield and Daphnia gessneri Herbst and the virtual disappearance of small species (e.g., Bosmina tubicen Brehm. The long-term impact resulted in increased species richness and the dominance of large and medium-sized cladocerans, such as D. gessneri and Ceriodaphnia richardi Sars. The larger body size of three cladocerans, the two Daphnia species and B. tubicen, in the long term, may be a response to the dominant predator, Chaoborus. The seasonal variation in the predator abundance, mainly Chaoborus larvae, allowed the prey to recover during the cool season. The copepods Tropocyclops prasinus meridionalis (Fischer and Thermocyclops decipiens Kiefer were less affected by predation than the cladocerans; their contribution to the crustacean plankton increased 12-28% after the

  19. Crustacean communities in coastal ephemeral pools in the Araucanía region (38° S, Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Ríos-Escalante, P; Acevedo, P

    2016-01-01

    The fauna communities of ephemeral pools in southern Chile are characterized by heterogeneity of crustacean taxa; nevertheless, no detailed studies exist of their community structure. The aim of the present study was to analyze the crustacean community structure in two groups of ephemeral pools (Puaucho and Nigue pools) in the coastal zone of the Araucanía region. A correlation matrix was made by species abundance against temperature, conductivity, pH and total dissolved solids. In a second step, a null model for species co-occurrence was applied to the total data and to each group. The results for total data revealed a significant direct relation between the abundance of H. costera, C. dubia and Mesocyclops. For the Puaucho pools, the same results were found together with direct associations with total dissolved solids, conductivity and pH. Finally, different results were found for the Nigue pools, with no clear significant associations, either direct or indirect, between the abundance of different crustacean taxa and abiotic parameters. These results were supported by the co-occurrence null model analysis, which revealed the presence of regulator factors for the total data, and for each of the two groups. Ecological topics are discussed with emphasis on meta-community dynamics.

  20. House dust mite (Der p 10) and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty C M; van Broekhoven, Sarah; den Hartog-Jager, Constance F; Gaspari, Marco; de Jong, Govardus A H; Wichers, Harry J; van Hoffen, Els; Houben, Geert F; Knulst, André C

    2014-03-01

    Due to the imminent growth of the world population, shortage of protein sources for human consumption will arise in the near future. Alternative and sustainable protein sources (e.g. insects) are being explored for the production of food and feed. In this project, the safety of Yellow mealworms (Tenebrio molitor L.) for human consumption was tested using approaches as advised by the European Food Safety Authority for allergenicity risk assessment. Different Yellow mealworm protein fractions were prepared, characterised, and tested for cross-reactivity using sera from patients with an inhalation or food allergy to biologically related species (House dust mite (HDM) and crustaceans) by immunoblotting and basophil activation. Furthermore, the stability was investigated using an in vitro pepsin digestion test. IgE from HDM- and crustacean allergic patients cross-reacted with Yellow mealworm proteins. This cross-reactivity was functional, as shown by the induction of basophil activation. The major cross-reactive proteins were identified as tropomyosin and arginine kinase, which are well known allergens in arthropods. These proteins were moderately stable in the pepsin stability test. Based on these cross-reactivity studies, there is a realistic possibility that HDM- and crustacean allergic patients may react to food containing Yellow mealworm proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Resistance to a bacterial parasite in the crustacean Daphnia magna shows Mendelian segregation with dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luijckx, P; Fienberg, H; Duneau, D; Ebert, D

    2012-05-01

    The influence of host and parasite genetic background on infection outcome is a topic of great interest because of its pertinence to theoretical issues in evolutionary biology. In the present study, we use a classical genetics approach to examine the mode of inheritance of infection outcome in the crustacean Daphnia magna when exposed to the bacterial parasite Pasteuria ramosa. In contrast to previous studies in this system, we use a clone of P. ramosa, not field isolates, which allows for a more definitive interpretation of results. We test parental, F1, F2, backcross and selfed parental clones (total 284 genotypes) for susceptibility against a clone of P. ramosa using two different methods, infection trials and the recently developed attachment test. We find that D. magna clones reliably exhibit either complete resistance or complete susceptibility to P. ramosa clone C1 and that resistance is dominant, and inherited in a pattern consistent with Mendelian segregation of a single-locus with two alleles. The finding of a single host locus controlling susceptibility to P. ramosa suggests that the previously observed genotype-genotype interactions in this system have a simple genetic basis. This has important implications for the outcome of host-parasite co-evolution. Our results add to the growing body of evidence that resistance to parasites in invertebrates is mostly coded by one or few loci with dominance.

  2. Fitness and virulence of a bacterial endoparasite in an environmentally stressed crustacean host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coors, Anja; De Meester, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Host-parasite interactions are shaped by the co-evolutionary arms race of parasite virulence, transmission success as well as host resistance and recovery. The virulence and fitness of parasites may depend on host condition, which is mediated, for instance, by host energy constraints. Here, we investigated to what extent stress imposed by predation threat and environmental pollutants influences host-parasite interactions. We challenged the crustacean host Daphnia magna with the sterilizing bacterial endoparasite Pasteuria ramosa and simultaneously exposed the host to fish kairomones, the pesticide carbaryl or both stressors. While parasite virulence, measured as impact on host mortality and sterilization, increased markedly after short-term pesticide exposure, it was not influenced by predation threat. Parasite fitness, measured in terms of produced transmission stages, decreased both in fish and pesticide treatments. This effect was much stronger under predation threat than carbaryl exposure, and was attributable to reduced somatic growth of the host, presumably resulting in fewer resources for parasite development. While the indirect impact of both stressors on spore loads provides evidence for host condition-dependent parasite fitness, the finding of increased virulence only under carbaryl exposure indicates a stronger physiological impact of the neurotoxic chemical compared with the effect of a non-toxic fish kairomone.

  3. Description of two new associated infaunal decapod crustaceans (Axianassidae and Alpheidae from the tropical eastern Pacific

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    Arthur Anker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of infaunal decapod crustaceans are described based on material collected in Bahía Málaga, Pacific coast of Colombia, in 2009. The mud-shrimp Axianassa darrylfelderi sp. nov. (Axianassidae appears to be most closely related to A. australis Rodrigues & Shimizu, 1992, A. canalis Kensley & Heard, 1990, and A. jamaicensis Kensley & Heard, 1990. The new species may be distinguished from each of them by a combination of morphological features, mainly on the uropodal exopod, antennal acicle, third maxilliped and first pleonite. The shrimp Leptalpheus canterakintzi sp. nov. (Alpheidae, associated with burrows of A. darrylfelderi sp. nov., undoubtedly represents the eastern Pacific sister species of the western Atlantic L. axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999, which lives exclusively in burrows of A. australis. The two species are reliably distinguishable only by the proportions of the merus and propodus of the third pereiopod. Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011, previously known only from the Pacific coast of Panama, is reported for the first time from Bahía Málaga, Colombia.

  4. Chronic toxicity of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to algae and crustaceans using passive dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragin, Gail E; Parkerton, Thomas F; Redman, Aaron D; Letinksi, Daniel J; Butler, Josh D; Paumen, Miriam Leon; Sutherland, Cary A; Knarr, Tricia M; Comber, Mike; den Haan, Klaas

    2016-12-01

    Because of the large number of possible aromatic hydrocarbon structures, predictive toxicity models are needed to support substance hazard and risk assessments. Calibration and evaluation of such models requires toxicity data with well-defined exposures. The present study has applied a passive dosing method to generate reliable chronic effects data for 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and the crustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia. The observed toxicity of these substances on algal growth rate and neonate production were then compared with available literature toxicity data for these species, as well as target lipid model and chemical activity-based model predictions. The use of passive dosing provided well-controlled exposures that yielded more consistent data sets than attained by past literature studies. Results from the present study, which were designed to exclude the complicating influence of ultraviolet light, were found to be well described by both target lipid model and chemical activity effect models. The present study also found that the lack of chronic effects for high molecular weight PAHs was consistent with the limited chemical activity that could be achieved for these compounds in the aqueous test media. Findings from this analysis highlight that variability in past literature toxicity data for PAHs may be complicated by both poorly controlled exposures and photochemical processes that can modulate both exposure and toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2948-2957. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  5. Alloxenic distribution of cystacanths of two Profilicollis species in sympatric crustacean hosts in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa, L; Hinojosa, A; Riquelme, C; Rodríguez, S; Bustos, J; George-Nascimento, M

    2009-10-01

    The taxonomic status of Profilicollis ( = Falsifilicollis Webster, 1948) species in crustaceans in Chile is examined. Mole crabs, Emerita analoga (Stimpson 1857), living in the splash zone of a sandy beach at Lenga off the coast of central Chile, harbor Polymorphus (Profilicollis) bullocki Mateo, Córdova and Guzmán 1982, while the estuarine crabs, Hemigrapsus crenulatus (Milne-Edwards, 1837), living in an oligohaline inlet at the same site, harbor Profilicollis spp. cystacanths which cannot be distinguished specifically to either Profilicollis antarcticus or P. chasmagnathi Holcman-Spector, Mañé-Garzón and Dei-Cas 1977. We found no morphological data supporting records of P. altmani along the coast of Chile. Therefore, and after examination of both their morphology and the literature, we consider that P. bullocki must be reinstated as a valid species in the genus. There is a widespread distribution of habitats, such as sandy beaches and inlets, as well as a variety of host taxa involved in the life cycle of Profilicollis spp. Consequently, they provide an interesting scenario for testing hypotheses regarding the coevolution and host specificity of these parasites.

  6. Taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarid crustaceans in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Veronica Monroy-Velázquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims Cryptic peracarids are an important component of the coral reef fauna in terms of diversity and abundance, yet they have been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the taxonomic richness and abundance of cryptic peracarids in coral rubble in the Puerto Morelos Reef National Park, Mexico (PMRNP, and their relationship with depth. Methods Three reef sites were selected: (1 Bonanza, (2 Bocana, and (3 Jardines. At each site six kilograms of coral rubble were collected over four sampling periods at three depths: 3 m (back-reef, 6–8 m (fore-reef, and 10–12 m (fore-reef. Results A total of 8,887 peracarid crustaceans belonging to 200 taxa distributed over five orders and 63 families was obtained; 70% of the taxa were identified to species and 25% to genus level. Fifty species of those collected represent new records for the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Isopoda was the most speciose order while Tanaidacea was the most abundant. Discussion Cryptic peracarid taxonomic richness and abundance were related to depth with higher values of both parameters being found in the shallow (3 m back-reef, possibly due to a higher reef development and a greater accumulation of coral rubble produced during hurricanes. Peracarid data obtained in the present study can be used as a baseline for future monitoring programs in the PMRNP.

  7. Transgenerational deleterious effects of ocean acidification on the reproductive success of a keystone crustacean (Gammarus locusta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Francisco O; Figueiredo, Cátia; Sampaio, Eduardo; Rosa, Rui; Grilo, Tiago F

    2018-07-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) poses a global threat to marine biodiversity. Notwithstanding, marine organisms may maintain their performance under future OA conditions, either through acclimation or evolutionary adaptation. Surprisingly, the transgenerational effects of high CO 2 exposure in crustaceans are still poorly understood. For the first time, the present study investigated the transgenerational effect of OA, from hatching to maturity, of a key amphipod species (Gammarus locusta). Negative transgenerational effects were observed on survival of the acidified lineage, resulting in significant declines (10-15%) compared to the control groups in each generation. Mate-guarding duration was also significantly reduced under high CO 2 and this effect was not alleviated by transgenerational acclimation, indicating that precopulatory behaviours can be disturbed under a future high CO 2 scenario. Although OA may initially stimulate female investment, transgenerational exposure led to a general decline in egg number and fecundity. Overall, the present findings suggest a potential fitness reduction of natural populations of G. locusta in a future high CO 2 ocean, emphasizing the need of management tools towards species' sustainability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A mutation in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant alters juvenile hormone response in insects and crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Toyota, Kenji; Hirakawa, Ikumi; Ogino, Yukiko; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Oda, Shigeto; Tatarazako, Norihisa; Miura, Toru; Colbourne, John K; Iguchi, Taisen

    2013-01-01

    Juvenile hormone is an essential regulator of major developmental and life history events in arthropods. Most of the insects use juvenile hormone III as the innate juvenile hormone ligand. By contrast, crustaceans use methyl farnesoate. Despite this difference that is tied to their deep evolutionary divergence, the process of this ligand transition is unknown. Here we show that a single amino-acid substitution in the receptor Methoprene-tolerant has an important role during evolution of the arthropod juvenile hormone pathway. Microcrustacea Daphnia pulex and D. magna share a juvenile hormone signal transduction pathway with insects, involving Methoprene-tolerant and steroid receptor coactivator proteins that form a heterodimer in response to various juvenoids. Juvenile hormone-binding pockets of the orthologous genes differ by only two amino acids, yet a single substitution within Daphnia Met enhances the receptor's responsiveness to juvenile hormone III. These results indicate that this mutation within an ancestral insect lineage contributed to the evolution of a juvenile hormone III receptor system.

  9. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction studies of crustacean proliferating cell nuclear antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco-Miranda, Jesus S.; Cardona-Felix, Cesar S.; Lopez-Zavala, Alonso A.; Re Vega, Enrique de la; De la Mora, Eugenio; Rudiño-Piñera, Enrique; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R.; Brieba, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen from Litopenaeus vannamei was recombinantly expressed, purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were obtained and processed to 3 Å. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), a member of the sliding clamp family of proteins, interacts specifically with DNA replication and repair proteins through a small peptide motif called the PCNA-interacting protein or PIP box. PCNA is recognized as one of the key proteins involved in DNA metabolism. In the present study, the recombinant PCNA from Litopenaeus vannamei (LvPCNA) was heterologously overexpressed and purified using metal ion-affinity chromatography. Crystals suitable for diffraction grew overnight using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. LvPCNA crystals belong to space group C2 with unit-cell parameters a = 144.6, b = 83.4, c = 74.3 Å, β = 117.6°. One data set was processed to 3 Å resolution, with an overall R meas of 0.09 and a completeness of 93.3%. Initial phases were obtained by molecular replacement using a homology model of LvPCNA as the search model. Refinement and structural analysis are underway. This report is the first successful crystallographic analysis of a marine crustacean decapod shrimp (L. vannamei) proliferating cell nuclear antigen

  10. Uptake and effects of microplastic textile fibers on freshwater crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemec, Anita; Horvat, Petra; Kunej, Urban; Bele, Marjan; Kržan, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Microplastic fibers (MP) from textile weathering and washing are increasingly being recognized as environmental pollutants. The majority of studies on the bioavailability and effects of microplastic focused on small polystyrene spherical plastic particles, while less data are available for fibers and for other materials besides polystyrene. We investigated the ingestion and effects of ground polyethylene terephthalate (PET) textile microfibers (length range: 62-1400 μm, width 31-528 μm, thickness 1-21.5 μm) on the freshwater zooplankton crustacean Daphnia magna after a 48 h exposure and subsequent 24 h of recovery in MP free medium and algae. The majority of ingested fibers by D. magna were around 300 μm, but also some very large twisted MP fibers around 1400 μm were found inside the gut. Exposure to these fibers results in increased mortality of daphnids after 48 h only in the case where daphnids were not pre-fed with algae prior to experiment, but no effect was found when daphnids were fed before the experiments. Regardless of the feeding regime, daphnids were not able to recover from MP exposure after additional 24 h incubation period in a MP free medium with algae. The uptake and effects of PET textile MP on D. magna are presented here for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Biomechanical properties of predator-induced body armour in the freshwater crustacean Daphnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruppert, Sebastian; Horstmann, Martin; Weiss, Linda C; Witzel, Ulrich; Schaber, Clemens F; Gorb, Stanislav N; Tollrian, Ralph

    2017-08-29

    The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is known for its ability to develop inducible morphological defences that thwart predators. These defences are developed only in the presence of predators and are realized as morphological shape alterations e.g. 'neckteeth' in D. pulex and 'crests' in D. longicephala. Both are discussed to hamper capture, handling or consumption by interfering with the predator's prey capture devices. Additionally, D. pulex and some other daphniids were found to armour-up and develop structural alterations resulting in increased carapace stiffness. We used scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to identify predator-induced structural and shape alterations. We found species specific structural changes accompanying the known shape alterations. The cuticle becomes highly laminated (i.e. an increased number of layers) in both species during predator exposure. Using nano- and micro-indentation as well as finite element analysis (FEA) we determined both: the structure's and shape's contribution to the carapace's mechanical resistance. From our results we conclude that only structural alterations are responsible for increased carapace stiffness, whereas shape alterations appear to pose handling difficulties during prey capture. Therefore, these defences act independently at different stages during predation.

  12. Transforming nanostructured chitin from crustacean waste into beneficial health products: a must for our society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morganti P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available P Morganti1, G Morganti2, A Morganti3,41Department of Dermatology, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Centre of Nanoscience, Mavi Sud s.r.l, Aprilia, Italy; 3Max Planck Institute for Intellectual Property and Competition Law, Munich, Germany; 4Lextray, Milan, ItalyAbstract: Chitin, obtained principally from crustacean waste, is a sugar-like polymer that is available at low cost. It has been shown to be bio- and ecocompatible, and has a very low level of toxicity. Recently, it has become possible to industrially produce pure chitin crystals, named "chitin nanofibrils" (CN for their needle-like shape and nanostructured average size (240 × 5 × 7 nm. Due to their specific chemical and physical characteristics, CN may have a range of industrial applications, from its use in biomedical products and biomimetic cosmetics, to biotextiles and health foods. At present, world offshore disposal of this natural waste material is around 250 billion tons per year. It is an underutilized resource and has the potential to supply a wide range of useful products if suitably recycled, thus contributing to sustainable growth and a greener economy.Keywords: chitin nanofibrils, biomimetic cosmetics, biomedical products, food, nanotechnology, waste

  13. Ultraviolet radiation induces dose-dependent pigment dispersion in crustacean chromatophores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Glauce Ribeiro; Lopes, Thaís Martins; Neves, Carla Amorim; Nery, Luiz Eduardo Maia; Trindade, Gilma Santos

    2004-10-01

    Pigment dispersion in chromatophores as a response to UV radiation was investigated in two species of crustaceans, the crab Chasmagnathus granulata and the shrimp Palaemonetes argentinus. Eyestalkless crabs and shrimps maintained on either a black or a white background were irradiated with different UV bands. In eyestalkless crabs the significant minimal effective dose inducing pigment dispersion was 0.42 J/cm(2) for UVA and 2.15 J/cm(2) for UVB. Maximal response was achieved with 10.0 J/cm(2) UVA and 8.6 J/cm(2) UVB. UVA was more effective than UVB in inducing pigment dispersion. Soon after UV exposure, melanophores once again reached the initial stage of pigment aggregation after 45 min. Aggregated erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a white background showed significant pigment dispersion with 2.5 J/cm(2) UVA and 0.29 J/cm(2) UVC. Dispersed erythrophores of shrimps adapted to a black background did not show any significant response to UVA, UVB or UVC radiation. UVB did not induce any significant pigment dispersion in shrimps adapted to either a white or a black background. As opposed to the tanning response, which only protects against future UV exposure, the pigment dispersion response could be an important agent protecting against the harmful effects of UV radiation exposure.

  14. Symbiotic bacteria contribute to increasing the population size of a freshwater crustacean, Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerakietkhajorn, Saranya; Tsukada, Koji; Kato, Yasuhiko; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Watanabe, Hajime

    2015-04-01

    The filter-feeding crustacean Daphnia is a key organism in freshwater ecosystems. Here, we report the effect of symbiotic bacteria on ecologically important life history traits, such as population dynamics and longevity, in Daphnia magna. By disinfection of the daphniid embryos with glutaraldehyde, aposymbiotic daphniids were prepared and cultured under bacteria-free conditions. Removal of bacteria from the daphniids was monitored by quantitative polymerase chain reaction for bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The population of aposymbiotic daphniids was reduced 10-folds compared with that of the control daphniids. Importantly, re-infection with symbiotic bacteria caused daphniids to regain bacteria and increase their fecundity to the level of the control daphniids, suggesting that symbiotic bacteria regulate Daphnia fecundity. To identify the species of symbiotic bacteria, 16S rRNA genes of bacteria in daphniids were sequenced. This revealed that 50% of sequences belonged to the Limnohabitans sp. of the Betaproteobacteria class and that the diversity of bacterial taxa was relatively low. These results suggested that symbiotic bacteria have a beneficial effect on D. magna, and that aposymbiotic Daphnia are useful tools in understanding the role of symbiotic bacteria in the environmental responses and evolution of their hosts. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The influence of finfish aquaculture on benthic fish and crustacean assemblages in Fitzgerald Bay, South Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Tanner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of sea-cage aquaculture on wildfish assemblages has received little attention outside of Europe. Sea-cage aquaculture of finfish is a major focus in South Australia, and while the main species farmed is southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii, there is also an important yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi industry. Yellowtail kingfish aquaculture did not appear to have any local or regional effects on demersal assemblages (primarily fish, but also some crustaceans surveyed by baited remote underwater video (BRUV in Fitzgerald Bay. We did, however, detect small scale spatial variations in assemblages within the bay. The type of bait used strongly influenced the assemblage recorded, with significantly greater numbers of fish attracted to deployments where sardines were used as the bait to compared to those with no bait. The pelleted feed used by the aquaculture industry was just as attractive as sardines at one site, and intermediate between sardines and no bait at the other. There was significant temporal variability in assemblages at both farm sites and one control site, while the second control site was temporally stable (over the 9 weeks of the study. Overall, the results suggested that aquaculture was having little if any impact on the abundance and assemblage structure of the demersal macrofauna in Fitzgerald Bay.

  16. Behaviour of fish by-catch in the mouth of a crustacean trawl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queirolo, D; Gaete, E; Montenegro, I; Soriguer, M C; Erzini, K

    2012-06-01

    The behaviour of fish by-catch was recorded and characterized by in situ observations in the mouth of a crustacean trawl using an underwater camera system with artificial light, at depths between 106 and 461 m, along the central coast of Chile. The groups or species studied were rattails (family Macrouridae), Chilean hake Merluccius gayi gayi, sharks (orders Carcharhiniformes and Squaliformes), skates (family Rajidae), flatfishes (genus Hippoglossina) and small benthopelagic and demersal fishes (orders Osmeriformes, Stomiiformes, Gadiformes, Ophidiiformes and Perciformes). The fish behaviour was categorized in terms of (1) position in the water column, (2) initial orientation with respect to the trawl, (3) locomotion and (4) swimming speed with respect to the trawl. Rattails, sharks, skates and flatfishes were passive in response to the trawl and showed similar behavioural patterns, with most fishes observed sitting or touching the bottom with no swimming or other activity. Merluccius gayi gayi was the most active species, displaying a wide combination of behavioural responses when the trawl approached. This species showed several behavioural patterns, mainly characterized by swimming forward at variable speed. A fraction of small bentho-pelagic and demersal fishes also showed an active behaviour but always at lower speed than the trawl. The species-specific differences in behaviour in the mouth of the trawl suggest that improvements at the level of the footrope can be made to reduce by-catch, especially of passive species. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  17. Effect of meal size and body size on specific dynamic action and gastric processing in decapod crustaceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaw, Iain J; Curtis, Daniel L

    2013-11-01

    Meal size and animal size are important factors affecting the characteristics of the specific dynamic action (SDA) response across a variety of taxa. The effects of these two variables on the SDA of decapod crustaceans are based on just a couple of articles, and are not wholly consistent with the responses reported for other aquatic ectotherms. Therefore, the effects of meal size and animal size on the characteristics of SDA response were investigated in a variety of decapod crustaceans from different families. A 6 fold increase in meal size (0.5%-3% body mass) resulted a pronounced increase in the duration of increased oxygen consumption, resulting in an increase in the SDA of Callinectes sapidus, Cancer gracilis, Hemigrapsus nudus, Homarus americanus, Pugettia producta and Procambarus clarkii. Unlike many other aquatic ectotherms a substantial increase between meal sizes was required, with meal size close to their upper feeding limit (3% body mass), before changes were evident. In many organisms increases in both duration and scope contribute to the overall SDA, here changes in scope as a function of meal size were weak, suggesting that a similar amount of energy is required to upregulate gastric processes, regardless of meal size. The SDA characteristics were less likely to be influenced by the size of the animal, and there was no difference in the SDA (kJ) as a function of size in H. americanus or Cancer irroratus when analysed as mass specific values. In several fish species characteristics of the SDA response are more closely related to the transit times of food, rather than the size of a meal. To determine if a similar trend occurred in crustaceans, the transit rates of different sized meals were followed through the digestive system using a fluoroscope. Although there was a trend towards larger meals taking longer to pass through the gut, this was only statistically significant for P. clarkii. There were some changes in transit times as a function of animal

  18. Fine structure and optical properties of biological polarizers in crustaceans and cephalopods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Hanlon, Roger T.; Cronin, Thomas W.

    2008-04-01

    The lighting of the underwater environment is constantly changing due to attenuation by water, scattering by suspended particles, as well as the refraction and reflection caused by the surface waves. These factors pose a great challenge for marine animals which communicate through visual signals, especially those based on color. To escape this problem, certain cephalopod mollusks and stomatopod crustaceans utilize the polarization properties of light. While the mechanisms behind the polarization vision of these two animal groups are similar, several distinctive types of polarizers (i.e. the structure producing the signal) have been found in these animals. To gain a better knowledge of how these polarizers function, we studied the relationships between fine structures and optical properties of four types of polarizers found in cephalopods and stomatopods. Although all the polarizers share a somewhat similar spectral range, around 450- 550 nm, the reflectance properties of the signals and the mechanisms used to produce them have dramatic differences. In cephalopods, stack-plates polarizers produce the polarization patterns found on the arms and around their eyes. In stomatopods, we have found one type of beam-splitting polarizer based on photonic structures and two absorptive polarizer types based on dichroic molecules. These stomatopod polarizers may be found on various appendages, and on the cuticle covering dorsal or lateral sides of the animal. Since the efficiencies of all these polarizer types are somewhat sensitive to the change of illumination and viewing angle, how these animals compensate with different behaviors or fine structural features of the polarizer also varies.

  19. Simultaneous Sampling of Flow and Odorants by Crustaceans can Aid Searches within a Turbulent Plume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Pravin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Crustaceans such as crabs, lobsters and crayfish use dispersing odorant molecules to determine the location of predators, prey, potential mates and habitat. Odorant molecules diffuse in turbulent flows and are sensed by the olfactory organs of these animals, often using a flicking motion of their antennules. These antennules contain both chemosensory and mechanosensory sensilla, which enable them to detect both flow and odorants during a flick. To determine how simultaneous flow and odorant sampling can aid in search behavior, a 3-dimensional numerical model for the near-bed flow environment was created. A stream of odorant concentration was released into the flow creating a turbulent plume, and both temporally and spatially fluctuating velocity and odorant concentration were quantified. The plume characteristics show close resemblance to experimental measurements within a large laboratory flume. Results show that mean odorant concentration and it’s intermittency, computed as dc/dt, increase towards the plume source, but the temporal and spatial rate of this increase is slow and suggests that long measurement times would be necessary to be useful for chemosensory guidance. Odorant fluxes measured transverse to the mean flow direction, quantified as the product of the instantaneous fluctuation in concentration and velocity, v’c’, do show statistically distinct magnitude and directional information on either side of a plume centerline over integration times of <0.5 s. Aquatic animals typically have neural responses to odorant and velocity fields at rates between 50 and 500 ms, suggesting this simultaneous sampling of both flow and concentration in a turbulent plume can aid in source tracking on timescales relevant to aquatic animals.

  20. Exoskeleton Heterogeneity in Crustaceans: Quantifying Compositional and Structural Variations Across Body Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, R. N.; Mergelsberg, S. T.; Dove, P. M.

    2016-12-01

    Crustacean exoskeletons are a complex biocomposite of organic macromolecules and calcium carbonate minerals. The highly divergent functions and diverse morphologies of these biominerals across taxa raise the question of whether these differences are systematically reflected in exoskeleton composition and structure. Previous studies that investigated element concentrations in exoskeletons used spectroscopic methods. However, the findings were largely inconclusive because of analytical limitations and most studies concluded that magnesium, phosphorus, and other trace elements are mostly contained in the mineral fraction because concentrations in the organic framework could not be resolved. This experimental study was designed to quantify the distributions of Ca, P, Mg, and Sr in the mineral versus organic fractions of exoskeletons from the American Lobster (H. americanus), Dungeness Crab (M. magister), and Red Rock Crab (M. productus). Samples of exoskeleton from 10 body parts were collected in triplicate and dissolved using three procedures specific to extracting the 1) mineral, 2) protein, and 3) chitin phases separately. Chemical analyses of the resulting effluents using ICP-OES show the mineral fraction of the skeleton can contain significant amounts of mineralized Mg and P particularly for body parts associated with a significant difference in mineral structural ordering. The protein fraction contains more Mg and P than expected based on estimates from previous studies (Hild et al., 2008). While the element distributions vary greatly depending on the location, in body parts with thicker cuticle (e.g. claw) the mineral component appears to control overall composition. The findings have implications for paleoenvironmental reconstructions based upon exoskeleton composition. First, the chemical composition of an exoskeleton cannot be assumed constant across the different body parts of an entire organism. This is particularly true when the exoskeleton of the claw is

  1. Alternative mitochondrial respiratory chains from two crustaceans: Artemia franciscana nauplii and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Armenta, Chrystian; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Rosas-Lemus, Monica; Chiquete-Felix, Natalia; Huerta-Ocampo, Jose Angel; Muhlia-Almazan, Adriana

    2018-04-01

    Mitochondrial ATP is synthesized by coupling between the electron transport chain and complex V. In contrast, physiological uncoupling of these processes allows mitochondria to consume oxygen at high rates without ATP synthesis. Such uncoupling mechanisms prevent reactive oxygen species overproduction. One of these mechanisms are the alternative redox enzymes from the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which may help cells to maintain homeostasis under stress independently of ATP synthesis. To date, no reports have been published on alternative redox enzymes in crustaceans mitochondria. Specific inhibitors were used to identify alternative redox enzymes in mitochondria isolated from Artemia franciscana nauplii, and the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. We report the presence of two alternative redox enzymes in the respiratory chain of A. franciscana nauplii, whose isolated mitochondria used glycerol-3-phosphate as a substrate, suggesting the existence of a glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, cyanide and octyl-gallate were necessary to fully inhibit this species' mitochondrial oxygen consumption, suggesting an alternative oxidase is present. The in-gel activity analysis confirmed that additional mitochondrial redox proteins exist in A. franciscana. A mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase oxidase was identified by protein sequencing as part of a branched respiratory chain, and an alternative oxidase was also identified in this species by western blot. These results indicate different adaptive mechanisms from artemia to face environmental challenges related to the changing levels of oxygen concentration in seawater through their life cycles. No alternative redox enzymes were found in shrimp mitochondria, further efforts will determine the existence of an uncoupling mechanism such as uncoupling proteins.

  2. Trophic transfer of trace metals: Subcellular compartmentalization in a polychaete and assimilation by a decapod crustacean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical form of accumulated trace metal in prey is important in controlling the bioavailataility of dietary metal to a predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of radiolabelled Ag, Cd and Zn from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians. We used 2 populations of worms with different proportions of accumulated metals in different subcellular fractions as prey, and loaded the worms with radiolabelled metals either from sediment or from solution. Accumulated radiolabelled metals were fractionated into 5 components : metal-rich granules (MRG), cellular debris, organelles, metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP), and other (heat-sensitive) proteins (HSP). Assimilation efficiencies (AE) of the metals by P. varians were measured from the 4 categories of prey (i.e. 2 populations, radiolabelled from sediment or solution). There were significant differences for each metal between the AEs from the different prey categories, confirming that origin of prey and route of uptake of accumulated trace metal will cause intraspecific differences in subsequent metal assimilation. Correlations were sought between AEs and selected fractions or combinations of fractions of metals in the prey-MRG, Trophically Available Metal (TAM = MTLP + HSP + organelles) and total protein (MTLP + HSP). TAM explained 28% of the variance in AEs for Ag, but no consistent relationships emerged between AEs and TAM or total protein when the metals were considered separately. AEs did, however, show significant positive regressions with both TAM and total protein when the 3 metals were considered together, explaining only about 21 % of the variance in each case. A significant negative relationship was observed between MRG and AE for all metals combined. The predator (P. varians) can assimilate dietary metal from a range of the fractions binding metals in the prey (N. diversicolor), with different assimilation efficiencies summated across these

  3. REVIEW: Citanduy river diversion, advantages and disadvantages plan to conserve mangrove ecosystem in Segara Anakan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHMAD DWI SETYAWAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove ecosystem at Segara Anakan lagoon, Cilacap having specific characteristics so that in developing this area should consider the conservation aspect. This area is the widest conserved-mangrove ecosystem at Java, and the place for breeding of many species of fish, crustacean and others. Thousand families of fisheries were supported both direct and indirectly from this ecosystem. However, along with the development activities in the watershed of Citanduy, Cimeneng/Cikonde and other rivers connected to the area has brought about the increase of sediment, and threaten the existence of the lagoon and surrounding mangrove ecosystem. Diversion of Citanduy river, dredging sediment, and reboisation of the watershed river was a preference of conserving the ecosystem, however, the diversion could be forming a new ecosystem, that actually threat the fisheries and tourism activities at Pangandaran, Ciamis.

  4. Seasonal abundance of crustaceans associated with artisanal fishery of blue crab (Callinectes sapidus) in Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Celis-Sánchez, José Alfredo; Estrella-Canto, Arely de Jesús; Poot-López, Gaspar Román; González-Salas, Carlos; López-Rocha, Jorge Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal abundance and selectivity of the main crustacean species associated with blue crab fishing was studied at the port of Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico. For this purpose, 52 crab traps were used, which were divided into four parallel transects placed 100, 150, 200 and 250 m of the shoreline. Each transect consisted of 13 traps 20 m from each other. Traps were set at dusk and checked at dawn, standardizing the fishing effort to 17 hours/trap/day. A total of 832 organisms from eight species were ...

  5. Decapod crustaceans on the Gökçeada (Imbros island continental shelf (north-eastern Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. ATES

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present composition of decapod crustaceans found at the sublittoral depths (5-104 m off the coast of the island of Gökçeada (north-eastern Aegean Sea is presented. A total of 28 species (11 caridean shrimps, 1 thalassinid ghost crab, 7 anomurans and 9 brachyuran crabs and 277 specimens were recorded. The caridean shrimp, Athanas nitescens had the highest abundance with a dominance value of 20.94% in samples. The dominant group is caridean, represented by a total of 11 species and an occurrence frequency of 39.29%.

  6. FRESHWATER FISH AND DECAPOD CRUSTACEAN POPULATIONS ON RÉUNION ISLAND, WITH AN ASSESSMENT OF SPECIES INTRODUCTIONS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEITH P.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Streams of Réunion Island shelter with 26 fish species and 11 decapod crustacean species. Some species have been introduced (18%, some other are endemic to the island or to the Madagascar-Mascarenes region (16.2%, are originated from Indo-Pacific area (35.2% or from Indo-African area (27%. Gobiidae and Palaemonidae are the prevailing family in freshwaters, with the highest number of species. 16 species were introduced, mainly fishes, beginning at the turn of the 19th century, but only 4 of those have become acclimatised, while 7 have disappeared and the status of the other is uncertain.

  7. Acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to different life history stages of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus (L)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D.W.J.; Williams, K.A.; Pascoe, D.

    1986-09-01

    Different life-history stages of the freshwater isopod crustacean Asellus aquaticus were exposed to a range of cadmium concentrations using a semi-static toxicity testing procedure. Median lethal concentrations (96-hr LC50) ranged from 80 ..mu..g Cd/L for juveniles to > 2000 ..mu..g Cd/L for embryos. Pre-treatment of eggs with cadmium did not increase their tolerance to the metal as juveniles. The responses of each stage are discussed in relation to the use of macroinvertebrate toxicity test data in predicting the hazardous effects of pollutants.

  8. Effects of environmental factors on C-type lectin recognition to zooxanthellae in the stony coral Pocillopora damicornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Zhao, Shuimiao; Ni, Junyi; Su, Yilu; Wang, Lingui; Xu, Yanlai

    2018-05-15

    C-type lectin is a superfamily of Ca 2+ -dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins that play significant roles in nonself-recognition and pathogen clearance. In the present study, a C-type lectin (PdC-Lectin) was chosen from stony coral Pocillopora damicornis to understand its recognition characteristics to zooxanthellae. PdC-Lectin protein contained a signal peptide and a carbohydrate-recognition domain with EPN motif in Ca 2+ -binding site 2. The PdC-Lectin recombinant protein was expressed and purified in vitro. The binding of PdC-Lectin protein to zooxanthellae was determined with western blotting method, and the bound protein to 10-10 5  cell mL -1 zooxanthellae was detectable in a concentration-dependent manner. Less PdC-Lectin protein binding to zooxanthellae was observed for the incubation at 36 °C than that at 26 °C. Furthermore, the PAMP recognition spectrum of PdC-Lectin protein was tested through surface plasmon resonance method, and it bound to LPS and Lipid A, but not to LTA, β-glucan, mannose or Poly (I:C). When PdC-Lectin protein was preincubated with LPS, there was less protein binding to zooxanthellae compared with that in non-preincubation group. These results collectively suggest that PdC-Lectin could recognize zooxanthellae, and the recognition could be repressed by high temperature and pathogenic bacteria, which would help to further understand the molecular mechanism of coral bleaching and the establishment of coral-zooxanthella symbiosis in the stony coral P. damicornis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactobacillus reuteri Surface Mucus Adhesins Upregulate Inflammatory Responses Through Interactions With Innate C-Type Lectin Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bene, Krisztián P; Kavanaugh, Devon W; Leclaire, Charlotte; Gunning, Allan P; MacKenzie, Donald A; Wittmann, Alexandra; Young, Ian D; Kawasaki, Norihito; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Juge, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    The vertebrate gut symbiont Lactobacillus reuteri exhibits strain-specific adhesion and health-promoting properties. Here, we investigated the role of the mucus adhesins, CmbA and MUB, upon interaction of L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 strains with human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs). We showed that mucus adhesins increased the capacity of L. reuteri strains to interact with moDCs and promoted phagocytosis. Our data also indicated that mucus adhesins mediate anti- and pro-inflammatory effects by the induction of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 cytokines. L. reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 and ATCC 53608 were exclusively able to induce moDC-mediated Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We further showed that purified MUB activates moDCs and induces Th1 polarized immune responses associated with increased IFNγ production. MUB appeared to mediate these effects via binding to C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), as shown using cell reporter assays. Blocking moDCs with antibodies against DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) or Dectin-2 did not affect the uptake of the MUB-expressing strain, but reduced the production of TNF-α and IL-6 by moDCs significantly, in line with the Th1 polarizing capacity of moDCs. The direct interaction between MUB and CLRs was further confirmed by atomic force spectroscopy. Taken together these data suggest that mucus adhesins expressed at the cell surface of L. reuteri strains may exert immunoregulatory effects in the gut through modulating the Th1-promoting capacity of DCs upon interaction with C-type lectins.

  10. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  11. Prevalence of Colacium vesiculosum (Colaciales: Euglenophyceae on planktonic crustaceans in a subtropical shallow lake of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Zalocar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Colacium vesiculosum (Euglenophyceae is an epibiont common on planktonic microcrustaceans of continental waters. The interaction between epibionts and substrate organisms is not very well known, particularly in subtropical environments of South America. In the present work, we analyzed the prevalence, density, biomass and attachment sites of C. vesiculosum on planktonic microcrustaceans from Paiva Lake, a subtropical lake of Argentina. With the aim to evaluate whether epibionts affect the filtering rates of Notodiaptomus spiniger, the dominant planktonic crustacean, we carried out bioassays using phytoplankton Colacium vesiculosum Ehrenberg (Euglenophyceae es un epibionte común en microcrustáceos del plancton de aguas continentales. La interacción epibiontes y organismo substrato es poco conocida, particularmente en ambientes subtropicales de América del Sur. Se analiza la prevalencia, densidad, biomasa y sitios de adhesión de C. vesiculosum en microcrustáceos planctónicos de un lago subtropical de Argentina. Con el fin de evaluar si los epibiontes afectan la tasa de filtración de Notodiaptomus spiniger Brian, crustáceo dominante del zooplancton, se realizaron bioensayos utilizando el fitoplancton <53µm. Los crustáceos fueron muestreados con un tubo de PVC (1m de largo, 10cm de diámetro filtrándose 50L de agua a través de una red de 53µm de abertura de malla. El recuento de los microcrustáceos se realizó en cámaras de Bogorov bajo microscopio estereoscópico. Los organismos infectados fueron separados y observados al microscopio fotónico para determinaciones de densidad y biovolumen de los epibiontes, y su distribución en el exoesqueleto. La prevalencia de C. vesiculosum fue mayor en crustáceos adultos que en estadíos larvales y juveniles. El grupo más infestado fue el de los copépodos calanoideos en relación con su alta densidad. Los sitios de adhesión sobre el exoesqueleto fueron las regiones del cuerpo que durante la

  12. Comparative cation dependency of sugar transport by crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine

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    Ada Duka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Glucose is transported in crustacean hepatopancreas and intestine by Na+-dependent co-transport, while Na+-dependent D-fructose influx has only been described for the hepatopancreas. It is still unclear if the two sugars are independently transported by two distinct cation-dependent co-transporter carrier systems. In this study, lobster (Homarus americanus hepatopancreas brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV were used to characterize, in detail, the cation-dependency of both D-[3H]-glucose and D-[3H]-fructose influxes, while in vitro perfused intestines were employed to determine the nature of cation-dependent sugar transport across this organ. Over the sodium concentration range of 0–100 mM, both [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes (0.1 mM; 1 min uptakes by hepatopancreatic BBMV were hyperbolic functions of [Na+]. [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose influxes by hepatopancreatic BBMV over a potassium concentration range of 15–100 mM were hyperbolic functions of [K+]. Both sugars displayed significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent uptake processes. Transepithelial 25 µM [3H]-glucose and [3H]-fructose fluxes across lobster intestine over luminal sodium and potassium concentration ranges of 0–50 mM and 5–100 mM, respectively, were hyperbolic functions of luminal [Na+] and [K+]. As with hepatopancreatic sugar transport, transepithelial intestinal sugar transport exhibited both significant (p<0.01 Na+/K+-dependent and cation-independent processes. Results suggest that both D-glucose and D-fructose are transported by a single SGLT-type carrier in each organ with sodium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the hepatopancreas, and potassium being the “preferred”, high affinity, cation for both sugars in the intestine.

  13. Fish and crustaceans in northeast Greenland lakes with special emphasis on interactions between Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Lepidurus arcticus and benthic chydorids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, E.; Christoffersen, K.; Landkildehus, F.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the trophic structure in the pelagial and crustacean remains in the surface 1 cm of the sediment of 13 shallow, high arctic lakes in northeast Greenland (74 N). Seven lakes were fishless, while the remaining six hosted a dwarf form of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). In fishless lakes...... sp. in lakes with Lepidurus, while they were abundant in lakes with fish. The low abundance in fishless lakes could not be explained by damage of crustacean remains caused by Lepidurus feeding in the sediment, because remains of the more soft-shelled, pelagic-living Daphnia were abundant...... in the sediment of these lakes. No significant differences between lakes with and without fish were found in chlorophyll a, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, conductivity or temperature, suggesting that the observed link between Lepidurus arcticus and the benthic crustacean community is causal. Consequently...

  14. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.

  15. Risk assessment of pet-traded decapod crustaceans in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the leading country in Central Asia

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    Uderbayev Talgat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The pet trade with decapod crustaceans has been considered one of the main pathway of introduction of these animals worldwide. As the leading markets in this regards are the Czech Republic, Germany and the USA. Central Asia is not perceived as an important market with ornamental decapod crustaceans. Despite this assumption, we found at least 16 species of freshwater shrimp, crayfish and crab species pet-traded in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the largest country in this region. Considering computed risk assessment, the origin of particular species, their availability on the market, the probability of establishment and further aspects, we identified two crayfish Procambarus clarkii and Procambarus fallax f. virginalis being the seriously hazardous taxa with high potential to threaten native crayfish species as well as inhabited ecosystems. To prevent their introductions and to minimize the risks of mentioned species, similarly as in the case of European Union, we recommend the total ban of import, trade and keeping of these high-risk taxa within Central Asia.

  16. Role of cellular compartmentalization in the trophic transfer of mercury species in a freshwater plant-crustacean food chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvais-Flück, Rebecca; Chaumot, Arnaud; Gimbert, Frédéric; Quéau, Hervé; Geffard, Olivier; Slaveykova, Vera I; Cosio, Claudia

    2016-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) represents an important risk for human health through the food webs contamination. Macrophytes bioaccumulate Hg and play a role in Hg transfer to food webs in shallow aquatic ecosystems. Nevertheless, the compartmentalization of Hg within macrophytes, notably major accumulation in the cell wall and its impact on trophic transfer to primary consumers are overlooked. The present work focusses on the trophic transfer of inorganic Hg (IHg) and monomethyl-Hg (MMHg) from the intracellular and cell wall compartments of the macrophyte Elodea nuttallii - considered a good candidate for phytoremediation - to the crustacean Gammarus fossarum. The results demonstrated that Hg accumulated in both compartments was trophically bioavailable to gammarids. Besides IHg from both compartments were similarly transferred to G. fossarum, while for MMHg, uptake rates were ∼2.5-fold higher in G. fossarum fed with the cell wall vs the intracellular compartment. During the depuration phase, Hg concentrations in G. fossarum varied insignificantly suggesting that both IHg and MMHg were strongly bound to biological ligands in the crustacean. Our data imply that cell walls have to be considered as an important source of Hg to consumers in freshwater food webs when developing procedures for enhancing aquatic environment protection during phytoremediation programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Two quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eischeid, Anne C; Kim, Bang-hyun; Kasko, Sasha M

    2013-06-19

    Food allergen detection methods must be able to specifically detect minute quantities of an allergenic food in a complex food matrix. One technique that can be used is real-time PCR. For the work described here, real-time PCR assays were developed to detect penaeid shrimp and blue crab, crustacean shellfish allergens. The method was tested using shrimp meat and crab meat spiked into several types of foods, including canned soups, deli foods, meat, seafood, and prepared seafood products. Foods were spiked with either shrimp or crab at levels ranging from 0.1 to 10⁶ parts per million (ppm) and analyzed either raw or cooked by a variety of methods. Real-time PCR data were used to generate linear standard curves, and assays were evaluated with respect to linear range and reaction efficiency. Results indicate that both assays performed well in a variety of food types. High reaction efficiencies were achieved across a linear range of 6-8 orders of magnitude. Limits of detection were generally between 0.1 and 1 ppm. Cooking methods used to simulate thermal processing of foods had little effect on assay performance. This work demonstrates that real-time PCR can be a valuable tool in the detection of crustacean shellfish.

  18. Identification of a C-type lectin with antiviral and antibacterial activity from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Chaozheng; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Haoyang; Zuo, Hongliang; Weng, Shaoping; Chen, Xiaohan; Zeng, Digang; He, Jianguo; Xu, Xiaopeng

    2014-10-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) play crucial roles in innate immune responses in invertebrates by recognizing and eliminating microinvaders. In this study, a CTL from pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (LvCTL3) was identified. LvCTL3 contains a single C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD), which shows similarities to those of other shrimp CTLs and has a mutated 'EPD' motif in Ca(2+)-binding site 2. LvCTL3 mRNA can be detected in all tested tissues and expression of LvCTL3 in gills was up-regulated after Lipopolysaccharides, poly (I:C), Vibrio parahaemolyticus and white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenges, suggesting activation responses of LvCTL3 to bacterial, virus and immune stimulant challenges. The 5'flanking regulatory region of LvCTL3 was cloned and we identified a NF-κB binding motif in the LvCTL3 promoter region. Dual-luciferase reporter assays indicated that over-expression of L. vannamei dorsal can dramatically up regulate the promoter activity of LvCTL3, suggesting that LvCTL3 expression could be regulated through NF-κB signaling pathway. As far as we know, this is the first report on signaling pathway involve in shrimp CTLs expression. The recombinant LvCTL3 protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by Ni-affinity chromatography. The purified LvCTL3 can agglutinate Gram-negative microbe Vibrio alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis in the presence of calcium ions, but cannot agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus agalactiae. The agglutination activity of LvCTL3 was abolished when Ca(2+) was chelated with EDTA, suggesting the function of LvCTL3 is Ca(2+)-dependent. In vivo challenge experiments showed that the recombinant LvCTL3 protein can significantly reduce the mortalities of V. parahemolyticus and WSSV infection, indicating LvCTL3 might play significant roles in shrimp innate immunity defense against bacterial and viral infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Different Dose-Dependent Modes of Action of C-Type Natriuretic Peptide on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florie Desriac

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that the C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP, a peptide produced by lungs, is able to impact Pseudomonas aeruginosa physiology. In the present work, the effect of CNP at different concentrations on P. aeruginosa biofilm formation was studied and the mechanisms of action of this human hormone on P. aeruginosa were deciphered. CNP was shown to inhibit dynamic biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the bacterial growth at any tested concentrations. The most effective concentrations were 1 and 0.1 µM. At 0.1 µM, the biofilm formation inhibition was fully dependent on the CNP sensor protein AmiC, whereas it was only partially AmiC-dependent at 1 µM, revealing the existence of a second AmiC-independent mode of action of CNP on P. aeruginosa. At 1 µM, CNP reduced both P. aeruginosa adhesion on glass and di-rhamnolipid production and also increased the bacterial membrane fluidity. The various effects of CNP at 1 µM and 0.1 µM on P. aeruginosa shown here should have major consequences to design drugs for biofilm treatment or prevention.

  20. Plasma C-type natriuretic peptide as a predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with postural tachycardia syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lin

    Full Text Available POTS is a global public-health disease, but predictor for therapeutic response to metoprolol in children with POTS is lacking. This study was designed to investigate predictive value of plasma C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP in the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS in children. Totally 34 children with POTS and 27 healthy children were included in the study. The head-up test or head-up tilt test was used to check heart rate and blood pressure from supine to upright in subjects. A double antibody (competitive sandwich immunoluminometric assay was used to detect plasma CNP. Metoprolol was used to treat children with POTS. The difference in plasma concentrations of CNP between responders and non-responders was compared. An ROC curve was used to analyze plasma CNP to predict efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children. Plasma CNP in children with POTS was significantly higher than that of healthy children [(51.9 ± 31.4 vs. (25.1 ± 19.1 pg/ml, P 32.55 pg/ml yielded a sensitivity of 95.8% and specificity of 70% in predicting therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS children. Plasma CNP might serve as a useful predictor for the therapeutic efficacy of metoprolol on POTS in children.

  1. Development of A Chimeric Antigen Receptor Targeting C-Type Lectin-Like Molecule-1 for Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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    Eduardo Laborda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML with targeted immunotherapy is challenged by the heterogeneity of the disease and a lack of tumor-exclusive antigens. Conventional immunotherapy targets for AML such as CD33 and CD123 have been proposed as targets for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T-cells (CAR-T-cells, a therapy that has been highly successful in the treatment of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma. However, CD33 and CD123 are present on hematopoietic stem cells, and targeting with CAR-T-cells has the potential to elicit long-term myelosuppression. C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1 or CLEC12A is a myeloid lineage antigen that is expressed by malignant cells in more than 90% of AML patients. CLL1 is not expressed by healthy Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs, and is therefore a promising target for CAR-T-cell therapy. Here, we describe the development and optimization of an anti-CLL1 CAR-T-cell with potent activity on both AML cell lines and primary patient-derived AML blasts in vitro while sparing healthy HSCs. Furthermore, in a disseminated mouse xenograft model using the CLL1-positive HL60 cell line, these CAR-T-cells completely eradicated tumor, thus supporting CLL1 as a promising target for CAR-T-cells to treat AML while limiting myelosuppressive toxicity.

  2. Mechanistic insights into the role of C-type lectin receptor/CARD9 signaling in human antifungal immunity

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    Rebecca A. Drummond

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Human CARD9 deficiency is an autosomal recessive primary immunodeficiency disorder caused by biallelic mutations in the gene CARD9, which encodes a signaling protein that is found downstream of many C-type lectin receptors (CLRs. CLRs encompass a large family of innate recognition receptors, expressed predominantly by myeloid and epithelial cells, which bind fungal carbohydrates and initiate antifungal immune responses. Accordingly, human CARD9 deficiency is associated with the spontaneous development of persistent and severe fungal infections that primarily localize to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, mucosal surfaces and/or central nervous system (CNS. In the last few years, more than 15 missense and nonsense CARD9 mutations have been reported which associate with the development of a wide spectrum of fungal infections caused by a variety of fungal organisms. The mechanisms by which CARD9 provides organ-specific protection against these fungal infections are now emerging. In this review, we summarize recent immunological and clinical advances that have provided significant mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of human CARD9 deficiency. We also discuss how genetic mutations in CARD9-coupled receptors (Dectin-1, Dectin-2 and CARD9-binding partners (MALT1, BCL10 affect human antifungal immunity relative to CARD9 deficiency, and we highlight major understudied research questions which merit future investigation.

  3. A TALE of shrimps: Genome-wide survey of homeobox genes in 120 species from diverse crustacean taxa [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Hoong Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The homeodomain-containing proteins are an important group of transcription factors found in most eukaryotes including animals, plants and fungi. Homeobox genes are responsible for a wide range of critical developmental and physiological processes, ranging from embryonic development, innate immune homeostasis to whole-body regeneration. With continued fascination on this key class of proteins by developmental and evolutionary biologists, multiple efforts have thus far focused on the identification and characterization of homeobox orthologs from key model organisms in attempts to infer their evolutionary origin and how this underpins the evolution of complex body plans. Despite their importance, the genetic complement of homeobox genes has yet been described in one of the most valuable groups of animals representing economically important food crops. With crustacean aquaculture being a growing industry worldwide, it is clear that systematic and cross-species identification of crustacean homeobox orthologs is necessary in order to harness this genetic circuitry for the improvement of aquaculture sustainability. Using publicly available transcriptome data sets, we identified a total of 4183 putative homeobox genes from 120 crustacean species that include food crop species, such as lobsters, shrimps, crayfish and crabs. Additionally, we identified 717 homeobox orthologs from 6 other non-crustacean arthropods, which include the scorpion, deer tick, mosquitoes and centipede. This high confidence set of homeobox genes will now serve as a key resource to the broader community for future functional and comparative genomics studies.

  4. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  5. Vascular relaxation induced by C-type natriuretic peptide involves the ca2+/NO-synthase/NO pathway.

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    Fernanda A Andrade

    Full Text Available AIMS: C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP and nitric oxide (NO are endothelium-derived factors that play important roles in the regulation of vascular tone and arterial blood pressure. We hypothesized that NO produced by the endothelial NO-synthase (NOS-3 contributes to the relaxation induced by CNP in isolated rat aorta via activation of endothelial NPR-C receptor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the putative contribution of NO through NPR-C activation in the CNP induced relaxation in isolated conductance artery. MAIN METHODS: Concentration-effect curves for CNP were constructed in aortic rings isolated from rats. Confocal microscopy was used to analyze the cytosolic calcium mobilization induced by CNP. The phosphorylation of the residue Ser1177 of NOS was analyzed by Western blot and the expression and localization of NPR-C receptors was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. KEY FINDINGS: CNP was less potent in inducing relaxation in denuded endothelium aortic rings than in intact ones. L-NAME attenuated the potency of CNP and similar results were obtained in the presence of hydroxocobalamin, an intracellular NO0 scavenger. CNP did not change the phosphorylation of Ser1177, the activation site of NOS-3, when compared with control. The addition of CNP produced an increase in [Ca2+]c in endothelial cells and a decrease in [Ca2+]c in vascular smooth muscle cells. The NPR-C-receptors are expressed in endothelial and adventitial rat aortas. SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that CNP-induced relaxation in intact aorta isolated from rats involves NO production due to [Ca2+]c increase in endothelial cells possibly through NPR-C activation expressed in these cells. The present study provides a breakthrough in the understanding of the close relationship between the vascular actions of nitric oxide and CNP.

  6. C-type natriuretic peptide plasma levels are elevated in subjects with achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, Robert C; Prickett, Timothy C R; Espiner, Eric A; Mackenzie, William G; Duker, Angela L; Ditro, Colleen; Zabel, Bernhard; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Kitoh, Hiroshi; Aylsworth, Arthur S; Bober, Michael B

    2015-02-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a crucial regulator of endochondral bone growth. In a previous report of a child with acromesomelic dysplasia, Maroteaux type (AMDM), caused by loss-of-function of the CNP receptor (natriuretic peptide receptor-B [NPR-B]), plasma levels of CNP were elevated. In vitro studies have shown that activation of the MAPK kinase (MEK)/ERK MAPK pathway causes functional inhibition of NPR-B. Achondroplasia, hypochondroplasia, and thanatophoric dysplasia are syndromes of short-limbed dwarfism caused by activating mutations of fibroblast growth factor receptor-3, which result in overactivation of the MEK/ERK MAPK pathway. The purpose of this study was to determine whether these syndromes exhibit evidence of CNP resistance as reflected by increases in plasma CNP and its amino-terminal propeptide (NTproCNP). This was a prospective, observational study. Participants were 63 children and 20 adults with achondroplasia, 6 children with hypochondroplasia, 2 children with thanatophoric dysplasia, and 4 children and 1 adult with AMDM. Plasma levels of CNP and NTproCNP were higher in children with achondroplasia with CNP SD scores (SDSs) of 1.0 (0.3-1.4) (median [interquartile range]) and NTproCNP SDSs of 1.4 (0.4-1.8; P achondroplasia (CNP SDSs of 1.5 [0.7-2.1] and NTproCNP SDSs of 0.5 [0.1-1.0], P < .005). In children with hypochondroplasia, CNP SDSs were 1.3 (0.7-1.5) (P = .08) and NTproCNP SDSs were 1.9 (1.8-2.3) (P < .05). In children with AMDM, CNP SDSs were 1.6 (1.4-3.3) and NTproCNP SDSs were 4.2 (2.7-6.2) (P < .01). In these skeletal dysplasias, elevated plasma levels of proCNP products suggest the presence of tissue resistance to CNP.

  7. Angiogenenic effects of BpLec, a C-type lectin isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Letícia Eulalio; Lopes, Daiana Silva; Gimenes, Sarah Natalie Cirilo; Deconte, Simone Ramos; Ferreira, Bruno Antônio; Alves, Patricia Terra; Filho, Luiz Ricardo Goulart; Tomiosso, Tatiana Carla; Rodrigues, Renata Santos; Yoneyama, Kelly Aparecida Geraldo; Araújo, Fernanda de Assis; Rodrigues, Veridiana de Melo

    2017-09-01

    The present work reports the effects of a C-type lectin (BpLec) isolated from Bothrops pauloensis snake venom upon in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis models. Initially, we noted that BpLec was not cytotoxic to endothelial cells (tEnd) in doses up to 40μg/mL, but lower doses (2.5μg/mL, 5μg/mL, 10μg/mL and 20μg/mL) reduced tEnd cells adhesion to some extracellular matrix proteins and inhibited the in vitro vessel formation in Matrigel assay stimulated by bFGF. β-galactosides (d-lactose, N-acetyl-d-galactosamine and d-galactose) at 400mM reversed the effect of BpLec on tEnd cells adhesion, whereas d-galactose (400mM) partially reversed BpLec property of inhibiting vessel formation by tEnd cells in Matrigel. In vivo assays showed that BpLec increased hemoglobin content and capillary vessels number in polyether-polyurethane sponge discs subcutaneously implanted into dorsal skin mice. Additionally, BpLec also reduced collagen deposition and did not induce a pro-inflammatory response, as demonstrated by the decreased the secretion of some inflammatory cytokines, whereas myeloperoxidase (MPO) and N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG) activities were not altered by BpLec. Taken together, our results indicate that BpLec might represent an interesting angiogenesis and inflammatory modulator that could also be used for searching possible therapeutic targets involved in these processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide in isolated beating rabbit atria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Dazhi; Cui Xun; Jin Xiunan; Lan Ying; Liu Liping; Hong Lan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEI) on atrial dynamics induced by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and the contents of cyclic nucleotide (cAMP, cGMP) in isolated beating rabbit atria. Methods: After the rabbits had been anesthetized, the hearts were removed rapidly. The left auricles were isolated and fixed on the atrial perfusion system. The atrial stroke volume and the pulse pressure were observed by CNP with or without PDEIs pretreatment. The contents of cAMP and cGMP were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: (1)Compared with control cycle group, CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). (2)Compared with control cycle group, IBMX(1000.0 nmol · L -1 ), a non-selective inhibitor of PDE, significantly increased the atrial stroke volume, pulse pressure, cAMP and cGMP contents (P -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 )group and IBMX group (P>0.05). (3)Compared with control cycle group, EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE2, obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). EHNA(30.0 nmol · L -1 ) plus CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) showed similar roles with EHNA only. (4)Compared with control cycle group, milrinone (1.0 nmol · L -1 ), an inhibitor of PDE3, significantly increased the content of cAMP (P 0.05). CNP (30.0 nmol · L -1 ) obviously decreased the atrial stroke volume and pulse pressure (P 0.05). Conclusion: CNP can inhibit atrial dynamics by increasing the content of cGMP, the different inhibitors of PDEs play different roles in the CNP-induced inhibition of atrial dynamics in isolated beating rabbit atria. (authors)

  9. Fe3Nb3N precipitates of the Fe3W3C type in Nb stabilized ferritic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malfliet, A.; Van den Broek, W.; Chassagne, F.; Mithieux, J.-D.; Blanpain, B.; Wollants, P.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The precipitation in Nb stabilized ferritic stainless steel at 950 deg. C is investigated. → We characterized the Fe 3 Nb 3 X precipitates with SAED, EELS, WDS and AES. → We found that Fe 3 Nb 3 X precipitates are stabilized by N and not by C or O. → This insight is new and important for future development of this type of steel grade. - Abstract: A Nb stabilized ferritic stainless steel with 0.45 wt.%Nb, 82 ppm C and 170 ppm N is investigated to reveal the nature of the precipitates present at 950 deg. C. In particular, Fe 3 Nb 3 X precipitates of the Fe 3 W 3 C type are analyzed with WDS and EELS to determine the light elements X stabilizing this phase in the steel. According to WDS on large precipitates after 500 h at 950 deg. C, the Fe 3 Nb 3 X phase contains 10.4 at.% N, 1.2 at.% O and 1.0 at.% C. Auger Electron Spectroscopy on the same precipitates confirms the presence of N. In addition, it is revealed that the C and O peaks observed with WDS result from surface contamination as they disappear after Ar sputtering. The presence of a N peak in the EELS spectra of small Fe 3 Nb 3 X precipitates which have formed after 6 min at 950 deg. C indicate that N stabilizes this phase already from the initial precipitation stage. With this analysis it is demonstrated that N is an effective stabilizer of Fe 3 Nb 3 X precipitates in ferritic stainless steels. The formation of this phase should therefore be considered when predicting the precipitation behavior of Nb in industrial Nb stabilized ferritic stainless steels containing residual N.

  10. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  11. Drosophila QVR/SSS modulates the activation and C-type inactivation kinetics of Shaker K+ channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Terry; Xu, Rong; Joiner, William; Sehgal, Amita; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2011-01-01

    The quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene encodes a small, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of sleep in Drosophila. Loss-of-function mutations in qvr/sss severely suppress sleep and effect multiple changes in in situ Shaker K+ currents, including decreased magnitude, slower time-to-peak, and cumulative inactivation. Recently, we demonstrated that SLEEPLESS (SSS) protein modulates Shaker channel activity, possibly through a direct interaction at the plasma membrane. We show here that SSS accelerates the activation of heterologously expressed Shaker channels with no effect on deactivation or fast N-type inactivation. Furthermore, this SSS-induced acceleration is sensitive to the pharmacological disruption of lipid rafts and sufficiently accounts for the slower time-to-peak of in situ Shaker currents seen in qvr/sss mutants. We also find that SSS decreases the rate of C-type inactivation of heterologously expressed Shaker channels, providing a potential mechanism for the cumulative inactivation phenotype induced by qvr/sss loss of function mutations. Kinetic modeling based on the in vitro results suggests that the SSS-dependent regulation of channel kinetics accounts for nearly 40% of the decrease in Shaker current magnitude in flies lacking SSS. Sleep duration in qvr/sss null mutants is restored to normal by a qvr/sss transgene that fully rescues the Shaker kinetic phenotypes but only partially rescues the decrease in current magnitude. Together, these results suggest that the role of SSS in the regulation of sleep in Drosophila correlates more strongly with the effects of SSS on Shaker kinetics than current magnitude. PMID:21813698

  12. Drosophila QVR/SSS modulates the activation and C-type inactivation kinetics of Shaker K(+) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Terry; Xu, Rong; Joiner, William; Sehgal, Amita; Hoshi, Toshinori

    2011-08-03

    The quiver/sleepless (qvr/sss) gene encodes a small, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein that plays a critical role in the regulation of sleep in Drosophila. Loss-of-function mutations in qvr/sss severely suppress sleep and effect multiple changes in in situ Shaker K(+) currents, including decreased magnitude, slower time-to-peak, and cumulative inactivation. Recently, we demonstrated that SLEEPLESS (SSS) protein modulates Shaker channel activity, possibly through a direct interaction at the plasma membrane. We show here that SSS accelerates the activation of heterologously expressed Shaker channels with no effect on deactivation or fast N-type inactivation. Furthermore, this SSS-induced acceleration is sensitive to the pharmacological disruption of lipid rafts and sufficiently accounts for the slower time-to-peak of in situ Shaker currents seen in qvr/sss mutants. We also find that SSS decreases the rate of C-type inactivation of heterologously expressed Shaker channels, providing a potential mechanism for the cumulative inactivation phenotype induced by qvr/sss loss-of-function mutations. Kinetic modeling based on the in vitro results suggests that the SSS-dependent regulation of channel kinetics accounts for nearly 40% of the decrease in Shaker current magnitude in flies lacking SSS. Sleep duration in qvr/sss-null mutants is restored to normal by a qvr/sss transgene that fully rescues the Shaker kinetic phenotypes but only partially rescues the decrease in current magnitude. Together, these results suggest that the role of SSS in the regulation of sleep in Drosophila correlates more strongly with the effects of SSS on Shaker kinetics than current magnitude.

  13. Melanization and Pathogenicity in the Insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the Crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonin, Chadanat; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Söderhäll, Irene; Merino, Susana; Tomás, Juan M.; Söderhäll, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS), bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish) and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm). The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core) is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT) containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the proPO system

  14. Glutathione S-Transferase (GST Gene Diversity in the Crustacean Calanus finmarchicus--Contributors to Cellular Detoxification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Detoxification is a fundamental cellular stress defense mechanism, which allows an organism to survive or even thrive in the presence of environmental toxins and/or pollutants. The glutathione S-transferase (GST superfamily is a set of enzymes involved in the detoxification process. This highly diverse protein superfamily is characterized by multiple gene duplications, with over 40 GST genes reported in some insects. However, less is known about the GST superfamily in marine organisms, including crustaceans. The availability of two de novo transcriptomes for the copepod, Calanus finmarchicus, provided an opportunity for an in depth study of the GST superfamily in a marine crustacean. The transcriptomes were searched for putative GST-encoding transcripts using known GST proteins from three arthropods as queries. The identified transcripts were then translated into proteins, analyzed for structural domains, and annotated using reciprocal BLAST analysis. Mining the two transcriptomes yielded a total of 41 predicted GST proteins belonging to the cytosolic, mitochondrial or microsomal classes. Phylogenetic analysis of the cytosolic GSTs validated their annotation into six different subclasses. The predicted proteins are likely to represent the products of distinct genes, suggesting that the diversity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus exceeds or rivals that described for insects. Analysis of relative gene expression in different developmental stages indicated low levels of GST expression in embryos, and relatively high expression in late copepodites and adult females for several cytosolic GSTs. A diverse diet and complex life history are factors that might be driving the multiplicity of GSTs in C. finmarchicus, as this copepod is commonly exposed to a variety of natural toxins. Hence, diversity in detoxification pathway proteins may well be key to their survival.

  15. Roles of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone in ionic and metabolic homeostasis in the Christmas Island blue crab, Discoplax celeste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lucy M; Webster, Simon G; Morris, Stephen

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing body of evidence implicating the involvement of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) in ionic homeostasis in decapod crustaceans. However, little is known regarding hormonally influenced osmoregulatory processes in terrestrial decapods. As many terrestrial decapods experience opposing seasonal demands upon ionoregulatory physiologies, we reasoned that these would make interesting models in which to study the effect of CHH upon these phenomena. In particular, those (tropical) species that also undergo seasonal migrations might be especially informative, as we know relatively little regarding the nature of CHHs in terrestrial decapods, and hormonally mediated responses to seasonal changes in metabolic demands might also be superimposed or otherwise integrated with those associated with ionic homeostasis. Using Discoplax celeste as a model crab that experiences seasonal extremes in water availability, and exhibits diurnal and migratory activity patterns, we identified two CHHs in the sinus gland. We biochemically characterised (cDNA cloning) one CHH and functionally characterised (in terms of dose-dependent hyperglycaemic responses and glucose-dependent negative feedback loops) both CHHs. Whole-animal in situ branchial chamber (22)NaCl perfusion experiments showed that injection of both CHHs increased gill Na(+) uptake in a seasonally dependent manner, and (51)Cr-EDTA clearance experiments demonstrated that CHH increased urine production by the antennal gland. Seasonal and salinity-dependent differences in haemolymph CHH titre further implicated CHH in osmoregulatory processes. Intriguingly, CHH appeared to have no effect on gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase or V-ATPase activity, suggesting unknown mechanisms of this hormone's action on Na(+) transport across gill epithelia.

  16. Melanization and pathogenicity in the insect, Tenebrio molitor, and the crustacean, Pacifastacus leniusculus, by Aeromonas hydrophila AH-3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadanat Noonin

    Full Text Available Aeromonas hydrophila is the most common Aeromonas species causing infections in human and other animals such as amphibians, reptiles, fish and crustaceans. Pathogenesis of Aeromonas species have been reported to be associated with virulence factors such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS, bacterial toxins, bacterial secretion systems, flagella, and other surface molecules. Several mutant strains of A. hydrophila AH-3 were initially used to study their virulence in two animal species, Pacifastacus leniusculus (crayfish and Tenebrio molitor larvae (mealworm. The AH-3 strains used in this study have mutations in genes involving the synthesis of flagella, LPS structures, secretion systems, and some other factors, which have been reported to be involved in A. hydrophila pathogenicity. Our study shows that the LPS (O-antigen and external core is the most determinant A. hydrophila AH-3 virulence factor in both animals. Furthermore, we studied the immune responses of these hosts to infection of virulent or non-virulent strains of A. hydrophila AH-3. The AH-3 wild type (WT containing the complete LPS core is highly virulent and this bacterium strongly stimulated the prophenoloxidase activating system resulting in melanization in both crayfish and mealworm. In contrast, the ΔwaaE mutant which has LPS without O-antigen and external core was non-virulent and lost ability to stimulate this system and melanization in these two animals. The high phenoloxidase activity found in WT infected crayfish appears to result from a low expression of pacifastin, a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme inhibitor, and this gene expression was not changed in the ΔwaaE mutant infected animal and consequently phenoloxidase activity was not altered as compared to non-infected animals. Therefore we show that the virulence factors of A. hydrophila are the same regardless whether an insect or a crustacean is infected and the O-antigen and external core is essential for activation of the

  17. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  18. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  19. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  20. The effects of C-type natriuretic peptide on catecholamine release in the pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montpetit, C J; McKendry, J; Perry, S F

    2001-08-01

    The interaction between homologous C-type natriuretic peptide (dfCNP) and catecholamine release in cardiovascular control was assessed in the marine dogfish (Squalus acanthias). This was accomplished by evaluation of the dynamics of the dfCNP-elicited secretion of catecholamines in situ and in vivo. With an in situ saline-perfused postcardinal sinus preparation, it was demonstrated that perfusion with saline containing dfCNP (10(-9) mol x L(-1)) did not affect the secretion of either noradrenaline or adrenaline. However, the presence of dfCNP in the perfusate significantly enhanced carbachol-evoked secretion of noradrenaline. In vivo, intravascular injection of dfCNP (10(-9) mol x kg(-1)) caused a biphasic pressor-depressor response consisting of a brief increase in caudal artery blood pressure (P(CA)) followed by a prolonged reduction in P(CA). Furthermore, although systemic resistance initially increased, it was subsequently maintained at baseline values in the face of persistent decreases in both P(CA) and cardiac output. Bolus injection of dfCNP elicited significant increases in plasma noradrenaline levels that peaked within 10 min; plasma adrenaline levels were unaffected. The release of noradrenaline elicited by dfCNP was unaffected by prior blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) (with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril) or by pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor blocker hexamethonium. The delayed decrease in P(CA) was not observed in the hexamethonium-treated fish. Prior blockade of beta-adrenoreceptors (with sotalol) or alpha-adrenoreceptors (with prazosin) either significantly reduced (sotalol) or abolished (prazosin) the increase in plasma noradrenaline levels after dfCNP injection. The results of this investigation demonstrate that the elevation of plasma noradrenaline levels observed in vivo following dfCNP injection is not caused by a direct effect of dfCNP on catecholamine secretion from axillary body chromaffin cells

  1. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  2. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  3. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  4. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. de Jonge (Hugo); B.C. Tilly (Bernard); B.M. Hogema (Boris); D.J. Pfau (Daniel); C.A. Kelley (Catherine); M.H. Kelley (Megan); A.M. Melita (August); M.T. Morris (Montana); M.S. Viola (Maria); J.N. Forrest Jr. (John)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride

  5. The neck region of the C-type lectin DC-SIGN regulates its surface spatiotemporal organization and virus-binding capacity on antigen presenting cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzo, C.; Torreno-Pina, J.A.; Joosten, B.; Reinieren-Beeren, I.; Gualda, E.J.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Figdor, Carl; Garcia Parajo, M.F.; Cambi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) facilitates capture and internalization of a plethora of different pathogens. Although it is known that DC-SIGN organizes in nanoclusters at the surface of DCs, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this well defined nanopatterning and

  6. The Neck Region of the C-type Lectin DC-SIGN Regulates Its Surface Spatiotemporal Organization and Virus-binding Capacity on Antigen-presenting Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzo, C.; Torreno-Pina, J.A.; Joosten, B.; Reinieren-Beeren, I.; Gualda, E.J.; Loza-Alvarez, P.; Figdor, C.G.; Garcia-Parajo, M.F.; Cambi, A.

    2012-01-01

    The C-type lectin DC-SIGN expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) facilitates capture and internalization of a plethora of different pathogens. Although it is known that DC-SIGN organizes in nanoclusters at the surface of DCs, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this well defined nanopatterning and

  7. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  8. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  9. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  10. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  11. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  13. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  14. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  15. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  16. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  17. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  18. Differential protein expression using proteomics from a crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) under CO2-driven seawater acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Jiao; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Wang, Yu-Wei; Meng, Chuang; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Gradually increasing atmospheric CO 2 partial pressure (pCO 2 ) has caused an imbalance in carbonate chemistry and resulted in decreased seawater pH in marine ecosystems, termed seawater acidification. Anthropogenic seawater acidification is postulated to affect the physiology of many marine calcifying organisms. To understand the possible effects of seawater acidification on the proteomic responses of a marine crustacean brine shrimp (Artemia sinica) three groups of cysts were hatched and further raised in seawater at different pH levels (8.2 as control and 7.8 and 7.6 as acidification stress levels according to the predicted levels at the end of this century and next century, respectively) for 1, 7 and 14 days followed by examination of the protein expression changes via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Searches of protein databases revealed that 67 differential protein spots were altered due to lower pH level (7.6 and 7.8) stress in comparison to control groups (pH 8.2) by mass spectrometry. Generally, these differentially expressed proteins included the following: 1) metabolic process-related proteins involved in glycolysis and glucogenesis, nucleotide/amino acid/fatty acid metabolism, protein biosynthesis, DNA replication and apoptosis; 2) stress response-related proteins, such as peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin peroxidase, 70-kDa heat shock protein, Na/K ATPase, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase; 3) immune defence-related proteins, such as prophenoloxidase and ferritin; 4) cytoskeletal-related proteins, such as myosin light chain, TCP1 subunit 2, tropomyosin and tubulin alpha chain; and 5) signal transduction-related proteins, such as phospholipase C-like protein, 14-3-3 zeta, translationally controlled tumour protein and RNA binding motif protein. Taken together, these data support the idea that CO 2 -driven seawater acidification may affect protein expression in the crustacean A. sinica and possibly also in other species that feed on brine shrimp in the

  19. Long-term responses of sandy beach crustaceans to the effects of coastal armouring after the 2010 Maule earthquake in South Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodil, Iván F.; Jaramillo, Eduardo; Acuña, Emilio; Manzano, Mario; Velasquez, Carlos

    2016-02-01

    Earthquakes and tsunamis are large physical disturbances frequently striking the coast of Chile with dramatic effects on intertidal habitats. Armouring structures built as societal responses to beach erosion and shoreline retreat are also responsible of coastal squeeze and habitat loss. The ecological implications of interactions between coastal armouring and earthquakes have recently started to be studied for beach ecosystems. How long interactive impacts persist is still unclear because monitoring after disturbance generally extends for a few months. During five years after the Maule earthquake (South Central Chile, February 27th 2010) we monitored the variability in population abundances of the most common crustacean inhabitants of different beach zones (i.e. upper, medium, and lower intertidal) at two armoured (one concrete seawall and one rocky revetment) and one unarmoured sites along the sandy beach of Llico. Beach morphology changed after the earthquake-mediated uplift, restoring upper- and mid-shore armoured levels that were rapidly colonized by typical crustacean species. However, post-earthquake increasing human activities affected the colonization process of sandy beach crustaceans in front of the seawall. Lower-shore crab Emerita analoga was the less affected by armouring structures, and it was the only crustacean species present at the three sites before and after the earthquake. This study shows that field sampling carried out promptly after major disturbances, and monitoring of the affected sites long after the disturbance is gone are effective approaches to increase the knowledge on the interactive effects of large-scale natural phenomena and artificial defences on beach ecology.

  20. Structural and binding studies of a C-type galactose-binding lectin from Bothrops jararacussu snake venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartim, Marco A; Pinheiro, Matheus P; de Pádua, Ricardo A P; Sampaio, Suely V; Nonato, M Cristina

    2017-02-01

    BJcuL is a snake venom galactoside-binding lectin (SVgalL) isolated from Bothrops jararacussu and is involved in a wide variety of biological activities including triggering of pro-inflammatory response, disruption of microbial biofilm structure and induction of apoptosis. In the present work, we determined the crystallographic structure of BJcuL, the first holo structure of a SVgalL, and introduced the fluorescence-based thermal stability assay (Thermofluor) as a tool for screening and characterization of the binding mechanism of SVgalL ligands. BJcuL structure revealed the existence of a porous and flexible decameric arrangement composed of disulfide-linked dimers related by a five-fold symmetry. Each monomer contains the canonical carbohydrate recognition domain, a calcium ion required for BJcuL lectinic activity and a sodium ion required for protein stabilization. BJcuL thermostability was found to be induced by calcium ion and galactoside sugars which exhibit hyperbolic saturation profiles dependent on ligand concentration. Serendipitously, the gentamicin group of aminoglycoside antibiotics (gAGAs) was also identified as BJcuL ligands. On contrast, gAGAs exhibited a sigmoidal saturation profile compatible with a cooperative mechanism of binding. Thermofluor, hemagglutination inhibition assay and molecular docking strategies were used to identify a distinct binding site in BJcuL localized at the dimeric interface near the fully conserved intermolecular Cys86-Cys86 disulfide bond. The hybrid approach used in the present work provided novel insights into structural behavior and functional diversification of SVgaLs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of habitat structure on the epifaunal community in Mussismilia corals: does coral morphology influence the richness and abundance of associated crustacean fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Marcos M.; Neves, Elizabeth; Johnsson, Rodrigo

    2015-06-01

    Coral habitat structures increase abundance and richness of organisms by providing niches, easy access to resources and refuge from predators. Corals harbor a great variety of animals; the variation in coral species morphology contributes to the heterogeneity and complexity of habitat types. In this report, we studied the richness and abundance of crustaceans (Decapoda, Copepoda, Peracarida and Ostracoda) associated with three species of Mussismilia exhibiting different growth morphologies, in two different coral reefs of the Bahia state (Caramuanas and Boipeba-Moreré, Brazil). Mussismilia hispida is a massive coral; M. braziliensis also has a massive growth pattern, but forms a crevice in the basal area of the corallum; M. harttii has a meandroid pattern. PERMANOVA analysis suggests significant differences in associated fauna richness among Mussismilia species, with higher values for M. harttii, followed by M. braziliensis and later by M. hispida. The same trend was observed for density, except that the comparison of M. braziliensis and M. hispida did not show differences. Redundancy and canonical correspondence analysis indicated that almost all of the crustacean species were more associated with the M. harttii colonies that formed a group clearly separated from colonies of M. braziliensis and M. hispida. We also found that the internal volume of interpolyp space, only present in M. harttii, was the most important factor influencing richness and abundance of all analyzed orders of crustaceans.

  2. The first venomous crustacean revealed by transcriptomics and functional morphology: remipede venom glands express a unique toxin cocktail dominated by enzymes and a neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Reumont, Björn M; Blanke, Alexander; Richter, Sandy; Alvarez, Fernando; Bleidorn, Christoph; Jenner, Ronald A

    2014-01-01

    Animal venoms have evolved many times. Venomous species are especially common in three of the four main groups of arthropods (Chelicerata, Myriapoda, and Hexapoda), which together represent tens of thousands of species of venomous spiders, scorpions, centipedes, and hymenopterans. Surprisingly, despite their great diversity of body plans, there is no unambiguous evidence that any crustacean is venomous. We provide the first conclusive evidence that the aquatic, blind, and cave-dwelling remipede crustaceans are venomous and that venoms evolved in all four major arthropod groups. We produced a three-dimensional reconstruction of the venom delivery apparatus of the remipede Speleonectes tulumensis, showing that remipedes can inject venom in a controlled manner. A transcriptomic profile of its venom glands shows that they express a unique cocktail of transcripts coding for known venom toxins, including a diversity of enzymes and a probable paralytic neurotoxin very similar to one described from spider venom. We screened a transcriptomic library obtained from whole animals and identified a nontoxin paralog of the remipede neurotoxin that is not expressed in the venom glands. This allowed us to reconstruct its probable evolutionary origin and underlines the importance of incorporating data derived from nonvenom gland tissue to elucidate the evolution of candidate venom proteins. This first glimpse into the venom of a crustacean and primitively aquatic arthropod reveals conspicuous differences from the venoms of other predatory arthropods such as centipedes, scorpions, and spiders and contributes valuable information for ultimately disentangling the many factors shaping the biology and evolution of venoms and venomous species.

  3. Fatty acid trophic markers and trophic links among seston, crustacean zooplankton and the siphonophore Nanomia cara in Georges Basin and Oceanographer Canyon (NW Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Rossi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid concentrations expressed as percentages of total fatty acid pools in seston, stage V copepodites of Calanus finmarchicus, adults of the euphausiid Meganyctiphanes norvegica, and the physonect siphonophore Nanomia cara were used to elucidate trophic links in Georges Basin and Oceanographer Canyon in September 2003. Seston at both locations was refractory and comprised mainly of saturated fatty acids. Phytoplankton did not contribute significantly to the fatty acid composition of seston or higher trophic levels. Only four fatty acids, i.e. 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 (n–7 and 18:1 (n–7, were transferred from seston to C. finmarchicus or M. norvegica, which suggested weak trophic interactions. Fatty acids transferred from the two species of crustaceans to N. cara included the same four fatty acids, along with three polyunsaturated fatty acids found in relatively high concentrations in both crustaceans, i.e. 20:3 (n–6, 20:5 (n–3 and 22:6 (n–3. In addition, 18:1 (n–9, which occurred in relatively high concentrations only in M. norvegica, and 18:0 and 18:2 (n–6, which were found in low concentrations in both crustaceans, also appeared to be transferred to N. cara. Overall, fatty acid trophic markers proved useful for identifying trophic links to N. cara.

  4. Evidence for a cost of immunity when the crustacean Daphnia magna is exposed to the bacterial pathogen Pasteuria ramosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Tom J; Killick, Stuart C

    2007-11-01

    The deployment of the immune system has the obvious potential to ameliorate infection outcomes, but immune responses can also harm hosts by either damaging host tissues or monopolizing resources, leading to enhanced mortality. To gain insight into such a 'cost of immunity' when the crustacean Daphnia magna is challenged with the bacterium Pasteuria ramosa, we measured survivorship among hosts that resisted infection following exposure to various strains and doses of the parasite. In the first of two experiments, these exposures were: single exposures with relatively non-aggressive strains, double exposures with non-aggressive strains, and exposure to aggressive strains. Mortality increased across this gradient of exposure. In a second experiment, we varied the dose of the most aggressive P. ramosa strain and found that resisting infection when a large dose was applied resulted in greater mortality than when a medium or low dose was applied. Assuming that resistance is accomplished with an immune response, and that more aggressive parasites and/or larger doses of parasites are more immunostimulatory, these data are compatible with a cost of immunity. Indeed, in terms of survival, resisting parasites can be more harmful than infection.

  5. Using DNA Barcoding and Standardized Sampling to Compare Geographic and Habitat Differentiation of Crustaceans: A Hawaiian Islands Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Julian Caley

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Census of Marine Life has explored methods to assess coral reef diversity by combining standardized sampling (to permit comparison across sites with molecular techniques (to make rapid counts of species possible. To date, this approach has been applied across geographically broad scales (seven sites spanning the Indian, Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, focusing on similar habitats at all sites (10–12 m forereef. Here we examine crustacean spatial diversity patterns for a single atoll, comparing results for four sites (comprising forereef, backreef, and lagoon habitats at French Frigate Shoals (FFS, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Hawaii, USA, within the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument. The Bray-Curtis index of similarity across these habitats at FFS was the same or greater than the similarity between similar habitats on Heron Island and Lizard Island in the Great Barrier Reef and much greater than similarity between more widely separated localities in the Indo-Pacific Ocean (e.g., Ningaloo, Moorea, French Polynesia or the Line Islands. These results imply that, at least for shallow reefs, sampling multiple locations versus sampling multiple habitats within a site maximizes the rate at which we can converge on the best global estimate of coral reef biodiversity.

  6. Trace elements in several species of crustaceans of Amami Island Group in Japan determined by activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Concentration levels of trace elements were determined in several species of subtropical crustaceans from Amami Islands in Japan in order to evaluate the levels of specific accumulation of elements among species. Tissue samples prepared from gill, muscle, hepatopancreas, and testis were irradiated for photon activation analysis (PAA) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). By PAA and NAA, eighteen elements could be determined. The levels of Br and I were extremely high in gills of spiny lobster and shovel-nosed lobster, respectively. A high concentration of Ag was found in the hepatopancreas of spiny lobsters collected from the Amami Island, while this element was not detected in the same species collected from Toba. The results suggest that the distribution of the trace elements in different tissues and species varies according to both species and environmental differences. To study the molecular forms of the elements in tissue, fractions that contained protein-bound elements from the hepatopancreas of spiny lobsters were separated by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration chromatography. Elution profiles of the chromatography suggest that Cu, Fe, and Se were bound to proteins, while Ag was not. (author)

  7. Status of selected bottomfish and crustacean species in Prince William Sound following the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.A.; Dinnel, P.A.; Orensanz, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Exposure and possible adverse effects of the Exxon Valdez oil spill (EVOS) at depth were studied between 1989 and 1991 on several species of crustaceans, molluscs, and finfish that are characterized by ontogenetic shifts in distribution from meroplanktonic larvae to benthic and demersal juveniles and adults. The authors approach was to search for (1) evidence of exposure to Exxon Valdez crude oil (EVC) at depth (generally between 20 to 150 m) and (2) measurable perturbations at both the individual and population levels. Primary species targeted were Tanner crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), several pandalid shrimps (Pandalus platyceros, P. hypsinotus, P. borealis), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), and several bivalves including scallops (Chlamys rubida) and infaunal clams (Nuculana, Yoldia, and Macoma spp.). The survey design provided a comparison between variables measured in oiled bays around Knight Island and non-oiled bays at other locations within Prince William Sound. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of petrogenic origin were measured in all bays sampled in this study and levels of PAHs derived from EVC were elevated in the oiled bays following the spill, yet attenuated to less than 200 ng/g sediment by 1991. 95 refs., 22 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Aridity promotes bet hedging via delayed hatching: a case study with two temporary pond crustaceans along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinceel, Tom; Vanschoenwinkel, Bram; Hawinkel, Wouter; Tuytens, Karen; Brendonck, Luc

    2017-05-01

    Climate change does affect not only average rainfall and temperature but also their variation, which can reduce the predictability of suitable conditions for growth and reproduction. This situation is problematic for inhabitants of temporary waters whose reproductive success depends on rainfall and evaporation that determine the length of the aquatic phase. For organisms with long-lived dormant life stages, bet hedging models suggest that a fraction of these should stay dormant during each growing season to buffer against the probability of total reproductive failure in variable environments. Thus far, however, little empirical evidence supports this prediction in aquatic organisms. We study geographic variation in delayed hatching of dormant eggs in natural populations of two crustaceans, Branchinella longirostris and Paralimnadia badia, that occur in temporary rock pools along a 725 km latitudinal aridity gradient in Western Australia. Consistent with bet hedging theory, populations of both species were characterised by delayed hatching under common garden conditions and hatching fractions decreased towards the drier end of the gradient where the probability of reproductive success was shown to be lower. This decrease was most pronounced in the species with the longer maturation time, presumably because it is more sensitive to the higher prevalence of short inundations. Overall, these findings illustrate that regional variation in climate can be reflected in differential investment in bet hedging and hints at a higher importance of delayed hatching to persist when the climate becomes harsher. Such strategies could become exceedingly relevant as determinants of vulnerability under climate change.

  9. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  10. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  13. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  14. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  15. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  16. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  17. Evolution of body size, vision, and biodiversity of coral-associated organisms: evidence from fossil crustaceans in cold-water coral and tropical coral ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Jakobsen, Sten L; Lauridsen, Bodil W

    2016-06-16

    Modern cold-water coral and tropical coral environments harbor a highly diverse and ecologically important macrofauna of crustaceans that face elevated extinction risks due to reef decline. The effect of environmental conditions acting on decapod crustaceans comparing these two habitats is poorly understood today and in deep time. Here, we compare the biodiversity, eye socket height as a proxy for eye size, and body size of decapods in fossil cold-water and tropical reefs that formed prior to human disturbance. We show that decapod biodiversity is higher in fossil tropical reefs from The Netherlands, Italy, and Spain compared to that of the exceptionally well-preserved Paleocene (Danian) cold-water reef/mound ecosystem from Faxe (Denmark), where decapod diversity is highest in a more heterogeneous, mixed bryozoan-coral habitat instead of in coral and bryozoan-dominated facies. The relatively low diversity at Faxe was not influenced substantially by the preceding Cretaceous/Paleogene extinction event that is not apparent in the standing diversity of decapods in our analyses, or by sampling, preservation, and/or a latitudinal diversity gradient. Instead, the lower availability of food and fewer hiding places for decapods may explain this low diversity. Furthermore, decapods from Faxe are larger than those from tropical waters for half of the comparisons, which may be caused by a lower number of predators, the delayed maturity, and the increased life span of crustaceans in deeper, colder waters. Finally, deep-water specimens of the benthic crab Caloxanthus from Faxe exhibit a larger eye socket size compared to congeneric specimens from tropical reefs, suggesting that dim light conditions favored the evolution of relatively large eyes. The results suggest a strong habitat control on the biodiversity of crustaceans in coral-associated environments and that the diversity difference between deep, cold-water reefs and tropical reefs evolved at least ~63 million years ago

  18. Failure of action potential propagation in sensory neurons: mechanisms and loss of afferent filtering in C-type units after painful nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemes, Geza; Koopmeiners, Andrew; Rigaud, Marcel; Lirk, Philipp; Sapunar, Damir; Bangaru, Madhavi Latha; Vilceanu, Daniel; Garrison, Sheldon R; Ljubkovic, Marko; Mueller, Samantha J; Stucky, Cheryl L; Hogan, Quinn H

    2013-02-15

    The T-junction of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a potential impediment to action potential (AP) propagation towards the CNS. Using intracellular recordings from rat DRG neuronal somata during stimulation of the dorsal root, we determined that the maximal rate at which all of 20 APs in a train could successfully transit the T-junction (following frequency) was lowest in C-type units, followed by A-type units with inflected descending limbs of the AP, and highest in A-type units without inflections. In C-type units, following frequency was slower than the rate at which AP trains could be produced in either dorsal root axonal segments or in the soma alone, indicating that the T-junction is a site that acts as a low-pass filter for AP propagation. Following frequency was slower for a train of 20 APs than for two, indicating that a cumulative process leads to propagation failure. Propagation failure was accompanied by diminished somatic membrane input resistance, and was enhanced when Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) currents were augmented or when Ca(2+)-sensitive Cl(-) currents were blocked. After peripheral nerve injury, following frequencies were increased in axotomized C-type neurons and decreased in axotomized non-inflected A-type neurons. These findings reveal that the T-junction in sensory neurons is a regulator of afferent impulse traffic. Diminished filtering of AP trains at the T-junction of C-type neurons with axotomized peripheral processes could enhance the transmission of activity that is ectopically triggered in a neuroma or the neuronal soma, possibly contributing to pain generation.

  19. Lech, M., et al., Quantitative Expression of C-Type Lectin Receptors in Humans and Mice. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 10113-10131.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Joachim Anders

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors wish to add this correction on their paper published in IJMS [1]. Galectin-1 was misclassified as a C-type lectin. Galectin-1 belongs to the family of the S-type lectins, i.e., the galectins. These errors have been amended in an amended version of the manuscript, which is available from the International Journal of Molecular Sciences website. The authors and publisher apologize for the inconvenience. [...

  20. Invasive potential of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto ospC type L strains increases the possible disease risk to humans in the regions of their distribution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Golovchenko, Maryna; Šíma, Radek; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Grubhoffer, Libor; Oliver, J. H., Jr.; Rudenko, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, NOV 28 2014 (2014), s. 538 ISSN 1756-3305 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-27630P; GA ČR GP13-12816P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : B. burgdorferi ospC type * Invasive potential * Lyme disease * Southeastern U.S.A. * Tick vector * Vertebrate host Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.430, year: 2014

  1. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  2. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagy Olga

    2012-03-01

    being conserved among Drosophila species, the LmgB protein is not required for viability or fertility. Conclusions Our work provides insight into the subunit structure of the Drosophila APC/C with implications for its function. Based on the presented data, we suggest that the Lmg/Apc11 subunit recruits the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar, to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex.

  3. Brain architecture in the terrestrial hermit crab Coenobita clypeatus (Anomura, Coenobitidae, a crustacean with a good aerial sense of smell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Bill S

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the evolutionary radiation of Crustacea, several lineages in this taxon convergently succeeded in meeting the physiological challenges connected to establishing a fully terrestrial life style. These physiological adaptations include the need for sensory organs of terrestrial species to function in air rather than in water. Previous behavioral and neuroethological studies have provided solid evidence that the land hermit crabs (Coenobitidae, Anomura are a group of crustaceans that have evolved a good sense of aerial olfaction during the conquest of land. We wanted to study the central olfactory processing areas in the brains of these organisms and to that end analyzed the brain of Coenobita clypeatus (Herbst, 1791; Anomura, Coenobitidae, a fully terrestrial tropical hermit crab, by immunohistochemistry against synaptic proteins, serotonin, FMRFamide-related peptides, and glutamine synthetase. Results The primary olfactory centers in this species dominate the brain and are composed of many elongate olfactory glomeruli. The secondary olfactory centers that receive an input from olfactory projection neurons are almost equally large as the olfactory lobes and are organized into parallel neuropil lamellae. The architecture of the optic neuropils and those areas associated with antenna two suggest that C. clypeatus has visual and mechanosensory skills that are comparable to those of marine Crustacea. Conclusion In parallel to previous behavioral findings of a good sense of aerial olfaction in C. clypeatus, our results indicate that in fact their central olfactory pathway is most prominent, indicating that olfaction is a major sensory modality that these brains process. Interestingly, the secondary olfactory neuropils of insects, the mushroom bodies, also display a layered structure (vertical and medial lobes, superficially similar to the lamellae in the secondary olfactory centers of C. clypeatus. More detailed analyses with

  4. Effect of some biological factors on the chitin yield of two crustacean species inhabiting the Egyptian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira Talaat Abo-Hashesh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the chitin yield of two commercial crustacean species that are exploited in the Suez Canal region, the Red Sea crab Charybdis natator (C. natator and the Mediterranean mantis shrimp Erugosquilla massavensis (E. massavensis, and to assess the effect of some biological factors such as sex, size and maturity stages of females' ovaries on this yield. Methods: A total of 64 specimens of crabs were collected from the Red Sea and 1 377 mantis shrimps were collected from the Mediterranean Sea. Chitin was obtained after the deproteinization, de-mineralization and de-colorization of 5 g oven dried exoskeletons and values were expressed as g/5 g and percentages. Results: Chitin yield was significantly higher in E. massavensis than C. natator (22.1%, 14.22%, respectively. No significant difference in the yield was recorded between males and females of C. natator (12.9%, 14.9%, respectively, while the yield in E. massavensis males was significantly higher than females (25.3%, 21.2%, respectively. Significant variations in the chitin yield were observed between the different sizes of E. massavensis with the maximum being from the individuals falling in the size range 90–130 mm body length. The yield was at its lowest in the immature stage of C. natator females' ovaries (9.29%. However, the values increased and remained constant for the remaining stages (≥ 18%. Conclusions: The study recommends the use of the mantis shrimp for the production of chitin on commercial scale particularly medium sized males.

  5. Fatty acids in six small pelagic fish species and their crustacean prey from the mindanao sea, southern Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metillo, Ephrime Bicoy; Aspiras-Eya, Anna Arlene

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids are important in human health and useful in the analysis of the marine food web, however information on tropical pelagic organisms is scarce. Six zooplanktivorous small pelagic fish species (Decapterus kurroides, Decapterus macarellus, Selar crumenophthalmus, Sardinella lemuru, Spratilloides gracilis and Stolephorus insularis) and four of their zooplanktonic crustacean prey [three sergestoid species (Acetes erythraeus, Acetes intermedius and Lucifer penicillifer) and one calanoid copepod (Acartia erythraea)] were collected from the Mindanao Sea, and their fatty acids were profiled. The resulting profiles revealed 17 fatty acids that were specific to certain species and 9 {myristic acid [C14:0], palmitic acid [C16:0], stearic acid [C18:0]; palmitoleic acid [C16:1], oleic acid [C18:1n9c], linoleic acid [C18:2n6c], linolenic acid [C18:3n3], eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) [C20:5n3] and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) [C22:6n3]} that were common to all species. Cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) of fatty acids indicate a high similarity in profiles in all species, but separate fish and zooplankton clusters were obtained. Mackerel species (D. macarellus, D. kurroides and S. crumenophthalmus) had concentrations of total n-3 fatty acids that match those of their Acetes prey. The copepod A. erythraea and the sergestoid L. penicillifer exhibited the lowest values of the EPA:DHA ratio, which was most likely due to their phytoplanktivorous feeding habits, but the occurrence of the highest values of the ratio in Acetes suggests the inclusion of plant detritus in their diet. DHA values appear to affirm the trophic link among copepod, Lucifer, Acetes and mackerel species.

  6. CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end-joining in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hitoshi; Nakanishi, Takashi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Kato, Yasuhiko; Watanabe, Hajime

    2017-01-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated system (Cas) is widely used for mediating the knock-in of foreign DNA into the genomes of various organisms. Here, we report a process of CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in via non-homologous end joining by the direct injection of Cas9/gRNA ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which is a model organism for studies on toxicology, ecology, and evolution. First, we confirmed the cleavage activity of Cas9 RNPs comprising purified Cas9 proteins and gRNAs in D. magna. We used a gRNA that targets exon 10 of the eyeless gene. Cas9 proteins were incubated with the gRNAs and the resulting Cas9 RNPs were injected into D. magna eggs, which led to a typical phenotype of the eyeless mutant, i.e., eye deformity. The somatic and heritable mutagenesis efficiencies were up to 96% and 40%, respectively. Second, we tested the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in of a plasmid by the injection of Cas9 RNPs. The donor DNA plasmid harboring the fluorescent reporter gene was designed to contain the gRNA recognition site. The co-injection of Cas9 RNPs together with the donor DNAs resulted in generation of one founder animal that produced fluorescent progenies. This transgenic Daphnia had donor DNA at the targeted genomic site, which suggested the concurrent cleavage of the injected plasmid DNA and genomic DNA. Owing to its simplicity and ease of experimental design, we suggest that the CRISPR/Cas-mediated knock-in method represents a promising tool for studying functional genomics in D. magna.

  7. Distribution of heavy metals in muscles and internal organs of Korean cephalopods and crustaceans: risk assessment for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mok, Jong Soo; Kwon, Ji Young; Son, Kwang Tae; Choi, Woo Seok; Shim, Kil Bo; Lee, Tae Seek; Kim, Ji Hoe

    2014-12-01

    Samples of seven species of cephalopods and crustaceans were collected from major fish markets on the Korean coast and analyzed for mercury (Hg) using a direct Hg analyzer and for the metals cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium, silver, nickel, copper, and zinc using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The distributions of heavy metals in muscles, internal organs, and whole tissues were determined, and a risk assessment was conducted to provide information concerning consumer safety. The heavy metals accumulated to higher levels (P octopus (relatively large cephalopods), red snow crab, and snow crab exceeded the European Union limits. The estimated dietary intake of Cd, Pb, and Hg for each part of all species accounted for 1.73 to 130.57%, 0.03 to 0.39%, and 0.93 to 1.67%, respectively, of the provisional tolerable daily intake adopted by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives; the highest values were found in internal organs. The hazard index (HI) is recognized as a reasonable parameter for assessing the risk of heavy metal consumption associated with contaminated food. Because of the high HI (>1.0) of the internal organs of cephalopods and the maximum HI for whole tissue of 0.424, consumers eating internal organs or whole tissues of cephalopods could be at risk of high heavy metal exposure. Therefore, the internal organs of relatively large cephalopods and crabs (except blue crab) are unfit for consumption. However, consumption of flesh after removing internal organs is a suitable approach for decreasing exposure to harmful metals.

  8. Long-term changes of the crustacean zooplankton community in Lake Mjøsa, the largest lake in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarl Eivind LØVIK

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Lake Mjøsa has been subject to an accelerating eutrophication from the 1950s to the mid 1970s, but comprehensive nutrient reduction efforts caused marked reductions of phytoplankton production and biomass during the 1980s, a process that continued during the 1990s. Zooplankton biomass and species composition was considerably affected during the eutrophication and subsequent oligotrophication. Total crustacean zooplankton biomass decreased along with decreasing algal biomass during the 1980s and 1990s. The seasonal means of zooplankton biomass were positively correlated with seasonal means of phytoplankton biovolume and chlorophyll-a, indicating a primarily bottom up regulation of the zooplankton biomass. Several herbivorous and omnivorous zooplankton species (Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longispina, Limnocalanus macrurus and Cyclops lacustris were probably negatively affected by reduced algal biomass, whereas other species (Holopedium gibberum and Thermocyclops oithonoides/Mesocyclops leuckarti seemed to be positively affected. H. gibberum disappeared in the 1960s, but reappeared in the 1980s after the significant reduction in algal biomass and primary production. The temporal trend of T. oithonoides/M. leuckarti indicated a strong competition with cladocerans (mainly B. longispina and D. galeata in periods with high algal biomass. Early warming of the lake could also have promoted a biomass increase of T. oithonoides/M. leuckarti in later years, although the mean epilimnion temperature did not correlate with seasonal mean biomass of these species. The seasonal mean biomass of Eudiaptomus gracilis, the dominant calanoid, showed substantial fluctuations with 6-7 years between tops, but a decreasing trend during the 1990s. However, there were no significant correlations between this species and any of the environmental variables. The study indicated that dominant cladocerans (D. galeata and B. longispina are decisive for the success of cisco

  9. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  10. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  11. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  12. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  13. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  14. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  15. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  16. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  17. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  18. Positional Arrangements of Waste Exhaust Gas Ducts of C-Type Balanced Chimney Heating Devices on Building Façades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan AVLAR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey today, with the increase in availability of natural gas,detached heating devices are being preferred over existingheating devices. Due to the lack of chimneys in existing buildingsin Turkey or the presence of chimneys that fail to conformto standards, the use of C-type balanced chimney devices has increased.C-type balanced chimney devices take the combustionair directly from the outside by a specific air duct as detachedheating equipment, with enclosed combustion chambers anda specific waste gas exhaust duct, and they are ventilated independentlyof the field of equipment. Because of their essentiality,the use of a chimney is not required in these devices;the waste gas is exhausted through walls, windows, doors, orbalconies. The natural gas is a clean fossil fuel that requires nostorage in buildings and is easy to use. However, water vapor,carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides are produced by the combustionof natural gas. It is widely known that high concentrationsof these products can have some adverse effects onhumans such as dizziness, headaches and nausea. As a result,the waste products could recoil through wall openings on thefaçade to create unhealthy indoor environments that could bedangerous to human health. Therefore, the importance of standardsand regulations about the positional arrangements of thewaste gas exhaust ducts of C-type balanced chimney devices onbuilding façades is increasing. In this research, we analyze thestudies of the Institution of Turkish Standards, Chamber of MechanicalEngineers, gas distribution companies, municipalitiesand authorized firms and compare the criteria to determine thenecessary application method. According to our comparison ofthe references accessed, the criteria are not uniform.

  19. Differences in C-type lectin receptors and their adaptor molecules in the peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis and gynecologic cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seung Geun; Won, Yong Sung; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Dong Choon

    2018-01-01

    Endometriosis, although not malignant, has clinically demonstrated properties of invasiveness and metastasis. The pathogenesis of endometriosis, however, has not yet been elucidated. The immunological differences between endometriosis and malignant gynecologic tumors were analyzed by assessing C-type lectin receptors, which are associated with innate immunity, and immunoglobulin secretion, which is associated with B cell adaptive immunity, in the peritoneal fluid of these patients. Peritoneal fluid samples were obtained from 42 patients with benign masses (control group), 38 with endometriosis, and 43 with gynecologic (ovarian, uterine, and cervical) cancers. The levels of expression in these samples of mRNAs encoding the C-type lectin receptors Dectin-1, MR1, MR2, DC-SIGN, Syk, Card 9, Bcl 10, Malt 1, src, Dec 205, Galectin, Tim 3, Trem 1, and DAP 12, were measured by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and the concentrations of IgG, IgA and IgM were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Findings in the three groups were compared. The level of galectin mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR2 and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis than in the control group (pgynecologic cancer group, the level of Bcl 10 mRNA was significantly lower, and the levels of MR1, MR2, Syk, Card 9, Malt 1, Dec 205, Tim 3, and DAP 12 mRNAs significantly higher, in the endometriosis group (pcontrol group (pgynecologic cancer groups. IgA and IgG concentrations in peritoneal fluid were significantly lower in the gynecologic cancer than in the control group (p0.05). C-type lectin receptors and immunoglobulins act cooperatively and are closely associated in the pathogenesis of endometriosis. The decreased expression of galectin mRNA in the peritoneal fluid of the endometriosis group suggests that endometriosis and gynecologic cancers have similar immunologic characteristics.

  20. Ensamble de crustáceos bentónicos en un lago salino tropical Benthic crustaceans assemblage in a tropical, saline lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. del Carmen Hernández

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo reconoce la composición, estructura y distribución espacial del ensamble de crustáceos bentónicos de Alchichica, un lago salino tropical ubicado en el extremo oriental del altiplano mexicano. El lago presenta una riqueza taxonómica de crustáceos bentónicos compuesta por 1 anfípodo (Hyalella azteca, 1 isópodo (Caecidotea williamsi y 2 ostrácodos (Limnocythere inopinata y Candona sp.. Comparada con otros lagos tropicales, la riqueza de especies es reducida. A pesar de lo anterior, es importante mencionar el grado elevado de endemismo representado por C. williamsi, recientemente descrita para el lago Alchichica; adicionalmente, es factible que tanto Candona como H. azteca sean especies nuevas y endémicas del lago. Los crustáceos bentónicos se distribuyen desde la zona litoral hasta la zona más profunda del lago (62 m con abundancias y riqueza taxonómica variables. Los ostrácodos fueron los crustáceos que con mayor frecuencia se recolectaron en el lago, en la zona litoral, en el talud, y en la zona profunda de la que son habitantes exclusivos. Los anfípodos constituyeron el segundo grupo en abundancia de la zona litoral y talud y estuvieron ausentes en la zona profunda. Los isópodos sólo se encuentran asociados a los depósitos de tufa, hábitat característico del lago que se extiende a lo largo del talud, por lo que con las técnicas de muestreo tradicional empleadas en el presente estudio no fueron capturados. En este ensamble de crustáceos predominan las especies de desarrollo directo y con posiciones tróficas que incluyen componentes herbívoros (H. azteca, omnívoros (C. williamsi y bacterívoros (L. inopinata y Candona sp..This work acknowledges the composition, structure and spatial distribution of the benthic crustaceans assemblage of Alchichica, a tropical saline lake located in the easternmost portion of the Mexican highlands. The benthic crustaceans' assemblage was comprised by 1 amphipod

  1. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  2. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  3. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  4. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  5. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  6. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  7. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  8. Recombinant Expression, In Vitro Refolding and Characterizing Disulfide Bonds of a Mouse Inhibitory C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor Nkrp1b

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hernychová, Lucie; Mrázek, Hynek; Ivanova, Ljubina; Kukačka, Zdeněk; Chmelík, Josef; Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 2015 (2015), s. 85-93 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA MŠk LO1509 Grant - others:OPPC(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24023 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : NK cell * C-type lectin-like receptor (CTLR) * Nkrp1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.643, year: 2015

  9. Targeting Human C-Type Lectin-Like Molecule-1 (CLL1) with a Bispecific Antibody for Acute Myeloid Leukemia Immunotherapy**

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Hua; Zhou, Quan; Deshmukh, Vishal; Phull, Hardeep; Ma, Jennifer; Tardif, Virginie; Naik, Rahul R.; Bouvard, Claire; Zhang, Yong; Choi, Seihyun; Lawson, Brian R.; Zhu, Shoutian; Kim, Chan Hyuk; Schultz, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the most common acute adult leukemia and the second most common pediatric leukemia, still has a poor prognosis. Human C-type lectin-like molecule-1 (CLL1) is a recently identified myeloid lineage restricted cell surface marker, which is overexpressed in over 90% of AML patient myeloid blasts and in leukemic stem cells. Here, we describe the synthesis of a novel bispecific antibody, αCLL1-αCD3, using the genetically encoded unnatural amino acid, p-acetylphenylalan...

  10. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  11. The lunar-tide cycle viewed by crustacean and mollusc gatherers in the State of Paraíba, Northeast Brazil and their influence in collection attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Rômulo RN

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional human communities have a wide knowledge of their environment. Collection of animals in estuarine and coastal areas are directly influenced by tidal cycles. The aim of this study is to evaluate the understanding of the tides associated with the lunar cycle held by people who gather crustaceans and molluscs in the State of Paraiba. The empirical knowledge of 20 crab gatherers and 30 mollusc gatherers was recorded through open interviews and structured questionnaires. The results showed that the gatherers have an accurate comprehension of tidal phenomenon based on their exploitation of natural resources, which perpetuates through generations.

  12. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Methods of equipment conservation of a carboelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Higuera, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Several conservation methods are mentioned like they are those of conservation in dry, in humid, conservation of bombs of water conservation, of turbines, of generators, of transformers, of electric motors and conservation of coal piles

  14. A deep transcriptomic resource for the copepod crustacean Labidocera madurae: A potential indicator species for assessing near shore ecosystem health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittoria Roncalli

    Full Text Available Coral reef ecosystems of many sub-tropical and tropical marine coastal environments have suffered significant degradation from anthropogenic sources. Research to inform management strategies that mitigate stressors and promote a healthy ecosystem has focused on the ecology and physiology of coral reefs and associated organisms. Few studies focus on the surrounding pelagic communities, which are equally important to ecosystem function. Zooplankton, often dominated by small crustaceans such as copepods, is an important food source for invertebrates and fishes, especially larval fishes. The reef-associated zooplankton includes a sub-neustonic copepod family that could serve as an indicator species for the community. Here, we describe the generation of a de novo transcriptome for one such copepod, Labidocera madurae, a pontellid from an intensively-studied coral reef ecosystem, Kāne'ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai'i. The transcriptome was assembled using high-throughput sequence data obtained from whole organisms. It comprised 211,002 unique transcripts, including 72,391 with coding regions. It was assessed for quality and completeness using multiple workflows. Bench-marking-universal-single-copy-orthologs (BUSCO analysis identified transcripts for 88% of expected eukaryotic core proteins. Targeted gene-discovery analyses included searches for transcripts coding full-length "giant" proteins (>4,000 amino acids, proteins and splice variants of voltage-gated sodium channels, and proteins involved in the circadian signaling pathway. Four different reference transcriptomes were generated and compared for the detection of differential gene expression between copepodites and adult females; 6,229 genes were consistently identified as differentially expressed between the two regardless of reference. Automated bioinformatics analyses and targeted manual gene curation suggest that the de novo assembled L. madurae transcriptome is of high quality and completeness. This

  15. A deep transcriptomic resource for the copepod crustacean Labidocera madurae: A potential indicator species for assessing near shore ecosystem health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Andrew E.; Sommer, Stephanie A.; Cieslak, Matthew C.; Hartline, Daniel K.; Lenz, Petra H.

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef ecosystems of many sub-tropical and tropical marine coastal environments have suffered significant degradation from anthropogenic sources. Research to inform management strategies that mitigate stressors and promote a healthy ecosystem has focused on the ecology and physiology of coral reefs and associated organisms. Few studies focus on the surrounding pelagic communities, which are equally important to ecosystem function. Zooplankton, often dominated by small crustaceans such as copepods, is an important food source for invertebrates and fishes, especially larval fishes. The reef-associated zooplankton includes a sub-neustonic copepod family that could serve as an indicator species for the community. Here, we describe the generation of a de novo transcriptome for one such copepod, Labidocera madurae, a pontellid from an intensively-studied coral reef ecosystem, Kāne‘ohe Bay, Oahu, Hawai‘i. The transcriptome was assembled using high-throughput sequence data obtained from whole organisms. It comprised 211,002 unique transcripts, including 72,391 with coding regions. It was assessed for quality and completeness using multiple workflows. Bench-marking-universal-single-copy-orthologs (BUSCO) analysis identified transcripts for 88% of expected eukaryotic core proteins. Targeted gene-discovery analyses included searches for transcripts coding full-length “giant” proteins (>4,000 amino acids), proteins and splice variants of voltage-gated sodium channels, and proteins involved in the circadian signaling pathway. Four different reference transcriptomes were generated and compared for the detection of differential gene expression between copepodites and adult females; 6,229 genes were consistently identified as differentially expressed between the two regardless of reference. Automated bioinformatics analyses and targeted manual gene curation suggest that the de novo assembled L. madurae transcriptome is of high quality and completeness. This

  16. Reproductive patterns in demersal crustaceans from the upper boundary of the OMZ off north-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, María de los Ángeles; González López, Andrés E.; Ramos, Marcel; Mujica, Armando; Muñoz, Praxedes; Sellanes, Javier; Yannicelli, Beatriz

    2017-06-01

    Pleuroncodes monodon (Crustacea: Munididae) supports one of the main trawling fisheries over the continental shelf off Chile between 25°S and 37°S within the upper boundary of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Although the reproductive cycle of P. monodon has been described, the relationship between this key biological process and the variability of the OMZ has not been comprehensibly addressed neither for P. monodon nor for other OMZ resident species. In this study a set of 14 quasi-monthly oceanographic cruises carried out between June 2010 and November 2011 were conducted over the continental shelf off Coquimbo (30°S) to investigate the temporal variability of: i) dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature and chlorophyll-a at relevant depths ii) the presence and proportion of occurrence of P. monodon ovigerous females and juveniles from benthic trawls; iii) the presence of different stage larvae in the plankton, and iv) similar biological data for other species from the OMZ and shallower depths crustaceans. During summer months oxygen levels and bottom temperature were lower than in winter, while chlorophyll-a concentration was maximum in summer coinciding with an active (but not maximum) upwelling season. P. monodon maximum egg carrying occurred in winter during periods of increased oxygenation. Egg carrying females were never found at depths where oxygen concentration was below 0.5 ml L-1, while over 50% of the autumn and spring cohorts of juveniles occurred at oxygen concentrations below that level. The depth range occupied by ovigerous females was more restricted than the rest of the population and their depth of occurrence followed the variability of the upper OMZ. The larval release period of OMZ resident species extends over late winter and spring, and its main peak precedes that of coastal species (spring) and the spring-summer chlorophyll-a maximum. We propose that for OMZ resident species, brood carrying during warmer and more oxygenated conditions

  17. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  18. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  19. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  20. Bioaccumulation of "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the crustaceans of Pichavaram mangrove ecosystem, Tamil nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, P.; Shahul Hameed, P.

    2017-01-01

    It was observed that the concentrations of "2"1"0Po in water and sediment were 1.64mBq/l and 5.92 Bq/kg and "2"1"0Pb in water and sediment samples 3.10 mBq/l and 2.45 Bq/kg respectively. The muscle of crabs registered a higher level of "2"1"0Po (152 Bq/kg) than that of prawns (71.87 Bq/kg) and lobster (49.3Bq/kg). Conversely the exoskeleton of crustacean species analyzed, accumulated a higher level of "2"1"0Pb (range 5.7-9.11 Bq/kg) as compared to level of accumulated "2"1"0Pb in muscle (range 1.62-2.54 Bq/kg). The study reveals the base line data on the levels of naturally occurring radionuclides such as "2"1"0Po and "2"1"0Pb in the prestart environment of Pichavaram Mangrove Ecosystem with special reference to the crustaceans. (author)

  1. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Raymond P.; Lucu, Čedomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail. PMID:23162474

  2. Armadillidin H, a glycine-rich peptide from the terrestrial crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, displays an unexpected wide antimicrobial spectrum with membranolytic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Verdon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47% cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed towards Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin, from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity towards human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study (by CD and NMR even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  3. A study of the uptake and toxicity of some stable and radioactive pollutants in marine organisms: antimony, silver, cobalt and strontium in mollusks, crustaceans and teleosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiard, J.-C.

    1978-10-01

    Qualitative and quantitative results following direct aquatic contamination of mollusks, crustaceans and teleosts by 125 Sb, 110 Ag, 60 Co, 85 Sr are reported. The effects of a number of biotic and abiotic parameters on the contamination of the various organisms and the distribution and elimination of the radionuclides in the tissues were investigated. The transfer of sup(110m)Ag, 60 Co and 125 Sb was studied in several benthic food chains. The transfer factor (F.T.) between a given trophic level and the initial environment (seawater) was determined as well as various physiological parameters (percentages ingested, assimilated, eliminated via the feces or urine and/or the gills. Elimination and tissue uptake were followed in mollusks and crustaceans. The consequences of contamination by stable and radioactive pollutants on plants and animals were considered. Acute (lethal) toxicity of various metals or metalloids on marine organisms were quantified. More sensitive sublethal tests considering physiological functions or behaviour were used. Irradiation doses to experiment animals were calculated, showing the importance of the (internal or external distribution of radionuclides and individual geometries on the total exposure dose [fr

  4. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  5. Venom of the Peruvian snake Bothriopsis oligolepis: Detection of antibacterial activity and involvement of proteolytic enzymes and C-type lectins in growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulca, M A; Remuzgo, C; Cárdenas, J; Kiyota, S; Cheng, E; Bemquerer, M P; Machini, M T

    2017-08-01

    There is a rising interest in snake venoms proteins (SVPs) because these macromolecules are related to pharmacological properties that manifest themselves during poisoning and can lead to secondary microbial infections. Interestingly, researchers have somehow neglected the antimicrobial activity of SVPs. The aims of this study were: (i) to verify whether the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothriopsis oligolepis displays such activity; (ii) to isolate and identify some of its antimicrobial constituents. Liquid growth inhibition assays revealed that the crude venom inhibited the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, but not of Candida species. Fractionation of the venom by anion-exchange chromatography provided fractions P2, P4 and P8 active against S. aureus. Fractionation of P2 or P8 by gel-filtration chromatography and of P4 by RP-HPLC furnished the sub-fractions P2-I, P8-II and P4-II, respectively, being those fractions active against S. aureus. Analyses of these sub-fractions by SDS-PAGE under denaturing/reducing conditions evidenced SVPs with 59-73, 27 and 14-28 kDa, respectively. Their in-gel tryptic digestion gave peptide fragments, whose sequencing by MALDI-TOF/MS followed by protein BLAST analysis allowed identifying PIII metalloprotease(s) [SVMP(s)] in P2-I, serine protease(s) [SVSP(s)] in P4-II and lectin(s) in P8-II. Detection of gelatinolytic activity in P2-I and P4-II reinforced the existence of PIII-SVMP(s) and SVSP(s), respectively. Activation of the coagulation cascade intrinsic pathway by P8-II (probably by interaction with factors IX and/or X as some snake C-type lectins do) supported the presence of C-type lectin(s). Altogether, these new findings reveal that the venom of the Peruvian snake Bothriopsis oligolepis displays antibacterial activity and that the isolated SVMP(s), SVSP(s) and C-type lectin(s) are associated to its ability to inhibit the growth of S. aureus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  7. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  8. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  9. Algal subsidies enhance invertebrate prey for threatened shorebirds: A novel conservation tool on ocean beaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A.; Hutton, Briony M.; Gilby, Ben L.; Porch, Nicholaus; Maguire, Grainne S.; Maslo, Brooke; Connolly, Rod M.; Olds, Andrew D.; Weston, Michael A.

    2017-05-01

    Birds breeding on ocean beaches are threatened globally, often requiring significant investments in species conservation and habitat management. Conservation actions typically encompass spatial and temporal threat reductions and protection of eggs and broods. Still, populations decline or recover only slowly, calling for fresh approaches in beach-bird conservation. Because energetic demands are critically high during the nesting and chick rearing phases, and chick survival is particularly low, supplementing prey to breeding birds and their offspring is theoretically attractive as a means to complement more traditional conservation measures. Prey for plovers and similar species on ocean beaches consists of invertebrates (e.g. small crustaceans, insects) many of which feed on stranded masses of plant material (e.g. kelp and seagrass) and use this 'wrack' as habitat. We added wrack to the upper beach where plovers nest and their chicks forage to test whether algal subsidies promote the abundance and diversity of their invertebrate prey. Adding wrack to the upper beach significantly increased the abundance and diversity of invertebrate prey items. At wrack subsidies greater than 50% of surface cover invertebrate assemblages became highly distinct compared with those that received smaller additions of wrack. Substantial (2-4 fold) increases in the abundance amphipods and isopods that are principal prey items for plovers drove these shifts. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of food provisioning for birds on ocean shores. Whilst novel, it is practicable, inexpensive and does not introduce further restrictions or man-made structures. Thus, it can meaningfully add to the broader arsenal of conservation tools for threatened species that are wholly reliant on sandy beaches as breeding and foraging habitats.

  10. CLEC4F is an inducible C-type lectin in F4/80-positive cells and is involved in alpha-galactosylceramide presentation in liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ya Yang

    Full Text Available CLEC4F, a member of C-type lectin, was first purified from rat liver extract with high binding affinity to fucose, galactose (Gal, N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc, and un-sialylated glucosphingolipids with GalNAc or Gal terminus. However, the biological functions of CLEC4F have not been elucidated. To address this question, we examined the expression and distribution of murine CLEC4F, determined its binding specificity by glycan array, and investigated its function using CLEC4F knockout (Clec4f-/- mice. We found that CLEC4F is a heavily glycosylated membrane protein co-expressed with F4/80 on Kupffer cells. In contrast to F4/80, CLEC4F is detectable in fetal livers at embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5 but not in yolk sac, suggesting the expression of CLEC4F is induced as cells migrate from yolk cells to the liver. Even though CLEC4F is not detectable in tissues outside liver, both residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating mononuclear cells surrounding liver abscesses are CLEC4F-positive upon Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes infection. While CLEC4F has strong binding to Gal and GalNAc, terminal fucosylation inhibits CLEC4F recognition to several glycans such as Fucosyl GM1, Globo H, Bb3∼4 and other fucosyl-glycans. Moreover, CLEC4F interacts with alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer in a calcium-dependent manner and participates in the presentation of α-GalCer to natural killer T (NKT cells. This suggests that CLEC4F is a C-type lectin with diverse binding specificity expressed on residential Kupffer cells and infiltrating monocytes in the liver, and may play an important role to modulate glycolipids presentation on Kupffer cells.

  11. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  12. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  13. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  14. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  15. Effect Of GAMMA-Irradiation On Production And Characteristics Of Chitosan Produced From Crustacean Waste By Using Some Bacterial Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INAS ISMAIL MAHMOUD RAAFAT

    2015-01-01

    The main study focused on separation of chitin from crustacean waste (shrimp shell) using some proteolytic bacterial isolates. After that, chitosan was obtained by deactylation and its characteristics were studied using some characterizing tools. The produced chitosan was degraded to different molecular weights and evaluated as an antibacterial agent. Seventy bacterial isolates were obtained from different sources (soil, plant roots and shrimp shell waste) and tested for their ability to produce proteolytic enzymes. One isolate was selected, due its high proteolytic activity and ability to grow using shrimp as carbon and nitrogen source on shrimp shell agar medium and identified as Bacillus subtilis NA12 by 16S-rRNA gene sequences with a high degree of similarity (99 %) as a gene bank database. Factors affecting deproteinization (DP) and demineralization (DM) efficiency of shrimp shell waste (SSW) (carbon source and its optimal concentration, shrimp shell waste concentration, inoculum size and fermentation time) were studied. The most efficient DP (92.40 %) and DM (81.37 %) of SSW by B. subtilis NA12 were sucrose 10 % (w/v) and inoculum size 15 % (v/v 35 x 108 CFU/ml ) to ferment shrimp shell waste 5 % (w/v) for 6 days of fermentation time. The effect of γ-irradiation on the performance of selected bacterial strain was studied to maximize chitin yield. Box-Behnken design using response surface methodology was employed to establish the relationship between the previous variables, implied that the model was highly significant. It was found that a sucrose concentration of 5 % (w/v), SSW of 12.5 % (w/v), inoculum size of 10 % (v/v) and fermentation time of 7 days; had a predicted value of DP of 97.65 % whereas the actual experiment gave 96.37 %. The predicted value of DM was 82.94 % whereas the actual experiment gave 82.19 %. Chitosan polymer was successfully prepared by the deacetylation reaction from fermented shrimp shell waste (SSW) by Bacillus subtilis NA12

  16. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  17. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  18. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  19. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  20. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  1. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  2. Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$

    CERN Document Server

    Golovkin, S V; Kozhevnikov, A A; Kubarovskii, V P; Kulyavtsev, A I; Kurshetsov, V F; Kushnirenko, A Yu; Landsberg, G L; Molchanov, V V; Mukkin, V A; Solyanik, V I; Vavilov, D V; Victorov, V A; Balats, M Ya; Dzubenko, G B; Kamenskii, A D; Kliger, G K; Kolganov, V Z; Lakaev, V S; Lomkatsi, G S; Nilov, A P; Smolyankin, V T; Vishniakov, V V

    1994-01-01

    Study of coherent diffractive production reactions of p + C --> [Y$^{0}$K$^{+}$] + C type and observation of the new baryonic states X(2050) --> $\\Sigma$(1385)$^{0}$K$^{+}$ and X(2000) --> $\\Sigma^{0}$K$^{+}$

  3. Structure of the plasminogen kringle 4 binding calcium-free form of the C-type lectin-like domain of tetranectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielbo, Steen Günther; Thomsen, J.K.; Graversen, J. H.

    2004-01-01

    . A conserved proline, which was found to be in the cis conformation in holoTN3, is in apoTN3 predominantly in the trans conformation. Backbone dynamics indicate that, in apoTN3 especially, two of the three calcium-binding loops and two of the three K4-binding residues exhibit increased flexibility, whereas...

  4. Segment polarity gene expression in a myriapod reveals conserved and diverged aspects of early head patterning in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf

    2012-09-01

    Arthropods show two kinds of developmental mode. In the so-called long germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the fly Drosophila), all segments are formed almost simultaneously from a preexisting field of cells. In contrast, in the so-called short germ developmental mode (as exemplified by the vast majority of arthropods), only the anterior segments are patterned similarly as in Drosophila, and posterior segments are added in a single or double segmental periodicity from a posterior segment addition zone (SAZ). The addition of segments from the SAZ is controlled by dynamic waves of gene activity. Recent studies on a spider have revealed that a similar dynamic process, involving expression of the segment polarity gene (SPG) hedgehog (hh), is involved in the formation of the anterior head segments. The present study shows that in the myriapod Glomeris marginata the early expression of hh is also in a broad anterior domain, but this domain corresponds only to the ocular and antennal segment. It does not, like in spiders, represent expression in the posterior adjacent segment. In contrast, the anterior hh pattern is conserved in Glomeris and insects. All investigated myriapod SPGs and associated factors are expressed with delay in the premandibular (tritocerebral) segment. This delay is exclusively found in insects and myriapods, but not in chelicerates, crustaceans and onychophorans. Therefore, it may represent a synapomorphy uniting insects and myriapods (Atelocerata hypothesis), contradicting the leading opinion that suggests a sister relationship of crustaceans and insects (Pancrustacea hypothesis). In Glomeris embryos, the SPG engrailed is first expressed in the mandibular segment. This feature is conserved in representatives of all arthropod classes suggesting that the mandibular segment may have a special function in anterior patterning.

  5. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  6. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  7. Monocyte galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptor stimulant immunotherapy of an experimental glioma. Part II: combination with external radiation improves survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushchayev SV

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Sergiy V Kushchayev,1 Tejas Sankar,1 Laura L Eggink,5,6 Yevgeniya S Kushchayeva,5 Philip C Wiener,1,5 J Kenneth Hoober,5,6 Jennifer Eschbacher,3 Ruolan Liu,2 Fu-Dong Shi,2 Mohammed G Abdelwahab,4 Adrienne C Scheck,4 Mark C Preul11Neurosurgery Research Laboratory, 2Neuroimmunology Laboratory, 3Department of Pathology, 4Neurooncology Research, Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, 5School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, 6Susavion Biosciences, Inc, Tempe, AZ, USABackground: A peptide mimetic of a ligand for the galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine-specific C-type lectin receptors (GCLR exhibited monocyte-stimulating activity, but did not extend survival when applied alone against a syngeneic murine malignant glioma. In this study, the combined effect of GCLRP with radiation was investigated.Methods: C57BL/6 mice underwent stereotactic intracranial implantation of GL261 glioma cells. Animals were grouped based on randomized tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging on day seven. One group that received cranial radiation (4 Gy on days seven and nine only were compared with animals treated with radiation and GCLRP (4 Gy on days seven and nine combined with subcutaneous injection of 1 nmol/g on alternative days beginning on day seven. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess tumor growth and correlated with survival rate. Blood and brain tissues were analyzed with regard to tumor and contralateral hemisphere using fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, histology, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: GCLRP activated peripheral monocytes and was associated with increased blood precursors of dendritic cells. Mean survival increased (P < 0.001 and tumor size was smaller (P < 0.02 in the GCLRP + radiation group compared to the radiation-only group. Accumulation of dendritic cells in both the tumoral hemisphere (P < 0.005 and contralateral tumor-free hemisphere (P< 0.01 was

  8. The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus (Pisces: Labridae: biological indices for life history and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Matić-Skoko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cuckoo wrasse, Labrus mixtus, is widely distributed in the moderate warm waters of the Atlantic Ocean, including the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas. Generally, labrids are small inshore coastal species susceptible to anthropogenic habitat degradation and, although without commercial importance, they make up a significant part of the by-catch and discard. Also, these fishes are intensively caught in recreational and subsistence fisheries. Basic biological information is required for their stock assessment and conservation. Studies of the age, growth, reproduction and feeding of L. mixtus have not been undertaken previously in the Adriatic Sea. The observed maximum age of the cuckoo wrasse was 10 years, although most of the sampled fish were 7 years old. The estimated parameters of the von Bertalanffy growth model suggested that the growth of L. mixtus was relatively fast in the first four years of life. L. mixtus is a protogynous hermaphrodite and sex change occurred at 26 cm, while the greatest increase in gonadosomatic index in April confirmed spring as the spawning period. The cuckoo wrasse is an opportunistic predator, feeding primarily on crustaceans, gastropods and fishes. The information provided on biological indices is necessary for life history pathways and future conservation measures of this population in the Adriatic Sea.

  9. Emergent Macrophytes Support Zooplankton in a Shallow Tropical Lake: A Basis for Wetland Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrehiwot, Mesfin; Kifle, Demeke; Triest, Ludwig

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the biodiversity value of littoral zones of lakes is a priority for aquatic biodiversity conservation. However, less emphasis has been given to the littoral part of tropical African lakes, with many of the previous researches focusing only on the open water side. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to investigate the impact of the littoral zone of a shallow freshwater tropical lake (Ziway, Ethiopia), dominated by two emergent macrophytes, on zooplankton community structure. We hypothesized that the wetland vegetation serves as a preferred microhabitat for zooplankton communities. A lake with substantial coverage of emergent macrophytes was monitored monthly from January to August, 2016. The monitoring included the measurements of physical, chemical, and biological parameters. Sampling sites were selected to represent areas of the macrophyte vegetation ( Typha latifolia and Phragmites australis) and the open water part of the lake. Sites with macrophyte vegetation were found to be the home of more dense and diverse zooplankton community. However, during the period of high vegetation loss, the density of crustacean zooplankton showed significant reduction within the patches of macrophytes. From biodiversity conservation perspective, it was concluded that the preservation of such small areas of macrophytes covering the littoral zone of lakes could be as important as protecting the whole lake. However, the rapid degradation of wetland vegetation by human activities is a real threat to the lake ecosystem. In the not-too-far future, it could displace and evict riparian vegetation and the biota it supports.

  10. Ectoparasitic crustaceans on mullet, Mugil curema (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.6796 Ectoparasitic crustaceans on mullet, Mugil curema (Osteichthyes: Mugilidae in the coastal waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.6796

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathyabama Chellappa

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available White mullet is a commercial fish species abundant in the coastal waters of Brazil. This study investigated the occurrence of crustacean ectoparasites on white mullet, Mugil curema captured from the littoral waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. From 2006 to 2007, 31 individuals of M. curema were captured and encountered ectoparasites were observed, identified and counted. M. curema was parasitized by ectoparasitic crustaceans, caligid copepods, Caligus bonito and Caligus sp.; ergasilid copepods, Ergasilus versicolor and E. lizae; and isopod Cymothoa spinipalpa. Of the caligids detected, 66.66% were C. bonito and 33.33% Caligus sp. C. bonito occurred on males of M. curema during the drought season and Caligus sp. occurred on females during the rainy season. The prevalence of both caligid species was 3.23%. Of the ergasilids detected, E. versicolor (91.67% occurred during the drought and rainy seasons, whereas E. lizae (8.33% occurred during the rainy season. Prevalence of E. versicolor was 35.48% and E. lizae was 3.23%. C. spinipalpa was detected during the drought and rainy seasons with a prevalence of 16.13%. The preferred site of fixation by the parasites was the branchial chambers.White mullet is a commercial fish species abundant in the coastal waters of Brazil. This study investigated the occurrence of crustacean ectoparasites on white mullet, Mugil curema captured from the littoral waters of Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. From 2006 to 2007, 31 individuals of M. curema were captured and encountered ectoparasites were observed, identified and counted. M. curema was parasitized by ectoparasitic crustaceans, caligid copepods, Caligus bonito and Caligus sp.; ergasilid copepods, Ergasilus versicolor and E. lizae; and isopod Cymothoa spinipalpa. Of the caligids detected, 66.66% were C. bonito and 33.33% Caligus sp. C. bonito occurred on males of M. curema during the drought season and Caligus sp. occurred on females during the rainy

  11. Chronic toxicity of contaminated sediments on reproduction and histopathology of the crustacean Gammarus fossarum and relationship with the chemical contamination and in vitro effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurova, Edita; Hilscherova, Klara; Sidlova-Stepankova, Tereza; Blaha, Ludek [Faculty of Science, RECETOX, Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Masaryk Univ., Brno (Czech Republic); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Rottenburg (Germany); Jungmann, Dirk [Inst. of Hydrobiology, Dresden Univ. of Tech. (Germany); Giesy, John P. [Dept. of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Zoology Dept., National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology Center, and Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States); Biology and Chemistry Dept., City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); School of the Environment, Nanjing Univ. (China)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate possible relationships between the sediment contaminants and the occurrence of intersex in situ. Two of the studied sediments were from polluted sites with increased occurrence of intersex crustaceans (Lake Pilnok, black coal mining area in the Czech Republic, inhabited by the crayfish Pontastacus leptodactylus population with 18% of intersex; creek Lockwitzbach in Germany with Gammarus fossarum population with about 7% of intersex). Materials and methods Sediments were studied by a combined approach that included (1) determination of concentrations of metals and traditionally analyzed organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); (2) examination of the in vitro potencies to activate aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), estrogen (ER), and androgen receptor-mediated responses; and (3) in vivo whole sediment exposures during a 12-week reproduction toxicity study with benthic amphipod G. fossarum. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of radionuclide concentration in three crustaceans species of the bay of Bengal; Mesure de la concentration de radionucleides dans trois especes de crustaces du golfe du Bengale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasan, C.K.; Zafar, M. [Chittagong Univ., Institute of Marine Sciences (Bangladesh); Chowdhury, M.I.; Kamal, M. [Radioactivity Testing and Monitoring Laboratory, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, Chittagong (Bangladesh)

    2006-10-15

    The natural ({sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Th, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K) and anthropogenic ({sup 137}Cs) radionuclides concentrations in three crustaceans species (Penaeus monodon, Metapenaeus monoceros and Panulirus versicolor), collected from the bay of Bengal, were determined with an aim of assessing any internal radiation hazard due to consumption of the shell fishes and establishing a database for radioactivity levels of the species. Very low level of radioactivity was observed in all the species. The average activity of {sup 226}Ra observed in P. monodon was 1.21 {+-} 0.27 Bq kg{sup -1} fw; in M. monoceros was 0.70 {+-}0.08 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and in Panulirus versicolor was 1.04 {+-} 0.09 Bq kg{sup -1} fw. The activity of {sup 232}Th observed in these species was 1.30 {+-} 0.37, 0.76 {+-} 0.34 and 1.32 {+-} 0.70 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, and {sup 228}Th was 0.55 {+-} 0.26, 0.31 {+-} 0.14 and 0.74 {+-} 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The average activity of {sup 40}K observed in these species was 12.56 {+-} 1.18, 6.38 {+-}1.02 and 10.07 {+-} 1.52 Bq kg{sup -1} fw, respectively. The activity of radiocaesium ({sup 137}Cs) was below detection limit. The results indicate that the natural and artificial radionuclides observed in three crustaceans species are safe for human health. A significant relationship was observed between {sup 226}Ra and {sup 232}Th in both the P. monodon (r = 0.839, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4) and the Panulirus versicolor (r = 0.906, p {<=} 0.05, df = 4). (authors)

  13. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  14. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Katsuaki; Matsuno, Keita; Igarashi, Manabu; Denda-Nagai, Kaori; Takada, Ayato; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ebola virus infection is mediated by binding to and fusion with the target cells. → Structural feature of the viral glycoprotein determines the infectivity. → Surface C-type lectin, MGL, of macrophages and dendritic cells mediate the infection. → GP2, one of glycoprotein subunits, plays an essential role in MGL-mediated infection. → There is a critical amino acid residue involved in high infectivity. -- Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is initiated by the interaction of the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (GP) with the binding sites on target cells. Differences in the mortality among different species of the Ebola viruses, i.e., Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), correspond to the in vitro infectivity of the pseudo-typed virus constructed with the GPs in cells expressing macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin (MGL/CD301). Through mutagenesis of GP2, the transmembrane-anchored subunit of GP, we found that residues 502-527 of the GP2 sequence determined the different infectivity between VSV-ZEBOV GP and -REBOV GP in MGL/CD301-expressing cells and a histidine residue at position 516 of ZEBOV GP2 appeared essential in the differential infectivity. These findings may provide a clue to clarify a molecular basis of different pathogenicity among EBOV species.

  15. Involvement of viral envelope GP2 in Ebola virus entry into cells expressing the macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usami, Katsuaki [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Matsuno, Keita; Igarashi, Manabu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Denda-Nagai, Kaori [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Takada, Ayato [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo 001-0020 (Japan); Irimura, Tatsuro, E-mail: irimura@mol.f.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cancer Biology and Molecular Immunology, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    Highlights: {yields} Ebola virus infection is mediated by binding to and fusion with the target cells. {yields} Structural feature of the viral glycoprotein determines the infectivity. {yields} Surface C-type lectin, MGL, of macrophages and dendritic cells mediate the infection. {yields} GP2, one of glycoprotein subunits, plays an essential role in MGL-mediated infection. {yields} There is a critical amino acid residue involved in high infectivity. -- Abstract: Ebola virus (EBOV) infection is initiated by the interaction of the viral surface envelope glycoprotein (GP) with the binding sites on target cells. Differences in the mortality among different species of the Ebola viruses, i.e., Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV) and Reston ebolavirus (REBOV), correspond to the in vitro infectivity of the pseudo-typed virus constructed with the GPs in cells expressing macrophage galactose-type calcium-type lectin (MGL/CD301). Through mutagenesis of GP2, the transmembrane-anchored subunit of GP, we found that residues 502-527 of the GP2 sequence determined the different infectivity between VSV-ZEBOV GP and -REBOV GP in MGL/CD301-expressing cells and a histidine residue at position 516 of ZEBOV GP2 appeared essential in the differential infectivity. These findings may provide a clue to clarify a molecular basis of different pathogenicity among EBOV species.

  16. Neutral endopeptidase-resistant C-type natriuretic peptide variant represents a new therapeutic approach for treatment of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3-related dwarfism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Daniel J; Dvorak-Ewell, Melita; Bullens, Sherry; Lorget, Florence; Bell, Sean M; Peng, Jeff; Castillo, Sianna; Aoyagi-Scharber, Mika; O'Neill, Charles A; Krejci, Pavel; Wilcox, William R; Rimoin, David L; Bunting, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Achondroplasia (ACH), the most common form of human dwarfism, is caused by an activating autosomal dominant mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 gene. Genetic overexpression of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), a positive regulator of endochondral bone growth, prevents dwarfism in mouse models of ACH. However, administration of exogenous CNP is compromised by its rapid clearance in vivo through receptor-mediated and proteolytic pathways. Using in vitro approaches, we developed modified variants of human CNP, resistant to proteolytic degradation by neutral endopeptidase, that retain the ability to stimulate signaling downstream of the CNP receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor B. The variants tested in vivo demonstrated significantly longer serum half-lives than native CNP. Subcutaneous administration of one of these CNP variants (BMN 111) resulted in correction of the dwarfism phenotype in a mouse model of ACH and overgrowth of the axial and appendicular skeletons in wild-type mice without observable changes in trabecular and cortical bone architecture. Moreover, significant growth plate widening that translated into accelerated bone growth, at hemodynamically tolerable doses, was observed in juvenile cynomolgus monkeys that had received daily subcutaneous administrations of BMN 111. BMN 111 was well tolerated and represents a promising new approach for treatment of patients with ACH. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. A novel C-type lectin from the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (AjCTL-2) with preferential binding of d-galactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Xue, Zhuang; Liu, Zhaoqun; Wang, Weilin; Wang, Feifei; Wang, Ying; Wang, Lingling; Song, Linsheng

    2018-05-15

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are Ca 2+ dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins that share structural homology in their carbohydrate-recognition domains (CRDs). In the present study, a novel CTL was identified from sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (named as AjCTL-2). The deduced amino acid sequence of AjCTL-2 was homologous to CTLs from other animals with the identities ranging from 33% to 40%. It contained a canonical signal peptide at the N-terminus, a low density lipoprotein receptor class A (LDLa), a C1r/C1s/Uegf/bone morphogenetic protein 1 (CUB), and a CRD with two motifs Glu-Pro-Asn (EPN) and Trp-Asn-Asp (WND) in Ca 2+ binding site 2. The mRNA transcripts of AjCTL-2 were extensively expressed in all the tested tissues including respiratory tree, muscle, gut, coelomocyte, tube-foot, body wall and gonad, and the highest expression level of AjCTL-2 in coelomocyte was about 4.2-fold (p sea cucumber. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Expression of endogenous ALV antigens and susceptibility to subgroup E ALV in three strains of chickens (Endogenous avian C. type virus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, H.L.; Lamoreux, W.F.

    1976-01-01

    Cells from three strains of Kimber Farms chickens, K16, K18, and K28, have been characterized for the expression of endogenous avian C-type virus (ALV) antigens and for susceptibility to subgroup E ALV. In K16 the coordinate dominant expression of chick helper factor (chf ), the type specific antigen of endogenous subgroup E ALV, and the group specific (gs) antigen of ALV was observed. The expression of chf and gs antigen in K16 chf + gs + cells was similar to that observed in SPAFAS and H and N gs + cells. In K18 chf but not gs antigen was expressed. The expression of chf in K18 chf + gs + cells was distinct from that observed for the chf + gs + pedigrees but similar to that found in SPAFAS chf + gs - helper extremely high (h/sub E/) cells. Cells from K16 and K18 chickens were uniformly resistant to subgroup E ALV. In cells from K28 chickens, susceptibility to subgroup B virus correlated with susceptibility to subgroup E virus. The efficiency of plating of subgroup E virus on susceptible K28 cells with 10 3 --10 4 -fold lower on chf + cells than on chf - cells

  19. Hayabusa2 Sample Catcher and Container: Metal-Seal System for Vacuum Encapsulation of Returned Samples with Volatiles and Organic Compounds Recovered from C-Type Asteroid Ryugu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Ryuji; Sawada, Hirotaka; Yamanouchi, Shinji; Tachibana, Shogo; Miura, Yayoi N.; Sakamoto, Kanako; Takano, Yoshinori; Abe, Masanao; Itoh, Shoichi; Yamada, Keita; Yabuta, Hikaru; Okamoto, Chisato; Yano, Hajime; Noguchi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Tomoki; Nagao, Keisuke

    2017-07-01

    The spacecraft Hayabusa2 was launched on December 3, 2014, to collect and return samples from a C-type asteroid, 162173 Ryugu (provisional designation, 1999 JU3). It is expected that the samples collected contain organic matter and water-bearing minerals and have key information to elucidate the origin and history of the Solar System and the evolution of bio-related organics prior to delivery to the early Earth. In order to obtain samples with volatile species without terrestrial contamination, based on lessons learned from the Hayabusa mission, the sample catcher and container of Hayabusa2 were refined from those used in Hayabusa. The improvements include (1) a mirror finish of the inner wall surface of the sample catcher and the container, (2) adoption of an aluminum metal sealing system, and (3) addition of a gas-sampling interface for gas collection and evacuation. The former two improvements were made to limit contamination of the samples by terrestrial atmosphere below 1 Pa after the container is sealed. The gas-sampling interface will be used to promptly collect volatile species released from the samples in the sample container after sealing of the container. These improvements maintain the value of the returned samples.

  20. Association of C-Type Lectin Mincle with FcεRIβγ Subunits Leads to Functional Activation of RBL-2H3 Cells through Syk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjoh, Chisato; Chihara, Kazuyasu; Yoshiki, Hatsumi; Yamauchi, Shota; Takeuchi, Kenji; Kato, Yuji; Hida, Yukio; Ishizuka, Tamotsu; Sada, Kiyonao

    2017-04-10

    Macrophage-inducible C-type lectin (Mincle) interacts with the γ-subunit of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRIγ) and activates Syk by recognizing its specific ligand, trehalose-6,6'-dimycolate, a glycolipid produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It has been suggested that mast cells participate in the immune defense against pathogenic microbes including M. tuberculosis, although the functions are still uncertain. In this study, we examined the Mincle-mediated signaling pathway and cellular responses using RBL-2H3 cells. Mincle formed a protein complex with not only FcεRIγ but also FcεRIβ in a stable cell line expressing myc-tagged Mincle. In addition, engagement of Mincle increased the levels of protein tyrosine phosphorylation and ERK phosphorylation. A pull-down assay demonstrated that cross-linking of Mincle induced binding of FcεRIβγ subunits to the Src homology 2 domain of Syk. Pharmacological and genetic studies indicated that activation of Syk was critical for Mincle-mediated activation of phospholipase Cγ2, leading to the activation of ERK and nuclear factor of activated T cells. Moreover, engagement of Mincle efficiently induced up-regulation of characteristic mast cell genes in addition to degranulation. Taken together, our present results suggest that mast cells contribute to Mincle-mediated immunity through Syk activation triggered by association with the FcεRIβγ complex.

  1. The C-type lectin receptor SIGNR3 binds to fungi present in commensal microbiota and influences immune regulation in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eEriksson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition of acute and chronic inflammation of the gut. An important factor contributing to pathogenesis is a dysregulated mucosal immunity against commensal bacteria and fungi. Host pattern recognition receptors sense commensals in the gut and are involved in maintaining the balance between controlled responses to pathogens and overwhelming innate immune activation. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs are pattern recognition receptors recognizing glycan structures on pathogens and self-antigens. Here we examined the role of the murine CLR SIGNR3 in the recognition of commensals and its involvement in intestinal immunity. SIGNR3 is the closest murine homologue of the human DC-SIGN receptor recognizing similar carbohydrate ligands such as terminal fucose or high-mannose glycans. We discovered that SIGNR3 recognizes fungi present in the commensal microbiota. To analyze if this interaction impacts the intestinal immunity against microbiota, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis model was employed. SIGNR3-/- mice exhibited an increased weight loss associated with more severe colitis symptoms compared to wild-type control mice. The increased inflammation in SIGNR3-/- mice was accompanied by a higher level of TNF-α in colon. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that SIGNR3 recognizes intestinal fungi and has an immune regulatory role in colitis.

  2. In Situ Spectral Kinetics of Cr(VI) Reduction by c-Type Cytochromes in A Suspension of Living Shewanella putrefaciens 200

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Fangbai; Han, Rui; Wu, Yundang; Yuan, Xiu; Wang, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Although c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) mediating metal reduction have been mainly investigated with in vitro purified proteins of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria, the in vivo behavior of c-Cyts is still unclear given the difficulty in measuring the proteins of intact cells. Here, c-Cyts in living Shewanella putrefaciens 200 (SP200) was successfully quantified using diffuse-transmission UV/Vis spectroscopy due to the strong absorbance of hemes, and the in situ spectral kinetics of Cr(VI) reduction by c-Cyts were examined over time. The reduced product Cr(III) observed on the cell surface may play a role in inhibiting the Cr(VI) reduction and reducing the cell numbers with high concentrations (>200 μM) of Cr(VI) evidenced by the 16S rRNA analysis. A brief kinetic model was established with two predominant reactions, redox transformation of c-Cyts and Cr(VI) reduction by reduced c-Cyts, but the fitting curves were not well-matched with c-Cyts data. The Cr(III)-induced inhibitory effect to the cellular function of redox transformation of c-Cyts was then added to the model, resulting in substantially improved the model fitting. This study provides a case of directly examining the reaction properties of outer-membrane enzyme during microbial metal reduction processes under physiological conditions.

  3. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin [Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Wang, Wen-Jeng, E-mail: wjwang@mail.cgust.edu.tw [Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurological Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan Dist., Taoyuan City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-03-15

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala–Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent. - Highlights: • The tetrameric convulxin (CVX) with WAD

  4. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2017-01-01

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala–Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent. - Highlights: • The tetrameric convulxin (CVX) with WAD

  5. Convulxin, a C-type lectin-like protein, inhibits HCASMCs functions via WAD-motif/integrin-αv interaction and NF-κB-independent gene suppression of GRO and IL-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Chun-Ho; Chiang, Tin-Bin; Wang, Wen-Jeng

    2017-03-15

    Convulxin (CVX), a C-type lectin-like protein (CLPs), is a potent platelet aggregation inducer. To evaluate its potential applications in angiogenic diseases, the multimeric CVX were further explored on its mode of actions toward human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (HCASMCs). The N-terminus of β-chain of CVX (CVX-β) contains a putative disintegrin-like domain with a conserved motif upon the sequence comparison with other CLPs. Importantly, native CVX had no cytotoxic activity as examined by electrophoretic pattern. A Trp-Ala-Asp (WAD)-containing octapeptide, MTWADAEK, was thereafter synthesized and analyzed in functional assays. In the case of specific integrin antagonists as positive controls, the anti-angiogenic effects of CVX on HCASMCs were investigated by series of functional analyses. CVX showed to exhibit multiple inhibitory activities toward HCASMCs proliferation, adhesion and invasion with a dose- and integrin αvβ3-dependent fashion. However, the WAD-octapeptide exerting a minor potency could also work as an active peptidomimetic. In addition, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated both the intact CVX and synthetic peptide can specifically interact with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and CVX was shown to have a down-regulatory effect on the gene expression of CXC-chemokines, such as growth-related oncogene and interleukin-8. According to nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 translocation assay and Western blotting analysis, the NF-κB activation was not involved in the signaling events of CVX-induced gene expression. In conclusion, CVX may act as a disintegrin-like protein via the interactions of WAD-motif in CVX-β with integrin-αv on HCASMCs and it also is a gene suppressor with the ability to diminish the expression of two CXC-chemokines in a NF-κB-independent manner. Indeed, more extensive investigations are needed and might create a new avenue for the development of a novel angiostatic agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  7. Community markets for conservation: Markets to advance conservation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the function and economics of COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation), discusses the current reality of climate change, and then explores how possible market mechanism approaches to ameliorating climate change may fit into COMACO's work and research. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  8. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  9. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  10. Concrete: Too young for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, H.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The 20th century built heritage is one of the new conservation challenges, due to its architectural differences from the traditional heritage and new materials. One major new material is concrete; its quantity and importance for the new heritage requires a tailored conservation approach. Until now,

  11. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  12. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  13. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  14. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  15. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  16. Crystal defects and related stress in Y2O3 thin films: Origin, modeling, and consequence on the stability of the C-type structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, Bertrand; Paumier, Fabien; Gaboriaud, Rolly J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact that the crystal defects have on the C-type structure of rare earth sesquioxide thin films grown by ion-beam sputtering, through the example of Y 2 O 3 . By monitoring the energy of the argon beam used in the sputter deposition process (between 600 and 1200 eV), we show that it is possible to control the microstructure (defects concentration, stress state and phase) in the oxide layer. Two main types of defects, ascribed to the 'atomic peening effect', are evidenced by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and nuclear reaction analysis experiments: anti-Frenkel pairs, leading to a disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network, and oxygen-vacancy dislocations loops, to accommodate the strong nonstoichiometry. From a macroscopic measurement of the residual stresses in the as-deposited and the annealed layers, through x-ray diffraction and the sin 2 Ψ method, we have modeled the related stress state using an enhanced triaxial stress model. In the as-grown films, we evidence the coexistence of a biaxial and a hydrostatic stress, due to inclusions of atomic size defects. Quantitative information of the concentration and the nature of each type of defect (size effect) have also been determined, in good agreement with experiments. Interestingly, in the most energetic growth conditions corresponding to the highest degree of disorder on the oxygen-vacancy network and to the highest stress field in the film, we demonstrate that it is possible to stabilize an unexpected and metastable non equilibrium fluorite-like phase (X-type).

  17. Plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase isolated from Klebsiella pneumoniae confers resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, T; Arakawa, Y; Ohta, M; Ichiyama, S; Wacharotayankun, R; Kato, N

    1993-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae NU2936 was isolated from a patient and was found to produce a plasmid-encoded beta-lactamase (MOX-1) which conferred resistance to broad spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam, flomoxef, ceftizoxime, cefotaxime, and ceftazidime. Resistance could be transferred from K. pneumoniae NU2936 to Escherichia coli CSH2 by conjugation with a transfer frequency of 5 x 10(-7). The structural gene of MOX-1 (blaMOX-1) was cloned and expressed in E. coli HB101. The MIC of moxalactam for E. coli HB101 producing MOX-1 was > 512 micrograms/ml. The apparent molecular mass and pI of this enzyme were calculated to be 38 kDa and 8.9, respectively. Hg2+ and Cu2+ failed to block enzyme activity, and the presence of EDTA in the reaction buffer did not reduce the enzyme activity. However, clavulanate and cloxacillin, serine beta-lactamase inhibitors, inhibited the enzyme activity competitively (Kis = 5.60 and 0.35 microM, respectively). The kinetic study of MOX-1 suggested that it effectively hydrolyzed broad-spectrum beta-lactams. A hybridization study confirmed that blaMOX-1 is encoded on a large resident plasmid (pRMOX1; 180 kb) of strain NU2936. By deletion analysis, the functional region was localized within a 1.2-kb region of the plasmid. By amino acid sequencing, 18 of 33 amino acid residues at the N terminus of MOX-1 were found to be identical to those of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC. These findings suggest that MOX-1 is a plasmid-mediated AmpC-type beta-lactamase that provides enteric bacteria resistance to broad-spectrum beta-lactams, including moxalactam. Images PMID:8517725

  18. Purification and characterization of Cc-Lec, C-type lactose-binding lectin: A platelet aggregation and blood-clotting inhibitor from Cerastes cerastes venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samah, Saoud; Fatah, Chérifi; Jean-Marc, Berjeaud; Safia, Kellou-Taîri; Fatima, Laraba-Djebari

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we reported for the first time the biochemical and structural characterization of Cc-Lec, a C-type lectin purified from Cerastes cerastes venom by affinity chromatography. This lectin was homogeneous by SDS-PAGE, and was shown to be a 34 271.59Da polypeptide by Electrospray mass spectrometry MS-ES-TOF. Its identified sequence of 160 amino acids corresponding to one subunit, revealed a high identity with other related proteins. Cc-Lec modeled 3D structure appeared as homodimer cross-linked by one disulfide bridge. Cc-Lec exhibited a calcium dependent hemagglutinating activity against human group O erythrocytes. Cc-Lec inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, arachidonic acid or fibrinogen suggesting its interaction with their specific receptors namely P2Y1 and/or P2Y12, GPIIb/IIIa and TPα respectively. Cc-Lec was not lethal for mice until 10mg/kg administered by i.p. route. The lectin displayed a lasting anticoagulation on mice plasma even two days post-injection. This anticoagulation seems to be related to its interaction with coagulation factors Xa and IXa. Therefore, Cc-Lec prevented FXa amidolytic activity with Km=4.3310 -4 μg/mL and ki=14.4μg/mL. It seems to interact with these targets through CRD domain which could make it a good target as a pharmacological promising molecule in thrombosis diagnosis and therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A platform to screen for C-type lectin receptor-binding carbohydrates and their potential for cell-specific targeting and immune modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinao, Maha; Eriksson, Magdalena; Schlegel, Mark K; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Johannssen, Timo; Götze, Sebastian; Seeberger, Peter H; Lepenies, Bernd

    2014-02-10

    Myeloid C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) in innate immunity represent a superfamily of pattern recognition receptors that recognize carbohydrate structures on pathogens and self-antigens. The primary interaction of an antigen-presenting cell and a pathogen shapes the following immune response. Therefore, the identification of CLR ligands that can either enhance or modulate the immune response is of interest. We have developed a screening platform based on glycan arrays to identify immune modulatory carbohydrate ligands of CLRs. A comprehensive library of CLRs was expressed by fusing the extracellular part of each respective CLR, the part containing the carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), to the Fc fragment of human IgG1 molecules. CLR-Fc fusion proteins display the CRD in a dimeric form, are properly glycosylated, and can be detected by a secondary antibody with a conjugated fluorophore. Thus, they are valuable tools for high-throughput screening. We were able to identify novel carbohydrate binders of CLRs using the glycan array technology. These CLR-binding carbohydrates were then covalently attached to the model antigen ovalbumin. The ovalbumin neoglycoconjugates were used in a dendritic cell/T cell co-culture assay to stimulate transgenic T cells in vitro. In addition, mice were immunized with these conjugates to analyze the immune modulatory properties of the CLR ligands in vivo. The CLR ligands induced an increased Th1 cytokine production in vitro and modulated the humoral response in vivo. The platform described here allows for the identification of CLR ligands, as well as the evaluation of each ligand's cell-specific targeting and immune modulatory properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. cGMP inhibition of type 3 phosphodiesterase is the major mechanism by which C-type natriuretic peptide activates CFTR in the shark rectal gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jonge, Hugo R.; Tilly, Ben C.; Hogema, Boris M.; Pfau, Daniel J.; Kelley, Catherine A.; Kelley, Megan H.; Melita, August M.; Morris, Montana T.; Viola, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro perfused rectal gland of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias) and filter-grown monolayers of primary cultures of shark rectal gland (SRG) epithelial cells were used to analyze the signal transduction pathway by which C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) stimulates chloride secretion. CNP binds to natriuretic receptors in the basolateral membrane, elevates cellular cGMP, and opens cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channels in the apical membrane. CNP-provoked chloride secretion was completely inhibitable by the nonspecific protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine and the PKA inhibitor H89 but insensitive to H8, an inhibitor of type I and II isoforms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (cGKI and cGKII). CNP-induced secretion could not be mimicked by nonhydrolyzable cGMP analogs added alone or in combination with the protein kinase C activator phorbolester, arguing against a role for cGK or for cGMP-induced PKC signaling. We failed to detect a dogfish ortholog of cGKII by molecular cloning and affinity chromatography. However, inhibitors of the cGMP-inhibitable isoform of phosphodiesterase (PDE3) including milrinone, amrinone, and cilostamide but not inhibitors of other PDE isoenzymes mimicked the effect of CNP on chloride secretion in perfused glands and monolayers. CNP raised cGMP and cAMP levels in the SRG epithelial cells. This rise in cAMP as well as the CNP and amrinone-provoked chloride secretion, but not the rise in cGMP, was almost completely blocked by the Gαi-coupled adenylyl cyclase inhibitor somatostatin, arguing against a role for cGMP cross-activation of PKA in CNP action. These data provide molecular, functional, and pharmacological evidence for a CNP/cGMP/PDE3/cAMP/PKA signaling cascade coupled to CFTR in the SRG. PMID:24259420

  1. Physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of interaction between C-type lectin-like receptor 2 and podoplanin: partners from in utero to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki-Inoue, K; Osada, M; Ozaki, Y

    2017-02-01

    A platelet activation receptor, C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), has been identified as a receptor for a platelet-activating snake venom, rhodocytin. CLEC-2 protein is highly expressed in platelets/megakaryocytes, and at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Recently, podoplanin has been revealed as an endogenous ligand for CLEC-2. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, fibroblastic reticular cells (FRCs) in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not in vascular endothelial cells. CLEC-2 in platelets cannot have access to podoplanin under normal conditions, but they interact with each other under pathologic conditions or during developmental stages, and play various pathophysiologic roles. CLEC-2 facilitates hematogenous metastasis of podoplanin-expressing tumors. During development, the interaction between CLEC-2 and podoplanin in lymphatic endothelial cells or neuroepithelial cells facilitates blood-lymphatic vessel separation and cerebrovascular patterning and integrity, respectively. In adulthood, platelet CLEC-2 binding to FRCs is crucial for maintenance of the integrity of high endothelial venules in lymph nodes. Podoplanin-expressing FRC-like cells have recently been identified in the bone marrow, and facilitate megakaryocyte proliferation and proplatelet formation by binding to megakaryocyte CLEC-2. Podoplanin is inducibly expressed in liver monocytes and keratinocytes during Salmonella infection and wound healing, and regulates thrombus formation in the liver and controlled wound healing, respectively. By binding to unknown ligands, platelet CLEC-2 regulates the maintenance of vascular integrity during inflammation, thrombus stability under flow, and maintenance of quiescence of hematopoietic stem cells. Podoplanin is expressed in various cells, and additional roles of the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction will be revealed in the future. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  2. An autopsied case of MV2K + C-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with widespread cerebral cortical involvement and Kuru plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Yasushi; Saito, Yufuko; Aiba, Ikuko; Kobayashi, Atsushi; Mimuro, Maya; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Yoshida, Mari

    2017-06-01

    MV2-type sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), which was previously called "Kuru-plaque variant", was gradually revealed to have a wide spectrum and has been classified into three pathological subtypes: MV2K, MV2C and MV2K + C. We herein describe the detailed clinical findings and neuropathologic observations from an autopsied MV2K + C-type Japanese sCJD case with widespread cerebral cortical pathology and Kuru plaques. In the early stages of the disease, the patient exhibited gait disturbance with ataxia and dysarthria as well as gradual appearance of cognitive dysfunction. Diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on MRI revealed extensive cerebral cortical hyperintensity. Pathologic investigation revealed extensive spongiform change in the cerebral cortex, particularly in the deeper layers. Vacuole size varied, and some were confluent. Prion protein (PrP) immunostaining revealed extensive PrP deposition in the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. In the cerebral cortex, synaptic-type, Kuru plaque-like, and coarse plaque-type PrP depositions were mainly observed, along with some perivacuolar-type PrP depositions. Kuru plaques and coarse plaque-type PrP depositions also were observed in the cerebellar cortex. PrP gene analysis revealed no mutations, and polymorphic codon 129 exhibited Met/Val heterozygosity. Western blot analysis revealed a mixture of intermediate-type PrP Sc and type 2 PrP Sc . Based on previous reports regarding MV2-type sCJD and the clinicopathologic findings of the present case, we speculated that it may be possible to clinically distinguish each MV2 subtype. Clinical presentation of the MV2K + C subtype includes predominant cerebral cortical involvement signs with ataxia and DWI hyperintensity of the cerebral cortex on MRI. © 2016 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  3. Functional evaluation of the role of C-type lectin domain family 16A at the chromosome 16p13 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouk, H; D'Hennezel, E; Du, X; Ounissi-Benkalha, H; Piccirillo, C A; Polychronakos, C

    2014-03-01

    The type 1 diabetes-associated 16p13 locus contains the CLEC16A gene. Its preferential immune cell expression suggests involvement in autoimmunity. Given its elevated expression in dendritic and B cells - known professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) - we hypothesize that C-type lectin domain family 16 member A (CLEC16A) may be involved in T cell co-stimulation and consequent activation and proliferation. We also sought to identify CLEC16A's subcellular localization. The effect of the CLEC16A knock-down (KD) on B cell co-stimulation and activation of T cells was tested in human lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by co-culture with CD4(+) T cells. T cell activation and proliferation were determined by flow-cytometric analysis of CD69 and CD25 expression and carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dilution, respectively. CLEC16A subcellular localization in K562 cells was examined by immunofluorescence. We show that the CLEC16A KD did not affect the tested indices of lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) APC capacity. Additionally, the percentage of activated T cells following LCL co-culture was not affected significantly by the CLEC16A KD. T cells co-cultured with KD or control LCLs also exhibited similar cell division profiles. CLEC16A co-localized with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, suggesting that it may be an ER protein. In conclusion, CLEC16A may not be involved in T cell co-stimulation. Additional studies on CLEC16A, accounting for its ER localization, are needed to uncover its biological role. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  4. In situ detection of microbial c-type cytochrome based on intrinsic peroxidase-like activity using screen-printed carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Junlin; He, Daigui; Yu, Zhen; Zhou, Shungui

    2018-08-15

    C-type cytochromes (c-cyts) facilitate microbial extracellular electron transfer and play critical roles in biogeochemical cycling, bioelectricity generation and bioremediation. In this study, a simple and effective method has been developed to detect microbial c-cyts by means of peroxidase mimetic reaction on screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). To this end, bacteria cells were immobilized onto the working electrode surface of SPCE by a simple drop casting. After introducing 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) solution, microbial c-cyts with peroxidase-like activity catalyze the oxidation of TMB in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The oxidized TMB was electrochemically determined and the current signal was employed to calculate the c-cyts content. This electrochemical method is highly sensitive for microbial c-cyts with a low detection limit of 40.78 fmol and a wide detection range between 51.70 fmol and 6.64 pmol. Moreover, the proposed technique can be universally expanded to detect c-cyts in other bacteria species such as Fontibacter ferrireducens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Comamonas guangdongensis and Escherichia coli. Furthermore, the proposed method confers an in situ facile and quantitative c-cyts detection without any destructive sample preparations, complex electrode modifications and expensive enzyme- or metal particle- based signal amplification. The suggested method advances an intelligent strategy for in situ quantification of microbial c-cyts and consequently holds promising application potential in microbiology and environmental science. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  6. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  7. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  8. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  9. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  10. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  11. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  12. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  13. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  14. Prevalence of AmpC type extended spectrum beta lactamases genes in clinical Samples of E.coli Isolated from Poultry and Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Farrokhnazar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogens, particularly in health centers and hospitals, has become a major public health problem. This study identified AmpC-type beta-lactamase against the antibiotic ceftazidime, cefotaxime and cefpodoxime in E.coli isolated from human and poultry and types of producing genes were studied by PCR. In this study, 500 clinical human samples of urine from hospitals of Tehran during 5 months as well as 300 poultry samples were collected and transferred to the microbiology laboratory. Biochemical tests such as TSI, Urea and IMViC were performed on suspected colonies with E.coli. To identify ESBL producing strains, beta-lactamase samples were cultured on Mueller-Hinton agar through antimicrobial susceptibility test by disk agar diffusion based on the standard CLSI for initial screening. PCR reactions were done using specific primers CITM, EBCM, DHAM and MOXM to identify the beta-lactamase AmpC. A number of 200 human and 55 poultry E.coli samples were screened. In human samples, 105 (52.5% were resistant and potential producers of ESBL and AmpC; out of those, 102 (51% produced ESBL and 3 (1.5% potentially produced AmpC. In the study on 55 E.coli isolates from poultry samples based on the results of disk agar diffusion test, 4 (7.2% samples were resistant and potential producers of ESBL. None of the samples were AmpC producers. Through PCR, 2 human samples (1% were CITM positive and one sample (0.5% was DHAM positive. Through the PCR carried out on poultry samples, there were no bands with 4 primers. There was AmpC in human samples; while further studies are required for poultry samples, because poultry significantly contribute in production of food for humans and can be an important source for dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Given the significance of Ampc in providing high levels of beta-lactam antibiotic resistance, particularly third generation cephalosporins which are very common treatments, more

  15. The immune-related fatty acids are responsive to CO2 driven seawater acidification in a crustacean brine shrimp Artemia sinica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Zheng, Shu-Cheng; Zheng, Chao-Qun; Shi, Yue-Chen; Xie, Xiao-Lu; Wang, Ke-Jian; Liu, Hai-Peng

    2018-04-01

    The gradual increase of CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, absorbed by the ocean surface water through air to sea equilibration termed ocean acidification (OA), leads to the decline of pH in seawater. It is not clear so far how the composition of fatty acids, particular the immune-related, in marine crustacean and the subsequent energy supply in marine ecosystem are affected by OA. The brine shrimp Artemia sinica is an open and common feed that provide essential fatty acids for mariculture. In this study, the fatty acids profiles of brine shrimp cultured under different lower pH levels of CO 2 driven seawater were investigated. The results showed a significant reduction of the proportion of total saturated fatty acids under the pH7.6 within one week. Meanwhile, the percentage of total monounsaturated fatty acids was significantly decreased at day 14 under pH7.8, and this percentage gave a significant increase of proportion within one week under pH7.6. Furthermore, the relative content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was found to be clearly increased with exposure to different seawater acidification at day 1, suggesting that the brine shrimp immune response was likely to be affected by acidified seawater as the PUFAs have been well known to be involved in immunomodulatory effects through alterations on cell membrane fluidity/lipid mediators and gene expression of cell signaling pathways. Notably, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, which have essential effect on various physiological processes such as inflammatory cytokines production and cell structural stability, were strongly increased under two lower pH treatments within one week and with the significant increase at day 1 under pH7.6. These data clearly supported the hypothesis that OA might affect fatty acids composition, likely also the innate immunity, in crustacean and the subsequent energy transfer by food-chain system in the marine ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  16. Distribución y abundancia de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco, México Abundance and distribution of crustaceans in wetlands of Tabasco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everardo Barba

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available El estado de Tabasco presenta una compleja y alta diversidad de humedales que incluye tipos palustres (20.72%, costeros (3.93%, lacustres (1.74% y ribereños (1.37%, los cuales cubren el 27% del territorio estatal. La diversidad faunística en estos ambientes comprende invertebrados y vertebrados, donde la mayor parte de los registros son de especies de interés comercial. Se presenta el inventario de crustáceos recolectados desde 2003 hasta la fecha en las subregiones Sierra, Ríos y Pantanos. La recolección fue diurna, en 14 localidades (ambientes lóticos y lénticos, mediante nucleador y draga para la infauna, y arrastres con diferentes artes para la epifauna. Se obtuvieron 2 370 organismos que pertenecen a 4 órdenes, 15 familias, 17 géneros y 17 especies. Las especies más abundantes fueron Discapseudes holthuisi Bacescu y Gutu, 1975 (62%, Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (12%, Leptochirus sp. Zaddach, 1844 (8% y Palaemonetes vulgaris (Say, 1818 (7%, sumando el 89% del total. El 67% de la abundancia correspondió a la infauna y el 33% a la epifauna. El 81% de los crustáceos se capturaron en sistemas lénticos y el resto en sistemas lóticos. Este trabajo contribuye con nuevos registros de crustáceos en humedales de Tabasco.The state of Tabasco is characterised by complex and diverse wetlands of different types: palustrine (20.72%, coastal (3.93%, lacustrine (1.74% and riverine (1.37%, covering 27% of its surface. Faunal diversity of these wetlands includes invertebrates and vertebrates, most of the available records come from species with commercial importance. The list of crustaceans collected from 2003 to date in the subregions Sierra, Ríos and Pantanos, is presented. The sampling at 14 localities was diurnal (lotic and lentic environments, using cores and dredges for the infauna and different nets for epifauna. A total of 2 370 organisms belonging to 4 orders, 15 families, 17 genera and 17 species, was obtained. The most

  17. 118 CONSERVATION NARRATIVES AND CONTESTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...

  18. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  19. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Mayorga; Karen R. Pérez; Sully M. Cruz; Armando Cáceres

    2010-01-01

    Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest) and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest), were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex ...

  20. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  1. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  2. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  3. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  4. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  5. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  6. Expression of the dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin DC-SIGN by inflammatory matrix metalloproteinase-producing macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis synovium and interaction with intercellular adhesion molecule 3-positive T cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lent, P.L.E.M. van; Figdor, C.G.; Barrera Rico, P.; Ginkel, K. van; Sloetjes, A.W.; Berg, W.B. van den; Torensma, R.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-producing inflammatory macrophages in the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients express the novel dendritic cell (DC)-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN and whether this expression is associated with the presence of naive T cells

  7. [Groundwater quality in an arid area of Morocco: impact of pollution on the biodiversity and relationships between crustaceans and bacteria of health interest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallam, F; Yacoubi-Khebiza, M; Oufdou, K; Boulanouar, M

    2008-11-01

    In the north of Marrakesh (Morocco), the high anthropogenic activity and the permeable nature of the geological ground makes the water of Jbilet vulnerable to contamination. The results of physico-chemical analyses conducted in 2006 showed that two groups of wells could be distinguished. Groundwater of wells located on the right bank of the Tensift River, which are far from any source of pollution, is of fairly good quality, well oxygenated, at neutral pH and with rather weak levels of organic compounds. In contrast, in the other wells in the area of the landfill of the city of Marrakesh and those in the peri-urban area demonstrate deteriorated water quality. The nutriment and organic matter content is quite high. Results of bacteriological analyses of water showed a fairly high faecal contamination. In this area the soil is highly permeable and promotes infiltration of organic pollutants and minerals as well as of pathogen and opportunistic bacteria into groundwater. After their penetration, these microorganisms form films around grain particles. The movements of the stygofauna in the interstices allow bacteria to settle on their exoskeleton and seep into their gut, thus being a potential source of groundwater contamination. An analysis of bacterial flora showed that the rate of bacteria is high in the digestive tract of two crustacean species of the stygobites Typhlocirolana haouzensis and Metacrangonyx spinicaudatus, and that it depends on the species and the bacteria. Bacteria may be one of the potential nutritional resources for stygobites.

  8. Concentrations and compositions of organochlorine contaminants in sediments, soils, crustaceans, fishes and birds collected from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay and Shanghai city region, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Haruhiko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakata@sci.kumamoto-u.ac.jp; Hirakawa, Yuko [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kawazoe, Masahiro [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, (Japan); Nakabo, Tetsuji [Kyoto University Museum, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Arizono, Koji [Faculty of Environmental and Symbiotic Sciences, Kumamoto Prefectural University, 3-1-100 Tsukide, Kumamoto 862-8502 (Japan); Abe, Shin-Ichi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Kitano, Takeshi [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Shimada, Hideaki [Faculty of Education, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Watanabe, Izumi [Faculty of Agriculture, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 3-5-8 Saiwai-cho, Fuchuu-city, Tokyo 183-8509 (Japan); Li Weihua [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ding Xucheng [Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xie Tu road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2005-02-01

    Contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs), such as DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were examined in sediments, soils, fishes, crustaceans, birds, and aquaculture feed from Lake Tai, Hangzhou Bay, and in the vicinity of Shanghai city in China during 2000 and 2001. OCs were detected in all samples analyzed, and DDT and its metabolites were the predominant contaminants in most sediments, soils and biota. Concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ratio of p,p'-DDT to {sigma}DDTs were significantly higher in marine fishes than those in freshwater fishes. While the use of DDTs has been officially banned in China since 1983, these results indicate a recent input of technical DDTs into the marine environment around Hangzhou Bay. Comparison of organochlorine concentrations in fishes collected from Lake Tai and Hangzhou Bay suggests the presence of local sources of HCHs, chlordanes and PCBs at Lake Tai. Higher proportions of penta- and hexa-PCB congeners in fishes at Lake Tai may suggest the use of highly chlorinated PCB product, such as PCB{sub 5}, around this lake. To our knowledge, this is a first comprehensive study to examine the present status of organochlorine contamination in various environmental media, such as sediments, soils and wildlife, in China. - Elevated concentrations of DDTs were detected in sediments, soils, and wildlife collected from China.

  9. Increasing salinity drastically reduces hatching success of crustaceans from depression wetlands of the semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S; Perissinotto, Renzo

    2018-04-13

    Salinity is an important factor affecting freshwater aquatic species distribution and diversity. The semi-arid Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa has been earmarked for shale gas development through hydraulic fracturing. The process uses large amounts of water and produces briny wastewater. When not managed properly, these wastewaters may lead to salinisation of surface freshwater bodies in the region. Therefore, the effect of salinity on the hatching success of crustacean resting eggs was examined using sediments from four depression wetlands found in the region. The sediments were exposed for 28 days to salinity levels of 0.5 g L -1 , 2.5 g L -1 , 5 g L -1 and 10 g L -1 . Control aquaria in which no salt was added were also set up. There was a significant decrease in the emerged taxa richness and abundances at salinities of 2.5 g L -1 and above. Anostraca, Notostraca and Spinicaudata hatchlings were abundant at salinities of 0.5 g L -1 and below, while Copepoda, Daphniidae (Cladocera) and Ostracoda were observed in the highest salinity, but their densities were still lower with increased salinities. Given the importance of large branchiopods in the trophic balance of depression wetlands, their loss may alter the ecological balance and function of these ecosystems.

  10. Behind the impact of introduced trout in high altitude lakes: adult, not juvenile fish are responsible of the selective predation on crustacean zooplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Tiberti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduced fish seriously affect zooplankton communities in mountain lakes, often leading to the loss of large species. Selective predation is recognized to be the ultimate cause of such a strong impact. Here we describe the selection of zooplankton prey by analyzing the stomach contents of more than 300 brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis inhabiting seven alpine lakes in the Gran Paradiso National Park (western Italian Alps. Our results show that planktivory is much more common in young fish, which feed on a larger number of taxa, but also adult fish maintain the ability to feed on zooplankton. There is a direct dependence between the length of zooplankton prey and the length of their fish predators, and adult, not juvenile fish are responsible of the selective predation on large crustacean zooplankton, which drive the impact of introduced fish throughout the entire zooplankton community. In some rare cases, large zooplankton populations develop in the presence of brook trout, and planktivory can become an important temporary resource for adult fish during the ice-free season. Thus, in the early stages of the establishment of non-native trout in alpine lakes, large-bodied zooplankton may represent an important food resource.

  11. Trophic transfer of trace metals from the polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor to the polychaete N. virens and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Poirier, L.; Smith, B.D.; Brix, K.V.; Luoma, S.N.

    2006-01-01

    Diet is an important exposure route for the uptake of trace metals by aquatic invertebrates, with trace metal trophic transfer depending on 2 stages - assimilation and subsequent accumulation by the predator. This study investigated the trophic transfer of trace metals from the sediment-dwelling polychaete worm Nereis diversicolor from metal-rich estuarine sediments in southwestern UK to 2 predators - another polychaete N. virens (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe) and the decapod crustacean Palaemonetes varians (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Fe, Ag, As, Mn). N. virens showed net accumulation of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd from the prey; accumulation increased with increasing prey concentration, but a coefficient of trophic transfer decreased with increasing prey concentration, probably because a higher proportion of accumulated metal in the prey is bound in less trophically available (insoluble) detoxified forms. The trace metal accumulation patterns of P. varians apparently restricted significant net accumulation of metals from the diet of N. diversicolor to just Cd. There was significant mortality of the decapods fed on the diets of metal-rich worms. Metal-rich invertebrates that have accumulated metals from the rich historical store in the sediments of particular SW England estuaries can potentially pass these metals along food chains, with accumulation and total food chain transfer depending on the metal assimilation efficiencies and accumulation patterns of the animal at each trophic level. This trophic transfer may be significant enough to have ecotoxicological effects. ?? Inter-Research 2006.

  12. A 5' UTR-Overlapping LncRNA Activates the Male-Determining Gene doublesex1 in the Crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yasuhiko; Perez, Christelle Alexa G; Mohamad Ishak, Nur Syafiqah; Nong, Quang D; Sudo, Yuumi; Matsuura, Tomoaki; Wada, Tadashi; Watanabe, Hajime

    2018-06-04

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are pervasively transcribed in the eukaryotic genome [1] and are important for the control of master regulatory genes that are involved in cell differentiation and development [2, 3]. Here, we show that a 5' UTR-overlapping lncRNA regulates the male-specific expression of the DM-domain gene doublesex1 (dsx1) in the crustacean Daphnia magna, which produces males in response to environmental stimuli. This lncRNA, named doublesex1 alpha promoter-associated long RNA (DAPALR), is transcribed upstream the transcription start site (TSS) in a sense orientation and subjected to 5' end capping and 3' end processing at a stem-loop structure before the dsx1 coding exon. Similar to dsx1, its expression is only activated in males by the juvenile hormone (JH) and basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor Vrille (Vri) and is maintained during embryogenesis. Knockdown of DAPALR in males silenced dsx1 and led to feminization, including egg production, whereas ectopic expression of DAPALR in dsx1-silenced females resulted in the de-repression of dsx1. We further demonstrate that the DAPALR transcript overlaps the dsx1 5'-UTR, and this overlapping region is required for dsx1 activation. Our results suggest that DAPALR can transactivate and possibly maintain dsx1 expression. This might be important for converting transient environmental signals into stable male development, controlled by the continuous expression of dsx1. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sediment nickel bioavailability and toxicity to estuarine crustaceans of contrasting bioturbative behaviors--an evaluation of the SEM-AVS paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, G Thomas; Schlekat, Christian E; Garman, Emily R; He, Lijian; Washburn, Katherine M; Stewart, Emily R; Ferry, John L

    2014-11-04

    Robust sediment quality criteria require chemistry and toxicity data predictive of concentrations where population/community response should occur under known geochemical conditions. Understanding kinetic and geochemical effects on toxicant bioavailability is key, and these are influenced by infaunal sediment bioturbation. This study used fine-scale sediment and porewater measurement of contrasting infaunal effects on carbon-normalized SEM-AVS to evaluate safe or potentially toxic nickel concentrations in a high-binding Spartina saltmarsh sediment (4%TOC; 35-45 μmol-S2-·g(-1)). Two crustaceans producing sharply contrasting bioturbation--the copepod Amphiascus tenuiremis and amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus--were cultured in oxic to anoxic sediments with SEM[Ni]-AVS, TOC, porewater [Ni], and porewater DOC measured weekly. From 180 to 750 μg-Ni·g(-1) sediment, amphipod bioturbation reduced [AVS] and enhanced porewater [Ni]. Significant amphipod uptake, mortality, and growth-depression occurred at the higher sediment [Ni] even when [SEM-AVS]/foc suggested acceptable risk. Less bioturbative copepods produced higher AVS and porewater DOC but exhibited net population growth despite porewater [Ni] 1.3-1.7× their aqueous [Ni] LOEC. Copepod aqueous tests with/without dissolved organic matter showed significant aqueous DOC protection, which suggests porewater DOC attenuates sediment Ni toxicity. The SEM[Ni]-AVS relationship was predictive of acceptable risk for copepods at the important population-growth level.

  14. Putative pacemakers in the eyestalk and brain of the crayfish Procambarus clarkii show circadian oscillations in levels of mRNA for crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janikua Nelson-Mora

    Full Text Available Crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH synthesizing cells in the optic lobe, one of the pacemakers of the circadian system, have been shown to be present in crayfish. However, the presence of CHH in the central brain, another putative pacemaker of the multi-oscillatory circadian system, of this decapod and its circadian transcription in the optic lobe and brain have yet to be explored. Therefore, using qualitative and quantitative PCR, we isolated and cloned a CHH mRNA fragment from two putative pacemakers of the multi-oscillatory circadian system of Procambarus clarkii, the optic lobe and the central brain. This CHH transcript synchronized to daily light-dark cycles and oscillated under dark, constant conditions demonstrating statistically significant daily and circadian rhythms in both structures. Furthermore, to investigate the presence of the peptide in the central brain of this decapod, we used immunohistochemical methods. Confocal microscopy revealed the presence of CHH-IR in fibers and cells of the protocerebral and tritocerebal clusters and neuropiles, particularly in some neurons located in clusters 6, 14, 15 and 17. The presence of CHH positive neurons in structures of P. clarkii where clock proteins have been reported suggests a relationship between the circadian clockwork and CHH. This work provides new insights into the circadian regulation of CHH, a pleiotropic hormone that regulates many physiological processes such as glucose metabolism and osmoregulatory responses to stress.

  15. C-Type Lectin-Like Receptor 2 Suppresses AKT Signaling and Invasive Activities of Gastric Cancer Cells by Blocking Expression of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Yin, Jie; Wang, Xuefei; Shao, Miaomiao; Duan, Fangfang; Wu, Weicheng; Peng, Peike; Jin, Jing; Tang, Yue; Ruan, Yuanyuan; Sun, Yihong; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-05-01

    C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC2) is a transmembrane receptor expressed on platelets and several hematopoietic cells. CLEC2 regulates platelet aggregation and the immune response. We investigated its expression and function in normal and transformed gastric epithelial cells from human tissues. We performed tissue microarray analyses of gastric carcinoma samples collected from 96 patients who underwent surgery at Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University in Shanghai, China and performed real-time polymerase chain reaction assays from an independent group of 60 patients; matched nontumor gastric mucosa tissues were used as the control. Full-length and mutant forms of CLEC2 were expressed in gastric cancer cell line (MGC80-3), or CLEC2 protein was knocked down using small-hairpin RNAs in gastric cancer cell lines (NCI-N87 and AGS). CLEC2 signaling was stimulated by incubation of cells with recombinant human podoplanin or an antibody agonist of CLEC2; cell migration and invasion were assessed by transwell and wound-healing assays. Immunoblot, immunofluorescence microscopy, and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays were used to measure expression of markers of the epithelial to mesenchymal transition and activation of signaling pathways. Immunoprecipitation experiments were performed with an antibody against spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK). Cells were injected into lateral tail vein of BALB/C nude mice; some mice were also given injections of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor LY294002. Lung and liver tissues were collected and analyzed for metastases. Levels of CLEC2 were higher in nontumor gastric mucosa (control) than in gastric tumor samples. Levels of CLEC2 protein in gastric tumor tissues correlated with depth of tumor invasion, metastasis to lymph node, tumor TNM stage, and 5-year survival of patients. Activation of CLEC2 in gastric cancer cells reduced their invasive activities in vitro and expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition

  16. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  17. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  18. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  20. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  2. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  3. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  4. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  6. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  7. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program participant... conservation plan for the acreage designated under an agreement. (b) The conservation plan is the basis for the...

  8. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  9. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  10. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  11. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  12. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  14. Global sea turtle conservation successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Schofield, Gail; Gkazinou, Chrysoula; Almpanidou, Vasiliki; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-09-01

    We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs. This prevalence of more upward than downward trends was also evident in the individual time series, where we found 95 significant increases in abundance and 35 significant decreases. Adding to this encouraging news for sea turtle conservation, we show that even small sea turtle populations have the capacity to recover, that is, Allee effects appear unimportant. Positive trends in abundance are likely linked to the effective protection of eggs and nesting females, as well as reduced bycatch. However, conservation concerns remain, such as the decline in leatherback turtles in the Eastern and Western Pacific. Furthermore, we also show that, often, time series are too short to identify trends in abundance. Our findings highlight the importance of continued conservation and monitoring efforts that underpin this global conservation success story.

  15. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  16. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conservation in India. They are ... cuss these with case studies on some cat species in India. Introduction ... fallout since vital resources such as clean air, water, and food ... tion, climate change has become a much-dreaded catchword, and .... (Eastern. Mangroves Total and West- ern). /Inland wetlands. DNA extraction. 66.

  17. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... habits that make them difficultstudy subjects when using conventional field techniques.Molecular tools can be used to decipher distributions andpopulation connectedness in fragmented habitats and identifypopulations of immediate conservation concern. We discussthese with case studies on some cat species in India.

  18. Conservation of South African Rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the proceedings of a three-day workshop at Midmar Dam designed to establish a consensus view of river conservation and to provide professional conservationists, managers and planners with a set of guidelines. These indicate what...

  19. Conservation tax rebates under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes federal legislative response to an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruling that rebates offered as incentives by utilities are taxable as gross income. A bill is being introduced that will reverse the situation. Statements from various conservation and industry organizations are offered in support of the bill. The IRS is also reviewing its ruling

  20. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  1. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  2. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  3. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  4. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  5. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  6. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  7. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne G; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...

  8. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  9. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  10. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  11. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  12. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  13. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  14. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  15. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  16. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  17. Phylogeny as a proxy for ecology in seagrass amphipods: which traits are most conserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Best

    Full Text Available Increasingly, studies of community assembly and ecosystem function combine trait data and phylogenetic relationships to gain novel insight into the ecological and evolutionary constraints on community dynamics. However, the key to interpreting these two types of information is an understanding of the extent to which traits are phylogenetically conserved. In this study, we develop the necessary framework for community phylogenetics approaches in a system of marine crustacean herbivores that play an important role in the ecosystem functioning of seagrass systems worldwide. For 16 species of amphipods and isopods, we (1 reconstructed phylogenetic relationships using COI, 16S, and 18S sequences and Bayesian analyses, (2 measured traits that are potentially important for assembling species between and within habitats, and (3 compared the degree to which each of these traits are evolutionarily conserved. Despite poor phylogenetic resolution for the order Amphipoda as a whole, we resolved almost all of the topology for the species in our system, and used a sampling of ultrametric trees from the posterior distribution to account for remaining uncertainty in topology and branch lengths. We found that traits varied widely in their degree of phylogenetic signal. Body mass, fecundity, and tube building showed very strong phylogenetic signal, and temperature tolerance and feeding traits showed much less. As such, the degree of signal was not predictable based on whether the trait is related to environmental filtering or to resource partitioning. Further, we found that even with strong phylogenetic signal in body size, (which may have large impacts on ecosystem function, the predictive relationship between phylogenetic diversity and ecosystem function is not straightforward. We show that patterns of phylogenetic diversity in communities of seagrass mesograzers could lead to a variety of interpretations and predictions, and that detailed study of trait

  18. Assessing the environmental hazard of individual and combined pharmaceuticals: acute and chronic toxicity of fluoxetine and propranolol in the crustacean Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varano, Valentina; Fabbri, Elena; Pasteris, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Pharmaceuticals are widespread emerging contaminants and, like all pollutants, are present in combination with others in the ecosystems. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the toxic response of the crustacean Daphnia magna exposed to individual and combined pharmaceuticals. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor widely prescribed as antidepressant, and propranolol, a non-selective β-adrenergic receptor-blocking agent used to treat hypertension, were tested. Several experimental trials of an acute immobilization test and a chronic reproduction test were performed. Single chemicals were first tested separately. Toxicity of binary mixtures was then assessed using a fixed ratio experimental design. Five concentrations and 5 percentages of each substance in the mixture (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%) were tested. The MIXTOX model was applied to analyze the experimental results. This tool is a stepwise statistical procedure that evaluates if and how observed data deviate from a reference model, either concentration addition (CA) or independent action (IA), and provides significance testing for synergism, antagonism, or more complex interactions. Acute EC50 values ranged from 6.4 to 7.8 mg/L for propranolol and from 6.4 to 9.1 mg/L for fluoxetine. Chronic EC50 values ranged from 0.59 to 1.00 mg/L for propranolol and from 0.23 to 0.24 mg/L for fluoxetine. Results showed a significant antagonism between chemicals in both the acute and the chronic mixture tests when CA was adopted as the reference model, while absence of interactive effects when IA was used.

  19. Parasites in the fossil record: a Cretaceous fauna with isopod-infested decapod crustaceans, infestation patterns through time, and a new ichnotaxon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiël A Klompmaker

    Full Text Available Parasites are common in modern ecosystems and are also known from the fossil record. One of the best preserved and easily recognisable examples of parasitism in the fossil record concerns isopod-induced swellings in the branchial chamber of marine decapod crustaceans. However, very limited quantitative data on the variability of infestation percentages at the species, genus, and family levels are available. Here we provide this type of data for a mid-Cretaceous (upper Lower Cretaceous, upper Albian reef setting at Koskobilo, northern Spain, on the basis of 874 specimens of anomurans and brachyurans. Thirty-seven specimens (4.2%, arranged in ten species, are infested. Anomurans are more heavily infested than brachyurans, variability can be high within genera, and a relationship may exist between the number of specimens and infestation percentage per taxon, possibly suggesting host-specificity. We have also investigated quantitative patterns of infestation through geological time based on 88 infested species (25 anomurans, 55 brachyurans, seven lobsters, and one shrimp, to show that the highest number of infested species can be found in the Late Jurassic, also when corrected for the unequal duration of epochs. The same Late Jurassic peak is observed for the percentage of infested decapod species per epoch. This acme is caused entirely by infested anomurans and brachyurans. Biases (taphonomic and otherwise and causes of variability with regard to the Koskobilo assemblage and infestation patterns through time are discussed. Finally, a new ichnogenus and -species, Kanthyloma crusta, are erected to accommodate such swellings or embedment structures (bioclaustrations.

  20. Functional Assessment of Residues in the Amino- and Carboxyl-Termini of Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormone (CHH in the Mud Crab Scylla olivacea Using Point-Mutated Peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jing Liu

    Full Text Available To assess functional importance of the residues in the amino- and carboxyl-termini of crustacean hyperglycemic hormone in the mud crab Scylla olivacea (Sco-CHH, both wild-type and point-mutated CHH peptides were produced with an amidated C-terminal end. Spectral analyses of circular dichroism, chromatographic retention time, and mass spectrometric analysis of the recombinant peptides indicate that they were close in conformation to native CHH and were produced with the intended substitutions. The recombinant peptides were subsequently used for an in vivo hyperglycemic assay. Two mutants (R13A and I69A rSco-CHH completely lacked hyperglycemic activity, with temporal profiles similar to that of vehicle control. Temporal profiles of hyperglycemic responses elicited by 4 mutants (I2A, F3A, D12A, and D60A Sco-CHH were different from that elicited by wild-type Sco-CHH; I2A was unique in that it exhibited significantly higher hyperglycemic activity, whereas the remaining 3 mutants showed lower activity. Four mutants (D4A, Q51A, E54A, and V72A rSco-CHH elicited hyperglycemic responses with temporal profiles similar to those evoked by wild-type Sco-CHH. In contrast, the glycine-extended version of V72A rSco-CHH (V72A rSco-CHH-Gly completely lost hyperglycemic activity. By comparing our study with previous ones of ion-transport peptide (ITP and molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH using deleted or point-mutated mutants, detail discussion is made regarding functionally important residues that are shared by both CHH and ITP (members of Group I of the CHH family, and those that discriminate CHH from ITP, and Group-I from Group-II peptides. Conclusions summarized in the present study provide insights into understanding of how functional diversification occurred within a peptide family of multifunctional members.

  1. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C

    2012-02-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K(p)) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Ikonomou, Michael G.; Buday, Craig; Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa; Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon; Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallée, Kurtis; Aggelen, Graham van; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1–4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K p ) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, β-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  3. Biological effects of the anti-parasitic chemotherapeutant emamectin benzoate on a non-target crustacean, the spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros Brandt, 1851) under laboratory conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Ikonomou, Michael G. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Buday, Craig [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Jordan, Jameson; Rehaume, Vicki; Cabecinha, Melissa [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Dubetz, Cory; Chamberlain, Jon [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 9860 West Saanich Road, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, BC, V8L 4B2 (Canada); Pittroff, Sabrina; Vallee, Kurtis [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC, V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, Stn CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2012-02-15

    The potential impact of commercial salmon aquaculture along the coast of British Columbia on the health of non-target marine wildlife is of growing concern. In the current initiative, the biological effects on gene expression within spot prawn (Pandalus platyceros) exposed to the sea lice controlling agent, emamectin benzoate (EB; 0.1-4.8 mg/kg sediment), were investigated. A mean sediment/water partitioning coefficient (K{sub p}) was determined to be 21.81 and significant levels of EB were detected in the tail muscle tissue in all exposed animals. Animals selected for the experiment did not have eggs and were of similar weight. Significant mortality was observed within 8 days of EB treatment at concentrations between 0.1 and 0.8 mg/kg and there was no effect of EB on molting. Twelve spot prawn cDNA sequences were isolated from the tail muscle either by directed cloning or subtractive hybridization of control versus EB exposed tissues. Three of the transcripts most affected by EB exposure matched sequences encoding the 60S ribosomal protein L22, spliceosome RNA helicase WM6/UAP56, and the intracellular signal mediator histidine triad nucleotide binding protein 1 suggesting that translation, transcription regulation, and apoptosis pathways were impacted. The mRNA encoding the molting enzyme, {beta}-N-acetylglucosaminidase, was not affected by EB treatment. However, the expression of this transcript was extremely variable making it unsuitable for effects assessment. The results suggest that short-term exposure to EB can impact biological processes within this non-target crustacean.

  4. Recommended reporting standards for test accuracy studies of infectious diseases of finfish, amphibians, molluscs and crustaceans: the STRADAS-aquatic checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Ian A; Whittington, Richard J; Caraguel, Charles G B; Hick, Paul; Moody, Nicholas J G; Corbeil, Serge; Garver, Kyle A.; Warg, Janet V.; Arzul, Isabelle; Purcell, Maureen; St. J. Crane, Mark; Waltzek, Thomas B.; Olesen, Niels J; Lagno, Alicia Gallardo

    2016-01-01

    Complete and transparent reporting of key elements of diagnostic accuracy studies for infectious diseases in cultured and wild aquatic animals benefits end-users of these tests, enabling the rational design of surveillance programs, the assessment of test results from clinical cases and comparisons of diagnostic test performance. Based on deficiencies in the Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) guidelines identified in a prior finfish study (Gardner et al. 2014), we adapted the Standards for Reporting of Animal Diagnostic Accuracy Studies—paratuberculosis (STRADAS-paraTB) checklist of 25 reporting items to increase their relevance to finfish, amphibians, molluscs, and crustaceans and provided examples and explanations for each item. The checklist, known as STRADAS-aquatic, was developed and refined by an expert group of 14 transdisciplinary scientists with experience in test evaluation studies using field and experimental samples, in operation of reference laboratories for aquatic animal pathogens, and in development of international aquatic animal health policy. The main changes to the STRADAS-paraTB checklist were to nomenclature related to the species, the addition of guidelines for experimental challenge studies, and the designation of some items as relevant only to experimental studies and ante-mortem tests. We believe that adoption of these guidelines will improve reporting of primary studies of test accuracy for aquatic animal diseases and facilitate assessment of their fitness-for-purpose. Given the importance of diagnostic tests to underpin the Sanitary and Phytosanitary agreement of the World Trade Organization, the principles outlined in this paper should be applied to other World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)-relevant species.

  5. One precursor, three apolipoproteins: the relationship between two crustacean lipoproteins, the large discoidal lipoprotein and the high density lipoprotein/β-glucan binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieb, Stefanie; Roth, Ziv; Dal Magro, Christina; Fischer, Sabine; Butz, Eric; Sagi, Amir; Khalaila, Isam; Lieb, Bernhard; Schenk, Sven; Hoeger, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The novel discoidal lipoprotein (dLp) recently detected in the crayfish, differs from other crustacean lipoproteins in its large size, apoprotein composition and high lipid binding capacity, We identified the dLp sequence by transcriptome analyses of the hepatopancreas and mass spectrometry. Further de novo assembly of the NGS data followed by BLAST searches using the sequence of the high density lipoprotein/1-glucan binding protein (HDL-BGBP) of Astacus leptodactylus as query revealed a putative precursor molecule with an open reading frame of 14.7 kb and a deduced primary structure of 4889 amino acids. The presence of an N-terminal lipid bind- ing domain and a DUF 1943 domain suggests the relationship with the large lipid transfer proteins. Two-putative dibasic furin cleavage sites were identified bordering the sequence of the HDL-BGBP. When subjected to mass spectroscopic analyses, tryptic peptides of the large apoprotein of dLp matched the N-terminal part of the precursor, while the peptides obtained for its small apoprotein matched the C-terminal part. Repeating the analysis in the prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii revealed a similar protein with identical domain architecture suggesting that our findings do not represent an isolated instance. Our results indicate that the above three apolipoproteins (i.e HDL-BGBP and both the large and the small subunit of dLp) are translated as a large precursor. Cleavage at the furin type sites releases two subunits forming a heterodimeric dLP particle, while the remaining part forms an HDL-BGBP whose relationship with other lipoproteins as well as specific functions are yet to be elucidated.

  6. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  8. Delayed metamorphosis in decapod crustaceans: evidence and consequences Retraso de la metamorfosis en crustáceos decápodos: evidencias y consecuencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINA GEBAUER

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Most marine invertebrate species exhibit a complex life cycle including a planktonic larval phase and a benthic juvenile-adult phase. Metamorphosis and settlement are the links between these phases of development. In many species, metamorphosis is triggered by specific chemical and/or physical cues, mainly associated with the adult habitat. In the absence of such cues, competent larvae can delay their metamorphosis by a few days to several months. Most investigations on the delay of metamorphosis have been realised on sessile or sedentary species. In relation to mobile decapod crustaceans, the number of such studies is low, probably because the members of this group retain their mobility after metamorphosis, and hence, may depend less on enviromental cues for the induction of settlement and metamorphosis. Nevertheless, the larvae of some decapod species have been shown to depend on metamorphosis-stimulating cues. These include special types of substrates, physical or chemical traits of particular (e.g., estuarine water bodies, as well as odors from conspecific or congeneric adults. The capacity for delay is, in the decapod species studied so far, limited and may normally end with spontaneous metamorphosis. An extended time of larval development presents the advantage of enhancing the probability for locating a suitable habitat, but it may imply, as a disadvantage, a reduction of juvenile growth or survival and a prolonged development time preceding benthic life. This paper reviews the available evidence for delayed metamorphosis in decapod crustaceans, indentifed cues, the importance of larval age at the time of contact with a cue, and costs of delayed metamorphosis. Additionally, we propose new frontiers for future investigations on delayed metamorphosis in decapod crustaceans, including the molecular identification of chemical cues, the identification of the stage(s of the moulting cycle that is or are sensitive to such cues, the study of

  9. Conservation laws with coinciding smooth solutions but different conserved variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Guerra, Graziano

    2018-04-01

    Consider two hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension with the same eigenvalues and (right) eigenvectors. We prove that solutions to Cauchy problems with the same initial data differ at third order in the total variation of the initial datum. As a first application, relying on the classical Glimm-Lax result (Glimm and Lax in Decay of solutions of systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 101. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1970), we obtain estimates improving those in Saint-Raymond (Arch Ration Mech Anal 155(3):171-199, 2000) on the distance between solutions to the isentropic and non-isentropic inviscid compressible Euler equations, under general equations of state. Further applications are to the general scalar case, where rather precise estimates are obtained, to an approximation by Di Perna of the p-system and to a traffic model.

  10. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    The Pahang and Johore State Governments have agreed to declare the 92,000 hectare Endau-Rompin Forest as a State Park. It had been proposed as a National Park in 1975, but, as usual, this did not prevent logging in the core area in 1977. This was halted after considerable national protest, but

  11. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    CITES: In February 1987 Singapore finally ratified the Washington Treaty on the international trade in threatened species, exceptions have been made for the trade in crocodile products. A serious breach has now been closed that was of some impediment to the trade between Singapore and many of its

  12. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  13. Crustáceos decápodos asociados a arrecifes de Phragmatopoma sp. (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae en playa El Horcón, Isla de Margarita, Venezuela | Decapod crustaceans associated with Phagmatopoma sp. (Polychaeta: Sabellariidae in Horcón Beach, Margarita Island, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Velásquez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available At Horcón beach, Margarita Island, there are sand reefs formed by polychaetes belonging to the Family Sabellariidae, which until now have not been studied, despite their importance as habitat providers for setting and larval settlement of various species, mainly decapod crustaceans. In this sense, the present study aimed to survey decapod crustaceans associated with these reefs. For this, monthly samplings were taken between February and July 2008 and pieces of reef from the subtidal zone were manually collected, at an average between 0.5 and 1 m deep. Samples were transported to the laboratory for processing, extraction and taxonomic determination of the decapod crustaceans present. A total of 1517 individuals of decapod crustaceans were analyzed, belonging to ten families, 15 genera and 27 species. The best represented families were Porcellanidae and Mithracidae with 928 and 298 individuals respectively, followed by Alpheidae (159 ind., while Processidae, Paguridae and Xanthidae were represented by a single individual each. Moreover, the finding of Alpheus thomasi is the first record for the coast of Venezuela. These reefs appear to be of great importance as substrate protection and shelter for decapod crustaceans.

  14. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  15. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  16. Current conservation status of Ratites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Living Ratites, which include several species or subspecies of ostriches, cassowaries, emus, rheas and kiwis, all with an important function in the ecosystem dynamics, endure the danger of extinction similarly to the extinct moas and elephant-birds. Whereas ostriches and emus, except for specific populations, are not seen as being endangered, cassowaries and kiwis are on the brink of extinction. Hunting by humans contributed most to the declining numbers in all families of Ratites. Some conservation management strategies have been developed for conservation of kiwis, one subspecies of cassowary, and some populations of ostriches, emus and rheas. These include captive breeding and release, habitat restoration, and public awareness. However, consideration of the limitations of the above techniques is often ignored.

  17. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  18. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  19. Cloning and expression of the recombinant crustacean hyperglycemic hormone isoform B2 (rCHH-B2) and its effects on the metabolism and osmoregulation of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Jiménez, Laura; Sánchez-Castrejón, Edna; Díaz, Fernando; Aguilar, Manuel B; Muñoz-Márquez, Ma Enriqueta; Ponce-Rivas, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. The rCHH-B2-Gly peptide secreted to the culture medium was purified by RP-HPLC and used for in vivo glucose, triglyceride, and osmoregulation dose-response analyses with juvenile shrimp. The peptide was also amidated at the C-terminus using an α-amidating enzyme to produce rCHH-B2-amide. The shrimp showed a dose-dependent effect of rCHH-B2-Gly to hemolymph glucose and triglyceride levels, inducing maximal increases by injecting 500 and 1000pmol of hormone, respectively. Additionally, 10pmol of hormone was sufficient to reduce the hypo-osmoregulatory capacity of shrimp at 35‰. These findings suggest that CHH-B2 has regulatory roles in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and a potential involvement in osmoregulation of L. vannamei. Injection of 100pmol of rCHH-B2-amide increased glucose and triglyceride levels by 15 and 28%, respectively in comparison with rCHH-B2-Gly, suggesting an important role for the C-terminal amidation. Additionally, an in silico structural analysis done with the CHH-B1 and rCHH-B2-Gly peptides suggests that the C-terminal region may be relevant for the activity of the L. vannamei isoforms and explain the functional divergence from other crustacean CHH/CHH-like peptides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....