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Sample records for conservative management imaging

  1. Symptomatic resolution of spinal osteoid osteoma with conservative management: imaging correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, Prakash [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Spinal Surgery, London (United Kingdom); The Whitehouse, Enfield, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Harish, S. [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Nnadi, Colin; Noordeen, Hilali [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Spinal Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Imaging, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A 10-year-old girl presented with a history of painful scoliosis. Imaging performed, including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), demonstrated a lesion with radiological features consistent with an osteoid osteoma (OO) of the 6th thoracic vertebra. The patient was treated conservatively with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Over eight months of clinical and radiological surveillance, she became entirely asymptomatic and demonstrated complete resolution of the scoliotic curve. The CT and MRI features of the osteoid osteoma during the period of surveillance are presented and are correlated with the corresponding clinical features. (orig.)

  2. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Emma Marie

    2013-01-01

    New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM) has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor...

  3. Imaging Techniques in Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Marie Payne

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available New imaging techniques are increasingly being used within cultural heritage. This paper explores potential uses of such technologies within conservation and implications of their use on object preservation and accessibility. Study of their effects on objects is crucial because their employment is becoming irreplaceable; for example, polynomial texture mapping (PTM has revealed previously undetectable surface features. In such cases, it is necessary to continue to use the technique to monitor object condition. 3D laser scanning, PTM, and CT scanning are investigated. Case studies are explored to investigate their current role in cultural heritage. The appropriateness of this role and whether it should be expanded is addressed by analysing advantages and disadvantages of the techniques, their feasibility, and risks caused to object preservation and accessibility. The results indicate that the technologies present some advantages over standard digital photography; PTM in particular is found to be an extremely useful, affordable technique. A more established role within conservation, especially for condition assessments, could be worthwhile. Use of the imaging techniques to create models for exhibition can also be advantageous; however, care must be taken to ensure that such models are used to enhance accessibility to original objects and not to replace them.

  4. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Conservative management of voiding dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Patel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This review article discusses the efficacy of various conservative therapies in the management of voiding dysfunction with special reference to urinary incontinence. The article emphasizes the fact that conservative therapies have limited side effects and they do not jeopardize future treatment options. Behaviour therapy, pelvic floor therapy and biofeedback; electrical and magnetic stimulation are discussed here individually. Though there is unanimous agreement that these therapies improve quality of life, complete cure is rare. All therapies work better in conjunction with each other rather than in isolation. The review also highlights the need for randomized controlled trials of better methodology.

  6. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  7. Digital image processing in art conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zitová, Barbara; Flusser, Jan

    č. 53 (2003), s. 44-45 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : art conservation * digital image processing * change detection Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  8. Conservative management of fracture scaphoid

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    Mittal V

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Conservative management of fracture scaphoid with cast is still the most common modality of management, but the results following this protocol are not always satisfactory. Methods : Twenty five patients with fracture scaphoid were treated with a below elbow scaphoid cast and were followed up for minimum duration of one year. On follow up patients were examined clinicoradiologically and functional results were evaluated using the modification of the Mayo wrist scoring chart. Results : Nineteen fractures showed union, two were malunited and five went for nonunion. Two fractures developed avascular necrosis and three patients had wrist arthritis on follow up. Nineteen patients had excellent functional results, one had good results and six patients had poor results. Patients with delayed diagnosis had nonunion and poor functional results. Patients with premature removal of cast had comparatively inferior results Conclusion : For displaced unstable fracture, open reduction and internal fixation should be the preferred modality of treatment as cast treatment gives unacceptably high rate of malunion and nonunion with poor functional results.

  9. Adaptive management: A tool for conservation practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Salafsky, N.; Margoluis, R.; Redford, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This e-book is a hands on guide for conservation practitioners interested in improving their collaborative conservation methods through adaptive management processes. This includes a triangulation of experience, theory and methods from business, social, and hard sciences. While this includes a review of the theoretical literature, this book is more focused on providing practitioners with tools to help them incorporate adaptive management techniques into conservation pr...

  10. No. 186-Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Magali; Ross, Sue

    2018-02-01

    To outline the evidence for conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence. Conservative management options for treating urinary incontinence include behavioural changes, lifestyle modification, pelvic floor retraining, and use of mechanical devices. To provide understanding of current available evidence concerning efficacy of conservative alternatives for managing urinary incontinence; to empower women to choose continence therapies that have benefit and that have minimal or no harm. The Cochrane Library and Medline (1966 to 2005) were searched to find articles related to conservative management of incontinence. Review articles were appraised. The quality of evidence is rated, and recommendations are made using the criteria described by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care. Evidence for the efficacy of conservative management options for urinary incontinence is strong. These options can be advocated as primary interventions with minimal or no harm to women. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Conservation Management Plan as a cultural heritage protection methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Rafał, Trzaska

    2018-01-01

    In this paper author describe how important is conservation management plan. Conservation management plan do not have support in law articles, therefore authors which create documents (documents in meaning conservation management plans) have not defined what they should put in to it. In this case, wrong written conservation management plan often is harmful than helpful for conservation management process.

  12. Conservative management of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N. M.; Mol, F.; Mol, B. W.; Hajenius, P. J.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter an overview is given of the best available evidence on the conservative treatment for tubal ectopic pregnancy, i.e., expectant management and medical treatment with systemic methotrexate. From the two randomized controlled trials on expectant management, no conclusions can be drawn

  13. Conservative management of colonic injury during percutaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Elghoneimy

    2016-02-22

    Feb 22, 2016 ... antegrade or retrograde pyelography. All patients were managed conservatively with a favorable outcome. Conclusion: An approach combining a high degree of suspicion for early diagnosis and a diligent conser- vative management results in a favorable outcome in patients with colonic injury during PNL.

  14. Conservative Management of Urinary Incontinence in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiena, Izak; Patel, Neal; Parihar, Jaspreet S; Calabrese, Marc; Tunuguntla, Hari

    2015-01-01

    Urinary incontinence in women has a high prevalence and causes significant morbidity. Given that urinary incontinence is not generally a progressive disease, conservative therapies play an integral part in the management of these patients. We conducted a nonsystematic review of the literature to identify high-quality studies that evaluated the different components of conservative management of stress urinary incontinence, including behavioral therapy, bladder training, pelvic floor muscle training, lifestyle changes, mechanical devices, vaginal cones, and electrical stimulation. Urinary incontinence can have a severe impact on our healthcare system and patients’ quality of life. There are currently a wide variety of treatment options for these patients, ranging from conservative treatment to surgical treatment. Although further research is required in the area of conservative therapies, nonsurgical treatments are effective and are preferred by some patients. PMID:26543427

  15. Conservative management of small renal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzaki, Masato; Kawano, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Hirofumi; Shiga, Yoshiyuki; Murata, Hirokatsu; Komatsu, Hideki

    2007-01-01

    With the widespread use of imaging modalities, incidentally discovered small renal cell carcinomas have increased. Some patients, however, are too old or weak due to various diseases to undergo surgery and other patients occasionally refuse surgery. To investigate the natural history of small renal cell carcinoma, we retrospectively reviewed patients with small renal tumors suggestive of carcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 15 patients with contrast-enhancing renal masses less than 4.0 cm in diameter who were observed without treatment. The mean follow-up period was 38 months (range, 8-91). The average patient age was 67 years (range, 44-87). The initial average tumor diameter was 2.2 cm (range, 1.0-3.9). The average growth rate was 0.06 cm per year (range, -0.09-0.28). Only 4 tumors grew obviously during the follow-up period. Three tumors were removed surgically by radical nephrectomy, and all tumors were pathologically diagnosed as renal cell carcinoma. None of the patients developed metastases during the follow-up period or after surgery. Two patients died of other causes. Nonsurgical watchful waiting may be an acceptable treatment option for elderly or severely comorbid patients; however, it is not known whether this conservative management can he applied to young or otherwise healthy patients. (author)

  16. Assessment of management effectiveness of Lekki conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research outcome showed that unsustainable adjacent land use, isolation and inadequate funding were the major threats to the effective management of the centre's conservation objec- tives. Legal status, resource inventory, boundary demarcation, protected area design and objectives, security of bud- geted fund, ...

  17. Energy conservation: its planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, K.S.; Patra, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Energy conservation, its planning and management and the development of renewable energy systems of proven design are very worthy challenges for all. Energy education at various levels is most important particularly in the development of renewable energy technology. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Adaptive social impact management for conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan-Hallam, Maery; Bennett, Nathan J

    2018-04-01

    Concerns about the social consequences of conservation have spurred increased attention the monitoring and evaluation of the social impacts of conservation projects. This has resulted in a growing body of research that demonstrates how conservation can produce both positive and negative social, economic, cultural, health, and governance consequences for local communities. Yet, the results of social monitoring efforts are seldom applied to adaptively manage conservation projects. Greater attention is needed to incorporating the results of social impact assessments in long-term conservation management to minimize negative social consequences and maximize social benefits. We bring together insights from social impact assessment, adaptive management, social learning, knowledge coproduction, cross-scale governance, and environmental planning to propose a definition and framework for adaptive social impact management (ASIM). We define ASIM as the cyclical process of monitoring and adaptively managing social impacts over the life-span of an initiative through the 4 stages of profiling, learning, planning, and implementing. We outline 14 steps associated with the 4 stages of the ASIM cycle and provide guidance and potential methods for social-indicator development, predictive assessments of social impacts, monitoring and evaluation, communication of results, and identification and prioritization of management responses. Successful ASIM will be aided by engaging with best practices - including local engagement and collaboration in the process, transparent communication of results to stakeholders, collective deliberation on and choice of interventions, documentation of shared learning at the site level, and the scaling up of insights to inform higher-level conservation policies-to increase accountability, trust, and perceived legitimacy among stakeholders. The ASIM process is broadly applicable to conservation, environmental management, and development initiatives at various

  19. Conservative Management of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murji, Ally; Garbedian, Kimberley; Thomas, Jacqueline; Cruickshank, Barbara

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of conservative management for cervical ectopic pregnancies. We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of cervical ectopic pregnancy diagnosed at our tertiary care academic centre between January 2002 and July 2014. The diagnosis of cervical ectopic pregnancy was made using transvaginal ultrasound according to published criteria. Management decisions were made by individual clinicians. Cervical ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed in 27 women with a median age of 34 years. Two thirds of them were nulliparous, and 44% (12/27) reported infertility. The mean gestational age at diagnosis was seven weeks. The median serum human chorionic gonadotropin level was 11 300 IU/L (range 610 to 163 700). Fetal cardiac activity was present in 19 pregnancies (70%). Vaginal bleeding was the most common presentation, occurring in 23 cases (85%). Three women presented with acute life-threatening hemorrhage. All cases were successfully managed conservatively, allowing uterine preservation. Systemic methotrexate (single or multi-dose protocol) was the mainstay of therapy. Other minimally invasive interventions included ultrasound-guided injection of potassium chloride into the pregnancy, uterine artery embolization, vaginal ligation of cervical branches of the uterine arteries, and dilatation and curettage, with or without dilute vasopressin cervical infiltration and Foley catheter tamponade. Systemic methotrexate alone or in combination with other minimally invasive techniques can be effective conservative treatment for cervical pregnancies. A fertility-sparing approach is the optimal treatment for this patient population, which has high rates of infertility and nulliparity. We present a management algorithm based on our results to aid in standardizing the management of cervical ectopic pregnancies.

  20. CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT AND LEGISLATION THE UK EXPERIENCE

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    SIBLEY P. J.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Underpinning the conservation management of Austropotamobius pallipes in the UK is the process of monitoring and reporting crayfish distribution. Should the current trend in the decline of A. pallipes continue, the species could be virtually extinct in mainland Britain within 30 years (SIBLEY, 2003. Conversely, if the increase in the distribution of non-indigenous crayfish species (NICS continues at its current rate, the distribution (by 10 km squares of these species could double within 15 years. These forward projections are based on a number of possibly unreliable assumptions; they illustrate however the magnitude of the challenge facing those concerned with the conservation of A. pallipes in the UK at this time. Recent work in crayfish conservation management in the UK has yielded guidance in several areas including monitoring, habitat enhancement and a re-introduction protocol for A. pallipes (KEMP and HILEY, 2003. Similarly, scientific research continues to inform our understanding of the movement and behaviour of NICS and explores new methods for the potential management of these species. In addition, the protection afforded to A. pallipes by current legislation is key to the long-term survival prospects of the species, albeit with a probable fragmented distribution, across the British Isles and continental Europe. Legal provisions in the UK derive in part from European instructions (e.g. EC Habitats and Species Directive and also from national legislation (e.g. Salmon and Freshwater Fisheries Act (1975 and the Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981. Also, a raft of “quasi-legislation” exists which requires responsible organisations in the UK to implement the white-clawed crayfish biodiversity action plan (BAP. Altogether these provisions constitute a considerable volume of legal protection for crayfish and provide the legal framework on which UK management policy and practice are based.

  1. Conservative Management of Azygous Vein Rupture in Blunt Thoracic Trauma

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    Cian McDermott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of successful conservative management of acute traumatic rupture of the azygous vein. A 48-year-old male was involved in a motor vehicle collision. Primary survey revealed acute right intrathoracic haemorrhage. He remained haemodynamically stable with rapid infusion of warmed crystalloid solution and blood. Computed tomographic imaging showed a contained haematoma of the azygous vein. The patient was managed conservatively in the intensive care. Azygous vein laceration resulting from blunt thoracic trauma is a rare condition that carries a universally poor prognosis unless the appropriate treatment is instituted. Clinical features include acute hypovolaemic shock, widened mediastinum on chest radiograph, and a right-sided haemothorax. Haemodynamic collapse necessitates immediate resuscitative thoracotomy. Interest in this injury stems from the severity of the clinical condition, difficulty in diagnosis, the onset of a rapidly deteriorating clinical course all of which can be promptly reversed by timely and appropriate treatment. Although it is a rare cause of intramediastinal haemorrhage, it is proposed that a ruptured azygous vein should be considered in every trauma case causing a right-sided haemothorax or widened mediastinum. All cases described in the literature to date involved operative management. We present a case of successful conservative management of this condition.

  2. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: conservative surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M; Ashraf, Mohammad; Abuzeid, Mostafa I

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies.

  3. Conservative management of iatrogenic tracheal injury

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    Vuković Rade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The difficulties during airway management can lead to iatrogenic tracheal injury. Conservative and surgical treatments are possible treatments. We present the case of a patient with iatrogenic tracheal injury treated conservatively. Case report: 55 years old female patient was transferred to our intensive care unit from a regional health center. Edema compromised airway as a consequence of anaphylactic shock was difficult to establish. Three days after tracheal injury the patient was transported to our institution. At admission, patient was under sedation with trachea intubated with tracheal tube and mechanically ventilated. Physical examination revealed subcutaneous emphysema in the region of head, neck, chest and upper extremities. Multi slice computerized tomography and tracheo-bronchoscopic exploration revealed longitudinal gap localized at posterior wall of the trachea, approximately 5 cm long, with distal end 1.5 cm above the tracheal carina. Tracheal split was completely closed after 13 days. The patient was discharged from the hospital after 22 days. Conclusion: Iatrogenic tracheal injury can be treated successfully using conservative measures after appropriate patient assessment and treatment planning. .

  4. Temporomandibular disorders. Part 2: conservative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Stephen M; Brismée, Jean-Michel; Sizer, Phillip S; Courtney, Carol A

    2014-01-01

    Appropriate management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) requires an understanding of the underlying dysfunction associated with the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and surrounding structures. A comprehensive examination process, as described in part 1 of this series, can reveal underlying clinical findings that assist in the delivery of comprehensive physical therapy services for patients with TMD. Part 2 of this series focuses on management strategies for TMD. Physical therapy is the preferred conservative management approach for TMD. Physical therapists are professionally well-positioned to step into the void and provide clinical services for patients with TMD. Clinicians should utilize examination findings to design rehabilitation programs that focus on addressing patient-specific impairments. Potentially appropriate plan of care components include joint and soft tissue mobilization, trigger point dry needling, friction massage, therapeutic exercise, patient education, modalities, and outside referral. Management options should address both symptom reduction and oral function. Satisfactory results can often be achieved when management focuses on patient-specific clinical variables. PMID:24976744

  5. Laparoscopic conservative management of ureteral endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camanni, Marco; Delpiano, Elena M; Bonino, Luca; Deltetto, Francesco

    2010-08-01

    The surgical management of deeply infiltrating endometriosis involving the ureter is a complex procedure that requires an accurate balance between the need for complete excision of endometriotic foci and the need to avoid any morbidity associated with radical surgery. Owing to its rarity, a clear surgical strategy to deal with this condition (e.g. ureterolysis vs. ureteroneocystostomy) has not as yet been identified. A few studies present data about the conservative management of ureteral endometriosis. We reported the experience of some surgical topics dealing with ureteral endometriosis and their strategies for the conservative treatment of this condition. Ureterolysis could be used as the initial surgical step for patients with ureteral endometriosis. For patients displaying extended severe ureteral involvement, stenosis, or moderate or severe hydronephrosis with a high risk of having intrinsic ureteral disease, ureteroneocystostomy is likely to be a wiser surgical strategy. Moreover the crucial role of the primary surgeon in the treatment definition will hardly be replaced by objective reproducible referral pattern.

  6. Conservative management for postprostatectomy urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Coral A; Omar, Muhammad Imran; Campbell, Susan E; Hunter, Kathleen F; Cody, June D; Glazener, Cathryn M A

    2015-01-20

    Urinary incontinence is common after radical prostatectomy and can also occur in some circumstances after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Conservative management includes pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback, electrical stimulation, extra-corporeal magnetic innervation (ExMI), compression devices (penile clamps), lifestyle changes, or a combination of methods. To determine the effectiveness of conservative management for urinary incontinence up to 12 months after transurethral, suprapubic, laparoscopic, radical retropubic or perineal prostatectomy, including any single conservative therapy or any combination of conservative therapies. We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialised Register (5 February 2014), CENTRAL (2014, Issue 1), EMBASE (January 2010 to Week 3 2014), CINAHL (January 1982 to 18 January 2014), ClinicalTrials.gov and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (both searched 29 January 2014), and the reference lists of relevant articles. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials evaluating conservative interventions for urinary continence in men after prostatectomy. Two or more review authors assessed the methodological quality of the trials and abstracted data. We tried to contact several authors of included studies to obtain extra information. Fifty trials met the inclusion criteria, 45 in men after radical prostatectomy, four trials after TURP and one trial after either operation. The trials included 4717 men of whom 2736 had an active conservative intervention. There was considerable variation in the interventions, populations and outcome measures. Data were not available for many of the pre-stated outcomes. Men's symptoms improved over time irrespective of management.There was no evidence from eight trials that pelvic floor muscle training with or without biofeedback was better than control for men who had urinary incontinence up to 12 months

  7. Conservative non-surgical management of an infected radicular cyst

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    Harleen Narula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The radicular cyst arises from epithelial remnants stimulated to proliferate by an inflammatory process originating from pulpal necrosis of a non-vital tooth. Radiographically, the classical description of the lesion is a round or oval, well-circumscribed radiolucent image involving the apex of the tooth. Radicular cyst is usually sterile unless it is secondarily infected. This article presents a successful case of conservative non-surgical management of an infected radicular cyst associated with an immature permanent mandibular second molar (47 in a 14-year-old child.

  8. Lichen conservation in heavily managed boreal forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullin, Richard Troy; Thompson, Ian D; Newmaster, Steven G

    2013-10-01

    Lichens are an important component of the boreal forest, where they are long lived, tend to accumulate in older stands, and are a major food source for the threatened woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou). To be fully sustainable, silvicultural practices in the boreal forest must include the conservation of ecological integrity. Dominant forest management practices, however, have short-term negative effects on lichen diversity, particularly the application of herbicides. To better understand the long-term effects of forest management, we examined lichen regeneration in 35 mixed black spruce (Picea mariana) and jack pine (Pinus banksiana) forest stands across northern Ontario to determine recovery following logging and postharvest silvicultural practices. Our forest stands were 25-40 years old and had undergone 3 common sivilcultural treatments that included harvested and planted; harvested, planted, and treated with N-[phosphonomethyl] glycine (glyphosate); and harvested, planted, and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Forest stands with herbicide treatments had lower lichen biomass and higher beta and gamma diversity than planted stands that were not treated chemically or control stands. In northwestern Ontario, planted stands that were not treated chemically had significantly greater (p < 0.05) alpha diversity than stands treated with herbicides or control stands. Our results show that common silvicultural practices do not emulate natural disturbances caused by wildfires in the boreal forest for the lichen community. We suggest a reduction in the amount of chemical application be considered in areas where lichen biomass is likely to be high and where the recovery of woodland caribou is an objective. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Making Heat Visible: Promoting Energy Conservation Behaviors Through Thermal Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhew, Julie; Pahl, Sabine; Auburn, Tim; Goodhew, Steve

    2015-12-01

    Householders play a role in energy conservation through the decisions they make about purchases and installations such as insulation, and through their habitual behavior. The present U.K. study investigated the effect of thermal imaging technology on energy conservation, by measuring the behavioral effect after householders viewed images of heat escaping from or cold air entering their homes. In Study 1 ( n = 43), householders who received a thermal image reduced their energy use at a 1-year follow-up, whereas householders who received a carbon footprint audit and a non-intervention control demonstrated no change. In Study 2 ( n = 87), householders were nearly 5 times more likely to install draught proofing measures after seeing a thermal image. The effect was especially pronounced for actions that addressed an issue visible in the images. Findings indicate that using thermal imaging to make heat loss visible can promote energy conservation.

  10. Using perceptions as evidence to improve conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan James

    2016-06-01

    The conservation community is increasingly focusing on the monitoring and evaluation of management, governance, ecological, and social considerations as part of a broader move toward adaptive management and evidence-based conservation. Evidence is any information that can be used to come to a conclusion and support a judgment or, in this case, to make decisions that will improve conservation policies, actions, and outcomes. Perceptions are one type of information that is often dismissed as anecdotal by those arguing for evidence-based conservation. In this paper, I clarify the contributions of research on perceptions of conservation to improving adaptive and evidence-based conservation. Studies of the perceptions of local people can provide important insights into observations, understandings and interpretations of the social impacts, and ecological outcomes of conservation; the legitimacy of conservation governance; and the social acceptability of environmental management. Perceptions of these factors contribute to positive or negative local evaluations of conservation initiatives. It is positive perceptions, not just objective scientific evidence of effectiveness, that ultimately ensure the support of local constituents thus enabling the long-term success of conservation. Research on perceptions can inform courses of action to improve conservation and governance at scales ranging from individual initiatives to national and international policies. Better incorporation of evidence from across the social and natural sciences and integration of a plurality of methods into monitoring and evaluation will provide a more complete picture on which to base conservation decisions and environmental management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  11. Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakkol, Sandesh; Sarda, Praveen; Karpe, Prasad; Krishna, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period. PMID:24600073

  12. Conservative management of psoas haematoma following complex lumbar surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandesh Lakkol

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report psoas hematoma communicating with extradural hematoma and compressing on lumbar nerve roots during the postoperative period in a patient who underwent L3/4 level dynamic stabilization and L4/5 and L5/S1 posterior lumbar interbody fusion. Persistent radicular symptoms occurring soon after posterior lumbar surgery are not an unknown entity. However, psoas hematoma communicating with the extradural hematoma and compressing on L4 and L5 nerve roots soon after surgery, leading to radicular symptoms has not been reported. In addition to the conservative approach in managing such cases, this case report also emphasizes the importance of clinical evaluation and utilization of necessary imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan to diagnose the cause of persistent severe radicular pain in the postoperative period.

  13. Cesarean Scar Pregnancy Managed with Conservative Treatment

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    Barıs Boza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP is a rare, but life-threatening type of ectopic pregnancy. An exact and early diagnosis of CSP is very important for prognosis. The aim of the present study was to describe 4 women with CSP and discuss their clinical presentations, diagnoses, and various management options along with the published literature. Four women with a suspicion of CSP or cervical pregnancy were referred to our hospital between August 2013 and January 2014. All the patients were counseled about medical management options. After the treatment, serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-hCG levels were followed weekly until they reached <5 mIU/mL. All the patients were diagnosed at the first trimester, with the average gestational age of 6.4±0.9 weeks. Treatment was systemic methotrexate (MTX treatment in 3 of the 4 women, requiring no further intervention. The remaining 1 woman was treated with an intragestational administration of MTX. The mean time passed until ß-hCG reached <5 mIU/mL was 10.2±2.9 (range, 8–14 weeks, and the mean time passed until the gestational sac resolved was 21.5±3.5 (range, 18–25 weeks. Based on this limited number of case-series experience, it seems that CSP should be treated conservatively even if there are visible fetal cardiac activity, fetal poles, large gestational sacs, and high initial ß-hCG levels. Although the complete remission of the lesion takes a relatively long time, medical management via a noninvasive approach and follow-up should be tried as the first choice of therapy.

  14. Mirror image extradural hematoma in elderly population: management strategy with surgical bilateral or unilateral evacuation or conservative treatment modality with literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta; Yada Rajpur; Moscote-Salazar Luis Rafael; Agrawal Amit

    2017-01-01

    Extradural hematomas (EDH) represent one of common imaging findings in cases sustaining traumatic brain injury. Bilateral extradural haematoma is considered rare and even rarer in elder people male. Bilateral extradural hematoma is usually acute, and generally associated with severe traumatic head injury. Mirror-image extradural hematomas (MEDH) constitute a special type of bilateral extradural hamatomas, which is placed anatomically symmetrically on both the sides of the intracranial compart...

  15. Effectiveness of alternative management strategies in meeting conservation objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards S. Holthausen; Carolyn Hull Sieg

    2007-01-01

    This chapter evaluates how well various management strategies meet a variety of conservation objectives, summarizes their effectiveness in meeting objectives for rare or little-known (RLK) species, and proposes ways to combine strategies to meet overall conservation objectives. We address two broad categories of management strategies. Species approaches result in...

  16. Multispectral Imaging in Cultural Heritage Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo, S.; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, P.; Sánchez-Aparicio, L. J.; Muñoz-Nieto, A.; Hernández-López, D.; Felipe-García, B.; González-Aguilera, D.

    2017-08-01

    This paper sums up the main contribution derived from the thesis entitled "Multispectral imaging for the analysis of materials and pathologies in civil engineering, constructions and natural spaces" awarded by CIPA-ICOMOS for its connection with the preservation of Cultural Heritage. This thesis is framed within close-range remote sensing approaches by the fusion of sensors operating in the optical domain (visible to shortwave infrared spectrum). In the field of heritage preservation, multispectral imaging is a suitable technique due to its non-destructive nature and its versatility. It combines imaging and spectroscopy to analyse materials and land covers and enables the use of a variety of different geomatic sensors for this purpose. These sensors collect both spatial and spectral information for a given scenario and a specific spectral range, so that, their smaller storage units save the spectral properties of the radiation reflected by the surface of interest. The main goal of this research work is to characterise different construction materials as well as the main pathologies of Cultural Heritage elements by combining active and passive sensors recording data in different ranges. Conclusions about the suitability of each type of sensor and spectral range are drawn in relation to each particular case study and damage. It should be emphasised that results are not limited to images, since 3D intensity data from laser scanners can be integrated with 2D data from passive sensors obtaining high quality products due to the added value that metric brings to multispectral images.

  17. Synthesis and review: delivering on conservation promises: the challenges of managing and measuring conservation outcomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Game, Edward T; Bode, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Growing threats and limited resources have always been the financial realities of biodiversity conservation. As the conservation sector has matured, however, the accountability of conservation investments has become an increasingly debated topic, with two key topics being driven to the forefront of the discourse: understanding how to manage the risks associated with our conservation investments and demonstrating that our investments are making a difference through evidence-based analyses. A better understanding of the uncertainties associated with conservation decisions is a central component of managing risks to investments that is often neglected. This focus issue presents both theoretical and applied approaches to quantifying and managing risks. Furthermore, transparent and replicable approaches to measuring impacts of conservation investments are noticeably absent in many conservation programs globally. This focus issue contains state of the art conservation program impact evaluations that both demonstrate how these methods can be used to measure outcomes as well as directing future investments. This focus issue thus brings together current thinking and case studies that can provide a valuable resource for directing future conservation investments. (paper)

  18. Mirror image extradural hematoma in elderly population: management strategy with surgical bilateral or unilateral evacuation or conservative treatment modality with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyarthee Guru Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Extradural hematomas (EDH represent one of common imaging findings in cases sustaining traumatic brain injury. Bilateral extradural haematoma is considered rare and even rarer in elder people male. Bilateral extradural hematoma is usually acute, and generally associated with severe traumatic head injury. Mirror-image extradural hematomas (MEDH constitute a special type of bilateral extradural hamatomas, which is placed anatomically symmetrically on both the sides of the intracranial compartment, requires prompt diagnosis and emergent surgical intervention as it carry high mortality if evacuation of hematoma is not carried out expeditely. The mortality rate still remains higher in comparison to unilateral single extradural hematomas. The postoperative outcome depends on preoperative neurological status, total volume of blood, accurate diagnosis and prompt shifting to neurosurgical facility, expatiation of surgical procedure, pre- hospital care. Authors report a case of a - 65-year-old man who presented with acute simultaneous bilateral extradural haematomas following road traffic accident, underwent bilateral trephine craniotomy and simultaneous evacuation on both side led to good recovery.

  19. Subdural haematoma in pregnancy-induced idiopathic thrombocytopenia: Conservative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Pandey

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservative management of subdural haematoma with antioedema measures in second gravida with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP resulted in resolution of haematoma. We present a case of second gravida with ITP who developed subdural haematoma following normal vaginal delivery. She was put on mechanical ventilation and managed conservatively with platelet transfusion, Mannitol 1g/kg, Dexamethasone 1mg/kg and Glycerol 10ml TDS. She regained consciousness and was extubated after 48 hrs. Repeat CT after 10 days showed no mass effect with resolving haematoma which resolved completely after 15 days. Trial of conservative management is safe in pregnant patient with ITP who develops subdural haematoma.

  20. Career Profiles in Forestry, Conservation, Ecology, Environmental Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Information on job requirements, educational requirements, and career possibilities for careers in forestry, conservation, ecology, and environmental management are explained in this booklet. A list of other sources of information on these occupations is also provided. (TA)

  1. Septic Shock after Conservative Management for Placenta Accreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Cheng Chiang

    2006-03-01

    Conclusion: At present, there is no consensus about the optimal treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment appears to be an alternative in selected patients, but the complications such as sepsis should be carefully identified and appropriately managed.

  2. Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy (OBPP) outcome with conservative management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eng, GD; Binder, H; Getson, P; ODonnell, R

    Resurgence of neurosurgical intervention oi obstetrical brachial plexus palsy prompted our review of 186 patients evaluated between 1981 and 1993, correlating clinical examination, electrodiagnosis, and functional outcome with conservative management. Eighty-eight percent had upper brachial plexus

  3. Kirtland's Warbler Wildlife Management Area Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) for Kirtland’s Warbler Wildlife Management Area (WMA) was signed on September 10, 2009, completing a planning process that...

  4. Implementation of Quality Management System for Historical Building Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify the implementation of ISO 9001 procedures being used as references for conservation works and the development of Quality Management System (QMS guidelines. Data were solicited from three (3 conservation areas. The analysis involved of descriptive approach and statistical methods. The findings revealed that QMS is not structurally established, implemented and enforced as part of conservation practice in Malaysia. From the findings, the authors hope to give clear perception to the reader on current preservation practice and the existence of QMS with reference to ISO 9001 for future conservation mechanism.

  5. Assessment of the conservation measures partnership's effort to improve conservation outcomes through adaptive management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Kent H; Hulvey, Kristin B; Williamson, Matthew; Schwartz, Mark W

    2018-01-03

    Conservation practice has demonstrated an increasing desire for accountability of actions, particularly with respect to effectiveness, efficiency, and impact to specified objectives. This has been accompanied by increased attention to achieving adaptive management. In 2003 practitioners representing several prominent conservation non-governmental organizations (NGO's) launched a community of practice called the Conservation Measures Partnership (CMP). This organization has worked to establish standards of conservation practice to improve accountability of conservation actions through adaptive management. The focal organizing entity for the CMP has been the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation (OS). We present results of an evaluation, using an online survey and personal interviews, of the first decade of CMP and the OS. We find that the CMP, has garnered a positive reputation among the leading scientists across conservation NGO's and succeeded at developing a large user base of the OS. However, the CMP has not fully achieved its goal of making the OS standard operating procedure for the large NGO's. This lack of institutionalization is attributable to multiple causes, including an increase in the number of competing decision support frameworks and challenges achieving full cycle adaptive management. We find that users strongly feel that the OS fosters better conservation practice and highly value the OS for improving their practice. A primary objective of the OS is to assist practitioners to achieve full cycle adaptive management in order to better integrate learning into improving the effectiveness and efficiency of actions. However, we find that most practitioners have not yet achieved cycle completion for their projects. We summarize recommendations for improving effectiveness of the CMP, OS, and generally for conservation practice. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Conservative management of a young adult with hip arthrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kyle M; Heiderscheit, Bryan

    2009-12-01

    Case report. Clinical practice guidelines regarding the conservative management of degenerative hip conditions in older adults routinely incorporate therapeutic exercise and manual therapy. However, the application of these recommendations to young, active adults is less clear. The purpose of this case report is to describe the management of a young adult with advanced hip arthrosis using a multifaceted rehabilitation program. A 28-year-old female with severe left hip degeneration, as identified with diagnostic imaging, was referred to physical therapy. Reduced hip range of motion and strength, sacroiliac joint asymmetries, and a modified Harris Hip Score of 76 were observed. She was seen for 12 visits over a 3-month period and treated with an individualized program including manual therapy, therapeutic exercise, and neuromuscular re-education. Substantial improvements were noted in pain, hip range of motion, and strength and function (modified Harris Hip Score of 97). In addition, she discontinued the use of anti-inflammatory medications and returned to her prior level of activity. Improvements were maintained at a 3-month follow-up, with symptom recurrence managed using a self-mobilization technique to the left hip and massage to the left iliopsoas. Degenerative hip conditions are common among older adults but are relatively rare in the younger population. Although it is likely that this patient will experience a return of her symptoms and functional limitations as her hip disease progresses, the immediate improvements may delay the need for eventual surgical management. These outcomes suggest that physical therapy management should be considered in those with an early onset of degenerative hip disease and are consistent with results previously reported in the older population. Therapy, level 4.

  7. Laparoscopic Conservative Management Of A Spontaneously ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an acute abdomen secondary to a ruptured spleen managed laparoscopically is presented. Laparoscopy is currently widely used for the initial diagnosis and management of such cases as an alternative to laparotomy due to the numerous advantages of the minimal access techniques. With widespread availability ...

  8. Understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Adrian

    2015-04-15

    Nature conservation relies largely on peoples' rule adherence. However, noncompliance in the conservation context is common: it is one of the largest illegal activities in the world, degrading societies, economies and the environment. Understanding and managing compliance is key for ensuring effective conservation, nevertheless crucial concepts and tools are scattered in a wide array of literature. Here I review and integrate these concepts and tools in an effort to guide compliance management in the conservation context. First, I address the understanding of compliance by breaking it down into five key questions: who?, what?, when?, where? and why?. A special focus is given to 'why?' because the answer to this question explains the reasons for compliance and noncompliance, providing critical information for management interventions. Second, I review compliance management strategies, from voluntary compliance to coerced compliance. Finally, I suggest a system, initially proposed for tax compliance, to balance these multiple compliance management strategies. This paper differs from others by providing a broad yet practical scope on theory and tools for understanding and managing compliance in the nature conservation context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Management effectiveness and conservation initiatives in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KVFPRS) was assessed to determine the extent to which management interventions in the Ramsar site have been effective in addressing threats to the wetland resources. The assessment used the World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA) ...

  10. Managing Climate Change Refugia for Biodiversity Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change threatens to create fundamental shifts in in the distributions and abundances of species. Given projected losses, increased emphasis on management for ecosystem resilience to help buffer fish and wildlife populations against climate change is emerging. Such effort...

  11. OSPACS: Ultrasound image management system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bessant Conrad

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ultrasound scanning uses the medical imaging format, DICOM, for electronically storing the images and data associated with a particular scan. Large health care facilities typically use a picture archiving and communication system (PACS for storing and retrieving such images. However, these systems are usually not suitable for managing large collections of anonymized ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. Results We have developed a system enabling the accurate archiving and management of ultrasound images gathered during a clinical screening trial. It is based upon a Windows application utilizing an open-source DICOM image viewer and a relational database. The system automates the bulk import of DICOM files from removable media by cross-validating the patient information against an external database, anonymizing the data as well as the image, and then storing the contents of the file as a field in a database record. These image records may then be retrieved from the database and presented in a tree-view control so that the user can select particular images for display in a DICOM viewer or export them to external media. Conclusion This system provides error-free automation of ultrasound image archiving and management, suitable for use in a clinical trial. An open-source project has been established to promote continued development of the system.

  12. [Conservative management of varicosis and postthrombotic syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knupfer, J; Reich-Schupke, S; Stücker, M

    2018-04-17

    Both varicosis and postthrombotic syndrome are manifestations of chronic venous disease - a widespread disease. Even at an early stage there are visible vascular symptoms, feeling of heaviness and tendency to swelling. In advanced stages, skin alterations and chronic wounds follow. Chronic venous insufficiency as a progressive disease can lead to significant limitations in the quality of life. Adequate diagnosis and therapy is therefore essential. A causal therapy that removes varices or occluding processes should be targeted whenever possible. Accompanying or if a causal therapy is not desired or possible, a symptom-oriented treatment can be considered. The therapy regimen should be individually tailored depending on the leading clinical symptoms, the comorbidities and the patient's wishes. Conservative therapy is the basic measure and should be known to every practitioner.

  13. Appendix mass: conservative management without interval appendectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, J; Lindhard, A; Jensen, H E

    1984-09-01

    Forty-nine patients had conservative treatment of an appendix mass without interval appendectomy. Five were lost to follow-up within 6 months, and 44 patients were followed for between 6 months and 22 years. In nine patients (20 percent) recurrent appendicitis developed, and six (14 percent) suffered chronic pain not thought to be due to appendicitis. Of the recurrences, 66 percent occurred within 2 years of the initial attack. Barium examination of the cecum was successful in diagnosing two of three additional patients in whom a right iliac fossa mass was not due to appendicitis. The morbidity and expense of routine interval appendectomy was thus eliminated in 80 percent of the patients.

  14. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners' management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-02-01

    A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on-line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions' effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process-the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners' level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners' willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation management

  15. An application of image processing in the medieval mosaic conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zitová, Barbara; Flusser, Jan; Šroubek, Filip

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2004), s. 18-25 ISSN 1433-7541 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP102/01/P065 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : art conservation * change detection * digital image processing Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.803, year: 2004 http://library.utia.cas.cz/prace/20040034.pdf

  16. Management Effectiveness of Southeast Aru Islands Marine Conservation Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dayandri Willem Dangeubun

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Southeast Aru Islands Marine Conservation Area (SE Aru MCA has been existed for nearly 21 years, a period that long enough for a timely evaluation about how far improvement of management has been made in the area in question, i.e. whether management has improved situation of local communities and marine resources availability in the area. This study, therefore, aims at assessing management effectiveness and impacts of SE Aru MCA. Results suggest that the MCA, which was originally established as a marine nature reserve (Cagar Alam Laut, CAL in 1991 and changed status into marine sanctuary in 2009, has not yet produced the expected positive impacts. Assessment using available tools indicated that the management level of SE Aru MCA is at level 1, with percentage of 34.12%, meaning it is still at initiation stage and less effective in terms of management outcomes. Index of conservation area effectiveness with a value of 0.387 shows that the overall conservation area in the 3 categories mentioned above is less effective, therefore conservation effect has not been able to solve area problems. It is concluded that, after more than 20 years exists in the area, few benefits have been produced by SE Aru MCA for local people associated with it and biological resources in it.Keywords: marine sanctuary, conservation, effectiveness, impactDOI: 10.7226/jtfm.19.2.119

  17. Conservative management of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.M. Gargouri

    [1] Michaeli J, Mogle S, Perlberg S, Heiman S, Caine M. Emphysematous pyelonephritis. J Urol 1984;131:203–7. [2] Somani BK, Nabi G, Thorpe P, Hussey J, Cook J, N'Dow J, et al. Is percutaneous drainage the new gold standard in the management of emphysematous pyelonephritis? Evidence from a systematic review. J.

  18. Residual and late complications of conservative management of condylar fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ElAbdin, Hassan

    1989-01-01

    Due to the increased incidence of road traffic accidents, fractures of the facial skeleton are on the rise with condylar fracture being almost 50% in some societies. The latter is usually treated either surgically or conservatively. Advocates of the conservative approach believe that the only indication for surgical intervention is displacement of the fractured condyle with a magnitude and direction such that occlusion is impossible and function is deranged. This paper presents findings in eight patients with history of fractured condyle, who were managed conservatively but presented later with serious and late complications. (author)

  19. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  20. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M; Weixelman, Dave A; Lile, David F; Tate, Kenneth W; Snell, Laura K; Roche, Leslie M

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  1. General principles for integrating geoheritage conservation in protected area management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John E.; Crofts, Roger

    2015-04-01

    Development of more integrated approaches to the management of protected areas requires not only the protection of geosites, but also the effective application of geoconservation principles that apply more widely to the sustainable management of natural systems. Key guiding principles include: working with natural processes; managing natural systems and processes in a spatially integrated manner; accepting the inevitability of natural change; considering the responses of geomorphological processes to the effects of global climate change; recognising the sensitivity of natural systems and managing them within the limits of their capacity to absorb change; basing conservation management of active systems on a sound understanding of the underlying physical processes; making provision for managing visitors at sensitive sites; and acknowledging the interdependency of geodiversity and biodiversity management. As well as recognising the value of geoheritage in its own right, a more integrated approach to conservation across the full range of IUCN Protected Area Management Categories would benefit both biodiversity and geodiversity, through application of the concept of 'conserving nature's stage' and adopting an ecosystem approach.

  2. Diagnosis and conservative management of female stress urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Krishna Dass

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence affects 17–45% of women worldwide and stress urinary incontinence is responsible for 48% of all cases. Detailed history, physical examination and investigations are crucial to identify the diagnosis underlying the incontinence symptoms to select effective therapy. Although mid-urethral sling procedures are considered to be ‘gold standard’ treatment of SUI, conservative treatment with pelvic floor muscle training and lifestyle modification is still the first line of management. This article discusses the diagnosis and conservative management of female SUI.

  3. Effects of threat management interactions on conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Nancy A; Wilson, Kerrie A; Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Rhodes, Jonathan R; Hanson, Jeffrey O; Possingham, Hugh P

    2015-12-01

    Decisions need to be made about which biodiversity management actions are undertaken to mitigate threats and about where these actions are implemented. However, management actions can interact; that is, the cost, benefit, and feasibility of one action can change when another action is undertaken. There is little guidance on how to explicitly and efficiently prioritize management for multiple threats, including deciding where to act. Integrated management could focus on one management action to abate a dominant threat or on a strategy comprising multiple actions to abate multiple threats. Furthermore management could be undertaken at sites that are in close proximity to reduce costs. We used cost-effectiveness analysis to prioritize investments in fire management, controlling invasive predators, and reducing grazing pressure in a bio-diverse region of southeastern Queensland, Australia. We compared outcomes of 5 management approaches based on different assumptions about interactions and quantified how investment needed, benefits expected, and the locations prioritized for implementation differed when interactions were taken into account. Managing for interactions altered decisions about where to invest and in which actions to invest and had the potential to deliver increased investment efficiency. Differences in high priority locations and actions were greatest between the approaches when we made different assumptions about how management actions deliver benefits through threat abatement: either all threats must be managed to conserve species or only one management action may be required. Threatened species management that does not consider interactions between actions may result in misplaced investments or misguided expectations of the effort required to mitigate threats to species. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Management of craniopharyngiomas: Role of conservative strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shibu Pillai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are uncommon tumors and their management remains controversial. Despite gross total resection, recurrences can occur in 15-43% during long-term follow-up of more than 10 years. Furthermore, radical surgery can be associated with complications associated with hypothalamic damage, which can lead to a poor quality-of-life. Limited surgery followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT can provide excellent long-term tumor control with minimum complications and good functional outcome. RT can however, produce insidious onset of hypopituitarism and vasculopathy. Secondary malignancies are a rare complication of RT. Modern radiation techniques and intracystic radiation can reduce these complications. Intracystic radiation is highly effective for cystic craniopharyngiomas. Intracystic bleomycin (ICB and interferon alpha (IFN are rarely curative, but can produce long lasting control of tumor cysts and this is very useful in very young children who may not tolerate radical surgery or RT. IFN has fewer toxicity issues compared to ICB.

  5. Setting conservation management thresholds using a novel participatory modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, P F E; de Bie, K; Rumpff, L

    2015-10-01

    We devised a participatory modeling approach for setting management thresholds that show when management intervention is required to address undesirable ecosystem changes. This approach was designed to be used when management thresholds: must be set for environmental indicators in the face of multiple competing objectives; need to incorporate scientific understanding and value judgments; and will be set by participants with limited modeling experience. We applied our approach to a case study where management thresholds were set for a mat-forming brown alga, Hormosira banksii, in a protected area management context. Participants, including management staff and scientists, were involved in a workshop to test the approach, and set management thresholds to address the threat of trampling by visitors to an intertidal rocky reef. The approach involved trading off the environmental objective, to maintain the condition of intertidal reef communities, with social and economic objectives to ensure management intervention was cost-effective. Ecological scenarios, developed using scenario planning, were a key feature that provided the foundation for where to set management thresholds. The scenarios developed represented declines in percent cover of H. banksii that may occur under increased threatening processes. Participants defined 4 discrete management alternatives to address the threat of trampling and estimated the effect of these alternatives on the objectives under each ecological scenario. A weighted additive model was used to aggregate participants' consequence estimates. Model outputs (decision scores) clearly expressed uncertainty, which can be considered by decision makers and used to inform where to set management thresholds. This approach encourages a proactive form of conservation, where management thresholds and associated actions are defined a priori for ecological indicators, rather than reacting to unexpected ecosystem changes in the future. © 2015 The

  6. The Role of Conservative Management in Incidental Os Odontoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid

    2016-04-01

    Os odontoideum is a relatively rare but significant condition of the cervical spine that has potentially life-threatening complications, including vertebral artery dissection, leading to permanent neurologic disability and even death. Unfortunately, the literature is not clear as to the best management approach for os odontoideum. As such, clinicians and their patients are still left with difficult and uncertain treatment decisions in the absence of a clinical consensus. A 20-year-old male was brought in after an assault and found to have os odontoideum on routine investigation. He was informed of management options and elected to undergo a conservative management approach with radiologic surveillance. The patient subsequently became symptomatic and required surgical fixation. This case illustrates that in the event an asymptomatic case of os odontoideum with radiological instability is managed conservatively, careful clinical and radiologic follow-up is essential as such cases can become symptomatic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biochemical genetics in marine fisheries management and conservation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Menezes, M.R.

    - 403004 NBDBlDBTSponsored Training on Taxonomy, GOIdia turd Gme Bturking o/Coastal and Marine Bloresources, CIFE, Mumbal BIOCHEMICAL GENETICS IN MARINE FISHERIES MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION Maria R. Menezes Introduction . Species of fish, like most... population structure may have evolved and been maintained in species of fish ofeconomic interest has led to the concept of 'stock'. The stock concept dominates much of marine fisheries management, theory and practice because the identification of discrete...

  8. Multidisciplinary conservative management in classical Volkmann's contracture: A case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinders, M.F.; Geertzen, J.H.B.; Eisma, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    This clinical note describes the case of a nine-year-old girl with classical Volkmann's contracture of the left forearm. The report demonstrates the results and follow-up of conservative orthotic management used as a mode of treatment by a multidisciplinary team. When using an orthosis it is

  9. Book review: Principals of soil conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and sustainable management of soil are essential features of humankind’s reverence for Nature. As well they should be, given the essential ecosystem services that soil imparts to our world, such as producing food, moderating climate, storing and cycling water and nutrients, purifying w...

  10. Energy Conservation Manual for School Food Service Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messersmith, Ann M.; Wheeler, George; Rousso, Victoria

    Energy cost management is important in all school food service operations, particularly at times when rising energy costs threaten budgets. This document is designed as a reference manual on energy and provides information about monitoring energy use and developing energy improvement and conservation plans. The manual offers energy conservation…

  11. Conservative management of cervical ectopic pregnancy: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing incidence of cervical pregnancies may be attributed to increased use of artificial reproductive techniques and diagnostic improvements. Historically surgery has been the mainstay of treatment, usually with a poor prognosis. Recently there has been a trend toward conservative management with improved ...

  12. Load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kexel, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives. Economic criteria to be used in evaluating each type of program from the perspectives of all impacted parties are provided. The impact of DSM programs on electric rates is shown to be a key focal point of a thorough evaluation

  13. How Stakeholder Co-management Reproduces Conservation Conflicts: Revealing Rationality Problems in Swedish Wolf Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica von Essen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Stakeholder' has become the primary category of political actor in decision-making, not least within nature conservation. Drawing from Habermas' theory on communicative action, this article argues that there are democratic deficits to the stakeholder model that promote citizens to remain locked in predetermined, polarized positions. It contends that the stakeholder model must, hence, be scrutinized with respect to its potential role in perpetuating conservation conflicts in modernity. Using the case study of stakeholder-based game management delegations (GMDs in Sweden, our research identifies four barriers, which tie to the instrumental basis and liberal democratic legacy of the stakeholder approach: 1 strong sense of accountability; 2 overly purposive atmosphere; 3 overemphasis on decision as final outcome; and 4 perceived inability on the part of the delegates to influence science-led decision-making. The article suggests that these democratic deficits preclude the deliberation and contestation necessary to legitimate conservation policy. Indeed, stakeholder rationality causes citizens to become inert, instrumental agents who approach discussion with strategic rather than communicative rationality. We conclude that the deficits of the stakeholder model currently: 1 restrict democratic freedom for citizens; 2 engender a crisis of legitimacy of management; and 3 reproduce the conflict, which in Sweden relates to the conservation of wolves.

  14. Against all odds. Conservative management of Boerhaave's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwuzia-Iwegbu, Charles; Al Omran, Yasser; Heaford, Amelia

    2014-05-21

    Spontaneous oesophageal perforation or Boerhaave's syndrome is a life-threatening condition that usually requires early diagnosis and early surgical management. A 79-year-old man presented to the accident and emergency department with an ischaemic left big toe. He reported a 2-week history of worsening symptoms and a claudication distance in his left leg of 20-30 m. Three days post-revascularisation of the leg, the patient reported chest pain radiating to the back. CT angiography of the aorta indicated Boerhaave's syndrome. Following 35 days of conservative management in the intensive care unit and high dependency unit, the patient was stepped down to a surgical ward. A water-soluble contrast study demonstrated minimal leak through the perforated oesophagus. The patient was started on oral intake, which was well tolerated. This case highlights that conservative management may be appropriate. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Evidence, models, conservation programs and limits to management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Walsh et al. (2012) emphasized the importance of obtaining evidence to assess the effects of management actions on state variables relevant to objectives of conservation programs. They focused on malleefowl Leipoa ocellata, ground-dwelling Australian megapodes listed as vulnerable. They noted that although fox Vulpes vulpes baiting is the main management action used in malleefowl conservation throughout southern Australia, evidence of the effectiveness of this action is limited and currently debated. Walsh et al. (2012) then used data from 64 sites monitored for malleefowl and foxes over 23 years to assess key functional relationships relevant to fox control as a conservation action for malleefowl. In one set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) focused on two relationships: fox baiting investment versus fox presence, and fox presence versus malleefowl population size and rate of population change. Results led to the counterintuitive conclusion that increases in investments in fox control produced slight decreases in malleefowl population size and growth. In a second set of analyses, Walsh et al. (2012) directly assessed the relationship between investment in fox baiting and malleefowl population size and rate of population change. This set of analyses showed no significant relationship between investment in fox population control and malleefowl population growth. Both sets of analyses benefited from the incorporation of key environmental covariates hypothesized to influence these management relationships. Walsh et al. (2012) concluded that "in most situations, malleefowl conservation did not effectively benefit from fox baiting at current levels of investment." In this commentary, I discuss the work of Walsh et al. (2012) using the conceptual framework of structured decision making (SDM). In doing so, I accept their analytic results and associated conclusions as accurate and discuss basic ideas about evidence, conservation and limits to management.

  16. Conservation markets for wildlife management with case studies from whaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Leah R; Costello, Christopher; Gaines, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Although market-based incentives have helped resolve many environmental challenges, conservation markets still play a relatively minor role in wildlife management. Establishing property rights for environmental goods and allowing trade between resource extractors and resource conservationists may offer a path forward in conserving charismatic species like whales, wolves, turtles, and sharks. In this paper, we provide a conceptual model for implementing a conservation market for wildlife and evaluate how such a market could be applied to three case studies for whales (minke [Balaenoptera acutorostrata], bowhead [Balaena mysticetus], and gray [Eschrictius robustus]). We show that, if designed and operated properly, such a market could ensure persistence of imperiled populations, while simultaneously improving the welfare of resource harvesters.

  17. Fenced and Fragmented: Conservation Value of Managed Metapopulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan M; Harper, Cindy K; Bloomer, Paulette; Hofmeyr, Jennifer; Funston, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Population fragmentation is threatening biodiversity worldwide. Species that once roamed vast areas are increasingly being conserved in small, isolated areas. Modern management approaches must adapt to ensure the continued survival and conservation value of these populations. In South Africa, a managed metapopulation approach has been adopted for several large carnivore species, all protected in isolated, relatively small, reserves that are fenced. As far as possible these approaches are based on natural metapopulation structures. In this network, over the past 25 years, African lions (Panthera leo) were reintroduced into 44 fenced reserves with little attention given to maintaining genetic diversity. To examine the situation, we investigated the current genetic provenance and diversity of these lions. We found that overall genetic diversity was similar to that in a large national park, and included a mixture of four different southern African evolutionarily significant units (ESUs). This mixing of ESUs, while not ideal, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of mixing ESUs over the long term. We propose a strategic managed metapopulation plan to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity and improve the long-term conservation value of these lions. This managed metapopulation approach could be applied to other species under similar ecological constraints around the globe.

  18. Fenced and Fragmented: Conservation Value of Managed Metapopulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M Miller

    Full Text Available Population fragmentation is threatening biodiversity worldwide. Species that once roamed vast areas are increasingly being conserved in small, isolated areas. Modern management approaches must adapt to ensure the continued survival and conservation value of these populations. In South Africa, a managed metapopulation approach has been adopted for several large carnivore species, all protected in isolated, relatively small, reserves that are fenced. As far as possible these approaches are based on natural metapopulation structures. In this network, over the past 25 years, African lions (Panthera leo were reintroduced into 44 fenced reserves with little attention given to maintaining genetic diversity. To examine the situation, we investigated the current genetic provenance and diversity of these lions. We found that overall genetic diversity was similar to that in a large national park, and included a mixture of four different southern African evolutionarily significant units (ESUs. This mixing of ESUs, while not ideal, provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of mixing ESUs over the long term. We propose a strategic managed metapopulation plan to ensure the maintenance of genetic diversity and improve the long-term conservation value of these lions. This managed metapopulation approach could be applied to other species under similar ecological constraints around the globe.

  19. Conservative fluid management prevents age-associated ventilator induced mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Joseph A; Valentine, Michael S; Saravanan, Nivi; Schneck, Matthew B; Pidaparti, Ramana; Fowler, Alpha A; Reynolds, Angela M; Heise, Rebecca L

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 800 thousand patients require mechanical ventilation in the United States annually with an in-hospital mortality rate of over 30%. The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and in-hospital mortality rates. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress patients, but to date there has been no investigation of the effect of conservative fluid management on VILI and ventilator associated mortality rates. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in susceptibility and incidence of pulmonary edema strongly promote age-related increases in ventilator associated mortality. 2month old and 20month old male C57BL6 mice were mechanically ventilated with either high tidal volume (HVT) or low tidal volume (LVT) for up to 4h with either liberal or conservative fluid support. During ventilation, lung compliance, total lung capacity, and hysteresis curves were quantified. Following ventilation, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was analyzed for total protein content and inflammatory cell infiltration. Wet to dry ratios were used to directly measure edema in excised lungs. Lung histology was performed to quantify alveolar barrier damage/destruction. Age matched non-ventilated mice were used as controls. At 4h, both advanced age and HVT ventilation significantly increased markers of inflammation and injury, degraded pulmonary mechanics, and decreased survival rates. Conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema and improved pulmonary mechanics by 1h in advanced age HVT subjects. In 4h ventilations, conservative fluid support significantly diminished pulmonary edema, improved lung mechanics, and resulted in significantly lower mortality rates in

  20. Spontaneous cervical epidural hematoma: Report of a case managed conservatively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halim Tariq

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous spinal epidural hematoma is a rare cause of acute spinal cord compression. A 25-year-old male presented with a history of sudden onset of complete quadriplegia with sensory loss below the neck along with loss of bowel and bladder control. He had no history of any constitutional symptoms. He reported 10 days later. He was managed conservatively and after two weeks of intensive rehabilitation he had complete neural recovery. The spontaneous recovery of neurological impairment is attributed to the spreading of the hematoma throughout the epidural space, thus decreasing the pressure with partial neural recovery. Conservative treatment is a fair option in young patients who present late and show neurological improvement. The neurological status on presentation will guide the further approach to management.

  1. Chondrichthyan Diversity, Conservation Status, and Management Challenges in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Espinoza

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding key aspects of the biology and ecology of chondrichthyan fishes (sharks, rays, and chimeras, as well as the range of threats affecting their populations is crucial given the rapid rate at which some species are declining. In the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP, the lack of knowledge, unreliable (or non-existent landing statistics, and limited enforcement of existing fisheries regulations has hindered management and conservation efforts for chondrichthyan species. This review evaluated our current understanding of Costa Rican chondrichthyans and their conservation status. Specifically, we (1 provide an updated checklist on the species richness, habitat use, and distribution patterns, (2 summarize the most relevant chondrichthyan studies (scientific publications, theses, and official technical reports, (3 identify knowledge gaps, (4 discuss fisheries-related threats, and (5 highlight the management challenges and research needs to effectively protect their populations. A total of 99 chondrichthyan species are formally recorded in Costa Rican waters, from which 15% are threatened with extinction and 41% are “Data Deficient” based on the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List. A total of 121 studies were published between 1891 and 2017; 82% in the Pacific (24% from Isla del Coco and only 18% from the Caribbean Sea. These results highlight the need to redirect research efforts on specific taxonomic groups and geographic regions (i.e., Caribbean. Based on our review, improving the quality and quantity of fisheries landing statistics, as well as determining the degree of overlap between chondrichthyans and Costa Rican fisheries remains a priority. We proposed an adaptive management framework for chondrichthyan fisheries in data-poor countries where management goals/targets are clearly defined. This framework could strengthen the conservation of chondrichthyan populations in Costa Rica and the region.

  2. Conservatively managed pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werder, Gabriel M.; Razdan, Rahul S.; Gagliardi, Joseph A.; Chaddha, Shashi K.B.

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of pineal apoplexy in an anticoagulated and hypertensive 56-year-old Hispanic male. At presentation, the patient's international normalized ratio (INR) was 10.51 and his blood pressure was 200/130 mmHg. His presenting symptoms included acute onset of headache, chest pain, nausea, vomiting, vertigo, and visual disturbance. Neuroimaging demonstrated hemorrhage into a morphologically normal pineal gland. Under conservative management, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms excluding the disturbance of upward gaze

  3. Preliminary guidelines for electricity distributor conservation and demand management activities : a guide for conservation and demand management investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In May 2004, electricity distributors in Ontario were asked to submit deferral accounts to the Ontario Energy Board to track expenditures on conservation and demand management initiatives. The deferral accounts must be established before the distributor could recover the costs through the next installment of the allowable return on equity in March 2004. The Board will determine the appropriateness of the actual expenditures. These guidelines offer short-term assistance to distributors in establishing conservation and demand management plans and initiatives. The following specific measures may be supported by the Board: energy efficiency; operational changes to smart control systems; load management measures which facilitate interruptible and dispatchable loads, dual fuel applications, thermal storage and demand response; fuel switching measures; programs targeted to low income and hard to reach consumers; and, distributed energy options such as tri-generation, cogeneration, ground source heat pumps, wind and biomass systems. These guidelines described the regulatory treatment of conservation and demand management investments along with cost effectiveness, allocation of costs, monitoring, evaluation, and implementation. 1 appendix

  4. Conservative management of placenta previa complicated by abnormal placentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bręborowicz, Grzegorz H; Markwitz, Wiesław; Gaca, Michał; Koziołek, Agnieszka; Ropacka-Lesiak, Mariola; Dera, Anna; Brych, Mariusz; Szymankiewicz-Bręborowicz, Marta; Kruszyński, Grzegorz; Gruca-Stryjak, Karolina; Madejczyk, Mateusz; Szpera-Goździewicz, Agata; Krzyścin, Mariola

    2013-07-01

    Abnormal implantation of placenta previa is life-threatening condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the conservative management of pregnancies with such complication on maternal morbidity rate and the chance for uterine preservation (fertility). Eleven patients with abnormal implantation of placenta previa were analyzed prospectively. This complication was diagnosed antenatally by two-dimensional ultrasound and color flow Doppler. The following outcomes were analyzed: need for blood transfusion, admission and duration of stay in intensive care unit, infections, coagulopathies, time between cesarean section and delivery of placenta, hysterectomy and preservation of uterus. Among the 20 085 women who had a singleton gestation, 11 (0.054%) were identified with placenta previa with abnormal placentation. In five patients (group A), hysterectomy was performed because of hemorrhage or placenta ablation. In six patients (group B), conservative management succeeded and placenta were preserved. In group A, placenta were delivered earlier (2 d-8 weeks) in comparison with group B (6-15 weeks). Estimated blood loss during the delayed delivery of placenta was higher in the group with hysterectomy (respectively, 450-1600 and 300-500 ml). Conservative management of placenta previa with abnormal implantation decreases the risk of severe hemorrhage at the time of delivery and can preserve fertility.

  5. Pollinator conservation — the difference between managing for pollination services and preserving pollinator diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senapathi, Deepa; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Breeze, T.; Kleijn, D.; Potts, S.G.; Carvalheiro, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    Our review looks at pollinator conservation and highlights the differences in approach between managing for pollination services and preserving pollinator diversity. We argue that ecosystem service management does not equal biodiversity conservation, and that maintaining species diversity is crucial

  6. Green campus management based on conservation program in Universitas Negeri Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihanto, Teguh

    2018-03-01

    Universitas Negeri Semarang (UNNES) has a great commitment in the development of higher education programs in line with its vision as a conservation - minded and internationally reputable university. Implementation of conservation programs with respect to the rules or conservation aspects of sustainable use, preservation, provisioning, protection, restoration and conservation of nature. In order to support the implementation of UNNES conservation program more focused, development strategies and development programs for each conservation scope are covered: (1) Biodiversity management; (2) Internal transportation management; (3) energy management; (4) Green building management; (5) Waste and water management; (6) Cultural conservation management. All related to conservation development strategies and programs are managed in the form of green campus management aimed at realizing UNNES as a green campus, characterized and reputable at the regional and global level.

  7. Evaluation of conservation-oriented management on grayish brown soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo E. Hernández Rodríguez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Conservation and improvement actions were taken to ensure the soil preservation in agricultural areas affected by erosion on a grayish brown soil of Sarduy farm in Cumanayagua, Cuba. The technology that was used included strip-till, crop rotation, live and/or dead barriers, channel terraces, contour farming and the addition of organic matter and biofertilizers. The implementation of the soil conservation-oriented management had an influence on the yield increase of 10.6% - 20.2%, on the decrease of the erosive processes with a retention of soils to 13.33 t.ha -1, on maintaining the soil pH and on the increment of the assimilable P2O5 contents and soil organic matter.

  8. An Alternate Conservative Management of Shoulder Dislocations and Subluxations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents clinical observations/results of the application of an alternate method to traditional conservative management of subluxations and dislocations of the glenohumeral joint on major junior hockey players. The proposed program involves three stages: 1) rest and nutrition, 2) interferential current and faradic muscle stimulation, and 3) a traditional progressive-resistance weight-training program in conjunction with a specially designed orthosis. Current scientific theory on soft tissue healing and repair is reviewed as the backdrop to the proposed regimen. The resulting 100% success rate is compared to the success rate of conventional conservative therapeutic programs. The orthosis is a potentially useful therapeutic device permitting safe ranges of shoulder movement during the healing process, but scientific investigation is needed to determine the precise effect of the orthosis within the proposed therapy program. PMID:16558196

  9. Presentation and conservative management of acute calcific tendinopathy: a case study and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibek, Jason S; Carcia, Christopher R

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of a variety of noninvasive, conservative management techniques for calcific tendinopathy has been investigated and established for improving pain and function and/or facilitating a decrease in the size or presence of calcium deposits. Surprisingly, few have reported on the use of traditional therapeutic exercise and rehabilitation alone in the management of this condition, given the often spontaneous resorptive nature of calcium deposits. The purpose of this case is to present the results of a conservative approach, including therapeutic exercise, for the management of calcific tendinopathy of the supraspinatus, with an emphasis on patient outcomes. The patient was a self-referred 41-y-old man with complaints of acute right-shoulder pain and difficulty sleeping. Imaging studies revealed liquefied calcium deposits in the right supraspinatus. The patient reported constant pain at rest (9/10) and tenderness in the area of the greater tuberosity. He exhibited a decrease in all shoulder motions and had reduced strength. The simple shoulder test (SST) revealed limited function (0/12). Conservative management included superficial modalities and medication for pain and a regimen of scapulothoracic and glenohumeral range-of-motion (ROM) and strengthening exercises. At discharge, pain levels decreased to 0/10 and SST scores increased to 12/12. ROM was full in all planes, and resisted motion was strong and pain free. The patient was able to engage in endurance activities and continue practicing as a health care provider. The outcomes with respect to pain, function, and patient satisfaction provide evidence to support the use of conservative therapeutic interventions when managing patients with acute cases of calcific tendinopathy. Successful management of calcific tendinopathy requires attention to outcomes and an understanding of the pathophysiology, prognostic factors, and physical interventions based on the current stage of the calcium deposits and the

  10. Conservative Management of Theca Lutein Cyst Accident: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radha Bai Prabhu T

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Theca lutein cysts can occur in 20-25% of molar pregnancies. These cysts can undergo complications such as torsion, rupture, and haemorrhage. As these are functional cysts, when there are complications such as torsion they can be managed conservatively by aspirating the cysts under ultrasound guidance or by detorsion at the time of laparoscopy. By simple detorsion, ovaries can be preserved in 80-90% of cases. In order to prevent recurrence adnexal fixation can be undertaken by plicating the ovarian ligament.

  11. Typhoid fever with caecal ulcer bleed: managed conservatively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Vinoth; Periyasamy, Sivakumar; Alexander, Thomas; Balasubramanian, Padhmini

    2014-03-31

    Typhoid fever is caused by enteroinvasive Gram-negative organism Salmonella typhi. The well-known complications of typhoid fever are intestinal haemorrhage and perforation. In the pre-antibiotic era, these complications were quite common, but in the current antibiotic era the incidence of these complications is on the decline. We report a case of a patient with typhoid fever who developed haematochezia during the hospital stay and was found to have caecal ulcer with an adherent clot on colonoscopy. He was managed successfully with conservative measures without endotherapy and there was no rebleed.

  12. When will community management conserve biodiversity? Evidence from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy E. Hecht

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Both development practitioners and conservation organizations are focused on community ownership and management of natural resources as a way to create incentives for the conservation of biodiversity. This has led to the implementation of a number of large community-based conservation projects in sub-Saharan Africa, in countries including Namibia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, Zambia, and Rwanda. While the concept is logical, and valuation studies may suggest that conservation is more valuable than other uses of the resources in some areas, there has been little detailed analysis of the financial costs and benefits to the communities, to determine whether they would actually have an incentive to conserve if they had more extensive legal rights to the resources. This paper assesses the conditions under which this approach may be viable, based on a valuation study of the resources of Mount Mulanje in southern Malawi.Les spécialistes du développement et les organisations de conservation s’intéressent à la propriété et à la gestion communautaire des ressources naturelles comme moyen de créer des mesures d’incitation en faveur de la conservation de la biodiversité. Cette approche a conduit à la mise en œuvre d’un certain nombre de grands projets de conservation communautaires en Afrique subsaharienne, notamment en Namibie, au Zimbabwe, au Malawi, en Zambie et au Rwanda. Même si cette approche est logique et si les études d’évaluation semblent suggérer que, dans certaines régions, la conservation est plus utile que l’exploitation des ressources, il existe peu d’analyses détaillées sur les coûts et les avantages financiers que cela engendrerait pour les communautés, analyses qui permettraient de déterminer si le développement des droits légaux des communautés sur ces ressources les inciterait à les conserver. Ce rapport évalue les conditions de viabilité de cette approche sur la base d’une étude d’évaluation des

  13. Kidney trauma with underlying renal pathology: Is conservative management sufficient?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabii El-Atat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the pre-existing renal lesions (PERL found incidentally during evaluation for blunt renal trauma, determine their importance, and suggest guidelines for effective management, including conservative treatment, we reviewed 180 patients who were hospitalized with blunt renal trauma between 1992 and 2008. Thirty of the 180 (16.6% patients had PERL, which had been undiagnosed. The mean follow-up was 5 years (range 1-9 years. There were 24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 30 years (range 14-80 years. The most common cause of blunt renal injuries was falls and sports. Renal stones were present in 14 patients, pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction in 12, ectopic kidney in two, and megaureter and renal cyst in one case each. Ureteral stenting was used in four cases, and early nephrectomy was required in the other four. Fourteen patients underwent surgery for the PERL and not trauma, with a pyeloplasty in eight cases, partial nephrectomy in three cases, percutaneous nephrololithotomy in two cases, and ureteroneocystostomy in one case. In our study, the conservative treatment was possible in 73% of cases. We believe the published data support increasing conservative attempts in the hemodynamically stable patient.

  14. Conservation and management of seahorses and other Syngnathidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, A C J; Foster, S J; Koldewey, H J

    2011-06-01

    This article analyses the pressures on seahorses and explores conservation responses. It focuses on seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) but also considers pipefishes and seadragons, especially where they can fill gaps in seahorse knowledge. The charisma of many syngnathids can make them good flagship species for threats and solutions in marine conservation. The article combines a synthesis of published literature with new data on the trade in seahorses for traditional medicine, aquarium display and curiosities. Most traded seahorses come from trawl by-catch, although seahorses are also targeted. The total extraction is large, tens of millions of animals annually, and unsustainable. A first review of the effect of habitat change on syngnathids raises many questions, while suggesting that some species may cope better than others. The combination of pressures means that many species of syngnathid are now included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species or national equivalents. In addition, seahorse exports from 175 countries are limited to sustainable levels under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) of Wild Fauna and Flora. Possible conservation measures include marine protected areas, fisheries management, select aquaculture ventures, trade regulation, improved governance (particularly) and consumer engagement. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2011 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative data management and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latysh, Natalie; Bristol, R. Sky

    2011-01-01

    Six Federal agencies, two State agencies, and two local entities formally support the Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) and work together on a landscape scale to manage fragile habitats and wildlife resources amidst growing energy development in southwest Wyoming. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was tasked with implementing targeted research and providing scientific information about southwest Wyoming to inform the development of WLCI habitat enhancement and restoration projects conducted by land management agencies. Many WLCI researchers and decisionmakers representing the Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the State of Wyoming, and others have overwhelmingly expressed the need for a stable, robust infrastructure to promote sharing of data resources produced by multiple entities, including metadata adequately describing the datasets. Descriptive metadata facilitates use of the datasets by users unfamiliar with the data. Agency representatives advocate development of common data handling and distribution practices among WLCI partners to enhance availability of comprehensive and diverse data resources for use in scientific analyses and resource management. The USGS Core Science Informatics (CSI) team is developing and promoting data integration tools and techniques across USGS and partner entity endeavors, including a data management infrastructure to aid WLCI researchers and decisionmakers.

  16. Survey design for precise fire management conservation targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; Di Stefano, Julian; Wills, Timothy; Swan, Matthew; York, Alan

    2018-01-01

    Common goals of ecological fire management are to sustain biodiversity and minimize extinction risk. A novel approach to achieving these goals determines the relative proportions of vegetation growth stages (equivalent to successional stages, which are categorical representations of time since fire) that maximize a biodiversity index. The method combines data describing species abundances in each growth stage with numerical optimization to define an optimal growth-stage structure that provides a conservation-based operational target for managers. However, conservation targets derived from growth-stage optimization are likely to depend critically on choices regarding input data. There is growing interest in the use of growth-stage optimization as a basis for fire management, thus understanding of how input data influence the outputs is crucial. Simulated data sets provide a flexible platform for systematically varying aspects of survey design and species inclusions. We used artificial data with known properties, and a case-study data set from southeastern Australia, to examine the influence of (1) survey design (total number of sites and their distribution among growth stages) and (2) species inclusions (total number of species and their level of specialization) on the precision of conservation targets. Based on our findings, we recommend that survey designs for precise estimates would ideally involve at least 80 sites, and include at least 80 species. Greater numbers of sites and species will yield increasingly reliable results, but fewer might be sufficient in some circumstances. An even distribution of sites among growth stages was less important than the total number of sites, and omission of species is unlikely to have a major influence on results as long as several species specialize on each growth stage. We highlight the importance of examining the responses of individual species to growth stage before feeding survey data into the growth-stage optimization

  17. Velocity of climate change algorithms for guiding conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Andreas; Roberts, David R; Barber, Quinn E; Carroll, Carlos; Nielsen, Scott E

    2015-02-01

    The velocity of climate change is an elegant analytical concept that can be used to evaluate the exposure of organisms to climate change. In essence, one divides the rate of climate change by the rate of spatial climate variability to obtain a speed at which species must migrate over the surface of the earth to maintain constant climate conditions. However, to apply the algorithm for conservation and management purposes, additional information is needed to improve realism at local scales. For example, destination information is needed to ensure that vectors describing speed and direction of required migration do not point toward a climatic cul-de-sac by pointing beyond mountain tops. Here, we present an analytical approach that conforms to standard velocity algorithms if climate equivalents are nearby. Otherwise, the algorithm extends the search for climate refugia, which can be expanded to search for multivariate climate matches. With source and destination information available, forward and backward velocities can be calculated allowing useful inferences about conservation of species (present-to-future velocities) and management of species populations (future-to-present velocities). © 2014 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Conservative management of distal leg necrosis in lung transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigner, F; Husmann, M; Huber, L C; Benden, C; Schuurmans, M M

    2017-05-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) with distal leg necrosis in lung transplant recipients (LTR) is associated with a high risk for systemic infection and sepsis. Optimal management of CLI has not been defined so far in LTR. In immunocompetent individuals with leg necrosis, surgical amputation would be indicated and standard care. We report on the outcome of four conservatively managed LTR with distal leg necrosis due to peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with medial calcification of the distal limb vessels. Time interval from lung transplantation to CLI ranged from four years (n = 1) to more than a decade (n = 3). In all cases a multimodal therapy with heparin, acetylsalicylic acid, iloprost and antibiotic therapy was performed, in addition to a trial of catheter-based revascularization. Surgical amputation of necrosis was not undertaken due to fear of wound healing difficulties under long-term immunosuppression and impaired tissue perfusion. Intensive wound care and selective debridement were performed. Two patients developed progressive gangrene followed by auto-amputation during a follow-up of 43 and 49 months with continued ambulation and two patients died of unrelated causes 9 and 12 months after diagnosis of CLI. In conclusion, we report a conservative treatment strategy for distal leg necrosis in LTR without surgical amputation and recommend this approach based on our experience. Copyright © 2017 Tissue Viability Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. WHAT TO CONSERVE? Heritage, Memory, and Management of Meanings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehab KAMEL-AHMED

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This Paper explores and criticizes different theories and perceptions concerning ‘cultural heritage’ to explore the definitions of ‘heritage’ throughout history, and questions how the conflicts in considering and identifying ‘heritage’ might have affected the approaches to its conservation. In such process, the paper investigates the relation between ‘place’ and ‘memory’ and how place has been always the medium through which history was written, resulting in two inseparable faces, tangible and the intangible, forming the two-faced coin of ‘cultural heritage’. This research assists understanding the complex construct of heritage places; stressing the growing awareness of intangible heritage’s importance, which represents a remarkable turn in heritage conservation realm in the twenty-first century, and emphasizing the notion of heritage as a coefficient of society, which is understood through experience, learnt through performance, and represented through ‘activities’ formed in the present maintaining and developing the identity of place and preserving its spirit, rather than a past oriented vision that tends to ‘pickle’ images from the past in a picturesque manner that is only tourism-oriented.

  20. Integration of environmental flow assessment and freshwater conservation planning: a new era in catchment management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nel, JL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resources management offers an ideal platform for addressing the goals of freshwater conservation and climate change adaptation. Environmental flow assessment and systematic conservation planning have evolved separately...

  1. Conservative management of esophageal perforation after a fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delos Reyes, Arthur P; Clancy, Christopher; Lach, Joseph; Olorunto, William A; Williams, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Esophageal perforation in the setting of blunt trauma is rare, and diagnosis can be difficult due to atypical signs and symptoms accompanied by distracting injury. We present a case of esophageal perforation resulting from a fall from height. Unexplained air in the soft tissues planes posterior to the esophagus as well as subcutaneous emphysema in the absence of a pneumothorax on CT aroused clinical suspicions of an injury to the aerodigestive tract. The patient suffered multiple injuries including bilateral first rib fractures, C6 lamina fractures, C4-C6 spinous process fractures, a C7 right transverse process fracture with associated ligamentous injury and cord contusion, multiple comminuted nasal bone fractures, and a right verterbral artery dissection. Esophageal injury was localized using a gastrograffin esophagram to the cervical esophagus and was most likely secondary to cervical spine fractures. Because there were no clinical signs of sepsis and the esophagram demonstrated a contained rupture, the patient was thought to be a good candidate for a trial of conservative management consisting of broad spectrum intravenous antibiotics, oral care with chlorhexadine gluconate, NPO, and total parenteral nutrition. No cervical spine fixation or procedure was performed during this trial of conservative management. The patient was received another gastrograffin esophagram on hospital day 14 and demonstrated no evidence of contrast extravasation. Early diagnosis and control of the infectious source are the cornerstones to successful management of esophageal perforation from all etiologies. Traditionally, esophageal perforation relied on a high index of clinical suspicion for early diagnosis, but the use of CT scan for has proved to be highly effective in diagnosing esophageal perforation especially in patients with atypical presentations. While aggressive surgical infection control is paramount in the majority of esophageal perforations, a select subset of patients can

  2. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  3. Unintended consequences of conservation actions: managing disease in complex ecosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliénor L M Chauvenet

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases are increasingly recognised to be a major threat to biodiversity. Disease management tools such as control of animal movements and vaccination can be used to mitigate the impact and spread of diseases in targeted species. They can reduce the risk of epidemics and in turn the risks of population decline and extinction. However, all species are embedded in communities and interactions between species can be complex, hence increasing the chance of survival of one species can have repercussions on the whole community structure. In this study, we use an example from the Serengeti ecosystem in Tanzania to explore how a vaccination campaign against Canine Distemper Virus (CDV targeted at conserving the African lion (Panthera leo, could affect the viability of a coexisting threatened species, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus. Assuming that CDV plays a role in lion regulation, our results suggest that a vaccination programme, if successful, risks destabilising the simple two-species system considered, as simulations show that vaccination interventions could almost double the probability of extinction of an isolated cheetah population over the next 60 years. This work uses a simple example to illustrate how predictive modelling can be a useful tool in examining the consequence of vaccination interventions on non-target species. It also highlights the importance of carefully considering linkages between human-intervention, species viability and community structure when planning species-based conservation actions.

  4. Conservative Management of an Advanced Abdominal Pregnancy at 22 Weeks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, Louis; Ménard, Sophie; Lamau, Marie-Charlotte; Mignon, Alexandre; Aubelle, Marie Stephanie; Grangé, Gilles; Goffinet, François

    2014-01-01

    Objective We report an uneventful conservative approach of an advanced abdominal pregnancy discovered at 22 weeks of gestation. Study Design This study is a case report. Results Attempting to extend gestation of an advanced abdominal pregnancy is not a common strategy and is widely questioned. According to the couple's request, the management consisted in continuous hospitalization, regular ultrasound scan, and antenatal corticosteroids. While the woman remained asymptomatic, surgery was planned at 32 weeks, leading to the birth of a preterm child without any long-term complications. Placenta was left in situ with a prophylactic embolization, and its resorption was monitored. Conclusion Depending on multidisciplinary cares and agreement of the parents, when late discovered, prolonging advanced abdominal pregnancy appears to be a reasonable option. PMID:25032062

  5. Successful conservative management of Ludwig's angina in advanced pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Roxana; Mercado-Alvarado, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    A 20 year-old female in her 32nd week of gestation presented to the Emergency Department with dysphonia and dysphagia associated to a recent recurrence of a periapical abscess. Her oral examination showed trismus, elevated tongue and neck swelling. A clinical diagnosis of Ludwig's angina was reached, and empirical antibiotic coverage was started. The decompression and drainage placement was performed successfully under local anesthesia without airway compromise. At the moment, no clear guidelines exist for the acute treatment of Ludwig's angina. Establishment of a secure airway has long been considered the gold standard, yet new literature suggests a more conservative management. Ascertaining an early diagnosis at the Emergency Department, and involvement of Anesthesia, Obstetrics, and, Ear, Nose and Throat specialist services is vital for materno-fetal wellbeing. Careful evaluation of the airway status in addition to prompt antimicrobial therapy with surgical decompression may represent a plausible alternative in pregnant patients.

  6. Evidence Based Conservative Management of Patello-femoral Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is defined as pain surrounding the patella when sitting with bent knees for prolonged periods of time or when performing activities like ascending or descending stairs, squatting or   athletic activities. Patella dislocation is not included in PFPS.     Purpose:   This review analyzes the evidence based conservative management of PFPS.   Methods:   A Cochrane Library search related to PFPS was performed until 18 January 2014. The key words were: patellofemoral pain syndrome. Eight papers were found, of which three were reviewed because they were focused   on the topic of the article. We also searched the PubMed using the following keywords: evidence based conservative   management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Twelve articles were found, of which seven were reviewed because   they were focused on the topic of the article. Overall ten articles were analyzed.     Results:   Different treatments can be tried for PFPS, including pharmacotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, exercise therapy, and taping and braces.     Conclusions:   Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may reduce pain in the short term, but pain does not improve after three months. Therapeutic ultrasound appears not to have a clinically important effect on pain relief for   patients with PFPS. The evidence that exercise therapy is more effective in treating PFPS than no exercise is limited   with respect to pain reduction, and conflicting with respect to functional improvement. No significant difference has   been found between taping and non-taping. The role of knee braces is still controversial. More well-designed studies are needed.    

  7. Conservative medical and surgical management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S; Tulandi, T

    1999-08-01

    To review the definition and diagnosis of interstitial and heterotopic interstitial pregnancy and to evaluate the conservative management of these conditions. A MEDLINE computer search was used to identify relevant studies. The mean values for the duration of amenorrhea, serum beta-hCG level, size of the ectopic mass, and success rates of the various treatment modalities were calculated from the raw data in the original publications. A review of 41 patients with interstitial pregnancy who were treated with methotrexate systemically, locally, or in combination revealed an overall success rate of 83%. The mean duration of amenorrhea, mean serum beta-hCG level, and mean size of the ectopic mass were 54 days, 15,127 mIU/mL, and 23 mm, respectively. Among 22 patients with interstitial pregnancy who were treated with conservative laparoscopic techniques, the overall success rate was 100%. In this group, the mean duration of amenorrhea, mean serum beta-hCG level, and mean size of the ectopic mass were 54 days, 7,572 mIU/mL, and 31 mm, respectively. There were nine cases of heterotopic interstitial pregnancy. Seven patients were managed with potassium chloride injected into the ectopic pregnancy, and two patients were treated by laparoscopy. Overall, 67% of the coexisting intrauterine pregnancies resulted in successful deliveries and the remainder ended in spontaneous abortions. Cornual resection or hysterectomy with a laparotomy should no longer be the first line of treatment for a hemodynamically stable patient with an interstitial pregnancy. In selected cases, methotrexate and laparoscopy can be used successfully in treating early interstitial pregnancy.

  8. Evidence Based Conservative Management of Patello-femoral Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carlos Rodriguez-Merchan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:   Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS is defined as pain surrounding the patella when sitting with bent knees for prolonged periods of time or when performing activities like ascending or descending stairs, squatting or   athletic activities. Patella dislocation is not included in PFPS.     Purpose:   This review analyzes the evidence based conservative management of PFPS.   Methods:   A Cochrane Library search related to PFPS was performed until 18 January 2014. The key words were: patellofemoral pain syndrome. Eight papers were found, of which three were reviewed because they were focused   on the topic of the article. We also searched the PubMed using the following keywords: evidence based conservative   management of patellofemoral pain syndrome. Twelve articles were found, of which seven were reviewed because   they were focused on the topic of the article. Overall ten articles were analyzed.     Results:   Different treatments can be tried for PFPS, including pharmacotherapy, therapeutic ultrasound, exercise therapy, and taping and braces.     Conclusions:   Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may reduce pain in the short term, but pain does not improve after three months. Therapeutic ultrasound appears not to have a clinically important effect on pain relief for   patients with PFPS. The evidence that exercise therapy is more effective in treating PFPS than no exercise is limited   with respect to pain reduction, and conflicting with respect to functional improvement. No significant difference has   been found between taping and non-taping. The role of knee braces is still controversial. More well-designed studies are needed.

  9. Science Priorities for Seamounts: Research Links to Conservation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R.; Schlacher, Thomas A.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Stocks, Karen I.; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  10. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm R Clark

    Full Text Available Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1 Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity, more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2 New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery; 3 Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4 Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive

  11. Science priorities for seamounts: research links to conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Malcolm R; Schlacher, Thomas A; Rowden, Ashley A; Stocks, Karen I; Consalvey, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    Seamounts shape the topography of all ocean basins and can be hotspots of biological activity in the deep sea. The Census of Marine Life on Seamounts (CenSeam) was a field program that examined seamounts as part of the global Census of Marine Life (CoML) initiative from 2005 to 2010. CenSeam progressed seamount science by collating historical data, collecting new data, undertaking regional and global analyses of seamount biodiversity, mapping species and habitat distributions, challenging established paradigms of seamount ecology, developing new hypotheses, and documenting the impacts of human activities on seamounts. However, because of the large number of seamounts globally, much about the structure, function and connectivity of seamount ecosystems remains unexplored and unknown. Continual, and potentially increasing, threats to seamount resources from fishing and seabed mining are creating a pressing demand for research to inform conservation and management strategies. To meet this need, intensive science effort in the following areas will be needed: 1) Improved physical and biological data; of particular importance is information on seamount location, physical characteristics (e.g. habitat heterogeneity and complexity), more complete and intensive biodiversity inventories, and increased understanding of seamount connectivity and faunal dispersal; 2) New human impact data; these shall encompass better studies on the effects of human activities on seamount ecosystems, as well as monitoring long-term changes in seamount assemblages following impacts (e.g. recovery); 3) Global data repositories; there is a pressing need for more comprehensive fisheries catch and effort data, especially on the high seas, and compilation or maintenance of geological and biodiversity databases that underpin regional and global analyses; 4) Application of support tools in a data-poor environment; conservation and management will have to increasingly rely on predictive modelling

  12. Curent requirements for image management in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steil, V.; Schneider, F.; Wenz, F.; Lohr, F.; Roehner, F.; Weisser, G.

    2012-01-01

    Treatment techniques of increasing complexity such as dynamic/rotational techniques mandate digital management and increasingly image guidance. This constantly increases requirements for image management and archiving. This article discusses the current status of these requirements and will present potential image administration strategies. Fundamentals of image administration and storage/archiving are presented (DICOM Standard, radiotherapy-specific issues) along the typical patient pathway (demographic data, radiotherapy treatment planning, signatures/approval of plan and image data, archiving of plan and image data). Different strategies for image management are presented (archiving centered on individual application vs. integral approach with central archiving in a DICOM-RT-PACS governed by a radiation oncology information system (ROCIS)). Infrastructural requirements depending on the amount of image data generated in the department are discussed. Application-centered image management provides access to image data including all relevant RT-specific elements. This approach, however, is not migration-safe, requires significant administrative work to ensure a redundancy level that protects against data loss and does not provide datasets that are linked to respective therapeutic interventions. Therefore, centralized image management and archiving that links images to patients and individual steps in the treatment pathway within a standardized DICOM(-RT) environment is preferable despite occasional problems with visualization of specific data elements. (orig.)

  13. [Current requirements for image management in radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, V; Röhner, F; Schneider, F; Wenz, F; Lohr, F; Weisser, G

    2012-06-01

    Treatment techniques of increasing complexity such as dynamic/rotational techniques mandate digital management and increasingly image guidance. This constantly increases requirements for image management and archiving. This article discusses the current status of these requirements and will present potential image administration strategies. Fundamentals of image administration and storage/archiving are presented (DICOM Standard, radiotherapy-specific issues) along the typical patient pathway (demographic data, radiotherapy treatment planning, signatures/approval of plan and image data, archiving of plan and image data). Different strategies for image management are presented (archiving centered on individual application vs. integral approach with central archiving in a DICOM-RT-PACS governed by a radiation oncology information system (ROCIS)). Infrastructural requirements depending on the amount of image data generated in the department are discussed. Application-centered image management provides access to image data including all relevant RT-specific elements. This approach, however, is not migration-safe, requires significant administrative work to ensure a redundancy level that protects against data loss and does not provide datasets that are linked to respective therapeutic interventions. Therefore, centralized image management and archiving that links images to patients and individual steps in the treatment pathway within a standardized DICOM(-RT) environment is preferable despite occasional problems with visualization of specific data elements.

  14. 75 FR 52300 - Merchant Marine Act and Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fishing Vessel, Fishing Facility and... the Fisheries Finance Program's programmatic regulations. The proposed rule was published with an...

  15. A framework for marketing image management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barich, H; Kotler, P

    1991-01-01

    Managers know that the customer's impression of an organization is important. And sometimes companies attempt to determine just what that impression is. They conduct ad hoc surveys and focus groups. But too often the data is insubstantial, or difficult to analyze, or even inaccurate. Barich and Kotler introduce the concept of "marketing image" and describe a system of image management: designing a study, collecting data, analyzing image problems, modifying the image, and tracking responses to that image. They argue that only a systematic approach will yield useful and accurate information that a company can translate into action.

  16. The effect of scientific evidence on conservation practitioners’ management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jessica C; Dicks, Lynn V; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    A major justification of environmental management research is that it helps practitioners, yet previous studies show it is rarely used to inform their decisions. We tested whether conservation practitioners focusing on bird management were willing to use a synopsis of relevant scientific literature to inform their management decisions. This allowed us to examine whether the limited use of scientific information in management is due to a lack of access to the scientific literature or whether it is because practitioners are either not interested or unable to incorporate the research into their decisions. In on-line surveys, we asked 92 conservation managers, predominantly from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom, to provide opinions on 28 management techniques that could be applied to reduce predation on birds. We asked their opinions before and after giving them a summary of the literature about the interventions’ effectiveness. We scored the overall effectiveness and certainty of evidence for each intervention through an expert elicitation process—the Delphi method. We used the effectiveness scores to assess the practitioners’ level of understanding and awareness of the literature. On average, each survey participant changed their likelihood of using 45.7% of the interventions after reading the synopsis of the evidence. They were more likely to implement effective interventions and avoid ineffective actions, suggesting that their intended future management strategies may be more successful than current practice. More experienced practitioners were less likely to change their management practices than those with less experience, even though they were not more aware of the existing scientific information than less experienced practitioners. The practitioners’ willingness to change their management choices when provided with summarized scientific evidence suggests that improved accessibility to scientific information would benefit conservation

  17. Conservative Management of Mechanical Neck Pain in a Helicopter Pilot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagha, Babak

    2015-10-01

    Acute and chronic spinal symptoms such as neck pain may limit flying performance significantly and disqualify the pilot from flight duty. Mechanical neck pain is very common among pilots because of their exposure to vibration, +GZ forces, helmet weight, poor neck posture during air combat maneuvers, previous neck injuries, and poor treatment plans for such injuries. Successful treatment of such injuries requires appropriate therapeutic procedures as well as an aeromedical assessment. The aim of this case study was to demonstrate the benefits of conservative procedures such as spinal manipulation and mobilization therapy (SMMT) and exercise therapy (ET) in treating chronic mechanical neck pain in an Iranian commercial helicopter pilot. A 36-yr-old male patient presented to the clinic with moderate, intermittent nonradicular chronic neck pain and limited range of motion over a 2-yr period. The patient was treated with cervical and upper thoracic SMMT followed by home ET for 5 wk. After this period, the patient reported significant recovery and improvement in range of motion in his neck. Mechanical neck pain is very common among helicopter pilots. Although Air Force and Navy waiver guides recommend nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications as well as SMMT and ET, there are currently very few published studies that examine the benefits of manual and exercise therapy for treating mechanical neck pain in commercial and military pilots. Based on the results of this study, it seems that SMMT and ET may be a safe and effective in treatment of uncomplicated mechanical neck pain in helicopter pilots. Alagha B. Conservative management of mechanical neck pain in a helicopter pilot.

  18. 75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... System. Legislative Authority: Part A of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), Public Law 94-163, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6291-6309, established the ``Energy Conservation... Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System AGENCY: Office of Energy...

  19. Placenta Previa Percreta: A Case Report of Successful Management via Conservative Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Canonico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta percreta is one of the most serious complications of placenta previa and is frequently associated with severe obstetric hemorrhage usually necessitating hysterectomy. We present a case of placenta previa percreta diagnosed by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, in which we accomplished conservative management of postpartum hemorrhage. The management we propose includes the following steps: preventive catheterization of the descending aorta via transhumeral access; Stark cesarean delivery; uterotonics drugs; Affronti endouterine square hemostatic sutures; intrauterine application of Bakri balloon and partial filling with 100 mL of normal saline; B Lynch suture, hysterorrhaphy, and filling a Bakri balloon with up to 500 mL of normal saline; reversible radiological embolization; and/or surgical ligation of the uterine arteries. The bleeding stopped following placement of Affronti sutures combined with external (B-Lynch suture and internal (Bakri balloon uterine compression. Our experience indicates that this conservative method can be considered an option in the management of selected cases of pregnancy at high risk for intrapartum hemorrhage.

  20. Aggressive or conservative management in extradural hematomas in children – a challenging neurosurgical choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tascu A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available epidural hematomas (EDH in children appear as a consequence of head trauma. Although emergency surgical intervention was the classical neurosurgical treatment for EDH, lately there has been observed a tendency to replace operation by conservative management, whenever the neurological status and imaging appearance allows it. The aim of this article is to present our experience in treating EDH in children 0-3 years old and to establish a management protocol for EDH in infants, by evaluating the clinical and neuroimaging status, of both surgically and conservatively treated patients, from hospital admission to discharge. Retrospective study includes 52 patients diagnosed with an extradural hematoma, admitted in the First Neurosurgery Department of the Clinical Hospital ‘Bagdasar-Arseni’ in Bucharest, from January 2004 to December 2013. The patients were identified by diagnosis from the clinic’s database; clinical and imaging data was extracted from the patient’s individual records and crosschecked with the operating protocols. Cerebral CT scan was the preferred imaging investigation for diagnosis. Our study includes 52 patients (26 boys and 26 girls, with a mean age of 14.5 months (range 6 weeks - 3 years old. 25 patients were surgically treated, while the other 27 received symptomatic medication and were monitored clinically and by imaging exams. The most frequent clinical manifestations were intracranial hypertension (21 patients and psychomotor agitation (19 patients. The traumatic mechanisms were: accidental falling (38 patients, blunt head trauma (3 patients, road accident (2 patients, unspecified (8 patients other causes (1 patient. Based on the Glasgow Coma Scale classification of TBI, 39 patients suffered a mild TBI, 7 a moderate TBI and 6 patients suffered a severe TBI. Most of the patients had a good recovery; there was a total of two deaths. The most common location for the EDHs was parietal (20 patients and temporal-parietal (11

  1. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  2. Managing climate change in conservation practice: an exploration of the science-management interface in beech forest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Koning, Jessica; Turnhout, Esther; Winkel, Georg; Blondet, Marieke; Borras, Lars; Ferranti, Francesca; Geitzenauer, Maria; Sotirov, Metodi; Jump, Alistair

    Scientific studies reveal significant consequences of climate change for nature, from ecosystems to individual species. Such studies are important factors in policy decisions on forest conservation and management in Europe. However, while research has shown that climate change research start to impact on European conservation policies like Natura 2000, climate change information has yet to translate into management practices. This article contributes to the on-going debates about science-society relations and knowledge utilization by exploring and analysing the interface between scientific knowledge and forest management practice. We focus specifically on climate change debates in conservation policy and on how managers of forest areas in Europe perceive and use climate change ecology. Our findings show that forest managers do not necessarily deny the potential importance of climate change for their management practices, at least in the future, but have reservations about the current usefulness of available knowledge for their own areas and circumstances. This suggests that the science-management interface is not as politicized as current policy debates about climate change and that the use of climate change ecology is situated in practice. We conclude the article by discussing what forms of knowledge may enable responsible and future oriented management in practice focusing specifically on the role of reflexive experimentation and monitoring.

  3. Intelligent distributed medical image management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Hong-Mei C.; Yun, David Y.

    1995-05-01

    The rapid advancements in high performance global communication have accelerated cooperative image-based medical services to a new frontier. Traditional image-based medical services such as radiology and diagnostic consultation can now fully utilize multimedia technologies in order to provide novel services, including remote cooperative medical triage, distributed virtual simulation of operations, as well as cross-country collaborative medical research and training. Fast (efficient) and easy (flexible) retrieval of relevant images remains a critical requirement for the provision of remote medical services. This paper describes the database system requirements, identifies technological building blocks for meeting the requirements, and presents a system architecture for our target image database system, MISSION-DBS, which has been designed to fulfill the goals of Project MISSION (medical imaging support via satellite integrated optical network) -- an experimental high performance gigabit satellite communication network with access to remote supercomputing power, medical image databases, and 3D visualization capabilities in addition to medical expertise anywhere and anytime around the country. The MISSION-DBS design employs a synergistic fusion of techniques in distributed databases (DDB) and artificial intelligence (AI) for storing, migrating, accessing, and exploring images. The efficient storage and retrieval of voluminous image information is achieved by integrating DDB modeling and AI techniques for image processing while the flexible retrieval mechanisms are accomplished by combining attribute- based and content-based retrievals.

  4. Concentrating or scattering management in agricultural landscapes : Examining the effectiveness and efficiency of conservation measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, Martijn; Muskens, Gerard; Van Kats, Ruud J. M.; Teunissen, Wolf A.; Kleijn, David

    2016-01-01

    A key issue in conservation is where and how much management should be implemented to obtain optimal biodiversity benefits. Cost-effective conservation requires knowledge on whether biodiversity benefits are higher when management is concentrated in a few core areas or scattered across the

  5. The use of GIS and modelling approaches in squirrel population management and conservation: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. W. W. Lurz; J. L. Koprowski; D. J. A. Wood

    2008-01-01

    We review modelling approaches in relation to three key areas of sciurid ecology: management, disease risk assessments and conservation. Models enable us to explore different scenarios to develop effective management and conservation strategies. They may also assist in identifying and targeting research needs for tree and flying squirrels. However, there is a need to...

  6. A case with fistula formation between a perinephric retroperitoneal abscess and the duodenum: successful outcome after conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Masahiro; Takahashi, Satoshi; Hisasue, Shin-Ichi; Muranaka, Takashi; Takayanagi, Akio; Maehana, Takeshi; Uehara, Teruhisa; Masumori, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Taiji

    2011-08-01

    A 67-year-old woman diagnosed with pyonephrosis and perinephric abscess because of an impacted urinary stone in the pelvicoureteric junction was admitted to the hospital with a high-grade fever. Although construction of a right nephrostomy for drainage of the abscess improved her general condition, she had a fever again 2 weeks after the initial treatment. Computed tomography revealed a persistent perinephric retroperitoneal abscess and a second drainage procedure was performed. Then, imaging examination revealed fistula formation between the cavity of the perinephric retroperitoneal abscess and the duodenum. The patient received conservative management including percutaneous drainage, discontinuation of oral intake, and antimicrobial chemotherapy. Three days after the second drainage and discontinuation of oral intake, imaging examination revealed complete closure of the fistula. Fistula formation between a perinephric abscess and the duodenum is very rare but a favorable outcome was obtained by our conservative management.

  7. The ecology, distribution, conservation and management of large old trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Laurance, William F

    2017-08-01

    Large old trees are some of the most iconic biota on earth and are integral parts of many terrestrial ecosystems including those in tropical, temperate and boreal forests, deserts, savannas, agro-ecological areas, and urban environments. In this review, we provide new insights into the ecology, function, evolution and management of large old trees through broad cross-disciplinary perspectives from literatures in plant physiology, growth and development, evolution, habitat value for fauna and flora, and conservation management. Our review reveals that the diameter, height and longevity of large old trees varies greatly on an inter-specific basis, thereby creating serious challenges in defining large old trees and demanding an ecosystem- and species-specific definition that will only rarely be readily transferable to other species or ecosystems. Such variation is also manifested by marked inter-specific differences in the key attributes of large old trees (beyond diameter and height) such as the extent of buttressing, canopy architecture, the extent of bark micro-environments and the prevalence of cavities. We found that large old trees play an extraordinary range of critical ecological roles including in hydrological regimes, nutrient cycles and numerous ecosystem processes. Large old trees strongly influence the spatial and temporal distribution and abundance of individuals of the same species and populations of numerous other plant and animal species. We suggest many key characteristics of large old trees such as extreme height, prolonged lifespans, and the presence of cavities - which confer competitive and evolutionary advantages in undisturbed environments - can render such trees highly susceptible to a range of human influences. Large old trees are vulnerable to threats ranging from droughts, fire, pests and pathogens, to logging, land clearing, landscape fragmentation and climate change. Tackling such diverse threats is challenging because they often

  8. Stakeholder-led science: engaging resource managers to identify science needs for long-term management of floodplain conservation lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouska, Kristin L.; Lindner, Garth; Paukert, Craig; Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Floodplains pose challenges to managers of conservation lands because of constantly changing interactions with their rivers. Although scientific knowledge and understanding of the dynamics and drivers of river-floodplain systems can provide guidance to floodplain managers, the scientific process often occurs in isolation from management. Further, communication barriers between scientists and managers can be obstacles to appropriate application of scientific knowledge. With the coproduction of science in mind, our objectives were the following: (1) to document management priorities of floodplain conservation lands, and (2) identify science needs required to better manage the identified management priorities under nonstationary conditions, i.e., climate change, through stakeholder queries and interactions. We conducted an online survey with 80 resource managers of floodplain conservation lands along the Upper and Middle Mississippi River and Lower Missouri River, USA, to evaluate management priority, management intensity, and available scientific information for management objectives and conservation targets. Management objectives with the least information available relative to priority included controlling invasive species, maintaining respectful relationships with neighbors, and managing native, nongame species. Conservation targets with the least information available to manage relative to management priority included pollinators, marsh birds, reptiles, and shore birds. A follow-up workshop and survey focused on clarifying science needs to achieve management objectives under nonstationary conditions. Managers agreed that metrics of inundation, including depth and extent of inundation, and frequency, duration, and timing of inundation would be the most useful metrics for management of floodplain conservation lands with multiple objectives. This assessment provides guidance for developing relevant and accessible science products to inform management of highly

  9. Basic Energy Conservation and Management Part 1: Looking at Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Glenn

    2012-01-01

    Reducing school district energy expenditures has become a universal goal. However, school board members, superintendents, and directors of buildings and grounds are often unaware of the many options available to conserve energy. School energy conservation used to be relatively simple: turn off the lights and turn down the heat in the winter and…

  10. Farmers' Adoption Of Improved Soil Conservation And Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farmers' adoption of improved soil conservation practices in the rain forest zone of southeastern Nigeria was examined in this study. Data was collected from 160 farmers with the aid of questionnaire and interview schedule. Data collected were analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The soil conservation ...

  11. Managing climate change in conservation practice: an exploration of the science–management interface in beech forest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de J.; Turnhout, E.; Winkel, G.; Blondet, M.; Borras, L.; Ferranti, F.; Geitzenauer, M.; Sotirov, M.; Jump, A.

    2014-01-01

    Scientific studies reveal significant consequences of climate change for nature, from ecosystems to individual species. Such studies are important factors in policy decisions on forest conservation and management in Europe. However, while research has shown that climate change research start to

  12. Management of oral and maxillofacial radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2002-01-01

    To implement the database system of oral and maxillofacial radiological images using a commercial medical image management software with personally developed classification code. The image database was built using a slightly modified commercial medical image management software, Dr. Image v.2.1 (Bit Computer Co., Korea). The function of wild card '*' was added to the search function of this program. Diagnosis classification codes were written as the number at the first three digits, and radiographic technique classification codes as the alphabet right after the diagnosis code. 449 radiological films of 218 cases from January, 2000 to December, 2000, which had been specially stored for the demonstration and education at Dept. of OMF Radiology of Dankook University Dental Hospital, were scanned with each patient information. Cases could be efficiently accessed and analyzed by using the classification code. Search and statistics results were easily obtained according to sex, age, disease diagnosis and radiographic technique. Efficient image management was possible with this image database system. Application of this system to other departments or personal image management can be made possible by utilizing the appropriate classification code system.

  13. The Tasmanian devil microbiome-implications for conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuanyuan; Fox, Samantha; Pemberton, David; Hogg, Carolyn; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Belov, Katherine

    2015-12-21

    The Tasmanian devil, the world's largest carnivorous marsupial, is at risk of extinction due to devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a fatal contagious cancer. The Save the Tasmanian Devil Program has established an insurance population, which currently holds over 600 devils in captive facilities across Australia. Microbes are known to play a crucial role in the health and well-being of humans and other animals, and increasing evidence suggests that changes in the microbiota can influence various aspects of host physiology and development. To improve our understanding of devils and facilitate management and conservation of the species, we characterised the microbiome of wild devils and investigated differences in the composition of microbial community between captive and wild individuals. A total of 1,223,550 bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences were generated via Roche 454 sequencing from 56 samples, including 17 gut, 15 skin, 18 pouch and 6 oral samples. The devil's gut microbiome was dominated by Firmicutes and showed a high Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio, which appears to be a common feature of many carnivorous mammals. Metabolisms of carbohydrates, amino acids, energy, cofactors and vitamins, nucleotides and lipids were predicted as the most prominent metabolic pathways that the devil's gut flora contributed to. The microbiota inside the female's pouch outside lactation was highly similar to that of the skin, both co-dominated by Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The oral microbiome had similar proportions of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Fusobacteria. Compositional differences were observed in all four types of microbiota between devils from captive and wild populations. Certain captive devils had significantly lower levels of gut bacterial diversity than wild individuals, and the two groups differed in the proportion of gut bacteria accounting for the metabolism of glycan, amino acids and cofactors and vitamins. Further studies are

  14. Outcomes for conservative management of traumatic conductive hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jonathan R; Arganbright, Jill; Friedland, David R

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the natural history of traumatic conductive hearing loss. Retrospective chart review. Otologic and audiometric evaluations of patients in the early posttraumatic phase were compared with evaluations at follow-up. Assessment included etiologies of trauma, classification of hearing loss, factors causing conductive loss, and analyses of changes in air-bone gaps, pure-tone averages and hearing loss class. There were 45 patients, representing 47 ears, with sufficient initial and follow-up documentation to analyze the natural history of traumatic conductive hearing loss. Overall, 77% of ears showed an improvement in pure-tone averages without surgical intervention. Air-bone gaps closed from an average of 24.8 +/- 12.1 to 13.2 +/- 11.1 dB. Only 11% of ears demonstrated a decrease in pure-tone averages, and 12% showed no change in thresholds. All forms of injury contributing to the conductive hearing loss had good outcomes. Specifically, tympanic membrane perforations showed final air-bone gaps of 14.9 +/- 11.2 dB; cases of hemotympanum had final air-bone gaps of 10.0 +/- 8.1 dB; and suspected ossicular chain disruptions had final air-bone gaps of 13.9 +/- 12.3 dB. Only 5 of 47 ears ultimately required surgical intervention for persistent pathology. Patients with all forms of traumatic conductive hearing loss can be initially managed conservatively. Even suspected ossicular chain disruptions have a high rate of spontaneous reparation. Surgical intervention for perforation or conductive hearing loss should be undertaken in the rare cases when these conditions persist greater than 6 months.

  15. Symptom Management in Patients with Stage 5 CKD Opting for Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Johnston

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD stages 3–5 now affects 8.5% of adults in the United Kingdom; with 4% of patients expected to reach stage 5 CKD. Increasing numbers of older patients are contributing to the growth of demand of kidney services. With the exception of transplantation, dialysis has been the main form of renal replacement therapy (RRT for advanced CKD. This elderly population is usually too frail and has many other co-existing medical complaints or co morbidities to undergo transplantation. Dialysis is an invasive treatment, and some frail elderly patients can experience many dialysis related symptoms. An alternative option for these patients is to choose conservative management (CM of their stage 5 CKD. These patients often have complex supportive and palliative care needs. The frequency, severity and distress caused by symptoms related to stage 5 CKD are often under recognized and under treated. There is a need for early identification and management of symptoms as they present in patients with stage 5 CKD being managed conservatively. Symptom assessment should be focused on anticipating, identifying and alleviating any symptoms. This needs to be incorporated into the regular practice of those managing CM patients.

  16. Status of thermal imaging technology as applied to conservation-update 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, F.J.; Wood, J.T.; Barthle, R.C.

    1980-07-01

    This document updates the 1978 report on the status of thermal imaging technology as applied to energy conservation in buildings. Thermal imaging technology is discussed in terms of airborne surveys, ground survey programs, and application needs such as standards development and lower cost equipment. Information on the various thermal imaging devices was obtained from manufacturer's standard product literature. Listings are provided of infrared projects of the DOE building diagnostics program, of aerial thermographic firms, and of aerial survey programs. (LCL)

  17. Manage your blood sugar (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checking your blood sugar levels often and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes so you ... possible. The best times to check your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your blood ...

  18. Conservative management of extra-axial hematomas diagnosed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muszynski, C.A.; Hayman, L.A.; Weingarten, K.; Prow, H.W.; Cole, J.W.; Contant, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    Our purpose was to assess the role of serial CT in recently traumatized patients with clinically stable extra-axial intracranial hematomas (EACH) and a midline shift of less than 0.5 cm. A retrospective review of 91 imaging studies in 41 patients (with 45 EACH) was done to assess the time between trauma and CT; the presence and type of skull fracture; the volume, type, and location of the EACH; the presence of associated edema and/or contusion. Over a 19-day follow-up, 11 % of the dense EACH increased in volume and 27 % decreased. An adjacent skull fracture was seen most frequently in patients with a decrease in EACH volume. Clinical data remain the key to determining the need for neurosurgical intervention in patients with EACH. Follow-up CT afforded no data which altered the medical management of these patients. However, it may be said to have alerted the clinician to an increase in the size of the EACH in 11 % of cases, which could mandate close observation of this group. (orig.)

  19. Land management restrictions and options for change in perpetual conservation easements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissman, Adena; Bihari, Menka; Hamilton, Christopher; Locke, Christina; Lowenstein, David; Motew, Melissa; Price, Jessica; Smail, Robert

    2013-07-01

    Conservation organizations rely on conservation easements for diverse purposes, including protection of species and natural communities, working forests, and open space. This research investigated how perpetual conservation easements incorporated property rights, responsibilities, and options for change over time in land management. We compared 34 conservation easements held by one federal, three state, and four nonprofit organizations in Wisconsin. They incorporated six mechanisms for ongoing land management decision-making: management plans (74 %), modifications to permitted landowner uses with discretionary consent (65 %), amendment clauses (53 %), easement holder rights to conduct land management (50 %), reference to laws or policies as compliance terms (47 %), and conditional use permits (12 %). Easements with purposes to protect species and natural communities had more ecological monitoring rights, organizational control over land management, and mechanisms for change than easements with general open space purposes. Forestry purposes were associated with mechanisms for change but not necessarily with ecological monitoring rights or organizational control over land management. The Natural Resources Conservation Service-Wetland Reserve Program had a particularly consistent approach with high control over land use and some discretion to modify uses through permits. Conservation staff perceived a need to respond to changing social and ecological conditions but were divided on whether climate change was likely to negatively impact their conservation easements. Many conservation easements involved significant constraints on easement holders' options for altering land management to achieve conservation purposes over time. This study suggests the need for greater attention to easement drafting, monitoring, and ongoing decision processes to ensure the public benefits of land conservation in changing landscapes.

  20. Translating conservation genetics into management: Pan-European minimum requirements for dynamic conservation units of forest tree genetic diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Koskela, Jarkko; Lefèvre, François; Schueler, Silvio; Kraigher, Hojka; Olrik, Ditte C.; Hubert, Jason; Longauer, Roman; Bozzano, Michele; Yrjänä, Leena; Alizoti, Paraskevi; Rotach, Peter; Vietto, Lorenzo; Bordács, Sándor; Myking, Tor; Eysteinsson, Thröstur

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a review of theoretical and practical aspects related to genetic management of forest trees. The implementation of international commitments on forest genetic diversity has been slow and partly neglected. Conservation of forest genetic diversity is still riddled with problems, and complexities of national legal and administrative structures. Europe is an example of a complex region where the dis- tribution ranges of tree species extend across large geographical areas with ...

  1. Ecological contrasts drive responses of wintering farmland birds to conservation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammers, M.; Muskens, G.J.D.M.; Kats, van R.J.M.; Teunissen, W.A.; Kleijn, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades, large-scale conservation programs have been implemented to halt the decline of farmland species. The mechanisms explaining the effectiveness of these programs remain poorly understood. Here we test the recent hypothesis that the effects of conservation management are determined

  2. Incentives for biodiversity conservation beyond the best management practices: are forestland owners interested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadha R. Matta; Janaki R. R. Alavalapati; D. Evan Mercer

    2009-01-01

    With the growing recognition of the role of environmental services rendered by private lands, landowner involvement has become a critical component of landscape-level strategies to conserve biodiversity. In this paper, we examine the willingness of private forest owners to participate in a conservation program that requires adopting management regimes beyond...

  3. Genetic characterization of Western European noble crayfish populations (Astacus astacus) for advanced conservation management strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrimpf, A.; Piscione, M.; Cammaerts, R.; Collas, M.; Herman, D.; Jung, A.; Ottburg, F.; Roessink, I.; Rollin, X.; Schulz, R.; Theissinger, K.

    2017-01-01

    One central goal of conservation biology is to conserve the genetic diversity of species in order to protect their adaptive potential. The main objective of this study was to identify management units (MUs) for the threatened noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) in Western Europe by utilizing

  4. Managing forest ecosystems to conserve fungus diversity and sustain wild mushroom harvests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Pilz; R. Molina

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem management is the dominant paradigm for managing the forests of the Pacific Northwest. It integrates biological, ecological, geophysical, and silvicultural information to develop adaptive management practices that conserve biological diversity and maintain ecosystem functioning while meeting human needs for the sustainable production of forest products. Fungi...

  5. 77 FR 16942 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... Multispecies Fishery Management Plan which was approved on March 8, 2012. This action amends the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan to explicitly define and facilitate the effective operation of state.... 110901552-20494-02] RIN 0648-BB34 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

  6. 76 FR 79612 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... Amendment 17 to the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan. This action would amend the Northeast Multispecies Fishery Management Plan to explicitly define and facilitate the effective operation of state.... 110901552-1736-01] RIN 0648-BB34 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

  7. South-South exchanges enhance resource management and biodiversity conservation at various scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D Heyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available International conservation organisations have invested considerable resources in fostering biodiversity conservation programs in the humid tropics, the most biologically diverse areas on earth. Recent approaches to conservation have centered on integrated conservation and development projects and participatory resource management programs, co-managed between governments and local communities. But these programs have had only mixed success and often suffer from insufficient quantity or quality of participation by local communities. We pose that participatory resource management is more likely to succeed when community members, 1 gain a global perspective on how their social, economic and environmental conditions compare with peer communities in other similar areas of the world, and thus better understand issues of relative scarcity and the benefits of sustainable resource management, and 2 engage as decision-makers at every stage of the conservation process up to reflective program evaluation. This paper examines the role of South-South exchanges as a tool to achieve these intermediate goals that ultimately foster more effective and participatory conservation and support sustainable local livelihoods. The data are extracted from the initiatives of the authors in two different environments- marine and coastal communities in Central America and the Caribbean, and lowland rainforest communities in the western Amazon of South America. We conclude that the exchanges are effective ways to build stakeholder comprehension about, and meaningful engagement in, resource management. South-South exchanges may also help build multi-local coalitions from various remote areas that together support biodiversity conservation at regional and global scales.

  8. Problem-Based Learning in a Natural Resources Conservation and Management Curriculum: A Capstone Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, M. A.; Thompson, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a course for natural resource conservation and management students that explicitly teaches integration of disciplinary knowledge using an internet-based approach to natural resource issues. (Author/CCM)

  9. Towards adaptive fire management for biodiversity conservation: experience in South African national parks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wilgen, BW

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the experience gained in three South African national parks (Kruger, Table Mountain and Bontebok) with regard to the adaptive management of fire for the conservation of biodiversity. In the Kruger National Park, adaptive...

  10. Environmental impact assessment - A management tool for conservation of large marine ecosystems

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.

    and conservation of natural resources. The problem has become crucial and the only alternative is the implementation of Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) to evolve environmental management strategies for optimum use of a given coastal area without disturbing...

  11. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy Mahaloka ... Switzerland. Indian Ocean e-Ink. Promoting African Publishing and Education www.ioeink.com. Missouri Botanical Garden (MBG). Madagascar Research and Conservation Program. BP 3391 ..... the ecotourism sector. Adhering to the ...

  12. goal management as an attempt to evaluate nature conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formulate differing goals and objectives. The result of this is that an overall integrated object- ive for EE and the conservation of natural and cultural resources sometimes seems impossible to achieve. This problem is intensified by other factors which collectively are unique to Southern Africa. (Odendaal, 1985 a and 1985 b).

  13. Conservative Management of Twisted Ischemic Adnexa in Early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    She underwent emergency surgery with a provisional diagnosis of torsion of left adnexa. Mini‑laparotomy, detorsion of the twisted adnexa and ovarian cystectomy with reconstruction was performed thus conserving the tube and ovary. The pregnancy progressed normally; follow‑up ultrasound scans showed normal ...

  14. Community-managed conservation efforts at Tsingy Mahaloka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecotourism is a pillar of the new IUCN “Lemurs of Madagascar” conservation action plan (2013–2016), and can allow rural communities to (i) secure revenue for habitat protection; (ii) create ... But, obviously, an ecotourist site needs tourists; this has proven to be a problem for KOFAMA and the Tsingy Mahaloka site.

  15. Image and information management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Tina L. (Inventor); Raney, Michael C. (Inventor); Dougherty, Dennis M. (Inventor); Kent, Peter C. (Inventor); Brucker, Russell X. (Inventor); Lampert, Daryl A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A system and methods through which pictorial views of an object's configuration, arranged in a hierarchical fashion, are navigated by a person to establish a visual context within the configuration. The visual context is automatically translated by the system into a set of search parameters driving retrieval of structured data and content (images, documents, multimedia, etc.) associated with the specific context. The system places ''hot spots'', or actionable regions, on various portions of the pictorials representing the object. When a user interacts with an actionable region, a more detailed pictorial from the hierarchy is presented representing that portion of the object, along with real-time feedback in the form of a popup pane containing information about that region, and counts-by-type reflecting the number of items that are available within the system associated with the specific context and search filters established at that point in time.

  16. 41 CFR 102-74.155 - What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities? 102-74.155 Section 102-74.155 Public... MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 74-FACILITY MANAGEMENT Facility Management Energy Conservation § 102-74.155 What energy conservation policy must Federal agencies follow in the management of facilities...

  17. 2D imaging and 3D sensing data acquisition and mutual registration for painting conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Raffaella; Gambino, Maria Chiara; Greco, Marinella; Marras, Luciano; Pampaloni, Enrico M.; Pelagotti, Anna; Pezzati, Luca; Poggi, Pasquale

    2005-01-01

    We describe the application of 2D and 3D data acquisition and mutual registration to the conservation of paintings. RGB color image acquisition, IR and UV fluorescence imaging, together with the more recent hyperspectral imaging (32 bands) are among the most useful techniques in this field. They generally are meant to provide information on the painting materials, on the employed techniques and on the object state of conservation. However, only when the various images are perfectly registered on each other and on the 3D model, no ambiguity is possible and safe conclusions may be drawn. We present the integration of 2D and 3D measurements carried out on two different paintings: "Madonna of the Yarnwinder" by Leonardo da Vinci, and "Portrait of Lionello d'Este", by Pisanello, both painted in the XV century.

  18. Built Heritage Documentation and Management: AN Integrated Conservation Approach in Bagan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzino, D.; Chan, L.; Santana Quintero, M.; Esponda, M.; Lee, S.; Min, A.; Pwint, M.

    2017-08-01

    Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team - including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA) and professionals from the CyArk foundation - developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar). On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University) and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural seismic events and

  19. BUILT HERITAGE DOCUMENTATION AND MANAGEMENT: AN INTEGRATED CONSERVATION APPROACH IN BAGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Mezzino

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Good practices in heritage conservation are based on accurate information about conditions, materials, and transformation of built heritage sites. Therefore, heritage site documentation and its analysis are essential parts for their conservation. In addition, the devastating effects of recent catastrophic events in different geographical areas have highly affected cultural heritage places. Such areas include and are not limited to South Europe, South East Asia, and Central America. Within this framework, appropriate acquisition of information can effectively provide tools for the decision-making process and management. Heritage documentation is growing in innovation, providing dynamic opportunities for effectively responding to the alarming rate of destruction by natural events, conflicts, and negligence. In line with these considerations, a multidisciplinary team – including students and faculty members from Carleton University and Yangon Technological University, as well as staff from the Department of Archaeology, National Museum and Library (DoA and professionals from the CyArk foundation – developed a coordinated strategy to document four temples in the site of Bagan (Myanmar. On-field work included capacity-building activities to train local emerging professionals in the heritage field (graduate and undergraduate students from the Yangon Technological University and to increase the technical knowledge of the local DoA staff in the digital documentation field. Due to the short time of the on-field activity and the need to record several monuments, a variety of documentation techniques, including image and non-image based ones, were used. Afterwards, the information acquired during the fieldwork was processed to develop a solid base for the conservation and monitoring of the four documented temples. The relevance of developing this kind of documentation in Bagan is related to the vulnerability of the site, often affected by natural

  20. Management strategies for the conservation of forest birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen E. Franzreb; Deborah M. Finch; Petra Bohall Wood; David E. Capen

    1999-01-01

    We recommend that managers of forest-associated bird species follow a five-step hierarchy in establishing and implementing management programs. In essence, a manager must evaluate the composition and physiognomy of the landscape mosaic in the context of the regional and subregional goals and objectives. Then he/she can explore alternatives that allow manipulation of...

  1. Application of Microsatellite Markers in Conservation Genetics and Fisheries Management: Recent Advances in Population Structure Analysis and Conservation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Muneer, P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Microsatellites are the most popular and versatile genetic marker with myriads of applications in population genetics, conservation biology, and evolutionary biology. These are the arrays of DNA sequences, consisting of tandemly repeating mono-, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide units, which are distributed throughout the genomes of most eukaryotic species. Microsatellites are codominant in nature, highly polymorphic, easily typed, and Mendelian inherited, all properties which make them very suitable for the study of population structure and pedigree analysis and capable of detecting differences among closely related species. PCR for microsatellites can be automated for identifying simple sequence repeat polymorphism. Small amount of blood samples or alcohol preserved tissue is adequate for analyzing them. Most of the microsatellites are noncoding, and therefore variations are independent of natural selection. These properties make microsatellites ideal genetic markers for conservation genetics and fisheries management. This review addresses the applications of microsatellite markers in conservation genetics and recent advances in population structure analysis in the context of fisheries management. PMID:24808959

  2. The Volubilis project, Morocco: excavation, conservation and management planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Fentress

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Volubilis in northern Morocco is famous for the impressive remains of its Roman city, but it was also an important early Islamic town and is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage site. Teams from Morocco and the Institute of Archaeology recently began a joint project there, focused on the investigation of the Islamic occupation and the conservation and presentation of the site to the public.

  3. Research priorities for conservation and natural resource management in Oceania's small-island developing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, R; Adams, V M

    2018-02-01

    For conservation science to effectively inform management, research must focus on creating the scientific knowledge required to solve conservation problems. We identified research questions that, if answered, would increase the effectiveness of conservation and natural resource management practice and policy in Oceania's small-island developing states. We asked conservation professionals from academia, governmental, and nongovernmental organizations across the region to propose such questions and then identify which were of high priority in an online survey. We compared the high-priority questions with research questions identified globally and for other regions. Of 270 questions proposed by respondents, 38 were considered high priority, including: What are the highest priority areas for conservation in the face of increasing resource demand and climate change? How should marine protected areas be networked to account for connectivity and climate change? What are the most effective fisheries management policies that contribute to sustainable coral reef fisheries? High-priority questions related to the particular challenges of undertaking conservation on small-island developing states and the need for a research agenda that is responsive to the sociocultural context of Oceania. Research priorities for Oceania relative to elsewhere were broadly similar but differed in specific issues relevant to particular conservation contexts. These differences emphasize the importance of involving local practitioners in the identification of research priorities. Priorities were reasonably well aligned among sectoral groups. Only a few questions were widely considered answered, which may indicate a smaller-than-expected knowledge-action gap. We believe these questions can be used to strengthen research collaborations between scientists and practitioners working to further conservation and natural resource management in this region. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  4. Acute pancreatitis: The role of imaging in diagnosis and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharwani, Nishat, E-mail: nishat.bharwani@nhs.ne [Imaging Department, Barts and The London NHS Trust, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Ground Floor, King George V Wing, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom); Patel, Shilpa; Prabhudesai, Shirish; Fotheringham, Tim; Power, Niall [Imaging Department, Barts and The London NHS Trust, St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Ground Floor, King George V Wing, London EC1A 7BE (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    Acute pancreatitis is one of the more commonly encountered aetiologies in the emergency setting and its incidence is rising. Presentations range from a mild-self limiting condition which usually responds to conservative management to one with significant morbidity and mortality in its most severe forms. While clinical criteria are necessary to make the initial diagnosis, contrast-enhanced CT is the mainstay of imaging and has a vital role in assessing the extent and evolution of the disease and its associated complications. The purpose of this article is to summarise the natural course of acute severe pancreatitis, clarify confusing nomenclature, demonstrate the morphological stages in conjunction with radiological scoring systems and illustrate the complications. We will review and illustrate the increasing and significant role interventional radiology has in the management of these patients, which are often life-saving and surgery-sparing.

  5. Managing image collections a practical guide

    CERN Document Server

    Note, Margot

    2011-01-01

    This book explores issues surrounding all aspects of visual collection management, taken from real-world experience in creating management systems and digitizing core content. Readers will gain the knowledge to manage the digitization process from beginning to end, assess and define the needs of their particular project, and evaluate digitization options. Additionally, they will select strategies which best meet current and future needs, acquire the knowledge to select the best images for digitization, and understand the legal issues surrounding digitization of visual collections.<

  6. Grand challenges in the management and conservation of North American inland fishes and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Abigail; Cooke, Steven J.; Beard, Douglas; Kao, Yu-Chun; Lorenzen, Kai; Song, Andrew M.; Allen, Micheal S.; Basher, Zeenatul; Bunnell, David B.; Camp, Edward V.; Cowx, Ian G.; Freedman, Jonathan A.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Nohner, Joel K.; Rogers, Mark W.; Siders, Zachary A.; Taylor, William W.; Youn, So-Jung

    2017-01-01

    Even with long-standing management and extensive science support, North American inland fish and fisheries still face many conservation and management challenges. We used a grand challenges approach to identify critical roadblocks that if removed would help solve important problems in the management and long-term conservation of North American inland fish and fisheries. We identified seven grand challenges within three themes (valuation, governance, and externalities) and 34 research needs and management actions. The major themes identified are to (1) raise awareness of diverse values associated with inland fish and fisheries, (2) govern inland fish and fisheries to satisfy multiple use and conservation objectives, and (3) ensure productive inland fisheries given nonfishing sector externalities. Addressing these grand challenges will help the broader community understand the diverse values of inland fish and fisheries, promote open forums for engagement of diverse stakeholders in fisheries management, and better integrate the inland fish sector into the greater water and land use policy process.

  7. Physiology can contribute to better understanding, management, and conservation of coral reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illing, Björn; Rummer, Jodie L

    2017-01-01

    Coral reef fishes, like many other marine organisms, are affected by anthropogenic stressors such as fishing and pollution and, owing to climate change, are experiencing increasing water temperatures and ocean acidification. Against the backdrop of these various stressors, a mechanistic understanding of processes governing individual organismal performance is the first step for identifying drivers of coral reef fish population dynamics. In fact, physiological measurements can help to reveal potential cause-and-effect relationships and enable physiologists to advise conservation management by upscaling results from cellular and individual organismal levels to population levels. Here, we highlight studies that include physiological measurements of coral reef fishes and those that give advice for their conservation. A literature search using combined physiological, conservation and coral reef fish key words resulted in ~1900 studies, of which only 99 matched predefined requirements. We observed that, over the last 20 years, the combination of physiological and conservation aspects in studies on coral reef fishes has received increased attention. Most of the selected studies made their physiological observations at the whole organism level and used their findings to give conservation advice on population dynamics, habitat use or the potential effects of climate change. The precision of the recommendations differed greatly and, not surprisingly, was least concrete when studies examined the effects of projected climate change scenarios. Although more and more physiological studies on coral reef fishes include conservation aspects, there is still a lack of concrete advice for conservation managers, with only very few published examples of physiological findings leading to improved management practices. We conclude with a call to action to foster better knowledge exchange between natural scientists and conservation managers to translate physiological findings more

  8. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlacky, David C; Lukacs, Paul M; Blakesley, Jennifer A; Skorkowsky, Robert C; Klute, David S; Hahn, Beth A; Dreitz, Victoria J; George, T Luke; Hanni, David J

    2017-01-01

    Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1) coordination across organizations and regions, 2) meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3) rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR) program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17). We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri) in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1) determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2) estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous statistical

  9. A statistically rigorous sampling design to integrate avian monitoring and management within Bird Conservation Regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Pavlacky

    Full Text Available Monitoring is an essential component of wildlife management and conservation. However, the usefulness of monitoring data is often undermined by the lack of 1 coordination across organizations and regions, 2 meaningful management and conservation objectives, and 3 rigorous sampling designs. Although many improvements to avian monitoring have been discussed, the recommendations have been slow to emerge in large-scale programs. We introduce the Integrated Monitoring in Bird Conservation Regions (IMBCR program designed to overcome the above limitations. Our objectives are to outline the development of a statistically defensible sampling design to increase the value of large-scale monitoring data and provide example applications to demonstrate the ability of the design to meet multiple conservation and management objectives. We outline the sampling process for the IMBCR program with a focus on the Badlands and Prairies Bird Conservation Region (BCR 17. We provide two examples for the Brewer's sparrow (Spizella breweri in BCR 17 demonstrating the ability of the design to 1 determine hierarchical population responses to landscape change and 2 estimate hierarchical habitat relationships to predict the response of the Brewer's sparrow to conservation efforts at multiple spatial scales. The collaboration across organizations and regions provided economy of scale by leveraging a common data platform over large spatial scales to promote the efficient use of monitoring resources. We designed the IMBCR program to address the information needs and core conservation and management objectives of the participating partner organizations. Although it has been argued that probabilistic sampling designs are not practical for large-scale monitoring, the IMBCR program provides a precedent for implementing a statistically defensible sampling design from local to bioregional scales. We demonstrate that integrating conservation and management objectives with rigorous

  10. Residue Management: A Computer Program About Conservation Tillage Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thien, Steve J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a computer program, Residue Management, which is designed to supplement discussions on the Universal Soil Loss Equation and the impact of tillage on soil properties for introductory soil courses. The program advances the user through three stages of residue management. Information on obtaining the program is also included. (ML)

  11. Conservation implications of weed management of lake reservoirs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of weeds around lake reservoirs is often implemented to reduce any possibility of siltation. However, machineries used in weed management have resulted in habitat degradation and geometrical multiplication of weeds by chopping rhizomes and scattering seeds. In general, the removal offers some feedbacks ...

  12. Conservative management of an elite ice hockey goaltender with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, Kyle; Gomes, Brendan; MacKenzie, Steven; D'Angelo, Kevin

    2015-12-01

    To detail the presentation of an elite male ice hockey goaltender with cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) and acetabular labral tears. This case will outline the prevalence, clinical presentation, imaging criteria, pathomechanics, and management of FAI, with specific emphasis on the ice hockey goaltender. A 22-year old retired ice hockey goaltender presented to a chiropractor after being diagnosed by an orthopaedic surgeon with MRI confirmed left longitudinal and chondral flap acetabular labral tears and cam-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). As the patient was not a candidate for surgical intervention, a multimodal conservative treatment approach including manual therapy, electroacupuncture and rehabilitation exercises were implemented. FAI is prevalent in ice hockey players, particularly with goaltenders. Both skating and position-dependent hip joint mechanics involved in ice hockey may exacerbate or contribute to acquired and congenital forms of symptomatic FAI. As such, practitioners managing this population must address sport-specific demands in manual therapy, rehabilitation and physical training, to improve functional outcomes and prevent future injury.

  13. Image-guided radiotherapy and motion management in lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine

    2015-01-01

    In this review, image guidance and motion management in radiotherapy for lung cancer is discussed. Motion characteristics of lung tumours and image guidance techniques to obtain motion information are elaborated. Possibilities for management of image guidance and motion in the various steps...... of the treatment chain are explained, including imaging techniques and beam delivery techniques. Clinical studies using different motion management techniques are reviewed, and finally future directions for image guidance and motion management are outlined....

  14. Use of monitoring data to support conservation management and policy decisions in Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montambault, Jensen Reitz; Wongbusarakum, Supin; Leberer, Trina; Joseph, Eugene; Andrew, Wayne; Castro, Fran; Nevitt, Brooke; Golbuu, Yimnang; Oldiais, Noelle W; Groves, Craig R; Kostka, Willy; Houk, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Adaptive management implies a continuous knowledge-based decision-making process in conservation. Yet, the coupling of scientific monitoring and management frameworks remains rare in practice because formal and informal communication pathways are lacking. We examined 4 cases in Micronesia where conservation practitioners are using new knowledge in the form of monitoring data to advance marine conservation. These cases were drawn from projects in Micronesia Challenge jurisdictions that received funding for coupled monitoring-to-management frameworks and encompassed all segments of adaptive management. Monitoring in Helen Reef, Republic of Palau, was catalyzed by coral bleaching and revealed evidence of overfishing that led to increased enforcement and outreach. In Nimpal Channel, Yap, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), monitoring the recovery of marine food resources after customary restrictions were put in place led to new, more effective enforcement approaches. Monitoring in Laolao Bay, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was catalyzed by observable sediment loads from poor land-use practices and resulted in actions that reduced land-based threats, particularly littering and illegal burning, and revealed additional threats from overfishing. Pohnpei (FSM) began monitoring after observed declines in grouper spawning aggregations. This data led to adjusting marine conservation area boundaries and implementing market-based size class restrictions. Two themes emerged from these cases. First, in each case monitoring was conducted in a manner relevant to the social and ecological systems and integrated into the decision-making process. Second, conservation practitioners and scientists in these cases integrated culturally appropriate stakeholder engagement throughout all phases of the adaptive management cycle. More broadly, our study suggests, when describing adaptive management, providing more details on how monitoring and management activities are

  15. Heritage conservation for city marketing: The imaging of the historic city of Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarni Ismail ,

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of imaging for city marketing purposes has the implication on culture, conservation and heritage. City marketing, especially in the European context, has been examined in interdisciplinary literature with special focus on imaging for tourism. Little is reported about the imaging of those cities' ex-colonies in the East. The Historic City of Georgetown in Penang, dubbed 'the City of Living Culture', has been gearing her development towards living up to the image. This paper examines the imaging of the Historic City of Georgetown for heritage tourism and city marketing tool by the public agencies involved. A short introduction to city marketing, imaging and heritage tourism is offered due to sparse literature in the built environment literature and to serve as a foundation to the main discourse of this paper. The bulk of this paper discusses the conservation of heritage as image dimensions in the marketing of Georgetown. We submitted that Georgetown has successfully utilised and capitalised on its cultural diversity and tangible heritage based on its colonial legacy to promote the city as evidenced by its recent inscription into UNESCO's World Heritage Site list. Nonetheless, building and maintaining the synergy between the government, the private sector and the people is essential for the city's heritage tourism industry.

  16. Diagnosis and conservative management of degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS) is a disorder that causes the slip of one vertebral body over the one below due to degenerative changes in the spine. Lumbar DS is a major cause of spinal canal stenosis and is often related to low back and leg pain. We reviewed the symptoms, prognosis and conservative treatments for symptoms associated with DS. PubMed and MEDLINE databases (1950–2007) were searched for the key words “spondylolisthesis”, “pseudospondylolisthesis”, “degenerative spondylolisthesis”, “spinal stenosis”, “lumbar spine”, “antherolisthesis”, “posterolisthesis”, “low back pain”, and “lumbar instability”. All relevant articles in English were reviewed. Pertinent secondary references were also retrieved. The prognosis of patients with DS is favorable, however, those who suffer from neurological symptoms such as intermittent claudication or vesicorectal disorder, will most probably experience neurological deterioration if they are not operated upon. Nonoperative treatment should be the initial course of action in most cases of DS, with or without neurologic symptoms. Treatment options include use of analgesics and NSAIDs to control pain; epidural steroid injections, and physical methods such as bracing and flexion strengthening exercises. An up-to-date knowledge on diagnosis and prevention of lumbar DS can assist in determination of future research goals. Additional studies are required to establish treatment protocols for the conservative treatment of DS. PMID:18026865

  17. Conservative Management of Invasive Cervical Resorption: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhan Raza Khan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Invasive cervical resorption is a condition that affects the root surface area below the epithelial attachment. Multiple treatment modalities are advocated, involving exposure of the invasive defect, removal of the granulation tissue and sealing with various restorative materials. This report demonstrates conservative treatment of a patient presenting with peri-apical periodontitis in upper right central and lateral incisors, along with Class II invasive resorption defect cervically on the mesial aspect of the central incisor, as a result of trauma. As the patient was not willing for any surgical intervention, only ortho-grade root canal treatment was carried out in both teeth, with Calcium hydroxide as intra-canal medicament. At three year follow-up, the patient remains asymptomatic demonstrating radiographic evidence of infilling of defect with bone-like tissue.Within the limitations of this report, it was seen that this conservative method for halting the progression of invasive cervical resorption could be under taken in patients who are un-willing for surgical intervention or in whom surgery is contra-indicated.

  18. Assessment and Risk Management: Reflections on new conservative logic and role in the management models of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe Raposo Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Conservation-Restoration has a new role in the organization management and on the definition of its professional's profiles, as the assessment and risk management introduces the complexity of the present society and its development paradigm in the conservation of heritage and in its interventive logic. Assessment and risk management defines an articulation sense, as it is enveloped in a model that projects the organizations by the functional complexity of each part, which creates new possibilities by sharing of responsibilities in the field of decisions. Having consequences in many professional areas, the conservator-restaurateurs face up with demands that require new kinds of relationships and the need for new qualifications to answer the challenges placed by this management model.

  19. Administrative Co-management: The Case of Special-Use Forest Conservation in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.K.D.; Bush, S.R.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2013-01-01

    Special-use forests (SUFs) are nature protected areas in Vietnam used to conserve nature and its biodiversity. While the Vietnamese government has managed to increase the size and number of SUFs, biodiversity within these areas continues to decline. To improve protection of these SUFs, co-management

  20. Groundwater resources: conservation and management: proceedings of the sixteenth national symposium on environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puranik, V.D.; Ramachandran, T.V.; Saradhi, I.V.; Sahu, S.K.; Prathibha, P.

    2008-01-01

    The main theme of this volume is conservation and management of groundwater resources. The topics covered are groundwater for sustainable development, problems perspectives and challenges, monitoring and modeling of pollutants and their transport, waste management, environmental radioactivity and environmental awareness and biodiversity. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  1. Integrating In-Situ and Ex-Situ Data Management Processes for Biodiversity Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin R. Schwartz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for a “one plan approach” for conservation strategies that integrate in-situ and ex-situ management processes. Zoological institutions contribute directly to threatened species conservation through paradigms, such as reintroduction, head-starting, supplementation, or rescue/rehabilitation/release. This in-situ/ex-situ integration necessitates collaboration at all levels of conservation action including planning, implementation, monitoring and assessment to drive adaptive management processes. Each component is dependent on the availability and accuracy of data for evidence to facilitate evaluation and adaptive management processes. The Zoological Information Management System (ZIMS, managed by Species360, is a centralized web-based information system used in zoological institutions worldwide to pool life history, behavior and health data and facilitate animal husbandry, health, and breeding management processes. Currently used for few integrated conservation programs, ZIMS is an innovative tool that offers a new opportunity to link data management processes for animals that spend a part of their lives under human care and part in their natural environment and has great potential for use in managed wild populations.

  2. Systematic Planning and Ecosystem-Based Management as Strategies to Reconcile Mangrove Conservation with Resource Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Borges

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available About 120 million people worldwide live within 10 km of large mangrove forests, and many of them directly depend on the goods and services provided by these ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how to synchronize ecological definitions and legal conservation strategies regarding mangroves, especially in developing countries, such as Brazil. The influence of human populations' socio-economic context in mangrove conservation policies, as well associated challenges in incorporating this influence, are underestimated or, often, largely ignored. Considering the recent threats emerging from changes in legislation and the lack of spatial and social-ecological integrated data to plan mangrove conservation in Brazil, this paper aims to answer the following questions: (1 What suitable measures could managers and other decision makers adopt for efficient mangrove conservation planning?; (2 What are the site-specific, social-ecological aspects that need to be taken into account when deciding on conservation and management strategies?; and (3 How could science contribute to the development of these measures? In order to achieve an ecosystem-based management approach, mangrove ecosystems should not be divided into sub-systems, but instead treated as an integrated system. Furthermore, interconnections with other coastal ecosystems must be assessed and taken into account. This is crucial for effective systematic conservation planning. Also, most of the particular social-ecological aspects in the different types of mangrove ecosystems along the Brazilian coast, and how those differences might be considered while planning for conservation, remain poorly understood. Based on similar drivers of change, geological features, and likely impacts of climate change, a macro-unit approach is proposed to group mangrove systems along the Brazilian coast and guide national policies. This paper draws parallels with management approaches worldwide to find common points and

  3. Spectrum of dysfunctional uterine bleeding and its conservative management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, S.H.

    2003-01-01

    To find out the proportion of dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and the response of patients of DUB to medical treatment at Abbasi Shaheed Hospital. Results: Two hundred and ten out of 1300 patients were diagnosed as having DUB with the proportion of 16.1%. Response rate was 20 - 30 % with oral mafenamic acid, 50% with capsule tranexamic acid, 60% and 50% respectively with oral contraceptive pills containing ethinylestradiol and norethisterone, and norethisterone alone. The response rate with capsulated micronised flavonoid and derivative of ethinyltestosterone was 90% and 75% respectively. Conclusion: The patients in adolescent age group are good responders to conservative treatment. Most of the patients preferred micronised flavonoid over derivative of ethinyltestosterone for some misconceptions regarding this medicine. The former was better tolerated with less side effects. (author)

  4. Butterfly diversity in Kolkata, India: An appraisal for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnali Mukherjee

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An appraisal of butterfly species diversity was made using Kolkata, India as a model geographical area. Random sampling of rural, suburban, and urban sites in and around Kolkata metropolis revealed the presence of 96 butterfly species, dominated by Lycaenidae (31.25% over Nymphalidae (28.13%, Hesperiidae (18.75%, Pieridae (12.50%, and Papilionidae (9.38%. Suburban sites accounted for 96 species, followed by rural (81 species and urban (53 species over the study period. The relative abundance of the butterflies varied with the site, month, and family significantly. It is apparent that the urban areas of Kolkata can sustain diverse butterfly species which includes species of requiring conservation effort. Considering the landscape of Kolkata, steps to enhance urban greening should be adopted to maintain butterfly diversity and sustain the ecosystem services derived from them.

  5. Strategy of image management in retail shops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Soče Kraljević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A sound positioning in consumers’ mind, along with strong promotion support, brought many retail shops to the top. This is mostly thanks to the image created in the consumers’ mind. A retail shop’s image may but need not conform to reality. Image often looks like a cliché. It overstates certain elements of the shop while simply omitting others. That is exactly why image is of great importance and often crucial to consumer behavior. This paper aims at determining the impact of image on customer behavior in the course of decision making about shopping and choosing a particular retail shop. Image is a significant factor of success of every company, hence also of a retail shops. It is a relatively strong value and a component of creating competitive advantage. But if we do not pay sufficient attention to image, it can become counterproductive. Instead to, like an additional value helps creating and maintaining the advantage in competition and realization of business aims, transforms into a limiting factor. Therefore, it is imperative to identify the elements of image that are of greatest importance to customers. Research has shown that customers choose the retail shop first and after that products and brands within this shop. When it comes to the supermarket, as a kind of retail shop, research has shown that two out of three shopping decisions are made by the customer on the spot, that is, without previous planning. That practically means that we can influence customers with different sales techniques. The paper suggests different strategies of image management for supermarkets and conventional shops. For supermarkets it is the “widest assortment” strategy, while for conventional shops the strategy is that of a “selected group of products“. Improvements to research methods will enable getting more information about customer behavior, while pressures of increased competition in the business environment will force retailers to get

  6. OUTCOME OF RESULTS WITH CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF ROCKWOOD TYPE III ACROMIOCLAVICULAR DISLOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Mitra R. P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The acromioclavicular joint is commonly involved in traumatic injuries that affect the shoulder. Treatment of these injuries has been controversial and continues to evolve. The aim of the study is to evaluate clinical outcome in patients with type III acromioclavicular dislocation managed conservatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS Clinical outcome in 12 patients with type III acromioclavicular dislocation treated conservatively is evaluated 6-8 months after injury. Functional outcome was done using Constant-Murley score and pain was measured using Visual Analogue Score (VAS. RESULTS There is 75% excellent result and 25% good functional outcome as assessed by Constant-Murley score. The average pain as assessed by visual analogue score is 1.7 mm. CONCLUSION Conservative management of type III acromioclavicular dislocation gives excellent/good outcome, but the cosmetic appearance is not improved by conservative treatment.

  7. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodysky, Andrij Z; Cooke, Steven J; Graves, John E; Brill, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time- and area-specific changes in the behaviours of fish and fishers, as well as fishing gear, to standardize catch-per-unit-effort indices and refine population estimates. However, estimates of changes in stock size over time may be very sensitive to underlying assumptions of the effects of oceanographic conditions and prey distribution on the horizontal and vertical movement patterns and distribution of pelagic fishes. Effective management and successful conservation of pelagic fishes requires a mechanistic understanding of their physiological and behavioural responses to environmental variability, potential for interaction with commercial and recreational fishing gear, and the capture process. The interdisciplinary field of conservation physiology can provide insights into pelagic fish demography and ecology (including environmental relationships and interspecific interactions) by uniting the complementary expertise and skills of fish physiologists and fisheries scientists. The iterative testing by one discipline of hypotheses generated by the other can span the fundamental-applied science continuum, leading to the development of robust insights supporting informed management. The resulting species-specific understanding of physiological abilities and tolerances can help to improve stock

  8. Fisheries conservation on the high seas: linking conservation physiology and fisheries ecology for the management of large pelagic fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodysky, Andrij Z.; Cooke, Steven J.; Graves, John E.; Brill, Richard W.

    2016-01-01

    Populations of tunas, billfishes and pelagic sharks are fished at or over capacity in many regions of the world. They are captured by directed commercial and recreational fisheries (the latter of which often promote catch and release) or as incidental catch or bycatch in commercial fisheries. Population assessments of pelagic fishes typically incorporate catch-per-unit-effort time-series data from commercial and recreational fisheries; however, there have been notable changes in target species, areas fished and depth-specific gear deployments over the years that may have affected catchability. Some regional fisheries management organizations take into account the effects of time- and area-specific changes in the behaviours of fish and fishers, as well as fishing gear, to standardize catch-per-unit-effort indices and refine population estimates. However, estimates of changes in stock size over time may be very sensitive to underlying assumptions of the effects of oceanographic conditions and prey distribution on the horizontal and vertical movement patterns and distribution of pelagic fishes. Effective management and successful conservation of pelagic fishes requires a mechanistic understanding of their physiological and behavioural responses to environmental variability, potential for interaction with commercial and recreational fishing gear, and the capture process. The interdisciplinary field of conservation physiology can provide insights into pelagic fish demography and ecology (including environmental relationships and interspecific interactions) by uniting the complementary expertise and skills of fish physiologists and fisheries scientists. The iterative testing by one discipline of hypotheses generated by the other can span the fundamental–applied science continuum, leading to the development of robust insights supporting informed management. The resulting species-specific understanding of physiological abilities and tolerances can help to improve stock

  9. Using landscape limnology to classify freshwater ecosystems for multi-ecosystem management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soranno, Patricia A.; Cheruvelil, Kendra Spence; Webster, Katherine E.; Bremigan, Mary T.; Wagner, Tyler; Stow, Craig A.

    2010-01-01

    Governmental entities are responsible for managing and conserving large numbers of lake, river, and wetland ecosystems that can be addressed only rarely on a case-by-case basis. We present a system for predictive classification modeling, grounded in the theoretical foundation of landscape limnology, that creates a tractable number of ecosystem classes to which management actions may be tailored. We demonstrate our system by applying two types of predictive classification modeling approaches to develop nutrient criteria for eutrophication management in 1998 north temperate lakes. Our predictive classification system promotes the effective management of multiple ecosystems across broad geographic scales by explicitly connecting management and conservation goals to the classification modeling approach, considering multiple spatial scales as drivers of ecosystem dynamics, and acknowledging the hierarchical structure of freshwater ecosystems. Such a system is critical for adaptive management of complex mosaics of freshwater ecosystems and for balancing competing needs for ecosystem services in a changing world.

  10. Cheap and Nasty? The Potential Perils of Using Management Costs to Identify Global Conservation Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity. PMID:24260502

  11. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin McCreless

    Full Text Available The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  12. Cheap and nasty? The potential perils of using management costs to identify global conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreless, Erin; Visconti, Piero; Carwardine, Josie; Wilcox, Chris; Smith, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The financial cost of biodiversity conservation varies widely around the world and such costs should be considered when identifying countries to best focus conservation investments. Previous global prioritizations have been based on global models for protected area management costs, but this metric may be related to other factors that negatively influence the effectiveness and social impacts of conservation. Here we investigate such relationships and first show that countries with low predicted costs are less politically stable. Local support and capacity can mitigate the impacts of such instability, but we also found that these countries have less civil society involvement in conservation. Therefore, externally funded projects in these countries must rely on government agencies for implementation. This can be problematic, as our analyses show that governments in countries with low predicted costs score poorly on indices of corruption, bureaucratic quality and human rights. Taken together, our results demonstrate that using national-level estimates for protected area management costs to set global conservation priorities is simplistic, as projects in apparently low-cost countries are less likely to succeed and more likely to have negative impacts on people. We identify the need for an improved approach to develop global conservation cost metrics that better capture the true costs of avoiding or overcoming such problems. Critically, conservation scientists must engage with practitioners to better understand and implement context-specific solutions. This approach assumes that measures of conservation costs, like measures of conservation value, are organization specific, and would bring a much-needed focus on reducing the negative impacts of conservation to develop projects that benefit people and biodiversity.

  13. Airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy to map forest trait diversity and guide conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner, G P; Martin, R E; Knapp, D E; Tupayachi, R; Anderson, C B; Sinca, F; Vaughn, N R; Llactayo, W

    2017-01-27

    Functional biogeography may bridge a gap between field-based biodiversity information and satellite-based Earth system studies, thereby supporting conservation plans to protect more species and their contributions to ecosystem functioning. We used airborne laser-guided imaging spectroscopy with environmental modeling to derive large-scale, multivariate forest canopy functional trait maps of the Peruvian Andes-to-Amazon biodiversity hotspot. Seven mapped canopy traits revealed functional variation in a geospatial pattern explained by geology, topography, hydrology, and climate. Clustering of canopy traits yielded a map of forest beta functional diversity for land-use analysis. Up to 53% of each mapped, functionally distinct forest presents an opportunity for new conservation action. Mapping functional diversity advances our understanding of the biosphere to conserve more biodiversity in the face of land use and climate change. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  14. Optimal Provision and Finance of Ecosystem Services: the Case of Watershed Conservation and Groundwater Management

    OpenAIRE

    James Roumasset; Christopher Wada

    2010-01-01

    Payments for ecosystem services should be informed by how both the providing-resource and the downstream resource are managed. We develop an integrated model that jointly optimizes conservation investment in a watershed that recharges a downstream aquifer and groundwater extraction from the aquifer. Volumetric user-fees to finance watershed investment induce inefficient water use, inasmuch as conservation projects actually lower the optimal price of groundwater. We propose a lump-sum conserva...

  15. Searching for Conservation Laws in Brain Dynamics—BOLD Flux and Source Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning U. Voss

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD imaging is the most important noninvasive tool to map human brain function. It relies on local blood-flow changes controlled by neurovascular coupling effects, usually in response to some cognitive or perceptual task. In this contribution we ask if the spatiotemporal dynamics of the BOLD signal can be modeled by a conservation law. In analogy to the description of physical laws, which often can be derived from some underlying conservation law, identification of conservation laws in the brain could lead to new models for the functional organization of the brain. Our model is independent of the nature of the conservation law, but we discuss possible hints and motivations for conservation laws. For example, globally limited blood supply and local competition between brain regions for blood might restrict the large scale BOLD signal in certain ways that could be observable. One proposed selective pressure for the evolution of such conservation laws is the closed volume of the skull limiting the expansion of brain tissue by increases in blood volume. These ideas are demonstrated on a mental motor imagery fMRI experiment, in which functional brain activation was mapped in a group of volunteers imagining themselves swimming. In order to search for local conservation laws during this complex cognitive process, we derived maps of quantities resulting from spatial interaction of the BOLD amplitudes. Specifically, we mapped fluxes and sources of the BOLD signal, terms that would appear in a description by a continuity equation. Whereas we cannot present final answers with the particular analysis of this particular experiment, some results seem to be non-trivial. For example, we found that during task the group BOLD flux covered more widespread regions than identified by conventional BOLD mapping and was always increasing during task. It is our hope that these results motivate more work towards the search for conservation

  16. Session B7 Management for sustainable use — Conservation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many terrestrial landscapes are managed as farming systems but there is an increasing need for these systems to fulfil functions that are not directly related to agriculture. Agricultural production must be balanced against the need to maintain healthy ecosystems that can provide a variety of goods and services necessary for ...

  17. Conservation biology and management of a critically endangered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key threats include four introduced invasive fish species and habitat degradation due to increasing intensive agriculture in the Twee River catchment. Unless appropriate management action is taken, it may become the first freshwater fish species in South Africa to become extinct. The purchase of key riparian properties, the ...

  18. Perthes Disease, Results of Conservative Management at Soba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ideal way of treatment remains controversial. Objectives: To study patterns of presentations and outcome of management of patients with LCPD treated at Soba University Hospital. Materials and Methods: Records of patients with LCPD who were treated at Soba University Hospital between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed.

  19. Integrating Quaternary science research in land management, restoration, and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.I. Millar; W.B. Woolfenden

    2001-01-01

    Most of us have come to expect that the general public will ignore the primary message of Quaternary science that change happens. A flurry, however, of recent media attention to 20th-century global warming and its anomalies from climates of the last millennium has brought climate science at least momentarily into popular focus. Similarly, public land-managing agencies...

  20. Prioritising species for research, conservation and management: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is especially true in multispecies fisheries where personnel and funding limitations often create the dilemma over which species should be the first to receive management and research attention. This study uses a multicriteria decision analysis approach to prioritise 176 South African linefish species on the basis of a ...

  1. An adaptive management process for forest soil conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael P. Curran; Douglas G. Maynard; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas A. Terry; Steven W. Howes; Douglas M. Stone; Thomas Niemann; Richard E. Miller; Robert F. Powers

    2005-01-01

    Soil disturbance guidelines should be based on comparable disturbance categories adapted to specific local soil conditions, validated by monitoring and research. Guidelines, standards, and practices should be continually improved based on an adaptive management process, which is presented in this paper. Core components of this process include: reliable monitoring...

  2. Conservative approach in the management of isolated penetrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Magdy A. Sorour

    2012-10-06

    Oct 6, 2012 ... crystalloid and blood transfusion. The five patients underwent surgery (suturing, packing, and resectional debridement). Two patients (3.2%) died because of high grade liver injury. The overall actuarial one-year survival in NOP management was 96.8%. Conclusions: Low grade penetrating hepatic injuries ...

  3. Conservation of biodiversity: a useful paradigm for forest ecosystem management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.B. Carey; R.O. Curtis

    1996-01-01

    The coniferous forests of the Western Hemlock Zone of western Oregon and western Washington are remarkable in the longevity and stature of their trees, long intervals between stand-replacing events, capacity to produce timber, diversity of life forms and species, and controversy over their management. The controversy is hardly new (Overton and Hunt 1974). But the...

  4. Focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia: curettage as an alternative to conservative management or more radical surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, G.; Sundaram, M.; El-Khoury, G.Y.; Merkel, K.

    2001-01-01

    We describe two cases of focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia, one treated conservatively while the other underwent curettage of the lesion. Resolution of tibia vara and healing of the focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia was noted at 6 months in the patient who underwent curettage while the conservatively managed patient required 8 years of follow-up. Of the 17 cases of conservatively followed tibial focal fibrocartilaginous dysplasia described in the literature, 11 showed complete recovery after a median interval of 57 months. We believe that curettage may result in rapid healing by removing the persistent mesenchymal anlage which can interfere with the normal growth of the tibia. (orig.)

  5. Management of COPD: Is there a role for quantitative imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, Miranda; Beek, Edwin J.R. van; Seo, Joon Beom; Biederer, Juergen; Nakano, Yasutaka; Coxson, Harvey O.; Parraga, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Multicentre studies with CT are enabling a better understanding of COPD phenotypes. • New pulmonary MRI techniques have emerged that provide sensitive COPD biomarkers. • OCT is the only imaging modality that can directly quantify the small airways. • Imaging may identify phenotypes for effective COPD management to improve outcomes. - Abstract: While the recent development of quantitative imaging methods have led to their increased use in the diagnosis and management of many chronic diseases, medical imaging still plays a limited role in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this review we highlight three pulmonary imaging modalities: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and the COPD biomarkers that may be helpful for managing COPD patients. We discussed the current role imaging plays in COPD management as well as the potential role quantitative imaging will play by identifying imaging phenotypes to enable more effective COPD management and improved outcomes.

  6. Management of COPD: Is there a role for quantitative imaging?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirby, Miranda [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); UBC James Hogg Research Center & The Institute of Heart and Lung Health, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver (Canada); Beek, Edwin J.R. van [Clinical Research Imaging Centre, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Seo, Joon Beom [Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Biederer, Juergen [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital of Heidelberg (Germany); Translational Lung Research Center Heidelberg (TLRC), Member of the German Lung Research Center (DZL) (Germany); Radiologie Darmstadt, Gross-Gerau County Hospital (Germany); Nakano, Yasutaka [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Coxson, Harvey O. [Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); UBC James Hogg Research Center & The Institute of Heart and Lung Health, St. Paul' s Hospital, Vancouver (Canada); Parraga, Grace, E-mail: gparraga@robarts.ca [Robarts Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, The University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Multicentre studies with CT are enabling a better understanding of COPD phenotypes. • New pulmonary MRI techniques have emerged that provide sensitive COPD biomarkers. • OCT is the only imaging modality that can directly quantify the small airways. • Imaging may identify phenotypes for effective COPD management to improve outcomes. - Abstract: While the recent development of quantitative imaging methods have led to their increased use in the diagnosis and management of many chronic diseases, medical imaging still plays a limited role in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this review we highlight three pulmonary imaging modalities: computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging and the COPD biomarkers that may be helpful for managing COPD patients. We discussed the current role imaging plays in COPD management as well as the potential role quantitative imaging will play by identifying imaging phenotypes to enable more effective COPD management and improved outcomes.

  7. Managing scuba divers to meet ecological goals for coral reef conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorice, Michael G; Oh, Chi-Ok; Ditton, Robert B

    2007-06-01

    Marine protected areas increasingly are challenged to maintain or increase tourism benefits while adequately protecting resources. Although carrying capacity strategies can be used to cope with use-related impacts, there is little understanding of divers themselves, their management preferences, and how preferences relate to conservation goals. By using a stated preference choice modeling approach, we investigated the choices divers make in selecting diving trips to marine protected areas as defined by use level, access, level of supervision, fees, conservation education, and diving expectations. Logit models showed that divers preferred a more restrictive management scenario over the status quo. Divers favored reductions in the level of site use and increased levels of conservation education. Divers did not favor fees to access protected areas, having less access to the resource, or extensive supervision. Finally, divers were much more willing to accept increasingly restrictive management scenarios when they could expect to see increased marine life.

  8. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report on Federal Energy Management for Fiscal year (FY) 1992 provides information on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet the statutory requirements of Title V, Part 3, of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 8251-8261, and Title VIII of NECPA, 42 U.S.C. 8287-8287b. This report also describes the energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under the authorization of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6361. Implementation activities undertaken during FY 1992 by the Federal agencies under Executive Order 12759 on Federal Energy Management are also described in this report.

  9. The functional outcome of blow-out fractures managed surgically and conservatively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Rasmussen, Janne; Toft, Peter Bjerre

    2016-01-01

    or conservatively. The study design is a retrospective cohort study and the setting is Tertiary care University Hospital. The participants include patients with isolated BOFs admitted to our Trauma Unit from 2010 to 2013. Of the 100 consecutive patients included, 60 had available follow-up data. The presence...... of diplopia and enophthalmus was determined by reviewing the medical records. Data from the patients' initial consultation and their 3-month follow-up were also collected. Of the 60 patients whose data could be analysed, 36 had been managed surgically and 24 conservatively. Of the patients managed surgically......, 25 had diplopia in peripheral gaze before surgery and 12 at 3-month follow-up. Nine had diplopia in primary gaze before surgery and none at 3-month follow-up. Five had enophthalmus before surgery and two at 3-month follow-up. Of the patients managed conservatively, eight had diplopia in peripheral...

  10. Conservative Management of Unilateral Fractures of the Mandibular Rami in Horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Nicolai

    2016-11-01

    To report the outcome of conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami in horses. Retrospective case series. 24 client-owned horses with unilateral mandibular fractures METHODS: Medical records (January 2000-January 2014) of horses with unilateral mandibular ramus fractures were retrieved. Only conservatively managed horses with follow-up information were included. Follow-up information on clinical outcome was retrieved from the medical records (n=11) or obtained by telephone interviews with the owners or trainers (n=13). Twenty-three horses (96%) returned to their previous or intended use and had no clinically evident masticatory or fracture healing-related problems at the time of follow-up. The owner of 1 horse (4%) reported it had tooth loosening, feed impaction, and masticatory problems. Conservative management of unilateral fractures of the mandibular rami is a treatment option in horses. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  11. The effect of carbon credits on savanna land management and priorities for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Lucinda L; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie; Klein, Carissa J; Roxburgh, Stephen H; Russell-Smith, Jeremy; Wilson, Kerrie A

    2011-01-01

    Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent) on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments.

  12. Thermal Quasi-Reflectography: a new imaging tool in art conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daffara, Claudia; Ambrosini, Dario; Pezzati, Luca; Paoletti, Domenica

    2012-06-18

    In the artwork conservation field, non contact diagnostic and imaging methods are widely used and most welcomed. In this work a new imaging tool, called Thermal Quasi-Reflectography (TQR), is proposed and demonstrated. It is based on the recording, by suitable procedures, of reflected infrared radiation in the MWIR band (3-5 μm). The technique, simple to perform, can provide very interesting results in the analysis of the painting surfaces. TQR was demonstrated in situ on two famous artworks: the Zavattari's frescos in the Chapel of Theodelinda (Italy) and the masterpiece by Piero della Francesca "The Resurrection" (Italy).

  13. Managing post-therapy fatigue for cancer survivors using energy conservation training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Hon Keung; Mitcham, Maralynne; Morgan, Larissa

    2006-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the effectiveness of energy conservation training to help post-therapy cancer survivors manage their fatigue. Twelve post-therapy cancer survivors were randomly assigned to an energy conservation training or usual care control (6 in each group). Participants in the intervention group received 1 to 2 hours of individual, face-to-face energy conservation training from an occupational therapist followed by once-a-week telephone monitoring sessions in the subsequent three weeks. Participants in the control group received standard care from their oncologist. Analysis of pre- and post-training data from the Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) revealed significant reduction only in the sensory subscale of the PFS (Z = 2.21; p = 0.027) for the intervention group; but no significant reduction in the four subscale or total scores of the PFS for the control group. Findings demonstrate partial support for the effectiveness of energy conservation training in helping post-therapy cancer survivors manage their fatigue. Energy conservation training seems to be a viable strategy for managing cancer-related fatigue, though its efficacy is modest. Incorporating specific energy restoration strategies such as relaxation and meditation for future research may help advance the growing body of knowledge in symptom management for post-therapy cancer survivors.

  14. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne B; Beever, Erik A; Robertson, Amanda L; Hofmann, Gretchen E; O'Leary, John

    2015-10-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions. © 2015 Society for

  15. Energy conservation and management strategies in Heavy Water Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamath, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    In the competitive industrial environment it is essential that cost of the product is kept at the minimum possible. Energy conservation is an important aspect in achieving this as energy is one of the key recourses for growth and survival of industry. The process of heavy water production being very complex and energy intensive, Heavy Water board has given a focussed attention for initiating various measures for reducing the specific energy consumption in all the plants. The initiative resulted in substantial reduction in specific energy consumption and brought in savings in cost. The cumulative reduction of specific energy consumption has been over 30% over the last seven years and the total savings for the last three years on account of the same has been about Rs. 190 crore. The paper describes the strategies adopted in the heavy water plants for effecting the above achievements. The paper covers the details of some of the energy saving schemes carried out at different heavy water plants through case studies. The case studies of schemes implemented at HWPs are general in nature and is applicable for any other industry. The case studies cover the modifications with re-optimisation of the process parameters, improvements effected in utility units like refrigeration and cooling water systems, improvements in captive power plant cycle and improved recycle scheme for water leading to reduced consumptions. The paper also mentions the innovative ammonia absorption refrigeration with improved coefficient of performance and HWB's efforts in development of the system as an integrated unit of the ammonia water deuterium exchange process for heavy water production. HWB also has taken up R and D on various other schemes for improvements in energy consumption for future activities covering utilisation of low grade energy for generation of refrigeration. (author)

  16. Achieving conservation goals in managed forests of the southeastern coastal plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehle, Craig; Wigley, T Bently; Schilling, Erik; Tatum, Vickie; Beebe, John; Vance, Eric; Van Deusen, Paul; Weatherford, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Managed forests are a primary land use within the Coastal Plain of the southern United States. These forests are generally managed under standards, guidelines, or regulations to conserve ecosystem functions and services. Economic value of commercial forests provides incentives for landowners to maintain forests rather than convert them to other uses that have substantially reduced environmental benefits. In this review, we describe the historical context of commercial forest management in the southern United States Coastal Plain, describe how working forests are managed today, and examine relationships between commercial forest management and maintenance of functional aquatic and wetland systems and conservation of biological diversity. Significant challenges for the region include increasing human population and urbanization and concomitant changes in forest area and structure, invasive species, and increased interest in forest biomass as an energy feedstock. Research needs include better information about management of rare species and communities and quantification of relationships between ecosystem attributes and forest management, including biomass production and harvest. Incentives and better information may help commercial forest managers in the Coastal Plain more efficiently contribute to landscape-scale conservation goals.

  17. The effect of platelet-rich plasma injection on lateral epicondylitis following failed conservative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brkljac, Milos; Kumar, Shyam; Kalloo, Dale; Hirehal, Kiran

    2015-12-01

    We assessed the effect PRP injection on pain and function in patients with lateral epicondylitis where conservative management had failed. We prospectively reviewed 34 patients. The mean follow-up was 26 weeks (range 6-114 weeks). We used the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and progression to surgery to assess outcomes. 88.2% improved their OES. 8.8% reported symptom progression. One patient had no change. No patients suffered adverse reactions. Two patients underwent an open release procedure. One had the injection repeated. An injection of PRP improves pain and function in patients suffering from LE where conservative management has failed.

  18. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Viktor X.; Wallen, Jared J.; Martinez, Danny R.; Carrion, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery. PMID:26793551

  19. Deflate-gate: Conservative Management of a Large Ruptured Hydrocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor X. Flores

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A hydrocele is a common cause of intrascrotal swelling that results when fluid accumulates between the parietal and visceral layers of the tunica vaginalis. Over time, fluid may collect to form a massive hydrocele and result in significant discomfort for the patient. In this case report, we present a rare event of a 28-year-old gentleman with a documented massive hydrocele measuring 14.1 × 8.9 cm who ruptured his hydrocele during sexual intercourse. We expectantly managed the patient's ruptured hydrocele and encountered no complications throughout the course of his recovery.

  20. Positives and pathologies of natural resource management on private land-conservation areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Hayley S; Cumming, Graeme S

    2017-06-01

    In managed natural resource systems, such as fisheries and rangelands, there is a recognized trade-off between managing for short-term benefits and managing for longer term resilience. Management actions that stabilize ecological attributes or processes can improve productivity in the supply of ecosystem goods and services in the short term but erode system resilience at longer time scales. For example, fire suppression in rangelands can increase grass biomass initially but ultimately result in an undesirable, shrub-dominated system. Analyses of this phenomenon have focused largely on how management actions influence slow-changing biophysical system attributes (such as vegetation composition). Data on the frequency of management actions that reduce natural ecological variation on 66 private land-conservation areas (PLCAs) in South Africa were used to investigate how management actions are influenced by manager decision-making approaches, a largely ignored part of the problem. The pathology of natural resource management was evident on some PLCAs: increased focus on revenue-generation in decision making resulted in an increased frequency of actions to stabilize short-term variation in large mammal populations, which led to increased revenues from ecotourism or hunting. On many PLCAs, these management actions corresponded with a reduced focus on ecological monitoring and an increase in overstocking of game (i.e., ungulate species) and stocking of extralimitals (i.e., game species outside their historical range). Positives in natural resource management also existed. Some managers monitored slower changing ecological attributes, which resulted in less-intensive management, fewer extralimital species, and lower stocking rates. Our unique, empirical investigation of monitoring-management relationships illustrates that management decisions informed by revenue monitoring versus ecological monitoring can have opposing consequences for natural resource productivity and

  1. The comparative analyses of selected aspects of conservation and management of Vietnam’s national parks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thanh An

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The national parks in Vietnam are protected areas in the national system of special-use forests created to protect natural resources and biodiversity. In order to improve the effectiveness of management of national parks, the study assesses some current aspects of conservation and management of natural resources with respect to management plans, financial sources, staff, cooperative activities, causes of limited management capacity and threats to natural resources. Out of the total of 30 national parks, six are under the responsibility of the Vietnam Administration of Forestry (VNFOREST and 24 national parks are managed by provincial authorities. It was found that most of the national parks have updated their management plans. Financial sources of funding for national parks mainly originated from the central and provincial budgets, with an average of 51% and 76% respectively. Fifty percent of national parks spent 40–60% of their total funding on conservation activities. About 85% of national parks’ staff had academic degrees, typically in the fields of forestry, agriculture and fisheries. Biodiversity conservation was considered a priority cooperative action in national parks with scientific institutes. Major causes of a limited management capacity of national parks included human population growth and pressure associated with resources use, lack of funding, limited human and institutional capacity and land use conflict/land grab. Illegal hunting, trapping, poaching and fishing, the illegal wildlife trade, illegal logging and firewood collecting appeared to be the most serious threats to the conservation and management of natural resources. In addition to these results, significant differences were found between the VNFOREST and provincial parks in terms of financial sources, staff and the threat of illegal logging and firewood collecting. The authors’ findings offer useful information for national park planners and managers, as well as

  2. Valuing biodiversity and ecosystem services: a useful way to manage and conserve marine resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Rachel D; Broszeit, Stefanie; Pilling, Graham M; Grant, Susie M; Murphy, Eugene J; Austen, Melanie C

    2016-12-14

    Valuation of biodiversity and ecosystem services (ES) is widely recognized as a useful, though often controversial, approach to conservation and management. However, its use in the marine environment, hence evidence of its efficacy, lags behind that in terrestrial ecosystems. This largely reflects key challenges to marine conservation and management such as the practical difficulties in studying the ocean, complex governance issues and the historically-rooted separation of biodiversity conservation and resource management. Given these challenges together with the accelerating loss of marine biodiversity (and threats to the ES that this biodiversity supports), we ask whether valuation efforts for marine ecosystems are appropriate and effective. We compare three contrasting systems: the tropical Pacific, Southern Ocean and UK coastal seas. In doing so, we reveal a diversity in valuation approaches with different rates of progress and success. We also find a tendency to focus on specific ES (often the harvested species) rather than biodiversity. In light of our findings, we present a new conceptual view of valuation that should ideally be considered in decision-making. Accounting for the critical relationships between biodiversity and ES, together with an understanding of ecosystem structure and functioning, will enable the wider implications of marine conservation and management decisions to be evaluated. We recommend embedding valuation within existing management structures, rather than treating it as an alternative or additional mechanism. However, we caution that its uptake and efficacy will be compromised without the ability to develop and share best practice across regions. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. On the Use of Maps and Models in Conservation and Resource Management (Warning: Results May Vary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lecours

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation planning and management typically require accurate and spatially explicit data at scales that are relevant for conservation objectives. In marine conservation, these data are often combined with spatial analytical techniques to produce marine habitat maps. While marine habitat mapping is increasingly used to inform conservation efforts, this field is still relatively young and its methods are rapidly evolving. Because conservation efforts do not always specify standards or guidelines for the production of habitat maps, results can vary dramatically. As representations of real environmental characteristics, habitat maps are highly sensitive to how they are produced. In this review paper, I present four concepts that are known to cause variation in spatial representation and prediction of habitats: the methodology used, the quality and scale of the data, and the choice of variables in regards to fitness for use. I then discuss the potential antinomy associated with the use of habitat maps in conservation: while habitat maps have become an invaluable tool to inform and assist decision-making, maps of the same area built using different methods and data may provide dissimilar representations, thus providing different information and possibly leading to different decisions. Exploring the theories and methods that have proved effective in terrestrial conservation and the spatial sciences, and how they can be integrated in marine habitat mapping practices, could help improve maps used to support marine conservation efforts and result in more reliable products to inform conservation decisions. Having a strong, consistent, transparent, repeatable, and science-based protocol for data collection and mapping is essential for effectively supporting decision-makers in developing conservation and management plans. The development of user-friendly tools to assist in the application of such protocol is crucial to a widespread improvement in

  4. Conservative Management of Keratocystic Odontogenic Tumors of Jaws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhan Güler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate different surgical treatment methods for keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs and the outcome of those treatments over a 9-year period. Patients and Methods. A retrospective review was performed on 43 KCOTs in 39 patients. In radiographic evaluations for diagnosis, follow ups and before and after treatment, panoramic, 3D CT and MR images were used. The three groups of different surgical treatment were (1 enucleation for small unilocular lesions without certainty of histology; (2 enucleation with Carnoy's solution, for small unilocular lesions after previous histological confirmation of KOCT; (3 marsupialization followed by enucleation with Carnoy's solution implemented for large often multilocular KCOTs with intact or destruction of cortical bone without infiltration of neighbouring tissue. Results. 43 KCOT cases were mostly localized in mandible (76.7%, radiologically unilocular (72%, and parakeratocysts (88.4%. Inflammation and satellite cysts (daughter cysts were detected histopathologically in 14 (32.5% and 7 (16.3%, respectively. Among the 43 cysts, 20 (46.5% were associated with the impacted third molar and of 21 (48.8% was in tooth bearing area, and 5 (11, 6% located on edentulous areas. It was located mostly in the anterior region of maxilla (90% and in mandibular molar and ramus (62.8%. The treatments of KCOTs were 18 (41.9% for group 1, and 10 (23.3% group 2, and 15 (34.8% group 3. A statistically significant relationship was found between the radiographic appearance and treatment methods (=0.00. No recurrence was found on 40.54±23.02 months follow up. Conclusion. We concluded that successful treatment methods were enucleation and Carnoy's solution in small lesions and marsupialization in lesions that have reached a very large size, but because KCOT was observed in second decade mostly, long-term follows up are suggested.

  5. Evaluation of waterfowl conservation under the North American Waterfowl Management Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B.K.; Koneff, M.D.; Stith, David A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1986, the North American Waterfowl Management Plan (Plan) was signed by the U.S. Secretary of the Interior and the Canadian Minister of the Environment, with a goal of restoring waterfowl populations to levels of the 1970s via habitat conservation. Central to the Plan is a set of ambitious continental population goals and habitat objectives to be met through broad-based public-private partnerships. Inadequate attention has been paid to evaluation of the Plan, despite the fact that Plan delivery can be enhanced via improved understanding of the effects of habitat conservation on waterfowl population dynamics. Several factors confound the effort to evaluate the Plan at regional and continental levels, including difficulties in accounting for national land-use policies. To date, evaluation has proceeded along 2 avenues of investigation: (1) the study of conservation actions at local-regional levels, and (2) statistical assessment of Plan assumptions. Among other things, results thus far indicate duck production from the U.S. Northern Great Plains has increased in recent years, and intensive treatments such as planted cover have had positive effects on local reproductive success. Many duck species currently exceed Plan population goals; however, population levels of some species, most notably northern pintail (Anas acuta), remain below expectations based on historic relationships with precipitation. Management implications include the need for ongoing and more carefully prioritized conservation efforts, broader partnerships, and improved understanding of the linkages between habitats and biological processes. Delivery of the Plan must involve collaboration among the Continental Evaluation Team, joint Venture partners, the Adaptive Management and Assessment Team of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and other conservation groups. Although the challenges and projected costs of Plan conservation efforts are considerable, the long-term potential benefits to waterfowl

  6. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Conservative management of post-appendicectomy intra-abdominal abscesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaou Mahdi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Appendicitis is the most common abdominal inflammatory process in children which were sometimes followed by complications including intra-abdominal abscess. This later needs classically a surgical drainage. We evaluated the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and surgical drainage. Methods Hospital records of children treated in our unit for intra-abdominal post appendectomy abscesses over a 6 years period were reviewed retrospectively. Results This study investigates a series of 14 children from 2 to 13 years of age with one or many abscesses after appendectomy, treated between 2002 and 2007. Seven underwent surgery and the others were treated with triple antibiotherapy. The two groups were comparable. For the 7 patients who receive medical treatment alone, it was considered efficient in 6 cases (85% with clinical, biological and radiological recovery of the abscess. There was one failure (14%. The duration of hospitalization from the day of diagnosis of intra-abdominal abscess was approximately 10.28 days (range 7 to 14 days. In the other group, the efficacy of treatment was considered satisfactory in all cases. The duration of hospitalization was about 13 days (range: 9 to 20. Conclusion Compared to surgical drainage, antibiotic management of intra-abdominal abscesses was a no invasive treatment with shorter hospitalization.

  8. Virtual Machine Images Management in Cloud Environments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, the demand for scalability in distributed systems has led a design philosophy in which virtual resources need to be configured in a flexible way to provide services to a large number of users. The configuration and management of such an architecture is challenging (e.g.: 100,000 compute cores on the private cloud together with thousands of cores on external cloud resources). There is the need to process CPU intensive work whilst ensuring that the resources are shared fairly between different users of the system, and guarantee that all nodes are up to date with new images containing the latest software configurations. Different types of automated systems can be used to facilitate the orchestration. CERN’s current system, composed of different technologies such as OpenStack, Packer, Puppet, Rundeck and Docker will be introduced and explained, together with the process used to create new Virtual Machines images at CERN.

  9. Mixing It Up: The Role of Hybridization in Forest Management and Conservation under Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine K. Janes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest tree hybrid zones provide a wealth of novel genetic variation that can be harnessed to safeguard populations in changing climates. In the past 30 years, natural and artificial forest hybrid zones have facilitated significant contributions to selective breeding programs, conservation, and our understanding of the evolutionary processes and mechanisms that influence the maintenance of species and community interactions. This review highlights advances in these areas using forest hybrid zones. Taking examples from well-known genera, including eucalypt, poplar, oak and spruce, this review details the important role hybrid zones play in managing conservation of genetic variation, the environmental and non-environmental factors that influence barriers to reproduction, and the impact that genetic ancestry may have on community biodiversity. Given increasing concern surrounding species adaptability under rapidly changing conditions, we describe how the study of forest hybrid zones, using quantitative and genomic approaches, can facilitate conservation of genetic diversity and long-term species management.

  10. Assessing the components of adaptive capacity to improve conservation and management efforts under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotra, Adrienne; Beever, Erik; Robertson, Amanda; Hofmann, Gretchen; O’Leary, John

    2015-01-01

    Natural-resource managers and other conservation practitioners are under unprecedented pressure to categorize and quantify the vulnerability of natural systems based on assessment of the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of species to climate change. Despite the urgent need for these assessments, neither the theoretical basis of adaptive capacity nor the practical issues underlying its quantification has been articulated in a manner that is directly applicable to natural-resource management. Both are critical for researchers, managers, and other conservation practitioners to develop reliable strategies for assessing adaptive capacity. Drawing from principles of classical and contemporary research and examples from terrestrial, marine, plant, and animal systems, we examined broadly the theory behind the concept of adaptive capacity. We then considered how interdisciplinary, trait- and triage-based approaches encompassing the oft-overlooked interactions among components of adaptive capacity can be used to identify species and populations likely to have higher (or lower) adaptive capacity. We identified the challenges and value of such endeavors and argue for a concerted interdisciplinary research approach that combines ecology, ecological genetics, and eco-physiology to reflect the interacting components of adaptive capacity. We aimed to provide a basis for constructive discussion between natural-resource managers and researchers, discussions urgently needed to identify research directions that will deliver answers to real-world questions facing resource managers, other conservation practitioners, and policy makers. Directing research to both seek general patterns and identify ways to facilitate adaptive capacity of key species and populations within species, will enable conservation ecologists and resource managers to maximize returns on research and management investment and arrive at novel and dynamic management and policy decisions.

  11. Images of Environment and Management Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kirsten; Remmen, Arne

    ; environment as a part of quality management; environment as a part of corporate branding and environment as a part of customer relations. The different images are distributed and coexist throughout the organization, where they may be a potential for conflicting priorities or a platform for organizational...... as a technical issue as part of a formalized system created barriers for organizational learning in relation to sustainability, while the broader concept of social responsibility shaped a platform from which the employees could create meanings on sustainability more in line with their daily practices....

  12. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resources Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry: Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Tom

    The guide is designed to aid the instructor in implementing the student guide entitled "Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book For Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry". Intended for use in the secondary level vocational agriculture curriculum, general concepts, student record-keeping skills,…

  13. Supervised Occupational Experience Record Book for Agricultural Resource Conservation, Environmental Management and Forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickles, Tom

    The record book was designed to meet the occupational experience recordkeeping requirements of vocational agriculture students enrolled in forestry, environmental management, or agriculture resource conservation programs in Ohio. It provides guidelines and forms for recording on-the-job, in-the-school lab, and occupational experience project data.…

  14. 78 FR 18187 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    ... appropriate monitoring levels, costs of those programs, and implementation of electronic monitoring systems... develop electronic monitoring in the Northeast. With respect to the proposed measure, however, NMFS has... Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions...

  15. Agroforestry landscapes and global change: landscape ecology tools for management and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillermo Martinez Pastur; Emilie Andrieu; Louis R. Iverson; Pablo Luis. Peri

    2012-01-01

    Forest ecosystems are impacted by multiple uses under the influence of global drivers, and where landscape ecology tools may substantially facilitate the management and conservation of the agroforestry ecosystems. The use of landscape ecology tools was described in the eight papers of the present special issue, including changes in forested landscapes due to...

  16. Understanding the Local Socio-political Processes Affecting Conservation Management Outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M.; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  17. Chapter 6: The scientific basis for conserving forest carnivores: considerations for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Jack Lyon; Keith B. Aubry; William J. Zielinski; Steven W. Buskirk; Leonard F. Ruggiero

    1994-01-01

    The reviews presented in previous chapters reveal substantial gaps in our knowledge about marten, fisher, lynx, and wolverine. These gaps severely constrain our ability to design reliable conservation strategies. This problem will be explored in depth in Chapter 7. In this chapter, our objective is to discuss management considerations resulting from what we currently...

  18. Energy conservation management and physical behavior in fatigued people with Multiple Sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.M. Blikman (Lyan)

    2018-01-01

    markdownabstractThe general aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to gain insight into the effectiveness of energy conservation management (ECM) treatment in reducing fatigue and improving societal participation in fatigued people with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Another important topic in

  19. A climate adaptation strategy for conservation and management of yellowcedar in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul E. Hennon; Carol M. McKenzie; David D' Amore; Dustin T. Wittwer; Robin L. Mulvey; Melinda S. Lamb; Frances E. Biles; Rich C. Cronn

    2016-01-01

    A conservation and management strategy for yellow-cedar in Alaska is presented in the context of climate change. This document has four sections. Section 1 covers the ecology and silvics of yellow-cedar, as well as other background information. Section 2 outlines knowledge on the extensive mortality to yellow-cedar, including the role of climate. Section 3 describes...

  20. 75 FR 12141 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AY01 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Monkfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA...

  1. 75 FR 34049 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 648 RIN 0648-AW30 Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Skate Complex Fishery; Amendment 3 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and...

  2. Facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma surgery following failed conservative management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mikkel; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: As only a limited proportion of vestibular schwannomas display growth following diagnosis, an increasing number of patients are managed conservatively. Tumor growth during "wait and scan" may, however, necessitate surgery. In these cases, increased tumor size is likely to increase th...

  3. The ecosystem approach to fisheries: management at the dynamic interface between biodiversity conservation and sustainable use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Simon; Smith, Anthony D M; Fulton, Elizabeth A; Smith, David C

    2014-08-01

    The emergence of an ecosystem approach to fisheries (EAF) was characterized by the adoption of objectives for maintaining ecosystem health alongside those for fisheries. The EAF was expected to meet some aspirations for biodiversity conservation, but health was principally linked to sustainable use rather than lower levels of human impact. Consequently, while policies including EAF concepts identified objectives for fisheries management and biodiversity conservation, the wording often reflected unresolved societal and political debates about objectives and gave imprecise guidance on addressing inevitable trade-offs. Despite scientific progress in making trade-offs and consequences explicit, there remain substantial differences in interpretations of acceptable impact, responses to uncertainty and risk, and the use of management measures by groups accountable for fisheries management and biodiversity conservation. Within and among nations and regions, these differences are influenced by the contribution of fisheries, aquaculture, farming, and trade to food security, consumers' options, and other social, economic, and environmental factors. Notwithstanding, mutual understanding of the motivations and norms of fisheries management and biodiversity conservation groups is increasing, and interactions between these groups have likely supported more progress toward meeting their stated objectives than would have otherwise been achievable. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Achievable future conditions as a framework for guiding forest conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    S.W. Golladay; K.L. Martin; J. M. Vose; D. N. Wear; A.P. Covich; R.J. Hobbs; Kier Klepzig; G.E. Likens; R.J. Naiman; A.W. Shearer

    2016-01-01

    We contend that traditional approaches to forest conservation and management will be inadequate given the predicted scale of social-economic and biophysical changes in the 21st century. New approaches, focused on anticipating and guiding ecological responses to change, are urgently needed to ensure the full value of forest ecosystem services for future generations....

  5. Bringing genetic diversity to the forefront of conservation policy and management

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hoban, S. M.; Hauffe, H. C.; Pérez-Espona, S.; Arntzen, J. W.; Bertorelle, G.; Bryja, Josef; Frith, K.; Gaggiotti, O. E.; Galbusera, P.; Godoy, J. A.; Hoelzel, A. R.; Nichols, R. A.; Primmer, C. R.; Russo, I.-R.; Segelbacher, G.; Siegismund, H. R.; Sihvonen, M.; Vernesi, C.; Vila, C.; Bruford, M. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2013), s. 593-598 ISSN 1877-7252 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Conservation genetics * Aichi target 13 * ConGRESS * Biodiversity management * Biodiversity policy Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.136, year: 2013

  6. Understanding the local socio-political processes affecting conservation management outcomes in Corbett Tiger Reserve, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Archi; Hickey, Gordon M; Badola, Ruchi; Hussain, Syed Ainul

    2014-05-01

    Several measures have been recommended to guarantee a sustainable population of tigers: sufficient inviolate spaces for a viable population, sufficient prey populations, trained and skilled manpower to guard against poaching and intrusion, banning trade in tiger products to reduce poaching, and importantly, the political will to precipitate these recommendations into implementation. Of these, the creation of sufficient inviolate spaces (generally in the form of protected areas) has created the most issues with local resource-dependent communities, often resulting in significant challenges for tiger conservation policy and management. Very little empirical research has, however, been done to understand and contextualize the local-level socio-political interactions that may influence the efficacy of tiger conservation in India. In this paper, we present the results of exploratory research into the ways in which local-stakeholder groups affect the management of Corbett Tiger Reserve (CTR). Using a combined grounded theory-case study research design, and the Institutional Analysis and Development framework for analysis, we identify the socio-political processes through which local-stakeholder groups are able to articulate their issues and elicit desirable actions from the management of CTR. Increasing our awareness of these processes can help inform the design and implementation of more effective tiger conservation management and policy strategies that have the potential to create more supportive coalitions of tiger conservation stakeholders at the local level.

  7. Conservative Management for Stable High Ankle Injuries in Professional Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapik, Derrick M; Trem, Anthony; Sheehan, Joseph; Salata, Michael J; Voos, James E

    High ankle "syndesmosis" injuries are common in American football players relative to the general population. At the professional level, syndesmotic sprains represent a challenging and unique injury lacking a standardized rehabilitation protocol during conservative management. PubMed, Biosis Preview, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms syndesmotic injuries, American football, conservative management, and rehabilitation. Clinical review. Level 3. When compared with lateral ankle sprains, syndesmosis injuries result in significantly prolonged recovery times and games lost. For stable syndesmotic injuries, conservative management features a brief period of immobilization and protected weightbearing followed by progressive strengthening exercises and running, and athletes can expect to return to competition in 2 to 6 weeks. Further research investigating the efficacy of dry needling and blood flow restriction therapy is necessary to evaluate the benefit of these techniques in the rehabilitation process. Successful conservative management of stable syndesmotic injuries in professional American football athletes requires a thorough understanding of the anatomy, injury mechanisms, diagnosis, and rehabilitation strategies utilized in elite athletes.

  8. Dealing with Drought: Decoupling Climatic and Management-Related Drivers of Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemati, A.; Rippy, M.; Grant, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    As global populations grow, cities in drought prone regions of the world such as California and South East Australia are faced with escalating water scarcity and water security challenges. The management approaches geared towards addressing these challenges are diverse. Given the myriad of possible approaches and the tendency to apply them in combination, successful management actions can be difficult to identify. Background climactic variability further complicates the story, making transfer of management lessons from one drought stressed region to another difficult. Here we use Melbourne, a city of 4.3 million people in South East Australia that recently faced and overcame a > 10 year "Millennium" drought, as a test case for evaluating the relative importance of various management-related and climactic factors in driving reductions in municipal water consumption (~60% in 12 years). Our analysis suggests that Melbourne's declining municipal consumption cannot be explained by potable substitution alone, as reductions in municipal consumption were not matched by increased use of alternative sources (e.g., urban rain or recycled water). Thus, water conservation behavior (not source switching) may be responsible for the majority of demand reduction in Melbourne. Interestingly, while voluntary or mandatory water restrictions appear to have substantially altered the rate of change of consumption near the end of Melbourne's Millennium drought (e.g., forcing a period of intense conservation), overall conservation behavior precedes these restrictions. This suggests that other rapidly implemented (and hither too unquantified) management approaches such as advertising or newspapers may have driven water conservation behavior early in the drought. Climatic factors, particularly precipitation may also have influenced conservation behavior; changes in precipitation were significantly positively correlated with changes in water consumption at a lag of 18 months. Similar

  9. The application of real-time, non-destructive electrical tomographic imaging to heritage conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvy, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent times with the non-invasive electrical tomographic imaging of the shallow subsurface. These emerging technologies are analogous to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT scans used in medical physics. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is increasingly used to underpin studies in waste management, contaminated land characterisation and remediation, monitoring groundwater resources and the monitoring of geohazards or safety-critical plant. Ther...

  10. Effectiveness of conservative management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis: A single hospital based prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz KH. Alnaser

    Full Text Available Background: Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest causes of acute abdomen. There is a wide discussion and controversy on the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of acute uncomplicated appendicitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and outcomes of the conservative management of selected cases of acute appendicitis with an antibiotic first plan. Patients and methods: This was a single hospital-based prospective study with a duration of 25 months. Patients with clinical and radiological features of acute appendicitis presenting within 72 h of the beginning of abdominal pain with Alvarado score ≥5 were included. The patients received a therapeutic dose of broad-spectrum antibiotics and symptomatic treatment. The follow-up period was 6 months. Results: 90 patients were evaluated, 54 (60% patients were female and 36 (40% patients were male with mean age 34.4 years. Conservative treatment was successful in 68 (75.6% patients and failed in 22 (24.4% patients. No mortality recorded in this study. The main complications which occurred in those patients who failed to respond to conservative treatment were perforated appendicitis (3 patients, appendicular abscess (3 patients and appendicular mass (4 patients. Conclusion: Majority of cases of the first attack of uncomplicated acute appendicitis can be treated successfully by conservative treatment. However, conservative treatment demands precise communication, close monitoring and follow-up to recognize failure which needs to be treated immediately by surgery. Keywords: Acute appendicitis, Conservative treatment, Surgery, Antibiotics

  11. Conservation of the Eastern Taiwan Strait Chinese White Dolphin (Sousa chinensis: Fishers' Perspectives and Management Implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ta-Kang Liu

    Full Text Available The abundance of the eastern Taiwan Strait (ETS population of the Chinese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis has been estimated to be less than 100 individuals. It is categorized as critically endangered in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Thus, immediate measures of conservation should be taken to protect it from extinction. Currently, the Taiwanese government plans to designate its habitat as a Major Wildlife Habitat (MWH, a type of marine protected area (MPA for conservation of wildlife species. Although the designation allows continuing the current exploitation, however, it may cause conflicts among multiple stakeholders with competing interests. The study is to explore the attitude and opinions among the stakeholders in order to better manage the MPA. This study employs a semi-structured interview and a questionnaire survey of local fishers. Results from interviews indicated that the subsistence of fishers remains a major problem. It was found that stakeholders have different perceptions of the fishers' attitude towards conservation and also thought that the fishery-related law enforcement could be difficult. Quantitative survey showed that fishers are generally positive towards the conservation of the Chinese white dolphin but are less willing to participate in the planning process. Most fishers considered temporary fishing closure as feasible for conservation. The results of this study provide recommendations for future efforts towards the goal of better conservation for this endangered species.

  12. The management and realizing of image data flow in PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Yonghao; Miao Jingtao

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To explore the management model and realizing of PACS image data-flow. Methods: Based on the implementing environment and management model of PACS image data-flow after full digital reengineering for radiology department in Shanghai First Hospital was completed, analysis on image data flow types, procedure, and achieving pattern were conducted. Results: Two kinds of image data-flow management were set up for the PACS of Shanghai First Hospital, which included image archiving procedure and image forward procedure. The former was implemented with central management model while the latter was achieved with a program that functionally acted as workflow management running on the central server. Conclusion: The image data-flow management pattern, as a key factor for PACS, has to be designed and implemented functionally and effectively depending on the performance environment, the tasks and requirements specified to particular user

  13. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-08-01

    Over half of the European landscape is under agricultural management and has been for millennia. Many species and ecosystems of conservation concern in Europe depend on agricultural management and are showing ongoing declines. Agri-environment schemes (AES) are designed partly to address this. They are a major source of nature conservation funding within the European Union (EU) and the highest conservation expenditure in Europe. We reviewed the structure of current AES across Europe. Since a 2003 review questioned the overall effectiveness of AES for biodiversity, there has been a plethora of case studies and meta-analyses examining their effectiveness. Most syntheses demonstrate general increases in farmland biodiversity in response to AES, with the size of the effect depending on the structure and management of the surrounding landscape. This is important in the light of successive EU enlargement and ongoing reforms of AES. We examined the change in effect size over time by merging the data sets of 3 recent meta-analyses and found that schemes implemented after revision of the EU's agri-environmental programs in 2007 were not more effective than schemes implemented before revision. Furthermore, schemes aimed at areas out of production (such as field margins and hedgerows) are more effective at enhancing species richness than those aimed at productive areas (such as arable crops or grasslands). Outstanding research questions include whether AES enhance ecosystem services, whether they are more effective in agriculturally marginal areas than in intensively farmed areas, whether they are more or less cost-effective for farmland biodiversity than protected areas, and how much their effectiveness is influenced by farmer training and advice? The general lesson from the European experience is that AES can be effective for conserving wildlife on farmland, but they are expensive and need to be carefully designed and targeted. © 2015 The Authors. Conservation Biology

  14. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative Science and Management Workshop Proceedings, May 12-14, 2009, Laramie, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuccio, Vito F.; D'Erchia, Frank D.; Parady, K.(compiler); Mellinger, A.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hosted the second Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) Science and Management Workshop at the University of Wyoming Conference Center and Hilton Garden Inn on May 12, 13, and 14, 2009, in Laramie, Wyo. The workshop focused on six topics seen as relevant to ongoing WLCI science and management activities: mapping and modeling resources for decisionmaking; data information and management; fish and wildlife research; changing landscapes; monitoring; and reclamation and offsite mitigation. Panelists gave presentations on ongoing research in these six areas during plenary sessions followed by audience discussions. Three breakout groups focused on discussing wildlife, reclamation, and monitoring. Throughout the plenary sessions, audience discussions, and breakout groups, several needs were repeatedly emphasized by panelists and workshop participants: developing a conservation plan and identifying priority areas and species for conservation actions; gaining a deeper understanding of sagebrush ecology; identifying thresholds for wildlife that can be used to create an 'early warning system' for managers; continuing to collect basic data across the landscape; facilitating even greater communication and partnership across agencies and between scientists and land managers; and engaging proactively in understanding new changes on the landscape such as wind energy development and climate change. Detailed proceedings from the workshop are captured and summarized in this report.

  15. Ecological Conservation, Ecotourism, and Sustainable Management: The Case of Penang National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Kaffashi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Penang National Park (PNP, as Malaysia’s smallest national park, is one of the few naturally forested areas left on Penang Island, in Peninsular Malaysia. The main objective was to analyse users’ preferences and willingness to pay to enhance improved management of PNP for the dual aim of conservation and recreation. Structural equation modelling (SEM was used to analyse the formation of attitudes towards different aspects of PNP. Results showed that implementing enforcements with rules and regulations and imposing permits and charges on certain activities were the most influential variables of PNPs’ perceptions. The results of a random parameter logit model (RPL demonstrated that visitors placed the highest value on having adequate information about PNP, and the second-highest value on improvements in the park’s ecological management. The welfare measure for improvement in management of PNP against status quo is estimated at about MYR 9. Results also showed that demand for better conservation and management of PNP is relatively price-inelastic. Simulations of the results showed, under a MYR10 admission fee, that improvement in management would have 96% of market share compared with status quo. This study concluded that visitor entrance fees can and ought to be introduced as a means of financing conservation initiatives and possibly preventing congestion.

  16. Stakeholder management for conservation projects: a case study of Ream National Park, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Lopez, T T

    2001-07-01

    The paper gives an account of the development and implementation of a stakeholder management framework at Ream National Park, Cambodia. Firstly, the concept of stakeholder is reviewed in management and in conservation literatures. Secondly, the context in which the stakeholder framework was implemented is described. Thirdly, a five-step methodological framework is suggested: (1) stakeholder analysis, (2) stakeholder mapping, (3) development of generic strategies and workplan, (4) presentation of the workplan to stakeholders, and (5) implementation of the workplan. This framework classifies stakeholders according to their level of influence on the project and their potential for the conservation of natural resources. In a situation characterized by conflicting claims on natural resources, park authorities were able to successfully develop specific strategies for the management of stakeholders. The conclusion discusses the implications of the Ream experience and the generalization of the framework to other protected areas.

  17. Conservative approach to the acute management of a large mesenteric cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Billy C; Sankey, Ruth; Fronza, Matteo; Maatouk, Mohamed

    2017-09-16

    Mesenteric cysts are rare, benign gastrointestinal cystic lesions, which are often non-troublesome and present as an incidental radiological finding. However, surgery is often performed in the acute setting to remove lesions that are symptomatic. This report highlights the case of a large, symptomatic mesenteric cyst managed successfully with initial conservative measures followed by planned elective surgery. A 44-year-old female presented with a four-day history of generalised abdominal pain associated with distension, fever, diarrhoea and vomiting. Computer tomography revealed a large (21.7 cm × 11.8 cm × 14 cm) mesenteric cyst within the left abdomen cavity. She was admitted and treated conservatively with intravenous fluids and antibiotics for four days, which lead to complete symptom resolution. Follow-up at intervals of one and three months revealed no return of symptoms. An elective laparotomy and excision of the mesenteric cyst was then scheduled and performed safely at nine months after the initial presentation. Compared to acute surgery, acute conservative management followed by planned elective resection of a symptomatic mesenteric cyst may prove safer. The withholding of an immediate operation may potentially avoid unnecessary operative risk and should be considered in patients without obstructive and peritonitic symptoms. Our case demonstrated the safe use of initial conservative management followed by planned elective surgery of a mesenteric cyst found in the acute setting, which was symptomatic but was not obstructive or causing peritonitic symptoms.

  18. Understanding the threats posed by non-native species: public vs. conservation managers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolphe E Gozlan

    Full Text Available Public perception is a key factor influencing current conservation policy. Therefore, it is important to determine the influence of the public, end-users and scientists on the prioritisation of conservation issues and the direct implications for policy makers. Here, we assessed public attitudes and the perception of conservation managers to five non-native species in the UK, with these supplemented by those of an ecosystem user, freshwater anglers. We found that threat perception was not influenced by the volume of scientific research or by the actual threats posed by the specific non-native species. Media interest also reflected public perception and vice versa. Anglers were most concerned with perceived threats to their recreational activities but their concerns did not correspond to the greatest demonstrated ecological threat. The perception of conservation managers was an amalgamation of public and angler opinions but was mismatched to quantified ecological risks of the species. As this suggests that invasive species management in the UK is vulnerable to a knowledge gap, researchers must consider the intrinsic characteristics of their study species to determine whether raising public perception will be effective. The case study of the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva reveals that media pressure and political debate has greater capacity to ignite policy changes and impact studies on non-native species than scientific evidence alone.

  19. Building Virtual Watersheds: A Global Opportunity to Strengthen Resource Management and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Lee; Miller, Daniel; Barquin, Jose; McCleary, Richard; Cai, TiJiu; Ji, Y.

    2016-03-01

    Modern land-use planning and conservation strategies at landscape to country scales worldwide require complete and accurate digital representations of river networks, encompassing all channels including the smallest headwaters. The digital river networks, integrated with widely available digital elevation models, also need to have analytical capabilities to support resource management and conservation, including attributing river segments with key stream and watershed data, characterizing topography to identify landforms, discretizing land uses at scales necessary to identify human-environment interactions, and connecting channels downstream and upstream, and to terrestrial environments. We investigate the completeness and analytical capabilities of national to regional scale digital river networks that are available in five countries: Canada, China, Russia, Spain, and United States using actual resource management and conservation projects involving 12 university, agency, and NGO organizations. In addition, we review one pan-European and one global digital river network. Based on our analysis, we conclude that the majority of the regional, national, and global scale digital river networks in our sample lack in network completeness, analytical capabilities or both. To address this limitation, we outline a general framework to build as complete as possible digital river networks and to integrate them with available digital elevation models to create robust analytical capabilities (e.g., virtual watersheds). We believe this presents a global opportunity for in-country agencies, or international players, to support creation of virtual watersheds to increase environmental problem solving, broaden access to the watershed sciences, and strengthen resource management and conservation in countries worldwide.

  20. The Colorado Plateau V: research, environmental planning, and management for collaborative conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Miguel L.; van Riper, Carena J.; Johnson, Matthew J.; van Riper, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This volume, the fifth from the University of Arizona Press and the tenth overall, focuses on adaptation of resource management and conservation to climate change and water scarcity, protecting biodiversity through restructured energy policies, ensuring wildlife habitat connectivity across barriers, building effective conservation networks, and exploring new opportunities for education and leadership in conservation science. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  1. Mammal indicator species for protected areas and managed forests in a landscape conservation area in northern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep K. Mathur; Harish Kumar; John F. Lehmkuhl; Anshuman Tripathi; Vishwas B. Sawarkar; Rupak. De

    2010-01-01

    There is a realization that managed forests and other natural areas in the landscape matrix can and must make significant contributions to biodiversity conservation. Often, however, there are no consistent baseline vegetation or wildlife data for assessing the status of biodiversity elements across protected and managed areas for conservation planning, nor is there a...

  2. Conservation Easements and Management by Family Forest Owners: A Propensity Score Matching Approach with Multi-Imputations of Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Brett J. Butler

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, private landowners are participating in conservation easement programs, but their effects on land management remain to be addressed. Data from the USDA Forest Service National Woodland Owner Survey for the US Northern Region were used to investigate how conservation easement participation is associated with selected past and future forest management...

  3. Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool : Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Howison, Ruth A.; Esselink, Peter; Ubels, Richard; Smit, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Grazing is commonly used in conservation to promote biodiversity, but the search for a grazing management regime that optimises biodiversity is still ongoing. Rotation grazing, where grazing is followed by a relatively long period of non-grazing, is a relative new tool in conservation management,

  4. The effect of carbon credits on savanna land management and priorities for biodiversity conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda L Douglass

    Full Text Available Carbon finance offers the potential to change land management and conservation planning priorities. We develop a novel approach to planning for improved land management to conserve biodiversity while utilizing potential revenue from carbon biosequestration. We apply our approach in northern Australia's tropical savanna, a region of global significance for biodiversity and carbon storage, both of which are threatened by current fire and grazing regimes. Our approach aims to identify priority locations for protecting species and vegetation communities by retaining existing vegetation and managing fire and grazing regimes at a minimum cost. We explore the impact of accounting for potential carbon revenue (using a carbon price of US$14 per tonne of carbon dioxide equivalent on priority areas for conservation and the impact of explicitly protecting carbon stocks in addition to biodiversity. Our results show that improved management can potentially raise approximately US$5 per hectare per year in carbon revenue and prevent the release of 1-2 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent over approximately 90 years. This revenue could be used to reduce the costs of improved land management by three quarters or double the number of biodiversity targets achieved and meet carbon storage targets for the same cost. These results are based on generalised cost and carbon data; more comprehensive applications will rely on fine scale, site-specific data and a supportive policy environment. Our research illustrates that the duel objective of conserving biodiversity and reducing the release of greenhouse gases offers important opportunities for cost-effective land management investments.

  5. Athletic Population with Spondylolysis: Review of Outcomes following Surgical Repair or Conservative Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteliadis, Pavlos; Nagra, Navraj S.; Edwards, Kimberley L.; Behrbalk, Eyal; Boszczyk, Bronek

    2016-01-01

    Study Design  Narrative review. Objective  The study aims to critically review the outcomes associated with the surgical repair or conservative management of spondylolysis in athletes. Methods  The English literature listed in MEDLINE/PubMed was reviewed to identify related articles using the term “spondylolysis AND athlete.” The criteria for studies to be included were management of spondylolysis in athletes, English text, and no year, follow-up, or study design restrictions. The references of the retrieved articles were also evaluated. The primary outcome was time to return to sport. This search yielded 180 citations, and 25 publications were included in the review. Results  Treatment methods were dichotomized as operative and nonoperative. In the nonoperative group, 390 athletes were included. A combination of bracing with physical therapy and restriction of activities was used. Conservative measures allowed athletes to return to sport in 3.7 months (weighted mean). One hundred seventy-four patients were treated surgically. The most common technique was Buck's, using a compression screw (91/174). All authors reported satisfactory outcomes. Time to return to play was 7.9 months (weighted mean). There were insufficient studies with suitably homogenous subgroups to conduct a meta-analysis. Conclusion  There is no gold standard approach for the management of spondylolysis in the athletic population. The existing literature suggests initial therapy should be a course of conservative management with thoracolumbosacral orthosis brace, physiotherapy, and activity modification. If conservative management fails, surgical intervention should be considered. Two-sided clinical studies are needed to determine an optimal pathway for the management of athletes with spondylolysis. PMID:27556003

  6. Energy R and D. Conservation planning and management should be strengthened

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Richard A.; Fishkin, Christine M.B.; MacLeod, Molly W.; Davis, Alphonse R.; Crawford, John T.; Dowd, Leonard L.; Sisson, John W.; Sugimura, Richard H.

    1990-07-01

    projects. Systematic project reviews and a uniform prioritization methodology would (1) help ensure that ongoing research continues to be relevant and (2) provide information needed for DOE to select the best overall mix of conservation R and D projects. Peer reviews, conducted under Conservation's 'critical review' program, have enhanced DOE R and D management by providing independent, expert guidance to DOE on the continuing relevance of some of Conservation's programs to national and departmental objectives. The peer reviews have recommended changes to many of the programs that have improved them. However, the last peer review was completed in July 1988, and it is likely that the program will be discontinued as an office wide program as a result of the April 1990 reorganization of the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy

  7. Conservative Management of Second Metatarsophalangeal Joint Instability in a Professional Dancer: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Bronner, Shaw; Becica, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Case report. Professional ballet and modern dancers spend an inordinate amount of time on demi pointe (rising onto their forefeet), placing excessive force on the metatarsophalangeal joints and putting them at risk of instability. Surgical treatment of this condition is well described in the literature. However, studies describing conservative management, particularly in dance populations, are lacking. A 33-year-old dancer presented with insidious onset of medial arch and second and third metatarsophalangeal joint pain. Functional deficits included the inability to walk barefoot, perform demi relevé, or balance on demi pointe. Imaging studies revealed osteoarthritis of the first metatarsophalangeal joint, second metatarsophalangeal joint calcification, capsulitis, and plantar plate rupture, leading to a diagnosis of instability. The dancer underwent a treatment program that included taping, padding, physical therapy, a series of prolotherapy injections, and activity modification. The dancer was seen for a total of 37 physical therapy sessions over the 16-week rehabilitation period. At the time of discharge, the patient had returned to full duty and performed all choreography with taping and padding. Repeated single-leg jumps and turns on the right foot, however, still caused discomfort. At her 6-month follow-up, the dancer's total Dance Functional Outcome Survey (DFOS) score had improved from 16% to 86%, and her Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical scores improved from 24 to 47. One year after discharge, the dancer reported pain-free dancing with no taping or padding. This case report describes early diagnosis and a multimodal treatment approach in a professional dancer with significant disability secondary to metatarsophalangeal joint instability. Therapy, level 4.

  8. Evaluating outcomes of management targeting the recovery of a migratory songbird of conservation concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streby, Henry M; Kramer, Gunnar R; Peterson, Sean M; Andersen, David E

    2018-01-01

    Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013-2019, a multi-stage management initiative, led by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC), aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers ( Vermivora chrysoptera ) in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) in Minnesota, USA, where ABC initiative management was implemented to benefit the species. We monitored abundance before (2011-2014) and after (2015-2016) management, and we estimated full-season productivity (i.e., young recruited into the fall population) from predictive, spatially explicit models, informed by nest and fledgling survival data collected at sites in the western Great Lakes region, including Rice Lake NWR, during 2011 and 2012. Then, using biologically informed models of bird response to observed and predicted vegetation succession, we estimated the cumulative change in population recruitment over various scenarios of vegetation succession and demographic response. We observed an 32% decline in abundance of breeding pairs and estimated a 27% decline in per-pair full-season productivity following management, compared to no change in a nearby control site. In models that ranged from highly optimistic to progressively more realistic scenarios, we estimated a net loss of 72-460 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers produced from the managed site in the 10-20 years following management. Even if our well-informed and locally validated productivity models produced erroneous estimates and the management resulted in only a temporary reduction in abundance (i.e., no change in productivity), our forecast models still predicted a net loss of 137-260 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers from the managed area over the same time frame. Our study site represents only a small

  9. Conservative management of a lumbar compression fracture in an osteoporotic patient: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To chronicle the conservative treatment and management of an osteoporotic patient presenting with acute back pain resulting from a lumbar compression fracture. Clinical features: A 74-year old male presented with acute back pain in the thoracolumbar region after an episode of lifting. Radiographic evaluation revealed generalized demineralization and a moderate wedge compression fracture at L1. Intervention and outcome: The conservative treatment approach included postural education, activity modification, interferential current, taping into extension, Graston Technique®, and rehabilitative exercise prescription. Outcome measures included verbal pain rating scale, medication use, and a return to activities of daily living (ADLs). The patient attained long-term symptom resolution with no recurrence of pain at 12 month follow-up. Summary: A combination of conservative rehabilitation strategies may be successfully implemented to treat osteoporotic patients with mild to moderate osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture of the lumbar spine. PMID:22457539

  10. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  11. Innovation in Management Plans for Community Conserved Areas: Experiences from Australian Indigenous Protected Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyn Davies

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention to formal recognition of indigenous and community conserved areas (ICCAs as part of national and/or global protected area systems is generating novel encounters between the customary institutions through which indigenous peoples and local communities manage these traditional estates and the bureaucratic institutions of protected area management planning. Although management plans are widely considered to be important to effective management of protected areas, little guidance has been available about how their form and content can effectively reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs. This gap has been particularly apparent in Australia where a trend to rapidly increased formal engagement of indigenous people in environmental management resulted, by 2012, in 50 indigenous groups voluntarily declaring their intent to manage all or part of their estates for conservation in perpetuity, as an indigenous protected area (IPA. Development and adoption of a management plan is central to the process through which the Australian Government recognizes these voluntary declarations and invests resources in IPA management. We identified four types of innovations, apparent in some recent IPA plans, which reflect the distinctive socio-cultural and political characteristics of ICCAs and support indigenous people as the primary decision makers and drivers of knowledge integration in IPAs. These are (1 a focus on customary institutions in governance; (2 strategic planning approaches that respond to interlinkages of stewardship between people, place, plants, and animals; (3 planning frameworks that bridge scales by considering values and issues across the whole of an indigenous people's territory; and (4 varied communication modes appropriate to varied audiences, including an emphasis on visual and spatial modes. Further research is warranted into how governance and management of IPAs, and the plans that

  12. A review of climate-change adaptation strategies for wildlife management and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawdsley, Jonathan R; O'Malley, Robin; Ojima, Dennis S

    2009-10-01

    The scientific literature contains numerous descriptions of observed and potential effects of global climate change on species and ecosystems. In response to anticipated effects of climate change, conservation organizations and government agencies are developing "adaptation strategies" to facilitate the adjustment of human society and ecological systems to altered climate regimes. We reviewed the literature and climate-change adaptation plans that have been developed in United States, Canada, England, México, and South Africa and found 16 general adaptation strategies that relate directly to the conservation of biological diversity. These strategies can be grouped into four broad categories: land and water protection and management; direct species management; monitoring and planning; and law and policy. Tools for implementing these strategies are similar or identical to those already in use by conservationists worldwide (land and water conservation, ecological restoration, agrienvironment schemes, species translocation, captive propagation, monitoring, natural resource planning, and legislation/regulation). Although our review indicates natural resource managers already have many tools that can be used to address climate-change effects, managers will likely need to apply these tools in novel and innovative ways to meet the unprecedented challenges posed by climate change.

  13. Pacific Canada's Rockfish Conservation Areas: using Ostrom's design principles to assess management effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darienne Lancaster

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available International declines in marine biodiversity have lead to the creation of marine protected areas and fishery reserve systems. In Canada, 164 Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCAs were implemented between 2003 and 2007 and now cover 4847.2 km² of ocean. These reserves were created in response to widespread concern from fishers and nongovernmental organizations about inshore rockfish (genus Sebastes population declines. We used the design principles for effective common-pool resource management systems, originally developed by Elinor Ostrom, to assess the social and ecological effectiveness of these conservation areas more than 10 years after their initial implementation. We assessed the relative presence or absence of each design principle within current RCA management. We found that 2 of the 11 design principles were moderately present in the recreational fishery. All other design principles were lacking for the recreational sector. We found that 2 design principles were fully present and 5 were moderately present in the commercial sector. Four design principles were lacking in the commercial sector. Based on this analysis, we highlight 4 main areas for management improvement: (1 create an education and outreach campaign to explain RCA rules, regulations, boundaries, and the need for marine conservation; (2 increase monitoring of users and resources to discourage noncompliance and gather the necessary data to create social buy-in for marine conservation; (3 encourage informal nested governance through stakeholder organizations for education and self-regulation (e.g. fisher to fisher; and (4 most importantly, create a formal, decadal RCA review process to gather stakeholder input and make amendments to regulations and RCA boundaries. This information can be used to inform spatial management systems both in Canada and internationally. This analysis also contributes to a growing literature on effectively scaling up small-scale management techniques

  14. Effectiveness and Morbidity Associated With Reirradiation in Conservative Salvage Management of Recurrent Soft-Tissue Sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Meadows, Kenyon; Gibbs, Charles P.; Morris, Christopher G.; Scarborough, Mark T.; Zlotecki, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The management of isolated local recurrence of soft-tissue sarcoma is therapeutically complex, and functional conservative management is preferable to radical or amputative salvage surgery. This study reviews University of Florida experience using conservative resection and reirradiation to manage isolated local recurrences of soft-tissue sarcoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1976 and 2005, a total of 14 patients who underwent primary conservative resection and irradiation developed isolated local recurrence and were managed with salvage conservative resection and reirradiation. Of the patients treated, 3 had tumors of the distal extremity, 8 had tumors of the proximal extremity, and 3 had tumors of the trunk. At the time of recurrence, 64% of tumors were greater than 5 cm and 79% were high grade. In combination with gross total resection, 13 of 14 patients received external beam radiotherapy with or without brachytherapy, and 1 patient was treated with brachytherapy alone. Two patients received chemotherapy. Results: The median follow-up was 30 months, and no living patients were lost during follow-up. From retreatment, the 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rates were 40%, 40%, and 18% respectively. There was a 50% incidence of serious complication requiring either reoperation or leading to permanent functional impairment. Of the 14 patients, only 1 has remained disease free and without significant complications. No treatment factors, including achieving wide surgical margins or delivering higher radiation dosages, seemed to confer an advantage in local control. Conclusions: Salvage therapy for management of locally recurrent soft-tissue sarcoma is challenging, and the effects of reoperation and reirradiation can be severe

  15. Administrative co-management: the case of special-use forest conservation in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KimDung, Nguyen; Bush, Simon; Mol, Arthur P J

    2013-03-01

    Special-use forests (SUFs) are nature protected areas in Vietnam used to conserve nature and its biodiversity. While the Vietnamese government has managed to increase the size and number of SUFs, biodiversity within these areas continues to decline. To improve protection of these SUFs, co-management has been advocated in Vietnam. Successfully implementing co-management requires decentralization of authority and a certain extent of public involvement in management activities. This paper assesses how and to what extent the governance of Vietnam's SUFs have taken up the challenge of shifting from conventional government-based management to co-management. Current practices of (co-) management were investigated in 105 of the 143 SUFs. The results show that the type of co-management varies little between different categories of SUFs. Nevertheless, a national 'style' of Vietnamese co-management could be identified, labelled 'administrative' co-management; fostering interaction between a variety of actors, but final decision-making power on management remaining strongly in the hands of the provincial government.

  16. CONSERVATIVE THERAPY VERSUS EPIDURAL STEROID INFILTRATION IN MANAGEMENT OF CHRONIC LOW BACK ACHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Roshan D

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sciatica due to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation is one of the most common causes of radicular pain in an adult working population. This study aims at studying the effectiveness of conservative management of lumbar disc herniation as an alternative to surgical measures. METHODS: A prospective study of 100 patients with lumbar disc herniations who were treated conservatively were followed up at intervals of 1 month, 6 months and 1 year. Patients planned for conservative treatment were treated with pharmacological therapy, rest and physiotherapy. Those planned for epidural steroid injections were administered a single dose of steroid one level higher than the lesion in the epidural space. The collected data was analyzed by Chi square. RESULTS: Our results showed that in both genders, epidural steroid infiltration yielded better results than conservative treatment. Occupation had no discernible effect on the magnitude of disc herniation. People with sedentary lifestyle recovered better with epidural steroid infiltration as compared to the heavy physical labor group. Irrespective of disc bulge, protrusion or extrusion, the epidural steroid injection group showed significant improvement in symptoms as compared to conservative treatment. Smokers tended to show delay in the recovery as compared with the non-smoker group. The amount of disc herniation is not directly proportional to the outcome of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Epidural steroid infiltration showed significant improvement in symptoms of lumbar intervertebral disc herniation thereby avoiding disc surgery. Conservative management for atleast 4 to 6 weeks can be recommended followed by epidural steroid in those patients without improvement. Cessation of smoking should be an integral part of the treatment.

  17. Biodiversity conservation and indigenous land management in the era of self-determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Paige M; Peterson, Markus J

    2009-12-01

    Indigenous people inhabit approximately 85% of areas designated for biodiversity conservation worldwide. They also continue to struggle for recognition and preservation of cultural identities, lifestyles, and livelihoods--a struggle contingent on control and protection of traditional lands and associated natural resources (hereafter, self-determination). Indigenous lands and the biodiversity they support are increasingly threatened because of human population growth and per capita consumption. Application of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) to tribal lands in the United States provides a rich example of the articulation between biodiversity conservation and indigenous peoples' struggle for self-determination. We found a paradoxical relationship whereby tribal governments are simultaneously and contradictory sovereign nations; yet their communities depend on the U.S. government for protection through the federal-trust doctrine. The unique legal status of tribal lands, their importance for conserving federally protected species, and federal environmental regulations' failure to define applicability to tribal lands creates conflict between tribal sovereignty, self-determination, and constitutional authority. We reviewed Secretarial Order 3206, the U.S. policy on "American Indian tribal rights, federal-tribal trust responsibilities, and the ESA," and evaluated how it influences ESA implementation on tribal lands. We found improved biodiversity conservation and tribal self-determination requires revision of the fiduciary relationship between the federal government and the tribes to establish clear, legal definitions regarding land rights, applicability of environmental laws, and financial responsibilities. Such actions will allow provision of adequate funding and training to tribal leaders and resource managers, government agency personnel responsible for biodiversity conservation and land management, and environmental policy makers. Increased capacity, cooperation, and

  18. MIGRATION AND CONSERVATION: FRAMEWORKS, GAPS, AND SYNERGIES IN SCIENCE, LAW, AND MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meretsky, Vicky J; Atwell, Jonathan W; Hyman, Jeffrey B

    2011-01-01

    Migratory animals provide unique spectacles of cultural, ecological, and economic importance. However, the process of migration is a source of risk for migratory species as human actions increasingly destroy and fragment habitat, create obstacles to migration, and increase mortality along the migration corridor. As a result, many migratory species are declining in numbers. In the United States, the Endangered Species Act provides some protection against extinction for such species, but no protection until numbers are severely reduced, and no guarantee of recovery to population levels associated with cultural, ecological, or economic significance. Although groups of species receive some protection from statutes such as the Migratory Bird Treaty Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act, there is no coordinated system for conservation of migratory species. In addition, information needed to protect migratory species is often lacking, limiting options for land and wildlife managers who seek to support these species. In this Article, we outline the existing scientific, legal, and management information and approaches to migratory species. Our objective is to assess present capacity to protect the species and the phenomenon of migration, and we argue that al three disciplines are necessary for effective conservation. We find significant capacity to support conservation in all three disciplines, but no organization around conservation of migration within any discipline or among the three disciplines. Areas of synergy exist among the disciplines but not as a result of any attempt for coordination. As a result, significant gaps in information and capacity exist that must be addressed if effective conservation of migratory species is to be undertaken. We suggest that all three disciplines cooperate to identify the most pressing research needs, so that these can become targets for relevant funding sources. We identify areas of current risk to migratory species that represent gaps

  19. Current Controversies on the Use of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management of Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Edibaldo

    2011-01-01

    The use of magnetic resonance imaging in the management of unselected female populations with early stage breast cancer has increased markedly over the past decade. Parallel to this trend many have observed an increased use of mastectomy over breast conservation due to concerns raised by the use of MRI. Similar concerns have led to the use of contra-lateral prophylactic mastectomy in patient populations not tested for potential genetic predisposition. These trends are difficult to understand ...

  20. Are we working towards global research priorities for management and conservation of sea turtles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, A.F.; Alfaro-Shigueto, J.; Barata, P.C.R.; Bjorndal, K.A.; Bolten, A.B.; Bourjea, J.; Broderick, A.C.; Campbell, L.M.; Cardona, L.; Carreras, C.; Casale, P.; Ceriani, S.A.; Dutton, P.H.; Eguchi, T.; Formia, A.; Fuentes, M.M.P.B.; Fuller, W.J.; Girondot, M.; Godfrey, M.H.; Hamann, M.; Hart, Kristen M.; Hays, G.C.; Hochscheid, S.; Kaska, Y.; Jensen, M.P.; Mangel, J.C.; Mortimer, J.A.; Naro-Maciel, E.; Ng, C.K.Y.; Nichols, W.J.; Phillott, A.D.; Reina, R.D.; Revuelta, O.; Schofield, G.; Seminoff, J.A.; Shanker, K.; Tomás, J.; van de Merwe, J.P.; Van Houtan, K.S.; Vander Zanden, H.B.; Wallace, B.P.; Wedemeyer-Strombel, K.R.; Work, Thierry M.; Godley, B.J.

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, an international group of 35 sea turtle researchers refined an initial list of more than 200 research questions into 20 metaquestions that were considered key for management and conservation of sea turtles. These were classified under 5 categories: reproductive biology, biogeography, population ecology, threats and conservation strategies. To obtain a picture of how research is being focused towards these key questions, we undertook a systematic review of the peer-reviewed literature (2014 and 2015) attributing papers to the original 20 questions. In total, we reviewed 605 articles in full and from these 355 (59%) were judged to substantively address the 20 key questions, with others focusing on basic science and monitoring. Progress to answering the 20 questions was not uniform, and there were biases regarding focal turtle species, geographic scope and publication outlet. Whilst it offers some meaningful indications as to effort, quantifying peer-reviewed literature output is obviously not the only, and possibly not the best, metric for understanding progress towards informing key conservation and management goals. Along with the literature review, an international group based on the original project consortium was assigned to critically summarise recent progress towards answering each of the 20 questions. We found that significant research is being expended towards global priorities for management and conservation of sea turtles. Although highly variable, there has been significant progress in all the key questions identified in 2010. Undertaking this critical review has highlighted that it may be timely to undertake one or more new prioritizing exercises. For this to have maximal benefit we make a range of recommendations for its execution. These include a far greater engagement with social sciences, widening the pool of contributors and focussing the questions, perhaps disaggregating ecology and conservation.

  1. Percutaneous vertebroplasty and conservative management for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral fractures: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wengui; Lu Jinyu; Sun Jianhua; Liang Ding; Li Zhiwei; Wang Hesheng; Guo Shanfeng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the better therapeutic measures for painful osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCF) through comparing the efficacy of percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) with that of conservative management. Methods: Forty-three consecutive patients, encountered from December 2009 to December 2010 in authors' hospital, were enrolled in this study. The patients were divided into PVP group (n=22) and conservative group (n=21). Visual analog score (VAS) for pain and Oswestry disability index (ODI) questionnaire scores were assessed before and 1 week, 1, 3, 6, 12 months after the treatment. Patients' activity levels and other information, including complications and new fractures after treatment, were also evaluated. Results: Before the treatment both the VAS and ODI scores showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups. Significant reduction of both VAS and ODI was observed in PVP group at 1 week and at 1 and 3 months after treatment when compared with those in conservative group (P<0.05). Patients' activity levels in PVP group were significantly improved than that in conservative group (P<0.01). One new fracture was observed in the conservative group, while no new fracture was seen in the PVP group. Conclusion: Immediate pain relief and improvement of daily activities after PVP can be achieved in all patients. PVP should be considered as the treatment of first choice for symptomatic osteoporotic vertebral fractures. (authors)

  2. Conservation program works as an alternative irrigation districts in sustainable water management of agricultural use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel Peinado Guevara

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is an issue of worldwide concern since it is already having an impact on social development. Mexico is not an exception to this problem because in several regions of the country are great difficulties in supplying water, primarily for agricultural use. In Sinaloa, it had been mentioned repeatedly by the media that in the Irrigation District 063, located in the northern of the state, there are problems of water scarcity, and yet there still exist difficulties in conserving the resource. More than 49% of the water used for agriculture is wasted. To resolve this problem, producers and government agencies spend significant resources for investment in water conservation. However, the results have not been entirely satisfactory because the waste is high, a situation that motivates them to study more deeply the main weaknesses that affect sustainable resource use. Farmer’s participation in the administration of water infrastructure is important, as well as providing financial resources for the conservation of water system; and participation in activities of construction and repaired of water infrastructure. Farmer’s should also plan and design strategies for water conservation. This situation requires an appropriate level of technology and intellectual, rather than local producers and thus no complicated sustainable resource management. That is what local producers don’t have and therefore it complicates the sustainable management of the resource.

  3. Managing consequences of climate-driven species redistribution requires integration of ecology, conservation and social science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonebrake, Timothy C; Brown, Christopher J; Bell, Johann D; Blanchard, Julia L; Chauvenet, Alienor; Champion, Curtis; Chen, I-Ching; Clark, Timothy D; Colwell, Robert K; Danielsen, Finn; Dell, Anthony I; Donelson, Jennifer M; Evengård, Birgitta; Ferrier, Simon; Frusher, Stewart; Garcia, Raquel A; Griffis, Roger B; Hobday, Alistair J; Jarzyna, Marta A; Lee, Emma; Lenoir, Jonathan; Linnetved, Hlif; Martin, Victoria Y; McCormack, Phillipa C; McDonald, Jan; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Mitchell, Nicola; Mustonen, Tero; Pandolfi, John M; Pettorelli, Nathalie; Possingham, Hugh; Pulsifer, Peter; Reynolds, Mark; Scheffers, Brett R; Sorte, Cascade J B; Strugnell, Jan M; Tuanmu, Mao-Ning; Twiname, Samantha; Vergés, Adriana; Villanueva, Cecilia; Wapstra, Erik; Wernberg, Thomas; Pecl, Gretta T

    2018-02-01

    Climate change is driving a pervasive global redistribution of the planet's species. Species redistribution poses new questions for the study of ecosystems, conservation science and human societies that require a coordinated and integrated approach. Here we review recent progress, key gaps and strategic directions in this nascent research area, emphasising emerging themes in species redistribution biology, the importance of understanding underlying drivers and the need to anticipate novel outcomes of changes in species ranges. We highlight that species redistribution has manifest implications across multiple temporal and spatial scales and from genes to ecosystems. Understanding range shifts from ecological, physiological, genetic and biogeographical perspectives is essential for informing changing paradigms in conservation science and for designing conservation strategies that incorporate changing population connectivity and advance adaptation to climate change. Species redistributions present challenges for human well-being, environmental management and sustainable development. By synthesising recent approaches, theories and tools, our review establishes an interdisciplinary foundation for the development of future research on species redistribution. Specifically, we demonstrate how ecological, conservation and social research on species redistribution can best be achieved by working across disciplinary boundaries to develop and implement solutions to climate change challenges. Future studies should therefore integrate existing and complementary scientific frameworks while incorporating social science and human-centred approaches. Finally, we emphasise that the best science will not be useful unless more scientists engage with managers, policy makers and the public to develop responsible and socially acceptable options for the global challenges arising from species redistributions. © 2017 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Micro-Credit and Community Wildlife Management: Complementary Strategies to Improve Conservation Outcomes in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaya, Emmanuel; Chapman, Margaret

    2017-09-01

    Community wildlife management programs in African protected areas aim to deliver livelihood and social benefits to local communities in order to bolster support for their conservation objectives. Most of these benefits are delivered at the community level. However, many local people are also seeking more individual or household-level livelihood benefits from community wildlife management programs because it is at this level that many of the costs of protected area conservation are borne. Because community wildlife management delivers few benefits at this level, support for their conservation objectives amongst local people often declines. The study investigated the implications of this for reducing poaching in Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. Three community wildlife management initiatives undertaken by Park management were compared with regard to their capacity to deliver the individual and household-level benefits sought by local people: community conservation services, wildlife management areas and community conservation banks. Interviews were carried out with poachers and local people from four villages in the Western Serengeti including members of village conservation banks, as well as a number of key informants. The results suggest that community conservation banks could, as a complementary strategy to existing community wildlife management programs, potentially provide a more effective means of reducing poaching in African protected areas than community wildlife management programs alone.

  5. Adaptive management for improving species conservation across the captive-wild spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, Stefano; Guillera-Arroita, Gurutzeta; Lahoz-Monfort, José J.; Southwell, Darren M; Armstrong, Doug P.; Chadès, Iadine; Lacy, Robert C; Converse, Sarah J.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of endangered species increasingly envisages complex strategies that integrate captive and wild management actions. Management decisions in this context must be made in the face of uncertainty, often with limited capacity to collect information. Adaptive management (AM) combines management and monitoring, with the aim of updating knowledge and improving decision-making over time. We provide a guide for managers who may realize the potential of AM, but are unsure where to start. The urgent need for iterative management decisions, the existence of uncertainty, and the opportunity for learning offered by often highly-controlled captive environments create favorable conditions for AM. However, experiments and monitoring may be complicated by small sample sizes, and the ability to control the system, including stochasticity and observability, may be limited toward the wild end of the spectrum. We illustrate the key steps to implementing AM in threatened species management using four case studies, including the management of captive programs for cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and whooping cranes (Grus americana), of a translocation protocol for Arizona cliffroses Purshia subintegra and of ongoing supplementary feeding of reintroduced hihi (Notiomystis cincta) populations. For each case study, we explain (1) how to clarify whether the decision can be improved by learning (i.e. it is iterative and complicated by uncertainty) and what the management objectives are; (2) how to articulate uncertainty via alternative, testable hypotheses such as competing models or parameter distributions; (3) how to formally define how additional information can be collected and incorporated in future management decisions.

  6. A conservative approach to pediatric mandibular fracture management: Outcome and advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Khatri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric mandibular fractures are rare and their treatment remains controversial. Management is extremely complicated in mixed dentition as it is inherently dynamic and unstable. Treatment options include soft diet, intermaxillary fixation with eyelet wires, arch bars, circummandibular wiring, or stents. Alternative options include open reduction and internal fixation through either an intraoral or extraoral approach. This case report describes and evaluates the conservative technique of acrylic splint in the treatment of pediatric mandible fracture in a 12-year-old female child. The patient with isolated mandibular fracture was treated with acrylic splint and interdental wiring followed by evaluation of clinical and radiographic healing as well as the somatosensory status. Patient demonstrated clinical union to her pre-injury occlusion by three to four weeks. Panoramic finding supported the finding of clinical examination throughout the study. High osteogenic potential of the pediatric mandible allowed conservative management to be successful in this case.

  7. Building an exceptional imaging management team: from theory to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Laurie

    2010-01-01

    Building a strong, cohesive, and talented managerial team is a critical endeavor for imaging administrators, as the job will be enhanced if supported by a group of high-performing, well-developed managers. For the purposes of this article, leadership and management are discussed as two separate, yet equally important, components of an imaging administrator's role. The difference between the two is defined as: leadership relates to people, management relates to process. There are abundant leadership and management theories that can help imaging administrators develop managers and ultimately build a better team. Administrators who apply these theories in practical and meaningful ways will improve their teams' leadership and management aptitude. Imaging administrators will find it rewarding to coach and develop managers and witness transformations that result from improved leadership and management abilities.

  8. Impact of biology knowledge on the conservation and management of large pelagic sharks

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoi, Hiroki; Ijima, Hirotaka; Ohshimo, Seiji; Yokawa, Kotaro

    2017-01-01

    Population growth rate, which depends on several biological parameters, is valuable information for the conservation and management of pelagic sharks, such as blue and shortfin mako sharks. However, reported biological parameters for estimating the population growth rates of these sharks differ by sex and display large variability. To estimate the appropriate population growth rate and clarify relationships between growth rate and relevant biological parameters, we developed a two-sex age-str...

  9. Process of spontaneous resolution in the conservative management of congenital dacryocystocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimura M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Masashi Mimura,1,2 Mari Ueki,1 Hidehiro Oku,1 Bunpei Sato,2 Tsunehiko Ikeda11Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Medical College, Takatsuki, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka Kaisei Hospital, Osaka, JapanPurpose: To assess efficacy of the conservative management of patients with congenital dacryocystocele.Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case series involving six sides of five infants with a dacryocystocele treated at Osaka Kaisei Hospital, Osaka, Japan. The conservative management protocol consisted of the application of warm compresses and massage over the mass, with the addition of antibiotics when dacryocystitis developed. Patient age at the time of resolution, presence of retrograde outflow of contents of dacryocystoceles from the puncta, and development of dacryocystitis were recorded.Results: The dacryocystocele was unilateral in four patients and bilateral in one patient. A nasal cyst was present in four patients without respiratory distress. The median patient age at the time of the diagnosis was 7 days (range 2–10 days. Conservative management was selected in all patients, and the dacryocystocele was resolved in all patients at a median patient age of 14.5 days (range 11–105 days. Two sides developed dacryocystitis, which resolved in a few days with antibiotic treatment. In those two sides, rupture of the dacryocystoceles to the common canaliculus with retrograde discharge of the contents from the puncta before the dacryocystitis developed was noted. For the other four treated sides, no such discharge or development of dacryocystitis was observed.Conclusion: The findings of this study show that a dacryocystocele has a good chance of resolving spontaneously with conservative management and careful observation, and that rupture of the dacryocystocele to the common canaliculus might be an important precursor of dacryocystitis.Keywords: dacryocystitis, congenital lacrimal obstruction, remnant, precursor, retrograde

  10. Developing conservation governance strategies: holistic management of protected areas in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Budhathoki, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    The Buffer Zone (BZ) concept has been introduced in Nepal as a key component of the national biodiversity conservation strategy to mitigate the impacts of protected areas on local communities, and thereby reduce adverse impacts of local people on protected areas. Unlike traditional Buffer Zone programmes which are mostly limited to creating a protective layer and/or distributing economic benefits to local people, the Buffer Zone management approach in Nepal integrates livelihoods and conserva...

  11. Genomic resources for the conservation and management of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja, Falconiformes, Accipitridae)

    OpenAIRE

    Banhos,Aureo; Hrbek,Tomas; Gravena,Waleska; Sanaiotti,Tânia; Farias,Izeni P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the characterization and optimization of 45 heterologous microsatellite loci, and the development of a new set of molecular sex markers for the conservation and management of the Neotropical harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja L. 1758). Of the 45 microsatellites tested, 24 were polymorphic, six monomorphic, 10 uncharacterizable due to multiple bands and five did not amplify. The observed gene diversity of the analyzed sample of H. harpyja was low and similar to that of other threatened Falc...

  12. Ecosystem Services and Environmental Management and Conservation on Military Lands. Workshop Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-31

    30 years, the military’s natural infrastructure has experienced increasing pressure from threats such as urban development and pollution. At the...Elevation Datasets, GAP Analysis Data, etc.), satellite imagery ( Landsat Thematic Mapper), and would be supplemented by military and conservation spatial...manage for RCW or for C sequestration) How to forecast changes in the delivery of ecosystem services due to land use changes, climate change and

  13. A roadmap for knowledge exchange and mobilization research in conservation and natural resource management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vivian M; Young, Nathan; Cooke, Steven J

    2017-08-01

    Scholars across all disciplines have long been interested in how knowledge moves within and beyond their community of peers. Rapid environmental changes and calls for sustainable management practices mean the best knowledge possible is needed to inform decisions, policies, and practices to protect biodiversity and sustainably manage vulnerable natural resources. Although the conservation literature on knowledge exchange (KE) and knowledge mobilization (KM) has grown in recent years, much of it is based on context-specific case studies. This presents a challenge for learning cumulative lessons from KE and KM research and thus effectively using knowledge in conservation and natural resources management. Although continued research on the gap between knowledge and action is valuable, overarching conceptual frameworks are now needed to enable summaries and comparisons across diverse KE-KM research. We propose a knowledge-action framework that provides a conceptual roadmap for future research and practice in KE/KM with the aim of synthesizing lessons learned from contextual case studies and guiding the development and testing of hypotheses in this domain. Our knowledge-action framework has 3 elements that occur at multiple levels and scales: knowledge production (e.g., academia and government), knowledge mediation (e.g., knowledge networks, actors, relational dimension, and contextual dimension), and knowledge-based action (e.g., instrumental, symbolic, and conceptual). The framework integrates concepts from the sociology of science in particular, and serves as a guide to further comprehensive understanding of knowledge exchange and mobilization in conservation and sustainable natural resource management. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Management of Mandibular Fractures in Pediatric Patients With Conservative Technique: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakar, Manisha Sahni; Kansal, Khushboo; Chawdhry, Arjun

    2017-03-01

    The management of fractures in children is complex compared to that of adults because of greater elasticity of bone, presence of tooth buds, faster healing rate, potential for future growth and lesser co-operative ability. Fractures of the mandible in children are conventionally treated by circummandibular wiring. This paper reports a variation in the technique of using circummandibular wiring with acrylic splints in the conservative treatment of mandibular fractures in two pediatric patients.

  15. Increasing conservation management action by involving local people in natural resource monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Finn; Mendoza, Marlynn M; Tagtag, Anson; Alviola, Phillip A; Balete, Danilo S; Jensen, Arne E; Enghoff, Martin; Poulsen, Michael K

    2007-11-01

    There is a need for a better understanding of the status of the environment. At the same time, concerns have been raised regarding alienation of the local populace from environmental decisions. One proposed solution is participatory environmental monitoring. When evaluating the usefulness of environmental monitoring, the focus may be on accuracy, as is usually done by scientists, or on efficiency in terms of conservation impact. To test whether investment in participatory biodiversity monitoring makes economic sense for obtaining data for management decisions, we compared the cost efficiency of participatory and conventional biodiversity monitoring methods in Philippine parks. We found that, from a government perspective, investment in monitoring that combines scientific with participatory methods is strikingly more effective than a similar level of investment in conventional scientific methods alone in generating conservation management interventions. Moreover, the local populace seemed to benefit from more secure de facto user rights over land and other resources. Participatory biodiversity monitoring not only represents a cost-effective alternative when conventional monitoring is impossible, but it is also an unexpectedly powerful complementary approach, capable of generating a much higher level of conservation management intervention, where conventional monitoring already takes place.

  16. Citizen science can improve conservation science, natural resource management, and environmental protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinley, Duncan C.; Miller-Rushing, Abe J.; Ballard, Heidi L.; Bonney, Rick; Brown, Hutch; Cook-Patton, Susan; Evans, Daniel M.; French, Rebecca A.; Parrish, Julia; Phillips, Tina B.; Ryan, Sean F.; Shanley, Lea A.; Shirk, Jennifer L.; Stepenuck, Kristine F.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Wiggins, Andrea; Boyle, Owen D.; Briggs, Russell D.; Chapin, Stuart F.; Hewitt, David A.; Preuss, Peter W.; Soukup, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has advanced science for hundreds of years, contributed to many peer-reviewed articles, and informed land management decisions and policies across the United States. Over the last 10 years, citizen science has grown immensely in the United States and many other countries. Here, we show how citizen science is a powerful tool for tackling many of the challenges faced in the field of conservation biology. We describe the two interwoven paths by which citizen science can improve conservation efforts, natural resource management, and environmental protection. The first path includes building scientific knowledge, while the other path involves informing policy and encouraging public action. We explore how citizen science is currently used and describe the investments needed to create a citizen science program. We find that:Citizen science already contributes substantially to many domains of science, including conservation, natural resource, and environmental science. Citizen science informs natural resource management, environmental protection, and policymaking and fosters public input and engagement.Many types of projects can benefit from citizen science, but one must be careful to match the needs for science and public involvement with the right type of citizen science project and the right method of public participation.Citizen science is a rigorous process of scientific discovery, indistinguishable from conventional science apart from the participation of volunteers. When properly designed, carried out, and evaluated, citizen science can provide sound science, efficiently generate high-quality data, and help solve problems.

  17. Conservative management of preterm premature rupture of membranes beyond 32 weeks' gestation: is it worthwhile?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsafrir, Z; Margolis, G; Cohen, Y; Cohen, A; Laskov, I; Levin, I; Mandel, D; Many, A

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether conservative management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) at 32-34 weeks' gestation improves outcome. In this retrospective analysis of singleton pregnancies, the study group included patients with PPROM at 28-34 weeks' gestation and the control group included patients presented with spontaneous preterm delivery at 28-34 weeks' gestation. Both groups were subdivided according to gestational age - early (28-31 weeks' gestation) versus late (32-34 weeks' gestation). Adverse neonatal outcome included neonatal death, intraventricular haemorrhage grade 3/4, respiratory distress syndrome, periventricular leucomalacia and neonatal sepsis. The study and control groups included 94 and 86 women, respectively. The study group had a lower incidence of adverse neonatal outcome at the earlier weeks (28-31), compared with the control group at the same gestational age. In contrast, at 32-34 weeks' gestation no difference in the risk for adverse neonatal outcome was noticed. Additionally, within the study group, chorioamnionitis rate was significantly higher among those who delivered at 32-34 weeks' gestation (p < 0.01). No advantage for conservative management of PPROM was demonstrated beyond 31 weeks' gestation. Moreover, conservative management of PPROM at 32-34 weeks' gestation may expose both mother and neonate to infectious morbidity.

  18. Speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcome in chronic aortic regurgitation during conservative management and after surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Thue; Søgaard, Peter; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test myocardial deformation imaging using speckle-tracking echocardiography for predicting outcomes in chronic aortic regurgitation. Background In chronic aortic regurgitation, left ventricular (LV) dysfunction must be detected early to allow timely surgery....... Speckle-tracking echocardiography has been proposed for this purpose, but the clinical value of this method in aortic regurgitation has not been established. Methods A longitudinal study was performed in 64 patients with moderate to severe aortic regurgitation. Thirty-five patients were managed...... conservatively with frequent clinical visits and sequential echocardiography and followed for an average of 19 ± 8 months, while 29 patients underwent surgery for the valve lesion and were followed for 6 months post-operatively. Baseline LV function by speckle-tracking and conventional echocardiography...

  19. Massive acute colonic pseudo-obstruction successfully managed with conservative therapy in a patient with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, Derek R; Cooney, Norma L

    2011-04-14

    Acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a massive dilation of the colon in the absence of mechanical obstruction. Treatment measures may include anticholinergic agents such as neostigmine, colonoscopy, or fluoroscopic decompression, surgical decompression, and partial or complete colectomy. We reviewed the case of a 26-year-old male with cerebral palsy who had a history of chronic intermittent constipation who presented to the emergency department (ED) with signs of impaction despite recurrent fleet enemas and oral polyethylene glycol 3350. The patient was found to have a massive colonic distention of 26 cm likely because of bowel dysmotility, consistent with ACPO. This article includes a discussion of the literature and images that represent clinical examination, x-ray, and computed tomography (CT) findings of this patient, who successfully underwent conservative management only. Emergency department detection of this condition is important, and early intervention may prevent surgical intervention and associated complications.

  20. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amad N; Khalid, Salema; Khan, Hussain I; Jabeen, Mehnaz

    2011-05-24

    Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48%) were males and 408 (52%) females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85) years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63) years. Out of these, 358 (45.6%) respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction) score while 426 (54.4%) had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7%) were male and 265 (65.0%) were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3%) were male and 143 (35.0%) were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p media exposure and negative body image dissatisfaction. Finally, we looked at the association between gender and image dissatisfaction. Again a statistically significant association was found between positive body image dissatisfaction and female gender and negative body image dissatisfaction and male gender (p media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in

  1. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  2. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  3. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomets, Elin; Rannap, Riinu; Lõhmus, Asko

    2016-01-01

    Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles) in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction) and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc.) and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal species for

  4. Patterns of Assemblage Structure Indicate a Broader Conservation Potential of Focal Amphibians for Pond Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Soomets

    Full Text Available Small freshwater ponds host diverse and vulnerable biotic assemblages but relatively few conspicuous, specially protected taxa. In Europe, the amphibians Triturus cristatus and Pelobates fuscus are among a few species whose populations have been successfully restored using pond restoration and management activities at the landscape scale. In this study, we explored whether the ponds constructed for those two target species have wider conservation significance, particularly for other species of conservation concern. We recorded the occurrence of amphibians and selected aquatic macro-invertebrates (dragonflies; damselflies; diving beetles; water scavenger beetles in 66 ponds specially constructed for amphibians (up to 8 years post construction and, for comparison, in 100 man-made ponds (created by local people for cattle or garden watering, peat excavation, etc. and 65 natural ponds in Estonia. We analysed nestedness of the species assemblages and its dependence on the environment, and described the co-occurrence patterns between the target amphibians and other aquatic species. The assemblages in all ponds were significantly nested, but the environmental determinants of nestedness and co-occurrence of particular species differed among pond types. Constructed ponds were most species-rich irrespective of the presence of the target species; however, T. cristatus was frequent in those ponds and rare elsewhere, and it showed nested patterns in every type of pond. We thus conclude that pond construction for the protected amphibians can serve broader habitat conservation aims in the short term. However, the heterogeneity and inconsistent presence of species of conservation concern observed in other types of ponds implies that long-term perspectives on pond management require more explicit consideration of different habitat and biodiversity values. We also highlight nestedness analysis as a tool that can be used for the practical task of selecting focal

  5. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear: Reliability of MR Imaging to Predict Stability after Conservative Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hye Won; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yoon, Young Cheol; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Yoo, So Young; Kim, Seon Woo [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the reliability of MR imaging to predict the stability of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) after complete recovery of the ligament's continuity. Twenty patients with 20 knee injuries (13 males and 7 females; age range, 20 54) were enrolled in the study. The inclusion criteria were a positive history of acute trauma, diagnosis of the ACL tear by both the physical examination and the MR imaging at the initial presentation, conservative treatment, complete recovery of the continuity of the ligament on the follow up (FU) MR images and availability of the KT-2000 measurements. Two radiologists, who worked in consensus, graded the MR findings with using a 3-point system for the signal intensity, sharpness, straightness and the thickness of the healed ligament. The insufficiency of ACL was categorized into three groups according to the KT-2000 measurements. The statistic correlations between the grades of the MR findings and the degrees of ACL insufficiency were analyzed using the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test (p < 0.05). The p-values for each category of the MR findings according to the different groups of the KT-2000 measurements were 0.9180 for the MR signal intensity, 1.0000 for sharpness, 0.5038 for straightness and 0.2950 for thickness of the ACL. The MR findings were not significantly different between the different KT-2000 groups. MR imaging itself is not a reliable examination to predict stability of the ACL rupture outcome, even when the MR images show an intact appearance of the ACL.

  6. Conclusions: The Future of Shark Management and Conservation in the Northeast Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Dayv

    Human interactions with sharks in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (NEP) have occurred for millennia but were largely limited to nearshore encounters as target and nontarget catch in fisheries. The arrival of Spanish explorers in the mid-1500s, followed by subsequent waves of explorers and colonizers from Europe and Russia, did little to change this relationship, until the mid-1800s. As technological advances conferred the ability to exploit marine fish further offshore and in deeper water, substantial fisheries developed and many of these encountered, and sometimes directly targeted, sharks. As these fisheries rose and fell with market demands and fluctuations in the abundance of target species, the collective consciousness of the nations fishing this region came to realize that adequate management plans with clear policy guidance rooted in conservation were crucial to sustaining both biodiversity and abundance of marine resources. With explicitly defined management regions governed by scientifically informed bodies that consider both societal and ecological needs, systems have been in place to manage and conserve marine species, including sharks, for over four decades now in the NEP. While policy evolution has largely limited directed fishing pressure as a threat for most shark species, bycatch is still a concern. Additionally, habitat degradation and destruction, ocean acidification, and global climate change are anticipated to fundamentally alter the ecosystems sharks are an integral part of in coming decades and centuries. Adequate conservation and management of sharks in the NEP, and around the world, moving into this period of uncertainty will rely upon comprehensive, integrated management of the ecosystem rooted in international coordination and cooperation. Far from being an unattainable goal, steps are being made each day to 'move the needle' in this direction-for the benefit of all. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Košulič, Ondřej; Michalko, Radek; Hula, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40%) and red-listed threatened species (26%). The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small-scale improvements

  8. Impact of Canopy Openness on Spider Communities: Implications for Conservation Management of Formerly Coppiced Oak Forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Košulič

    Full Text Available Traditional woodland management created a mosaic of differently aged patches providing favorable conditions for a variety of arthropods. After abandonment of historical ownership patterns and traditional management and the deliberate transformation to high forest after World War II, large forest areas became darker and more homogeneous. This had significant negative consequences for biodiversity. An important question is whether even small-scale habitat structures maintained by different levels of canopy openness in abandoned coppiced forest may constitute conditions suitable for forest as well as open habitat specialists. We investigated the effect of canopy openness in former traditionally coppiced woodlands on the species richness, functional diversity, activity density, conservation value, and degree of rareness of epigeic spiders. In each of the eight studied locations, 60-m-long transect was established consisting of five pitfall traps placed at regular 15 m intervals along the gradient. Spiders were collected from May to July 2012. We recorded 90 spider species, including high proportions of xeric specialists (40% and red-listed threatened species (26%. The peaks of conservation indicators, as well as spider community abundance, were shifted toward more open canopies. On the other hand, functional diversity peaked at more closed canopies followed by a rapid decrease with increasing canopy openness. Species richness was highest in the middle of the canopy openness gradient, suggesting an ecotone effect. Ordinations revealed that species of conservation concern tended to be associated with sparse and partly opened canopy. The results show that the various components of biodiversity peaked at different levels of canopy openness. Therefore, the restoration and suitable forest management of such conditions will retain important diversification of habitats in formerly coppiced oak forest stands. We indicate that permanent presence of small

  9. Integrating Ecosystem Management, Protected Areas, and Mammal Conservation in the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Azevedo-Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon forest has been converted to a matrix of pristine and modified habitats. Landscape-scale biodiversity conservation requires an understanding of species' distributions over this matrix to guarantee both effective protection and use for present and future generations. In this study, we evaluated how much of the existing and future planned protected areas (PAs would be contributing to the conservation of Brazilian Amazon mammals (N = 399, including threatened species (N = 51. Currently, almost 37% of Brazilian Amazon is protected and that may increase to 46% if planned PAs are implemented. In the current PA system, 22% are indigenous land and 11% are sustainable use units, e.g., production forests. Only one-fifth of the whole range of mammal species occurring in Brazilian Amazon is actually protected by Brazilian PAs. However, considering only the part of the ranges within the Brazilian Amazon, and therefore under the scope of Brazilian actions, Brazilian PAs assume an important role in the protection of 39% of mammal distribution ranges, particularly the threatened species (39%. These results suggest that an integrated network of protected areas among Amazon countries would be necessary to increase their efficiency in mammal conservation. The need for strengthening of the forest sector and good management practices in Brazil appears critical for the maintenance of large extents of forest and species conservation. Under such a scenario, the contribution of developed nations and international agencies must assume an important role for the maintenance and enlargement of the protected area network in Amazon region.

  10. Water demand management in times of drought: What matters for water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggioni, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Southern California is subject to long droughts and short wet spells. Its water agencies have put in place voluntary, mandatory, and market-based conservation strategies since the 1980s. By analyzing water agencies' data between 2006 and 2010, this research studies whether rebates for water efficient fixtures, water rates, or water ordinances have been effective, and tests whether structural characteristics of water agencies have affected the policy outcome. It finds that mandates to curb outdoor water uses are correlated with reductions in residential per capita water usage, while water rates and subsidies for water saving devices are not. It also confirms that size is a significant policy implementation factor. In a policy perspective, the transition from a water supply to a water demand management-oriented strategy appears guided by mandates and by contextual factors such as the economic cycle and the weather that occur outside the water governance system. Three factors could improve the conservation effort: using prices as a conservation tool, not only as a cost recovering instrument; investing in water efficient tools only when they provide significant water savings; supporting smaller agencies in order to give them opportunities to implement conservation strategies more effectively or to help them consolidate.

  11. Structured decision making as a conceptual framework to identify thresholds for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J.; Runge, M.C.; Nichols, J.D.; Lubow, B.C.; Kendall, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thresholds and their relevance to conservation have become a major topic of discussion in the ecological literature. Unfortunately, in many cases the lack of a clear conceptual framework for thinking about thresholds may have led to confusion in attempts to apply the concept of thresholds to conservation decisions. Here, we advocate a framework for thinking about thresholds in terms of a structured decision making process. The purpose of this framework is to promote a logical and transparent process for making informed decisions for conservation. Specification of such a framework leads naturally to consideration of definitions and roles of different kinds of thresholds in the process. We distinguish among three categories of thresholds. Ecological thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes bring about substantial changes in system dynamics. Utility thresholds are components of management objectives (determined by human values) and are values of state or performance variables at which small changes yield substantial changes in the value of the management outcome. Decision thresholds are values of system state variables at which small changes prompt changes in management actions in order to reach specified management objectives. The approach that we present focuses directly on the objectives of management, with an aim to providing decisions that are optimal with respect to those objectives. This approach clearly distinguishes the components of the decision process that are inherently subjective (management objectives, potential management actions) from those that are more objective (system models, estimates of system state). Optimization based on these components then leads to decision matrices specifying optimal actions to be taken at various values of system state variables. Values of state variables separating different actions in such matrices are viewed as decision thresholds. Utility thresholds are included in the objectives

  12. Development of neutron imaging quantitative data treatment to assess conservation products in cultural heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realini, Marco; Colombo, Chiara; Conti, Claudia; Grazzi, Francesco; Perelli Cippo, Enrico; Hovind, Jan

    2017-10-01

    Distribution, penetration depth and amount of new mineralogical phases formed after the interaction between an inorganic treatment and a matrix are key factors for the evaluation of the conservation treatment behaviour. Nowadays, the conventional analytical methodologies, such as vibrational spectroscopies, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, provide only qualitative and spot information. Here, we report, for the first time, the proof of concept of a methodology based on neutron imaging able to achieve quantitative data useful to assess the formation of calcium oxalate in a porous carbonatic stone treated with ammonium oxalate. Starting from the neutron attenuation coefficient of Noto stone-treated specimens, the concentrations of newly formed calcium oxalate and the diffusion coefficient have been calculated for both sound and decayed substrates. These outcomes have been also used for a comparative study between different treatment modalities. Graphical abstract Horizontal slice at 300 mm depth and CaOx molar density profile by NEUTRA output.

  13. Institutional Sustainability Barriers of Community Conservation Agreement as a Collaboration Management in Lore Lindu National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudirman Daeng Massiri

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problem of forest institutional arrangement is the issue of institutional sustainability in achieving sustainable forest ecosystem. This study aimed to explain the barriers of institutional sustainability Community Conservation Agreement (CCA designed in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP, in Indonesia, as a collaborative management of national parks. This study is of descriptive which used qualitative approach, i.e. asking open-ended questions, reviewing documentation and analyzing textual of community conservation agreements. We found that the institutional sustainability barriers of CCA were the local decisions on collective-choice level and that the rules at operational level arranged in CCA were not in line with formal rules of national park management at the constitutional level. Furthermore, the low capacity of local institutions in heterogeneous villages with many migrants in controlling and regulating the forest use, especially in rehabilitation zone areas, also became a barrier to institutional sustainability of CCA. Therefore, institutional sustainability of CCA requires support of national park management policy that accommodates the sustainability of livelihoods of local communities in national parks, strengthening local institution's capacity, and ultimately integrating institution of CCA as part of LLNP management.

  14. The state of the fishery, conservation and management of the stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Teresa; Jacinto, David; Sousa, Alina; Penteado, Nélia; Pereira, Diana; Fernandes, Joana N; Silva, Teresa; Castro, João J

    2015-12-01

    The stalked barnacle Pollicipes pollicipes is the most important intertidal economical resource in Portugal. The assessment of the state of the fishery, conservation and management of P. pollicipes in Portugal was made for the first time in three regions with different regulations regarding this fishery: two marine protected areas ("Reserva Natural das Berlengas", RNB; and "Parque Natural do Sudoeste Alentejano e Costa Vicentina", PNSACV); and the Center coast. Different approaches (independent observations, inquiries, logbooks) and sources of data (past and recent) were used. An overall negative tendency of the state of the fishery and conservation of this resource was observed in all regions, with the exception of the stable tendency detected in PNSACV when using the inquiries approach. A weak management was considered to be in practice at Center and at PNSACV, while an acceptable management was inferred for RNB. We recommend a change into a co-management system that should be tested in pilot regions as RNB and/or PNSACV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking river management to species conservation using dynamic landscape scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mary C.; Buell, Gary R.; Hay, Lauren E.; Hughes, W. Brian; Jacobson, Robert B.; Jones, John W.; Jones, S.A.; LaFontaine, Jacob H.; Odom, Kenneth R.; Peterson, James T.; Riley, Jeffrey W.; Schindler, J. Stephen; Shea, C.; Weaver, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts to conserve stream and river biota could benefit from tools that allow managers to evaluate landscape-scale changes in species distributions in response to water management decisions. We present a framework and methods for integrating hydrology, geographic context and metapopulation processes to simulate effects of changes in streamflow on fish occupancy dynamics across a landscape of interconnected stream segments. We illustrate this approach using a 482 km2 catchment in the southeastern US supporting 50 or more stream fish species. A spatially distributed, deterministic and physically based hydrologic model is used to simulate daily streamflow for sub-basins composing the catchment. We use geographic data to characterize stream segments with respect to channel size, confinement, position and connectedness within the stream network. Simulated streamflow dynamics are then applied to model fish metapopulation dynamics in stream segments, using hypothesized effects of streamflow magnitude and variability on population processes, conditioned by channel characteristics. The resulting time series simulate spatially explicit, annual changes in species occurrences or assemblage metrics (e.g. species richness) across the catchment as outcomes of management scenarios. Sensitivity analyses using alternative, plausible links between streamflow components and metapopulation processes, or allowing for alternative modes of fish dispersal, demonstrate large effects of ecological uncertainty on model outcomes and highlight needed research and monitoring. Nonetheless, with uncertainties explicitly acknowledged, dynamic, landscape-scale simulations may prove useful for quantitatively comparing river management alternatives with respect to species conservation.

  16. Facial carbuncle - a new method of conservative surgical management plus irrigation with antibiotic-containing solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngui, L X; Wong, L S; Shashi, G; Abu Bakar, M N

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports on a non-conventional method for the management of facial carbuncles, highlighting its superiority over conventional surgical treatment in terms of cosmetic outcome and shorter duration of wound healing. The mainstay of treatment for carbuncles involves the early administration of antibiotics in combination with surgical intervention. The conventional saucerisation, or incision and drainage, under normal circumstances results in moderate to large wounds, which may need secondary surgery such as skin grafting, resulting in a longer duration of wound healing and jeopardising cosmetic outcome. The reported three cases presented with extensive carbuncles over the chin, face and lips region. In addition to early commencement of intravenous antibiotics, the pus was drained, with minimal incision and conservative wound debridement, with the aim of maximal skin conservation. This was followed by thrice-daily irrigation with antibiotic-containing solution for a minimum of 2 consecutive days. The wounds healed within two to four weeks, without major cosmetic compromise. The new method showed superior cosmetic outcomes, with a shorter duration of wound healing. Conservative surgical management can be performed under regional anaesthesia, which may reduce morbidity and mortality; patients with facial carbuncles often have higher risks with general anaesthesia.

  17. WLCI researchers employ new approaches to help managers conserve deer migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Leslie A.; Kauffman, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Elk, mule deer, pronghorn antelope, moose, and bighorn sheep are iconic animals of the American West. These hooved animals, known as ungulates, commonly travel 30–60 miles between seasonal ranges. These migrations between winter and summer ranges are vital for survival and reproduction. As habitat fragmentation continues, the conservation of ungulate migration routes has received considerable attention in the West and across the globe. For example, it is estimated that many ungulate migration routes in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem have already been lost. The traditional migration routes of Wyoming ungulates are threatened by unprecedented levels of energy development and by increasing levels of rural ranchette development (including fences, structures, and roads). In the past, migration corridors have been mapped based primarily on the expert opinions of state game managers, but long-term conservation of Wyoming's ungulate migration routes requires a better understanding of migration ecology and more sophisticated management tools. Wyoming Landscape Conservation Initiative (WLCI) researchers investigated the migration of a large mule deer herd across the Dad and Wild Horse winter ranges in southwest Wyoming, where 2,000 gas wells and 1,609 kilometers of pipelines and roads have been proposed for development.

  18. Selection of ecological indicators for the conservation, management and monitoring of Mediterranean coastal salinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Enrique; Aguilera, Pedro A; Schmitz, María F; Castro, Hermelindo; Pineda, Francisco D

    2010-07-01

    Salinas systems are artificial wetlands which are interesting from the viewpoint of nature conservation. They play an important role both as habitats for migratory waterbird species and as nodes of biotic connectivity networks. In the Mediterranean basin, where the coastal salinas are highly significant as alternative and complementary habitats for waterbirds, a process of abandonment occurs, and many seminatural systems of this kind are disappearing. This abandonment is having serious consequences for migratory bird populations and for the ecological role these play. In the present paper, this group of waterbird species has been used to evaluate these wetlands for conservation purposes. We have developed a methodological approach for the selection of ecological indicators for the conservation and management of these Mediterranean habitats and waterbird assemblages, the main consumers therein. The stepwise procedure developed constitutes a practical tool for this task. Application thereof enabled us to differentiate the habitats available for the waterbirds and to identify the biotic and abiotic indicators for the maintenance and management of the salina ecosystems. These variables can then be incorporated into monitoring programs.

  19. Conservative management of mallet injuries: A national survey of current practice in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Z; Potter, S; Burr, N; Gardiner, M D; Blazeby, J M; Jain, A; Henderson, J

    2017-07-01

    Mallet injuries are common and usually treated conservatively. Various systematic reviews have found a lack of evidence regarding the best management, and it is unclear whether this uncertainty is reflected in current UK practice. An online survey was developed to determine the current practice for the conservative treatment of mallet injury among specialist hand clinicians in the UK, including physiotherapists, occupational therapists and surgeons. Clinician's views of study outcome selection were also explored to improve future trials. In total, 336 professionals completed the survey. Inconsistency in overall practice was observed in splint type choice, time to discharge to GP, and assessment of adherence. Greater consistency was observed for recommended duration of continuous immobilisation. Bony injuries were most commonly splinted for 6 weeks (n = 228, 78%) and soft tissue injuries for either 8 weeks (n = 172, 56%) or 6 weeks (n = 119, 39%). Post-immobilisation splinting was frequently recommended, but duration varied between 2 and 10 weeks. The outcome rated as most important by all clinicians was patient satisfaction. There is overall variation in the current UK conservative management of mallet injuries, and the development of a standardised, evidence-based protocol is required. Clinicians' opinions may be used to develop a core set of outcome measures, which will improve standardisation and comparability of future trials. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Successful conservative management of a rare complication of tracheostomy; extensive posterior tracheal false pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jennifer F; Ostwani, Waseem; Green, Glenn

    2016-11-01

    With the advent of improved neonatal and pediatric intensive care management, tracheostomy is increasingly performed in children requiring prolonged ventilation. Even though tracheostomy is generally a safe procedure, there remains mortality and morbidity associated with it. We report a rare complication of a tracheostomy tube resulting in extensive erosion and posterior tracheal false pouch secondary to a large tracheostomy tube and high positive end expiratory pressure in a 12-month-old infant. This was managed successfully with conservative treatment. A former 34-week premature infant was transferred to our pediatrics intensive care unit (PICU) with recurrent episodes of cardiopulmonary arrests due to suspected severe tracheobronchomalacia. The patient has bronchopulomonary dysplasia, severe restrictive lung disease and thoracic insufficiency from skeletal dysplasia requiring tracheostomy tube (TT) at two-month-old and mechanical ventilation. The 3.5 NEO TT was gradually upsized to a 5. The PEEP setting at transfer was 18cmH2O. The direct laryngoscopy and bronchoscopy showed moderate tracheomalacia at the innominate artery with a false pouch in the posterior tracheal wall that was 1.1cm below the tracheostomy stoma. A multi-disciplinary discussion including otolaryngology, PICU, Pulmonary Medicine, and Pediatric Surgery decided on conservative management. The false pouch healed and she was transferred back to referring PICU after a 46-day. Tracheal wall erosion resulting in a pouch formation is a rare complication, but it should be considered in patients with long term tracheostomy with difficulty ventilation and oxygenation with positional change. DLB is a useful tool in its diagnosis and conservative management can be successful. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Definition of Management Zones for Enhancing Cultivated Land Conservation Using Combined Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Shi, Zhou; Wu, Hao-Xiang; Li, Feng; Li, Hong-Yi

    2013-10-01

    The loss of cultivated land has increasingly become an issue of regional and national concern in China. Definition of management zones is an important measure to protect limited cultivated land resource. In this study, combined spatial data were applied to define management zones in Fuyang city, China. The yield of cultivated land was first calculated and evaluated and the spatial distribution pattern mapped; the limiting factors affecting the yield were then explored; and their maps of the spatial variability were presented using geostatistics analysis. Data were jointly analyzed for management zone definition using a combination of principal component analysis with a fuzzy clustering method, two cluster validity functions were used to determine the optimal number of cluster. Finally one-way variance analysis was performed on 3,620 soil sampling points to assess how well the defined management zones reflected the soil properties and productivity level. It was shown that there existed great potential for increasing grain production, and the amount of cultivated land played a key role in maintaining security in grain production. Organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, elevation, thickness of the plow layer, and probability of irrigation guarantee were the main limiting factors affecting the yield. The optimal number of management zones was three, and there existed significantly statistical differences between the crop yield and field parameters in each defined management zone. Management zone I presented the highest potential crop yield, fertility level, and best agricultural production condition, whereas management zone III lowest. The study showed that the procedures used may be effective in automatically defining management zones; by the development of different management zones, different strategies of cultivated land management and practice in each zone could be determined, which is of great importance to enhance cultivated land conservation

  2. 77 FR 62537 - Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    ... NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Waste Management Permit Application Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice of a Waste Management... the National Science Foundation (NSF) has received a waste management permit application for Mike...

  3. Ecosystem management and the conservation of caribou habitat in British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale R. Seip

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou in British Columbia inhabit a wide variety of forest ecosystems. Numerous research projects have provided information that has been used to develop caribou habitat management recommendations for different areas. Recently, the province has implemented guidelines to protect biodiversity that are based on an ecosystem management strategy of mimicking natural forest conditions. There is a great deal of similarity between caribou management recommendations and biodiversity recommendations within different forest types. In mountain caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining a landscape dominated by old and mature forests, uneven-aged management, small cutblocks, and maintaining mature forest connectivity. In northern caribou habitat, both approaches recommend maintaining some older stands on the landscape (but less than for mountain caribou, even-aged management, and a mosaic of large harvest units and leave areas. The ecosystem management recommendations provide a useful foundation for caribou habitat conservation. More detailed information on caribou and other management objectives can then be used to fine-tune those recommendations.

  4. Nature conservation and grazing management. Free-ranging cattle as a driving force for cyclic vegetation seccession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.

    2003-01-01

    Key-words : biodiversity, herbivory, wilderness, non-linear dynamics, mosaic cycling, grassland, wood encroachment, forest, Bos taurus , Calluna vulgaris , Deschampsia flexuosa.This thesis examines the suitability of controlled and wilderness grazing as conservation management tool for open,

  5. Conservative surgical management of subungual (matrix derived) melanoma: report of seven cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda, N; Phan, A; Poulalhon, N; Balme, B; Dalle, S; Thomas, L

    2011-10-01

    Subungual melanoma (SUM) is a rare entity, comprising approximately 0·7-3·5% of all melanoma subtypes. SUM histopathologically belongs to the acral lentiginous pathological subtype of malignant melanoma. Its diagnosis is helped by dermoscopy but pathological examination of doubtful cases is required. Classical management of SUM is based on radical surgery, namely distal phalanx amputation. Conservative treatment with nonamputative wide excision of the nail unit followed by a skin graft has been insufficiently reported in the medical literature even though it is performed in many centres. To report a series of patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM treated by conservative surgery, to investigate the postoperative evolution and to evaluate the outcome with a review of the literature. We performed a retrospective extraction study from our melanoma register of all patients with in situ and minimally invasive SUM treated with conservative surgery in the University Hospital Department of Dermatology, Lyon, France from 2004 to 2009. The patient demographics, disease presentation, delay to diagnosis, histopathology and postoperative evolution were reviewed. Seven cases of SUM treated as such were identified in our melanoma database. All cases had a clinical presentation of melanonychia striata. The mean delay to diagnosis was 2years. Surgical excision of the entire nail unit with a 5-10mm safety margin without bone resection followed by full-thickness skin graft taken from the arm was performed in all cases. No recurrence was observed with a mean follow-up of 45months. Functional results were found satisfactory by all patients and their referring physicians. Sixty-two other cases have been found in the literature and are also discussed. Conservative surgical management in patients with in situ or minimally invasive SUM is a procedure with good cosmetic and functional outcome and, in our cases as well as in the literature, the prognosis is not changed. © 2011

  6. Outcomes of a conservative approach to management in amoebic liver abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kale

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Unfortunately, there is confusion among the medical community regarding the management of amoebic liver abscess (ALA. Therapeutic options range from simple pharmacotherapy to use of interventions like a needle or catheter aspiration under ultrasound guidance to surgical intervention. There is a plethora of thresholds for parameters such as the maximum diameter of the abscess and volume on ultrasound examination suggested by various authors to serve as a criterion to help to decide when to use which modality in these cases. Aims: To assess the outcome of patients with uncomplicated ALA treated using a conservative approach. Moreover, to identify factors associated with its failure. Settings and Design: A prospective, observational study was carried out at a large municipal urban health care center over a period of 3-year (2011-2014 in India. Materials and Methods: Patients with uncomplicated ALA were recruited. All patients were managed with pharmacotherapy initially for a period of 72 h. Response to treatment was assessed by resolution of symptoms within the given time frame. Failure to respond was considered an indication for intervention. Needle aspiration was offered to these patients and response assessed within 72 h. Failure to respond to aspiration was considered an indication for catheter drainage. Statistical Analysis Used: Data recorded were entered in a Microsoft Office Excel Sheet and analyzed using the SPSS version 16.0 (IBM. Results: Sixty patients with ALA were included in the study over its duration. Forty-nine (81.67% patients were managed conservatively, while 11 (18.33% patients needed an intervention for relief. Patients who required intervention had deranged liver function at presentation, a larger abscess diameter (10.09 ± 2.23 vs. 6.33 ± 1.69 cm P 7.7 cm was found to be the optimal criterion to predict the need of intervention in cases of ALA. Conclusions: A conservative approach is effective in the management of

  7. Prospects and future of conservative management of beta thalassemia major in a developing country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Lodhi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy, prospects and future of conservative management of beta thalassemia major patients in a developing country. Design: Patients registered at IHBTS were studied over a period of three years. They consented to being managed on moderate transfusion regimen, aiming to maintain a pre-transfusion haemoglobin(Hgb) level of 9.0 plus minus 1.0 g per dL. We studied their transfusion requirements, status for transfusion transmitted infections (TTls), serum ferritin levels and complications developing as a result of iron overload. Subjects: Initially all registered patients were included in this study. Sporadic patients as well as dropouts occurring due to any reason, (patients concurrently seeking treatment at other centres as well, or complying poorly to advised chelation therapy) were excluded from the study. The data presented here conforms to a cohort of 60 regular patients who adhered best to our selection criteria. Main Outcome Measures: 1) The study highlights the deficiencies and problems of conservative management for beta thalassemia major. 2) The major impact of our study is the message that conservative management in a poor country, like ours, is a no-win situation. 3) There is an urgent need to immediately start a prevention programme. Results: In the younger patients, blood consumption even on the moderate transfusion regimen is 120ml/kg/year, however with ascending age the consumption increases to 240ml/kg/year. A substantive number of the patients are either Hep C (35%) or Hep B (1.7%) positive. There are no HIV positive patients. Serum ferritin levels vary widely and could not be controlled due to poor compliance to chelation. 50% of the patients developed one or other complications of iron overload. The cost of treatment depending on the quality of care, is tremendous and beyond the reach of the common man. Conclusions: Conservative management may be the best alternative and at times the only hope for patients in our country

  8. Interactive Mapping of Inundation Metrics Using Cloud Computing for Improved Floodplain Conservation and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulliner, E. A., IV; Lindner, G. A.; Bouska, K.; Paukert, C.; Jacobson, R. B.

    2017-12-01

    Within large-river ecosystems, floodplains serve a variety of important ecological functions. A recent survey of 80 managers of floodplain conservation lands along the Upper and Middle Mississippi and Lower Missouri Rivers in the central United States found that the most critical information needed to improve floodplain management centered on metrics for characterizing depth, extent, frequency, duration, and timing of inundation. These metrics can be delivered to managers efficiently through cloud-based interactive maps. To calculate these metrics, we interpolated an existing one-dimensional hydraulic model for the Lower Missouri River, which simulated water surface elevations at cross sections spaced (elevations to inundation depths, we subtracted a merged terrain model consisting of floodplain LIDAR and bathymetric surveys of the river channel. This approach resulted in a 29000+ day time series of inundation depths across the floodplain using grid cells with 30 m spatial resolution. Initially, we used these data on a local workstation to calculate a suite of nine spatially distributed inundation metrics for the entire model domain. These metrics are calculated on a per pixel basis and encompass a variety of temporal criteria generally relevant to flora and fauna of interest to floodplain managers, including, for example, the average number of days inundated per year within a growing season. Using a local workstation, calculating these metrics for the entire model domain requires several hours. However, for the needs of individual floodplain managers working at site scales, these metrics may be too general and inflexible. Instead of creating a priori a suite of inundation metrics able to satisfy all user needs, we present the usage of Google's cloud-based Earth Engine API to allow users to define and query their own inundation metrics from our dataset and produce maps nearly instantaneously. This approach allows users to select the time periods and inundation

  9. Identifying conservation priorities and management strategies based on ecosystem services to improve urban sustainability in Harbin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Qu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization and agricultural development has resulted in the degradation of ecosystems, while also negatively impacting ecosystem services (ES and urban sustainability. Identifying conservation priorities for ES and applying reasonable management strategies have been found to be effective methods for mitigating this phenomenon. The purpose of this study is to propose a comprehensive framework for identifying ES conservation priorities and associated management strategies for these planning areas. First, we incorporated 10 ES indicators within a systematic conservation planning (SCP methodology in order to identify ES conservation priorities with high irreplaceability values based on conservation target goals associated with the potential distribution of ES indicators. Next, we assessed the efficiency of the ES conservation priorities for meeting the designated conservation target goals. Finally, ES conservation priorities were clustered into groups using a K-means clustering analysis in an effort to identify the dominant ES per location before formulating management strategies. We effectively identified 12 ES priorities to best represent conservation target goals for the ES indicators. These 12 priorities had a total areal coverage of 13,364 km2 representing 25.16% of the study area. The 12 priorities were further clustered into five significantly different groups (p-values between groups < 0.05, which helped to refine management strategies formulated to best enhance ES across the study area. The proposed method allows conservation and management plans to easily adapt to a wide variety of quantitative ES target goals within urban and agricultural areas, thereby preventing urban and agriculture sprawl and guiding sustainable urban development.

  10. New findings and setting the research agenda for soil and water conservation for sustainable land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesstra, Saskia; Argaman, Eli; Gomez, Jose Alfonso; Quinton, John

    2014-05-01

    The session on soil and water conservation for sustainable land management provides insights into the current research producing viable measures for sustainable land management and enhancing the lands role as provider of ecosystem services. The insights into degradation processes are essential for designing and implementing feasible measures to mitigate against degradation of the land resource and adapt to the changing environment. Land degradation occurs due to multiple pressures on the land, such as population growth, land-use and land-cover changes, climate change and over exploitation of resources, often resulting in soil erosion due to water and wind, which occurs in many parts of the world. Understanding the processes of soil erosion by wind and water and the social and economic constraints faced by farmers forms an essential component of integrated land development projects. Soil and water conservation measures are only viable and sustainable if local environmental and socio-economic conditions are taken into account and proper enabling conditions and policies can be achieved. Land degradation increasingly occurs because land use, and farming systems are subject to rapid environmental and socio-economic changes without implementation of appropriate soil and water conservation technologies. Land use and its management are thus inextricably bound up with development; farmers must adapt in order to sustain the quality of their, and their families, lives. In broader perspective, soil and water conservation is needed as regulating ecosystem service and as a tool to enhance food security and biodiversity. Since land degradation occurs in many parts of the world and threatens food production and environmental stability it affects those countries with poorer soils and resilience in the agriculture sector first. Often these are the least developed countries. Therefore the work from researchers from developing countries together with knowledge from other disciplines

  11. Evaluating outcomes of management targeting the recovery of a migratory songbird of conservation concern

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    Henry M. Streby

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Assessing outcomes of habitat management is critical for informing and adapting conservation plans. From 2013–2019, a multi-stage management initiative, led by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC, aims to create >25,000 ha of shrubland and early-successional vegetation to benefit Golden-winged Warblers (Vermivora chrysoptera in managed forested landscapes of the western Great Lakes region. We studied a dense breeding population of Golden-winged Warblers at Rice Lake National Wildlife Refuge (NWR in Minnesota, USA, where ABC initiative management was implemented to benefit the species. Methods We monitored abundance before (2011–2014 and after (2015–2016 management, and we estimated full-season productivity (i.e., young recruited into the fall population from predictive, spatially explicit models, informed by nest and fledgling survival data collected at sites in the western Great Lakes region, including Rice Lake NWR, during 2011 and 2012. Then, using biologically informed models of bird response to observed and predicted vegetation succession, we estimated the cumulative change in population recruitment over various scenarios of vegetation succession and demographic response. Results We observed an 32% decline in abundance of breeding pairs and estimated a 27% decline in per-pair full-season productivity following management, compared to no change in a nearby control site. In models that ranged from highly optimistic to progressively more realistic scenarios, we estimated a net loss of 72–460 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers produced from the managed site in the 10–20 years following management. Even if our well-informed and locally validated productivity models produced erroneous estimates and the management resulted in only a temporary reduction in abundance (i.e., no change in productivity, our forecast models still predicted a net loss of 137–260 juvenile Golden-winged Warblers from the managed area over the same time

  12. Resource Theft in Tropical Forest Communities: Implications for Non-timber Management, Livelihoods, and Conservation

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    Amy E. Duchelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Increased devolution of forest ownership and management rights to local control has the potential to promote both conservation and livelihood development in remote tropical regions. Such shifts in property rights, however, can generate conflicts, particularly when combined with rapidly increasing values of forest resources. We explored the phenomenon of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa theft in communities in Western Amazonia. Through interviews with 189 Brazil nut collectors in 12 communities in Bolivia and Brazil and participation in the 2006 and 2007 harvests, we quantified relative income derived from Brazil nuts, reported nut thefts, and nut collection and management practices. We found a much greater incidence of reported Brazil nut thefts in Pando, Bolivia than in the adjacent state of Acre, Brazil. Our analyses suggest that three factors may have affected nut thefts in the forest: (1 contrasts in the timing and process of formally recognizing property rights, (2 different historic settlement patterns, and (3 varying degrees of economic dependence on Brazil nuts. Threat of theft influenced Brazil nut harvest regimes, with potentially long-term implications for forest-based livelihoods, and management and conservation of Brazil nut-rich forests in Western Amazonia.

  13. Proactive conservation management of an island-endemic bird species in the face of global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S.A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Graber, D.M.; Bakker, V.J.; Bowman, R.; Collins, C.T.; Collins, P.W.; Delaney, K.S.; Doak, D.F.; Koenig, Walter D.; Laughrin, L.; Lieberman, A.A.; Marzluff, J.M.; Reynolds, M.D.; Scott, J.M.; Stallcup, J.A.; Vickers, W.; Boyce, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in an era of global change and scarce funding benefits from approaches that simultaneously solve multiple problems. Here, we discuss conservation management of the island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis), the only island-endemic passerine species in the continental United States, which is currently restricted to 250-square-kilometer Santa Cruz Island, California. Although the species is not listed as threatened by state or federal agencies, its viability is nonetheless threatened on multiple fronts. We discuss management actions that could reduce extinction risk, including vaccination, captive propagation, biosecurity measures, and establishing a second free-living population on a neighboring island. Establishing a second population on Santa Rosa Island may have the added benefit of accelerating the restoration and enhancing the resilience of that island's currently highly degraded ecosystem. The proactive management framework for island scrub-jays presented here illustrates how strategies for species protection, ecosystem restoration, and adaptation to and mitigation of climate change can converge into an integrated solution. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  14. Corals, Canyons, and Conservation: Science Based Fisheries Management Decisions in the Eastern Bering Sea

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    Steve A. MacLean

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When making science matter for conservation, marine conservation practitioners, and managers must be prepared to make the appropriate decision based on the results of the best available science used to inform it. For nearly a decade, many stakeholders encouraged the North Pacific Fishery Management Council to enact protections for deep-sea corals in several canyons in the Eastern Bering Sea slope. In 2014, at the request of the Council, the National Marine Fisheries Service, Alaska Fisheries Science Center conducted a strip-transect survey along the Eastern Bering Sea slope to validate the results of a model predicting the occurrence of deep-sea coral habitat. More than 250,000 photos were analyzed to estimate coral, sponge, and sea whip abundance, distribution, height, and vulnerability to anthropogenic damage. The results of the survey confirmed that coral habitat and occurrence was concentrated around Pribilof Canyon and the adjacent slope. The results also confirmed that the densities of corals in the Eastern Bering Sea were low, even where they occurred. After reviewing the best available scientific information, the Council concluded that there is no scientific evidence to suggest that deep-sea corals in the Eastern Bering Sea slope or canyons are at risk from commercial fisheries under the current management structure, and that special protections for deep-sea corals were not warranted.

  15. Practical implementation of optimal management strategies in conservation programmes: a mate selection method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández, J.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genetic diversity is, from a genetic point of view, a key objective of conservation programmes. The selection of individuals contributing offspring and the decision of the mating scheme are the steps on which managers can control genetic diversity, specially on ‘ex situ’ programmes. Previous studies have shown that the optimal management strategy is to look for the parents’ contributions that yield minimum group coancestry (overall probability of identity by descent in the population and, then, to arrange mating couples following minimum pairwise coancestry. However, physiological constraints make it necessary to account for mating restrictions when deciding the contributions and, therefore, these should be implemented in a single step along with the mating plan. In the present paper, a single-step method is proposed to optimise the management of a conservation programme when restrictions on the mating scheme exist. The performance of the method is tested by computer simulation. The strategy turns out to be as efficient as the two-step method, regarding both the genetic diversity preserved and the fitness of the population.

  16. Species Richness and Community Structure on a High Latitude Reef: Implications for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Houston

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the wealth of research on the Great Barrier Reef, few detailed biodiversity assessments of its inshore coral communities have been conducted. Effective conservation and management of marine ecosystems begins with fine-scale biophysical assessments focused on diversity and the architectural species that build the structural framework of the reef. In this study, we investigate key coral diversity and environmental attributes of an inshore reef system surrounding the Keppel Bay Islands near Rockhampton in Central Queensland, Australia, and assess their implications for conservation and management. The Keppels has much higher coral diversity than previously found. The average species richness for the 19 study sites was ~40 with representatives from 68% of the ~244 species previously described for the southern Great Barrier Reef. Using scleractinian coral species richness, taxonomic distinctiveness and coral cover as the main criteria, we found that five out of 19 sites had particularly high conservation value. A further site was also considered to be of relatively high value. Corals at this site were taxonomically distinct from the others (representatives of two families were found here but not at other sites and a wide range of functionally diverse taxa were present. This site was associated with more stressful conditions such as high temperatures and turbidity. Highly diverse coral communities or biodiversity ‘hotspots’ and taxonomically distinct reefs may act as insurance policies for climatic disturbance, much like Noah’s Arks for reefs. While improving water quality and limiting anthropogenic impacts are clearly important management initiatives to improve the long-term outlook for inshore reefs, identifying, mapping and protecting these coastal ‘refugia’ may be the key for ensuring their regeneration against catastrophic climatic disturbance in the meantime.

  17. KEYNOTE INVOLVEMENT OF GENETICS IN KNOWLEDGE, STOCK MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF AUSTROPOTAMOBIUS PALLIPES IN EUROPE

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    SOUTY-GROSSET C.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In the past, conservation programmes for a given species consisted in restoring the habitat and in translocating individuals without knowledge of their taxonomic status. Even if managers wanted to be informed, the “traditional taxonomy”, based on morphological characters, was discouraging because it could indicate several types of classification. This is the case for Austropotamobius pallipes, considered as a species complex. Today, conservation genetics aims to maintain, on one hand, the genetic specificity of populations (genetic integrity principle and, on the other hand, the genetic diversity within and between populations (biodiversity principle, these basic principles being considered both at the level of protection measures and management measures. As an endangered species, A. pallipes is subjected to a loss of genetic diversity, a result of deterioration of water quality responsible for habitat fragmentation, with populations being confined to headwaters of the catchments. Consequently a certain degree of genetic variability must be maintained within the species because it governs the adaptation potential: the populations must be capable of responding to new environmental conditions. In A. pallipes, recent studies from several countries attempt to first describe the distribution of the present natural populations and secondly, by studying mitochondrial DNA, to clarify the taxonomy (number and identification of the present species and subspecies by phylogenetic inferences and to assess the biogeographical history. These two preliminary steps are fundamental before defining conservation units and working at the catchment level, using highly polymorphic nuclear markers. The new approach has provided a good framework for research, with more frequent dialogues between geneticists and managers.

  18. MANIKIN DEMONSTRATION IN TEACHING CONSERVATIVE MANAGEMENT OF POSTPARTUM HAEMORRHAGE: A COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL METHODS

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    Sathi Mangalam Saraswathi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Even though there are many innovative methods to make classes more interesting and effective, in my department, topics are taught mainly by didactic lectures. This study attempts to compare the effectiveness of manikin demonstration and didactic lectures in teaching conservative management of post-partum haemorrhage. OBJECTIVE To compare the effectiveness of manikin demonstration and didactic lectures in teaching conservative management of postpartum haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is an observational study. Eighty four ninth-semester MBBS students posted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam were selected. They were divided into 2 groups by lottery method. Pre-test was conducted for both groups. Group A was taught by manikin demonstration. Group B was taught by didactic lecture. Feedback response from the students collected after demonstration class was analysed. Post-test was conducted for both the groups after one week. Gain in knowledge of both the groups were calculated from pre-test and post-test scores and compared by Independent sample t test. RESULTS The mean gain in knowledge in group A was 6.4 when compared to group B which is 4.3 and the difference was found to be statistically significant. All of the students in group A felt satisfied and more confident after the class and wanted more topics to be taken by demonstration. CONCLUSION Manikin demonstration class is more effective in teaching conservative management of post-partum haemorrhage and this method can be adopted to teach similar topics in clinical subjects.

  19. Reverse logistics policy – differences between conservative and innovative reverse logistics management

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    Alena Klapalová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the of the key barriers that hampers effective and efficient management of reverse flows detected within a number of empirical surveys and case studies focused on reverse logistics and/or return management is business (organisational policy, specifically lack of policy, deficiency in existing policy or inferior policy. Despite this fact, there is a gap in literature which would show some evidence from practice that innovative reverse logistics policy both can pay off and is associated with certain aspects of reverse logistics management. Such proof can have several implications. It can support the call for better understanding and more research of the linkages of reverse logistics with other corporate functions, promote the acceptation of strategic character of reverse logistics and stress the role of RL policy within the rest of overall corporate management.The aim of this paper is to contribute and to enrich the existing body of knowledge concerning the above-mentioned gap through presentation of survey results that was realized in 2012 among managers of 244 Czech firms. The results demonstrate the statistically significant association between the innovativeness of RL policy and profitability of firms, quality of RL planning, perception of RL importance, level of RL knowledge and perception of product innovation importance for firms’ competitiveness and frequency of product innovation. They also reveal statistically significant differences between firms with conservative and innovative RL policy and the perceived existence of some barriers to manage RL.

  20. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

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    Pieter Lemmens

    Full Text Available Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  1. How to maximally support local and regional biodiversity in applied conservation? Insights from pond management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmens, Pieter; Mergeay, Joachim; De Bie, Tom; Van Wichelen, Jeroen; De Meester, Luc; Declerck, Steven A J

    2013-01-01

    Biodiversity and nature values in anthropogenic landscapes often depend on land use practices and management. Evaluations of the association between management and biodiversity remain, however, comparatively scarce, especially in aquatic systems. Furthermore, studies also tend to focus on a limited set of organism groups at the local scale, whereas a multi-group approach at the landscape scale is to be preferred. This study aims to investigate the effect of pond management on the diversity of multiple aquatic organism groups (e.g. phytoplankton, zooplankton, several groups of macro-invertebrates, submerged and emergent macrophytes) at local and regional spatial scales. For this purpose, we performed a field study of 39 shallow man-made ponds representing five different management types. Our results indicate that fish stock management and periodic pond drainage are crucial drivers of pond biodiversity. Furthermore, this study provides insight in how the management of eutrophied ponds can contribute to aquatic biodiversity. A combination of regular draining of ponds with efforts to keep ponds free of fish seems to be highly beneficial for the biodiversity of many groups of aquatic organisms at local and regional scales. Regular draining combined with a stocking of fish at low biomass is also preferable to infrequent draining and lack of fish stock control. These insights are essential for the development of conservation programs that aim long-term maintenance of regional biodiversity in pond areas across Europe.

  2. Hydrological services and biodiversity conservation under forestation scenarios: comparing options to improve watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Santos, Claudia; Nunes, João Pedro; Sousa-Silva, Rita; Gonçalves, João; Pradinho Honrado, João

    2015-04-01

    Humans rely on ecosystems for the provision of hydrological services, namely water supply and water damage mitigation, and promoting forests is a widely used management strategy for the provision of hydrological services. Therefore, it is important to model how forests will contribute for this provision, taking into account the environmental characteristics of each region, as well as the spatio-temporal patterns of societal demand. In addition, ensuring forest protection and the delivery of forest ecosystem services is one of the aims included in the European Union biodiversity strategy to 2020. On the other hand, forest management for hydrological services must consider possible trade-offs with other services provision, as well as with biodiversity conservation. Accurate modeling and mapping of both hydrological services and biodiversity conservation value is thus important to support spatial planning and land management options involving forests. The objectives of this study were: to analyze the provision and spatial dynamics of hydrological services under two forest cover change scenarios (oak and eucalyptus/pine) compared to the current shrubland-dominated landscape; and to evaluate their spatial trade-offs with biodiversity conservation value. The Vez watershed (250km2), in northwest Portugal, was used as case-study area. SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was applied to simulate the provision of hydrological services (water supply quantity, timing and quality; soil erosion and flood regulation), and was calibrated against daily discharge, sediments, nitrates and evapotranspiration. Good agreement was obtained between model predictions and field measurements. The maps for each service under the different scenarios were produced at the Hydrologic Response Unit (HRU) level. Biodiversity conservation value was based on nature protection regimes and on expert valuation applied to a land cover map. Statistical correlations between hydrological services provision

  3. Managing digitally formatted diagnostic image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, A.W.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiologists are very comfortable using analog radiographic film and interpreting its recorded images. To improve patient care, the radiologist has sought the finest quality radiographic film for use with the best radiographic imaging systems. The proper choice and use of x-ray tubes, generators, film-screen combinations, and contrast media has occupied the professional attention of the radiologist since the inception of radiology. Image quality can be significantly improved with digitally formatted diagnostic imaging systems by providing dynamic ranges in excess of those possible with analog x-ray films. In a CT scanner, the digital acquisition and reconstruction system can obtain a dynamic range (contrast resolution) of 10,000 to 1. Digital subtraction angiography systems achieve 10-bit dynamic ranges for each of the acquired television frames. Increases in the dynamic ranges of the various imaging modalities have been coupled with improved spatial resolution. A digitally formatted image is a two-dimensional, numerical array of discrete image elements. Each picture element is called a pixel. Each pixel has a discrete size. Figure 15.1 illustrates a digitally formatted image depicting the spatial resolution, array size, and quantization or numerical range of the pixel values. Currently, 512 x 512 image arrays are standard. Development of 1024 x 1024 digital arrays are underway. Significant improvements have also been achieved in the rates at which digital diagnostic imaging data can be acquired, manipulated, and archived

  4. Soil tillage conservation and its effect on erosion control, water management and carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Dr.; Gus, Dr.; Bogdan, Dr.; Moraru, Dr.; Pop, Dr.; Clapa, Dr.; Pop, Drd.

    2009-04-01

    fuel for preparing the germination bed. Presently it is necessary a change concerning the concept of conservation practices and a new approach regarding the control of erosion. The real conservation of soil must be expanded beyond the traditional understanding of soil erosion. The real soil conservation is represented by carbon management. We need to focus to another level concerning conservation by focusing on of soil quality. Carbon management is necessary for a complex of matters including soil, water management, field productivity, biological fuel and climatic change. Profound research is necessary in order to establish the carbon sequestration practices and their implementation impact.

  5. An Option of Conservative Management of a Duodenal Injury Following Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

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    MA Modi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal injury following laparoscopic cholecystectomy is rare complications with catastrophic sequelae. Most injuries are attributed to thermal burns with electrocautery following adhesiolysis and have a delayed presentation requiring surgical intervention. We present a case of a 47-year-old gentleman operated on for laparoscopic cholecystectomy with a bilious drain postoperatively; for which an ERC was done showing choledocholithiasis with cystic duct stump blow-out and a drain in the duodenum suggestive of an iatrogenic duodenal injury. He was managed conservatively like a duodenal fistula and recovered without undergoing any intervention.

  6. Effective sociodemographic population assessment of elusive species in ecology and conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Josephine S; Boesch, Christophe; Robbins, Martha M; Rabanal, Luisa I; Makaga, Loïc; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2013-09-01

    Wildlife managers are urgently searching for improved sociodemographic population assessment methods to evaluate the effectiveness of implemented conservation activities. These need to be inexpensive, appropriate for a wide spectrum of species and straightforward to apply by local staff members with minimal training. Furthermore, conservation management would benefit from single approaches which cover many aspects of population assessment beyond only density estimates, to include for instance social and demographic structure, movement patterns, or species interactions. Remote camera traps have traditionally been used to measure species richness. Currently, there is a rapid move toward using remote camera trapping in density estimation, community ecology, and conservation management. Here, we demonstrate such comprehensive population assessment by linking remote video trapping, spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) techniques, and other methods. We apply it to three species: chimpanzees Pan troglodytes troglodytes, gorillas Gorilla gorilla gorilla, and forest elephants Loxodonta cyclotis in Loango National Park, Gabon. All three species exhibited considerable heterogeneity in capture probability at the sex or group level and density was estimated at 1.72, 1.2, and 1.37 individuals per km(2) and male to female sex ratios were 1:2.1, 1:3.2, and 1:2 for chimpanzees, gorillas, and elephants, respectively. Association patterns revealed four, eight, and 18 independent social groups of chimpanzees, gorillas, and elephants, respectively: key information for both conservation management and studies on the species' ecology. Additionally, there was evidence of resident and nonresident elephants within the study area and intersexual variation in home range size among elephants but not chimpanzees. Our study highlights the potential of combining camera trapping and SECR methods in conducting detailed population assessments that go far beyond documenting species diversity

  7. Measuring the benefits and costs of utility conservation and load-management programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirst, E.

    1984-06-01

    Much less has been learned than could have been from utility operation of conservation and load management programs. This general ignorance concerning the performance (i.e., benefits and costs) of these programs exists because the authors have not devoted sufficient resources to careful evaluations of past and present programs. The authors need to build evaluation into the program planning and implementation process, and the authors should use actual electricity and gas bills to measure program performance. Finally, the authors should conduct well designed experiments to learn what does and does not work.

  8. Developing a conservation strategy to maximize persistence of an endangered freshwater mussel species while considering management effectiveness and cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; McRae, Sarah E.; Augspurger, Tom; Ratcliffe, Judith A.; Nichols, Robert B.; Eads, Chris B.; Savidge, Tim; Bogan, Arthur E.

    2015-01-01

    We used a structured decision-making process to develop conservation strategies to increase persistence of Dwarf Wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) in North Carolina, USA, while accounting for uncertainty in management effectiveness and considering costs. Alternative conservation strategies were portfolios of management actions that differed by location of management actions on the landscape. Objectives of the conservation strategy were to maximize species persistence, maintain genetic diversity, maximize public support, and minimize management costs. We compared 4 conservation strategies: 1) the ‘status quo’ strategy represented current management, 2) the ‘protect the best’ strategy focused on protecting the best populations in the Tar River basin, 3) the ‘expand the distribution’ strategy focused on management of extant populations and establishment of new populations in the Neuse River basin, and 4) the ‘hybrid’ strategy combined elements of each strategy to balance conservation in the Tar and Neuse River basins. A population model informed requirements for population management, and experts projected performance of alternative strategies over a 20-y period. The optimal strategy depended on the relative value placed on competing objectives, which can vary among stakeholders. The protect the best and hybrid strategies were optimal across a wide range of relative values with 2 exceptions: 1) if minimizing management cost was of overriding concern, then status quo was optimal, or 2) if maximizing population persistence in the Neuse River basin was emphasized, then expand the distribution strategy was optimal. The optimal strategy was robust to uncertainty in management effectiveness. Overall, the structured decision process can help identify the most promising strategies for endangered species conservation that maximize conservation benefit given the constraint of limited funding.

  9. When conservation management becomes contraindicated: impact of food supplementation on health of endangered wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Guillermo; Lemus, Jesús A; García-Montijano, Marino

    2011-10-01

    Understanding the conditions that force the implementation of management actions and their efficiency is crucial for conservation of endangered species. Wildlife managers are widely and increasingly using food supplementation for such species because the potentially immediate benefits may translate into rapid conservation improvements. Supplementary feeding can also pose risks eventually promoting undesired, unexpected, subtle, or indirect, and often unnoticed, effects that are generally poorly understood. For two decades, intensive food supplementation has been used in attempting to improve the breeding productivity of the Spanish Imperial Eagle, Aquila adalberti, one of the most endangered birds of prey in the world. Here, we examined the impact of this intensive management action on nestling health, including contamination, immunodepression, and acquisition of disease agents derived from supplementation techniques and provisioned food. Contrary to management expectations, we found that fed individuals were often inadvertently "medicated" with pharmaceuticals (antibiotics and antiparasitics) contained in supplementary food (domestic rabbits). Individuals fed with medicated rabbits showed a depressed immune system and a high prevalence and richness of pathogens compared with those with no or safe supplementary feeding using non-medicated wild rabbits. A higher presence of antibiotics (fluoroquinolones) was found in sick as opposed to healthy individuals among eaglets with supplementary feeding, which points directly toward a causal effect of these drugs in disease and other health impairments. This study represents a telling example of well-meaning management strategies not based on sound scientific evidence becoming a "contraindicated" action with detrimental repercussions undermining possible beneficial effects by increasing the impact of stochastic factors on extinction risk of endangered wildlife.

  10. Integrating Science and Land Management for the Conservation Effects Assessment Project (CEAP) in Southwestern Rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, D. C.; Heilman, P.; Nearing, M.; Speath, K.; Hernandez, M.; Wei, H.; Holifield-Collins, C.; Kautz, M.; Nichols, M.; Barlow, J.; Guertin, P.; Burns, S.; Stone, J. J.; Weltz, M.; Metz, L.; Norfleet, L.; Duriancik, L.; Johnson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Farm Bill legislation enacted by Congress in 2002 directed the U.S. Department of Agriculture to assess of the benefits and efficacy of conservation practices provided by a variety of USDA programs. Benefits include improved agricultural production, reduction of erosion and associated nutrient losses, improved water quality, improved soil resilience, and improved habitat among others. To conduct the assessment, the USDA initiated CEAP or the Conservation Effects Assessment Project in 2003, which included a national assessment complemented by small watershed studies. The national assessment started in eastern and midwestern cultivated croplands and has now progressed to western rangelands. This presentation will discuss the challenges of assessing the effects of rangeland conservation practices in a period of unusually hot and dry climatic conditions in the Cienega Creek Watershed (CCW) located southeast of Tucson, Arizona. As is common in the western U.S., the CCW consists of a patchwork of private and public lands in the west with much of the public lands leased for grazing cattle. The watershed also has high recreational value and provides many ecosystem services, including wildlife habitat qualities and flood protection to Tucson. A combination of monitoring, modeling, and remote sensing was utilized in the assessment. Conservation spending in the watershed ramped up in 1997. However, the 16-year period from 1997-2012 contains almost half of the 23 driest seasons (lowest 20 percentile) from the 117-year observed precipitation record. Initial results indicate that Landsat remotely sensed images can be effectively used to estimate both green and senescent canopy cover. This enabled detection of the impacts of drought and changes in canopy cover from practices such as prescribed fire and mechanical brush removal. Cienega Creek Watershed - Land Ownership

  11. Impact of today's media on university student's body image in Pakistan: a conservative, developing country's perspective

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    Khan Hussain I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Living in a world greatly controlled by mass media makes it impossible to escape its pervading influence. As media in Pakistan has been free in the true sense of the word for only a few years, its impact on individuals is yet to be assessed. Our study aims to be the first to look at the effect media has on the body image of university students in a conservative, developing country like Pakistan. Also, we introduced the novel concept of body image dissatisfaction as being both negative and positive. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7 private universities over a period of two weeks in the city of Karachi, Pakistan's largest and most populous city. Convenience sampling was used to select both male and female undergraduate students aged between 18 and 25 and a sample size of 783 was calculated. Results Of the 784 final respondents, 376 (48% were males and 408 (52% females. The mean age of males was 20.77 (+/- 1.85 years and females was 20.38 (+/- 1.63 years. Out of these, 358 (45.6% respondents had a positive BID (body image dissatisfaction score while 426 (54.4% had a negative BID score. Of the respondents who had positive BID scores, 93 (24.7% were male and 265 (65.0% were female. Of the respondents with a negative BID score, 283 (75.3% were male and 143 (35.0% were female. The results for BID vs. media exposure were similar in both high and low peer pressure groups. Low media exposure meant positive BID scores and vice versa in both groups (p Conclusions Our study confirmed the tendency of the media to have an overall negative effect on individuals' body image. A striking feature of our study, however, was the finding that negative body image dissatisfaction was found to be more prevalent in males as compared to females. Likewise, positive BID scores were more prevalent amongst females.

  12. Towards Conservation of Omani Local Chicken: Phenotypic Characteristics, Management Practices and Performance Traits

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    B. Al-Qamashoui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing local chicken types and their mostly rural production systems is prerequisite for designing and implementing development and conservation programs. This study evaluated the management practices of small-scale chicken keepers and the phenotypic and production traits of their chickens in Oman, where conservation programs for local livestock breeds have currently started. Free-range scavenging was the dominant production system, and logistic regression analysis showed that socio-economic factors such as training in poultry keeping, household income, income from farming and gender of chicken owners influenced feeding, housing, and health care practices (p<0.05. A large variation in plumage and shank colors, comb types and other phenotypic traits within and between Omani chicken populations were observed. Male and female body weight differed (p<0.05, being 1.3±0.65 kg and 1.1±0.86 kg respectively. Flock size averaged 22±7.7 birds per household with 4.8 hens per cock. Clutch size was 12.3±2.85 and annual production 64.5±2.85 eggs per hen. Egg hatchability averaged 88±6.0% and annual chicken mortality across all age and sex categories was 16±1.4%. The strong involvement of women in chicken keeping makes them key stakeholders in future development and conservation programs, but the latter should be preceded by a comprehensive study of the genetic diversity of the Omani chicken populations.

  13. Data management in pattern recognition and image processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, A. L.; Bryant, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    Data management considerations are important to any system which handles large volumes of data or where the manipulation of data is technically sophisticated. A particular problem is the introduction of image-formatted files into the mainstream of data processing application. This report describes a comprehensive system for the manipulation of image, tabular, and graphical data sets which involve conversions between the various data types. A key characteristic is the use of image processing technology to accomplish data management tasks. Because of this, the term 'image-based information system' has been adopted.

  14. Effects of conservation management of landscapes and vertebrate communities on Lyme borreliosis risk in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millins, Caroline; Gilbert, Lucy; Medlock, Jolyon; Hansford, Kayleigh; Thompson, Des Ba; Biek, Roman

    2017-06-05

    Landscape change and altered host abundance are major drivers of zoonotic pathogen emergence. Conservation and biodiversity management of landscapes and vertebrate communities can have secondary effects on vector-borne pathogen transmission that are important to assess. Here we review the potential implications of these activities on the risk of Lyme borreliosis in the United Kingdom. Conservation management activities include woodland expansion, management and restoration, deer management, urban greening and the release and culling of non-native species. Available evidence suggests that increasing woodland extent, implementing biodiversity policies that encourage ecotonal habitat and urban greening can increase the risk of Lyme borreliosis by increasing suitable habitat for hosts and the tick vectors. However, this can depend on whether deer population management is carried out as part of these conservation activities. Exclusion fencing or culling deer to low densities can decrease tick abundance and Lyme borreliosis risk. As management actions often constitute large-scale perturbation experiments, these hold great potential to understand underlying drivers of tick and pathogen dynamics. We recommend integrating monitoring of ticks and the risk of tick-borne pathogens with conservation management activities. This would help fill knowledge gaps and the production of best practice guidelines to reduce risks.This article is part of the themed issue 'Conservation, biodiversity and infectious disease: scientific evidence and policy implications'. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Public perceptions of snakes and snakebite management: implications for conservation and human health in southern Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Deb Prasad; Subedi Pandey, Gita; Devkota, Kamal; Goode, Matt

    2016-06-02

    Venomous snakebite and its effects are a source of fear for people living in southern Nepal. As a result, people have developed a negative attitude towards snakes, which can lead to human-snake conflicts that result in killing of snakes. Attempting to kill snakes increases the risk of snakebite, and actual killing of snakes contributes to loss of biodiversity. Currently, snake populations in southern Nepal are thought to be declining, but more research is needed to evaluate the conservation status of snakes. Therefore, we assessed attitudes, knowledge, and awareness of snakes and snakebite by Chitwan National Park's (CNP) buffer zone (BZ) inhabitants in an effort to better understand challenges to snake conservation and snakebite management. The results of this study have the potential to promote biodiversity conservation and increase human health in southern Nepal and beyond. We carried out face-to-face interviews of 150 randomly selected CNP BZ inhabitants, adopting a cross-sectional mixed research design and structured and semi-structured questionnaires from January-February 2013. Results indicated that 43 % of respondents disliked snakes, 49 % would exterminate all venomous snakes, and 86 % feared snakes. Farmers were the most negative and teachers were the most ambivalent towards snakes. Respondents were generally unable to identify different snake species, and were almost completely unaware of the need of conserve snakes and how to prevent snakebites. Belief in a snake god, and the ability of snakes to absorb poisonous gases from the atmosphere were among many superstitions that appeared to predispose negativity towards snakes of BZ residents. People with predisposed negativity towards snakes were not proponents of snake conservation. Fear, negativity, ambivalence towards, and ignorance about, snakes and the need for snake conservation were strong indicators of the propensity to harm or kill snakes. It seems that if wanton killing of snakes continues

  16. Operative and conservative management of primary gastric lymphoma: interim results of a German multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, Normann A.; Reinartz, Gabriele; Horst, Ekkehard J.; Delker, Georg; Reers, Berthold; Hiddemann, Wolfgang; Tiemann, Markus; Parwaresch, Reza; Grothaus-Pinke, Bernward; Kocik, Juergen; Koch, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Purpose/Objective: Biology and appropriate management of gastrointestinal (GI) lymphomas are matters of an ongoing controversial debate. To evaluate histological features, sites of involvement and management of primary GI-lymphomas, a prospective multicentric study was initiated in 10/1992. Aim of study was the further standardization of operative and conservative treatment modalities. Materials and Methods: Study started 10/1992 and was closed 11/1996. A total of 381 evaluable patients had been accrued then. Standardized diagnostic workup included endoscopic and radiological evaluation of the complete GI-tract as well as a central histological review. Diagnosis was established after Lewin, stage classification was made after Musshoff, and histological classification was made after Isaacson. Treatment decision concerning operative or conservative management was due to the initially acting physician. Patients with resection of low grade lymphoma received total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to incompletely resected areas. After resection of high grade lymphoma CHOP chemotherapy (4 cycles for stage IE, 6 cycles for higher stages) after McKelvy was followed by total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy for stage IE respectively involved field irradiation 30 Gy for higher stages with 10 Gy boost to incompletely resected areas. Primary conservative treatment consisted of six cycles COP chemotherapy after Bagley for low grade lymphomas stage >IE and total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to involved areas for all stages. Patients with high grade lymphomas received 4 x CHOP followed by total abdominal irradiation 30 Gy + 10 Gy boost to involved areas or 6 x CHOP plus involved field radiation therapy with 40 Gy. 257 patients are considered for analysis due to exclusion criteria of the study, 190 of them were suffered from gastric lymphoma. Their median observation time is 29 months, maximum observation time is 68 months. Results: Sites of involvement were

  17. Integrating Collaboration, Adaptive Management, and Scenario-Planning: Experiences at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area

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    Jeremy K. Caves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing recognition that public lands cannot be managed as islands; rather, land management must address the ecological, social, and temporal complexity that often spans jurisdictions and traditional planning horizons. Collaborative decision making and adaptive management (CAM have been promoted as methods to reconcile competing societal demands and respond to complex ecosystem dynamics. We detail the experiences of land managers and stakeholders in using CAM at Las Cienegas National Conservation Area (LCNCA, a highly valued site under the jurisdiction of the Bureau of Land Management (BLM. The CAM process at Las Cienegas is marked by strong stakeholder engagement, with four core elements: (1 shared watershed goals with measurable resource objectives; (2 relevant and reliable scientific information; (3 mechanisms to incorporate new information into decision making; and (4 shared learning to improve both the process and management actions. The combination of stakeholder engagement and adaptive management has led to agreement on contentious issues, more innovative solutions, and more effective land management. However, the region is now experiencing rapid changes outside managers' control, including climate change, human population growth, and reduced federal budgets, with large but unpredictable impacts on natural resources. Although the CAM experience provides a strong foundation for making the difficult and contentious management decisions that such changes are likely to require, neither collaboration nor adaptive management provides a sufficient structure for addressing the externalities that drive uncontrollable and unpredictable change. As a result, LCNCA is exploring two specific modifications to CAM that may better address emerging challenges, including: (1 creating nested resource objectives to distinguish between those objectives that may be crucial to maintaining ecological resilience from those that may hinder a flexible

  18. Optimal Duration of Conservative Management Prior to Surgery for Cervical and Lumbar Radiculopathy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alentado, Vincent J.; Lubelski, Daniel; Steinmetz, Michael P.; Benzel, Edward C.; Mroz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Design Literature review. Objective Since the 1970s, spine surgeons have commonly required 6 weeks of failed conservative treatment prior to considering surgical intervention for various spinal pathologies. It is unclear, however, if this standard has been validated in the literature. The authors review the natural history, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness studies relating to the current standard of 6 weeks of nonoperative care prior to surgery for patients with spinal pathologies. Methods A systematic Medline search from 1953 to 2013 was performed to identify natural history, outcomes, and cost-effectiveness studies relating to the optimal period of conservative management prior to surgical intervention for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Demographic information, operative indications, and clinical outcomes are reviewed for each study. Results A total of 5,719 studies were identified; of these, 13 studies were selected for inclusion. Natural history studies demonstrated that 88% of patients with cervical radiculopathy and 70% of patients with lumbar radiculopathy showed improvement within 4 weeks following onset of symptoms. Outcomes and cost-effectiveness studies supported surgical intervention within 8 weeks of symptom onset for both cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Conclusions There are limited studies supporting any optimal duration of conservative treatment prior to surgery for cervical and lumbar radiculopathy. Therefore, evidence-based conclusions cannot be made. Based on the available literature, we suggest that an optimal timing for surgery following cervical radiculopathy is within 8 weeks of onset of symptoms. A shorter period of 4 weeks may be appropriate based on natural history studies. Additionally, we found that optimal timing for surgery following lumbar radiculopathy is between 4 and 8 weeks. A prospective study is needed to explicitly identify the optimal duration of conservative therapy prior to surgery so that costs

  19. Land-use history as a guide for forest conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Cathy; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Tinner, Willy

    2018-02-01

    ecological change, clarify management objectives, and define conservation strategies that seek to protect both natural and cultural elements. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  20. Conservative Management of Major Liver Necrosis after Angioembolization in a Patient with Blunt Trauma

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    Husham Abdelrahman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of liver injury is challenging particularly for the advanced grades. Increased utility of nonoperative management strategies increases the risk of developing massive liver necrosis (MLN. We reported a case of a 19-year-old male who presented with a history of motor vehicle crash. Abdominal computerized tomography (CT scan revealed large liver laceration (Grade 4 with blush and moderate free hemoperitoneum in 3 quadrants. Patient was managed nonoperatively by angioembolization. Two anomalies in hepatic arteries origin were reported and both vessels were selectively cannulated and bilateral gel foam embolization was achieved successfully. The patient developed MLN which was successfully treated conservatively. The follow-up CT showed progressive resolution of necrotic areas with fluid replacement and showed remarkable regeneration of liver tissues. We assume that patients with high-grade liver injuries could be managed successfully with a carefully designed protocol. Special attention should be given to the potential major associated complications. A tailored multidisciplinary approach to manage the subsequent complications would represent the best recommended strategy for favorable outcomes.

  1. Multifunctional Rangeland in Southern Africa: Managing for Production, Conservation, and Resilience with Fire and Grazing

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    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Residents of Southern Africa depend on rangeland for food, livelihoods, and ecosystem services. Sustainable management of rangeland ecosystems requires attention to interactive effects of fire and grazing in a changing climate. It is essential to compare rangeland responses to fire and grazing across space and through time to understand the effects of rangeland management practices on biodiversity and ecosystem services in an era of global climate change. We propose a paradigm of ecologically-analogous rangeland management within the context of multifunctional landscapes to guide design and application of ecosystem-based rangeland research in Southern Africa. We synthesize range science from the North American Great Plains and Southern African savannas into a proposal for fire and grazing research on rangeland in Southern Africa. We discuss how management for the fire-grazing interaction might advance multiple goals including agricultural productivity, biodiversity conservation, and resilience to increased variability under global change. Finally, we discuss several ecological and social issues important to the effective development of sustainable rangeland practices especially within the context of global climate change. The associated literature review serves as a comprehensive bibliography for sustainable rangeland management and development across the savanna biomes of Southern Africa.

  2. Top 40 priorities for science to inform conservation and management policy in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, Erica; Blockstein, David E.; Hall, John A.; Mascia, Michael B.; Rudd, Murray A.; Scott, J. Michael; Sutherland, William J.; Bartuska, Ann M.; Brown, A. Gordon; Christen, Catherine A.; Clement, Joel P.; DellaSala, Dominick; Duke, Clifford D.; Fiske, Shirley J.; Gosnell, Hannah; Haney, J. Christopher; Hutchins, Michael; Klein, Mary L.; Marqusee, Jeffrey; Noon, Barry R.; Nordgren, John R.; Orbuch, Paul M.; Powell, Jimmie; Quarles, Steven P.; Saterson, Kathryn A.; Stein, Bruce A.; Webster, Michael S.; Vedder, Amy

    2011-01-01

    To maximize the utility of research to decisionmaking, especially given limited financial resources, scientists must set priorities for their efforts. We present a list of the top 40 high-priority, multidisciplinary research questions directed toward informing some of the most important current and future decisions about management of species, communities, and ecological processes in the United States. The questions were generated by an open, inclusive process that included personal interviews with decisionmakers, broad solicitation of research needs from scientists and policymakers, and an intensive workshop that included scientifically oriented individuals responsible for managing and developing policy related to natural resources. The process differed from previous efforts to set priorities for conservation research in its focus on the engagement of decisionmakers in addition to researchers. The research priorities emphasized the importance of addressing societal context and exploration of trade-offs among alternative policies and actions, as well as more traditional questions related to ecological processes and functions.

  3. Identifying resource manager information needs for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation Cooperative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Liedtke, Theresa; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife and cultural resources in North America. LLCs were established by the U.S. Department of Interior (DOI) in recognition that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes and resource management challenges extend beyond national wildlife refuges, Bureau of Land Management lands, national parks, and even international boundaries. Therefore, DOI agencies must work with other Federal, State, Tribal (U.S. indigenous peoples), First Nation (Canadian indigenous peoples), and local governments, as well as private landowners, to develop landscape-level strategies for understanding and responding to climate change.

  4. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renwick, Anna R; Robinson, Catherine J; Garnett, Stephen T; Leiper, Ian; Possingham, Hugh P; Carwardine, Josie

    2017-01-01

    Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  5. Mapping Indigenous land management for threatened species conservation: An Australian case-study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna R Renwick

    Full Text Available Much biodiversity lives on lands to which Indigenous people retain strong legal and management rights. However this is rarely quantified. Here we provide the first quantitative overview of the importance of Indigenous land for a critical and vulnerable part of biodiversity, threatened species, using the continent of Australia as a case study. We find that three quarters of Australia's 272 terrestrial or freshwater vertebrate species listed as threatened under national legislation have projected ranges that overlap Indigenous lands. On average this overlap represents 45% of the range of each threatened species while Indigenous land is 52% of the country. Hotspots where multiple threatened species ranges overlap occur predominantly in coastal Northern Australia. Our analysis quantifies the vast potential of Indigenous land in Australia for contributing to national level conservation goals, and identifies the main land management arrangements available to Indigenous people which may enable them to deliver those goals should they choose to do so.

  6. Multi-species occurrence models to evaluate the effects of conservation and management actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, E.F.; Andrew, Royle J.; Dawson, D.K.; Bates, S.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation and management actions often have direct and indirect effects on a wide range of species. As such, it is important to evaluate the impacts that such actions may have on both target and non-target species within a region. Understanding how species richness and composition differ as a result of management treatments can help determine potential ecological consequences. Yet it is difficult to estimate richness because traditional sampling approaches detect species at variable rates and some species are never observed. We present a framework for assessing management actions on biodiversity using a multi-species hierarchical model that estimates individual species occurrences, while accounting for imperfect detection of species. Our model incorporates species-specific responses to management treatments and local vegetation characteristics and a hierarchical component that links species at a community-level. This allows for comprehensive inferences on the whole community or on assemblages of interest. Compared to traditional species models, occurrence estimates are improved for all species, even for those that are rarely observed, resulting in more precise estimates of species richness (including species that were unobserved during sampling). We demonstrate the utility of this approach for conservation through an analysis comparing bird communities in two geographically similar study areas: one in which white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities have been regulated through hunting and one in which deer densities have gone unregulated. Although our results indicate that species and assemblage richness were similar in the two study areas, point-level richness was significantly influenced by local vegetation characteristics, a result that would have been underestimated had we not accounted for variability in species detection.

  7. Neurogenic Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Adults with Cerebral Palsy: Outcomes following a Conservative Management Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Robert A; Pisansky, Andrew; Fleck, Joseph; Hoversten, Patrick; Cotter, Katherine J; Katorski, Jenna; Liberman, Daniel; Elliott, Sean P

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral palsy is characterized by motor impairment following injury to the developing brain. Neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction is estimated to affect at least a third of children with cerebral palsy. However there are limited data as patients transition to adulthood. We sought to describe the symptoms, sequelae and management of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction in adults with cerebral palsy. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of adult patients with cerebral palsy between 2011 and 2014. Patients with prior bladder reconstruction or catheterization based bladder drainage were excluded from study. Cerebral palsy severity was determined using GMFCS (Gross Motor Function Classification System). A conservative evaluation and treatment paradigm was used. Noninvasive treatments were encouraged. Specifically clean intermittent catheterization, which is often not feasible, is avoided unless urinary retention, hydronephrosis or refractory lower urinary tract symptoms develop. There were 121 patients included in final analysis. Median age was 25 and 61 patients (50%) had GMFCS level V. Noninvasive management failed in 28 of 121 patients (23%) as defined by hydronephrosis in 9, persistent urinary retention in 10 and refractory lower urinary tract symptoms/incontinence in 9. Urethral clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated. Of all patients 25% showed evidence of urolithiasis during the study period. Surgical intervention was rare and associated with significant morbidity. Adults with cerebral palsy may present with variable signs and symptoms of neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. Conservative treatment was successful in more than 75% of patients. Clean intermittent catheterization was poorly tolerated in patients in whom conservative treatment failed. Surgical intervention was rarely indicated and it should be reserved for select individuals. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  8. Evaluation of freshwater mussel relocation as a conservation and management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W. Gregory; Waller, Diane L.

    1995-01-01

    The relocation of unionacean mussels is commonly used as a conservation and management tool in large rivers and streams. Relocation has been used to recolonize areas where mussel populations have been eliminated by prior pollution events, to remove mussels from construction zones and to re-establish populations of endangered species. More recently, relocation has been used to protect native freshwater mussels from colonization by the exotic zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. We conducted a literature review of mussel relocations and evaluated their relative success as a conservation and management strategy. We found that 43% of all relocations were conducted because of construction projects that were forced to comply with the Endangered Species Act 1973 and that only 16% were monitored for five or more consecutive years. Most (43%) relocation projects were conducted from July to September, presumably a period when reproductive stress is relatively low for most species and the metabolic rate is sufficient for reburrowing in the substrate. The mortality of relocated mussels was unreported in 27% of projects; reported mortality varied widely among projects and species and was difficult to assess. The mean mortality of relocated mussels was 49% based on an average recovery rate of 43%. There is little guidance on the methods for relocation or for monitoring the subsequent long-term status of relocated mussels. Based on this evaluation, research is needed to develop criteria for selecting a suitable relocation site and to establish appropriate methods and guidelines for conducting relocation projects.

  9. The Middle Eastern Biodiversity Network: Generating and sharing knowledge for ecosystem management and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedhelm Krupp

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite prevailing arid conditions, the diversity of terrestrial and freshwater biota in the Middle East is amazingly high and marine biodiversity is the second highest on Earth. Throughout the region, threats to the environment are moderate to severe. Despite the outstanding economic and ecological importance of biological diversity, the capacity in biodiversity-related research and education is inadequate in most parts of the Middle East. The ";;Middle Eastern Biodiversity Network";; (MEBN, founded in 2006 by six universities and research institutes in Iran, Jordan, Germany, Lebanon and Yemen was designed to fill this gap. An integrated approach is taken to upgrade biodiversity research and education to improve regional ecosystem conservation and management capacities. A wide range of activities are carried out in the framework of the Network, including capacity building in biological collection management and professional natural history curatorship, developing university curricula in biodiversity, conducting scientific research, organising workshops and conferences on Middle Eastern biodiversity, and translating the results of biodiversity research into conservation and sustainable development.

  10. Adaptation of Australia’s Marine Ecosystems to Climate Change: Using Science to Inform Conservation Management

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    Johanna E. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenges that climate change poses for marine ecosystems are already manifesting in impacts at the species, population, and community levels in Australia, particularly in Tasmania and tropical northern Australia. Many species and habitats are already under threat as a result of human activities, and the additional pressure from climate change significantly increases the challenge for marine conservation and management. Climate change impacts are expected to magnify as sea surface temperatures, ocean chemistry, ocean circulation, sea level, rainfall, and storm patterns continue to change this century. In particular, keystone species that form the foundation of marine habitats, such as coral reefs, kelp beds, and temperate rocky reefs, are projected to pass thresholds with subsequent implications for communities and ecosystems. This review synthesises recent science in this field: the observed impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change, ecological thresholds of change, and strategies for marine conservation to promote adaptation. Increasing observations of climate-related impacts on Australia’s marine ecosystems—both temperate and tropical—are making adaptive management more important than ever before. Our increased understanding of the impacts and responses of marine ecosystems to climate change provides a focus for “no-regrets” adaptations that can be implemented now and refined as knowledge improves.

  11. Genomic resources for the conservation and management of the harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja, Falconiformes, Accipitridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo Banhos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the characterization and optimization of 45 heterologous microsatellite loci, and the development of a new set of molecular sex markers for the conservation and management of the Neotropical harpy eagle (Harpia harpyja L. 1758. Of the 45 microsatellites tested, 24 were polymorphic, six monomorphic, 10 uncharacterizable due to multiple bands and five did not amplify. The observed gene diversity of the analyzed sample of H. harpyja was low and similar to that of other threatened Falconiformes. While a high proportion of the microsatellite markers were highly variable, individuals of H. harpyja could be differentiated by a joint analysis of just three (p = 2.79 x 10-4 or four markers (p = 2.89 x 10-5. Paternity could be rejected with 95.23% and 97.83% probabilities using the same three and four markers, respectively. The sex determination markers easily and consistently differentiated males from females even with highly degraded DNA extracted from naturally shed feathers. The markers reported in this study potentially provide an excellent set of molecular tools for the conservation and management of wild and captive H. harpyja and they may also prove useful for the enigmatic Neotropical crested eagle (Morphnus guianensis Daudin 1800.

  12. Environmental traditional knowledge in a natural protected area as the basis for management and conservation policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pío-León, Juan Fernando; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; León-de-la-Luz, José Luís; Vega-Aviña, Rito; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel; Ortega-Rubio, Alfredo

    2017-10-01

    Ethnobotany is an adequate tool to identify the most import wild edible plants used by local people and to develop strategies for its sustainable use and policy making. This research records the wild edible plants used by the inhabitants of the Sierra la Laguna Biosphere Reserve, in Mexico, and identified priority species for sustainable development. The employed quantitative approach included the application of a food-oriented index named Food Significance Index (FSI), which integrated cultural, agricultural and food parameters; moreover, it used multivariate analysis to identify priority edible species for use and/or conservation. Fifty taxa were identified as the most important wild edible plants in the reserve, integrated into five priority groups. Foods in priority group 1 had the highest culinary diversity by grouping three fruits (Ficus petiolaris, Stenocereus thurberi, and Cyrtocarpa edulis), one almond-like seed (Cnidoscolus maculatus), one vegetable (Matelea cordifolia), and one condiment (Capsicum annuum). Priority groups 2-5 were selective for one or two types of food, such as fruits, teas, or seeds. Since group 1 was the most diverse, the FSI and the employed strategy permitted to identify the priority wild edible plant species with the highest potential for food security. The selected six species should be included in the future management program of the reserve as the priority wild edible plants to develop strategies for conservation, sustainable use, and improvement of the local population income. General policies to manage the selected six species are outlined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A cost analysis of conservative management of spinal cord-injured patients in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawu, A A; Olawepo, A; Salami, A O O; Kuranga, S A; Abdulhameed, S; Esenwah, V C

    2011-11-01

    A prospective study. To determine the cost of acute phase of injury (ASCI) among spinal cord-injured patients managed conservatively in Nigeria. Gwagwalada, Abuja. Over a 1-year period (1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009), the cost of ASCI of consecutive spinal cord-injured patients, gainfully employed preinjury, who paid the hospital bill directly from their purses and could estimate their daily income, and who were managed conservatively for 6 weeks before discharge to rehabilitation, was prospectively examined. A total of 34 cases of spinal cord-injured patients with a mean age of 35.4 ± 12.8 years were included in this study. The mean cost of ASCI over 6 weeks was $1598.29, an average of 6.4-232.8% of patients' annual income where >50% of the people live on less than a dollar a day. The mean cost of hospitalization was 14.9% of the total cost of ASCI in this study. It was significantly more expensive to treat tetraplegics compared with paraplegics. This study identified the cost of acute phase of spinal cord injury in Nigeria to assist clinicians in planning treatment that could reduce financial burden on the patients but optimize patients' care.

  14. Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peter Klimley

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art1The goal of a day-long symposium on March 3, 2015, Sturgeon in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Watershed: New Insights to Support Conservation and Management, was to present new information about the physiology, behavior, and ecology of the green (Acipenser medirostris and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus to help guide enhanced management and conservation efforts within the Sacramento–San Joaquin watershed. This symposium identified current unknowns and highlighted new electronic tracking technologies and physiological techniques to address these knowledge gaps. A number of presentations, each reviewing ongoing research on the two species, was followed by a round-table discussion, in which each of the participants was asked to share recom-mendations for future research on sturgeon in the watershed. This article presents an in-depth review of the scientific information presented at the sympo-sium with a summary of recommendations for future research.

  15. Soil and water conservation for sustainable land management: where do we stand ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govers, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Although soil and water conservation efforts date back to the 1930's in the USA, the implementation of appropriate conservation measures and land management strategies is still lagging in many areas in the world. The reasons for this are, without any doubt, manifold and range from an inadequate understanding of the problem, over the insufficient understanding of the effectiveness of measures and a lack of insight into the benefits of sustainable strategies, to an lack of sensitivity for the impact of certain strategies on local social and economic systems. In this paper we will not attempt to present a general overview of the state of knowledge in this wide domain, but rather focus on the identification of major bottlenecks that impede or slow down the application of sustainable conservation technology, whereby we will focus on soil degradation as a main problem. Moving towards more sustainable soil conservation and land management strategies requires progress on the following issues: - We need accurate data on the extent of problems of land degradation It may sound surprising that several decades of research have not delivered those data, but recent research conclusively shows that, for many areas, our estimates of erosion rates are far off and sometimes our perception is plain wrong. This has detrimental consequences as funds are inefficiently used and, on the long term, stakeholders will invariably lose interest. Various strategies may be used to improve the quality of the data that we used. - We need good insight in the effectiveness of different measures. A major issue here is the scale of assessment: the classical tools used to assess the effectiveness of measures are sometimes not suitable and may lead to both underestimation and overestimation of effectiveness. Furthermore, perceptions of effectiveness may have been shaped by experiences that are decades old, while agricultural technology has moved on. - We need a correct assessments of the co-benefits we

  16. Policies for managing urban growth and landscape change: a key to conservation in the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N., tech. ed. Bengston

    2005-01-01

    Protecting natural areas in the face of urbanization is one of the most important challenges for conservation in the 21st century. The papers in this collection examine key issues related to growth management and selected approaches to managing urban growth and minimizing its social and environmental costs. They were presented at the 2004 annual meeting of the Society...

  17. Conservative management in ureteric hydronephrosis due to deep endometriosis: Could the levonorgestrel-intrauterine device be an option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Elisa; Tejerizo, Álvaro; Muñoz, José Luis; Álvarez, Carmen; Marqueta, Laura; Jiménez, Jesús S

    2017-07-01

    Endometriosis can affect up to 10% of women of reproductive age, in a wide range of clinical presentations that vary from mild to severe or deep endometriosis. Deep endometriosis can affect the urinary tract in 1-5% to 15-25% cases. Even though deep endometriosis' surgeries are usually complex with higher rate of complications, conservative management is not always considered as an option because of its high failure rates. This paper describes two cases of deep endometriosis with ureteric involvement (hydronephrosis) treated conservatively with a double-pigtail stent plus a Levonorgestrel intrauterine device, after conservative surgery, who remained symptom free with no evidence of recurrence at 3 years follow-up, avoiding radical high-risk surgery. Impact statement Several treatments have been described for endometriosis. From a symptomatic perspective, conservative medical management has been proposed with a variable response. Concerning deep endometriosis (affecting the urinary or digestive tract), the definitive treatment has always been thought to be radical surgery. However, this can lead to several complications. To illustrate a possible more conservative approach this paper describes two cases of deep infiltrating endometriosis affecting the ureter, treated conservatively with a temporary pigtail ureter stent plus a Levonorgestrel intrauterine device. The management demonstrates that, in a selected population, conservative treatment solves the urinary disease avoiding the surgical complications and, what is more, improving patients' symptoms in a permanent way. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm whether the introduction of this management in clinical practice would reduce the need for surgery thereby, avoiding high-risk surgery and improving the success rate of conservative management.

  18. Conservation Value of Residential Open Space: Designation and Management Language of Florida’s Land Development Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara M. Wald

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The conservation value of open space depends upon the quantity and quality of the area protected, as well as how it is designed and managed. This study reports the results of a content analysis of Florida county Land Development Regulations. Codes were reviewed to determine the amount of open space required, how open space is protected during construction, the delegation of responsibilities, and the designation of funds for management. Definitions of open space varied dramatically across the state. Most county codes provided inadequate descriptions of management recommendations, which could lead to a decline in the conservation value of the protected space.

  19. Letting the managers manage: analyzing capacity to conserve biodiversity in a cross-border protected area network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Clement

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity loss is one of the most significant drivers of ecosystem change and is projected to continue at a rapid rate. While protected areas, such as national parks, are seen as important refuges for biodiversity, their effectiveness in stemming biodiversity decline has been questioned. Public agencies have a critical role in the governance of many such areas, but there are tensions between the need for these agencies to be more "adaptive" and their current operating environment. Our aim is to analyze how institutions enable or constrain capacity to conserve biodiversity in a globally significant cross-border network of protected areas, the Australian Alps. Using a novel conceptual framework for diagnosing biodiversity institutions, our research examined institutional adaptive capacity and more general capacity for conserving biodiversity. Several intertwined issues limit public agencies' capacity to fulfill their conservation responsibilities. Narrowly defined accountability measures constrain adaptive capacity and divert attention away from addressing key biodiversity outcomes. Implications for learning were also evident, with protected area agencies demonstrating successful learning for on-ground issues but less success in applying this learning to deeper policy change. Poor capacity to buffer political and community influences in managing significant cross-border drivers of biodiversity decline signals poor fit with the institutional context and has implications for functional fit. While cooperative federalism provides potential benefits for buffering through diversity, it also means protected area agencies have restricted authority to address cross-border threats. Restrictions on staff authority and discretion, as public servants, have further implications for deploying capacity. This analysis, particularly the possibility of fostering "ambidexterity" - creatively responding to political pressures in a way that also achieves a desirable

  20. Genetic diversity and conservation status of managed vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) populations in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anello, M; Daverio, M S; Romero, S R; Rigalt, F; Silbestro, M B; Vidal-Rioja, L; Di Rocco, F

    2016-02-01

    The vicuña (Vicugna vicugna) was indiscriminately hunted for more than 400 years and, by the end of 1960s, it was seriously endangered. At that time, a captive breeding program was initiated in Argentina by the National Institute of Agricultural Technology (INTA) with the aim of preserving the species. Nowadays, vicuñas are managed in captivity and in the wild to obtain their valuable fiber. The current genetic status of Argentinean vicuña populations is virtually unknown. Using mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite markers, we assessed levels of genetic diversity of vicuña populations managed in the wild and compared it with a captive population from INTA. Furthermore, we examined levels of genetic structure and evidence for historical bottlenecks. Overall, all populations revealed high genetic variability with no signs of inbreeding. Levels of genetic diversity between captive and wild populations were not significantly different, although the captive population showed the lowest estimates of allelic richness, number of mitochondrial haplotypes, and haplotype diversity. Significant genetic differentiation at microsatellite markers was found between free-living populations from Jujuy and Catamarca provinces. Moreover, microsatellite data also revealed genetic structure within the Catamarca management area. Genetic signatures of past bottlenecks were detected in wild populations by the Garza Williamson test. Results from this study are discussed in relation to the conservation and management of the species.

  1. The evolution of Rare Pride: using evaluation to drive adaptive management in a biodiversity conservation organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, Brett; Vaughan, Peter W; Butler, Paul J

    2010-05-01

    Rare Pride is a social marketing program that stimulates human behavior change in order to promote biodiversity conservation in critically threatened regions in developing countries. A series of formal evaluation studies, networking strategies, and evaluative inquiries have driven a 20-year process of adaptive management that has resulted in extensive programmatic changes within Pride. This paper describes the types of evaluation that Rare used to drive adaptive management and the changes it caused in Pride's theory-of-change and programmatic structure. We argue that (a) qualitative data gathered from partners and staff through structured interviews is most effective at identifying problems with current programs and procedures, (b) networking with other organizations is the most effective strategy for learning of new management strategies, and (c) quantitative data gathered through surveys is effective at measuring program impact and quality. Adaptive management has allowed Rare to increase its Pride program from implementing about two campaigns per year in 2001 to more than 40 per year in 2009 while improving program quality and maintaining program impact. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Nose for Death: Integrating Trophic and Informational Networks for Conservation and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menna E Jones

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-lethal management of wildlife, both ‘problem wildlife’ and pest species, to protect crops and threatened species is becoming increasingly important as non-human animals and humans come into closer proximity. A particularly promising approach is to apply predator scents to manipulate the cost/benefit ratio that influences the behavioral decisions made by prey and other predators about where to forage or rest. However, such olfactory manipulations are not always successful. Using insights from size-structured food webs, we develop a novel integrative model of the information that animals acquire from eavesdropping on predator and conspecific scents. We show how animals can use the information content in predator scents to derive knowledge of other predators and competitors and thus influence their decision to stay in or leave an area. This model framework clarifies how predator scents can influence all trophic levels, from interference competition directed at smaller predators, to predation and herbivory, and exploits direct and indirect pathways to promote landscapes of fear that influence spatial and temporal patch use in target animals. We illustrate how the application of this conceptual model can focus future research to enhance the use of predator scent-based deterrents in conservation and management. This integrated model shows great promise for addressing wildlife management concerns and for eventually improving the success and efficacy of traditional management techniques.

  3. Redefining Secondary Forests in the Mexican Forest Code: Implications for Management, Restoration, and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. Román-Dañobeytia

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican Forest Code establishes structural reference values to differentiate between secondary and old-growth forests and requires a management plan when secondary forests become old-growth and potentially harvestable forests. The implications of this regulation for forest management, restoration, and conservation were assessed in the context of the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, which is located in the Yucatan Peninsula. The basal area and stem density thresholds currently used by the legislation to differentiate old-growth from secondary forests are 4 m2/ha and 15 trees/ha (trees with a diameter at breast height of >25 cm; however, our research indicates that these values should be increased to 20 m2/ha and 100 trees/ha, respectively. Given that a management plan is required when secondary forests become old-growth forests, many landowners avoid forest-stand development by engaging slash-and-burn agriculture or cattle grazing. We present evidence that deforestation and land degradation may prevent the natural regeneration of late-successional tree species of high ecological and economic importance. Moreover, we discuss the results of this study in the light of an ongoing debate in the Yucatan Peninsula between policy makers, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, landowners and researchers, regarding the modification of this regulation to redefine the concept of acahual (secondary forest and to facilitate forest management and restoration with valuable timber tree species.

  4. Bounded ranges of variation as a framework for future conservation and fire management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Max A; Hurteau, Matthew D; Suding, Katharine N; D'Antonio, Carla M

    2013-05-01

    Alterations in natural fire patterns have negatively affected fire-prone ecosystems in many ways. The historical range of variability (HRV) concept evolved as a management target for natural vegetation composition and fire regimes in fire-prone ecosystems. HRV-based management inherently assumes that ecosystem resilience is reflected in observed ranges of past vegetation and fire dynamics, typically without knowledge of where thresholds exist beyond these dynamics. Given uncertainty in future conditions, some have argued that HRV may not adequately reflect ecosystem resilience to future fire activity. We suggest a refinement that includes concepts from the thresholds of potential concern (TPC) framework, which emphasizes tipping points at the extremes of ecosystem dynamics and other socially unacceptable outcomes. We propose bounded ranges of variation (BRV), an approach focused on building resilience by using historical information, but also by identifying socio-ecological thresholds to avoid and associated management action triggers. Here, we examine nonnative species and carbon sequestration as examples of how the BRV framework could be used in the context of conservation and fire management. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. Imaging in the assessment and management of athletic pubalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Philip; Bhat, Vineet; English, Bryan

    2011-02-01

    This article reviews the clinical, anatomical, and biomechanical basis of pubalgia and relates it to the potential imaging findings and subsequent management. Although the magnetic resonance imaging features typically seen in symptomatic athletes are emphasized, this condition remains a complex clinical problem, and treatment addressing the functional rehabilitation of the entire region is highlighted. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  6. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  7. Digital radiology and digitally formatted image management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Templeton, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The number of diagnostic examinations performed with digitally formatted imaging equipment is increasing. Digital general-purpose and fluoroscopic radiology systems are being clinically evaluated. Digitizing conventional x-ray films, such as mammograms, frequently improves the diagnostic quality of the images. The digitizing process with laser has also afforded the opportunity to document required spatial resolution for digital imaging and network systems. The use of digitally formatted image instrumentation imposes new requirements on the acquisition, display and manipulation, transmission, hard copy image recording, and archiving of diagnostic data. Networking of digitally formatted image data offers many advantages for managing digital information. This paper identifies and describes digital radiographic systems. Parameters required for designing and implementing a digital image management system are outlined. Spatial and contrast resolution requirements are identified. The key parameters include the amount of image data generated each working day, the retrieval rate of the generated data, the display hardware and software needed for interactive diagnosis display stations, the requirements for analog hard copy generation, and on-line and long-term archiving requirements. These image management systems are often called PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems)

  8. Resource manager information needs regarding hydrologic regime shifts for the North Pacific Landscape Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Andrea; Jenni, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are a network of 22 public-private partnerships, defined by ecoregion, that share and provide science to ensure the sustainability of land, water, wildlife, and cultural resources in North America. LCCs were established by the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) in recognition of the fact that response to climate change must be coordinated on a landscape-level basis because important resources, ecosystem processes, and resource management challenges extend beyond most of the boundaries considered in current natural resource management. The North Pacific LCC (NPLCC) covers the range of the Pacific coastal temperate rainforest, including an area of 528,360 km2 spanning 22 degrees of latitude from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, to Bodega Bay, California. The coverage area includes parts of four States, two Canadian provinces, and more than 100 Tribes and First Nation language groups. It extends from alpine areas at the crest of coastal mountains across subalpine, montane, and lowland forests to the nearshore marine environment. This wide range of latitudes and elevation zones; terrestrial, freshwater, and marine habitats; and complex jurisdictional boundaries hosts a diversity of natural resources and their corresponding management issues are equally diverse. As evidenced by the Science and Traditional Ecological Knowledge (S-TEK) Strategy guiding principles, identifying and responding to the needs of resource managers is key to the success of the NPLCC. To help achieve this goal of the NPLCC, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has organized several workshops with resource managers and resource scientists to identify management information needs relevant to the priority topics identified in the S-TEK Strategy. Here, we detail the results from a first workshop to address the effects of changes in hydrologic regime on rivers, streams, and riparian corridors. The workshop focused on a subset of the full NPLCC geography and was

  9. MRI and CT imaging for preoperative target volume delineation in breast-conserving therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hartogh, Mariska D; Philippens, Marielle E P; van Dam, Iris E; Kleynen, Catharina E; Tersteeg, Robbert J H A; Pijnappel, Ruud M; Kotte, Alexis N T J; Verkooijen, Helena M; van den Bosch, Maurice A A J; van Vulpen, Marco; van Asselen, Bram; van den Bongard, Hjg Desirée

    2014-02-26

    Accurate tumor bed delineation after breast-conserving surgery is important. However, consistency among observers on standard postoperative radiotherapy planning CT is low and volumes can be large due to seroma formation. A preoperative delineation of the tumor might be more consistent. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the consistency of preoperative target volume delineation on CT and MRI for breast-conserving radiotherapy. Tumors were delineated on preoperative contrast-enhanced (CE) CT and newly developed 3D CE-MR images, by four breast radiation oncologists. Clinical target volumes (CTVs) were created by addition of a 1.5 cm margin around the tumor, excluding skin and chest wall. Consistency in target volume delineation was expressed by the interobserver variability. Therefore, the conformity index (CI), center of mass distance (dCOM) and volumes were calculated. Tumor characteristics on CT and MRI were scored by an experienced breast radiologist. Preoperative tumor delineation resulted in a high interobserver agreement with a high median CI for the CTV, for both CT (0.80) and MRI (0.84). The tumor was missed on CT in 2/14 patients (14%). Leaving these 2 patients out of the analysis, CI was higher on MRI compared to CT for the GTV (p<0.001) while not for the CTV (CT (0.82) versus MRI (0.84), p=0.123). The dCOM did not differ between CT and MRI. The median CTV was 48 cm3 (range 28-137 cm3) on CT and 59 cm3 (range 30-153 cm3) on MRI (p<0.001). Tumor shapes and margins were rated as more irregular and spiculated on CE-MRI. This study showed that preoperative target volume delineation resulted in small target volumes with a high consistency among observers. MRI appeared to be necessary for tumor detection and the visualization of irregularities and spiculations. Regarding the tumor delineation itself, no clinically relevant differences in interobserver variability were observed. These results will be used to study the potential for future MRI

  10. Digital networks for the image management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo L, A.

    1999-01-01

    The digital networks designed specifically for the X-ray departments in the hospitals already were found in open development at beginning the 80's decade. Actually the digital network will be present include the image generation without the necessity to use film in direct form and in its case to print it through a laser ray printers network, an electronic image file, the possibility to integrate the hospitable information system to the electronic expedient which will allow communicate radiograph electronic files and consult by satellite via the problem cases. (Author)

  11. Evaluating adaptive co-management as conservation conflict resolution: Learning from seals and salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Young, J C; McMyn, I A G; Leyshon, B; Graham, I M; Walker, I; Baxter, J M; Dodd, J; Warburton, C

    2015-09-01

    By linking iterative learning and knowledge generation with power-sharing, adaptive co-management (ACM) provides a potential solution to resolving complex social-ecological problems. In this paper we evaluate ACM as a mechanism for resolving conservation conflict using a case study in Scotland, where seal and salmon fishery stakeholders have opposing and entrenched objectives. ACM emerged in 2002, successfully resolving this long-standing conflict. Applying evaluation approaches from the literature, in 2011 we interviewed stakeholders to characterise the evolution of ACM, and factors associated with its success over 10 years. In common with other ACM cases, triggers for the process were shifts in slow variables controlling the system (seal and salmon abundance, public perceptions of seal shooting), and exogenous shocks (changes in legal mandates, a seal disease outbreak). Also typical of ACM, three phases of evolution were evident: emerging local leadership preparing the system for change, a policy window of opportunity, and stakeholder partnerships building the resilience of the system. Parameters maintaining ACM were legal mechanisms and structures, legal power held by government, and the willingness of all stakeholders to reach a compromise and experiment with an alternative governance approach. Results highlighted the critical role of government power and support in resolving conservation conflict, which may constrain the extent of local stakeholder-driven ACM. The evaluation also demonstrated how, following perceived success, the trajectory of ACM has shifted to a 'stakeholder apathy' phase, with declining leadership, knowledge exchange, stakeholder engagement, and system resilience. We discuss remedial actions required to revive the process, and the importance of long term government resourcing and alternative financing schemes for successful conflict resolution. Based on the results we present a generic indicator framework and participatory method for the

  12. Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) contributions to wildlife habitat, management issues, challenges and policy choices--an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Arthur W.; Vandever, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    The following bibliography presents brief summaries of documents relevant to Conservation Reserve Program relations to wildlife habitat, habitat management in agriculturally dominated landscapes, and conservation policies potentially affecting wildlife habitats in agricultural ecosystems. Because the literature summaries furnished provide only sweeping overviews, users are urged to obtain and evaluate those papers appearing useful to obtain a more complete understanding of study findings and their implications to conservation in agricultural ecosystems. The bibliography contains references to reports that reach beyond topics that directly relate to the Conservation Reserve Program. Sections addressing grassland management and landowner surveys/opinions, for example, furnish information useful for enhancing development and administration of conservation policies affecting lands beyond those enrolled in conservation programs. Some sections of the bibliography (for example, agricultural conservation policy, economics, soils) are far from inclusive of all relevant material written on the subject. Hopefully, these sections will serve as fundamental introductions to related issues. In a few instances, references may be presented in more than one section of the bibliography. For example, individual papers specifically addressing both non-game and game birds are included in respective sections of the bibliography. Duplication of citations and associated notes has, however, been kept to a minimum.

  13. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  14. Conservation physiology for applied management of marine fish: an overview with perspectives on the role and value of telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, J. D.; Le Quesne, W. J. F.; Cheung, W. W. L.; Righton, D. A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological studies focus on the responses of cells, tissues and individuals to stressors, usually in laboratory situations. Conservation and management, on the other hand, focus on populations. The field of conservation physiology addresses the question of how abiotic drivers of physiological responses at the level of the individual alter requirements for successful conservation and management of populations. To achieve this, impacts of physiological effects at the individual level need to be scaled to impacts on population dynamics, which requires consideration of ecology. Successfully realizing the potential of conservation physiology requires interdisciplinary studies incorporating physiology and ecology, and requires that a constructive dialogue develops between these traditionally disparate fields. To encourage this dialogue, we consider the increasingly explicit incorporation of physiology into ecological models applied to marine fish conservation and management. Conservation physiology is further challenged as the physiology of an individual revealed under laboratory conditions is unlikely to reflect realized responses to the complex variable stressors to which it is exposed in the wild. Telemetry technology offers the capability to record an animal's behaviour while simultaneously recording environmental variables to which it is exposed. We consider how the emerging insights from telemetry can strengthen the incorporation of physiology into ecology. PMID:22566680

  15. Management of apple orchards to conserve generalist phytoseiid mites suppresses two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama, Ken; Komatus, Michiyo; Sonoda, Shoji; Takahashi, Isao; Hara, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    To improve the success of integrated pest management (IPM) in apple orchards, we investigated whether generalist phytoseiid mites have suppressed the occurrence of Tetranychus urticae. In Akita Prefecture, northern Japan, in 2012 and 2013, two types of experimental plot were compared. Conservation plots had been managed for the conservation of generalist phytoseiid mites by selective chemical spraying without mowing since 2009. Conventional plots were managed by non-selective chemical spraying with regular mowing. The conservation plots had significantly fewer T. urticae adult females per tree in both years. Two species of generalist phytoseiid mites-Typhlodromus vulgaris and Amblyseius tsugawai-were continuously present in the conservation plots, with only a few T. urticae. The conservation plots had significantly more A. tsugawai adult females in the undergrowth in both years, and significantly more T. vulgaris adult females on apple leaves in 2012. Typhlodromus vulgaris was continuously present in the conservation plots but was scarce from late May to early August in the conventional plots. In the presence of T. vulgaris, low numbers of T. urticae did not increase on apple leaves. These results indicate that the generalist phytoseiid mites serve as important biological control agents in IPM in apple orchards.

  16. Bone disease in patients with chronic kidney disease under conservative management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Perez Gomes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on bone disease in patients with chronic kidney disease under conservative treatment. The objective was to evaluate bone disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case series, at the Nephrology Division, Hospital Universitário Pedro Ernesto. METHODS: 131 patients with creatinine clearance from 10 to 60 ml/min/1.73 m² were followed up for at least one year. Serum creatinine, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, total CO2 (tCO2, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. Creatinine clearance was calculated from 24-hour urine creatinine measurements and protein ingestion estimates from urea assays. RESULTS: Patients presenting creatinine clearance 144 pg/ml showed osteitis fibrosa (4, mild lesion (4 and high turnover (1. CONCLUSION: The present data suggest the importance of early control for iPTH and metabolic acidosis, among patients under conservative management for chronic kidney disease, in order to prevent complications related to bone disease.

  17. Energy management: a program of energy conservation for the community college facility. [Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Various Authors

    1978-01-01

    This handbook developes helps for assessing and improving the energy efficiency of the community-college facility. The TEEM approach (Total Educational Energy Management) is a labor-intensive approach which requires the commitment and participation of all segments of the college community. The TEEM program presented here defines a series of tasks selected, ordered, and implemented in such a way as to achieve two basic objectives: (1) reducing campus energy requirements, and (2) meeting those reduced energy requirements more efficiently without adversely affecting the quality of educational programs. This guide to large-scale energy conservation on college campuses includes step-by-step procedures for establishing a program task force, defining specific tasks, and assigning responsibilities. Action plans are developed, energy consumption monitored, goals set, and conservation measures implemented. A series of appendices provides more detailed information, charts, and worksheets related to all aspects of energy use. The TEEM program provides the basic structure for achieving a significant reduction in campus energy costs.

  18. National Athletic Trainers' Association Position Statement: Conservative Management and Prevention of Ankle Sprains in Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas W.; Hertel, Jay; Amendola, Ned; Docherty, Carrie L.; Dolan, Michael G.; Hopkins, J. Ty; Nussbaum, Eric; Poppy, Wendy; Richie, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To present recommendations for athletic trainers and other allied health care professionals in the conservative management and prevention of ankle sprains in athletes. Background: Because ankle sprains are a common and often disabling injury in athletes, athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals must be able to implement the most current and evidence-supported treatment strategies to ensure safe and rapid return to play. Equally important is initiating preventive measures to mitigate both first-time sprains and the chance of reinjury. Therefore, considerations for appropriate preventive measures (including taping and bracing), initial assessment, both short- and long-term management strategies, return-to-play guidelines, and recommendations for syndesmotic ankle sprains and chronic ankle instability are presented. Recommendations: The recommendations included in this position statement are intended to provide athletic trainers and other sports health care professionals with guidelines and criteria to deliver the best health care possible for the prevention and management of ankle sprains. An endorsement as to best practice is made whenever evidence supporting the recommendation is available. PMID:23855363

  19. Site closure management strategies and the responsiveness of conservation outcomes in recreational fishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lei; Hailu, Atakelty

    2018-02-01

    We develop and use an empirically based model, which integrates fishing behaviour and a coral reef system, to evaluate outcomes from site closure strategies to manage the effects of recreational fishing. The model is designed to estimate management effects in complex settings with two-way feedback effects (between fishing and ecosystem dynamics) as well as spillover effects where the closure of a site (or sites) leads to the redistribution of fishing effort. An iconic coral reef system is used as a case study. The results demonstrate that some site closure strategies provide little incremental benefits over less stringent approaches. They also show that some strategies targeting more sites are actually inferior to more limited strategies, demonstrating that, in the analysis of complex problems involving feedback effects and substitutions, there is little substitute for the use of empirically based and sound modelling as the basis for informed conservation decision making and stakeholder consultation. These findings have direct relevance not only for policies aimed at improving recreational fishing management but also for securing the supply of marine ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of sperm sorting and associated reproductive technology for wildlife management and conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J K; Steinman, K J; Robeck, T R

    2009-01-01

    Efforts toward the conservation and captive breeding of wildlife can be enhanced by sperm sorting and associated reproductive technologies such as sperm cryopreservation and artificial insemination (AI). Sex ratio management is of particular significance to species which naturally exist in female-dominated social groups. A bias of the sex ratio towards females of these species will greatly assist in maintaining socially cohesive groups and minimizing male-male aggression. Another application of this technology potentially exists for endangered species, as the preferential production of females can enable propagation of those species at a faster rate. The particular assisted reproductive technology (ART) used in conjunction with sperm sorting for the production of offspring is largely determined by the quality and quantity of spermatozoa following sorting and preservation processes. Regardless of the ART selected, breeding decisions involving sex-sorted spermatozoa should be made in conjunction with appropriate genetic management. Zoological-based research on reproductive physiology and assisted reproduction, including sperm sorting, is being conducted on numerous terrestrial and marine mammals. The wildlife species for which the technology has undergone the most advance is the bottlenose dolphin. AI using sex-sorted fresh or frozen-thawed spermatozoa has become a valuable tool for the genetic and reproductive management of captive bottlenose dolphins with six pre-sexed calves, all of the predetermined sex born to date.

  1. Consensus Report of the European Federation of Conservative Dentistry: Erosive tooth wear – diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Thiago S; Colon, Pierre; Ganss, Carolina; Huysmans, Marie-Charlotte; Lussi, Adrian; Schlueter, Nadine; Schmalz, Gottfried; Shellis, Peter R; Björg Tveit, Anne; Wiegand, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Due to an increased focus on erosive tooth wear (ETW), the European Federation of Conservative Dentistry (EFCD) considered ETW as a relevant topic for generating this consensus report. This report is based on a compilation of the scientific literature, an expert conference, and the approval by the General Assembly of EFCD. ETW is a chemical-mechanical process resulting in a cumulative loss of hard dental tissue not caused by bacteria, and it is characterized by loss of the natural surface morphology and contour of the teeth. A suitable index for classification of ETW is the basic erosive wear examination (BEWE). Regarding the etiology, patient-related factors include the predisposition to erosion, reflux, vomiting, drinking and eating habits, as well as medications and dietary supplements. Nutritional factors relate to the composition of foods and beverages, e.g., with low pH and high buffer capacity (major risk factors), and calcium concentration (major protective factor). Occupational factors are exposition of workers to acidic liquids or vapors. Preventive management of ETWaims at reducing or stopping the progression of the lesions. Restorative management aims at reducing symptoms of pain and dentine hypersensitivity, or to restore esthetic and function, but it should only be used in conjunction with preventive strategies. Effective management of ETW includes screening for early signs of ETW and evaluating all etiological factors. ETW is a clinical condition, which calls for the increased attention of the dental community and is a challenge for the cooperation with other medical specialities.

  2. Determinants of Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin recruitment under oligotrophic conditions: Implications for conservation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Silvia; Farina, Simone; Pinna, Stefania; Guala, Ivan; Agnetta, Davide; Ariotti, Pierre Antoine; Mura, Francesco; Ceccherelli, Giulia

    2016-06-01

    Sea urchins may deeply shape the structure of macrophyte-dominated communities and require the implementation of sustainable management strategies. In the Mediterranean, the identification of the major recruitment determinants of the keystone sea urchin species Paracentrotus lividus is required, so that source areas of the populations can be identified and exploitation or programmed harvesting can be spatially managed. In this study a collection of eight possible determinants, these encompassing both the biotic (larvae, adult sea urchins, fish, encrusting coralline algae, habitat type and spatial arrangement of habitats) and abiotic (substrate complexity and nutritional status) realms was considered at different spatial scales (site, area, transect and quadrat). Data from a survey including sites subject to different levels of human influence (i.e. from urbanized to protected areas), but all corresponding to an oligotrophic and low-populated region were fitted by means of a generalized linear mixed model. Despite the extensive sampling effort of benthic quadrats, an overall paucity of recruits was found, recruits being aggregated in a very small number of quadrats and in few areas. The analysis of data detected substrate complexity, and adult sea urchin and predatory fish abundances as the momentous determinants of Paracentrotus lividus recruitment. Possible mechanisms of influence are discussed beyond the implications of conservation management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing aquatic species of conservation concern in the face of climate change and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahel, Frank J; Bierwagen, Britta; Taniguchi, Yoshinori

    2008-06-01

    The difficult task of managing species of conservation concern is likely to become even more challenging due to the interaction of climate change and invasive species. In addition to direct effects on habitat quality, climate change will foster the expansion of invasive species into new areas and magnify the effects of invasive species already present by altering competitive dominance, increasing predation rates, and enhancing the virulence of diseases. In some cases parapatric species may expand into new habitats and have detrimental effects that are similar to those of invading non-native species. The traditional strategy of isolating imperiled species in reserves may not be adequate if habitat conditions change beyond historic ranges or in ways that favor invasive species. The consequences of climate change will require a more active management paradigm that includes implementing habitat improvements that reduce the effects of climate change and creating migration barriers that prevent an influx of invasive species. Other management actions that should be considered include providing dispersal corridors that allow species to track environmental changes, translocating species to newly suitable habitats where migration is not possible, and developing action plans for the early detection and eradication of new invasive species.

  4. Managing and Querying Image Annotation and Markup in XML.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Proprietary approaches for representing annotations and image markup are serious barriers for researchers to share image data and knowledge. The Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project is developing a standard based information model for image annotation and markup in health care and clinical trial environments. The complex hierarchical structures of AIM data model pose new challenges for managing such data in terms of performance and support of complex queries. In this paper, we present our work on managing AIM data through a native XML approach, and supporting complex image and annotation queries through native extension of XQuery language. Through integration with xService, AIM databases can now be conveniently shared through caGrid.

  5. Managing and querying image annotation and markup in XML

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Pan, Tony; Sharma, Ashish; Saltz, Joel

    2010-03-01

    Proprietary approaches for representing annotations and image markup are serious barriers for researchers to share image data and knowledge. The Annotation and Image Markup (AIM) project is developing a standard based information model for image annotation and markup in health care and clinical trial environments. The complex hierarchical structures of AIM data model pose new challenges for managing such data in terms of performance and support of complex queries. In this paper, we present our work on managing AIM data through a native XML approach, and supporting complex image and annotation queries through native extension of XQuery language. Through integration with xService, AIM databases can now be conveniently shared through caGrid.

  6. Advances in Imaging and Management Trends of Traumatic Aortic Injuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagpal, Prashant, E-mail: drprashantnagpal@gmail.com, E-mail: Prashant-nagpal@uiowa.edu; Mullan, Brian F. [University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Department of Radiology (United States); Sen, Indrani [Mayo Clinic, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (United States); Saboo, Sachin S. [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Khandelwal, Ashish [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Acute traumatic aortic injury (ATAI) is a life-threatening injury. CT is the imaging tool of choice, and the knowledge of direct and indirect signs of injury, grading system, and current management protocol helps the emergency radiologist to better identify and classify the injury and provide additional details that can impact management options. Newer dual-source CT technology with ultrafast acquisition speed has also influenced the appropriate protocol for imaging in patients with suspected ATAI. This review highlights the imaging protocol in patients with blunt trauma, CT appearance and grading systems of ATAI, management options, and the role of the multidisciplinary team in the management of these patients. We also briefly review the current literature on the definition, treatment, and follow-up protocol in patients with minimal aortic injury.

  7. Advances in Imaging and Management Trends of Traumatic Aortic Injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagpal, Prashant; Mullan, Brian F.; Sen, Indrani; Saboo, Sachin S.; Khandelwal, Ashish

    2017-01-01

    Acute traumatic aortic injury (ATAI) is a life-threatening injury. CT is the imaging tool of choice, and the knowledge of direct and indirect signs of injury, grading system, and current management protocol helps the emergency radiologist to better identify and classify the injury and provide additional details that can impact management options. Newer dual-source CT technology with ultrafast acquisition speed has also influenced the appropriate protocol for imaging in patients with suspected ATAI. This review highlights the imaging protocol in patients with blunt trauma, CT appearance and grading systems of ATAI, management options, and the role of the multidisciplinary team in the management of these patients. We also briefly review the current literature on the definition, treatment, and follow-up protocol in patients with minimal aortic injury.

  8. Percutaneous vesicoamniotic shunting versus conservative management for fetal lower urinary tract obstruction (PLUTO): a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Rachel K; Malin, Gemma L; Quinlan-Jones, Elisabeth; Middleton, Lee J; Hemming, Karla; Burke, Danielle; Daniels, Jane P; Khan, Khalid S; Deeks, Jon; Kilby, Mark D

    2013-11-02

    Fetal lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO) is associated with high perinatal and long-term childhood mortality and morbidity. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of vesicoamniotic shunting for treatment of LUTO. In a randomised trial in the UK, Ireland, and the Netherlands, women whose pregnancies with a male fetus were complicated by isolated LUTO were randomly assigned by a central telephone and web-based randomisation service to receive either the intervention (placement of vesicoamniotic shunt) or conservative management. Allocation could not be masked from clinicians or participants because of the invasive nature of the intervention. Diagnosis was by prenatal ultrasound. The primary outcome was survival of the baby to 28 days postnatally. All primary analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis, but these results were compared with those of an as-treated analysis to investigate the effect of a fairly large proportion of crossovers. We used Bayesian methods to estimate the posterior probability distribution of the effectiveness of vesicoamniotic shunting at 28 days. The study is registered with the ISRCTN Register, number ISRCTN53328556. 31 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by LUTO were included in the trial and main analysis, with 16 allocated to the vesicoamniotic shunt group and 15 to the conservative management group. The study closed early because of poor recruitment. There were 12 livebirths in each group. In the vesicoamniotic shunt group one intrauterine death occurred and three pregnancies were terminated. In the conservative management group one intrauterine death occurred and two pregnancies were terminated. Of the 16 pregnancies randomly assigned to vesicoamniotic shunting, eight neonates survived to 28 days, compared with four from the 15 pregnancies assigned to conservative management (intention-to-treat relative risk [RR] 1·88, 95% CI 0·71-4·96; p=0·27). Analysis based on treatment received showed a larger effect (3·20, 1

  9. Conservative Management of Duodenal Perforation with Toothpick in a 9- Year Old Girl; a Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsanam Gheibi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Foreign body ingestion is a relatively common in children. Most ingested foreign bodies spontaneously pass out of the body via the gastrointestinal (GI system but sharp materials may perforate the GI tract and need to surgical intervention. Case Presentation  The patient was a 9-year-old girl with progressive abdominal pain for one month and admitted with acute abdomen impression. She underwent esogastroduodenoscopy (EGD due to severe epigastric tenderness. Upper GI endoscopy revealed duodenal ulceration and perforation by a toothpick while she had no history of foreign body ingestion. Toothpick was removed by endoscopy. She was successfully managed conservatively and had no abdominal pain during the one month follow-up period. Conclusion We recommend the endoscopic approach as the preferable method for the extraction of duodenal foreign bodies in children, even in the case of intestinal perforation.

  10. Conservative Management of Ovarian Fibroma in A Case of Gorlin-Goltz Syndrome Comorbid with Endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Khodaverdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian fibromas are the most common benign solid ovarian tumors, which are often difficult to diagnose preoperatively. Ovarian fibromas, especially in bilateral cases, may be cases of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS, a rare autosomal dominant disorder with predisposition to basal cell carcinomas (BCCs and other various benign and malignant tumors. This case report describes a 25 year-old female with GGS, bilateral ovarian fibroma, endometriosis and septated uterus, which was referred to the Gynecology Clinic of Rasoul-e-Akram Hospital in October 2016. This patient had facial asymmetry due to recurrent odontogenic keratocysts. In young cases of ovarian fibromas as reported here, conservative surgical management can preserve ovarian function and fertility. These patients must be followed up by a multidisciplinary team and submitted to periodic tests.

  11. Western pond turtle: Biology, sampling techniques, inventory and monitoring, conservation, and management: Northwest Fauna No. 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bury, R.B.; Welsh, Hartwell H.; Germano, David J.; Ashton, Donald T.

    2012-01-01

    One of only two native, freshwater turtle species in the western United States, western pond turtles are declining in portions of their original range. Declines are mostly due to habitat loss, introduction of non-native species, pollution, and lack of connectivity among populations. USGS zoologist R. Bruce Bury and colleagues from the U.S. Forest Service, California State University, and other agencies compiled and edited a new review and field manual of this charismatic species. Objectives were to determine its current distribution and abundance, summarize and evaluate population features, review techniques to detect population and habitat changes, and improve monitoring for long-term trends. Methods described in the manual should improve consistency, efficiency, and accuracy of survey data, resulting in improved management and conservation efforts.

  12. Limitations of recreational camera traps for wildlife management and conservation research: a practitioner's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newey, Scott; Davidson, Paul; Nazir, Sajid; Fairhurst, Gorry; Verdicchio, Fabio; Irvine, R Justin; van der Wal, René

    2015-11-01

    The availability of affordable 'recreational' camera traps has dramatically increased over the last decade. We present survey results which show that many conservation practitioners use cheaper 'recreational' units for research rather than more expensive 'professional' equipment. We present our perspective of using two popular models of 'recreational' camera trap for ecological field-based studies. The models used (for >2 years) presented us with a range of practical problems at all stages of their use including deployment, operation, and data management, which collectively crippled data collection and limited opportunities for quantification of key issues arising. Our experiences demonstrate that prospective users need to have a sufficient understanding of the limitations camera trap technology poses, dimensions we communicate here. While the merits of different camera traps will be study specific, the performance of more expensive 'professional' models may prove more cost-effective in the long-term when using camera traps for research.

  13. The role of dietary phosphorus restriction in the conservative management of chronic renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsotti, Giuliano; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2005-01-01

    Evidence exists that phosphate retention plays a major role in causing secondary hyperparathyroidism, cardiovascular morbidity, and loss of residual renal function in chronic renal disease patients, and that a subtle elevation in serum phosphate occurs at early stages in the course of renal insufficiency. The implementation of a low-phosphorus, low-protein dietary regimen plays a special role in the conservative management of chronic renal disease patients, for the prevention and correction of secondary hyperparathyroidism and for the renal and cardiovascular protection. However, the success and safety of dietary phosphate restriction largely depends on good compliance with dietary recommendations, which must represent a major goal to be regularly pursued in the clinical practice. To this aim, it is crucial that dietitians expert in renal nutrition give education and personalized dietary advice, with the aim of enhancing the patient's adherence to nutritional prescriptions.

  14. Remote sensing techniques for conservation and management of natural vegetation ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Verdesio, J. J.; Dossantos, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The importance of using remote sensing techniques, in the visible and near-infrared ranges, for mapping, inventory, conservation and management of natural ecosystems is discussed. Some examples realized in Brazil or other countries are given to evaluate the products from orbital platform (MSS and RBV imagery of LANDSAT) and aerial level (photography) for ecosystems study. The maximum quantitative and qualitative information which can be obtained from each sensor, at different level, are discussed. Based on the developed experiments it is concluded that the remote sensing technique is a useful tool in mapping vegetation units, estimating biomass, forecasting and evaluation of fire damage, disease detection, deforestation mapping and change detection in land-use. In addition, remote sensing techniques can be used in controling implantation and planning natural/artificial regeneration.

  15. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  16. Frequency of conservatively managed traumatic acute subdural haematoma changing into chronic subdural haematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.; Aurangzeb, A.; Khan, S.A.; Ali, A.; Maqbool, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury represents a significant cause of mortality and permanent disability in the adult population. Acute subdural haematoma is one of the conditions most strongly associated with severe brain injury. Knowledge on the natural history of the illness and the outcome of patients conservatively managed may help the neurosurgeon in the decision-making process. Methods: We prospectively analysed 27 patients with age ranges 15-90 years, in whom a CT scan diagnosis of acute subdural haematoma was made, and in whom craniotomy for evacuation was not initially performed, to the neurosurgery department of Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad (2008-2011). Patients with deranged bleeding profile, anticoagulant therapy, chronic liver disease, any other associated intracranial abnormalities, such as cerebral contusions, as shown on CT, were excluded from this study. All patients were followed by serial CT scans, and a neurological assessment was done. Results: There were 18 male and 9 female patients, Cerebral atrophy was present in over half of the sample. In 22 of our patients, the acute subdural haematoma resolved spontaneously, without evidence of damage to the underlying brain, as shown by CT or neurological findings. Four patients subsequently required burr hole drainage for chronic subdural haematoma. In each of these patients, haematoma thickness was greater than 10 mm. The mean delay between injury and operation in this group was 15-21 days. Among these patients 1 patient required craniotomy for haematoma removal due to neurological deterioration. Conclusion: Certain conscious patients with small acute subdural haematomas, without mass effect on CT, may be safely managed conservatively, but due to high risk of these acute subdural haematoma changing into chronic subdural haematoma these patients should be reinvestigated in case of neurological deterioration. (author)

  17. Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis: a narrative review of etiology, diagnosis, and conservative management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Daniel W.; Kettner, Norman W.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review current literature regarding the etiology, diagnosis, and conservative treatment of spondylolysis and spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. Methods The PubMed database was searched for articles on spondylolysis and/or spondylolisthesis and their incidence, diagnosis, imaging, treatment, and prognosis. The bibliographies of articles determined to be relevant were also reviewed. Results A PubMed search of spondylolysis or spondylolis-thesis yielded over 800 citations. Sixty-eight articles were selected based on an opinion of perceived relevance to the subjects of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Conclusions Spondylolysis affects approximately 6% of the population. The lesion likely represents a stress fracture and the typical age of onset is early childhood and adolescence. Most individuals are asymptomatic. Adolescents with low back pain may have an impending or new pars defect. A high index of suspicion for a new pars defect should prompt utilization of physiologic imaging to determine the likelihood of pars union in young patients. Restrictive bracing may lead to healing of the fracture and cessation of pain. Spondylolisthesis is a common complication of spondylolysis. Spondylolisthesis progression is typically small and most likely in young individuals. Significant progression in adults is rare. The finding of spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis in an adult patient is usually incidental and not likely to be a direct source of pain unless there is concurrent instability. PMID:19674664

  18. Ecosystem Management and Land Conservation Can Substantially Contribute to California's Climate Mitigation Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, D.; Cameron, D. R.; Passero, M. C.; Remucal, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    California has been a global leader in climate change policy through its early adoption of ambitious GHG reduction goals, committing to steep reductions through 2030 and beyond. Modeling efforts focused on future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from energy and other sectors in California have shown varying capacity to meet the emissions reductions targets established by the state. These efforts have not included potential reductions from changes in ecosystem management, restoration, and conservation. This study simulates the future GHG reduction potential of these land-based activities (e.g., changes to forest management, avoided conversion of grasslands to agriculture) when applied to California lands at three plausible rates of policy implementation relative to current efforts. We then compare the reduction potential of the activities against "business-as-usual" (BAU) emissions projections for the California to highlight the contribution of the biosphere toward reaching the state's GHG 2030 and 2050 reduction targets. By 2030, an Ambitious land-based activity implementation scenario could contribute as much as 146.7 MMTCO2e or 17.4% of the cumulative reductions needed to meet the state's 2030 goal, greater than the individual contributions of four other economic sectors, including those from the Industrial and Agriculture sectors. On an annual basis, the Ambitious scenario could result in reductions as high as 17.93 MMTCO2e yr-1 or 13.4% of the state's 2030 reduction goal. Most reductions come from changes in forest management, such as extending rotation times for harvest and reducing stocking density, thereby promoting accelerated growth. Such changes comprise 59.8% to 67.4% of annual projected emissions reductions in 2050 for the Ambitious and Limited scenarios, respectively. Implementation of a range of land-based emissions reduction activities can materially contribute to one of the most ambitious mitigation targets globally. This study provides a flexible

  19. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  20. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  1. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  2. A quantitative evaluation of the conservation umbrella of spotted owl management areas in the Sierra Nevada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan D Burnett

    Full Text Available Whether by design or default, single species management often serves as an umbrella for species with similar habitat requirements. In recent decades the focus of National Forest management in the Sierra Nevada of California has shifted towards increasing closed canopy mature forest conditions through the protection of areas occupied by the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis. To evaluate the implications of these habitat changes and the potential umbrella resulting from a system of owl reserves on the broader avian community, we estimated occupancy of birds inside and outside of Spotted Owl Home Range Core Areas in northeastern California. We used point count data in a multi-species hierarchical Bayesian model incorporating the detection history of 81 species over a two-year time period (2005-2006. A small set of vegetation cover and topography covariates were included in the model to account for broad differences in habitat conditions, as well as a term identifying whether or not a site was within a Core Area. Seventeen species had a negative Core Area effect, seven had a positive effect, and the rest were not significant. Estimated species richness was significantly different with 23.1 species per 100 m radius circle outside Core Areas and 21.7 inside Core Areas. The majority of the species negatively associated with Core Areas are tied to early successional and other disturbance-dependent habitats. Conservation and climate vulnerability rankings were mixed. On average we found higher scores (greater risk for the species positively associated with Core Areas, but a larger number of species with the highest scores were negatively associated with Core Areas. We discuss the implications for managing the Sierra Nevada ecosystem and illustrate the role of monitoring broader suites of species in guiding management of large complex ecosystems.

  3. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lstibůrek, Milan; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Skrøppa, Tore; Hodge, Gary R.; Sønstebø, Jørn H.; Steffenrem, Arne

    2017-01-01

    Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1) existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2) landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate. PMID:29093732

  4. Dynamic Gene-Resource Landscape Management of Norway Spruce: Combining Utilization and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Lstibůrek

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional gene-resource management programs for forest trees are long-term endeavors requiring sustained organizational commitment covering extensive landscapes. While successful in maintaining adaptation, genetic diversity and capturing traditional growth attributes gains, these programs are dependent on rigid methods requiring elaborate mating schemes, thus making them slow in coping with climate change challenges. Here, we review the significance of Norway spruce in the boreal region and its current management practices. Next, we discuss opportunities offered by novel technologies and, with the use of computer simulations, we propose and evaluate a dynamic landscape gene-resource management in Norway. Our suggested long-term management approach capitalizes on: (1 existing afforestation activities, natural crosses, and DNA-based pedigree assembly to create structured pedigree for evaluation, thus traditional laborious control crosses are avoided and (2 landscape level genetic evaluation, rather than localized traditional progeny trials, allowing for screening of adapted individuals across multiple environmental gradients under changing climate. These advantages lead to greater genetic response to selection in adaptive traits without the traditional breeding and testing scheme, facilitating conservation of genetic resources within the breeding population of the most important forest tree species in Norway. The use of in situ selection from proven material exposed to realistic conditions over vast territories has not been conducted in forestry before. Our proposed approach is in contrast to worldwide current programs, where genetic evaluation is constrained by the range of environments where testing is conducted, which may be insufficient to capture the broad environmental variation necessary to tackle adaptation under changing climate.

  5. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  6. Annual Report on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs, Fiscal Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-04-01

    Annual reports on Federal energy management respond to section 548 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619), as amended, and provide information on energy consumption in Federal buildings, operations, and vehicles. Compiled by the Federal Energy Management Program, these reports document activities conducted by Federal agencies under the: Energy management and energy consumption requirements of section 543 of NECPA, as amended (42 U.S.C. § 8253); Energy savings performance contract authority of section 801 of NECPA, Pub. L. No. 95-619, as amended (42 U.S.C. §§ 8287-8287d); Renewable energy purchase goal of section 203 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 15852); Federal building performance standard requirements under Section 109 of EPAct 2005, Pub. L. No. 109-58 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 6834(a)); Requirements on the procurement and identification of energy efficient products under section 161 of EPAct 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-486 (codified at 42 U.S.C. § 8262g); Sections 431, 432, and 434 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), Pub. L. No. 110-140 (42 U.S.C. § 8253) and section 527 of EISA (42 U.S.C. § 17143); Executive Order 13423, Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management, 72 Fed. Reg. 3,919 (Jan. 26, 2007); Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance, 74 Fed. Reg. 52,117 (Oct. 5, 2009).

  7. Use of Sediment Risk and Ecological/Conservation Value for Strategic Management of Estuarine Environments: Sydney Estuary, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin F.; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection.

  8. Use of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value for strategic management of estuarine environments: Sydney estuary, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Gavin F; Hutson, Philip

    2009-10-01

    Sediment mantling the floor of Sydney estuary contains a wide range of chemicals at highly elevated concentrations over extensive areas. Appropriate sediment management decisions are urgently required to prevent further degradation of sediment quality and to minimize resulting adverse ecological effects. The objective of the present work was to provide a systematic, estuary-wide assessment of sediment risk and ecological/conservation value throughout the harbor to guide sediment management decisions. Sediment risk is the likelihood of sediment chemistry causing adverse biological effects to bottom-dwelling animals and was conducted using national sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) for single contaminants and the mean SQG quotient approach to assess chemical mixtures. Sediment risk was negligible at the mouth of the estuary, but increased strongly landwards. The ecological/conservation value assessment was conducted to identify sites that warrant different levels of protection and was conducted using the value of ecological communities and priority waterway use. Consideration of these two parameters combined enabled the estuary to be prioritized for management attention. The prioritization and identification of appropriate management strategies were determined through the use of management matrices also based on sediment risk and ecological/conservation value. A computer package is being developed to provide managers with information on sediment risk, ecological/conservation value, the urgency and the type of management intervention required for any location in Sydney estuary, in real-time. This approach to estuarine management is unique and will greatly improve effective management of Sydney estuary, and other harbors in urgent need of management action and protection.

  9. Bladder exstrophy: current management and postoperative imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, Ketsia [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Borer, Joseph [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States); Phelps, Andrew [University of California, San Francisco, Department of Pediatric Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Chow, Jeanne S. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Urology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Bladder exstrophy is a rare malformation characterized by an infra-umbilical abdominal wall defect, incomplete closure of the bladder with mucosa continuous with the abdominal wall, epispadias, and alterations in the pelvic bones and muscles. It is part of the exstrophy-epispadias complex, with cloacal exstrophy on the severe and epispadias on the mild ends of the spectrum. Bladder exstrophy is the most common of these entities and is more common in boys. The goal of this paper is to describe common methods of repair and to provide an imaging review of the postoperative appearances. (orig.)

  10. Adaptation in practice: how managers of nature conservation areas in eastern england are responding to climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Nicholas A; van Dijk, Nikki

    2014-10-01

    Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries.

  11. Upper urinary tract stone disease in patients with poor performance status: active stone removal or conservative management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Shimpei; Kohjimoto, Yasuo; Hirabayashi, Yasuo; Iguchi, Takashi; Iba, Akinori; Higuchi, Masatoshi; Koike, Hiroyuki; Wakamiya, Takahito; Nishizawa, Satoshi; Hara, Isao

    2017-11-16

    It remains controversial as to whether active stone removal should be performed in patients with poor performance status because of their short life expectancy and perioperative risks. Our objectives were to evaluate treatment outcomes of active stone removal in patients with poor performance status and to compare life prognosis with those managed conservatively. We retrospectively reviewed 74 patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 3 or 4 treated for upper urinary tract calculi at our four hospitals between January 2009 and March 2016. Patients were classified into either surgical treatment group or conservative management group based on the presence of active stone removal. Stone-free rate and perioperative complications in surgical treatment group were reviewed. In addition, we compared overall survival and stone-specific survival between the two groups. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to investigate predictors of overall survival and stone-specific survival. Fifty-two patients (70.3%) underwent active stone removal (surgical treatment group) by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (n = 6), ureteroscopy (n = 39), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (n = 6) or nephrectomy (n = 1). The overall stone-free rate was 78.8% and perioperative complication was observed in nine patients (17.3%). Conservative treatment was undergone by 22 patients (29.7%) (conservative management group). Two-year overall survival rates in surgical treatment and conservative management groups were 88.0% and 38.4%, respectively (p performance status could be performed safely and effectively. Compared to conservative management, surgical stone treatment achieved longer overall survival and stone-specific survival.

  12. Adaptation in Practice: How Managers of Nature Conservation Areas in Eastern England are Responding to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macgregor, Nicholas A.; van Dijk, Nikki

    2014-10-01

    Although good general principles for climate change adaptation in conservation have been developed, it is proving a challenge to translate them into more detailed recommendations for action. To improve our understanding of what adaptation might involve in practice, we investigated how the managers of conservation areas in eastern England are considering climate change. We used a written questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to collect information from managers of a range of different conservation areas. Topics investigated include the impacts of climate change perceived to be of the greatest importance; adaptation goals being set; management actions being carried out to achieve these goals; sources of information used; and perceived barriers to taking action. We identified major themes and issues that were apparent across the sites studied. Specifically, we found ways in which adaptation had been informed by past experience; different strategies relating to whether to accept or resist change; approaches for coping with more variable conditions; ways of taking a large-scale approach and managing sites as networks; some practical examples of aspects of adaptive management; and examples of the role that other sectors can play in both constraining and increasing a conservation area's capacity to adapt. We discuss the relevance of these findings to the growing discussion in conservation about identifying adaptation pathways for different conservation areas and a potential progression from a focus on resilience and incremental change to embracing "transformation." Though adaptation will be place-specific, we believe these findings provide useful lessons for future action in both England and other countries.

  13. Software for storage and management of microclimatic data for preventive conservation of cultural heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Navajas, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-02-27

    Cultural Heritage preventive conservation requires the monitoring of the parameters involved in the process of deterioration of artworks. Thus, both long-term monitoring of the environmental parameters as well as further analysis of the recorded data are necessary. The long-term monitoring at frequencies higher than 1 data point/day generates large volumes of data that are difficult to store, manage and analyze. This paper presents software which uses a free open source database engine that allows managing and interacting with huge amounts of data from environmental monitoring of cultural heritage sites. It is of simple operation and offers multiple capabilities, such as detection of anomalous data, inquiries, graph plotting and mean trajectories. It is also possible to export the data to a spreadsheet for analyses with more advanced statistical methods (principal component analysis, ANOVA, linear regression, etc.). This paper also deals with a practical application developed for the Renaissance frescoes of the Cathedral of Valencia. The results suggest infiltration of rainwater in the vault and weekly relative humidity changes related with the religious service schedules.

  14. Successful nonsurgical management of periapical lesions of endodontic origin: A conservative orthograde approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J V Karunakaran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions of endodontic origin are common pathological conditions affecting periradicular tissues. Microbial infection of pulpal tissues is primarily responsible for initiation and progression of apical periodontitis. The primary objective of endodontic therapy should be to restore involved teeth to a state of normalcy nonsurgically. Different nonsurgical management techniques, namely, conservative root canal therapy, decompression technique, method using calcium hydroxide, aspiration-irrigation technique, lesion sterilization and tissue repair therapy, active nonsurgical decompression technique, and the apexum procedure have been advocated. New techniques which use drug-loaded injectable scaffolds, simvastatin, and epigallocatechin-3-gallate have been tried. Surgical option should be considered when intra- or extra-radicular infections are persistent. Incidence of nonendodontic periapical lesions has also been reported. An accurate diagnosis of the periapical lesion whether it is of endodontic or nonendodontic origin has to be made. Surgical methods have many disadvantages, and hence should be considered as an option only in the case of failure of nonsurgical techniques. Assessment of healing of periapical lesions has to be done periodically which necessitates a long-term follow-up. Even large periapical lesions and retreatment cases where the lesion is of endodontic origin have been successfully managed nonsurgically with orthograde endodontic therapy.

  15. Conservative management of pyothorax in an Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Gabby M; Whiteside, Douglas P; Slater, Owen M; Black, Sandra R

    2012-06-01

    Therapy for pyothorax, or pleural empyema, has not been described for large felids. This case describes the successful treatment of pyothorax in a captive, large felid. A 15-yr-old multiparous, female Amur tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) presented with nonspecific clinical signs caused by an insidious onset of pyothorax. Management of pyothorax cases in companion animals often involves thoracostomy tube placement with recurrent drainage of the pleural cavity, intensive supportive care, and monitoring. In this case, conservative management was elected because hospitalization was not a viable option. Thoracocentesis was performed to drain as much fluid from the chest cavity as possible, yielding more than 1.3 L. Corynebacterium sp. and unidentified anaerobic gram-positive cocci were cultured. Treatment included cefovecin subcutaneously, oral antibiotic therapy with clindamycin and marbofloxacin, meloxicam, and restricted exercise by minimizing access to the main exhibit. Significant improvement was noted clinically and radiographically 6 wk later, and no relapses were noted in the following weeks. An examination 11.5 mo later confirmed resolution.

  16. Conservation and management applications of the REEF volunteer fish monitoring program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattengill-Semmens, Christy V; Semmens, Brice X

    2003-01-01

    The REEF Fish Survey Project is a volunteer fish monitoring program developed by the Reef Environmental Education Foundation (REEF). REEF volunteers collect fish distribution and abundance data using a standardized visual method during regular diving and snorkeling activities. Survey data are recorded on preprinted data sheets that are returned to REEF and optically digitized. Data are housed in a publicly accessible database on REEF's Web site (http://www.reef.org). Since the project's inception in 1993, over 40,000 surveys have been conducted in the coastal waters of North America, tropical western Atlantic, Gulf of California and Hawaii. The Fish Survey Project has been incorporated into existing monitoring programs through partnerships with government agencies, scientists, conservation organizations, and private institutions. REEF's partners benefit from the educational value and increased stewardship resulting from volunteer data collection. Applications of the data include an evaluation of fish/habitat interactions in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary, the development of a multi-species trend analysis method to identify sites of management concern, assessment of the current distribution of species, status reports on fish assemblages of marine parks, and the evaluation of no-take zones in the Florida Keys. REEF's collaboration with a variety of partners, combined with the Fish Survey Project's standardized census method and database management system, has resulted in a successful citizen science monitoring program.

  17. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Nava

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (% of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI. Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV=14.2. However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16kg/m2d and low water transparency (less of 5m generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6% and algae (up to 29% confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI=0.5, reflecting a poorly-planned management

  18. Ectopic Pregnancy after Conservative Management of Placenta Accreta: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kuang Yang

    2004-09-01

    Conclusion: There are few reports of successful pregnancy following conservative treatment for placenta accreta. Conservative treatment may increase the risk of secondary infertility, recurrent placenta accreta, and probably ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Conservation targets in marine protected area management suffer from shifting baseline syndrome: A case study on the Dogger Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumeridge, Annabel A; Roberts, Callum M

    2017-03-15

    The Dogger Bank is a subtidal hill in the North Sea that is a candidate Special Area of Conservation under the EU Habitats Directive in UK waters. Historical records indicate that the Bank has been subject to human exploitation from before the 16th century but conservation objectives have been developed using recent survey data. This has the potential to significantly underestimate the alteration this ecosystem has experienced, making the Dogger Bank an example of shifting baseline syndrome in protected area management. We compile quantitative and qualitative descriptions from historical records of change in catch rates, fishing effort, price and fish size to show that there have been prolonged declines in abundance of fish on the Bank since the early 19th century. Use of present day data to inform conservation has led to unambitious recovery targets. Historical data, we argue, are an essential input to conservation decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DESTINATION MANAGEMENT AND IMAGING KINTAMANI TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Putu Agustini Karta

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kintamani destination has become a forerunner to the development of tourism in Bali. The last few years the brand Kintamani Destinations increasingly unpopular. This study aims to explain the paradigm shift and the role of management Kintamani Destinations in shaping the quality of service, image, satisfaction, and visitor’s loyalty integrated manner affecting the sustainability of tourism. Management acts as a service provider consisting of stakeholders. Research on management aspects (supply side has been implemented in the first phase qualitatively through depth interview. In stage II, conducted quantitative research on aspects of service quality, image, satisfaction and loyalty of visitors to Kintamani using SEM (Structural Equation Modeling. By accidental sampling questionnaire conducted to 250 tourists who visit Kintamani Destinations. Later in the third stage, verify the relationship of service quality, image, satisfaction, and loyalty to the sustainability of tourism in Kintamani through Focus Group Discussion (FGD. The findings of this research is the paradigm and the role of stakeholders in the destination management affects the quality of services provided in Kintamani. Aspects of quality of service, image, satisfaction significantly affect the loyalty of tourists visiting Kintamani. The four aspects are directly determine the sustainability of tourism in Kintamani. The novelty of this research is both, from the aspect of supply and demand, destination management, service quality, imaging, and satisfaction rating affects loyalty, as well as an integrated manner affecting the sustainability of Kintamani tourism Destinations. These research results bring to all stakeholders that the management of destinations and image dominant influence on the sustainability of Kintamani Tourism Destinations. Thus, these aspects will be the focus of stakeholders in maintaining and developing Kintamani Tourism Destinations. Kintamani Destinations

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: dietetics professionals can implement practices to conserve natural resources and protect the environment. (Previously titled "natural resource conservation and waste management").

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association to encourage environmentally responsible practices that conserve natural resources, minimize the quantity of waste that is generated, and have the least adverse affect on the health of all living organisms and the environment. All components of the food system, from farmer to consumer, are affected by the availability and cost of energy and the availability and quality of water. Outdoor and indoor air quality significantly impacts the health of all living organisms. Decisions that dietetics professionals make as practitioners and consumers can affect the quantity and type of solid waste generated. The demand for natural resources should be evaluated when selecting the most cost-effective, environmentally sensitive approach to the management of solid waste. Special precautions are needed when using and disposing of hazardous and medical waste to protect the safety of our clients and employees. This position paper provides information and resources for dietetics professionals for addressing the complexity of the environmental issue presented. Conservation strategies are identified that dietetics professionals can use in their worksites and at home. These conservation practices may reduce cost and decrease the environmental impact we have on our communities and the world.

  2. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M White

    Full Text Available As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown.We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km(2 area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions.Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across environmental gradients and minimizing urbanization may have a

  3. Conservation of avian diversity in the Sierra Nevada: moving beyond a single-species management focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Angela M; Zipkin, Elise F; Manley, Patricia N; Schlesinger, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    As a result of past practices, many of the dry coniferous forests of the western United States contain dense, even-aged stands with uncharacteristically high levels of litter and downed woody debris. These changes to the forest have received considerable attention as they elevate concerns regarding the outcome of wildland fire. However, attempts to reduce biomass through fuel reduction (i.e., thinning of trees) are often opposed by public interest groups whose objectives include maintaining habitat for species of concern such as the spotted owl, Strix occidentalis, the northern goshawk, Accipiter gentilis, and the Pacific fisher, Martes pennanti. Whether protection of these upper-trophic level species confers adequate conservation of avian forest diversity is unknown. We use a multi-species occurrence model to estimate the habitat associations of 47 avian species detected at 742 sampling locations within an 880-km(2) area in the Sierra Nevada. Our approach, which accounts for variations in detectability of species, estimates occurrence probabilities of all species in a community by linking species occurrence models into one hierarchical community model, thus improving inferences on all species, especially those that are rare or observed infrequently. We address how the avian community is influenced by covariates related to canopy cover, tree size and shrub cover while accounting for the impacts of abiotic variables known to affect species distributions. Environmental parameters estimated through our approach emphasize the importance of within and between stand-level heterogeneity in meeting biodiversity objectives and suggests that many avian species would increase under more open canopy habitat conditions than those favored by umbrella species of high conservation concern. Our results suggest that a more integrated approach that emphasizes maintaining a diversity of habitats across environmental gradients and minimizing urbanization may have a greater benefit to

  4. Conservative orthodontic fixed appliance management of pediatric mandibular bilateral condylar fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanhua; Gong, Siew-Ging; Zhu, Fangyong; Li, Ming; Biao, Xu

    2016-07-01

    Management of mandibular condylar fractures is difficult in children with their inherently dynamic and unstable deciduous and mixed dentitions. We present a variation of the conservative fixed orthodontic approach that was used as an adjunct to aid in the reduction of a bilateral condylar fracture in a pediatric patient. A boy, aged 10 years 9 months, came with clinical signs and symptoms of mandibular fracture after being involved in a motor vehicle accident. A computed tomography scan showed a vertical fracture on the left condylar head, a displaced fracture of the right condylar neck, and a mandibular symphysis fracture. The patient was treated with an orthodontic fixed appliance instead of an arch bar splint, followed by elastic traction to achieve a proper occlusion and condylar remodeling. Follow-up appointments were made 2 weeks and 1, 2, 20, 37, and 49 months after treatment. Clinical recovery was observed 2 months after treatment. At the follow-up appointments at 20, 37, and 49 months, jaw function and occlusal relationship remained stable, and no ankylosis was observed. The computed tomography scans showed that the right condyle had remodeled, and the left condyle exhibited a slight curve in the head at 49 months posttreatment. The patient's satisfaction with these treatment results was high. Conservative treatment of a mandibular fracture by fixed orthodontic means is a viable treatment option that is relatively straightforward and cost-effective and has a high level of patient acceptance and comfort. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Linking freshwater fishery management to global food security and biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Peter B; Reidy Liermann, Catherine A; Revenga, Carmen

    2016-10-24

    Fisheries are an essential ecosystem service, but catches from freshwaters are often overlooked. Hundreds of millions of people around the world benefit from low-cost protein, recreation, and commerce provided by freshwater fisheries, particularly in regions where alternative sources of nutrition and employment are scarce. Here, we derive a gridded global map of riverine fisheries and assess its implications for biodiversity conservation, fishery sustainability, and food security. Catches increase with river discharge and human population density, and 90% of global catch comes from river basins with above-average stress levels. Fish richness and catches are positively but not causally correlated, revealing that fishing pressure is most intense in rivers where potential impacts on biodiversity are highest. Merging our catch analysis with nutritional and socioeconomic data, we find that freshwater fisheries provide the equivalent of all dietary animal protein for 158 million people. Poor and undernourished populations are particularly reliant on inland fisheries compared with marine or aquaculture sources. The spatial coincidence of productive freshwater fisheries and low food security highlights the critical role of rivers and lakes in providing locally sourced, low-cost protein. At the same time, intensive fishing in regions where rivers are already degraded by other stressors may undermine efforts to conserve biodiversity. This syndrome of poverty, nutritional deficiency, fishery dependence, and extrinsic threats to biodiverse river ecosystems underscores the high stakes for improving fishery management. Our enhanced spatial data on estimated catches can facilitate the inclusion of inland fisheries in environmental planning to protect both food security and species diversity.

  6. Behavioral responses to disturbance in freshwater mussels with implications for conservation and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, D.L.; Gutreuter, S.; Rach, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge about the ability of freshwater unionid mussels to recover from physical disturbance is important to their conservation and management. Threatened species may be disturbed by relocation to refugia as a conservation measure,and some species are disturbed by size- and species-selective harvesting of shells for use in the production of cultured pearls. The activity of freshwater unionid mussels generally decreases with water temperature, but intra- and interspecific differences in the frequency and distribution of recovery behaviors following disturbances at specific water temperatures have not been previously quantified. We observed righting, moving, and burrowing behavior of 4 mussel species, Amblema plicata plicata, Potamilus alatus, Fusconaia flava, and Lampsilis cardium, at 3 water temperatures (7, 14 and 21 degrees C). The temporal frequency (intensity) and times-to-1st-event of behaviors were analyzed using proportional hazards models. Righting events and consecutive movements occurred at different intensities among temperatures and species. For righting, intensity increased by 8%/degrees C within the range of 7-21 degrees C. Subsequent movements increased in intensity by 10%/degrees C. Amblema plicata was the slowest to respond, and had an intensity of turning upright only 27% of that for P. Alatus. The intensities of movements for A. Plicata and E. Flava were 16% of those for P. Alatus. Lampsilis cardium righted themselves most quickly, and had an intensity of righting 124% of that for I! alatus. The distribution of the 3 behaviors among treatment groups at 1 wk was analyzed with a proportional odds model. The distribution of righting, moving, and burrowing 1 wk after disturbance was described entirely by high-order interactions in our proportional odds model. Therefore, that model revealed little interpretable pattern in the endpoint data and it was less sensitive than our analysis of time-to-event data for measuring the effects of disturbance. We

  7. Imaging and management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkodieh, J.E.; Walden, S.H.; Low, D.

    2013-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) causes chronic, progressive ischaemic nephropathy and is the most common cause of secondary hypertension. Radiology plays a large part in the diagnosis, with a variety of imaging techniques available. Each has relative advantages and disadvantages depending on each unique clinical setting. We discuss and illustrate the range of diagnostic methods and interventional techniques for diagnosis and management of RAS and review the current evidence base for endovascular therapy compared with optimal medical management. Knowledge of the relative merits of the various forms of imaging and treatment will guide decision making in the multidisciplinary setting

  8. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Gil, Alberto; Naves, Javier; Ordiz, Andrés; Quevedo, Mario; Revilla, Eloy; Delibes, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  9. Conflict Misleads Large Carnivore Management and Conservation: Brown Bears and Wolves in Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernández-Gil

    Full Text Available Large carnivores inhabiting human-dominated landscapes often interact with people and their properties, leading to conflict scenarios that can mislead carnivore management and, ultimately, jeopardize conservation. In northwest Spain, brown bears Ursus arctos are strictly protected, whereas sympatric wolves Canis lupus are subject to lethal control. We explored ecological, economic and societal components of conflict scenarios involving large carnivores and damages to human properties. We analyzed the relation between complaints of depredations by bears and wolves on beehives and livestock, respectively, and bear and wolf abundance, livestock heads, number of culled wolves, amount of paid compensations, and media coverage. We also evaluated the efficiency of wolf culling to reduce depredations on livestock. Bear damages to beehives correlated positively to the number of female bears with cubs of the year. Complaints of wolf predation on livestock were unrelated to livestock numbers; instead, they correlated positively to the number of wild ungulates harvested during the previous season, the number of wolf packs, and to wolves culled during the previous season. Compensations for wolf complaints were fivefold higher than for bears, but media coverage of wolf damages was thirtyfold higher. Media coverage of wolf damages was unrelated to the actual costs of wolf damages, but the amount of news correlated positively to wolf culling. However, wolf culling was followed by an increase in compensated damages. Our results show that culling of the wolf population failed in its goal of reducing damages, and suggest that management decisions are at least partly mediated by press coverage. We suggest that our results provide insight to similar scenarios, where several species of large carnivores share the landscape with humans, and management may be reactive to perceived conflicts.

  10. Breeding birds in managed forests on public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twedt, Daniel J.; Wilson, R. Randy

    2017-01-01

    Managers of public conservation lands in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley have implemented forest management strategies to improve bottomland hardwood habitat for target wildlife species. Through implementation of various silvicultural practices, forest managers have sought to attain forest structural conditions (e.g., canopy cover, basal area, etc.) within values postulated to benefit wildlife. We evaluated data from point count surveys of breeding birds on 180 silviculturally treated stands (1049 counts) that ranged from 1 to 20 years post-treatment and 134 control stands (676 counts) that had not been harvested for >20 years. Birds detected during 10-min counts were recorded within four distance classes and three time intervals. Avian diversity was greater on treated stands than on unharvested stands. Of 42 commonly detected species, six species including Prothonotary Warbler (Prothonotaria citrea) and Acadian Flycatcher (Empidonax virescens) were indicative of control stands. Similarly, six species including Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea) and Yellow-breasted Chat (Icteria virens) were indicative of treated stands. Using a removal model to assess probability of detection, we evaluated occupancy of bottomland forests at two spatial scales (stands and points within occupied stands). Wildlife-forestry treatment improved predictive models of species occupancy for 18 species. We found years post treatment (range = 1–20), total basal area, and overstory canopy were important species-specific predictors of occupancy, whereas variability in basal area was not. In addition, we used a removal model to estimate species-specific probability of availability for detection, and a distance model to estimate effective detection radius. We used these two estimated parameters to derive species densities and 95% confidence intervals for treated and unharvested stands. Avian densities differed between treated and control stands for 16 species, but only Common Yellowthroat

  11. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  12. Legal, Institutional, and Economic Indicators of Forest Conservation and Sustainable Management: Review of Information Available for the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul V. Ellefson; Calder M. Hibbard; Michael A. Kilgore; James E. Granskog

    2005-01-01

    This review looks at the Nation’s legal, institutional, and economic capacity to promote forest conservation and sustainable resource management. It focuses on 20 indicators of Criterion Seven of the so-called Montreal Process and involves an extensive search and synthesis of information from a variety of sources. It identifies ways to fill information gaps and improve...

  13. Cover crop management influences residue biomass and subsequent weed suppression in a conservation agriculture corn and cotton rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Use of winter cover crops is an integral component of conservation systems in corn and cotton. However, data concerning cover management and subsequent residue and weed biomass is needed. Field experiments were conducted from autumn of 2003 through cash crop harvest in 2006 at the Alabama Agricultur...

  14. Wildlife Conservation and Management Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Vocational Education Research. Bulletin No. 1853.

    Science.gov (United States)

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an 8-unit course in wildlife conservation and management for 11th and 12th graders. The units are as follows: Making Observations and Records of Wildlife; Habitat Analysis and Evaluation; Collection and Preservation of Biological Materials; Wildlife Population Analysis; Identifying and Controlling…

  15. Effect of conservation management on bees and insect-pollinated grassland plant communities in three European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batáry, P.; Báldi, A.; Sárospataki, M.; Kohler, F.; Verhulst, J.; Knop, E.; Herzog, F.; Kleijn, D.

    2010-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that agricultural intensification drives the decline of biodiversity and related ecosystem services like pollination. Conservation management, such as agri-environment schemes (AES), has been introduced to counteract these declines, but in Western European countries these

  16. An initial evaluation of potential options for managing riparian reserves of the Aquatic Conservation Strategy of the Northwest Forest Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon H. Reeves; Brian R. Pickard; K. Norman. Johnson

    2016-01-01

    The Aquatic Conservation Strategy (ACS) of the Northwest Forest Plan guides management of riparian and aquatic ecosystems on federal lands in western Oregon, western Washington, and northern California. We applied new scientific findings and tools to evaluate two potential options, A and B, for refining interim riparian reserves to meet ACS goals and likely challenges...

  17. Conservation implications of forest changes caused by bark beetle management in the Šumava National Park

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zýval, V.; Křenová, Zdeňka; Kindlmann, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 204, part B (2016), s. 394-402 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Natura 2000 * Forest ecosystem management * Natural disturbances * Bark beetles * National park conservation policy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 4.022, year: 2016

  18. [Managing digital medical imaging projects in healthcare services: lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas de la Escalera, D

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is one of the most important diagnostic instruments in clinical practice. The technological development of digital medical imaging has enabled healthcare services to undertake large scale projects that require the participation and collaboration of many professionals of varied backgrounds and interests as well as substantial investments in infrastructures. Rather than focusing on systems for dealing with digital medical images, this article deals with the management of projects for implementing these systems, reviewing various organizational, technological, and human factors that are critical to ensure the success of these projects and to guarantee the compatibility and integration of digital medical imaging systems with other health information systems. To this end, the author relates several lessons learned from a review of the literature and the author's own experience in the technical coordination of digital medical imaging projects. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. The management of infants and children for painless imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sury, M.R.J.; Harker, H.; Begent, J.; Chong, W.K.

    2005-01-01

    The ability of a child to remain sufficiently immobile for painless imaging depends upon their behaviour and the imaging itself. Anaesthesia allows imaging to be optimised but it is expensive, scarce and inappropriate for many situations. Fortunately, sedation and behavioural techniques are sufficiently successful for the majority of scanning, and success rates are high provided that suitable children are selected. Sedation, however, administered by non-anaesthetists, may have catastrophic complications such as airway obstruction. Current UK recommendations demand that any sedation technique has a 'wide margin of safety', but in addition to this, safety is dependent on trained, skilful and experienced staff. Magnetic resonance imaging frightens many children and special planning is necessary for sedation and anaesthesia. When planning an imaging service for children, all the management techniques should be considered in order to achieve maximum efficiency, quality and safety

  20. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  1. Enterovesical Fistulae: Aetiology, Imaging, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Golabek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Objectives. Enterovesical fistula (EVF is a devastating complication of a variety of inflammatory and neoplastic diseases. Radiological imaging plays a vital role in the diagnosis of EVF and is indispensable to gastroenterologists and surgeons for choosing the correct therapeutic option. This paper provides an overview of the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae. The treatment of fistulae is also briefly discussed. Material and Methods. We performed a literature review by searching the Medline database for articles published from its inception until September 2013 based on clinical relevance. Electronic searches were limited to the keywords: “enterovesical fistula,” “colovesical fistula” (CVF, “pelvic fistula”, and “urinary fistula”. Results. EVF is a rare pathology. Diverticulitis is the commonest aetiology. Over two-thirds of affected patients describe pathognomonic features of pneumaturia, fecaluria, and recurrent urinary tract infections. Computed tomography is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of enterovesical fistulae as not only does it detect a fistula, but it also provides information about the surrounding anatomical structures. Conclusions. In the vast majority of cases, this condition is diagnosed because of unremitting urinary symptoms after gastroenterologist follow-up procedures for a diverticulitis or bowel inflammatory disease. Computed tomography is the most sensitive test for enterovesical fistula.

  2. Diagnostic imaging in the management of craniosynostoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotrikova, Bibiana; Freier, Kolja; Muehling, Joachim [University of Heidelberg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Heidelberg (Germany); Krempien, Robert [University of Heidelberg, Department of Clinical Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-08-15

    Craniosynostoses are the most frequent craniofacial malformations. However, with a prevalence of 3-6 cases per 10,000 live births they are amongst the rarely seen diseases and their definite diagnosis thus poses a challenge to the physician. When an abnormal calvarial configuration is detected, a radiological evaluation is necessary to characterize the deformity and to guide the corrective surgical procedure. The demand for clear diagnostic criteria is justified by the severity of the disease and the possible consequences of delayed diagnosis. In addition to the clinical signs (deformation of the head), conventional skull X-rays show typical radiological alterations and are used for basic diagnostics. Diagnostic tests that may be performed to confirm the diagnosis and assess the extent of the problem, include computed tomography (CT), 3D-CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, and ultrasonography. In the present review we will describe the most important clinical and radiological characteristics of craniosynostosis by means of clinical, radiological and operative situs examples. (orig.)

  3. Development of a technique based on multi-spectral imaging for monitoring the conservation of cultural heritage objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marengo, Emilio; Manfredi, Marcello; Zerbinati, Orfeo; Robotti, Elisa; Mazzucco, Eleonora; Gosetti, Fabio; Bearman, Greg; France, Fenella; Shor, Pnina

    2011-11-14

    A new approach for monitoring the state of conservation of cultural heritage objects surfaces is being developed. The technique utilizes multi-spectral imaging, multivariate analysis and statistical process control theory for the automatic detection of a possible deterioration process, its localization and identification, and the wavelengths most sensitive to detecting this before the human eye can detect the damage or potential degradation changes occur. A series of virtual degradation analyses were performed on images of parchment in order to test the proposed algorithm in controlled conditions. The spectral image of a Dead Sea Scroll (DSS) parchment, IAA (Israel Antiquities Authority) inventory plate # 279, 4Q501 Apocryphal Lamentations B, taken during the 2008 Pilot of the DSS Digitization Project, was chosen for the simulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Near-infrared imaging for management of chronic maxillary sinusitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Joon S.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Kim, James; Ison, Sean; Wong, Brian; Cui, Haotian; Bhandarkar, Naveen

    2015-03-01

    Efficient management of chronic sinusitis remains a great challenge for primary care physicians. Unlike ENT specialists using Computed Tomography scans, they lack an affordable and safe method to accurately screen and monitor sinus diseases in primary care settings. Lack of evidence-based sinusitis management leads to frequent under-treatments and unnecessary over-treatments (i.e. antibiotics). Previously, we reported low-cost optical imaging designs for oral illumination and facial optical imaging setup. It exploits the sensitivity of NIR transmission intensity and their unique patterns to the sinus structures and presence of fluid/mucous-buildup within the sinus cavities. Using the improved NIR system, we have obtained NIR sinus images of 45 subjects with varying degrees of sinusitis symptoms. We made diagnoses of these patients based on two types of evidence: symptoms alone or NIR images along. These diagnostic results were then compared to the gold standard diagnosis using computed tomography through sensitivity and specificity analysis. Our results indicate that diagnosis of mere presence of sinusitis that is, distinguishing between healthy individuals vs. diseased individuals did not improve much when using NIR imaging compared to the diagnosis based on symptoms alone (69% in sensitivity, 75% specificity). However, use of NIR imaging improved the differential diagnosis between mild and severe diseases significantly as the sensitivity improved from 75% for using diagnosis based on symptoms alone up to 95% for using diagnosis based on NIR images. Reported results demonstrate great promise for using NIR imaging system for management of chronic sinusitis patients in primary care settings without resorting to CT.

  5. Applying threshold concepts to conservation management of dryland ecosystems: Case studies on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Matthew A.; Miller, Mark E.; Garman, Steven L.; Belote, Travis; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems may occupy functionally distinct alternative states, some of which are more or less desirable from a management standpoint. Transitions from state to state are usually associated with a particular trigger or sequence of triggers, such as the addition or subtraction of a disturbance. Transitions are often not linear, rather it is common to see an abrupt transition come about even though the trigger increases only incrementally; these are examples of threshold behaviors. An ideal monitoring program, such as the National Park Service’s Inventory and Monitoring Program, would quantify triggers, and be able to inform managers when measurements of a trigger are approaching a threshold so that management action can avoid an unwanted state transition. Unfortunately, both triggers and the threshold points at which state transitions occur are generally only partially known. Using case studies, we advance a general procedure to help identify triggers and estimate where threshold dynamics may occur. Our procedure is as follows: (1) Operationally define the ecosystem type being considered; we suggest that the ecological site concept of the Natural Resource Conservation Service is a useful system, (2) Using all available a priori knowledge to develop a state-and-transition model (STM), which defines possible ecosystem states, plausible transitions among them and likely triggers, (3) Validate the STM by verifying the existence of its states to the greatest degree possible, (4) Use the STM model to identify transitions and triggers likely to be detectable by a monitoring program, and estimate to the greatest degree possible the value of a measurable indicator of a trigger at the point that a state transition is imminent (tipping point), and values that may indicate when management intervention should be considered (assessment points). We illustrate two different methods for attaining these goals using a data-rich case study in Canyonlands National Park, and a data

  6. Stereotypical images between physicians and managers in hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klopper-Kes, A.H.J.; Meerdink, N.; van Harten, Willem H.; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply the image theory to the hospital context in order to add a perspective into the known complex relationship between physicians and hospital managers. This insight can enrich current intervention schemes used in health care to facilitate organisational

  7. 3D painting documentation: evaluation of conservation conditions with 3D imaging and ranging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, D.; Menna, F.; Remondino, F.; Gattari, M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The monitoring of paintings, both on canvas and wooden support, is a crucial issue for the preservation and conservation of this kind of artworks. Many environmental factors (e.g. humidity, temperature, illumination, etc.), as well as bad conservation practices (e.g. wrong restorations, inappropriate locations, etc.), can compromise the material conditions over time and deteriorate an artwork. The article presents an on-going project realized by a multidisciplinary team composed by the ENEA UTICT 3D GraphLab, the 3D Optical Metrology Unit of the Bruno Kessler Foundation and the Soprintendenza per i Beni Storico Artistici ed Etnoantropologici of Bologna (Italy). The goal of the project is the multi-temporal 3D documentation and monitoring of paintings - at the moment in bad conservation's situation - and the provision of some metrics to quantify the deformations and damages.

  8. Quantifying Conservation Biological Control for Management of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervoet, Timothy F; Ellsworth, Peter C; Carrière, Yves; Naranjo, Steven E

    2018-03-13

    Conservation biological control can be an effective tactic for minimizing insect-induced damage to agricultural production. In the Arizona cotton system, a suite of generalist arthropod predators provides critical regulation of Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (MEAM1) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and other pests. Arthropod predator and B. tabaci populations were manipulated with a range of broad-spectrum and selective insecticide exclusions to vary predator to prey interactions in a 2-yr field study. Predator to prey ratios associated with B. tabaci densities near the existing action threshold were estimated for six predator species found to be negatively associated with either adult and/or large nymphs of B. tabaci [Misumenops celer (Hentz) (Araneae: Thomisidae), Drapetis nr divergens (Diptera: Empididae), Geocoris pallens Stäl (Hemiptera: Geocoridae), Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), Chrysoperla carnea s.l. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), and Collops spp. (Coleoptera: Melyridae)] with the first three most consistently associated with declining B. tabaci densities. Ratios ranged from 1 M. celer per 100 sweeps to 1 B. tabaci adult per leaf to 44 D. nr. divergens per 100 sweeps to 1 large nymph per leaf disk. These ratios represent biological control informed thresholds that might serve as simple-to-use decision tool for reducing risk in the current B. tabaci integrated pest management strategy. The identification of key predators within the large, flexible food web of the cotton agro-ecosystem and estimation of predator to B. tabaci ratios clarifies the role of key predators in B. tabaci suppression, yielding potential decision-making advantages that could contribute to further improving economic and environmental sustainability of insect management in the cotton system.

  9. Conservative vs. Surgical Management of Post-Traumatic Epidural Hematoma: A Case and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maugeri, Rosario; Anderson, David Greg; Graziano, Francesca; Meccio, Flavia; Visocchi, Massimiliano; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 30 Final Diagnosis: Acute epidural hematoma Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Observation Specialty: Neurosurgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Trauma is the leading cause of death in people younger than 45 years and head injury is the main cause of trauma mortality. Although epidural hematomas are relatively uncommon (less than 1% of all patients with head injuries and fewer than 10% of those who are comatose), they should always be considered in evaluation of a serious head injury. Patients with epidural hematomas who meet surgical criteria and receive prompt surgical intervention can have an excellent prognosis, presumably owing to limited underlying primary brain damage from the traumatic event. The decision to perform a surgery in a patient with a traumatic extraaxial hematoma is dependent on several factors (neurological status, size of hematoma, age of patients, CT findings) but also may depend on the judgement of the treating neurosurgeon. Case Report: A 30-year old man arrived at our Emergency Department after a traumatic brain injury. General examination revealed severe headache, no motor or sensory disturbances, and no clinical signs of intracranial hypertension. A CT scan documented a significant left fronto-parietal epidural hematoma, which was considered suitable for surgical evacuation. The patient refused surgery. Following CT scan revealed a minimal increase in the size of the hematoma and of midline shift. The neurologic examination maintained stable and the patient continued to refuse the surgical treatment. Next follow up CT scans demonstrated a progressive resorption of hematoma. Conclusions: We report an unusual case of a remarkable epidural hematoma managed conservatively with a favorable clinical outcome. This case report is intended to rather add to the growing knowledge regarding the best management for this serious and acute pathology. PMID:26567227

  10. Conservation of maleo bird (Macrocephalon maleo through egg hatching modification and ex situ management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOHAN RUSIYANTONO

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Rusiyantono Y, Tanari M, Mumu MI (2011 Conservation of maleo bird (Macrocephalon maleo through egg hatching modification and ex situ management. Biodiversitas 12: 171-176. Over exploitation of maleo bird eggs has become the main problem. In addition, habitat demolition and fragmentation have also caused decrease in maleo bird population. This research aimed to know the effectiveness of hatching pattern to produce maleo breeding, studying breeding pattern of maleo bird through hatching approaches of feed quality and temperature adjustment, and studying maleo bird respond towards caring pattern adjustment by measuring plasticity value. There were two phases in this research. The first phase was hatching by using modified incubator. The other one was the caring of the breeding from the result of hatching through feed pattern management using protein and energy balancing. The results of the research indicated that the hatching success was 65%; however, life endurance of the birds from birth to one month of age was only 40%. Their growth showed sufficiently high increase after passing critical period in their body-weght based on feeding pattern containing 21% of protein that was 64.93 g and 62.59 g for maleo in Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP and Bangkiriang Wildlife Reserve (BWR, respectively. Their monthly body-weght increase was 33.06 g in average of feeding pattern containing 13% of protein for LLNP maleo birds and 36.99 g for the maleo in BWR. It was found that feeding pattern containing higher content of protein (21% promoted significant increase in the body-weight of maleo birds. Feeding such birds with high protein content feed along with sufficient energy triggered their growth speed. Based on the findings, it was concluded that maleo birds could be preserved by way of hatching, while the birds could be fed with feed containing high protein and energy in order to accelerate their growth after hatching.

  11. Perioperative interstitial irradiation in the conservative management of early breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnan, L.; Jewell, W.R.; Mansfield, C.M.; Reddy, E.K.; Thomas, J.H.; Krishnan, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Conservation of the breast in early breast cancer with limited resection and radiation is proving to be as effective as modified radical mastectomy in survival and in loco-regional control. Management at the University of Kansas Medical Center consists of an interstitial implant at the time of lumpectomy to facilitate perioperative irradiation with Iridium-192 to the tumor bed. An axillary node dissection is also performed at that time. Two to 3 weeks later external beam irradiation is delivered to the entire breast. One hundred and twenty-three breasts in 120 patients have been treated between June 1982 and June 1986. There were 49 pathological Stage I, 63 Stage II, 8 Stage III carcinomas, and 3 carcinomas in situ, consisting of 72 T1, 43 T2, 5 T3, and 3 TIS lesions. Patients have been followed for a median of 30 months. One patient had a ''true'' recurrence in the breast. Another patient developed recurrence in a different quadrant. Ninety percent of the patients had good to excellent cosmetic results, 7% were considered fair, and 3% had poor results. Seven patients developed mild arm edema, 4 were found to have moderate edema, and 1 had severe arm edema. Our preliminary results indicate that interstitial irradiation immediately after excision results in excellent local control, with very satisfactory cosmesis and no morbidity due to the simultaneous excision and irradiation

  12. A systematic compilation of endemic flora in Nigeria for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I. Borokini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Endemic species with limited geographical ranges are more susceptible to extinction than widely ranging species, and effective conservation management of endemic species requires detailed knowledge of their status and distribution.  This study was conducted to assemble a comprehensive list of flora endemic to Nigeria. While earlier reports listed as many as 205 endemic plant species, only 91 species belonging to 44 families were found in this study, with Rubiaceae accounting for the highest number of species.  The list contains 23 trees, 26 herbs, 22 shrubs, 14 epiphytic orchids and bryophytes, three vines and three ferns.  The Oban Division of the Cross River National Park houses 41 endemic plants, while other notable locations for endemic flora include Eket, Naraguta, Degema, Idanre hills, Ukpon River Forest Reserve, Calabar and Anara Forest Reserve.  Only 15 of the endemic plants are listed in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species version 2013.2, ranging from Vulnerable to Critically Endangered.

  13. Co-benefits of sustainable forest management in biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Imai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sustainable forest management (SFM, which has been recently introduced to tropical natural production forests, is beneficial in maintaining timber resources, but information about the co-benefits for biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration is currently lacking. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We estimated the diversity of medium to large-bodied forest-dwelling vertebrates using a heat-sensor camera trapping system and the amount of above-ground, fine-roots, and soil organic carbon by a combination of ground surveys and aerial-imagery interpretations. This research was undertaken both in SFM applied as well as conventionally logged production forests in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Our carbon estimation revealed that the application of SFM resulted in a net gain of 54 Mg C ha(-1 on a landscape scale. Overall vertebrate diversity was greater in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. Specifically, several vertebrate species (6 out of recorded 36 species showed higher frequency in the SFM applied forest than in the conventionally logged forest. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The application of SFM to degraded natural production forests could result in greater diversity and abundance of vertebrate species as well as increasing carbon storage in the tropical rain forest ecosystems.

  14. Contextual influences on animal decision-making: Significance for behavior-based wildlife conservation and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Megan A; Swaisgood, Ronald R; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Survival and successful reproduction require animals to make critical decisions amidst a naturally dynamic environmental and social background (i.e. "context"). However, human activities have pervasively, and rapidly, extended contextual variation into evolutionarily novel territory, potentially rendering evolved animal decision-making mechanisms and strategies maladaptive. We suggest that explicitly focusing on animal decision-making (ADM), by integrating and applying findings from studies of sensory ecology, cognitive psychology, behavioral economics and eco-evolutionary strategies, may enhance our understanding of, and our ability to predict how, human-driven changes in the environment and population demography will influence animal populations. Fundamentally, the decisions animals make involve evolved mechanisms, and behaviors emerge from the combined action of sensory integration, cognitive mechanisms and strategic rules of thumb, and any of these processes may have a disproportionate influence on behavior. Although there is extensive literature exploring ADM, it generally reflects a canalized, discipline-specific approach that lacks a unified conceptual framework. As a result, there has been limited application of ADM theory and research findings into predictive models that can enhance management outcomes, even though it is likely that the relative resilience of species to rapid environmental change is fundamentally a result of how ADM is linked to contextual variation. Here, we focus on how context influences ADM, and highlight ideas and results that may be most applicable to conservation biology. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. Modeling future conservation of Hawaiian Honeycreepers by mosquito management and translocation of disease-tolerant Amakihi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbelen, Peter H. F.; Samuel, Michael D.; Lapointe, Dennis; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2012-01-01

    Avian malaria is an important cause of the decline of endemic Hawaiian honeycreepers. Because of the complexity of this disease system we used a computer model of avian malaria in forest birds to evaluate how two proposed conservation strategies: 1) reduction of habitat for mosquito larvae and 2) establishment of a low-elevation, malaria-tolerant honeycreeper (Hawaii Amakihi) to mid-elevation forests would affect native Hawaiian honeycreeper populations. We evaluated these approaches in mid-elevation forests, where malaria transmission is seasonal and control strategies are more likely to work. Our model suggests the potential benefit of larval habitat reduction depends on the level of malaria transmission, abundance of larval cavities, and the ability to substantially reduce these cavities. Permanent reduction in larval habitat of >80% may be needed to control abundance of infectious mosquitoes and benefit bird populations. Establishment of malaria-tolerant Amakihi in mid-elevation forests increases Amakihi abundance, creates a larger disease reservoir, and increases the abundance of infectious mosquitoes which may negatively impact other honeycreepers. For mid-elevation sites where bird populations are severely affected by avian malaria, malaria-tolerant Amakihi had little impact on other honeycreepers. Both management strategies may benefit native Hawaiian honeycreepers, but benefits depend on specific forest characteristics, the amount of reduction in larval habitat that can be achieved, and how malaria transmission is affected by temperature.

  16. Annelid symbiont assemblage and European stone crayfish − a deterministic relationship with implications for conservation management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berger Christian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The protected European stone crayfish, Austropotamobius torrentium, is a host to epibionts inhabiting its exoskeleton. Despite evidence of the close association of these epibionts to the crayfish and the beneficial services provided for the crayfish, the main factors influencing their occurrence, distribution and abundance are still poorly understood. In order to investigate the stone crayfish epibiont community, the ecological requirements of individual species, and aspects of the host-epibiont relationship we collected data at several crayfish populations in Austria, Switzerland and Germany. At each location, we recorded the epibiont position on the crayfish host along with a number of biotic and abiotic parameters. Apart from recording the Branchiobdella species B. parasita, B. hexadonta, B. pentadonta and B. balcanica, we detected for the first time the polychaete Hystricosoma chappuisi in the European Alps. Species-specific biogeographical and habitat factors such as river catchment borders, crayfish length, water temperature and nutrients concentration were identified to be important for the occurrence and abundance of epibionts. Branchiobdella species were strongly linked to certain host body areas, providing evidence for the existence of different functional traits within the annelid assemblage. With this study we demonstrate that the crayfish–epibionts relationship includes structural and functional complexities that can be important for defining management units in future conservation policies. Due to benefits for the mutualistic relationship, restocking and reintroduction actions are likely to be more successful, if ecological requirements of both the host and the epibiont species are considered.

  17. Acute Intestinal Obstruction Complicating Abdominal Pregnancy: Conservative Management and Successful Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udigwe, Gerald Okanandu; Eleje, George Uchenna; Ihekwoaba, Eric Chukwudi; Udegbunam, Onyebuchi Izuchukwu; Egeonu, Richard Obinwanne; Okwuosa, Ayodele Obianuju

    2016-01-01

    Background. Acute intestinal obstruction during pregnancy is a very challenging and unusual nonobstetric surgical entity often linked with considerable fetomaternal morbidity and mortality. When it is synchronous with abdominal pregnancy, it is even rarer. Case Presentation. A 28-year-old lady in her second pregnancy was referred to Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, Nigeria, at 27 weeks of gestation due to vomiting, constipation, and abdominal pain. Examination and ultrasound scan revealed a single live intra-abdominal extrauterine fetus. Plain abdominal X-ray was diagnostic of intestinal obstruction. Conservative treatment was successful till the 34-week gestational age when she had exploratory laparotomy. At surgery, the amniotic sac was intact and the placenta was found to be adherent to the gut. There was also a live female baby with birth weight of 2.3 kg and Apgar scores of 9 and 10 in the 1st and 5th minutes, respectively, with the baby having right clubbed foot. Adhesiolysis and right adnexectomy were done. The mother and her baby were well and were discharged home nine days postoperatively. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of abdominal pregnancy as the cause of acute intestinal obstruction in the published literature. Management approach is multidisciplinary.

  18. Science framework for conservation and restoration of the sagebrush biome: Linking the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy to long-term strategic conservation actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.C. Chambers; J.L. Beck; J.B. Bradford; J. Bybee; S. Campbell; J. Carlson; T.J. Christiansen; K.J. Clause; G. Collins; M.R. Crist; J.B. Dinkins; K.E. Doherty; F. Edwards; S. Espinosa; K.A. Griffin; P. Griffin; J.R. Haas; S.E. Hanser; D.W. Havlina; K.F. Henke; J.D. Hennig; L.A. Joyce; F.M. Kilkenny; S.M. Kulpa; L.L. Kurth; J.D. Maestas; M. Manning; K.E. Mayer; B.A. Mealor; C. McCarthy; M. Pellant; M.A. Perea; K.L. Prentice; D.A. Pyke; L.A. Wiechman; A. Wuenschel

    2017-01-01

    The Science Framework is intended to link the Department of the Interior’s Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy with long-term strategic conservation actions in the sagebrush biome. The Science Framework provides a multiscale approach for prioritizing areas for management and determining effective management strategies within the sagebrush biome. The emphasis...

  19. Change We can Believe in? Reviewing Studies on the Conservation Impact of Popular Participation in Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lund Jens

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of methods in 60 empirical studies on forest conservation impact of popular participation in forest management. The review illustrates a high degree of variance in methods among the studies, and shows that a majority of the studies could benefit from a stronger focus on one or more of the following three areas: (i the empirical verification and characterisation of popular participation as it exists on the ground, (ii the indicators of impact and the method used to assess them, and (iii the disentanglement of the effect of popular participation from other developments in the study area that may impact on forest condition. The variation in methods inhibits comparisons and meta-analyses, as well as questions the basis on which policy recommendations on popular participation in forest management are made. Based on the review, we provide recommendations for future evaluations of the conservation impact of popular participation in forest management.

  20. Integrating Science & Management: Florida Scrub-Jay Conservation along the Central Florida's Atlantic Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breininger, David R.

    2018-01-01

    Florida scrub-jays are a species listed under the Endangered Species Act. The NASA Ecology program has been a partner for conservation, recovery, and translocation across the species range. The objectives of this talk are to update members of the Archie Carr Working Group recovery, conservation, and translocation activities and describe how the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge and nearby conservation lands relate to species recovery actions.

  1. A conservation status index, as an auxiliary tool for the management of cave environments

    OpenAIRE

    Christiane Ramos Donato; Adauto de Souza Ribeiro; Leandro de Sousa Souto

    2014-01-01

    The conservation of the Speleological Heritage involves bioecological, geomorphological and anthropogenic studies, both from inside the caves and from the external environments that surround them. This study presents a method to rank caves according to their priority for conservation and restoration. Nine caves were evaluated: indicators related to the environmental impacts and the vulnerability status presented by those caves (intrinsic features) and the values scored in a ‘Cave Conservation...

  2. [Management of unstable angina: advanced age is still an independent predictive factor of more conservative management after prognostic stratification with stress test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, R; García, E; Cantalapiedra, J L; Ortega, A; López de Sá, E; López-Sendón, J L; Delcán, J L

    2000-07-01

    In the management of ischemic heart disease, elderly patients constitute a subgroup that, despite having a worse prognosis, are usually managed more conservatively. The objective of this study was to evaluate if, in the management of unstable angina, a more conservative attitude in elderly patients is maintained after stratification by exercise test. The study population is constitude by 859 patients admitted to hospital due to suspected unstable angina that were referred to exercise test after medical stabilization. The management (invasive versus conservative, according to submission to cardiac catheterization or not) of patients was retrospectively studied, comparing patients 70 years-of age. Out of the 859 patients, 156 (18%) were > 70 years old, and the exercise test was positive in 281 (33%). Cardiac catheterization was performed in 494 (57%): 62% in older and 38% in younger patients (p management were: a negative exercise test, > 85% of the maximum heart rate, duration of exercise test more than 6 minutes, female gender, smoking and absence of episodes of rest angina. In the multivariate analysis, the statistically significant characteristics associated with an invasive management were the result of the exercise test (OR for positive result: 4.50; IC 95% = 2.73-7.63; p or = 6 minutes: 0.51; IC 95% = 0.29-0.88; p = 0.0177), the percentage of the maximum heart rate (OR for > or = 85%: 0.65; IC 95% = 0.42-0.98; p = 0.0391) and age (OR for > 70 years 0.36; IC 95% = 0.20-0.62; p = 0.0004). In the management of unstable angina, elderly patients constitute a more conservatively managed subgroup even after risk stratification with exercise test.

  3. Conservative management of penile trauma may be complicated by abscess formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Bantis

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Blunt penile trauma during sexual activity, although highly underreported due to the associated patient embarrassment, constitutes a real urological emergency requiring immediate attention and possibly early surgical intervention. We report a case of a 58-year old man who presented with penile pain following excessive masturbation. Although there were no clinical signs of penile deformity or hematoma, magnetic resonance imaging revealed the presence of a rupture in the tunica albuginea. The patient opted for non-surgical management and his recovery period was complicated by the formation of an abscess at the site of the albugineal tear thus prolonging his hospital stay. The abscess was surgically drained and the patient reports to have normal erections at 3-month follow up.

  4. Management of a Two-rooted Maxillary Central Incisor Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography: Importance of Three-dimensional Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurabh Kumar Gupta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of a two-rooted maxillary central incisor, stressing the importance of three-dimensional imaging in treatment planning and conservative approach of management. Endodontic treatment of this central incisor was carried out with a successful outcome.

  5. The role of agri-environment schemes in conservation and environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batáry, Péter; Dicks, Lynn V; Kleijn, David; Sutherland, William J

    2015-01-01

    Over half of the European landscape is u