WorldWideScience

Sample records for conservation production systems

  1. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  3. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  4. Effect of resource conserving techniques on crop productivity in rice-wheat cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, R.A.; Munir, M.; Haqqani, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Rice-wheat cropping system is the most important one in Pakistan. The system provides food and livelihood for more than 15 million people in the country. The productivity of the system is much lower than the potential yields of both rice and wheat crops. With the traditional methods, rice-wheat system is not a profitable one to many farmers. Hence, Cost of cultivation must be reduced and at the same time, efficiency of resources like irrigation water, fuel, and fertilizers must be improved to make the crop production system more viable and eco- friendly. Resource conserving technology (RCT) must figure highly in this equation, since they play a major role in achieving the above goals. The RCT include laser land leveling, zero-tillage, bed furrow irrigation method and crop residue management. These technologies were evaluated in irrigated areas of Punjab where rice follows wheat. The results showed that paddy yield was not affected by the new methods. Direct seeding of rice crop saved irrigation water by 13% over the conventionally planted crop. Weeds were the major problem indirect seeded crop, which could be eliminated through cultural, mechanical and chemical means. Wheat crop on beds produced the highest yield but cost of production was minimum in the zero-till wheat crop. Planting of wheat on raised beds in making headway in low- lying and poorly drained areas. Thus, resource conserving tillage technology provides a tool for making progress towards improving and sustaining wheat production system, helping with food security and poverty alleviation in Pakistan in the next few decades. (author)

  5. Effects of 24 Years of Conservation Tillage Systems on Soil Organic Carbon and Soil Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth R. Olson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 24-year study was conducted in southern Illinois (USA on land similar to that being removed from Conservation Reserve Program (CRP to evaluate the effects of conservation tillage systems on: (1 amount and rates of soil organic carbon (SOC storage and retention, (2 the long-term corn and soybean yields, and (3 maintenance and restoration of soil productivity of previously eroded soils. The no-till (NT plots did store and retain 7.8 Mg C ha−1 more and chisel plow (CP −1.6 Mg C ha−1 less SOC in the soil than moldboard plow (MP during the 24 years. However, no SOC sequestration occurred in the sloping and eroding NT, CP, and MP plots since the SOC level of the plot area was greater at the start of the experiment than at the end. The NT plots actually lost a total of −1.2 Mg C ha−1, the CP lost −9.9 Mg C ha−1, and the MP lost −8.2 Mg C ha−1 during the 24-year study. The long-term productivity of NT compared favorably with that of MP and CP systems.

  6. Residue management practices and planter attachments for corn production in a conservation agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Nejadi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Seed placement and failure to establish a uniform plant stand are critical problems associated with production of corn (Zea mays following wheat (Triticum aestivum in a conservation agriculture system in Iran. Our objectives were to evaluate the performance of a corn row- crop planter equipped with two planter attachments (smooth/toothed coulters at six wheat residue management systems (three tillage systems and two levels of surface residue at two forward speeds of 5 and 7 km h-1. Residue retained after planting, seeding depth, emergence rate index (ERI and seed spacing indices were determined. The baled residue plots tilled by chisel plow followed by disc harrow (BRCD resulted in minimum residue after planting as compared to other residue treatments. Furthermore, the maximum values of the ERI and uniformity of plant spacing pertained to this treatment. Other results showed that the ERI increased up to 18% for the toothed coulter as compared to the smooth coulter. The toothed coulter also established a deeper seed placement as compared to the smooth coulter. Planting at forward speed of 5 km h-1 resulted in deeper seeding depth as compared to a forward speed of 7 km h-1. However, lower values of miss and precision indices were obtained at forward speed of 7 km h-1, indicating a more uniformity of plant spacing. Results of this study showed that equipping the conventional planter with toothed coulter and planting in soil prepared under the BRCD residue management system can result in a satisfactory conservation crop production system.

  7. Overall requirements for an advanced underground coal extraction system. [environment effects, miner health and safety, production cost, and coal conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, M.; Lavin, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    Underground mining systems suitable for coal seams expoitable in the year 2000 are examined with particular relevance to the resources of Central Appalachia. Requirements for such systems may be summarized as follows: (1) production cost; (2)miner safety; (3) miner health; (4) environmental impact; and (5) coal conservation. No significant trade offs between production cost and other performance indices were found.

  8. Water conservation and improved production efficiency using closed-loop evaporative cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetta, C. [Niagara Blower Co., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This paper described wet surface air coolers (WSAC) that can be used in refineries and hydrocarbon processing plants to address water use issues. These closed-loop evaporative cooling systems are a cost-effective technology for both heat transfer and water conservation. WSACs can help deliver required cooling water temperatures and improve plant performance while using water streams currently considered to be unusable with conventional towers and heat exchangers. WSACs are versatile and can provide solutions to water use, water quality, and outlet temperature. The benefits of the WSAC include capital cost savings, reduced system pressures, lower carbon footprint, and the ability to use poor quality water as makeup. Water makeup can be blowdown from other equipment, plant effluent, reclaimed water, produced water, flue gas desulphurization (FGD) wastewater, and even seawater. Units can be manufactured with a wide variety of materials depending on water quality, water treatment, and cycles of concentration. This paper also provided comparisons to other alternative technologies, capital and operating cost savings, and site specific case studies. Two other system designs can accommodate closed-loop heat transfer applications, notably an open tower with a heat exchanger and a dry, air-cooled system. A WSAC system is an efficient and effective heat rejection technology for several reasons. The WSAC cooler or condenser utilizes latent cooling, which is far more efficient than sensible cooling. This means that a WSAC system can cool the same heat load with a smaller footprint than all-dry systems. 6 figs.

  9. Assessment of Benefits of Conservation Agriculture on Soil Functions in Arable Production Systems in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhim Bahadur Ghaley

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional farming (CONV is the norm in European farming, causing adverse effects on some of the five major soil functions, viz. primary productivity, carbon sequestration and regulation, nutrient cycling and provision, water regulation and purification, and habitat for functional and intrinsic biodiversity. Conservation agriculture (CA is an alternative to enhance soil functions. However, there is no analysis of CA benefits on the five soil functions as most studies addressed individual soil functions. The objective was to compare effects of CA and CONV practices on the five soil functions in four major environmental zones (Atlantic North, Pannonian, Continental and Mediterranean North in Europe by applying expert scoring based on synthesis of existing literature. In each environmental zone, a team of experts scored the five soil functions due to CA and CONV treatments and median scores indicated the overall effects on five soil functions. Across the environmental zones, CONV had overall negative effects on soil functions with a median score of 0.50 whereas CA had overall positive effects with median score ranging from 0.80 to 0.83. The study proposes the need for field-based investigations, policies and subsidy support to benefit from CA adoption to enhance the five soil functions.

  10. Soil Biochemical Changes Induced by Poultry Litter Application and Conservation Tillage under Cotton Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshadri Sajjala

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Problems arising from conventional tillage (CT systems (such as soil erosion, decrease of organic matter, environmental damage etc. have led many farmers to the adoption of no-till (NT systems that are more effective in improving soil physical, chemical and microbial properties. Results from this study clearly indicated that NT, mulch tillage (MT, and winter rye cover cropping systems increased the activity of phosphatase, β-glucosidase and arylsulfatase at a 0–10 cm soil depth but decreased the activity of these enzymes at 10–20 cm. The increase in enzyme activity was a good indicator of intensive soil microbial activity in different soil management practices. Poultry litter (PL application under NT, MT, and rye cropping system could be considered as effective management practices due to the improvement in carbon (C content and the biochemical quality at the soil surface. The activities of the studied enzymes were highly correlated with soil total nitrogen (STN soil organic carbon (SOC at the 0–10 cm soil depth, except for acid phosphatase where no correlation was observed. This study revealed that agricultural practices such as tillage, PL, and cover crop cropping system have a noticeable positive effect on soil biochemical activities under cotton production.

  11. Comparison of effects of machine performance parameters and energy indices of soybean production in conservation and conventional tillage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sharifi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nowadays, agricultural systems are seeking economic, ecological and bioenvironmental goals for production of agricultural crops with protection and sustainability of the environment. Therefore, there is need to extend sustainable agricultural systems such as conservation agriculture. One of the principles of conservation agriculture is conservation tillage. Conservation tillage is a kind of tillage that retains crop residues on the soil surface or mixes it with soil using related machines. It could also affect on machine performance parameters. Energy consumption for producing one kilogram crop could be studied for conservation tillage. Several researchers have conducted studies on this issue for production of different crops including wheat, sunflower and forage crops. This study conducted to assess machine performance parameters and energy indices of conservation tillage systems for soybean cultivation in Golestan province. Materials and Methods This study was conducted to investigate the effects of conservation tillage systems on machine performance and energy indices in soybean production at the Gorgan research station of Golestan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center in 2012. The precipitation was 450 mm. Soil texture was silty clay loam. Treatments were four tillage methods, including no-till using row crop direct planter, no-till using grain direct drill, conventional tillage usin a disk harrow with working depth of 10-15 cm and minimum tillage using chisel packer with a working depth of 20 cm. Machine performance parameters and energy indices studied in a farm covered by wheat residues in a randomized complete block design (RCBD with four treatments and four replications. Machine performance parameters consisted of field efficiency, field capacity, total field capacity and planting uniformity index were measured. Energy indices such as energy ratio, energy productivity, energy intensity and net energy gain were

  12. Long-term effects of conservation systems on productivity for the old rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter legumes in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) production is not new to the Southeast. In 1896, the Old Rotation experiment at Auburn University was established to study the feasibility of producing cotton in crop rotations with winter legumes managed as a green manure crop. Throughout the experim...

  13. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  14. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  15. The Conserved Actinobacterial Two-Component System MtrAB Coordinates Chloramphenicol Production with Sporulation in Streptomyces venezuelae NRRL B-65442

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle F. Som

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces bacteria make numerous secondary metabolites, including half of all known antibiotics. Production of antibiotics is usually coordinated with the onset of sporulation but the cross regulation of these processes is not fully understood. This is important because most Streptomyces antibiotics are produced at low levels or not at all under laboratory conditions and this makes large scale production of these compounds very challenging. Here, we characterize the highly conserved actinobacterial two-component system MtrAB in the model organism Streptomyces venezuelae and provide evidence that it coordinates production of the antibiotic chloramphenicol with sporulation. MtrAB are known to coordinate DNA replication and cell division in Mycobacterium tuberculosis where TB-MtrA is essential for viability but MtrB is dispensable. We deleted mtrB in S. venezuelae and this resulted in a global shift in the metabolome, including constitutive, higher-level production of chloramphenicol. We found that chloramphenicol is detectable in the wild-type strain, but only at very low levels and only after it has sporulated. ChIP-seq showed that MtrA binds upstream of DNA replication and cell division genes and genes required for chloramphenicol production. dnaA, dnaN, oriC, and wblE (whiB1 are DNA binding targets for MtrA in both M. tuberculosis and S. venezuelae. Intriguingly, over-expression of TB-MtrA and gain of function TB- and Sv-MtrA proteins in S. venezuelae also switched on higher-level production of chloramphenicol. Given the conservation of MtrAB, these constructs might be useful tools for manipulating antibiotic production in other filamentous actinomycetes.

  16. Towards Conservation Agriculture systems in Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Boincean

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As the world population and food production demands rise, keeping agricultural soils and landscapes healthy and productive are of paramount importance to sustaining local and global food security and the flow of ecosystem services to society. The global population, expected to reach 9.7 billion people by 2050, will put additional pressure on the available land area and resources for agricultural production. Sustainable production intensification for food security is a major challenge to both industrialized and developing countries. The paper focuses on the results from long-term multi-factorial experiments involving tillage practices, crop rotations and fertilization to study the interactions amongst the treatments in the context of sustainable production intensification. The paper discusses the results in relation to reported performance of crops and soil quality in Conservation Agriculture systems that are based on no or minimum soil disturbance (no-till seeding and weeding, maintenance of soil mulch cover with crop biomass and cover crops, and diversified cropping s involving annuals and perennials. Conservation Agriculture also emphasizes the necessity of an agro-ecosystems approach to the management of agricultural land for sustainable production intensification, as well as to the site-specificity of agricultural production. Arguments in favor of avoiding the use of soil tillage are discussed together with agro-ecological principles for sustainable intensification of agriculture. More interdisciplinary systems research is required to support the transformation of agriculture from the conventional tillage agriculture to a more sustainable agriculture based on the principles and practices of Conservation Agriculture, along with other complementary practices of integrated crop, nutrient, water, pest, energy and farm power management.

  17. Economics of conservation systems research in the Southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of conservation systems in crop production is not a new concept in the southeastern United States. In 1978, researchers from across the Southeast met in Griffin, Georgia for the first annual Southern Conservation Agricultural Systems Conference. Four of the ten presentations specifically men...

  18. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and marine capture fisheries production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Pathways for moving towards the goals of biodiversity conservation and food security in terrestrial systems include the application of trait-based ecology to develop highly productive agroecosystems with less negative effects on biodiversity. Although marine ecosystems have been impacted by human...... activity over several centuries, the changes have been unintentional and undirected; we have not learned how to enhance food production from the sea and are reliant, as hunter-gatherers, on natural production. The goals of maximising fisheries production and maintaining biodiversity may be difficult...

  19. Isospin conservation in many-particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    Exact isospin conservation is incorporated into independent pion emission models at high energies. A multipion wave function is constructed which is an eigen state of the isospin operators I 2 and I 3 , with the only restriction being that the wave function is completely symmetric in all momentum variables. In this way isospin conservation can account for the observed broadening of the changed particle distribution, but not the positive changed-neutral correlation for pp and π + p inelastic scattering. The author shows that these difficulties can be overcome by the introduction of clusters. Using the generating function technique a general formalism is given for the production of isospin-zero and isospin-one clusters. In the simplest case of the uncorrelated production of clusters and their subsequent isotropic decay, the topological cross-sections for proton-proton scattering could be fitted fairly well resulting also in a possitive changed-neutral correlation. The number of clusters is approximately constant in an energy range between 110 and 400 GeV

  20. Electrorheology for energy production and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke

    Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national

  1. Productivity limits and potentials of the principles of conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Liang, Xinqiang; Linquist, Bruce A; van Groenigen, Kees Jan; Lee, Juhwan; Lundy, Mark E; van Gestel, Natasja; Six, Johan; Venterea, Rodney T; van Kessel, Chris

    2015-01-15

    One of the primary challenges of our time is to feed a growing and more demanding world population with reduced external inputs and minimal environmental impacts, all under more variable and extreme climate conditions in the future. Conservation agriculture represents a set of three crop management principles that has received strong international support to help address this challenge, with recent conservation agriculture efforts focusing on smallholder farming systems in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. However, conservation agriculture is highly debated, with respect to both its effects on crop yields and its applicability in different farming contexts. Here we conduct a global meta-analysis using 5,463 paired yield observations from 610 studies to compare no-till, the original and central concept of conservation agriculture, with conventional tillage practices across 48 crops and 63 countries. Overall, our results show that no-till reduces yields, yet this response is variable and under certain conditions no-till can produce equivalent or greater yields than conventional tillage. Importantly, when no-till is combined with the other two conservation agriculture principles of residue retention and crop rotation, its negative impacts are minimized. Moreover, no-till in combination with the other two principles significantly increases rainfed crop productivity in dry climates, suggesting that it may become an important climate-change adaptation strategy for ever-drier regions of the world. However, any expansion of conservation agriculture should be done with caution in these areas, as implementation of the other two principles is often challenging in resource-poor and vulnerable smallholder farming systems, thereby increasing the likelihood of yield losses rather than gains. Although farming systems are multifunctional, and environmental and socio-economic factors need to be considered, our analysis indicates that the potential contribution of no-till to the

  2. Economics, Ethics, Ecology: Roots of Productive Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeske, Walter E., Ed.

    Forty-seven articles represent most of the papers presented at the annual meeting of the Soil Conservation Society of America. The conference addressed the facts and values from economics, ethics, and ecology as they pertain to critical issues in land and water conservation in North America. Part I includes discussions of economic realities,…

  3. Conservative systems with ports on contact manifolds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    In this paper we propose an extension of port Hamiltonian systems, called conservative systems with ports, which encompass systems arising from the Irreversible Thermodynamics. Firstly we lift a port Hamiltonian system from its state space manifold to the thermodynamic phase space to a contact

  4. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  5. Conservation system during prolonged stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Although Sta. M. de Garona is currently in cease of operations, a preservation plan has been stablished in order to ensure that every system and component required at full power operation is maintained in adequate conditions, in case NUCLENOR decides a plant restart in near future. Based in different international references (EPRI, EDF, USA plants, combined cycles...), systems and equipment have been layup in the proper way and additional tests and inspections have been carried out to confirm their adequate condition. Plant configuration control has always been preserved and no impact in cease safety functions has taken place. Through this preservation plan, every SSC is maintained in the proper conditions to resume safe and reliable operation of the Plant. (Author)

  6. Conservation of systems during prolonged stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Movellan, J.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the project is to define the configuration, maintenance, and testing/operation of the different systems required in operation to power, in a way that is ensure adequate conservation allowing you to return to the safe operation of the Central with the reliability of such systems. (Author)

  7. Conceptualization about conservation, production and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angel, Augusto

    1994-01-01

    The article tries the conceptualization, production and development, of the environmental sciences or environmentalism and ecology; they are made a series of reflections that it haven't just been defined still these sciences with clarity like a epistemological field in front of the other sciences, or in combination or in integration with them that doesn't have, unfortunately, for the way like it has been come developing the science western, many possibilities of theoretical approach, in fact for the sciences compartment. The author comments that this compartment was obligatory inside the development process begun by Europe and that it ends fundamentally in the capitalist development. That the positivism and the empiricism like expression forms have been indispensable to dominate the nature and to exploit it; so that there we needed specialized sciences that had the capacity the resources that it needed the development. The environmentalism and, before the environmentalism, the ecology is putting us in a quite complicated noise, and it is that more and more they are putting us before the pressure that in fact the natural resources are integrated to complex systems, and it is that the science is not organized to manage systems

  8. Production of tomato puree: an alternative to conservation of locally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    suggest a mean of conservation of the surplus of production by processing tomato into puree. The most produced local ... processing into puree on industrial scale. The main .... functions contributing to the reaction of non-enzymatic browning ...

  9. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  10. Fermion production despite fermion number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, W.; Hetrick, J.E.; Smit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Lattice proposals for a nonperturbative formulation of the Standard Model easily lead to a global U(1) symmetry corresponding to exactly conserved fermion number. The absence of an anomaly in the fermion current would then appear to inhibit anomalous processes, such as electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. One way to circumvent this problem is to formulate the theory such that this U(1) symmetry is explicitly broken. However we argue that in the framework of spectral flow, fermion creation and annihilation still in fact occurs, despite the exact fermion number conservation. The crucial observation is that fermions are excitations relative to the vacuum, at the surface of the Dirac sea. The exact global U(1) symmetry prohibits a state from changing its fermion number during time evolution, however nothing prevents the fermionic ground state from doing so. We illustrate our reasoning with a model in two dimensions which has axial-vector couplings, first using a sharp momentum cutoff, then using the lattice regulator with staggered fermions. The difference in fermion number between the time evolved state and the ground state is indeed in agreement with the anomaly. Both the sharp momentum cutoff and the lattice regulator break gauge invariance. In the case of the lattice model a mass counterterm for the gauge field is sufficient to restore gauge invariance in the perturbative regime. A study of the vacuum energy shows however that the perturbative counterterm is insufficient in a nonperturbative setting and that further quartic counterterms are needed. For reference we also study a closely related model with vector couplings, the Schwinger model, and we examine the emergence of the θ-vacuum structure of both theories. ((orig.))

  11. 78 FR 79638 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Hearth Products as a Covered Consumer... determined that hearth products qualify as a covered product under Part A of Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended. More specifically, DOE has tentatively determined that hearth...

  12. Department of Energy programs and objectives: energy conservation in agricultural production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    This document describes the current Department of Energy agriculture research program as it relates to the research recommendations submitted by a 1976 workshop on energy conservation in agricultural production. In-depth discussions on fertilizers, irrigation, crop drying, fuel substitution, crop and animal production systems, greenhouses, materials handling, and transport systems are included. (MCW)

  13. Evaluation of Conservation Tillage Techniques for Maize Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conservation tillage techniques and evaluate the impacts of the system on ... biological soil manipulation to optimize conditions for seed germination, emergence and ..... planting and weeding operations as total expense and sales from maize ...

  14. Guidelines for sustainable manure management in Asian livestock production systems. A publication prepared under the framework of the RCA project on Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated approach for improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment' (RAS/5/044). Technical Cooperation projects are technology transfer initiatives, designed to address specific priorities identified by Member States. The specific objectives of this project were: (a) to improve animal productivity and decrease discharges of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (b) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies to improve animal productivity through the use of better selection criteria for offspring from cross-breeding programmes, optimum utilization of appropriate indigenous cows, benchmarking for growth and reproduction, and improving procedures for management, nutrition and healthcare programmes in dairy farms. The first meeting to plan project activities was hosted by the Institute of Agricultural Environment and Sustainable Development of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), Beijing, and was held from 4 to 8 April 2005. It was attended by 23 nominated project counterparts from 12 RCA Member States and was supported by three IAEA experts. One of the conclusions from this meeting was that there was considerable scope and need for improving current manure management practices in the region to enhance the productive recycling of ingested nutrients in animal production systems, which in addition to increasing livestock and crop productivity will decrease environment pollution. It was agreed that there was a need to focus on improving the nutritional and manure management in integrated livestock systems, and that it was

  15. Conservative Semidiscrete Difference Schemes for Timoshenko Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Júnior, D. S. Almeida

    2014-01-01

    We present a parameterized family of finite-difference schemes to analyze the energy properties for linearly elastic constant-coefficient Timoshenko systems considering shear deformation and rotatory inertia. We derive numerical energies showing the positivity, and the energy conservation property and we show how to avoid a numerical anomaly known as locking phenomenon on shear force. Our method of proof relies on discrete multiplier techniques.

  16. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    controllers, centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, leak detection sensors, and the use of harvested water (i.e., rainwater and air condition water ...include ET functionality with soil moisture sensor, and leak detection via flow meter. ESTCP Final Report Smart Water Conservation System 58... leakage . The minimum static pressure was not achieved because tank water levels were less than 10 feet in the selected low profile tank.) Adjust break

  17. Knowledge co-production and boundary work to promote implementation of conservation plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Jeanne L; Roux, Dirk J; Driver, Amanda; Hill, Liesl; Maherry, Ashton C; Snaddon, Kate; Petersen, Chantel R; Smith-Adao, Lindie B; Van Deventer, Heidi; Reyers, Belinda

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge co-production and boundary work offer planners a new frame for critically designing a social process that fosters collaborative implementation of resulting plans. Knowledge co-production involves stakeholders from diverse knowledge systems working iteratively toward common vision and action. Boundary work is a means of creating permeable knowledge boundaries that satisfy the needs of multiple social groups while guarding the functional integrity of contributing knowledge systems. Resulting products are boundary objects of mutual interest that maintain coherence across all knowledge boundaries. We examined how knowledge co-production and boundary work can bridge the gap between planning and implementation and promote cross-sectoral cooperation. We applied these concepts to well-established stages in regional conservation planning within a national scale conservation planning project aimed at identifying areas for conserving rivers and wetlands of South Africa and developing an institutional environment for promoting their conservation. Knowledge co-production occurred iteratively over 4 years in interactive stake-holder workshops that included co-development of national freshwater conservation goals and spatial data on freshwater biodiversity and local conservation feasibility; translation of goals into quantitative inputs that were used in Marxan to select draft priority conservation areas; review of draft priority areas; and packaging of resulting map products into an atlas and implementation manual to promote application of the priority area maps in 37 different decision-making contexts. Knowledge co-production stimulated dialogue and negotiation and built capacity for multi-scale implementation beyond the project. The resulting maps and information integrated diverse knowledge types of over 450 stakeholders and represented >1000 years of collective experience. The maps provided a consistent national source of information on priority conservation areas

  18. Production of Modularised Product Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    but a solution. Modularisation is one tool used in designing the products. Designing and controlling a production system making customized products in an economical way is not an easy task. In order to fulfil the Lean and Agile manufacturing philosophies the production is often carried out in networks. Here...

  19. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  20. The conservative physiology of the immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Vaz

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Current immunological opinion disdains the necessity to define global interconnections between lymphocytes and regards natural autoantibodies and autoreactive T cells as intrinsically pathogenic. Immunological theories address the recognition of foreignness by independent clones of lymphocytes, not the relations among lymphocytes or between lymphocytes and the organism. However, although extremely variable in cellular/molecular composition, the immune system preserves as invariant a set of essential relations among its components and constantly enacts contacts with the organism of which it is a component. These invariant relations are reflected, for example, in the life-long stability of profiles of reactivity of immunoglobulins formed by normal organisms (natural antibodies. Oral contacts with dietary proteins and the intestinal microbiota also result in steady states that lack the progressive quality of secondary-type reactivity. Autoreactivity (natural autoantibody and autoreactive T cell formation is also stable and lacks the progressive quality of clonal expansion. Specific immune responses, currently regarded as the fundament of the operation of the immune system, may actually result from transient interruptions in this stable connectivity among lymphocytes. More permanent deficits in interconnectivity result in oligoclonal expansions of T lymphocytes, as seen in Omenn's syndrome and in the experimental transplantation of a suboptimal diversity of syngeneic T cells to immunodeficient hosts, which also have pathogenic consequences. Contrary to theories that forbid autoreactivity as potentially pathogenic, the physiology of the immune system is conservative and autoreactive. Pathology derives from failures of these conservative mechanisms.

  1. Will intensification of beef production deliver conservation outcomes in the Brazilian Amazon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Merry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of beef production has become a conservation target based on the idea of land sparing and the assumption that in order to contain deforestation and meet increasing beef demand we must increase productivity. There is also increasing attention and conservation credit being given to supply chain management in beef production. Based on a historical comparison between the US, a fully intensive system, and Brazil, one moving in that direction, we suggest that cattle ranching will intensify as a result of conservation investments (reductions in capital and land subsidies rather than intensifying in order to produce conservation results. If the comparison holds, the new intensive system, however, will continue to require large natural resource inputs, government subsidies, and be plagued by social and conservation problems. It will also be held in thrall by a few large processing companies, which exert undue influence over both producers and consumers. Therefore, we suggest that closer attention be paid to attribution in the claim of conservation outcomes from intensive beef production.

  2. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  3. Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) links biodiversity conservation with sustainable improvements in livelihoods and food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Dale; Bell, Samuel D; Fay, John; Bothi, Kim L; Gatere, Lydiah; Kabila, Makando; Mukamba, Mwangala; Matokwani, Edwin; Mushimbalume, Matthews; Moraru, Carmen I; Lehmann, Johannes; Lassoie, James; Wolfe, David; Lee, David R; Buck, Louise; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-08-23

    In the Luangwa Valley, Zambia, persistent poverty and hunger present linked challenges to rural development and biodiversity conservation. Both household coping strategies and larger-scale economic development efforts have caused severe natural resource degradation that limits future economic opportunities and endangers ecosystem services. A model based on a business infrastructure has been developed to promote and maintain sustainable agricultural and natural resource management practices, leading to direct and indirect conservation outcomes. The Community Markets for Conservation (COMACO) model operates primarily with communities surrounding national parks, strengthening conservation benefits produced by these protected areas. COMACO first identifies the least food-secure households and trains them in sustainable agricultural practices that minimize threats to natural resources while meeting household needs. In addition, COMACO identifies people responsible for severe natural resource depletion and trains them to generate alternative income sources. In an effort to maintain compliance with these practices, COMACO provides extension support and access to high-value markets that would otherwise be inaccessible to participants. Because the model is continually evolving via adaptive management, success or failure of the model as a whole is difficult to quantify at this early stage. We therefore test specific hypotheses and present data documenting the stabilization of previously declining wildlife populations; the meeting of thresholds of productivity that give COMACO access to stable, high-value markets and progress toward economic self-sufficiency; and the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices by participants and other community members. Together, these findings describe a unique, business-oriented model for poverty alleviation, food production, and biodiversity conservation.

  4. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AFTAB Ahmed; NASEER Ahmed; QUDRAT Khan

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well.

  5. Conservation Laws for Partially Conservative Variable Mass Systems via d'Alembert's Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Ahmed, Naseer; Khan, Qudrat

    2008-01-01

    Conservation laws for partially conservative variable mass dynamical systems under symmetric infinitesimal transformations are determined. A generalization of Lagrange-d'Alembert's principle for a variable mass system in terms of asynchronous virtual variation is presented. The generalized Killing equations are obtained such that their solution yields the transformations and the associated conservation laws. An example illustrative of the theory is furnished at the end as well. (the physics of elementary particles and fields)

  6. Abatement costs of soil conservation in China's Loess Plateau: balancing income with conservation in an agricultural system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lingling; Hoag, Dana L K; Keske, Catherine M H

    2015-02-01

    This study proposes the use of marginal abatement cost curves to calculate environmental damages of agricultural systems in China's Loess Plateau. Total system costs and revenues, management characteristics and pollution attributes are imputed into a directional output distance function, which is then used to determine shadow prices and abatement cost curves for soil and nitrogen loss. Marginal abatement costs curves are an effective way to compare economic and conservation tradeoffs when field-specific data are scarce. The results show that sustainable agricultural practices can balance soil conservation and agricultural production; land need not be retired, as is current policy. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  8. Energy conservation and maximal entropy production in enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobovišek, Andrej; Vitas, Marko; Brumen, Milan; Fajmut, Aleš

    2017-08-01

    A procedure for maximization of the density of entropy production in a single stationary two-step enzyme reaction is developed. Under the constraints of mass conservation, fixed equilibrium constant of a reaction and fixed products of forward and backward enzyme rate constants the existence of maximum in the density of entropy production is demonstrated. In the state with maximal density of entropy production the optimal enzyme rate constants, the stationary concentrations of the substrate and the product, the stationary product yield as well as the stationary reaction flux are calculated. The test, whether these calculated values of the reaction parameters are consistent with their corresponding measured values, is performed for the enzyme Glucose Isomerase. It is found that calculated and measured rate constants agree within an order of magnitude, whereas the calculated reaction flux and the product yield differ from their corresponding measured values for less than 20 % and 5 %, respectively. This indicates that the enzyme Glucose Isomerase, considered in a non-equilibrium stationary state, as found in experiments using the continuous stirred tank reactors, possibly operates close to the state with the maximum in the density of entropy production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Conservative interacting particles system with anomalous rate of ergodicity

    OpenAIRE

    Brzeźniak, Zdzislaw; Flandoli, Franco; Neklyudov, Misha; Zegarliński, Boguslaw

    2010-01-01

    We analyze certain conservative interacting particle system and establish ergodicity of the system for a family of invariant measures. Furthermore, we show that convergence rate to equilibrium is exponential. This result is of interest because it presents counterexample to the standard assumption of physicists that conservative system implies polynomial rate of convergence.

  10. The future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land; scenarios for production and natural resource conservation, First Annual Report. EU project Olivero:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleskens, L.; Stroosnijder, L.; Graaff, de J.

    2004-01-01

    The project will devote itself to the future of olive plantation systems on sloping and mountainous land in southern Europe. These systems have been affected by emigration of local populations and fierce competition from low land plantations and from non-EU countries, and are currently neither

  11. Product Configuration Systems and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    Twelve companies have been interviewed with the purpose to get information about technical, economic and organisational matters in respect of Product Configuration Systems (PCS).Combinations of qualitative interviews and quantitative scoring have been used in ranking expected and realized results...

  12. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  13. Further results on universal properties in conservative dynamical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benettin, G [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Galgani, L; Giorgilli, A [Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Milan Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Matematica)

    1980-10-11

    In conservative dynamical systems depending on a parameter, sequences of period-doubling bifurcations can be observed by varying the parameter, starting from a stable fixed point. These sequences are analogous to those already known for dissipative systems. The paper shows some new results obtained for two-dimensional conservative mappings.

  14. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...

  15. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  16. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  17. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  18. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... final rule revising energy conservation standards for residential water heaters, direct heating.... EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures...

  19. Implementation of Quality Management System for Historical Building Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify the implementation of ISO 9001 procedures being used as references for conservation works and the development of Quality Management System (QMS guidelines. Data were solicited from three (3 conservation areas. The analysis involved of descriptive approach and statistical methods. The findings revealed that QMS is not structurally established, implemented and enforced as part of conservation practice in Malaysia. From the findings, the authors hope to give clear perception to the reader on current preservation practice and the existence of QMS with reference to ISO 9001 for future conservation mechanism.

  20. Effects of bioenergy production on European nature conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, C.; Schneider, U. A.

    2009-04-01

    To increase security of energy supply and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions the European Commission set out a long-term strategy for renewable energy in the European Union (EU). Bioenergy from forestry and agriculture plays a key role for both. Since the last decade a significant increase of biomass energy plantations has been observed in Europe. Concurrently, the EU agreed to halt the loss of biodiversity within its member states. One measure is the Natura2000 network of important nature sites that actually covers about 20% of the EU land surface. However, to fulfil the biodiversity target more nature conservation and restoration sites need to be designated. There are arising concerns that an increased cultivation of bioenergy crops will decrease the land available for nature reserves and for "traditional" agriculture and forestry. In the following the economic and ecological impacts of structural land use changes are demonstrated by two examples. First, a case study of land use changes on the Eiderstedt peninsula in Schleswig-Holstein/Germany evaluates the impacts of grassland conversion into bioenergy plantations under consideration of selected meadow birds. Scenarios indicate not only a quantitative loss of habitats but also a reduction of habitat quality. The second study assesses the role of bioenergy production in light of possible negative impacts on potential wetland conservation sites in Europe. By coupling the spatial wetland distribution model "SWEDI" (cf. SCHLEUPNER 2007) to the European Forest and Agricultural Sector Optimization Model (EUFASOM; cf. SCHNEIDER ET AL. 2008) economic and environmental aspects of land use are evaluated simultaneously. This way the costs and benefits of the appropriate measures and its consequences for agriculture and forestry are investigated. One aim is to find the socially optimal balance between alternative wetland uses by integrating biological benefits - in this case wetlands - and economic opportunities - here

  1. Feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian W.; Caplow, Susan C.; Leslie, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Robust ways to meet objectives of environmental conservation and social and economic development remain elusive. This struggle may in part be related to insufficient understanding of the feedbacks between conservation initiatives and social-ecological systems, specifically, the ways in which conservation initiatives result in social changes that have secondary effects on the environments targeted by conservation. To explore this idea we sampled peer-reviewed articles addressing the social and environmental dimensions of conservation and coded each paper according to its research focus and characterization of these feedbacks. The majority of articles in our sample focused either on the effect of conservation initiatives on people (e.g., relocation, employment) or the effect of people on the environment (e.g., fragmentation, conservation efficacy of traditional management systems). Few studies in our sample empirically addressed both the social dynamics resulting from conservation initiatives and subsequent environmental effects. In many cases, one was measured and the other was discussed anecdotally. Among the studies that describe feedbacks between social and environmental variables, there was more evidence of positive (amplifying) feedbacks between social and environmental outcomes (i.e., undesirable social outcomes yielded undesirable environmental effects, and desirable social outcomes yielded desirable environmental effects). The major themes within the sampled literature include conflict between humans and wild animals, social movements, adaptive comanagement, loss of traditional management systems, traditional ecological knowledge, human displacement and risks to livelihoods, and conservation and development. The narratives associated with each theme can serve as hypotheses for facilitating further discussion about conservation issues and for catalyzing future studies of the feedbacks between conservation and social-ecological systems. PMID:22443128

  2. Physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation, application for conservation of food products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foos, J.

    1986-01-01

    The author sets about ''defining the parameters'' and ''describing the systems'' by means of which ionizing radiation can be used to conserve food products and make them more healthy. After defining the different types of radiation, he goes on to examine interactions between these types of radiation and the food to be processed, including the chemical reactions caused by the ionization and excitation processes [fr

  3. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  4. Soil Tillage Conservation and its Effect on Soil Properties Bioremediation and Sustained Production of Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Teodor; Ioana Moraru, Paula; Muresan, Liliana; Andriuca, Valentina; Cojocaru, Olesea

    2017-04-01

    Soil Tillage Conservation (STC) is considered major components of agricultural technology for soil conservation strategies and part of Sustainable Agriculture (SA). Human action upon soil by tillage determines important morphological, physical-chemical and biological changes, with different intensities and evaluative directions. Nowadays, internationally is unanimous accepted the fact that global climatic changes are the results of human intervention in the bio-geo-chemical water and material cycle, and the sequestration of carbon in soil is considered an important intervention to limit these changes. STC involves reducing the number of tillage's (minimum tillage) to direct sowing (no-tillage) and plant debris remains at the soil surface in the ratio of at least 30%. Plant debris left on the soil surface or superficial incorporated contributes to increased biological activity and is an important source of carbon sequestration. STC restore soil structure and improve overall soil drainage, allowing more rapid infiltration of water into soil. The result is a soil bioremediation, more productive, better protected against wind and water erosion and requires less fuel for preparing the germinative bed. Carbon sequestration in soil is net advantageous, improving the productivity and sustainability. We present the influence of conventional plough tillage system on soil, water and organic matter conservation in comparison with an alternative minimum tillage (paraplow, chisel plow and rotary harrow) and no-tillage system. The application of STC increased the organic matter content 0.8 to 22.1% and water stabile aggregate content from 1.3 to 13.6%, in the 0-30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. For the organic matter content and the wet aggregate stability, the statistical analysis of the data showed, increasing positive significance of STC. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability were initially low, the effect of conservation practices on the

  5. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... published on October 23, 2013. That final rule adopted changes to definitions and energy conservation... revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct high velocity central air... Congress has provided in the AEMTCA for the Secretary of Energy to revise definitions and energy...

  6. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    .... 1. Consensus Agreement On January 26, 2010, the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration... subsections. B. History of the Standards Rulemaking for Residential Furnaces 1. Background Energy conservation... recommending minimum energy conservation standards for residential central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...

  7. 77 FR 49063 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products; Proposed...-AC01 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products... procedures for both dishwashers and conventional cooking products for the measurement of energy use in fan...

  8. 77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... multipliers based on climate, consumer behavior assumptions, and product characteristics (e.g., multi-stage or... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of...

  9. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igonin, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the existence of higher conservation laws in terms of the system's symbol. For systems that violate this condition we give an effective upper bound on the order of conservation laws. Using this result, we completely describe conservation laws for viscous transonic equations, for the Brusselator model and the Belousov-Zhabotinskii system. To achieve this, we solve over an arbitrary field the matrix equations SA=A t S and SA=-A t S for a quadratic matrix A and its transpose A t , which may be of independent interest

  10. From biophysical to social-ecological trade-offs: integrating biodiversity conservation and agricultural production in the Argentine Dry Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias E. Mastrangelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural intensification in rural areas of developing countries compromises the provision of ecosystem services. Social conflict arises among landholders with different preferences for ecosystem services and land-use practices in agricultural frontiers of the Argentine Dry Chaco. We explored policy and management options by assessing the actual and potential outcomes of alternative land-use systems and scenarios. We first constructed the efficiency frontier for avian habitat and agricultural productivity to analyze the combinations of ecosystem services that can be achieved under different land-use intensities. A nonlinear, concave efficiency frontier indicated opportunities to achieve large gains for production with small losses for conservation, for instance, by transitioning from low- to intermediate-intensity systems. Second, we projected production and conservation outcomes, which can be achieved through the implementation of five alternative policy options. The land sharing with conservation scenario, 70% of the landscape covered by intermediate-intensity systems and 30% by undisturbed forests, yielded the higher combination of avian habitat and agricultural productivity. Third, we constructed indifference curves of three landholder groups, i.e., preproductivist, multifunctional, and productivist, by assessing their intentions (proxies for preferences to conserve and convert remnant forests in their landholdings. Multifunctional landholders showed balanced preferences for conserving and converting forests in their landholdings, and maintaining intermediate-intensity systems. A general willingness to conserve forests coexisted in preproductivist landholders with the intention to clear some portions of the landholding and intensify landuse, indicating the potential of an endogenously motivated transition toward a multifunctional regime. Such transition may increase their productivity by 35-65% without compromising avian habitat

  11. Erva-mate production and conservation of Araucaria Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Signor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to characterize a native production area (native erval through silvicultural procedures, productivity and density of Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil. (erva-mate and also the floristic, phytosociology, and diameter structure. To identify the silvicultural procedures, we used semi-structured interviews. For productivity assessment, the commercial biomass of I. paraguariensis was determined. For vegetation assessment, two permanent sample plots totaling 1.25 ha were installed, considering all individuals with circumference at 1.30 m above soil level (CBH ≥ 31.4 cm, for which it was registered CBH, botanical identification, XY coordinates in the plot, and all the individuals of I. paraguariensis composing the production system. Silvicultural procedures were characterized by mowing, canopy opening and conduct of natural regeneration, promoting I. paraguariensis, Araucaria angustifolia (Bert. Kuntze, and cattle. I. paraguariensis density was 634 trees.ha-1, with 2,030 kg.ha-1 of productivity in three-year crops. We found 22 species, with a predominance of Myrtaceae and Aquifoliaceae. The species of highest importance value and coverage was A. angustifolia. The diameter distribution showed a higher concentration of individuals in the smaller classes.

  12. Trade-offs between cattle production and bird conservation in an agricultural frontier of the Gran Chaco of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Matias E; Gavin, Michael C

    2012-12-01

    Intensification of food production in tropical landscapes in the absence of land-use planning can pose a major threat to biological diversity. Decisions on whether to spatially integrate or segregate lands for production and conservation depend in part on the functional relations between biological diversity and agricultural productivity. We measured diversity, density, and species composition of birds along a gradient of production intensification on an agricultural frontier of the Argentine Chaco, where dry tropical forests are cleared for cattle production. Bird species diversity in intact forests was higher than in any type of cattle-production system. Bird species richness decreased nonlinearly as cattle yield increased. Intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems, those in which forest understory is selectively cleared to grow pastures of non-native plants beneath the tree canopy, produced 80% of the mean cattle yield obtained in pastures on cleared areas and were occupied by 70-90% of the number of bird species present in the nearest forest fragments. Densities of >50% of bird species were significantly lower in open pastures than in silvopastoral systems. Therefore, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems may have the greatest potential to sustain cattle yield and conserve a large percentage of bird species. However, compared with low-intensity production systems, in which forest structure and extent were intact, intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems supported significantly fewer forest-restricted bird species and fewer frugivorous birds. These data suggest that the integration of production and conservation through intermediate-intensity silvopastoral systems combined with the protection of forest fragments may be required to maintain cattle yield, bird diversity, and conservation of forest-restricted species in this agricultural frontier. ©2012 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Conserved generation of short products at piRNA loci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorshid Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The piRNA pathway operates in animal germ lines to ensure genome integrity through retrotransposon silencing. The Piwi protein-associated small RNAs (piRNAs guide Piwi proteins to retrotransposon transcripts, which are degraded and thereby post-transcriptionally silenced through a ping-pong amplification process. Cleavage of the retrotransposon transcript defines at the same time the 5' end of a secondary piRNA that will in turn guide a Piwi protein to a primary piRNA precursor, thereby amplifying primary piRNAs. Although several studies provided evidence that this mechanism is conserved among metazoa, how the process is initiated and what enzymatic activities are responsible for generating the primary and secondary piRNAs are not entirely clear. Results Here we analyzed small RNAs from three mammalian species, seeking to gain further insight into the mechanisms responsible for the piRNA amplification loop. We found that in all these species piRNA-directed targeting is accompanied by the generation of short sequences that have a very precisely defined length, 19 nucleotides, and a specific spatial relationship with the guide piRNAs. Conclusions This suggests that the processing of the 5' product of piRNA-guided cleavage occurs while the piRNA target is engaged by the Piwi protein. Although they are not stabilized through methylation of their 3' ends, the 19-mers are abundant not only in testes lysates but also in immunoprecipitates of Miwi and Mili proteins. They will enable more accurate identification of piRNA loci in deep sequencing data sets.

  14. Quantum dissipation of a simple conservative system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibeh, G. J.; Mshelia, E. D.

    2014-01-01

    A model of quantum dissipative system is presented. Here dissipation of energy is demonstrated as based on the coupling of a free translational motion of a centre of mass to a harmonic oscillator. The two-dimensional arrangement of two coupled particles of different masses is considered.

  15. Conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.; Laflamme, R.; Marolf, D.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems and begin by reviewing an argument that exact decoherence implies the exact conservation of quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian. However, we also show that decoherence limits the alternatives that can be included in sets of histories that assess the conservation of these quantities. In the case of charge and energy, these limitations would be severe were these quantities not coupled to a gauge field. However, for the realistic cases of electric charge coupled to the electromagnetic field and mass coupled to spacetime curvature, we show that when alternative values of charge and mass decohere they always decohere exactly and are exactly conserved. Further, while decohering histories that describe possible changes in time of the total charge and mass are also subject to the limitations mentioned above, we show that these do not, in fact, restrict physical alternatives and are therefore not really limitations at all

  16. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed to be a simple, easily stowed, high growth volume, low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables...

  17. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  18. 75 FR 57410 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ..., regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction AGENCY...

  19. 76 FR 24761 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and...) Certification. Each manufacturer, before distributing in commerce any basic model of a covered product or.... EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and...

  20. 78 FR 65629 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ... representative of consumer behavior. For example, if the number of annual cycles results in greater than a 3-day... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Whirlpool Corporation From... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles, a program covering most major household...

  1. 75 FR 57555 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  2. 75 FR 57556 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... technologies not covered by the current procedure; (2) more accurately reflect current consumer behavior and... Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-TP-0021] RIN 1904-AC08 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test...

  3. Management Approaches to Accomplish Contemporary Livestock Production-Conservation Objectives in Shortgrass Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional rangeland management in the shortgrass steppe has emphasized livestock production with moderate stocking rates, but alternative approaches will be needed to meet production objectives under increasing demands for conservation-oriented management. We investigated the utility of very inten...

  4. [Conservation tillage systems in North America and their significance for China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Xiaoping; Fang, Huajun; Liang, Aizhen; Qi, Xiaoning; Wang, Yang

    2004-02-01

    Soil degradation through erosion and desertification reduces soil productivity, and is a serious problem in agricultural production of China. To avert our arable land from further degradation, soil management must be shifted from degrading tillage to conservation practices. Over viewing the technology used in the 20th century for controlling soil degradation from erosion, conservation tillage developed in the United States and adopted in South America and Africa is one of the most successful measures to overcome soil degradation problems. This paper reviewed the historical development and the current situation of conservation tillage systems used in North and South America, with special reference to their effects on soil erosion control and soil quality. The increasing adoption of conservation tillage systems in North and South America and Africa followed an enhanced awareness of the increasing risk of soil erosion and the high cost of fuel associated with conventional tillage. Many crucial points for successfully adopting conservation tillage systems were emphasized, such as equipment/tool development and chemical weed control. Adopting conservation tillage could provide China with low-priced means of reducing soil degradation and improving soil and water quality.

  5. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ht ly M or e W or kl oa d; 5 -M or e W or kl oa d; 6 -S ig ni fic an lty M or...install the water harvesting and pump system was captured from the contractor cost proposal. 7.1.3 Water Cost Water purchased from the Port Hueneme Water...818) 737-2734 KDuke@valleycrest.com Contractor Tom Santoianni 1205 Mill Rd. Bldg. 1430 Public Works, Ventura (805) 982-4075 Tom.Santoianni@navy.mil Energy Manager

  6. The National Landscape Conservation System: A model for long term conservation of significant landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave Harmon; Jeff Jarvis

    2011-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management administers over 256 million surface acres, more than any other U.S. public agency, the vast majority of which is in the western half of the United States. A land protection system was initiated in 1970 with the creation of the King Range National Conservation Area. In 1976, the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (http://www.blm.gov/...

  7. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  9. Power-law and runaway growth in conserved aggregation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Ohtsuki, Toshiya; Fujihara, Akihiro; Tanimoto, Satoshi

    2006-01-01

    The z-transform technique is used to analyze the Smoluchowski coagulation equation for conserved aggregation systems. A universal power law with the exponent -5/2 appears when a total 'mass' has a certain critical value. Below the threshold, ordinary scaling relations hold and the system exhibits a behavior like usual critical phenomena. Above the threshold, in contrast, the excess amount of mass coagulates into a runaway member, and remaining members follow the power law. Here the runaway growth coexists with the power law. It is argued that these behaviors are observed universally in conserved aggregation processes

  10. Conservation properties and potential systems of vorticity-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviakov, Alexei F.

    2014-01-01

    Partial differential equations of the form divN=0, N t +curl M=0 involving two vector functions in R 3 depending on t, x, y, z appear in different physical contexts, including the vorticity formulation of fluid dynamics, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) equations, and Maxwell's equations. It is shown that these equations possess an infinite family of local divergence-type conservation laws involving arbitrary functions of space and time. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the equations of interest have a rather special structure of a lower-degree (degree two) conservation law in R 4 (t,x,y,z). The corresponding potential system has a clear physical meaning. For the Maxwell's equations, it gives rise to the scalar electric and the vector magnetic potentials; for the vorticity equations of fluid dynamics, the potentialization inverts the curl operator to yield the fluid dynamics equations in primitive variables; for MHD equations, the potential equations yield a generalization of the Galas-Bogoyavlenskij potential that describes magnetic surfaces of ideal MHD equilibria. The lower-degree conservation law is further shown to yield curl-type conservation laws and determined potential equations in certain lower-dimensional settings. Examples of new nonlocal conservation laws, including an infinite family of nonlocal material conservation laws of ideal time-dependent MHD equations in 2+1 dimensions, are presented

  11. Innovativeness in production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    Alignment of market demand and manufacturing capabilities are directly linked to the potential competitive advantage. Pressure for manufacturing companies to customize increase the need for productions systems to handle innovations, especially in SMEs. The paper claims that innovativeness has...... a positive influence of the ability of the manufacturing system to provide specific capabilities that enables the entire production system to positively influence the competitiveness. A comparative case study of three SMEs shows that competitive advantages are obtained through innovative technologies......, but revealed also automation potential in data and information management to be more responsive and cost-effective....

  12. Conservation-dissipation structure of chemical reaction systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wen-An

    2012-12-01

    In this Brief Report, we show that balanced chemical reaction systems governed by the law of mass action have an elegant conservation-dissipation structure. From this structure a number of important conclusions can be easily deduced. In particular, with the help of this structure we can rigorously justify the classical partial equilibrium approximation in chemical kinetics.

  13. 2×2 systems of conservation laws with L data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, Stefano; Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Monti, Francesca

    Consider a hyperbolic system of conservation laws with genuinely nonlinear characteristic fields. We extend the classical Glimm-Lax (1970) result [13, Theorem 5.1] proving the existence of solutions for L initial datum, relaxing the assumptions taken therein on the geometry of the shock-rarefaction curves.

  14. ATLAS production system

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; De, Kaushik; Klimentov, Alexei; Golubkov, Dmitry; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Wenaus, Torre; Padolski, Siarhei

    2016-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS production system called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager which used by thousands of physicists to analyze the data remotely, with the volume of processed data is beyond the exabyte scale, across a more than hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based on many criterias, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kind of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteering computers. Besides jobs definition Production System also includes flexible web user interface, which implements user-friendly environment for main ATLAS workflows, e.g. simple way of combining different data flows, and real-time monitoring, optimised for using with huge amount of information to present. We present an overview of the ATLAS Production System major components: job and task definition, workflow manager web user i...

  15. Oil production system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J F

    1983-12-21

    A new oil producing system is proposed which consists of a group of underwater wells, an underwater riser and a floating storage facility for the production of the wells. The group of wells and the riser are interconnected through a manifold system in such a way that the production from any well or from the entire group of wells go to the base (foundation) of the riser. From above the riser is connected with the floating storage facility which is equipped, besides tanks for storing the well products, with a separation device for separating the oil and the accompanying gas. The gas is used as a fuel for producing electric power required by the dynamic positioning systems. The products from each well are tested by means of a regulable coupling controlled by means of a cable, which is passed from the surface through the riser. The wellhead equipment for the unslanted wells is mounted on a template previously installed on the sea floor. From the template the well products enter the riser through the manifold unit system.

  16. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    CITES: In February 1987 Singapore finally ratified the Washington Treaty on the international trade in threatened species, exceptions have been made for the trade in crocodile products. A serious breach has now been closed that was of some impediment to the trade between Singapore and many of its

  17. Development of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by......This paper presents the initial considerations related to a Ph.D. study initiated at IPV, DTU in February 1997, concerning the research subject "Development of Production Systems". The content and aim of this paper is to 1) to introduce the study by...

  18. The role of macroinvertebrates for conservation of freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Carolina; Ovando, Ximena M C; Loyola, Rafael; Izquierdo, Andrea; Romero, Fátima; Molineri, Carlos; Rodríguez, José; Rueda Martín, Paola; Fernández, Hugo; Manzo, Verónica; Miranda, María José

    2017-07-01

    Freshwater ecosystems are the most threatened ecosystems worldwide. Argentinian-protected areas have been established mainly to protect vertebrates and plants in terrestrial ecosystems. In order to create a comprehensive biodiverse conservation plan, it is crucial to integrate both aquatic and terrestrial systems and to include macroinvertebrates. Here, we address this topic by proposing priority areas of conservation including invertebrates, aquatic ecosystems, and their connectivity and land uses. Northwest of Argentina. We modeled the ecological niches of different taxa of macroinvertebrates such as Coleoptera, Ephemeroptera, Hemiptera, Megaloptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, Plecoptera, Trichoptera, Acari, and Mollusca. Based on these models, we analyzed the contribution of currently established protected areas in the conservation of the aquatic biodiversity and we propose a spatial prioritization taking into account possible conflict regarding different land uses. Our analysis units were the real watersheds, to which were added longitudinal connectivity up and down the rivers. A total of 132 species were modeled in the priority area analyses. The analysis 1 showed that only an insignificant percentage of the macroinvertebrates distribution is within the protected areas in the North West of Argentina. The analyses 2 and 3 recovered similar values of protection for the macroinvertebrate species. The upper part of Bermejo, Salí-Dulce, San Francisco, and the Upper part of Juramento basins were identified as priority areas of conservation. The aquatic ecosystems need special protection and 10% or even as much as 17% of land conservation is insufficient for species of macroinvertebrates. In turn the protected areas need to combine the aquatic and terrestrial systems and need to include macroinvertebrates as a key group to sustain the biodiversity. In many cases, the land uses are in conflict with the conservation of biodiversity; however, it is possible to apply the

  19. Photochemical hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    Both technical and economic factors affect the cost of producing hydrogen by photochemical processes. Technical factors include the efficiency and the capital and operating costs of the renewable hydrogen conversion system; economic factors include discount rates, economic life, credit for co-product oxygen, and the value of the energy produced. This paper presents technical and economic data for a system that generates on-peak electric power form photochemically produced hydrogen

  20. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  1. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  2. 75 FR 64173 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy... notice of proposed rulemaking, regarding the Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and...

  3. 76 FR 16760 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Petition for Waiver and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Publication of the Petition for Waiver and Notice of Granting the... Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver (hereafter, ``petition'') from specified portions of... Authority Title III, part B of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), Public Law 94-163 (42...

  4. 76 FR 12825 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy.... Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to provide for the measurement of standby mode and off mode power use by microwave...

  5. 75 FR 42612 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens AGENCY: Office of Energy... (NOPR) in which DOE proposed test procedures for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) to measure standby mode and off mode power use by microwave ovens. To address issues...

  6. Energy conservation and dust production in wet rotary cement kilns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N J; Fischbach, F A

    1976-12-01

    Energy conservation is currently a major concern of the cement industry. A comparison of data supplied by the U.S. Federal Energy Administration with that gathered in an extensive private study incorporating 29 wet cement plants indicates that a significant reduction of the energy consumed can be accomplished by decreasing the amount of dust generated in the process. Energy saving of 8 percent through dust suppression appears possible by increasing the slurry moisture and by using hammermills rather than impactors as the crushing technique.

  7. 75 FR 61361 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    .... EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC24 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment Correction In proposed rule document...

  8. 76 FR 21881 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc... comments. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver and application for [[Page 21882

  9. Guide to resource conservation and cost savings opportunities in the soap, detergents and related products sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    The soaps, detergents and related products sector is an important component of the chemical industry within Ontario, as these products are used for cleaning purposes in industrial, institutional and domestic consumer applications. This guide was prepared to assist the sector with cost savings and resource conservation. The guide highlights opportunities for resource conservation through energy and water efficiency improvements, more efficient utilisation of raw materials, and reduction of environmental releases at source. 54 figs.

  10. 78 FR 77019 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... air conditioning heat pump'' that were established in section 5 of the American Energy Manufacturing... heat pump'' product class, including the definition and standards. DATES: DOE will accept comments....gov . Table of Contents I. Background and Authority II. Discussion III. Procedural Requirements A...

  11. 75 FR 1121 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ..., multi-family housing, and on-premises laundry applications led DOE to conduct a sensitivity analysis for... commercial laundry practices likely differ from residential practices,\\5\\ DOE concluded in the October 2008..., and service; (b) adverse impacts on product utility or availability; or (c) adverse impacts on health...

  12. Contractive relaxation systems and interacting particles for scalar conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakis, M.A.; Tzavaras, A.E.

    1996-01-01

    We consider a class of semi linear hyperbolic systems with relaxation that are contractive in the L 1 -norm and admit invariant regions. We show that, as the relaxation parameter ξ goes to zero, their solutions converge to a weak solution of the scalar multidimensional conversation law that satisfies the Kruzhkov conditions. In the case of one space dimension, we propose certain interacting particle systems, whose mesoscopic limit is the systems with relaxation and their macroscopic dynamics is described by entropy solutions of a scalar conservation law. (author)

  13. Resource conservation approached with an appropriate collection and upgrade-remanufacturing for used electronic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlamparet, Gabriel I; Tan, Quanyin; Stevels, A B; Li, Jinhui

    2018-03-01

    This comparative research represents an example for a better conservation of resources by reducing the amount of waste (kg) and providing it more value under the umbrella of remanufacturing. The three discussed cases will expose three issues already addressed separately in the literature. The generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) interacts with the environmental depletion. In this article, we gave the examples of addressed issues under the concept of remanufacturing. Online collection opportunity eliminating classical collection, a business to business (B2B) implementation for remanufactured servers and medical devices. The material reuse (recycling), component sustainability, reuse (part harvesting), product reuse (after repair/remanufacturing) indicates the recovery potential using remanufacturing tool for a better conservation of resources adding more value to the products. Our findings can provide an overview of new system organization for the general collection, market potential and the technological advantages using remanufacturing instead of recycling of WEEE or used electrical and electronic equipment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. The transition to chaos conservative classical systems and quantum manifestations

    CERN Document Server

    Reichl, Linda E

    2004-01-01

    This book provides a thorough and comprehensive discussion of classical and quantum chaos theory for bounded systems and for scattering processes Specific discussions include • Noether’s theorem, integrability, KAM theory, and a definition of chaotic behavior • Area-preserving maps, quantum billiards, semiclassical quantization, chaotic scattering, scaling in classical and quantum dynamics, dynamic localization, dynamic tunneling, effects of chaos in periodically driven systems and stochastic systems • Random matrix theory and supersymmetry The book is divided into several parts Chapters 2 through 4 deal with the dynamics of nonlinear conservative classical systems Chapter 5 and several appendices give a thorough grounding in random matrix theory and supersymmetry techniques Chapters 6 and 7 discuss the manifestations of chaos in bounded quantum systems and open quantum systems respectively Chapter 8 focuses on the semiclassical description of quantum systems with underlying classical chaos, and Chapt...

  15. Management and conservation of tropical acid soils for sustainable crop production. Proceedings of a consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-06-01

    Forests of the tropics are invaluable ecosystems of global, regional and local importance, particularly in terms of protection and conservation of biodiversity and water resources. The indiscriminate conversion of tropical forests into agricultural land as a result of intense human activities - logging and modem shifting cultivation - continues to cause soil erosion and degradation. However, the acid savannahs of the world, such as the cerrado of Brazil, the Llanos in Venezuela and Colombia, the savannahs of Africa, and the largely anthropic savannahs of tropical Asia, encompass vast areas of potentially arable land. The acid soils of the savannahs are mostly considered marginal because of low inherent fertility and susceptibility to rapid degradation. These constraints for agricultural development are exacerbated by the poverty of new settlers who try to cultivate such areas after deforestation. Low- or minimum-input systems are not sustainable on these tropical acid soils but, with sufficient investment and adequate technologies, they can be highly productive. Thus, there is a need to develop management practices for sustainable agricultural production systems on such savannah acid soils. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture strongly supports an integrated approach to soil, water and nutrient management within cropping systems. In this context, nuclear and related techniques can be used to better understand the processes and factors influencing the productivity of agricultural production systems, and improve them through the use of better soil, water and nutrient management practices. A panel of experts actively engaged in field projects on acid soils of savannah agro-ecosystems in the humid and sub-humid tropics convened in March 1999 in Vienna to review and discuss recent research progress, along the following main lines of investigation: (i) utilization of

  16. STRATEGIES FOR INCREASING PRODUCTIVITY IN PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pacheco

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to point a set of practical strategies that can be adopted to increase the capacity of constraints resources on production systems, when the constraint is inside the factory and not is in the market. To serve this purpose will be presented strategies based on best practices of the Theory of Constraints, Lean Manufacturing and Total Productive Maintenance. This article also presents the mains tools for the deployment of these methodologies. The survey results have provided an objective set of practical strategy that can be used to increase the capacity and productivity of production systems according to the needs of each manufacturing system.

  17. Production monitoring system for understanding product robustness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    study is used to demonstrate how the monitoring system can be used to efficiently guide corrective action to improve product performance. It is claimed that the monitoring system can be used to dramatically cut the time taken to identify, planand execute corrective action related to typical quality......In the current quality paradigm, the performance of a product is kept within specification by ensuring that its parts are within specification. Product performance is then validated after final assembly. However, this does not control how robust the product performance is, i.e. how much...... it will vary between the specification limits. In this paper, a model for predicting product performance is proposed, taking into account design, assembly and process parameters live from production. This empowers production to maintain final product performance, instead of part quality. The PRECI‐IN case...

  18. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006. Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006. In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by combining different tillage and planting operations. Results of research conducted in Fars province shows that conservation tillage saves fuel consumption for 77% compared to the conventional system (Afzalinia et al., 2009. Conservation tillage also reduces energy consumption from 23.6 to 42.8% in comparison to the conventional tillage (Rusu, 2005. Since energy indices would be affected by reduced input energies in conservation tillage, this research was conducted to evaluate the effect of different tillage and planting methods on energy inputs and energy indices in irrigated wheat production in Eghlid region. Materials and Methods: This research was performed to evaluate and compare the energy indices in irrigated wheat production under different tillage and planting methods. The study was conducted in the form of a randomized complete block experimental design with five treatments and three replications in Eghlid region. The treatments were included, conventional tillage and seed broadcasting (A, conventional tillage and planting with Machine Barzegar grain drill (B, reduced tillage and seeding with Roto-seeder (C, direct seeding with Jairan Sanaat grain drill (D, and direct seeding with Sfoggia direct drill (E. Experimental plots with 10 by 50 m dimensions were used in this study. Loss crop residues were taken out of the experimental plots and standing crop residues were retained in the plots. In the conventional tillage method, primary tillage was performed

  19. Harmonizing Biodiversity Conservation and Productivity in the Context of Increasing Demands on Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppelt, Ralf; Beckmann, Michael; Ceauşu, Silvia; Cord, Anna F.; Gerstner, Katharina; Gurevitch, Jessica; Kambach, Stephan; Klotz, Stefan; Mendenhall, Chase; Phillips, Helen R. P.; Powell, Kristin; Verburg, Peter H.; Verhagen, Willem; Winter, Marten; Newbold, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Biodiversity conservation and agricultural production are often seen as mutually exclusive objectives. Strategies for reconciling them are intensely debated. We argue that harmonization between biodiversity conservation and crop production can be improved by increasing our understanding of the underlying relationships between them. We provide a general conceptual framework that links biodiversity and agricultural production through the separate relationships between land use and biodiversity and between land use and production. Hypothesized relationships are derived by synthesizing existing empirical and theoretical ecological knowledge. The framework suggests nonlinear relationships caused by the multifaceted impacts of land use (composition, configuration, and intensity). We propose solutions for overcoming the apparently dichotomous aims of maximizing either biodiversity conservation or agricultural production and suggest new hypotheses that emerge from our proposed framework. PMID:29599534

  20. Can conservation tillage reduce N2O emissions on cropland transitioning to organic vegetable production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guihua; Kolb, Lauren; Cavigelli, Michel A; Weil, Ray R; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2018-03-15

    Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is an important greenhouse gas and a catalyst of stratospheric ozone decay. Agricultural soils are the source of 75% of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions globally. Recently, significant attention has been directed at examining effects of conservation tillage on carbon sequestration in agricultural systems. However, limited knowledge is available regarding how these practices impact N 2 O emissions, especially for organic vegetable production systems. In this context, a three-year study was conducted in a well-drained sandy loam field transitioning to organic vegetable production in the Mid-Atlantic coastal plain of USA to investigate impacts of conservation tillage [strip till (ST) and no-till (NT)] and conventional tillage (CT) [with black plastic mulch (CT-BP) and bare-ground (CT-BG)] on N 2 O emissions. Each year, a winter cover crop mixture (forage radish: Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus, crimson clover: Trifolium incarnatum L., and rye: Secale cereale L.) was grown and flail-mowed in the spring. Nearly 80% of annual N 2 O-nitrogen (N) emissions occurred during the vegetable growing season for all treatments. Annual N 2 O-N emissions were greater in CT-BP than in ST and NT, and greater in CT-BG than in NT, but not different between CT-BG and CT-BP, ST and NT, or CT-BG and ST. Conventional tillage promoted N mineralization and plastic mulch increased soil temperature, which contributed to greater N 2 O-N fluxes. Though water filled porosity in NT was higher and correlated well with N 2 O-N fluxes, annual N 2 O-N emissions were lowest in NT suggesting a lack of substrates for nitrification and denitrification processes. Crop yield was lowest in NT in Year 1 and CT-BP in Year 3 but yield-scaled N 2 O-N emissions were consistently greatest in CT-BP and lowest in NT each year. Our results suggest that for coarse-textured soils in the coastal plain with winter cover crops, conservation tillage practices may reduce N 2 O emissions in organic

  1. Conservation of the Type IV secretion system throughout Wolbachia evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pichon, Samuel; Bouchon, Didier; Cordaux, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , encoding a T4SS were previously identified and characterized at two separate genomic loci. Using the largest data set of Wolbachia strains studied so far, we show that vir gene sequence and organization are strictly conserved among 37 Wolbachia strains inducing various phenotypes such as cytoplasmic...... incompatibility, feminization, or oogenesis in their arthropod hosts. In sharp contrast, extensive variation of genomic sequences flanking the virB8-D4 operon suggested its distinct location among Wolbachia genomes. Long term conservation of the T4SS may imply maintenance of a functional effector translocation...... system in Wolbachia, thereby suggesting the importance for the T4SS in Wolbachia biology and survival inside host cells....

  2. Systems of conservation laws with third-order Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferapontov, Evgeny V.; Pavlov, Maxim V.; Vitolo, Raffaele F.

    2018-02-01

    We investigate n-component systems of conservation laws that possess third-order Hamiltonian structures of differential-geometric type. The classification of such systems is reduced to the projective classification of linear congruences of lines in P^{n+2} satisfying additional geometric constraints. Algebraically, the problem can be reformulated as follows: for a vector space W of dimension n+2 , classify n-tuples of skew-symmetric 2-forms A^{α } \\in Λ ^2(W) such that φ _{β γ }A^{β }\\wedge A^{γ }=0, for some non-degenerate symmetric φ.

  3. Energy indices in irrigated wheat production under conservation and conventional tillage and planting methods

    OpenAIRE

    S. M Hosseini; S Afzalinia; K Mollaei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conservation tillage system was recommended for soil erosion control in North America for the first time 60 years ago (Wang et al., 2006). Using this tillage system including minimum and zero tillage has been rapidly developed in recent years. Thearea covered by zero tillage in 2006 was 95 million ha all over the world (Dumanski et al., 2006). In addition to saving soil and water resources, conservation tillage system reduces energy consumption and improves energy indices by com...

  4. Defining product service systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2002-01-01

    , company and society benefit from the service systems related to each one of these dimensions, rather than simply one of the above. There are existing examples of the enhancement of business and market share by focusing on PSS, but this is often not a result of upfront strategy and ambitious goals. We...... attempt to identify the nature of such a multiple definition of PSS, the link to proper understanding of value and utility and innovative approaches for PSS-oriented product development. This paper will expand on the phenomenon of PSS in the belief that a proper understanding of PSS will give us...

  5. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Lars J.; Roy, Santanu

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the 'δ-productivity' requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs

  6. On conservation of renewable resources with stock-dependent return and non-concave production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Lars J. [Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Roy, Santanu [Econometric Institute, Erasmus University, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1994-05-01

    An analysis is presented of the intertemporal choice foundations underlying the conservation or extinction of renewable resources when the resource production function is non-concave and the immediate return function depends on both current consumption and the size of the resource stock. This case may exhibit nonlinear dynamics and extinction is possible from high stocks even if conservation occurs from lower stocks. The paper focusses on the influence of preferences and the production function on the efficiency of: global conservation, the existence of a safe standard of conservation, or extinction. We show that conservation is efficient under weaker conditions than the `{delta}-productivity` requirements derived in models where return function is not stock-dependent. The marginal rate of substitution between investment and the stock plays an important role in addition to the discount factor and the marginal productivity of the resource. Extinction need not be optimal even if the intrinsic growth rate of the resource is less than the external rate of return. Our analysis demonstrates the potential role of taxes, subsidies, demand forces, and harvest costs in determining the efficiency of conservation or extinction. 3 figs., 1 appendix, 24 refs.

  7. A global conservation system for climate-change adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Lee

    2010-02-01

    Climate change has created the need for a new strategic framework for conservation. This framework needs to include new protected areas that account for species range shifts and management that addresses large-scale change across international borders. Actions within the framework must be effective in international waters and across political frontiers and have the ability to accommodate large income and ability-to-pay discrepancies between countries. A global protected-area system responds to these needs. A fully implemented global system of protected areas will help in the transition to a new conservation paradigm robust to climate change and will ensure the integrity of the climate services provided by carbon sequestration from the world's natural habitats. The internationally coordinated response to climate change afforded by such a system could have significant cost savings relative to a system of climate adaptation that unfolds solely at a country level. Implementation of a global system is needed very soon because the effects of climate change on species and ecosystems are already well underway.

  8. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  9. Weed Dynamics during Transition to Conservation Agriculture in Western Kenya Maize Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Odhiambo

    Full Text Available Weed competition is a significant problem in maize (Zea mays, L. production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of weed management and costs in maize intercropped with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L. during transition to conservation agricultural systems is needed. Changes in weed population and maize growth were assessed for a period of three years at Bungoma where crops are grown twice per year and at Trans-Nzoia where crops are grown once per year. Treatments included three tillage practices: minimum (MT, no-till (NT and conventional (CT applied to three cropping systems: continuous maize/bean intercropping (TYPICAL, maize/bean intercropping with relayed mucuna after bean harvest (RELAY and maize, bean and mucuna planted in a strip intercropping arrangement (STRIP. Herbicides were used in NT, shallow hand hoeing and herbicides were used in MT and deep hoeing with no herbicides were used in CT. Weed and maize performance in the maize phase of each cropping system were assessed at both locations and costs of weed control were estimated at Manor House only. Weed density of grass and forb species declined significantly under MT and NT at Manor House and of grass species only at Mabanga. The greatest declines of more than 50% were observed as early as within one year of the transition to MT and NT in STRIP and TYPICAL cropping systems at Manor House. Transitioning to conservation based systems resulted in a decline of four out of five most dominant weed species. At the same time, no negative impact of MT or NT on maize growth was observed. Corresponding costs of weed management were reduced by $148.40 ha(-1 in MT and $149.60 ha(-1 in NT compared with CT. In conclusion, farmers can benefit from effective and less expensive weed management alternatives early in the process of transitioning to reduced tillage operations.

  10. Weed Dynamics during Transition to Conservation Agriculture in Western Kenya Maize Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, Judith A; Norton, Urszula; Ashilenje, Dennis; Omondi, Emmanuel C; Norton, Jay B

    2015-01-01

    Weed competition is a significant problem in maize (Zea mays, L.) production in Sub-Saharan Africa. Better understanding of weed management and costs in maize intercropped with beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, L.) during transition to conservation agricultural systems is needed. Changes in weed population and maize growth were assessed for a period of three years at Bungoma where crops are grown twice per year and at Trans-Nzoia where crops are grown once per year. Treatments included three tillage practices: minimum (MT), no-till (NT) and conventional (CT) applied to three cropping systems: continuous maize/bean intercropping (TYPICAL), maize/bean intercropping with relayed mucuna after bean harvest (RELAY) and maize, bean and mucuna planted in a strip intercropping arrangement (STRIP). Herbicides were used in NT, shallow hand hoeing and herbicides were used in MT and deep hoeing with no herbicides were used in CT. Weed and maize performance in the maize phase of each cropping system were assessed at both locations and costs of weed control were estimated at Manor House only. Weed density of grass and forb species declined significantly under MT and NT at Manor House and of grass species only at Mabanga. The greatest declines of more than 50% were observed as early as within one year of the transition to MT and NT in STRIP and TYPICAL cropping systems at Manor House. Transitioning to conservation based systems resulted in a decline of four out of five most dominant weed species. At the same time, no negative impact of MT or NT on maize growth was observed. Corresponding costs of weed management were reduced by $148.40 ha(-1) in MT and $149.60 ha(-1) in NT compared with CT. In conclusion, farmers can benefit from effective and less expensive weed management alternatives early in the process of transitioning to reduced tillage operations.

  11. Designing Conservation Corridors in Production Landscapes: Assessment Methods, Implementation Issues, and Lessons Learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda T. Lombard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Designing broad-scale conservation corridors has become increasingly common as a way of conducting an assessment for achieving targets for the representation and persistence of nature. However, since many of these corridors must traverse agricultural and other production landscapes, planning and implementation are not trivial tasks. Most approaches to conservation assessments in the dynamic world of production landscapes are data-intensive and analytically complex. However, in the real world, donor and other external requirements impose time and budget constraints, and dictate strong stakeholder involvement in the entire planning process. In order to accommodate this, assessments must be rapid, cheap, and the approach and products must be comprehensible and acceptable to stakeholders. Here we describe such an assessment aimed at identifying and implementing a network of conservation corridors in the Gouritz Initiative project domain of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region hotspot. We used empirical data and expert knowledge to identify a corridor network hypothesized to sustain key ecological and evolutionary processes. We also consulted experts to provide a spatially explicit assessment of the opportunity costs of conservation associated with agriculture, the predominant land use in the region. We used these products to identify categories of land requiring different actions and instruments to achieve conservation goals, thereby moving from the "where" to the "how" of conservation. This information was then fed into the collaborative strategy development process for the Gouritz Initiative. Our discussion emphasizes the lessons that we learnt from undertaking this assessment, particularly lessons regarding the implementation of the planning products. We conclude that at the outset of any planning project, a consensus on the vision must be achieved, a detailed social assessment of appropriate institutions must be undertaken, and a learning

  12. 76 FR 21813 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ..., as set forth below: PART 429--CERTIFICATION, COMPLIANCE, AND ENFORCEMENT FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS AND...: EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  13. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE... necessary for residential water heaters, because the existing test procedures for those products already...

  14. 76 FR 19902 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... Furnace Company; (16) New Yorker Residential Heating Boilers; (17) Nordyne; (18) NY Thermal Inc.; (19... Products LLC; (24) Trane; (25) Triangle Tube; (26) US Boiler Company; and (27) Weil-McLain. In the same... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting 180-Day Extension of Compliance Date...

  15. Maximal conservation and minimal usage of blood products in open heart surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, P E; Pastoriza-Pinol, J; McMillan, J; Smith, B F; Stirling, G R

    1980-05-01

    Open heart surgery has previously been associated with the use of large volumes of blood products. This paper describes methods of blood conservation and a simple method of intraoperative autotransfusion that together have resulted in minimal blood product usage in elective open heart surgery cases. This has reduced our dependence on blood bank supplies for the performance of elective open heart surgery.

  16. 75 FR 62127 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-07

    ... requirements for covered consumer products when (1) the petitioner's basic model for which the petition for... petition, discussed below. Whirlpool claims that water softeners can prevent consumer behaviors that... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Whirlpool Corporation From...

  17. Frequency Assignment, Sharing and Conservation in Systems (Aerospace). (l’Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour les systemes aeronautiques et spatiales)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    NETWORKS C. Bousofto-Calzön A.R. Figueiras-Vidal Dpto. Tecnologias de las Comunicaciones Univ. Carlos III de Madrid C/Butarque, 15; 28911 Leganes...Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour les systemes aeronautiques et spatiales) Papers presented at the Information Systems...PROCEEDINGS 13 Frequency Assignment, Sharing and Conservation in Systems (Aerospace) (V Attribution, le partage et la conservation des frequences pour

  18. Achieving production and conservation simultaneously in tropical agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Renwick, Anna R.; Vickery, Juliet A.; Potts, Simon G.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing population size and demand for food in the developing world is driving the intensification of agriculture, often threatening the biodiversity within the farmland itself and in the surrounding landscape. This paper quantifies bird and tree species richness, tree carbon and farmer's gross...... for the rural populations, and ensuring ‘sustained agricultural growth’ within such systems while minimising negative impacts on biodiversity and other key ecosystem services will be a major future challenge....

  19. Supporting food security in the 21st century through resource-conserving increases in agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uphoff Norman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Green Revolution was accomplished under a set of demographic, economic, climatic and other conditions in the 20th century that have been changing and will surely be different and more difficult in the decades ahead. The suitability and sustainability of any given agricultural technology depends on factors like resource availability and productivity, energy costs, and environmental constraints. The achievements of Green Revolution technologies in the 1960s and 1970s came at a critical time of impending food shortages, and the world’s people would be worse off without them. However, the rate of yield improvement for cereal production has been slowing since the mid-1980s. Looking ahead at the foreseeable circumstances under which 21st century agricultural producers must try to assure food security, there will be need for technologies that are less dependent on resources that are becoming relatively scarcer, like arable land and water, or becoming relatively more costly, like energy and petrochemical-based inputs. This paper considers agroecologically-based innovations that reduce farmers’ dependence on external inputs, relying more on endogenous processes and existing potentials in plants and soil systems. Such resource-conserving production represents a different approach to meeting food security goals. While these innovations are not yet fully understood and are still being researched, there are good agronomic reasons to account for their effectiveness, and scientific validations are accumulating. Enough successes have been recorded from making changes in the management of plants, soil, water and nutrients that more attention from researchers, policy-makers and practitioners is warranted, especially given the need to adapt to, and to mitigate the effects of, climate change. The same agroecological concepts and management methods that are enhancing factor productivity in rice production are giving similar results with other crops

  20. Setulang forest conservation strategy in safeguarding the conservation of non-timber forest products in Malinau District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutauruk, T. R.; Lahjie, A. M.; Simarangkir, B. D. A. S.; Aipassa, M. I.; Ruslim, Y.

    2018-04-01

    Some research on human relationships with forests shows that human activities for the forests are sufficient to meet demand or to meet demand. Both will directly or indirectly change the perceptions of the people who exploit them against the forests being utilized. Setulang community one of the community groups that intensively utilize NTFP as one of the source of fulfillment and fulfill the demand of handicraft product. For needs and demand of livelihood the people of Setulang choose to make the existing forest in the Tane Olen area into. The analysis method used in this research with Stength Weakness Opportunity and Threat (SWOT). The results of this study show the extent to which the commitment of Setulang community and the conservation efforts of Setulang community both self-help and donor assistance and the local government, as well as what strategic steps can be taken by the stakeholders to conserve so that the village forest can provide benefits in the short or long term. Strategic measures need to be set up save Setulang State Forest from degradation and deforestation occurring around the village.

  1. Energy conservation and management system using efficient building automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hazry, D.; Tanveer, M. Hassan; Joyo, M. Kamran; Warsi, Faizan A.; Kamarudin, H.; Wan, Khairunizam; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.; Hussain, A. T.

    2015-05-01

    In countries where the demand and supply gap of electricity is huge and the people are forced to endure increasing hours of load shedding, unnecessary consumption of electricity makes matters even worse. So the importance and need for electricity conservation increases exponentially. This paper outlines a step towards the conservation of energy in general and electricity in particular by employing efficient Building Automation technique. It should be noted that by careful designing and implementation of the Building Automation System, up to 30% to 40% of energy consumption can be reduced, which makes a huge difference for energy saving. In this study above mentioned concept is verified by performing experiment on a prototype experimental room and by implementing efficient building automation technique. For the sake of this efficient automation, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is employed as a main controller, monitoring various system parameters and controlling appliances as per required. The hardware test run and experimental findings further clarifies and proved the concept. The added advantage of this project is that it can be implemented to both small and medium level domestic homes thus greatly reducing the overall unnecessary load on the Utility provider.

  2. LEVERAGING RURAL LIVELIHOODS WITH FOREST CONSERVATION IN NIGERIA: THE ROLE OF NON-TIMBER FOREST PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egbe BASSEY ETOWA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent times some economists view Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs extraction and marketing as a better alternative to timber exploitation as a rural livelihood strategy. Harvesting and sale of NTFPs have the potential for accomplishing the dual goals of natural forest conservation and income generation for the rural inhabitants. Meanwhile, realization of these dual goals in Nigeria, require an understanding of how NTFPs functions in the face of marketing, ecological, geographic and institutional constraints. Following a conceptualization of NTFPs, this paper provides a vivid overview of the simultaneous roles of NTFPs in rural livelihood enhancement and forest conservation in Nigeria. It highlights governmental initiatives with respect to conservation, the challenges and prospects of NTFPs as a conservation strategy. Conclusively, the paper suggests that appropriate NTFPs development policies are required to simultaneously address forest depletion and poverty in rural areas of Nigeria.

  3. Conservation of filtering in manufacturing systems with unreliable machines and finished goods buffers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the issue of reliable satisfaction of customer demand by unreliable production systems. In the framework of a simple production-storage-customer model, we show that this can be accomplished by using an appropriate level of filtering of production randomness. The filtering is ensured by finished goods buffers (filtering in space and shipping periods (filtering in time. The following question is considered: how are filtering in space and filtering in time interrelated? As an answer, we show that there exists a conservation law: in lean manufacturing systems, the amount of filtering in space multiplied by the amount of filteringin time (both measured in appropriate dimensionless units ispractically constant. Along with providing an insight into the nature of manufacturing systems, this law offers a tool for selecting the smallest, that is, lean, finished goods buffering, which is necessary and sufficient to ensure the desired level ofcustomer demand satisfaction.

  4. Energy conservation and conversion of electrical heating systems in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, a Swedish house built in 1974, heated with resistance heaters was analysed. Different options for changing the heating system and electricity production were compared for this type of detached house, assuming coal-based electricity production as a reference. Changes in the fuel used, the electricity production technology, the end-use heating technology and the heat demand were analysed. The aim was to show how these different parts of the energy system interact and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reducing CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results showed that the CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use could be reduced by 95 and 70%, respectively, without increased heating costs in a national economic perspective. The choice of end-use heating system had a greater influence than the energy conservation measures on the parameters studied. The energy conservation measures were less cost-effective in combination with the more energy-efficient heating systems, although the fact that they reduced the heat demand, and thus also the investment cost of the new heating system, was taken into account. (Author)

  5. Conservation properties of numerical integration methods for systems of ordinary differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    If a system of ordinary differential equations represents a property conserving system that can be expressed linearly (e.g., conservation of mass), it is then desirable that the numerical integration method used conserve the same quantity. It is shown that both linear multistep methods and Runge-Kutta methods are 'conservative' and that Newton-type methods used to solve the implicit equations preserve the inherent conservation of the numerical method. It is further shown that a method used by several authors is not conservative.

  6. Modeling Novo Nordisk Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1997-01-01

    This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'.......This report describes attributes of models and systems, and how models can be used for description of production systems. There are special attention on the 'Theory of Domains'....

  7. Production Systems and Supplier Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedraza-Acosta, Isabel; Pilkington, Alan; Barnes, David

    2016-01-01

    strategic stamping suppliers. Findings: Our contribution is the multi-phased production and product innovation process. This is an advance from traditional supplier selection and also an extension of ideas of supplier-located product development as it includes production system development, and complements...

  8. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction on Energy Conservation in Field Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, George; Scanlon, Dennis C.

    This unit of instruction on energy conservation in field crop production was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate…

  9. Natural Fostering in Fritillaria cirrhosa: Integrating herbal medicine production with biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiwen Li

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas are generally regarded as a power tool to conserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, few protected areas could address three crucial problems simultaneously, namely funding, public participation and rural living. Here, we introduced a new protective approach, Natural Fostering, which integrated herbal medicine production with community conservation. The principles of Natural Fostering adopted species–species interaction at community level. Most effective chemical components of herbal medicine are derived from such interaction. Fritillaria cirrhosa was selected as an economic botany, one of herbal medicines, to carry out Natural Fostering. Community habitats, herbal medicine production, funding and income of local family were investigated to verify the feasibility of Natural Fostering for biodiversity. We found the density of plant populations and the annual average personal income of rural people increased. F. cirrhosa production could provide sufficient funds for sustainable conservation. Local people gradually changed their life style of wild collection and overgrazing, instead of herbal medicine production. The fostering area set up a good sustainable economic cycle. Natural Fostering can be presented as an effective and pragmatic way to conserve biological diversity and sustainable utilization of traditional medicinal resources.

  10. 76 FR 46202 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Parts 429 and 430 [Docket No. EERE-2010-BT-CE-0014] RIN 1904-AC23 Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment; Correction Correction In rule document 2011-10401 appearing on pages...

  11. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating... proposed to amend, where appropriate, its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating... notes that the test procedure and metric for residential water heaters currently address and incorporate...

  12. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  13. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  14. 77 FR 35299 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,\\2\\ a program covering most major household... polluting than sources that must be used during peak demand times. The utilities indicated that a survey... customarily treated as confidential within the industry; (3) whether the information is generally known by or...

  15. 75 FR 19959 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc.... SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung... refrigerator-freezers to additional Samsung basic models. Through this document, DOE also solicits comments...

  16. 75 FR 13120 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung Electronics America... (Case No. RF-011) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE... humidity sensors and adaptive control anti-sweat heaters. Under today's decision and order, Samsung shall...

  17. 75 FR 57937 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-23

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Samsung Electronics America, Inc... announces receipt of and publishes the Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) petition for waiver... clothes washer test procedure. Through this notice, DOE also solicits comments with respect to the Samsung...

  18. 75 FR 45623 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to Samsung Electronics America...-014) that grants to Samsung Electronics America, Inc. (Samsung) a waiver from the DOE electric... decision and order, Samsung shall be required to test and rate these refrigerator- freezers equipped with...

  19. Almost conserved operators in nearly many-body localized systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancotti, Nicola; Knap, Michael; Huse, David A.; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Bañuls, Mari Carmen

    2018-03-01

    We construct almost conserved local operators, that possess a minimal commutator with the Hamiltonian of the system, near the many-body localization transition of a one-dimensional disordered spin chain. We collect statistics of these slow operators for different support sizes and disorder strengths, both using exact diagonalization and tensor networks. Our results show that the scaling of the average of the smallest commutators with the support size is sensitive to Griffiths effects in the thermal phase and the onset of many-body localization. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the probability distributions of the commutators can be analyzed using extreme value theory and that their tails reveal the difference between diffusive and subdiffusive dynamics in the thermal phase.

  20. Global conservation laws and femtoscopy of small systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chajecki, Zbigniew; Lisa, Mike

    2008-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand, in detail, two-pion correlations measured in p+p and d+A collisions. In particular, one wishes to understand the femtoscopic correlations to compare to similar measurements in heavy-ion collisions. However, in the low-multiplicity final states of these systems, global conservation laws generate significant N-body correlations that project onto the two-pion space in nontrivial ways and complicate the femtoscopic analysis. We discuss a formalism to calculate and account for these correlations in collisions dominated by a single particle species (e.g., pions). We also discuss effects on two-particle correlations between nonidentical particles, the understanding of which may be important in the study of femtoscopic space-time asymmetries

  1. Violation of energy–momentum conservation in Mueller–Navelet jets production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducloué, B. [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Szymanowski, L. [National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S., E-mail: wallon@th.u-psud.fr [LPT, Université Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculté de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2014-11-10

    We study effects related to violation of energy–momentum conservation inherent to the BFKL approach, in the particular case of Mueller–Navelet jets production. We argue, based on the comparison of the lowest order non-trivial corrections O(α{sub s}{sup 3}) to the cross section with predictions of an exact calculation, that the inclusion of next-to-leading order BFKL corrections to the jet production vertex significantly reduces the importance of these effects.

  2. Violation of energy–momentum conservation in Mueller–Navelet jets production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducloué, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2014-01-01

    We study effects related to violation of energy–momentum conservation inherent to the BFKL approach, in the particular case of Mueller–Navelet jets production. We argue, based on the comparison of the lowest order non-trivial corrections O(α s 3 ) to the cross section with predictions of an exact calculation, that the inclusion of next-to-leading order BFKL corrections to the jet production vertex significantly reduces the importance of these effects

  3. Quantum Correlation Properties in Composite Parity-Conserved Matrix Product States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Min

    2016-09-01

    We give a new thought for constructing long-range quantum correlation in quantum many-body systems. Our proposed composite parity-conserved matrix product state has long-range quantum correlation only for two spin blocks where their spin-block length larger than 1 compared to any subsystem only having short-range quantum correlation, and we investigate quantum correlation properties of two spin blocks varying with environment parameter and spacing spin number. We also find that the geometry quantum discords of two nearest-neighbor spin blocks and two next-nearest-neighbor spin blocks become smaller and for other conditions the geometry quantum discord becomes larger than that in any subcomponent, i.e., the increase or the production of the long-range quantum correlation is at the cost of reducing the short-range quantum correlation compared to the corresponding classical correlation and total correlation having no any characteristic of regulation. For nearest-neighbor and next-nearest-neighbor all the correlations take their maximal values at the same points, while for other conditions no whether for spacing same spin number or for different spacing spin numbers all the correlations taking their maximal values are respectively at different points which are very close. We believe that our work is helpful to comprehensively and deeply understand the organization and structure of quantum correlation especially for long-range quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems; and further helpful for the classification, the depiction and the measure of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  4. Numerical viscosity of entropy stable schemes for systems of conservation laws. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1985-11-01

    Discrete approximations to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws are studied. The amount of numerical viscosity present in such schemes is quantified and related to their entropy stability by means of comparison. To this end conservative schemes which are also entropy conservative are constructed. These entropy conservative schemes enjoy second-order accuracy; moreover, they admit a particular interpretation within the finite-element frameworks, and hence can be formulated on various mesh configurations. It is then shown that conservative schemes are entropy stable if and only if they contain more viscosity than the mentioned above entropy conservative ones

  5. Products in fusion systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henke, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the notion of a product of a normal subsystem with a p-subgroup as defined by Aschbacher (2011) [Asc11, Chapter 8]. In particular, we give a previously unknown, more transparent construction....

  6. Processed Products Database System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection of annual data on processed seafood products. The Division provides authoritative advice, coordination and guidance on matters related to the collection,...

  7. Short-range order and local conservation of quantum numbers in multiparticle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Bellac, M.

    1976-01-01

    These lectures discuss the implications of the hypotheses of short-range order (SRO) and local conservation of quantum numbers (LCQN) for multiple production of elementary particles at high energies. The consequences of SRO for semi-inclusive correlations and the distribution of rapidity gaps are derived, essentially in the framework of the cluster model. Then the experimental status of local conservation of charge and transverse momentum is reviewed. Finally, by making use of the unitarity relation, it is shown that LCQN has important consequences for the elastic amplitude. The derivation is given both in a model-independent way, and in specific multiperiheral models. (Author)

  8. Enhancing Conservation with High Resolution Productivity Datasets for the Conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Nathaniel Paul

    Human driven alteration of the earth's terrestrial surface is accelerating through land use changes, intensification of human activity, climate change, and other anthropogenic pressures. These changes occur at broad spatio-temporal scales, challenging our ability to effectively monitor and assess the impacts and subsequent conservation strategies. While satellite remote sensing (SRS) products enable monitoring of the earth's terrestrial surface continuously across space and time, the practical applications for conservation and management of these products are limited. Often the processes driving ecological change occur at fine spatial resolutions and are undetectable given the resolution of available datasets. Additionally, the links between SRS data and ecologically meaningful metrics are weak. Recent advances in cloud computing technology along with the growing record of high resolution SRS data enable the development of SRS products that quantify ecologically meaningful variables at relevant scales applicable for conservation and management. The focus of my dissertation is to improve the applicability of terrestrial gross and net primary productivity (GPP/NPP) datasets for the conterminous United States (CONUS). In chapter one, I develop a framework for creating high resolution datasets of vegetation dynamics. I use the entire archive of Landsat 5, 7, and 8 surface reflectance data and a novel gap filling approach to create spatially continuous 30 m, 16-day composites of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from 1986 to 2016. In chapter two, I integrate this with other high resolution datasets and the MOD17 algorithm to create the first high resolution GPP and NPP datasets for CONUS. I demonstrate the applicability of these products for conservation and management, showing the improvements beyond currently available products. In chapter three, I utilize this dataset to evaluate the relationships between land ownership and terrestrial production

  9. Fuel-Conservation Guidance System for Powered-Lift Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, Heinz; McLean, John D.

    1981-01-01

    A technique is described for the design of fuel-conservative guidance systems and is applied to a system that was flight tested on board NASA's sugmentor wing jet STOL research aircraft. An important operational feature of the system is its ability to rapidly synthesize fuel-efficient trajectories for a large set of initial aircraft positions, altitudes, and headings. This feature allows the aircraft to be flown efficiently under conditions of changing winds and air traffic control vectors. Rapid synthesis of fuel-efficient trajectories is accomplished in the airborne computer by fast-time trajectory integration using a simplified dynamic performance model of the aircraft. This technique also ensures optimum flap deployment and, for powered-lift STOL aircraft, optimum transition to low-speed flight. Also included in the design is accurate prediction of touchdown time for use in four-dimensional guidance applications. Flight test results have demonstrated that the automatically synthesized trajectories produce significant fuel savings relative to manually flown conventional approaches.

  10. Regional application of a cropping systems simulation model: crop residue retention in maize production systems of Jalisco, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartkamp, A.D.; White, J.W.; Rossing, W.A.H.; Ittersum, van M.K.; Bakker, E.J.; Rabbinge, R.

    2004-01-01

    To ensure the productivity of smallholder maize production systems in Central America, increased attention must be paid to conserving soil and water resources. Various stakeholders from national agricultural research services (NARS), networks, non-governmental organizations (NGO's) and research

  11. Isospin Conservation in Neutron Rich Systems of Heavy Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Ashok Kumar; Garg, Swati

    2018-05-01

    It is generally believed that isospin would diminish in its importance as we go towards heavy mass region due to isospin mixing caused by the growing Coulomb forces. However, it was realized quite early that isospin could become an important and useful quantum number for all nuclei including heavy nuclei due to neutron richness of the systems [1]. Lane and Soper [2] also showed in a theoretical calculation that isospin indeed remains quite good in heavy mass neutron rich systems. In this paper, we present isospin based calculations [3, 4] for the fission fragment distributions obtained from heavy-ion fusion fission reactions. We discuss in detail the procedure adopted to assign the isospin values and the role of neutron multiplicity data in obtaining the total fission fragment distributions. We show that the observed fragment distributions can be reproduced rather reasonably well by the calculations based on the idea of conservation of isospin. This is a direct experimental evidence of the validity of isospin in heavy nuclei, which arises largely due to the neutron-rich nature of heavy nuclei and their fragments. This result may eventually become useful for the theories of nuclear fission and also in other practical applications.

  12. Developing conservation targets in social-ecological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S. Levin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of targets is foundational in conservation. Although progress has been made in setting targets, the diverse linkages among ecological and social components make target setting for coupled social-ecological systems extremely challenging. Developing integrated social-ecological targets is difficult because it forces policy makers to consider how management actions propagate throughout social-ecological systems, and because ultimately it is society, not scientists, that defines targets. We developed an interdisciplinary approach for identifying management targets and illustrate this approach using an example motivated by Puget Sound, USA. Our approach blends ecological modeling with empirical social science to articulate trade-offs and reveal societal preferences for different social-ecological states. The framework aims to place information in the hands of decision makers and promote discussion in the appropriate forums. Our ultimate objective is to encourage the informed participation of citizens in the development of social-ecological targets that reflect their values while also protecting key ecosystem attributes.

  13. Effect of roller/crimper designs in terminating rye cover crop in small-scale conservation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, use of cover crops in no-till organic production systems has steadily increased. When cover crops are terminated at an appropriate growth stage, the unincorporated residue mulch protects the soil from erosion, runoff, soil compaction, and weed pressure, and conserves soil water. In ...

  14. Automated plant, production management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenova, V. I.; Belov, V. I.

    1984-12-01

    The development of a complex of tasks for the operational management of production (OUP) within the framework of an automated system for production management (ASUP) shows that it is impossible to have effective computations without reliable initial information. The influence of many factors involving the production and economic activity of the entire enterprise upon the plan and course of production are considered. It is suggested that an adequate model should be available which covers all levels of the hierarchical system: workplace, section (bridgade), shop, enterprise, and the model should be incorporated into the technological sequence of performance and there should be provisions for an adequate man machine system.

  15. GLOBAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The most significant transformations that globalization produces occur in production. Since the '60s, a new division of labor has made its presence felt in the world, arising from the "de-industrialization" of the developed and transfer production capacity of resource-intensive industries and pollutants from these countries to the developing world. "Dislocation" industry had the interim foreign direct investment made in the new industrialized countries, the latter becoming, in turn, sources of direct foreign investment, taking its capital in other countries in developing handsets. Currently, FDI destination is no longer a priority in developing countries, yet they are increasingly leaning towards the developed countries, due to the attractiveness offered by their economies.

  16. New families of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, Elena N.

    1997-01-01

    There is a well-known example of integrable conservative system on $S^2$, the case of Kovalevskaya in the dynamics of a rigid body, possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta. Goryachev proposed a one-parameter family of examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta which includes the case of Kovalevskaya. In this paper we proposed new examples of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral of fourth degree in momenta.

  17. Analysis and adaptive control of a novel 3-D conservative no-equilibrium chaotic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidyanathan Sundarapandian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available First, this paper announces a seven-term novel 3-D conservative chaotic system with four quadratic nonlinearities. The conservative chaotic systems are characterized by the important property that they are volume conserving. The phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system are displayed and the mathematical properties are discussed. An important property of the proposed novel chaotic system is that it has no equilibrium point. Hence, it displays hidden chaotic attractors. The Lyapunov exponents of the novel conservative chaotic system are obtained as L1 = 0.0395,L2 = 0 and L3 = −0.0395. The Kaplan-Yorke dimension of the novel conservative chaotic system is DKY =3. Next, an adaptive controller is designed to globally stabilize the novel conservative chaotic system with unknown parameters. Moreover, an adaptive controller is also designed to achieve global chaos synchronization of the identical conservative chaotic systems with unknown parameters. MATLAB simulations have been depicted to illustrate the phase portraits of the novel conservative chaotic system and also the adaptive control results.

  18. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  19. Unbinned maximum likelihood fit for the CP conserving couplings for W + photon production at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannon, K.

    1994-01-01

    We present an unbinned maximum likelihood fit as an alternative to the currently used fit for the CP conserving couplings W plus photon production studied at CDF. We show that a four parameter double exponential fits the E T spectrum of the photon very well. We also show that the fit parameters can be related to and by a second order polynomial. Finally, we discuss various conclusions we have reasoned from our results to the fit so far

  20. Cooled Water Production System,

    Science.gov (United States)

    The invention refers to the field of air conditioning and regards an apparatus for obtaining cooled water . The purpose of the invention is to develop...such a system for obtaining cooled water which would permit the maximum use of the cooling effect of the water -cooling tower.

  1. Role of indigenous knowledge systems in the conservation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D0MINICS

    farming practices (soil conservation, intercropping, farm rotation, and food technology ... the earth's biological diversity through local knowledge. The agenda 21 of the .... did not eat, kill or trap these animals and birds thus naturally enhancing ...

  2. Effects of soil and water conservation on crop productivity: Evidences from Anjenie watershed, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adgo, Enyew; Teshome, Akalu

    2014-05-01

    Widespread soil and water conservation activities have been implemented in many parts of eastern Africa to control soil erosion by water and improve land productivity for the last few decades. Following the 1974 severe drought, soil and water conservation became more important to Ethiopia and the approach shifted to watershed based land management initiatives since the 1980s. To capture long-term impacts of these initiatives, a study was conducted in Anjenie Watershed of Ethiopia, assessing fanya juu terraces and grass strips constructed in a pilot project in 1984, and which are still functional nearly 30 years later. Data were collected from government records, field observations and questionnaire surveys administered to 60 farmers. Half of the respondents had terraced farms in the watershed former project area (with terrace technology) and the rest were outside the terraced area. The crops assessed were teff, barley and maize. Cost-benefit analyses were used to determine the economic benefits with and without terraces, including gross and net profit values, returns on labour, water productivity and impacts on poverty. The results indicated that soil and water conservation had improved crop productivity. The average yield on terraced fields was 0.95 t ha-1 for teff (control 0.49), 1.86 t ha-1 for barley (control 0.61), and 1.73 t ha-1 for maize (control 0.77). The net benefit was significantly higher on terraced fields, recording US 20.9 (US -112 control) for teff, US 185 (US -41 control) for barley and US -34.5 (US - 101 control) ha-1 yr-1 for maize. The returns on family labour were 2.33 for barley, 1.01 for teff, and 0.739 US per person-day for maize grown on terraced plots, compared to US 0.44, 0.27 and 0.16 per person-day for plots without terraces, respectively. Using a discount rate of 10%, the average net present value (NPV) of barley production with terrace was found to be about US 1542 over a period of 50 years. In addition, the average financial

  3. Trade-offs between pasture production and farmland bird conservation: exploration of options using a dynamic farm model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, R; Teillard, F; Rossing, W A H; Doyen, L; Tichit, M

    2015-05-01

    In European grassland landscapes, grazing and mowing play a key role for the maintenance of high-quality habitats that host important bird populations. As grasslands are also key resources for cattle feeding, there is a need to develop management strategies that achieve the double objective of production and biodiversity conservation. The objective of this study was to use a modelling approach to generate recognisable patterns of bird dynamics in farms composed of different land use proportions, and to compare their production and ecological dimensions. We developed a dynamic model, which linked grassland management to bird population dynamics at the field and farm levels. The model was parameterised for two types of suckling farms corresponding to contrasting levels of grassland intensification and for two bird species of high conservation value. A viability algorithm was used to define and assess viable management strategies for production and ecological performance so as to draw the shape of the relationship between both types of performances for the two types of farms. Our results indicated that, at the farm level, there was a farming system effect with a negative and non-linear relationship linking performance. Improving bird population maintenance was less costly in extensive farms compared with intensive farms. At the field level, the model predicted the timing and intensity of land use, maximising either production or ecological performance. The results suggested that multi-objective grassland management would benefit from public policies that consider levels of organisation higher than the field level, such as the farm or the landscape.

  4. The system Around the Product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

          The design discipline has traditionally focused on products physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ?operative paradigm? to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors? role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  5. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvaro, Celeste; Lyons, Renée F; Warner, Grace; Hobfoll, Stevan E; Martens, Patricia J; Labonté, Ronald; Brown, Richard E

    2010-10-20

    Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally) with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT) research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use?In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR) theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. COR theory contributes to understanding the role of resources in research use, resistance to

  6. Conservation of resources theory and research use in health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobfoll Stevan E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health systems face challenges in using research evidence to improve policy and practice. These challenges are particularly evident in small and poorly resourced health systems, which are often in locations (in Canada and globally with poorer health status. Although organizational resources have been acknowledged as important in understanding research use resource theories have not been a focus of knowledge translation (KT research. What resources, broadly defined, are required for KT and how does their presence or absence influence research use? In this paper, we consider conservation of resources (COR theory as a theoretical basis for understanding the capacity to use research evidence in health systems. Three components of COR theory are examined in the context of KT. First, resources are required for research uptake. Second, threat of resource loss fosters resistance to research use. Third, resources can be optimized, even in resource-challenged environments, to build capacity for KT. Methods A scan of the KT literature examined organizational resources needed for research use. A multiple case study approach examined the three components of COR theory outlined above. The multiple case study consisted of a document review and key informant interviews with research team members, including government decision-makers and health practitioners through a retrospective analysis of four previously conducted applied health research studies in a resource-challenged region. Results The literature scan identified organizational resources that influence research use. The multiple case study supported these findings, contributed to the development of a taxonomy of organizational resources, and revealed how fears concerning resource loss can affect research use. Some resources were found to compensate for other resource deficits. Resource needs differed at various stages in the research use process. Conclusions COR theory contributes to

  7. MILK PRODUCTION IN INTEGRATED SYSTEMS: REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Z. Biavatti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The pasture degradation and thermic stress are in economic trouble for milk producers. The use of silvopastoral system (SSP is an important tool to minimize this loss, since it combines the production and conservation of natural resources, furthermore, provides the producer the potential to diversify the source of income of rural property, it is possible sale or own use of the products generated by the trees as timber, firewood and fruit. With the implementation of the SSP is possible to attenuate the effects of high temperatures caused by direct solar incidence on the animals, providing an ideal thermal comfort zone, resulting in increased production, it will expend less energy so that the animals are able to be as close as possible the necessary thermal comfort. Besides, with the adoption of this system, occurs a minor pasture degradation by promoting the formation of a microclimate favoring their establishment and maintenance, in addition to stabilizing soils, unpacked action of roots and preventing erosion. The purpose of this work was study the main aspects that affect the production of milk, proposing the use of integrated systems to minimize losses from thermal stress and degradation of pastures.

  8. Coptis teeta-based agroforestry system and its conservation potential: a case study from northwest Yunnan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji; Long, Chunlin

    2007-06-01

    Coptis teeta (Ranunculaceae), is a nontimber forest product (NTFP) that only grows in northwest Yunnan and northeast India. Its tenuous rhizome, known as "Yunnan goldthread" in the traditional Chinese medicine system, has been used as an antibacterial and as an antiinflammatory medicine for a long time. The increasing demand has resulted in commercial harvesting pressure on wild populations that were already dwindling as a result of deforestation, and wild populations are at risk of extinction. Fortunately, there exists at least 2000 hectares of a C. teeta-based agroforestry system initiated by the Lisu people in Nujiang, northwest Yunnan. This cultivation supplies us with a valuable study case for the balance between conservation and sustainable use. This case study investigated the traditional management system and history of C. teeta in Nujiang through ethnobotanical methods and field investigation. We also contrasted initial costs, economic returns, and labor demands for C. teeta cultivation with other major land uses in the region. Compared with swidden agriculture, the major land-use type in the region, C. teeta cultivation offers high economic returns and low labor and initial costs; moreover, C. teeta cultivation does not interfere with subsistence agricultural duties. This agroforestry system reflected that the cultivation of NTFPs is a conservation strategy for maintaining forest diversity, while providing a stable economic return to local forest communities, and indicates how local people manage biodiversity effectively.

  9. The SPOOKI post production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, M.; Klasa, M.; Fortier, S.; Fortin, F.; Hardy, G.; Pelletier, L.; Edouard, S.; Archambault, B.; Yazidi, H.

    2010-09-01

    The Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) delivers a large number of numerical weather prediction products to the various weather offices and clients throughout Canada and abroad. The current post production system was built according to the needs and ideology of the 1980's and it is becoming obsolete with time. Its cumbersome architecture is difficult to maintain and requires a lot of human and computing resources. The "Weather Elements" section of CMC is aware of the problems associated with its maintenance in the long term and has therefore decided to review in depth the whole approach to the operational post production. The analysis of present and future needs have led to the development of an innovative concept in the operational production field inspired by the "Plug and Play" process. SPOOKI (Système de Production Orienté-Objet contennant une Kyrielle d'Informations - Object oriented production system containing a myriad of information) was created in its present form in 2007. It is based on a modular approach where each plug-in component is specialized, reusable and autonomous. These object oriented programming characteristics greatly simplify the maintenance of the system. Particular attention was also given to create a user-friendly system for novice users. An experimental version of SPOOKI is currently running in development mode and an operational one is planned to be implemented in the coming year. The poster presentation will describe SPOOKI, the future CMC operational post production system. Several examples of usage will be shown.

  10. The system around the product

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Nicola

    2006-01-01

    The design discipline has traditionally focused on products’ physical aspects, giving for granted that the context of services, infrastructures and technology will support the product life. A systemic perspective would revise such a focus, in order to project design competences over systemic...... aspects usually neglected by designers. This perspective shift is a challenge for designers, who have very efficient methods and tools to handle physical aspects of product design, but need to define an ‘operative paradigm’ to operate in a systemic context. An operative paradigm consists of a set of tools...... and methods to handle immaterial aspects such as time sequences, actors’ role and logical links in a product service system (PSS). Tools and methods can be borrowed from other disciplinary contexts, their relevance, though, derives from their adaptation to this specific study area: designing in a systemic...

  11. Ethnopharmacology, food production, nutrition and biodiversity conservation: towards a sustainable future for indigenous peoples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, Vernon H

    2011-09-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that ethnopharmacology cannot be disassociated from food production, human nutrition and the conservation of the biodiversity that constitutes its resource base. This paper aims to provide a perspective of ethnopharmacology that explicitly extends the range of disciplines it covers so as to embrace food and nutrition and the biodiversity basis, both wild and agricultural, and also places it in the context of the dramatic changes to our planet that we are experiencing during a period of rapid global change and the impacts that these changes are having on human health and nutrition and on its resource base. A review is made of recent initiatives and developments that show linkages between ethnopharmacology, agriculture, food production, nutrition and biodiversity conservation. Ethnopharmacology, biodiversity, agriculture, food and nutrition are inextricably linked but suffer from compartmentalization and a lack of communication which have to be overcome if progress is to be made. Fortunately, a convergence of interest between the agricultural biodiversity and the biodiversity conservation sectors has emerged in recent years and there is an increased appreciation of the need to adopt a wider approach to human nutrition than the conventional agricultural model allows; there is also a greater awareness of the important role played by diversity of crops, especially local species, and consumption of wild species in achieving balanced nutrition. An increased recognition of the key role of local communities in managing agricultural biodiversity is evident. While ethnopharmacologists have expressed concern at the relentless loss of biodiversity, there has been little direct involvement but it is perhaps now time to consider a more proactive role. Attention is also drawn to the need to assess the implications of global change for ethnopharmacology. Ethnopharmacologists need to take much more cognizance of the fate of the resource base - the

  12. Electricity demand and conservation potential in the Chinese nonmetallic mineral products industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Ouyang, Xiaoling

    2014-01-01

    As the high energy-consuming manufacturing industry, electricity consumption of nonmetallic mineral products in China accounted for 7.93% of industrial, 5.84% of national and 1.33% of global electricity consumption in 2010. This study attempts to specify the determinants of sectoral electricity demand, forecast future electricity consumption by creating a model using the Johansen cointegration methodology and estimate the sectoral electricity conservation potential. Results indicate that GDP per capita is the leading force explaining the sectoral electricity consumption increase, while value-added per worker, R and D intensity and electricity price are the main factors contributing to the sectoral electricity consumption decrease. Results demonstrate that sectoral electricity consumption in 2020 will be 369.79–464.83 billion kWh under the low-growth scenario and 530.14–666.39 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario. Moreover, under the low-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 33.72–95.03 billion kWh, accounting for 0.45–1.26% of China's total electricity demand in 2020; under the high-growth scenario, the sectoral electricity conservation potential in 2020 will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh, accounting for 0.26–0.74% of world's total electricity consumption in 2010 respectively. Finally, we provide some policy recommendations for encouraging energy conservation in China's nonmetallic mineral products industry. - Highlights: • A long-term relationship of electricity demand in nonmetallic minerals industry is established. • Determinants of the sectoral electricity consumption are specified. • The sectoral electricity demand and saving potential are analyzed using scenarios analysis. • Electricity saving potential will be 48.34–136.24 billion kWh under the high-growth scenario

  13. 78 FR 43974 - Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-23

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 305 [3084-AB15] Energy and Water Use Labeling for Consumer Products Under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Energy Labeling Rule) AGENCY: Federal Trade...'') in 1979,\\1\\ pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA).\\2\\ The Rule requires...

  14. In vitro conservation and sustained production of breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae): modern technologies for a traditional tropical crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murch, Susan J.; Ragone, Diane; Shi, Wendy Lei; Alan, Ali R.; Saxena, Praveen K.

    2008-02-01

    Breadfruit ( Artocarpus altilis, Moraceae) is a traditionally cultivated, high-energy, high-yield crop, but widespread use of the plant for food is limited by poor quality and poor storage properties of the fruit. A unique field genebank of breadfruit species and cultivars exists at the National Tropical Botanical Garden in the Hawaiian Islands and is an important global resource for conservation and sustainable use of breadfruit. However, this plant collection could be damaged by a random natural disaster such as a hurricane. We have developed a highly efficient in vitro plant propagation system to maintain, conserve, mass propagate, and distribute elite varieties of this important tree species. Mature axillary shoot buds were collected from three different cultivars of breadfruit and proliferated using a cytokinin-supplemented medium. The multiple shoots were maintained as stock cultures and repeatedly used to develop whole plants after root differentiation on a basal or an auxin-containing medium. The plantlets were successfully grown under greenhouse conditions and were reused to initiate additional shoot cultures for sustained production of plants. Flow cytometry was used to determine the nuclear deoxyribonucleic acid content and the ploidy status of the in vitro grown population. The efficacy of the micropropagation protocols developed in this study represents a significant advancement in the conservation and sustained mass propagation of breadfruit germplasm in a controlled environment free from contamination.

  15. Non-timber Forest Products, Their Vulnerability and Conservation in a Designated UNESCO Heritage Site of Arunanchal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushalendra Kumar JHA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Apatani, non-nomadic tribe, have evolved an ecologically sustainable system of rural forestry in Ziro Valley, a proposed heritage site of UNESCO. They have been using non-timber forest products (NTFPs grown in homestead and nearby forests for a very long period. The present study was aimed at identification of priority NTFPs and uses, their availability status and availability trend, conservation need, and sustainability interventions. Qualitative methods of research like, exploratory survey, questionnaire survey, focus group discussion, semi-structured interview of key informants, etc. were employed for data collection. The Apatani used 112 priority NTFPs for food supplement, herbal medicine, house building material and other purposes. However, on the basis of ecological importance such NTFPs were categorized as very low, low, moderate, high, and very high vulnerable species. Twenty vulnerable species like Antiitari ayi (Actinidia callosa, Biiling (Choerospondias axillaris, Henchi (Rubus niveus, Jojuru ayi (Coccinia grandis, Ngiilyang Khiiko (Centella asiatica etc. should be conserved and seventeen not vulnerable species at this stage like, Padii hamang (Cardamine hirsute, Sankhe (Quercus griffithii, Bije (Phyllostachys manii, Hiigu hamang (Oenanthe javanica, Kiira (Quercus dealbata , etc. could be commercialized. However, a balance needed to be struck between commercialization and conservation by adopting a comprehensive policy based on scientific and traditional Apatani knowledge for harvesting and regeneration of NTFPs. Homegardening or community farming is recommended for sustainable supply of commercially important species to be domasticated.

  16. Universality of ordering dynamics in conserved multicomponent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Mouritsen, Ole G.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study is performed of the ordering dynamics and spinodal decomposition processes in two-dimensional two-state and three-state ferromagnetic Potts models with conserved order parameter. The models are investigated by Monte Carlo quenching simulations on both square and triangular...

  17. Environmental Management System of Petroleum Industries: A case study of Oil and Gas Exploration in the Zamrud Field Conservation Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onny Setiani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background:The Zamrud Field is one of the oil fields managed by Caltex Pacific Indonesia (CPI a production sharing contractor of Pertamina. It is located in the Coastal Plain and  Pekanbaru (CPP Block. The government of Indonesia has designated Zamrud as a conservation area. The petroleum industry in Zamrud fields has received 14001 ISO Certificate on Environmental Management System. The production sharing contract between CPI and the Government of Indonesia expired in August 2002 Methods: .This case study describes how CPI managed the development  of oil and gas production and compared to  the environmental management system for  petroleum industries  that should be taken  in the Zamrud conservation areas. Results: A number of specific measures were employed by CPI  to protect this sensitive area including a green seismic project, zero-discharge drilling, water management, preservation of nature and regular monitoring and impact assessment. There are two  important points that should be in consideration  for the environmental management system by CPI in the Zamrud areas, including top soil utilization to maintain biological and nutrients quality and re-vegetation in all areas of significant disturbances. Conclusion: oil and gas  exploration and production in conservation areas has to be managed through high commitment to good environmental  and social practices. Key words     : Environmental Management System (EMS, Petroleum Industries, Zamrud Field

  18. Coupled human and natural systems approach to wildlife research and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil H. Carter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Conserving wildlife while simultaneously meeting the resource needs of a growing human population is a major sustainability challenge. As such, using combined social and environmental perspectives to understand how people and wildlife are interlinked, together with the mechanisms that may weaken or strengthen those linkages, is of utmost importance. However, such integrated information is lacking. To help fill this information gap, we describe an integrated coupled human and natural systems (CHANS approach for analyzing the patterns, causes, and consequences of changes in wildlife population and habitat, human population and land use, and their interactions. Using this approach, we synthesize research in two sites, Wolong Nature Reserve in China and Chitwan National Park in Nepal, to explicate key relationships between people and two globally endangered wildlife conservation icons, the giant panda and the Bengal tiger. This synthesis reveals that local resident characteristics such as household socioeconomics and demography, as well as community-level attributes such as resource management organizations, affect wildlife and their habitats in complex and even countervailing ways. Human impacts on wildlife and their habitats are in turn modifying the suite of ecosystem services that they provide to local residents in both sites, including access to forest products and cultural values. These interactions are further complicated by human and natural disturbance (e.g., civil wars, earthquakes, feedbacks (including policies, and telecouplings (socioeconomic and environmental interactions over distances that increasingly link the focal systems with other distant systems. We highlight several important implications of using a CHANS approach for wildlife research and conservation that is useful not only in China and Nepal but in many other places around the world facing similar challenges.

  19. Neutral Higgs production at proton colliders in the CP-conserving NMSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebler, Stefan

    2015-02-01

    We discuss neutral Higgs boson production through gluon fusion and bottom-quark annihilation in the CP-conserving Z 3 -invariant Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) at proton colliders. For gluon fusion we adapt known asymptotic expansions in supersymmetric particles for the inclusion of next-to-leading order contributions of squarks and gluinos from the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and include electro-weak corrections involving light quarks. Together with the resummation of higher order sbottom contributions in the bottom-quark Yukawa coupling for both production processes we thus present accurate cross section predictions implemented in a new release of the code SusHi. We elaborate on the new features of an additional SU(2) L singlet in the production of CP-even and -odd Higgs bosons with respect to the MSSM and include a short discussion of theory uncertainties.

  20. Coupling movement and landscape ecology for animal conservation in production landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Tim S; Driscoll, Don A

    2018-01-10

    Habitat conversion in production landscapes is among the greatest threats to biodiversity, not least because it can disrupt animal movement. Using the movement ecology framework, we review animal movement in production landscapes, including areas managed for agriculture and forestry. We consider internal and external drivers of altered animal movement and how this affects navigation and motion capacities and population dynamics. Conventional management approaches in fragmented landscapes focus on promoting connectivity using structural changes in the landscape. However, a movement ecology perspective emphasizes that manipulating the internal motivations or navigation capacity of animals represents untapped opportunities to improve movement and the effectiveness of structural connectivity investments. Integrating movement and landscape ecology opens new opportunities for conservation management in production landscapes. © 2018 The Authors.

  1. Conservation laws for certain time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Komal; Gupta, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, an extension of the concept of nonlinear self-adjointness and Noether operators is proposed for calculating conserved vectors of the time fractional nonlinear systems of partial differential equations. In our recent work (J Math Phys 2016; 57: 101504), by proposing the symmetry approach for time fractional systems, the Lie symmetries for some fractional nonlinear systems have been derived. In this paper, the obtained infinitesimal generators are used to find conservation laws for the corresponding fractional systems.

  2. Comparative analysis of alternative co-production approaches to conservation science in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trammell, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Co-production has been suggested as an important tool for reducing the gap between science and management. Although co-production can require substantial investments in time and relationship building, there are a range of possible approaches that can be utilized that honor the focus and intent of co-production. I present here a comparison of three efforts that range from relatively simple, to complex and exhaustive, that illustrate diverse approaches to co-production of conservation science in Alaska. The first example highlights a workshop-based approach to identify long-term environmental monitoring needs in Alaska, while the second example describes stakeholder-driven scenarios that identified stressors to salmon in southcentral Alaska. The third example describes a 2-year cooperative agreement to develop management questions as part of a rapid ecoregional assessment in central Alaska. Results suggest that careful stakeholder selection is essential to successful co-production. Additionally, all three examples highlight the potential disconnect between management questions and specific management decisions, even when working directly with resource managers. As the focus of the Alaska Climate Science Center will be on co-production of climate science over the next 5 years, I conclude with some key pathways forward for successful co-production efforts in the future.

  3. PV water pumping systems for grassland and farmland conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia

    2013-01-01

    Grassland degradation is considered as one of the worst environmental and economic problems in China because of the negative impacts on water and food security. The application of the photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) technology for irrigation is an innovative and sustainable solution to curb the progress of grassland desertification and to promote the conservation of farmland in remote areas. The combination of PVWP with water saving irrigation techniques and the sustainable management of th...

  4. Simple connection between conservation laws in the Korteweg--de Vriesand sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodos, A.

    1980-01-01

    An infinite sequence of conserved quantities follows from the Lax representation in both the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems. We show that these two sequences are related by a simple substitution. In an appendix, two different methods of deriving conservation laws from the Lax representation are presented

  5. Research on hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, Toshio

    2002-07-01

    Hydrogen is closely watched for environmental issues in recent years. In this research, hydrogen production systems and production techniques are widely investigated, and selected some hydrogen production process which have high validity for FBR system. Conclusions of the investigation are shown below. (1) Water-electrolysis processes and steam reform processes at low temperatures are already realized in other fields, so they well be easily adopted for FBR system. FBR system has no advantage when compared with other systems, because water-electrolysis processes can be adopted for other electricity generation system. On the other hand, FBR system has an advantage when steam reforming processes at low temperatures will be adopted, because steam reforming processes at 550-600degC can't be adopted for LWR. (2) Thermochemical processes will be able to adopted for FBR when process temperature will be lowered and material problems solved, because their efficiencies are expected high. Radiolysis processes which use ray (for example, gamma rya) emitted in reactor can be generate hydrogen easily, so they will be able to be adopted for FBR if splitting efficiency will be higher. Further investigation and R and D to realize these processes are considered necessary. (author)

  6. Semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws; consistency and L(infinity)-stability imply convergence. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadmor, E.

    1988-07-01

    A convergence theory for semi-discrete approximations to nonlinear systems of conservation laws is developed. It is shown, by a series of scalar counter-examples, that consistency with the conservation law alone does not guarantee convergence. Instead, a notion of consistency which takes into account both the conservation law and its augmenting entropy condition is introduced. In this context it is concluded that consistency and L(infinity)-stability guarantee for a relevant class of admissible entropy functions, that their entropy production rate belongs to a compact subset of H(loc)sup -1 (x,t). One can now use compensated compactness arguments in order to turn this conclusion into a convergence proof. The current state of the art for these arguments includes the scalar and a wide class of 2 x 2 systems of conservation laws. The general framework of the vanishing viscosity method is studied as an effective way to meet the consistency and L(infinity)-stability requirements. How this method is utilized to enforce consistency and stability for scalar conservation laws is shown. In this context we prove, under the appropriate assumptions, the convergence of finite difference approximations (e.g., the high resolution TVD and UNO methods), finite element approximations (e.g., the Streamline-Diffusion methods) and spectral and pseudospectral approximations (e.g., the Spectral Viscosity methods)

  7. Non-Noether Conserved Quantity for Relativistic Nonholonomic System with Variable Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Yongfen; Li Renjie; Ma Yongsheng

    2005-01-01

    Using form invariance under special infinitesimal transformations in which time is not variable, the non-Noether conserved quantity of the relativistic nonholonomic system with variable mass is studied. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and criterion of the form invariance of the system under infinitesimal transformations are studied. The necessary and sufficient condition under which the form invariance is a Lie symmetry is given. The condition under which the form invariance can be led to a non-Noether conserved quantity and the form of the conserved quantity are obtained. Finally, an example is given to illustrate the application of the result.

  8. Importance of nuclear technology in the conservation and production of nutritional fungi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajet, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    The shortfall in food and field crops due to bad weather and the incidence of insects and microbes during harvesting, handling and storage under non-suitable conditions, called the attention of researchers to try to minimize the damage happening and by various means, whether to develop sources of new food, such as producing nutritional fungi, or by following non-traditional methods of anti-microbes and insects such as the use of radiation as a safe and successful way to save the food without any toxic effects. Permits have been issued for food irradiation by many international organizations including IAEA, World Health Organization and FAO. Nutritional fungi is one of the food sources used as food fit for human consumption in various countries around the world due to their importance which includes many aspects: the nutritional and health value; medical significance; environmental importance and industrial importance. Nuclear technology has contributed in many of the developments in the production and conservation of nutritional fungi, notably, biological studies of nutritional fungi, production technology of fungus, the role of radiation in the preparation and improvement of the nutritional media, improvement of the fungus strains, the use of radiation in the conservation of nutritional fungi and the detection of irradiated nutritional fungus.

  9. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  10. The ATLAS Production System Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The second generation of the ATLAS Production System called ProdSys2 is a distributed workload manager that runs daily hundreds of thousands of jobs, from dozens of different ATLAS-specific workflows, across more than a hundred heterogeneous sites. It achieves high utilization by combining dynamic job definition based upon many criteria, such as input and output size, memory requirements and CPU consumption, with manageable scheduling policies and by supporting different kinds of computational resources, such as GRID, clouds, supercomputers and volunteer computers. The system dynamically assigns a group of jobs (task) to a group of geographically distributed computing resources. Dynamic assignment and resource utilization is one of the major features of the system. The Production System has a sophisticated job fault recovery mechanism, which efficiently allows running multi-terabyte tasks without human intervention. We have implemented new features which allow automatic task submission and chaining of differe...

  11. Statistical characterization of discrete conservative systems: The web map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Guiomar; Tirnakli, Ugur; Borges, Ernesto P.; Tsallis, Constantino

    2017-10-01

    We numerically study the two-dimensional, area preserving, web map. When the map is governed by ergodic behavior, it is, as expected, correctly described by Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics, based on the additive entropic functional SB G[p (x ) ] =-k ∫d x p (x ) lnp (x ) . In contrast, possible ergodicity breakdown and transitory sticky dynamical behavior drag the map into the realm of generalized q statistics, based on the nonadditive entropic functional Sq[p (x ) ] =k 1/-∫d x [p(x ) ] q q -1 (q ∈R ;S1=SB G ). We statistically describe the system (probability distribution of the sum of successive iterates, sensitivity to the initial condition, and entropy production per unit time) for typical values of the parameter that controls the ergodicity of the map. For small (large) values of the external parameter K , we observe q -Gaussian distributions with q =1.935 ⋯ (Gaussian distributions), like for the standard map. In contrast, for intermediate values of K , we observe a different scenario, due to the fractal structure of the trajectories embedded in the chaotic sea. Long-standing non-Gaussian distributions are characterized in terms of the kurtosis and the box-counting dimension of chaotic sea.

  12. Project AProWa: a national view on managing trade-offs between agricultural production and conservation of aquatic ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzel, Anne; Rahn, Eric; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Swiss agriculture is legally committed to fulfill several, partially conflicting goals such as agricultural production on the one hand and the conservation of natural resources on the other hand. In the context of the research project AProWa ("Agricultural Production and Water"), the relationships between the production aspect and the conservation of aquatic ecosystems is analyzed with a holistic approach. Agricultural production and the protection of water resources have high potential for conflicts: Farmers use ground and surface water to irrigate their fields. On the other hand, drainage systems enable the production on otherwise unfavorably wet soils. These in turn often affect ground water recharge and divert precipitation directly into surface waters, which changes their hydrological regime. Typically, drainage systems also elevate the input of nutrients and pesticides into the water bodies. In general, applied fertilizers, plant protection products, veterinary drugs and phytohormones of cultivated plants are introduced into the ground and surface waters through different processes such as drift, leaching, runoff, preferential flow or erosion. They influence the nutrient cycles and ecological health of aquatic systems. The nutrient and pesticide loss processes themselves can be altered by tillage operations and other agricultural practices. Furthermore, the competition for space can lead to additional conflicts between agriculture and the protection of aquatic ecosystems. For example, channelized or otherwise morphologically changed rivers do not have a natural discharge pattern and are often not suitable for the local flora and fauna; but naturally meandering rivers need space that cannot be used for agriculture. In a highly industrialized and densely populated country like Switzerland, all these potential conflicts are of importance. Although it is typically seen as a water-rich country, local and seasonal overexploitation of rivers through water extraction

  13. Conservation value of low-productivity forests measured as the amount and diversity of dead wood and saproxylic beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Aino; Strengbom, Joachim; Ranius, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    In many managed landscapes, low-productivity land comprises most of the remaining relatively untouched areas, and is often over-represented within protected areas. The relationship between the productivity and conservational value of a site is poorly known; however, it has been hypothesized that biodiversity increases with productivity due to higher resource abundance or heterogeneity, and that the species communities of low-productivity land are a nested subset of communities from more productive land. We tested these hypotheses for dead-wood-dependent beetles by comparing their species richness and composition, as well as the amount and diversity of dead wood, between low-productivity (potential forest growth dead wood, but volume appeared to be a better predictor than diversity for the higher species richness in set-asides. Beetle species composition was similar among stand types, and the assemblages in low-productivity stands were largely subsets of those in high-productivity set-asides. However, 11% of all species and 40% of red-listed species only occurred in high-productivity stands, while no species were unique to low-productivity stands. We conclude that low-productivity forests are less valuable for conservation than high-productivity forest land. Given the generally similar species composition among stand types, a comparable conservational effect could be obtained by setting aside a larger area of low-productivity forest in comparison to the high-productivity. In terms of dead wood volumes, 1.8-3.6 ha of low-productivity forest has the same value as 1 ha of unmanaged high-productivity forest. This figure can be used to estimate the conservation value of low-productivity forests; however, as high-productivity forests harbored some unique species, they are not completely exchangeable. © 2018 The Authors. Ecological Applications published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Ecological Society of America.

  14. The Role of Biotechnology for Conservation and Biologically Active Substances Production of Rhodiola rosea: Endangered Medicinal Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasheva, Krasimira; Kosturkova, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    At present, more than 50 000 plant species are used in phytotherapy and medicine. About 2/3 of them are harvested from nature leading to local extinction of many species or degradation of their habitats. Biotechnological methods offer possibilities not only for faster cloning and conservation of the genotype of the plants but for modification of their gene information, regulation, and expression for production of valuable substances in higher amounts or with better properties. Rhodiola rosea is an endangered medicinal species with limited distribution. It has outstanding importance for pharmaceutical industry for prevention and cure of cancer, heart and nervous system diseases, and so forth. Despite the great interest in golden root and the wide investigations in the area of phytochemistry, plant biotechnology remained less endeavoured and exploited. The paper presents research on initiation of in vitro cultures in Rhodiola rosea and some other Rhodiola species. Achievements in induction of organogenic and callus cultures, regeneration, and micropropagation varied but were a good basis for alternative in vitro synthesis of the desired metabolites and for the development of efficient systems for micropropagation for conservation of the species. PMID:22666097

  15. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  16. Insulator–metal transition in a conservative system: An evidence for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    substrate, suggest that the mobility coalescence is responsible for the aging in island metal films. ... esting transition observed in a conservative system – after the stoppage of ... Oxidation of islands model and mobility coalescence model.

  17. Effort to Increase Oil Palm Production through Application Technique of Soil and Water Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukuh Murtilaksono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out at block 375, 415, and 414 (block 1, 2, and 3 Afdeling III, Mangement Unit of Rejosari, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VII, Lampung from June 2005 until December 2007. Objective of the study is to examine the effect of soil and water conservation measurement, namely bund terrace and silt pit that are combined with retarded-water hole on production of oil palm. Sampled trees of each block were randomly selected as much as 36 trees. Parameters of vegetative growth (additional new frond, total of frond, number of new bunch, production (number of bunch, fresh fruit bunch (TBS, and average of bunch weigh (RBT were observed and recorded every two weeks. Production of palm oil of each block was also recorded every harvesting schedule of Afdeling. Tabular data were analyzed descriptively by logical comparison among the blocks as result of application of bund terrace and silt pit. Although the data of sampled trees were erratic, bund terrace and silt pit generally increasing number of frond, number of bunch, average of bunch weight, and fresh fruit bunch. Bund terrace gived the highest production of TBS (25.2 t ha-1 compared to silt pit application (23.6 t ha-1, and it has better effect on TBS than block control (20.8 t ha-1. Aside from that, RBT is the highest (21 kg at bund terrace block compared to silt pit block (20 kg and control block (19 kg.

  18. Weak asymptotic solution for a non-strictly hyperbolic system of conservation laws-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Ranjan Sahoo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce a concept of entropy weak asymptotic solution for a system of conservation laws and construct the same for a prolonged system of conservation laws which is highly non-strictly hyperbolic. This is first done for Riemann type initial data by introducing $\\delta,\\delta',\\delta''$ waves along a discontinuity curve and then for general initial data by piecing together the Riemann solutions.

  19. Unified Symmetry and Conserved Quantities of Mechanical System in Phase Space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jianhui; Ding Ning; Wang Peng

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new symmetry and its conserved quantities of a mechanical system in phase space are studied. The definition of this new symmetry, i.e., a unified one is presented, and the criterion of this symmetry is also given. The Noether, the generalized Hojman and the Mei conserved quantities of the unified symmetry of the system are obtained. The unified symmetry contains the Noether, the Lie and the Mei symmetries, and has more generalized significance.

  20. 75 FR 6013 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ... decision and order is effective February 5, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Dr. Michael G. Raymond... variable-speed or digital compressor. Hallowell's product deviates from the anticipated form--a system... conditioners and heat pump products, for compliance, marketing, or other purposes, only to the extent that such...

  1. 75 FR 75289 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-02

    ... revisions: (1) The addition of a method to rate the efficiency of soil-sensing products; (2) the addition of... means and discharges to the plumbing drainage system.'' 10 CFR 430.2. Today's proposed amendments to the...

  2. Modeling the impact of conservation agriculture on crop production and soil properties in Mediterranean climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussadek, Rachid; Mrabet, Rachid; Dahan, Rachid; Laghrour, Malika; Lembiad, Ibtissam; ElMourid, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    In Morocco, rainfed agriculture is practiced in the majority of agricultural land. However, the intensive land use coupled to the irregular rainfall constitutes a serious threat that affect country's food security. Conservation agriculture (CA) represents a promising alternative to produce more and sustainably. In fact, the direct seeding showed high yield in arid regions of Morocco but its extending to other more humid agro-ecological zones (rainfall > 350mm) remains scarce. In order to promote CA in Morocco, differents trials have been installed in central plateau of Morocco, to compare CA to conventional tillage (CT). The yields of the main practiced crops (wheat, lentil and checkpea) under CA and CT were analyzed and compared in the 3 soils types (Vertisol, Cambisol and Calcisol). Also, we studied the effect of CA on soil organic matter (SOM) and soil losses (SL) in the 3 different sites. The APSIM model was used to model the long term impact of CA compared to CT. The results obtained in this research have shown favorable effects of CA on crop production, SOM and soil erosion. Key words: Conservation agriculture, yield, soil properties, modeling, APSIM, Morocco.

  3. A Protocol for Producing Virus-Free Artichoke Genetic Resources for Conservation, Breeding, and Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Spanò

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the globe artichoke biodiversity in the Mediterranean area is enormous but at risk of genetic erosion because only a limited number of varieties are vegetatively propagated and grown. In Apulia (southern Italy, the Regional Government launched specific actions to rescue and preserve biodiversity of woody and vegetable crops in the framework of the Rural Development Program. Many globe artichoke ecotypes have remained neglected and unnoticed for a long time and have been progressively eroded by several causes, which include a poor phytosanitary status. Sanitation of such ecotypes from infections of vascular fungi and viruses may be a solution for their ex situ conservation and multiplication in nursery plants in conformity to the current EU Directives 93/61/CEE and 93/62/CEE that enforce nursery productions of virus-free and true-to-type certified stocks. Five Apulian ecotypes, Bianco di Taranto, Francesina, Locale di Mola, Verde di Putignano and Violetto di Putignano, were sanitized from artichoke Italian latent virus (AILV, artichoke latent virus (ArLV and tomato infectious chlorosis virus (TICV by meristem-tip culture and in vitro thermotherapy through a limited number of subcultures to reduce the risk of “pastel variants” induction of and loss of earliness. A total of 25 virus-free primary sources were obtained and conserved ex situ in a nursery.

  4. Productivity raising approaches in the logistic production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Rakyta

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the productivity of the logistic production system. The aim is to define the intermediate state of the production machines and equipment (OOE, identification of the material flows, idle time and breakdown forecasting, with the following purchase of the required spare parts. The goal of the system is the satisfaction of the customer´s needs and the minimalisation of not fulfilling the required terms for delivery with simultaneous increasing of the logistic production system productivity.

  5. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Microrhizome Production, and Molecular Profiling in Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Raj, Rahul P; Akshita, H J; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Turmeric is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a native of India and South East Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of turmeric are used from antiquity as condiments, a dye and as an aromatic stimulant in several medicines. Turmeric is an important crop in India and it is used as a spice, food preservative, coloring agent, cosmetic as well as for its medicinal properties. Propagation is done vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed materials. It is plagued by rhizome rot diseases most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free seed. Sexual reproduction is rare in turmeric, making recombinant breeding very difficult. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice and it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement.

  6. Radical production in biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.R.; Akabani, G.

    1994-10-01

    This paper describes our effort to develop a metric for radiation exposure that is more fundamental than adsorbed dose and upon which a metric for exposure to chemicals could be based. This metric is based on the production of radicals by the two agents. Radicals produced by radiation in biological systems commonly assumed to be the same as those produced in water despite the presence of a variety of complex molecules. This may explain why the extensive efforts to describe the relationship between energy deposition (track structure) and molecular damage to DNA, based on the spectrum of radicals produced, have not been successful in explaining simple biological effects such as cell killing. Current models assume that DNA and its basic elements are immersed in water-like media and only model the production and diffusion of water-based radicals and their interaction with DNA structures; these models lack the cross sections associated with each macro-component of DNA and only treat water-based radicals. It has been found that such models are not realistic because DNA is not immersed in pure water. A computer code capable of simulating electron tracks, low-energy electrons, energy deposition in small molecules, and radical production and diffusion in water like media has been developed. This code is still in at a primitive stage and development is continuing. It is being used to study radical production by radiation, and radical diffusion and interactions in simple molecular systems following their production. We are extending the code to radical production by chemicals to complement our PBPK modeling efforts. It therefore has been developed primarily for use with radionuclides that are in biological materials, and not for radiation fields

  7. Subtle variation within conserved effector operon gene products contributes to T6SS-mediated killing and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alteri, Christopher J; Himpsl, Stephanie D; Zhu, Kevin; Hershey, Haley L; Musili, Ninette; Miller, Jessa E; Mobley, Harry L T

    2017-11-01

    Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) function to deliver lethal payloads into target cells. Many studies have shown that protection against a single, lethal T6SS effector protein requires a cognate antidote immunity protein, both of which are often encoded together in a two-gene operon. The T6SS and an effector-immunity pair is sufficient for both killing and immunity. HereIn this paper we describe a T6SS effector operon that differs from conventional effector-immunity pairs in that eight genes are necessary for lethal effector function, yet can be countered by a single immunity protein. In this study, we investigated the role that the PefE T6SS immunity protein plays in recognition between two strains harboring nearly identical effector operons. Interestingly, despite containing seven of eight identical effector proteins, the less conserved immunity proteins only provided protection against their native effectors, suggesting that specificity and recognition could be dependent on variation within an immunity protein and one effector gene product. The variable effector gene product, PefD, is encoded upstream from pefE, and displays toxic activity that can be countered by PefE independent of T6SS-activity. Interestingly, while the entire pef operon was necessary to exert toxic activity via the T6SS in P. mirabilis, production of PefD and PefE alone was unable to exert this effector activity. Chimeric PefE proteins constructed from two P. mirabilis strains were used to localize immunity function to three amino acids. A promiscuous immunity protein was created using site-directed mutagenesis to change these residues from one variant to another. These findings support the notion that subtle differences between conserved effectors are sufficient for T6SS-mediated kin discrimination and that PefD requires additional factors to function as a T6SS-dependent effector.

  8. Solar based hydrogen production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dincer, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of various solar based hydrogen production systems. The book covers first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provides a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book gives a clear understanding of the sustainability and environmental impact analysis of the above systems. The book will be particularly useful for a clear understanding

  9. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint and provides worker protection by continuously recycling the material and dust for the decontamination tasks. The proposed work would increase the cleaning rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites. This work focuses on redesigning and improving existing vacuum blasting technology including blast head nozzles, ergonomic handling of the blast head by reducing its weight; brush-ring design, vacuum level regulator, efficiency of the dust separator, and operational control sensors. The redesign is expected to enhance the productivity and economy of the vacuum blasting system by at least 50% over current vacuum blasting systems. There are three phases in the project. Phase I consists of developing and testing mathematical models. Phase II consists of pre-prototype design and fabrication and pre-prototype unit testing. Phase III consists of prototype design and field verification testing. In phase I, mathematical models are developed and analyzed for the nozzle, blast head, wind curtain, and dust separator, first as individual devices and then combined as an integrated model. This allows study of respective airflow and design parameters. The Contractor shall, based on the results of the mathematical modeling studies, design experimental models of the components and test these models. In addition, the Contractor shall develop sensors to detect the relationship of the blast head to the blast surfaces and controls to minimize the dependency on an operator's skill and judgment to obtain optimum positioning, as well as real-time characterization sensors to determine as the blast head is moving the depth to which coatings must be removed, thereby improving production and minimizing waste. In phase II, the Contractor shall design and

  10. Management systems in production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, K.B.; Henderson, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Cullen Enquiry into the Piper Alpha disaster in the U.K. North Sea recommended that an operator should formally present it's company Management System and demonstrate how safety is achieved throughout the life cycle of a platform, from design through operation to abandonment. Brunei Shell Petroleum has prepared a corporate level Safety Management System. As part of Safety Case work, the corporate system is being extended to include the development of specific Management Systems with particular emphasis on offshore production operations involving integrated oil and gas facilities. This paper will describe the development of Management Systems, which includes an intensive Business Process Analysis and will comment upon it's applicability and relationship to ISO 9000. The paper will further describe the applicability and benefits of Management Systems and offer guidance on required effort. The paper will conclude that development of structured Management Systems for safety critical business processes is worthwhile but prioritization of effort will be necessary. As such the full adoption of Management Systems will be directional in nature

  11. Stability and response bounds of non-conservative linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommer, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For a linear system of second order differential equations the stability is studied by Lyapunov's direct method. The Lyapunov matrix equation is solved and a sufficient condition for stability is expressed by the system matrices. For a system which satisfies the condition for stability the Lyapunov...

  12. A Conservative Look at Term Deduction Systems with Variable Binding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkink, W.J.; Verhoef, C.

    We set up a formal framework to describe term deduction systems, such as transition system specifications in the style of Plotkin, and conditional term rewriting systems. This framework has the power to express many-sortedness, general binding mechanisms and substitutions, among other notions such

  13. The Conservative Physiology of the Immune System. A Non-Metaphoric Approach to Immunological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson M. Vaz

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Historically, immunology emerged as a biomedical science, concerned with host defense and production of anti-infectious vaccines. In the late 50s, selective theories were proposed and from then on, immunology has been based in a close association with the neo-Darwinian principles, such as random generation of variants (lymphocyte clones, selection by extrinsic factors (antigens—and, more generally, on genetic determinism and functionalism. This association has had major consequences: (1 immunological jargon is full of “cognitive” metaphors, founded in the idea of “foreignness”; (2 the immune system is described with a random clonal origin, coupled to selection by random encounters; and (3 physiological events are virtually absent from immunological descriptions. In the present manuscript, we apply systemic notions to bring forth an explanation including systemic mechanisms able to generate immunological phenomena. We replace “randomness plus selection” and the notion of foreignness by a history of structural changes which are determined by the coherences of the system internal architecture at any given moment. The importance of this systemic way of seeing is that it explicitly attends to the organization that defines the immune system, within which it is possible to describe the conservative physiology of the immune system. Understanding immune physiology in a systemic way of seeing also suggests mechanisms underlying the origin of immunopathogeny and therefore suggests new insights to therapeutic approaches. However, if seriously acknowledged, this systemic/historic approach to immunology goes along with a global conceptual change which modifies virtually everything in the domain of biology, as suggested by Maturana.

  14. Detailed design of product oriented manufacturing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Sílvio Carmo; Alves, Anabela Carvalho

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for the detailed design and redesign of manufacturing systems within a framework of constantly fitting production system configuration to the varying production needs of products. With such an approach is achieved the design of Product Oriented Manufacturing Systems – POMS. This approach is in opposition to the fitting, before hand, of a production system to all products within a company. In this case is usual to adopt a Function Oriented Manufactur...

  15. Soil Conservation Unit for the Advanced Crop Production and Marketing Course. Student Reference. AGDEX 570.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Bob R.; And Others

    This student reference booklet is designed to accompany lessons outlined in the companion instructor's guide on soil conservation. The soil conservation unit builds on competencies gained in Agricultural Science I and II. Informative material is provided for these eight lessons: benefits of conservation, land utilization, how soils are eroded,…

  16. A second-order, unconditionally positive, mass-conserving integration scheme for biochemical systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Bruggeman (Frank); H. Burchard; B. Kooi; B.P. Sommeijer (Ben)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractBiochemical systems are bound by two mathematically-relevant restrictions. First, state variables in such systems represent non-negative quantities, such as concentrations of chemical compounds. Second, biochemical systems conserve mass and energy. Both properties must be reflected in

  17. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken L. Smith; Marc E. Leveque

    2005-05-31

    The report herein is a summary of the work performed on three projects to demonstrate hydrocarbon drilling and production methods applicable to deep and ultra deepwater field developments in the Gulf of Mexico and other like applications around the world. This work advances technology that could lead to more economic development and exploitation of reserves in ultra-deep water or remote areas. The first project is Subsea Processing. Its scope includes a review of the ''state of the art'' in subsea components to enable primary production process functions such as first stage liquids and gas separation, flow boosting, chemical treatment, flow metering, etc. These components are then combined to allow for the elimination of costly surface production facilities at the well site. A number of studies were then performed on proposed field development projects to validate the economic potential of this technology. The second project involved the design and testing of a light weight production riser made of composite material. The proposed design was to meet an actual Gulf of Mexico deepwater development project. The various engineering and testing work is reviewed, including test results. The third project described in this report encompasses the development and testing of a close tolerance liner drilling system, a new technology aimed at reducing deepwater drilling costs. The design and prototype testing in a test well are described in detail.

  18. Eight years of Conservation Agriculture-based cropping systems research in Eastern Africa to conserve soil and water and mitigate effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Tesfay; Nyssen, Jan; Govaerts, Bram; Lanckriet, Sil; Baudron, Frédéric; Deckers, Jozef; Cornelis, Wim

    2014-05-01

    In Ethiopia, repeated plowing, complete removal of crop residues at harvest, aftermath grazing of crop fields and occurrence of repeated droughts have reduced the biomass return to the soil and aggravated cropland degradation. Conservation Agriculture (CA)-based resource conserving cropping systems may reduce runoff and soil erosion, and improve soil quality, thereby increasing crop productivity. Thus, a long-term tillage experiment has been carried out (2005 to 2012) on a Vertisol to quantify - among others - changes in runoff and soil loss for two local tillage practices, modified to integrate CA principles in semi-arid northern Ethiopia. The experimental layout was a randomized complete block design with three replications on permanent plots of 5 m by 19 m. The tillage treatments were (i) derdero+ (DER+) with a furrow and permanent raised bed planting system, ploughed only once at planting by refreshing the furrow from 2005 to 2012 and 30% standing crop residue retention, (ii) terwah+ (TER+) with furrows made at 1.5 m interval, plowed once at planting, 30% standing crop residue retention and fresh broad beds, and (iii) conventional tillage (CT) with a minimum of three plain tillage operations and complete removal of crop residues. All the plowing and reshaping of the furrows was done using the local ard plough mahresha and wheat, teff, barley and grass pea were grown. Glyphosate was sprayed starting from the third year onwards (2007) at 2 l ha-1 before planting to control pre-emergent weeds in CA plots. Runoff and soil loss were measured daily. Soil water content was monitored every 6 days. Significantly different (pconstitute a field rainwater and soil conservation improvement strategy that enhances crop and economic productivity and reduces siltation of reservoirs, especially under changing climate. The reduction in draught power requirement would enable a reduction in oxen density and crop residue demand for livestock feed, which would encourage smallholder

  19. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonine, Sergei

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with t-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order t-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for the

  20. Conservation laws for multidimensional systems and related linear algebra problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Igonin, S.

    2002-01-01

    We consider multidimensional systems of PDEs of generalized evolution form with $t$-derivatives of arbitrary order on the left-hand side and with the right-hand side dependent on lower order $t$-derivatives and arbitrary space derivatives. For such systems we find an explicit necessary condition for

  1. Symmetries and conservation laws for generalized Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantrijn, F.; Sarlet, W.

    1981-01-01

    A class of dynamical systems which locally correspond to a general first-order system of Euler-Lagrange equations is studied on a contact manifold. These systems, called self-adjoint, can be regarded as generalizations of (time-dependent) Hamiltonian systems. It is shown that each one-parameter family of symmetries of the underlying contact form defines a parameter-dependent constant of the motion and vice versa. Next, an extension of the classical concept of canonical transformations is introduced. One-parameter families of canonical transformations are studied and shown to be generated as solutions of a self-adjoint system. Some of the results are illustrated on the Emden equation. (author)

  2. Sterile Product Packaging and Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akers, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Both conventional and more advanced product container and delivery systems are the focus of this brief article. Six different product container systems will be discussed, plus advances in primary packaging for special delivery systems and needle technology.

  3. Energy conservation in methanol plant using CHP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadi, Marjan; Tahouni, Nassim; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Feasibility of turbo expander integration with an industrial plant was studied. • Combined pinch-exergy analysis was used to achieve optimum performance of process. • Generation of power led to profitability of gas turbine integrated plant. - Abstract: Today, the efficient use of energy is a significant critical issue in various industries such as petrochemical industries. Hence, it seems essential to apply proper strategies to reduce energy consumption in such processes. A methanol production plant at a live Petrochemical Complex was selected as the case study in this research. The plant was first evaluated with combined pinch and exergy analysis from exergetic dissipation point of view. Owing to high temperature and pressure of reactor outlet stream, methanol synthesis reactor products contain considerable content of exergy. For the purpose of the present survey, the available content of exergy was used for power production by integrating a turbine expander with methanol reactor product. Utilization of reactor product’s high pressure in turbine reduces the temperature of turbine outlet stream to levels lower than those required for heating demands of existing streams in methanol synthesis cycle. Therefore, to keep the stream thermally balanced, the required hot utility of the process is increased and to compensate this increase, the heat exchanger network of the process was retrofitted based on pinch analysis concepts. The results showed that in gas turbine integrated scheme, approximately a net power of 7.5 MW is produced. Also, the total investment of turbine, compressor and heat exchangers area equals to 18.2 × 10 6 US$, and the annual saving value is about 6.1 × 10 6 US$/y. Based on economic data, payback period is estimated to be 3 years.

  4. Nitrogen in Agricultural Systems: Implications for Conservation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Ribaudo, Marc; Delgado, Jorge; Hansen, LeRoy T.; Livingston, Michael J.; Mosheim, Roberto; Williamson, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important agricultural input that is critical for crop production. However, the introduction of large amounts of nitrogen into the environment has a number of undesirable impacts on water, terrestrial, and atmospheric resources. This report explores the use of nitrogen in U.S. agriculture and assesses changes in nutrient management by farmers that may improve nitrogen use effi ciency. It also reviews a number of policy approaches for improving nitrogen management and identifi e...

  5. Blood and Blood Product Conservation: Results of Strategies to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Open Heart Surgery Patients at a Tertiary Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Junaid H; Green, Emily A; Chang, Jimmin; Ayala, Alexandria M; Barkin, Marilyn S; Reinys, Emily E; Stanton, Jeffrey; Stanten, Russell D

    2017-12-01

    Blood product usage is a quality outcome for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. To address an increase in blood product usage since the discontinuation of aprotinin, blood conservation strategies were initiated at a tertiary hospital in Oakland, CA. Improving transfusion rates for open heart surgery patients requiring Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) involved multiple departments in coordination. Specific changes to conserve blood product usage included advanced CPB technology upgrades, and precise individualized heparin dose response titration assay for heparin and protamine management. Retrospective analysis of blood product usage pre-implementation, post-CPB changes and post-Hemostasis Management System (HMS) implementation was done to determine the effectiveness of the blood conservation strategies. Statistically significant decrease in packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, and platelet usage over the stepped implementation of both technologies was observed. New oxygenator and centrifugal pump technologies reduced active circuitry volume and caused less damage to blood cells. Individualizing heparin and protamine dosing to a patient using the HMS led to transfusion reductions as well. Overall trends toward reductions in hospital length of stay and intensive care unit stay, and as a result, blood product cost and total hospitalization cost are positive over the period of implementation of both CPB circuit changes and HMS implementation. Although they are multifactorial in nature, these trends provide positive enforcement to the changes implemented.

  6. Study of an evaluation index system of well-off water conservancy in Yunnan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To achieve good water conservancy under the well-off society before 2020, the future water conservancy planning is undergoing in Yunnan Province. In this study, by analysing the research results of domestic relevant water evaluation index systems and combining this with the water conservancy construction key of Yunnan Province, an unique evaluation index system was proposed to evaluate the well-off water conservancy level of Yunnan Province. It is composed of three levels which are the target layer, criterion layer and index layer. And the criterion layer includes six systems, namely flood control and drought relief mitigation, reasonable allocation of water resources, highly effective water utilization, water source protection and river health security, water management and securing of water development. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP was used to determine the weight of each index. According to the present situation of water development and the related water conservancy planning in Yunnan Province, the target value of each index and evaluation standards are put forward for Yunnan Province in 2020. The results show that the evaluation results are consistent with the actual condition of water development in Yunnan Province and can be used to examine the effects of well-off water conservancy planning.

  7. Forage based animal production systems and sustainability, an invited keynote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Shakoor Chaudhry

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Forages are essential for the successful operation of animal production systems. This is more relevant to ruminants which are heavily dependant upon forages for their health and production in a cost-effective and sustainable manner. While forages are an economical source of nutrients for animal production, they also help conserve the soil integrity, water supply and air quality. Although the role of these forages for animal production could vary depending upon the regional preferences for the animal and forage species, climate and resources, their importance in the success of ruminant production is acknowledged. However with the increasing global human population and urbanisation, the sustainability of forage based animal production systems is sometimes questioned due to the interrelationship between animal production and the environment. It is therefore vital to examine the suitability of these systems for their place in the future to supply quality food which is safe for human consumption and available at a competitive price to the growing human population. Grassland and forage crops are recognised for their contribution to the environment, recreation and efficiency of meat and milk production,. To maintain sustainability, it is crucial that such farming systems remain profitable and environmentally friendly while producing nutritious foods of high economical value. Thus, it is pertinent to improve the nutritive value of grasses and other forage plants in order to enhance animal production to obtain quality food. It is also vital to develop new forages which are efficiently utilised and wasted less by involving efficient animals. A combination of forage legumes, fresh or conserved grasses, crop residues and other feeds could help develop an animal production system which is economically efficient, beneficial and viable. Also, it is crucial to use efficient animals, improved forage conservation methods, better manure handling, and minimum

  8. The zeroth law of thermodynamics and volume-preserving conservative system in equilibrium with stochastic damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Hong

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mathematical formulation of the zeroth law of thermodynamics and develop a stochastic dynamical theory, with a consistent irreversible thermodynamics, for systems possessing sustained conservative stationary current in phase space while in equilibrium with a heat bath. The theory generalizes underdamped mechanical equilibrium: dx=gdt+{−D∇ϕdt+√(2D)dB(t)}, with ∇⋅g=0 and {⋯} respectively representing phase-volume preserving dynamics and stochastic damping. The zeroth law implies stationary distribution u ss (x)=e −ϕ(x) . We find an orthogonality ∇ϕ⋅g=0 as a hallmark of the system. Stochastic thermodynamics based on time reversal (t,ϕ,g)→(−t,ϕ,−g) is formulated: entropy production e p # (t)=−dF(t)/dt; generalized “heat” h d # (t)=−dU(t)/dt, U(t)=∫ R n ϕ(x)u(x,t)dx being “internal energy”, and “free energy” F(t)=U(t)+∫ R n u(x,t)lnu(x,t)dx never increases. Entropy follows (dS)/(dt) =e p # −h d # . Our formulation is shown to be consistent with an earlier theory of P. Ao. Its contradistinctions to other theories, potential-flux decomposition, stochastic Hamiltonian system with even and odd variables, Klein–Kramers equation, Freidlin–Wentzell's theory, and GENERIC, are discussed.

  9. The productivity and work load in flexible production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhijn, J.W. van; Looze, M.P. de; Schoenmaker, N.; Bosch, T.; Deursen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    A negative aspect of serial flow production systems is its lack of flexibility. Other production systems like the flexing flow and the shopping system are more flexible as the number of workers can be easily adjusted to temporal demands. But how efficient are these flexible systems? In a laboratory

  10. Novel Agricultural Conservation System with Sustained Yield and Decreased Water, Nutrient, Energy, and Carbon Footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, K.; Shukla, S.; Holt, N.; Hendricks, G.; Sishodia, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are conventionally grown in raised bed plasticulture (RBP), a high intensity, high input, and high output production system. In 2016, the fresh market plasticulture industry covered 680,000 ha in the US, producing crops (e.g. tomato, peppers, melons, and strawberries) valued at ten billion dollars. To meet the increasing future demand for fresh fruits and vegetables and sustain the production potential of croplands, a transformation of the conventional food-water-energy nexus is essential. A novel agricultural conservation system, compact bed geometry, has been proposed to shift the paradigm in RBP, sustaining yield and decreasing inputs (e.g. water, nutrients, energy, and carbon). Compact bed geometries fit the shape of the wetting front created when water is applied through drip irrigation on the production soil, creating a taller (23-30 cm) and thinner bed (66-41 cm). Two seasons of tomato (single row) and pepper (double row) production, in the environmentally fragile watershed of the Florida Everglades, highlight the potential impact of compact bed geometry on environmental sustainability in agricultural production. No difference in plant growth or yield was detected, with a reduction of 5-50% in irrigation water, up to 20% less N application, 12% less P, 20% less K, and 5-15% less carbon dioxide emissions. The hydrologic benefits of compact bed geometry include 26% less runoff generation, decreased need for active drainage pumping, and increased residence time for irrigation water within the bed, overall decreasing instances of nutrient leaching. A water related co-benefit observed was a reduction in the occurrences of Phytophthora capsici in pepper, which has the potential to reduce yield by as much as 70%. Non-water co-benefits include up to a 250/ ha reduction in production cost, with the potential to save the industry 200 million dollars annually. This economic benefit has led to rapid industry adoption, with more than 20

  11. Role of indigenous knowledge systems in the conservation of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... human and animal health, education and more important in natural resource management. ... these knowledge systems from the time of Kenya's pre-independence to the 2000s era.

  12. Greenhouse production systems for people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giacomelli, G.A.; Sase, S.; Cramer, R.; Hoogeboom, J.; McKenzie, A.; Parbst, K.; Sacrascia-Mugnozza, G.; Selina, P.; Sharp, D.A.; Voogt, J.O.; Weel, van P.A.; Mears, D.

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally sound greenhouse production requires that: demand for market products is understood; greenhouse design addresses the climate circum-stances; input resources are available and consumed efficiently, and; there must be a reasonable balance of production products to the environmental

  13. Orbits and variational principles for conservative Hamiltonian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres del Castillo, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that for any Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian is time-independent the equations that determine the orbits followed by the system, without making reference to time, have the form of Hamilton's equations in a phase space of dimension two units smaller than that of the original phase space. By considering the cases of classical mechanics and of geometrical optics, it is shown that this result amounts, respectively, to Maupertuis' least action principle and to Fermat's principle. (Author)

  14. The regulation of visitors conduction activity in the State System os Brazilian Conservation Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Alves Nascimento

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond to conserving biodiversity, conservation units must promote public use in contact with nature, assisting in increasing the economic resource of the area, approximating the society to nature and promoting their sustainable use. In Brazil, there are rules of the Ministry of Environment and Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation that regulate the conduction of visitors in federal conservation units. Remains to know how the activity is regulated in other spheres of the National Conservation Units System. Therefore, this article purpose to identify the legal basis for the conduction of visitors in the state conservation units and their adherence to guidelines of the Ministry of Environment. The methodology consisted in documentary research and data survey of the legal basis, done through visits to websites and sending e-mails to state management agencies. Adherence to the guidelines of the regulations was done through the evaluation to fulfillment or not from them. Legal basis were found in 18.5% of federal units of Brazil, being that only Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro meet almost all of the guideline. The conclusion was that there is a long way to go forward as the creation of rules and procedures that simultaneously encourage visitation accompanied to qualified conductors and biodiversity conservation. It is recommended greater efforts of state management agencies for the development of these legal basis, promoting improvements in desenvolviment of the activity and awareness of society.

  15. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  16. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2004-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2003 through September, 2004. At the end of the last technical progress report, the subsea processing aspects of the work program had been dropped due to the lack of commercial opportunity within ConocoPhillips, and the program had been redirected towards two other promising deepwater technologies: the development and demonstration of a composite production riser, and the development and testing of a close-tolerance liner drilling system. This report focuses on these two technologies.

  17. A Classification Scheme for Production System Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Daniel Grud Hellerup; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld

    2018-01-01

    Manufacturing companies often have difficulties developing production platforms, partly due to the complexity of many production systems and difficulty determining which processes constitute a platform. Understanding production processes is an important step to identifying candidate processes...... for a production platform based on existing production systems. Reviewing a number of existing classifications and taxonomies, a consolidated classification scheme for processes in production of discrete products has been outlined. The classification scheme helps ensure consistency during mapping of existing...

  18. Energy conservation system for inns, hotels, and motels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, P.J.; Mendoza, L.; Sodaro, D.

    1982-02-16

    The present invention provides a system for reducing the unproductive consumption of energy by equipment primarily intended to be operated during the presence of a person or thing in the area of operation of the equipment. The system renders the equipment operable during the time a person or thing is present within the area of operation and for a short period of time immediately thereafter. Except for the short period of time immediately after the person or thing exits the area of operation, the system renders the equipment inoperable during the time the person or thing is absent from the area of operation. Maintaining the equipment operable during the short period of time after the person or thing exits the area of operation reduces deleterious recycling which would otherwise occur in the event the area of operation were reentered within the short period of time. The system comprises detecting means for providing a presencedetected signal when a person or thing is present within the area of operation and an absence-detected signal otherwise. The system also comprises delay means responsive to said detecting means for providing a delay signal for a short period of time after the detecting means starts providing the absence-detected signal. The detecting means and delay means are coupled to output means which provides an enabling signal when any of the presence-detected signal and the delay signal are present and a disabling signal otherwise.

  19. Conformal invariance and conserved quantities of Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Ping, Luo; Jing-Li, Fu

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the new concept of the conformal invariance and the conserved quantities for Appell systems under second-class Mei symmetry. The one-parameter infinitesimal transformation group and infinitesimal transformation vector of generator are described in detail. The conformal factor in the determining equations under second-class Mei symmetry is found. The relationship between Appell system's conformal invariance and Mei symmetry are discussed. And Appell system's conformal invariance under second-class Mei symmetry may lead to corresponding Hojman conserved quantities when the conformal invariance satisfies some conditions. Lastly, an example is provided to illustrate the application of the result. (general)

  20. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  1. The conservation of redundancy in genetic systems: effects of sexual ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    probability of a fatal error is reduced by a redundant sampling system, but the chance of error rises as the sys- .... Thus every function is covered three times and every component covers a ... ples reduce the variance of the distributions in figure 3a and thereby ..... cases p = 0⋅1, q = 1000 and the value of b is adjusted to.

  2. Carbon debt of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands converted to bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ilya; Zenone, Terenzio; Jasrotia, Poonam; Chen, Jiquan; Hamilton, Stephen K; Robertson, G Philip

    2011-08-16

    Over 13 million ha of former cropland are enrolled in the US Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), providing well-recognized biodiversity, water quality, and carbon (C) sequestration benefits that could be lost on conversion back to agricultural production. Here we provide measurements of the greenhouse gas consequences of converting CRP land to continuous corn, corn-soybean, or perennial grass for biofuel production. No-till soybeans preceded the annual crops and created an initial carbon debt of 10.6 Mg CO(2) equivalents (CO(2)e)·ha(-1) that included agronomic inputs, changes in C stocks, altered N(2)O and CH(4) fluxes, and foregone C sequestration less a fossil fuel offset credit. Total debt, which includes future debt created by additional changes in soil C stocks and the loss of substantial future soil C sequestration, can be constrained to 68 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) if subsequent crops are under permanent no-till management. If tilled, however, total debt triples to 222 Mg CO(2)e·ha(-1) on account of further soil C loss. Projected C debt repayment periods under no-till management range from 29 to 40 y for corn-soybean and continuous corn, respectively. Under conventional tillage repayment periods are three times longer, from 89 to 123 y, respectively. Alternatively, the direct use of existing CRP grasslands for cellulosic feedstock production would avoid C debt entirely and provide modest climate change mitigation immediately. Incentives for permanent no till and especially permission to harvest CRP biomass for cellulosic biofuel would help to blunt the climate impact of future CRP conversion.

  3. Exploring strategies for the production of ultracold RbYb molecules in conservative traps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruni, Cristian

    2015-07-14

    Within the scope of this thesis, the production of ultracold molecules at a temperature of a few μK with various isotopes of rubidium (Rb) and ytterbium (Yb) was examined by means of photoassociation spectroscopy and magnetic Feshbach resonances in combined conservative traps. The long-term goal of this experiment is the production of ultracold RbYb molecules in the rovibronic ground state. It was possible to produce electronically excited {sup 87}Rb {sup 176}Yb molecules in a novel hybrid trap (HT) at a combined temperature of 1.7 μK by means of 1-photon photoassociation close to the Rb D1 line at 795 nm. This HT takes advantage of the different magnetic properties of Rb and Yb and allows for independent trapping and manipulation of the atomic species. It combines an Ioffe-Pritchard type magnetic trap for Rb and a near-resonant optical dipole trap for Yb. The excited molecular {sup 2}Π{sub 1/2} state could be characterized further extending previous works in a combined MOT and vibrational levels reaching binding energies up to E{sub b}=-h x 2.2 THz could be assigned by trap-loss spectroscopy. Almost every detected vibrational state consists of two resonances that could be assigned to the molecular analogue of the hyperfine structure of {sup 87}Rb. An important experimental observation is a decrease in hyperfine splitting with increasing binding energy of a vibrational level. For the deepest found vibrational state the hyperfine splitting amounts only 70 % of the atomic value (817 MHz) which emphasizes a gradual passage from weakly to tightly bound molecules. Furthermore, detailed attempts were undertaken to induce magnetic Feshbach resonances in {sup 85}Rb and different Yb isotopes, especially {sup 171}Yb in a crossed optical dipole trap at 1064 nm at temperatures of 10 μK. For this purpose, a homogeneous magnetic field was applied and scanned in small steps over the range of 495 G ∼ 640 G. Unfortunately, our efforts were without success. Additionally, well

  4. Conservation Physiology and Conservation Pathogens: White-Nose Syndrome and Integrative Biology for Host-Pathogen Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Craig K R

    2015-10-01

    Conservation physiology aims to apply an understanding of physiological mechanisms to management of imperiled species, populations, or ecosystems. One challenge for physiologists hoping to apply their expertise to conservation is connecting the mechanisms we study, often in the laboratory, with the vital rates of populations in the wild. There is growing appreciation that infectious pathogens can threaten populations and species, and represent an important issue for conservation. Conservation physiology has much to offer in terms of addressing the threat posed to some host species by infectious pathogens. At the same time, the well-developed theoretical framework of disease ecology could provide a model to help advance the application of physiology to a range of other conservation issues. Here, I use white-nose syndrome (WNS) in hibernating North American bats as an example of a conservation problem for which integrative physiological research has been a critical part of research and management. The response to WNS highlights the importance of a well-developed theoretical framework for the application of conservation physiology to a particular threat. I review what is known about physiological mechanisms associated with mortality from WNS and emphasize the value of combining a strong theoretical background with integrative physiological studies in order to connect physiological mechanisms with population processes and thereby maximize the potential benefits of conservation physiology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. 75 FR 27182 - Energy Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Conservation Program: Web-Based Compliance and Certification Management System AGENCY: Office of Energy... following means: 1. Compliance and Certification Management System (CCMS)--via the Web portal: http... certification reports to the Department of Energy (DOE) through an electronic Web-based tool, the Compliance and...

  6. From conservation laws to port-Hamiltonian representations of distributed-parameter systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maschke, B.M.; van der Schaft, Arjan; Piztek, P.

    Abstract: In this paper it is shown how the port-Hamiltonian formulation of distributed-parameter systems is closely related to the general thermodynamic framework of systems of conservation laws and closure equations. The situation turns out to be similar to the lumped-parameter case where the

  7. On the coupling of systems of hyperbolic conservation laws with ordinary differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsche, Raul; Colombo, Rinaldo M; Garavello, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by applications to the piston problem, to a manhole model, to blood flow and to supply chain dynamics, this paper deals with a system of conservation laws coupled with a system of ordinary differential equations. The former is defined on a domain with boundary and the coupling is provided by the boundary condition. For each of the examples considered, numerical integrations are provided

  8. Symmetries, conservation laws, and time reversibility for Hamiltonian systems with external forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1983-01-01

    A system theoretic framework is given for the description of Hamiltonian systems with external forces and partial observations of the state. It is shown how symmetries and conservation laws can be defined within this framework. A generalization of Noether's theorem is obtained. Finally a precise

  9. Less Conservative ℋ∞ Fuzzy Control for Discrete-Time Takagi-Sugeno Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Amaral Mozelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available New analysis and control design conditions of discrete-time fuzzy systems are proposed. Using fuzzy Lyapunov's functions and introducing slack variables, less conservative conditions are obtained. The controller guarantees system stabilization and ℋ∞ performance. Numerical tests and a practical experiment in Chua's circuit are presented to show the effectiveness.

  10. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  11. Conservation of Information: Reverse engineering dark social systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lawless, W. F.; Rifkin, Stan; Sofge, Donald; Hobbs, Stephen H.; Angjellari-Dajci, F.; Chaudron, Laurent; Wood, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A broad appeal for a new theory of interdependence, 'iota', has been requested for the science of complexity in a special issue of Science, for social network analysis by the National Academy of Sciences, for effects-based operations by the US military, and for modernizing the fields of law and economics. We have proposed a new theory of 'iota' for organizations and systems that already appears to exhibit some validity. It is expressed in a physics of 'iota' (e.g., bistability) that includes ...

  12. Fuel-conservative guidance system for powered-lift aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erzberger, H.; Mclean, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    A concept for automatic terminal area guidance, comprising two modes of operation, was developed and evaluated in flight tests. In the predictive mode, fuel efficient approach trajectories are synthesized in fast time. In the tracking mode, the synthesized trajectories are reconstructed and tracked automatically. An energy rate performance model derived from the lift, drag, and propulsion system characteristics of the aircraft is used in the synthesis algorithm. The method optimizes the trajectory for the initial aircraft position and wind and temperature profiles encountered during each landing approach. The design theory and the results of simulations and flight tests using the Augmentor Wing Jet STOL Research Aircraft are described.

  13. Chinese green product standards: international experience and pathway for a unified system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Fu; Ling, Lin; Dongfeng, Gao; Shuo, Yang

    2017-11-01

    The establishment of a unified green product standard system is of great importance regarding the effective supply of green products and meeting trend of the consumption upgrade. It also is helpful to reduce the cost of green information disclosure of enterprises, and facilitate the supply-side structural reform. Based on the experience of developing and implementing green product standards in the EU, Germany, America, Japan and so on, combined with current Chinese standard systems including environmental protection, energy conservation, water conservation, low carbon, recycling, regeneration and organic, with the adoption of the life cycle thinking, this paper brings forward basic requirements on organizations including pollutant emissions, establishment of management system, energy conservation and emission reduction technology and green supply chain management, and proposes indicator requirements on product including resource attributes, energy attributes, environmental attributes and quality attributes, so as to guide the establishment of green product evaluation standards in the context of China.

  14. 78 FR 79419 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Effect...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ...\\ Present value Discount rate Category (million 2012$) (percent) Benefits Operating Cost Savings 1,848 7 3... Energy Conservation Standards \\5\\ Present value Discount rate Category (million 2012$) (percent) Benefits... Conservation Standards \\6\\ Present value Discount rate Category (billion 2012$) (percent) Benefits Operating...

  15. 77 FR 76972 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... motors and pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy resources of the nation... the efficiency of electric motors, pumps and certain other industrial equipment to conserve the energy... electric motors as covered equipment. A compressor may have some or all of the following components: piston...

  16. Energy conservation in ethanol production from renewable resources and non-petroleum energy sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The dry milling process for the conversion of grain to fuel ethanol is reviewed for the application of energy conservation technology, which will reduce the energy consumption to 70,000 Btu per gallon, a reduction of 42% from a distilled spirits process. Specific energy conservation technology applications are outlined and guidelines for the owner/engineer for fuel ethanol plants to consider in the selection on the basis of energy conservation economics of processing steps and equipment are provided. The process was divided into 5 sections and the energy consumed in each step was determined based on 3 sets of conditions; a conventional distilled spirits process; a modern process incorporating commercially proven energy conservation; and a second generation process incorporating advanced conservation technologies which have not yet been proven. Steps discussed are mash preparation and cooking, fermentation, distillation, and distillers dried grains processing. The economics of cogeneration of electricity on fuel ethanol plants is also studied. (MCW)

  17. Turing patterns in parabolic systems of conservation laws and numerically observed stability of periodic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Blake; Jung, Soyeun; Zumbrun, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    Turing patterns on unbounded domains have been widely studied in systems of reaction-diffusion equations. However, up to now, they have not been studied for systems of conservation laws. Here, we (i) derive conditions for Turing instability in conservation laws and (ii) use these conditions to find families of periodic solutions bifurcating from uniform states, numerically continuing these families into the large-amplitude regime. For the examples studied, numerical stability analysis suggests that stable periodic waves can emerge either from supercritical Turing bifurcations or, via secondary bifurcation as amplitude is increased, from subcritical Turing bifurcations. This answers in the affirmative a question of Oh-Zumbrun whether stable periodic solutions of conservation laws can occur. Determination of a full small-amplitude stability diagram - specifically, determination of rigorous Eckhaus-type stability conditions - remains an interesting open problem.

  18. Protected River. A new concept for conservation management of fluvial systems in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade; German I

    2011-01-01

    Based upon the concept of Ecological Integrity, relevant geophysical, bio- ecological and social attributes for river systems area identified. It is argued that current conservation and environmental management instruments in Colombia, do not take into account the identified IE attributes simultaneously. The concept of Protected River, PR, is then presented, as a necessary complement for conservation strategies. The PR concept would be defined for the maintenance of the attributes of EI in some representative river systems, as a part of the biodiversity conservation objectives within the Convention of Biological Diversity. Some attributes and indicators, and thresholds of undesired change are discussed. A typology for PR is proposed, following the international protected area management categories.

  19. Conservative fourth-order time integration of non-linear dynamic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    2015-01-01

    An energy conserving time integration algorithm with fourth-order accuracy is developed for dynamic systems with nonlinear stiffness. The discrete formulation is derived by integrating the differential state-space equations of motion over the integration time increment, and then evaluating...... the resulting time integrals of the inertia and stiffness terms via integration by parts. This process introduces the time derivatives of the state space variables, and these are then substituted from the original state-space differential equations. The resulting discrete form of the state-space equations...... is a direct fourth-order accurate representation of the original differential equations. This fourth-order form is energy conserving for systems with force potential in the form of a quartic polynomial in the displacement components. Energy conservation for a force potential of general form is obtained...

  20. Nonstandard conserved Hamiltonian structures in dissipative/damped systems: Nonlinear generalizations of damped harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, R. Gladwin; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we point out the existence of a remarkable nonlocal transformation between the damped harmonic oscillator and a modified Emden-type nonlinear oscillator equation with linear forcing, xe+αxx+βx 3 +γx=0, which preserves the form of the time independent integral, conservative Hamiltonian, and the equation of motion. Generalizing this transformation we prove the existence of nonstandard conservative Hamiltonian structure for a general class of damped nonlinear oscillators including Lienard-type systems. Further, using the above Hamiltonian structure for a specific example, namely, the generalized modified Emden equation xe+αx q x+βx 2q+1 =0, where α, β, and q are arbitrary parameters, the general solution is obtained through appropriate canonical transformations. We also present the conservative Hamiltonian structure of the damped Mathews-Lakshmanan oscillator equation. The associated Lagrangian description for all the above systems is also briefly discussed.

  1. Balancing Development and Conservation? An Assessment of Livelihood and Environmental Outcomes of Nontimber Forest Product Trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koen Kusters

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question, to what extent and under which conditions nontimber forest product (NTFP trade leads to both livelihood improvement and forest conservation. We based the analysis on a standardized expert-judgment assessment of the livelihood and environmental outcomes of 55 cases of NTFP trade from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. The results show that NTFP trade benefits several components of peoples' livelihoods, but may increase inequality between households. Involvement of women in the production-to-consumption system (PCS tends to have a positive impact on intrahousehold equity. In 80% of the cases, the commercial production of NTFPs does not enable people to make financial investments to increase quality and quantity of production, limiting the potential for development. In our set of cases, commercial extraction from the wild, without further management, tends to lead to resource depletion. NTFP production systems are generally considered to have lower environmental values than natural forest, but do contribute positively to the environmental values in the landscape. We found that higher livelihood outcomes are associated with lower environmental outcomes and conclude that NTFP trade is not likely to reconcile development and conservation of natural forest.

  2. Symmetry of Hamiltonian and conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yi

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on a new symmetry of Hamiltonian and its conserved quantity for a system of generalized classical mechanics. The differential equations of motion of the system are established. The definition and the criterion of the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the system are given. A conserved quantity directly derived from the symmetry of Hamiltonian of the generalized classical mechanical system is given. Since a Hamilton system is a special case of the generalized classical mechanics, the results above are equally applicable to the Hamilton system. The results of the paper are the generalization of a theorem known for the existing nonsingular equivalent Lagrangian. Finally, two examples are given to illustrate the application of the results. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  3. Description, Modelling and Design of Production Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Rudolph, Carsten

    1997-01-01

    Design of production systems are rarely an activity in which decision makers in most production companies have much experience. In future, this activity is to be more recurrent due to more and more frequent changes in the production task. Consequently, the decision makers are in need of better...... management tools and methods for description and modelling of production systems supporting the decisions. In this article a structural framework to describe and model production systems will be introduced, and it is shown how the production system of a minor Danish manufacturer of electromechanical...

  4. Product Configuration Systems - Implications for Product Innovation and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2004-01-01

    configurations. However, costs are but one parameter on which firms compete and firms must continually innovate new and develop existing products. This paper presents original empirical insights on implementation and use of product configuration systems in a number of Danish industrial firms. The paper discusses...... the organisational changes associated with PCS and how this affects product innovation and development. The paper begins by introducing product configuration systems, which are then placed in context to the firm as a process technology which coordinate different processes: product development, order acquisition......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) is a step in the direction of mass customization in the sense that PCS allows a firm to significantly lower the unit cost of configuration. Thus PCS is a valuable technology for lowering operating costs while retaining a high number of possible product...

  5. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26-141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture.

  6. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  7. Which Advisory System to Support Innovation in Conservation Agriculture? The Case of Madagascar's Lake Alaotra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, Guy; Penot, Eric; Rakotondravelo, Jean Chrysostome; Ramahatoraka, Haja Andrisoa; Dugue, Patrick; Toillier, Aurelie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To promote sustainable agriculture, various development projects are encouraging farmers around Madagascar's Lake Alaotra to adopt conservation agriculture techniques. This article's objective is to analyze the capacity of a project-funded advisory system to accompany such an innovation and to design and implement an advisory method aimed…

  8. Lax pairs and conservation laws for two differential-difference systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunxia

    2003-01-01

    A coupled extended Lotka-Volterra lattice and a special Toda lattice are derived from the existing bilinear equations. Starting from the corresponding bilinear Baecklund transformation, Lax pairs for these two differential-difference systems are obtained. Furthermore, an infinite number of conservation laws for the differential-difference equations are deduced from the Lax pairs in a systematic way

  9. The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production. Report of the FAO/IAEA consultants meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production' was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from May 28-30, 2001. The consultants' presentations reviewed recent advances in the use of fallout radionuclides to measure soil erosion as well as approaches and technologies applied for soil conservation worldwide. Also, activities and experiences of FAO and UNEP in the field of land degradation, soil conservation and related issues were presented. Based on the information provided by the Scientific Secretary, a full project proposal was prepared during the second part of the Consultants' Meeting. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of a future CRP on the subject

  10. Autocorrelation exponent of conserved spin systems in the scaling regime following a critical quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sire, Clément

    2004-09-24

    We study the autocorrelation function of a conserved spin system following a quench at the critical temperature. Defining the correlation length L(t) approximately t(1/z), we find that for times t' and t satisfying L(t')infinity limit, we show that lambda(')(c)=d+2 and phi=z/2. We give a heuristic argument suggesting that this result is, in fact, valid for any dimension d and spin vector dimension n. We present numerical simulations for the conserved Ising model in d=1 and d=2, which are fully consistent with the present theory.

  11. Controlled PVTS oil and gas production stimulation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ospina-Racines, E

    1970-02-01

    By completing oil- or gas-producing wells according to the PVTS method and energizing the flow of the oil-gas fluids in the reservoir with a small horse-power gas compressor at the wellhead, the following oil and gas production features are attained: (1) Original reservoir story energy conditions are restored, improved, used, and conserved while producing oil and/or gas. (2) The flow of oil or gas in the pay formation to the well bore is stimulated by gas compressor energy, outside of the reservoir system. The pressure drawdown is developed by gas-compressor energy in the well casing and not in the pay formation. (3) The stored energy of the reservoir is conserved while producing oil or gas. The potential energy (pressure) of the reservoir can be used to advantage up to bubble point of the virgin crude. (4) Producible reserves are increased from 4-to 5-fold by the conservation of reservoir energy. Present-day primary oil production practice yields a maximum of 20% of the oil in place by depleting the original reservoir energy. The PVTS system will yield over 80% + of oil in place. (5) Producible gas reserves can be increased greatly by establishing a low abandonment pressure at will. The principal features of the PVTS well mechanism and energy injection method are illustrated by a schematic diagram.

  12. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  13. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  14. Restoration of degraded arid farmland at Project Wadi Attir: Impact of conservation on biological productivity and soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor-Mussery, Amir; Helman, David; Ben Eli, Michael; Leu, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    The Israeli Negev Desert, as most Mediterranean drylands, is profoundly degraded. We have been documenting degradation and successful rehabilitation approaches in recent research, aiming at maximizing environmental and economic benefits while restoring healthy dryland soils and perennial vegetation to act as carbon sinks. These methods have been implemented for rehabilitation of Project Wadi Attir's. 50 hectares of heavily degraded farmland suffering from intensive soil erosion (expressed in dense gullies net and massive overland flow). Project Wadi Attir is a groundbreaking initiative of the Bedouin community in the Negev, for establishing a model sustainable agricultural operation. The project was initiated by the US-based Sustainability Laboratory and the Hura Municipal Council. The project is designed to demonstrate implementation of holistic sustainability principles developed by The Lab. The project's ecosystem restoration component involves site development, erosion control, soil conservation and improvement, planting of native and agroforestry trees, together with conservation and protection of biodiversity hotspots and avoiding grazing have, within three years, revealed the high biodiversity and productivity potential of this arid/semi-arid landscape. A number of shrublands and loess plots were subject to strict conservation, avoiding tilling and grazing. Soil fertility, productivity and biodiversity of these conserved plots inside the farm boundaries was compared to similar unprotected plots outside the farm fences by sampling in the field and by using satellite imaging. Our findings indicate a gradual improvement of SOM content specifically in the conserved shrubland area. Water infiltration, herbaceous biomass productivity and ants' activity of the protected plots also significantly increased within 3 years compared to the unprotected control areas. Starting from similar soil organic matter content in 2013 (3.3%) in the rocky slopes, in 2016 1% higher

  15. How to reconcile wood production and biodiversity conservation? The Pan-European boreal forest history gradient as an "experiment".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Vladimir; Manton, Michael; Elbakidze, Marine; Rendenieks, Zigmars; Priednieks, Janis; Uhlianets, Siarhei; Yamelynets, Taras; Zhivotov, Anton; Angelstam, Per

    2018-07-15

    There are currently competing demands on Europe's forests and the finite resources and services that they can offer. Forestry intensification that aims at mitigating climate change and biodiversity conservation is one example. Whether or not these two objectives compete can be evaluated by comparative studies of forest landscapes with different histories. We test the hypothesis that indicators of wood production and biodiversity conservation are inversely related in a gradient of long to short forestry intensification histories. Forest management data containing stand age, volume and tree species were used to model the opportunity for wood production and biodiversity conservation in five north European forest regions representing a gradient in landscape history from very long in the West and short in the East. Wood production indicators captured the supply of coniferous wood and total biomass, as well as current accessibility by transport infrastructure. Biodiversity conservation indicators were based on modelling habitat network functionality for focal bird species dependent on different combinations of stand age and tree species composition representing naturally dynamic forests. In each region we randomly sampled 25 individual 100-km 2 areas with contiguous forest cover. Regarding wood production, Sweden's Bergslagen region had the largest areas of coniferous wood, followed by Vitebsk in Belarus and Zemgale in Latvia. NW Russia's case study regions in Pskov and Komi had the lowest values, except for the biomass indicator. The addition of forest accessibility for transportation made the Belarusian and Swedish study region most suitable for wood and biomass production, followed by Latvia and two study regions in NW Russian. Regarding biodiversity conservation, the overall rank among regions was opposite. Mixed and deciduous habitats were functional in Russia, Belarus and Latvia. Old Scots pine and Norway spruce habitats were only functional in Komi. Thus

  16. Test of post-newtonian conservation laws in the binary system PSR 1913+16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    Observations that set upper limits on secular changes in the pulsar period and orbital period in the binary system PSR 1913+16 may provide a test of post-Newtonian conservation laws. According to some metric theories of gravitation, the center of mass of a binary system may be accelerated in the direction of the periastron of the orbit because of a violation of post-Newtonian momentum conservation. In the binary system PSR 1913+16, this effect could produce secular changes in both pulsar and orbital periods (changing overall Doppler shift) as large as two parts in 10 6 per year. The size of the effect is proportional to the sine of the angle of periastron, to the difference in the masses of the components of the binary system, and to the combination of parametrized post-Newtonian parameters α 3 +zeta 2 -zeta/subw/. This combination is zero in any theory that predicts conserved total momentum for isolated systems (including general relativity and Brans-Dicke theory). Although solar-system experiments constrain α 3 and zeta/subw/ to be small, no decent direct limit has been placed on zeta 2 . Other possible sources of secular period changes in PSR 1913+16 are discussed and compared with this effect. It is also shown that a breakdown in the equality of active and passive gravitational masses (violation of ''Newton's third law'') leads only to periodic, unobservable orbital effects in a system like PSR 1913+16

  17. Innovations in greenhouse systems - Energy conservation by system design, sensors and decision support systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemming, S.; Balendonck, J.; Dieleman, J.A.; Gelder, De A.; Kempkes, F.L.K.; Swinkels, G.L.A.M.; Visser, De P.H.B.; Zwart, De H.F.

    2017-01-01

    The targets for energy saving in Dutch horticulture are high. Research follows the two lines: total energy reduction and sustainability. The principles for that are: maximum use of natural sunlight (free energy input to greenhouse, free light for crop growth and production); maximum insulation

  18. Implementation Of Conservation Policy Through The Protection Of Life Support System In The Karimunjawa National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariyani, Nur Anisa Eka; Kismartini

    2018-02-01

    The Karimunjawa National Park as the only one marine protected area in Central Java, managed by zonation system has decreased natural resources in the form of decreasing mangrove forest area, coral cover, sea biota population such as clams and sea cucumbers. Conservation has been done by Karimunjawa National Park Authority through protection of life support system activities in order to protect the area from degradation. The objective of the research is to know the implementation of protection and security activities of Karimunjawa National Park Authority for the period of 2012 - 2016. The research was conducted by qualitative method, processing secondary data from Karimunjawa National Park Authority and interview with key informants. The results showed that protection and security activities in The Karimunjawa National Park were held with three activities: pre-emptive activities, preventive activities and repressive activities. Implementation of conservation policy through protection of life support system is influenced by factors of policy characteristic, resource factor and environmental policy factor. Implementation of conservation policy need support from various parties, not only Karimunjawa National Park Authority as the manager of the area, but also need participation of Jepara Regency, Central Java Provinces, communities, NGOs, researchers, developers and tourism actors to maintain and preserve existing biodiversity. Improving the quality of implementors through education and training activities, the availability of the state budget annually and the support of stakeholders is essential for conservation.

  19. Mei symmetry and conservation laws of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and irregular lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Gang-Ling; Chen Li-Qun; Fu Jing-Li; Hong Fang-Yu

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Noether symmetry and Mei symmetry of discrete nonholonomic dynamical systems with regular and the irregular lattices are investigated. Firstly, the equations of motion of discrete nonholonomic systems are introduced for regular and irregular lattices. Secondly, for cases of the two lattices, based on the invariance of the Hamiltomian functional under the infinitesimal transformation of time and generalized coordinates, we present the quasi-extremal equation, the discrete analogues of Noether identity, Noether theorems, and the Noether conservation laws of the systems. Thirdly, in cases of the two lattices, we study the Mei symmetry in which we give the discrete analogues of the criterion, the theorem, and the conservative laws of Mei symmetry for the systems. Finally, an example is discussed for the application of the results

  20. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Andrade, Horasa Lima; de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  1. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luciano Pires; Muniz, Lauana Souza; Telino-Júnior, Wallace Rodrigues; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Lyra-Neves, Rachel Maria

    2016-01-01

    Farmers’ perceptions of birds’ interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK) of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers’ knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas. PMID:27243222

  2. Do Farmers Using Conventional and Non-Conventional Systems of Agriculture Have Different Perceptions of the Diversity of Wild Birds? Implications for Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horasa Lima Silva-Andrade

    Full Text Available Farmers' perceptions of birds' interactions with agricultural production systems are fundamental to species conservation efforts. In the present study, we evaluated the perceptions of birds held by farmers who engage in conventional and non-conventional agricultural production processes and the implications of potential differences in these perceptions on species conservation. To accomplish this, data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, and other complementary sources of information gathered from 191 farmers in northeastern Brazil. Although some similarities were identified among the farmers in their perceptions and local ecological knowledge (LEK of birds, differences existed between the conventional and non-conventional farmers in their attitudes toward, conflicts with, and usage of bird species. Compared to the conventional farmers, the non-conventional farmers could identify more bird species, possessed more favorable attitudes toward birds, and engaged in practices more beneficial to the conservation of avifauna. The perceptions that were identified were related to the type of agriculture practiced, and such perceptions may affect the conservation of bird species. Therefore, the adoption of certain agricultural practices has important implications for conservation. Our results indicate the need for investment in public policies, programs and actions that account for farmers' knowledge and perceptions. Such investments will contribute to the development and adoption of practices supporting wild bird conservation in agricultural areas.

  3. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  4. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  5. Product/Service-System Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Adrian; McAloone, Timothy Charles; Gall, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Product/service-systems’ (PSS) are innovation strategies where instead of focusing on the value of selling physical products, one focuses on the value of the utility of products and services throughout the product’s life period. This approach enables companies to provide customers with offerings...... that continuously deliver value and create a strong competitive advantage. PSS attempts to transcend the old industrial credo that value is embedded in products and the consideration of ‘cost-quality-time’ relates to the physical artefact. While there is increasing interest in PSS, limited research has been done...

  6. The role of coffee based agroforestry system in tree diversity conservation in Eastern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negawo, Worku Janka; Beyene, Dejene Nigatu

    2017-01-01

    Agroforestry farming system comprises considerable cultivated land area in the tropics. Despite the economic and social benefits of the system for farmers, it is also known to have an important role in the conservation of tree species. This study aims to evaluate the composition and distribution...... of indigenous tree species in coffee farms was lower than that of forest reserve. Similarly, tree species richness per plot, Shannon and Simpson diversity indexes of forest reserve were significantly (p

  7. Significance of Mangrove Biodiversity Conservation in Fishery Production and Living Conditions of Coastal Communities in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya Sarathchandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka is an island nation where ~59% of the population live in coastal regions. The main income source in these areas is fishing, which contributes to ~44% of the national GDP. Fishery resources depend on mangroves, especially in estuaries and lagoons, as mangroves provide the best nursery grounds for both brackish and marine species that are significant for the island’s fishing industry. However, growing pressures from an increasing population and development are causing substantial damage to mangroves resulting in loss of mangrove diversity. We analyzed whether variation in mangrove diversity within a lagoon system affects fishery production and livelihoods. Along the lagoon we selected three sites, which were 5 km apart from each other, for the survey. We used three 50 m long transects at each site for faunal and floral diversity assessments. The fishery catch was recorded from three crafts in each side. The socio-economic survey was conducted in 30 households per site using a standard questionnaire. In the site with the highest floral and faunal diversity, we also recorded the highest fish catch, but not the highest crab or shrimp catches. Our results confirm that higher mangrove diversity—and not just area—supports higher income generation. Thus, future development should prioritize biodiversity conservation in coastal regions.

  8. A New type of conserved quantity deduced from Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, Pang; Jian-Hui, Fang; Ming-Jiang, Zhang; Peng, Lin; Kai, Lu

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the new type of conserved quantity which is directly induced by Mei symmetry of nonholonomic systems in terms of quasi-coordinates. A coordination function is introduced, and the conditions for the existence of the new conserved quantities as well as their forms are proposed. Some special cases are given to illustrate the generalized significance of the new type conserved quantity. Finally, an illustrated example is given to show the application of the nonholonomic system's results. (general)

  9. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 乔永芬; 刘洋

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass nonholonomic noncon-servative systems. First, we give the definition of integrating factors, and we study in detail the necessary conditionsfor the existence of the conserved quantities. Then, we establish the conservation theorem and its inverse theorem forHamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonconservative dynamical systems. Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  10. Conserving social-ecological systems in Indonesia: human-nonhuman primate interconnections in Bali and Sulawesi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin P; Fuentes, Agustín

    2011-01-01

    An important question asked by primatologists and conservationists alike is: what is the relevance of primates and primate conservation for ecosystem conservation? The goal of this article is to contribute to this dialogue by advocating the use of a research perspective that focuses on the dynamics of human-nonhuman primate sympatry and interaction (i.e., ethnoprimatology) in order to better understand complex social-ecological systems and to inform their conservation management. This perspective/approach is based largely on the recognition that human primates are important components of all ecological systems and that niche construction is a fundamental feature of their adaptive success. To demonstrate the relevance of the human-nonhuman primate interface for ecosystem conservation, we provide examples from our research from two islands in the Indonesian archipelago: Bali and Sulawesi. In Bali, humans and long-tail macaques coexist in a system that creates favorable environments for the macaques. This anthropogenic landscape and the economic and ecological relationships between humans and monkeys on Bali provide insight into sustainable systems of human/nonhuman primate coexistence. In Lore Lindu National Park in Central Sulawesi, villagers and Tonkean macaques overlap in their use of both forest and cultivated resources. The finding that the Arenga pinnata palm is extremely important for both villagers and macaques points to a conservation management recommendation that may help protect the overall ecosystem; the cultivation and propagation of mutually important tree species at forest-agricultural ecotone as a means to curb crop raiding and to alleviate farmer's perceived need to clear additional forest.

  11. Economic assessment of conventional and conservation tillage practices in different wheat-based cropping systems of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahzad, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubshar; Farooq, Muhammad; Farooq, Shahid; Jabran, Khawar; Nawaz, Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Wheat productivity and profitability is low under conventional tillage systems as they increase the production cost, soil compaction, and the weed infestation. Conservation tillage could be a pragmatic option to sustain the wheat productivity and enhance the profitability on long term basis. This study was aimed to evaluate the economics of different wheat-based cropping systems viz. fallow-wheat, rice-wheat, cotton-wheat, mung bean-wheat, and sorghum-wheat, with zero tillage, conventional tillage, deep tillage, bed sowing (60/30 cm beds and four rows), and bed sowing (90/45 cm beds and six rows). Results indicated that the bed sown wheat had the maximum production cost than other tillage systems. Although both bed sowing treatments incurred the highest production cost, they generated the highest net benefits and benefit: cost ratio (BCR). Rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) had the highest net income (4129.7 US$ ha -1 ), BCR (2.87), and marginal rate of return compared with rest of the cropping systems. In contrast, fallow-wheat cropping system incurred the lowest input cost, but had the least economic return. In crux, rice-wheat cropping system with bed sown wheat (90/45 cm beds with six rows) was the best option for getting the higher economic returns. Moreover, double cropping systems within a year are more profitable than sole planting of wheat under all tillage practices.

  12. RD & D priorities for energy production and resource conservation from municipal solid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report identifies research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs and priorities associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management technologies that conserve or produce energy or resources. The changing character of MSW waste management and the public`s heightened awareness of its real and perceived benefits and costs creates opportunities for RD&D in MSW technologies. Increased recycling, for example, creates new opportunities for energy, chemicals, and materials recovery. New technologies to control and monitor emissions from MSW combustion facilities are available for further improvement or application. Furthermore, emerging waste-to-energy technologies may offer environmental, economic, and other advantages. Given these developments, DOE identified a need to assess the RD&D needs and pdodties and carefully target RD&D efforts to help solve the carbon`s waste management problem and further the National Energy Strategy. This report presents such an assessment. It identifies and Documents RD&D needs and priorities in the broad area of MSW resource . recovery, focusing on efforts to make MSW management technologies commercially viable or to improve their commercial deployment over a 5 to l0 year period. Panels of technical experts identifies 279 RD&D needs in 12 technology areas, ranking about one-fifth of these needs as priorities. A ``Peer Review Group`` identified mass-burn combustion, ``systems studies,`` landfill gas, and ash utilization and disposal as high priority areas for RD&D based on cost and the impacts of further RD&D. The results of this assessment are intended to provide guidance to DOE concerning possible future RD&D projects.

  13. Modernizing the Regulatory System for Biotechnology Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Web page describes the continuing effort to modernize the federal regulatory system for biotechnology products as well as clarify various roles of EPA, FDA and USDA in evaluating new biotechnology products.

  14. Dairy goat production systems: status quo, perspectives and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escareño, Luis; Salinas-Gonzalez, Homero; Wurzinger, Maria; Iñiguez, Luiz; Sölkner, Johann; Meza-Herrera, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Goat production concentrated in developing countries (tropics, dry areas), contributes largely to the livelihoods of low and medium income farmers. Farming systems in these areas have evolved to cope with the formidable constraints imposed by harsh natural and economic conditions by adapting integrated crop/livestock production strategies. In Asia, Africa and Latin America, due to its almost exclusive extensive nature, goat production relies mainly on grazing on communal lands that hardly provide the minimum nutrient requirements due to overstocking and degradation. While some of these production systems are becoming semi-intensive, appropriate breeding strategies should be designed to promote conservation and improvement of their unique attributes, such as adaptability, water use efficiency and suitability under harsh climatic conditions. In Europe, dairy goat production is more common around the Mediterranean basin, where it is important from an economic, environmental and sociological perspective to the Mediterranean countries: Spain, France, Italy and Greece. Europe owns only 5.1 % of the world's dairy goat herds, but produces 15.6 % of the world's goat milk; this is the only continent where goat milk has such an economic importance and organization. In developing countries the dairy goat sector requires a systemic approach, whereby nutrition, animal health, breeding, know-how, inputs and technologies must be assembled. This would allow the optimization of natural and local resources and would promote the transition from a risk reduction strategy towards an increased productivity strategy. Such an increase would privilege production efficiency based on clean, green and ethical practices for responsible innovation.

  15. Transient chaos in a globally coupled system of nearly conservative Hamiltonian Duffing oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabarathinam, S.; Thamilmaran, K.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •We have examined transient chaos in globally coupled oscillators. •We analyze transient chaos using new techniques. •We give experimental confirmation of transient chaos. -- Abstract: In this work, transient chaos in a ring and globally coupled system of nearly conservative Hamiltonian Duffing oscillators is reported. The networks are formed by coupling of three, four and six Duffing oscillators. The nearly conservative Hamiltonian nature of the coupled system is proved by stability analysis. The transient phenomenon is confirmed through various numerical investigations such as recurrence analysis, 0–1 test and Finite Time Lyapunov Exponents. Further, the effect of damping and the average transient lifetime of three, four and six coupled schemes for randomly generated initial conditions have been analyzed. The experimental confirmation of transient chaos in an illustrative system of three ringly coupled Duffing oscillators is also presented

  16. Wireless sensing on surface hydrocarbon production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, D; McStay, D; Mulholland, J; Costello, L

    2009-01-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks for monitoring and optimising the performance of surface hydrocarbon production systems is reported. Wireless sensor networks are shown to be able to produce comprehensively instrumented XTs and other equipment that generate the data required by Intelligent Oilfield systems. The information produced by such systems information can be used for real-time operational control, production optimization and troubleshooting.

  17. Enhancing Productivity and Resource Conservation by Eliminating Inefficiency of Thai Rice Farmers: A Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxu Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study first identified fully efficient farmers and then estimated technical efficiency of inefficient farmers, identifying their determinants by applying a Zero Inefficiency Stochastic Frontier Model (ZISFM on a sample of 300 rice farmers from central-northern Thailand. Next, the study developed scenarios of potential production increase and resource conservation if technical inefficiency was eliminated. Results revealed that 13% of the sampled farmers were fully efficient, thereby justifying the use of our approach. The estimated mean technical efficiency was 91%, implying that rice production can be increased by 9%, by reallocating resources. Land and labor were the major productivity drivers. Education significantly improved technical efficiency. Farmers who transplanted seedlings were relatively technically efficient as compared to those who practised manual and/or mechanical direct seeding methods. Elimination of technical inefficiency could increase output by 8.64% per ha, or generate 5.7–6.4 million tons of additional rice output for Thailand each year. Similarly, elimination of technical inefficiency would potentially conserve 19.44% person-days of labor, 11.95% land area, 11.46% material inputs and 8.67% mechanical power services for every ton of rice produced. This translates into conservation of 2.9–3.0 million person-days of labor, 3.7–4.5 thousand km2 of land, 10.0–14.5 billion baht of material input and 7.6–12.8 billion baht of mechanical power costs to produce current level of rice output in Thailand each year. Policy implications include investment into educating farmers, and improving technical knowledge of seeding technology, to boost rice production and conserve scarce resources in Thailand.

  18. Customer system efficiency improvement assessment: Supply curves for transmission and distribution conservation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tepel, R.C.; Callaway, J.W.; De Steese, J.G.

    1987-11-01

    This report documents the results of Task 6 in the Customer System Efficiency Improvement (CSEI) Assessment Project. A principal objective of this project is to assess the potential for energy conservation in the transmission and distribution (TandD) systems of electric utilities in the BPA service area. The scope of this assessment covers BPA customers in the Pacific Northwest region and all non-federal TandD systems, including those that currently place no load on the BPA system. Supply curves were developed to describe the conservation resource potentially available from TandD-system efficiency improvements. These supply curves relate the levelized cost of upgrading existing equipment to the estimated amount of energy saved. Stated in this form, the resource represented by TandD loss reductions can be compared with other conservation options and regional electrical generation resources to determine the most cost-effective method of supplying power to the Pacific Northwest. The development of the supply curves required data acquisition and methodology development that are also described in this report. 11 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Automation System Products and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rintala, Mikko; Sormunen, Jussi; Kuisma, Petri; Rahkala, Matti

    2014-01-01

    Automation systems are used in most buildings nowadays. In the past they were mainly used in industry to control and monitor critical systems. During the past few decades the automation systems have become more common and are used today from big industrial solutions to homes of private customers. With the growing need for ecologic and cost-efficient management systems, home and building automation systems are becoming a standard way of controlling lighting, ventilation, heating etc. Auto...

  20. NOAA Soil Moisture Products System (SMOPS) Daily Blended Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS) combines soil moisture retrievals from multiple satellite sensors to provide a global soil moisture map with...

  1. Robust Medical Isotope Production System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, Steven Karl [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimpland, Robert Herbert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The success of this theoretical undertaking provided confidence that the behavior of new and evolving designs of fissile solution systems may be accurately estimated. Scaled up versions of SUPO, subcritical acceleratordriven systems, and other evolutionary designs have been examined.

  2. Sewerage force adjustment technology for energy conservation in vacuum sanitation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhonghua; Li, Xiaoning; Kagawa, Toshiharu

    2013-03-01

    The vacuum sanitation is the safe and sound disposal approach of human excreta under the specific environments like flights, high speed trains and submarines. However, the propulsive force of current systems is not adjustable and the energy consumption does not adapt to the real time sewerage requirement. Therefore, it is important to study the sewerage force adjustment to improve the energy efficiency. This paper proposes an energy conservation design in vacuum sanitation systems with pneumatic ejector circuits. The sewerage force is controlled by changing the systematic vacuum degree according to the amount of the excreta. In particular, the amount of the excreta is tested by liquid level sensor and mass sensor. According to the amount of the excreta, the relationship between the excreta amount and the sewerage force is studied to provide proper propulsive force. In the other aspect, to provide variable vacuum degrees for different sanitation requirements, the suction and discharge system is designed with pneumatic vacuum ejector. On the basis of the static flow-rate characteristics and the vacuum generation model, the pressure response in the ejector circuit is studied by using the static flow rate characteristics of the ejector and air status equation. The relationship is obtained between supplied compressed air and systematic vacuum degree. When the compressed air is supplied to the ejector continuously, the systematic vacuum degree increases until the vacuum degree reaches the extreme value. Therefore, the variable systematic vacuum degree is obtained by controlling the compressed air supply of the ejector. To verify the effect of energy conservation, experiments are carried out in the artificial excreta collection, and the variable vacuum-degree design saves more than 30% of the energy supply. The energy conservation is realized effectively in the new vacuum sanitation systems with good application prospect. The proposed technology provides technological

  3. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-26

    ... 5-year average ratio with heating oil prices published in the Monthly Energy Review, but the propane... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  4. 78 FR 62970 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Standard E. Definition of Basic Model F. Statistical Sampling Plans G. Information To Be Provided in... administrative convenience based on their nature or type. Under EPCA, the energy conservation program consists... Reference of Standards 5. Basic Models 6. Statistical Sampling Plans 7. Information To Be Provided in...

  5. 75 FR 27170 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Determination Concerning the Potential for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Points for a 203-Watt Multiple-Voltage EPS for a Video Game Console Efficiency- Reference point for... would likely benefit economically from the imposition of energy conservation standards for non-Class A... projected savings and national NPV considers only the direct financial costs and benefits to consumers of...

  6. 76 FR 37678 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... Laboratory study, which determined the energy use based on conservative estimates on number of fume hood... issue a Family Policymaking Assessment for any rule that may affect family well-being. This proposed determination would not have any impact on the autonomy or integrity of the family as an institution...

  7. The role of herbicides for enhancing productivity and conserving land for biodiversity in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert G. Wagner; Michael Newton; Elizabeth C. Cole; James H. Miller; Barry D. Shiver

    2004-01-01

    Herbicide technology has evolved with forest management in North America over the past 60 years and has become an integral part of modern forestry practice. Forest managers have prescribed herbicides to increase reforestation success and long-term timber yields. Wildlife managers and others interested in conserving biodi- versity, however, have often viewed herbicide...

  8. 75 FR 42579 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Microwave Ovens; Repeal of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... provided in paragraph (i)(2) of this section, for each basic model of conventional cooking tops, and... the cooking efficiency test procedure for microwave ovens under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA). DOE has determined that the microwave oven test procedure to measure the cooking efficiency does...

  9. 77 FR 76952 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... dishwashers. Given that 65 percent of all standard dishwashers currently on the market meet or exceed the..., standard, or criteria for that determination. It is a textbook arbitrary and capricious determination. As... the market meet or exceed the minimum energy conservation standards established in the direct final...

  10. 78 FR 63410 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Direct Heating Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... test procedures for direct heating equipment and pool heaters established under the Energy Policy and... U.S.C. 6293(e)(2)) The current energy conservation standards for direct heating equipment and pool... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-TP-0004] RIN 1904-AC94 Energy...

  11. 78 FR 16443 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan Light Kits AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable... consider amending the energy conservation standards for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. DOE also....gov . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Email: CeilingFan[email protected

  12. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-18

    ... that of heating oil, based on the 2004-2008 averages for these two fuels. The source for these price... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program... and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In this notice, the U.S...

  13. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    .... Detergent Specifications for Clothes Dryer Test Cloth Preconditioning 5. Changes To Reflect Current Usage... conservation standard; (3) updated detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (4... detergent specifications for clothes dryer test cloth preconditioning; (7) update the references to external...

  14. Applications of geographic information systems and remote sensing techniques to conservation of amphibians in northwestern Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariela Palacios González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The biodiversity of the Andean Chocó in western Ecuador and Colombia is threatened by anthropogenic changes in land cover. The main goal of this study was to contribute to conservation of 12 threatened species of amphibians at a cloud forest site in northwestern Ecuador, by identifying and proposing protection of critical areas. We used Geographic Information Systems (GIS and remote sensing techniques to quantify land cover changes over 35 years and outline important areas for amphibian conservation. We performed a supervised classification of an IKONOS satellite image from 2011 and two aerial photographs from 1977 and 2000. The 2011 IKONOS satellite image classification was used to delineate areas important for conservation of threatened amphibians within a 200 m buffer around rivers and streams. The overall classification accuracy of the three images was ≥80%. Forest cover was reduced by 17% during the last 34 years. However, only 50% of the study area retained the initial (1977 forest cover, as land was cleared for farming and eventually reforested. Finally, using the 2011 IKONOS satellite image, we delineated areas of potential conservation interest that would benefit the long term survival of threatened amphibian species at the Ecuadorian cloud forest site studied.

  15. The conservation laws of nonrelativistic classical and quantum mechanics for a system of interacting particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, P.

    1978-01-01

    The various classical or quantum mechanical equations describing a system of N particles with central two-body interactions are invariant under the 10 transformations of the Galilei group, and for interaction potential inversely proportional to the squares of the particle separations also under two further transformations. From the invariance of the corresponding classical and quantum mechanical variation principles under this 12-parameter conformal extension of the Galilei group, the 'Jacobi-Schroedinger group', the 12 well-known conservation laws of Newtonian dynamics as well as 12 local conservation laws implied by the Schroedinger equation are obtained via Noether's theorem. Under appropriate conditions on the wave functions, these local laws yield 12 global conservation laws which are analogous to the Newtonian ones. The Hamiltonian-Jacobi equation implies a classical equation differing from the Schroedinger equation only by a potential-like term involving the Van Vleck determinant, from which 12 local balance equations and the corresponding global equations are obtained, which under certain conditions reduce the true conservation laws. (Auth.)

  16. [Conservative calibration of a clearance monitor system for waste material from nuclear medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, Carsten; Geworski, Lilli

    2014-09-01

    Clearance monitor systems are used for gross gamma measurements of waste potentially contaminated with radioactivity. These measurements are to make sure that legal requirements, e.g. clearance criteria according to the german radiation protection ordinance, are met. This means that measurement results may overestimate, but must not underestimate the true values. This paper describes a pragmatic way using a calibrated Cs-137 point source to generate a conservative calibration for the clearance monitor system used in the Medizinische Hochschule Hannover (MHH). The most important nuclides used in nuclear medicine are considered. The measurement result reliably overestimates the true value of the activity present in the waste. The calibration is compliant with the demands for conservativity and traceability to national standards. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  17. A second-order iterative implicit-explicit hybrid scheme for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Wenlong; Woodward, P.R.

    1996-01-01

    An iterative implicit-explicit hybrid scheme is proposed for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. Each wave in a system may be implicitly, or explicitly, or partially implicitly and partially explicitly treated depending on its associated Courant number in each numerical cell, and the scheme is able to smoothly switch between implicit and explicit calculations. The scheme is of Godunov-type in both explicit and implicit regimes, is in a strict conservation form, and is accurate to second-order in both space and time for all Courant numbers. The computer code for the scheme is easy to vectorize. Multicolors proposed in this paper may reduce the number of iterations required to reach a converged solution by several orders for a large time step. The feature of the scheme is shown through numerical examples. 38 refs., 12 figs

  18. Product Configuration Systems and Consequences for Productivity and Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard; Edwards, Kasper

    2004-01-01

    with informations about expected and realised costs and benefits in implemented PCS's we have the following results: the three highest aggregated scoring expected benefits are: 1)improved quality in specifications, 2)lower turnaround time, and 3)using less resources.The results achieved are in accordance......Product Configuration Systems (PCS) are systems to produce quotations to potential buyers of the products an enterprise produces. Typically the products are complex and will first be produced according to specific needs from the customers. From twelve case studies in Danish industry...

  19. 75 FR 56795 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ...: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial Equipment... product, additional provisions for imports, voluntary industry certification programs (VICP), verification... DOE intends to apply certification, compliance, and enforcement regulations to all covered products...

  20. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Yao, E-mail: Yao.Fu@colorado.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon, E-mail: JH.Song@colorado.edu

    2015-08-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging.

  1. On 2X2 systems of conservation laws with fluxes that are entropies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Junk

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we study systems of conservation laws with two dependent and two independent variables which have the property that the fluxes are entropies. Several characterizations of such flux functions are presented. It turns out, that the corresponding systems automatically possess a large class of additional entropies, they are closely related to a kinetic equation, and, in the case of strict hyperbolicity, they can be decoupled into two independent Burgers' equations. The isentropic Euler equations with zero or cubic pressure laws are the most prominent examples of such systems, but other examples are also presented.

  2. Heat flux expressions that satisfy the conservation laws in atomistic system involving multibody potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Yao; Song, Jeong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat flux expressions are derived for multibody potential systems by extending the original Hardy's methodology and modifying Admal & Tadmor's formulas. The continuum thermomechanical quantities obtained from these two approaches are easy to compute from molecular dynamics (MD) results, and have been tested for a constant heat flux model in two distinctive systems: crystalline iron and polyethylene (PE) polymer. The convergence criteria and affecting parameters, i.e. spatial and temporal window size, and specific forms of localization function are found to be different between the two systems. The conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are discussed and validated within this atomistic–continuum bridging

  3. A coupled-mode theory for multiwaveguide systems satisfying the reciprocity theorem and power conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shun-Lien

    1987-01-01

    Two sets of coupled-mode equations for multiwaveguide systems are derived using a generalized reciprocity relation; one set for a lossless system, and the other for a general lossy or lossless system. The second set of equations also reduces to those of the first set in the lossless case under the condition that the transverse field components are chosen to be real. Analytical relations between the coupling coefficients are shown and applied to the coupling of mode equations. It is shown analytically that these results satisfy exactly both the reciprocity theorem and power conservation. New orthogonal relations between the supermodes are derived in matrix form, with the overlap integrals taken into account.

  4. Assessing product service systems (PSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; McAloone, Tim C.; Neugebauer, Line

    We apply a management tool to classify different integrated PSS within the context of Danish maritime industry. We investigate how a firm should organize its operations to manage the transition from being a manufacturing to a servitizing company, and to provide a guideline for strategic positioni...... and planning of the balance between product sales and service activities....

  5. Alert Systems for production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre; Jensen, Finn Verner

    2005-01-01

    We present a new methodology for detecting faults and abnormal behavior in production plants. The methodology stems from a joint project with a Danish energy consortium. During the course of the project we encountered several problems that we believe are common for projects of this type. Most...

  6. Dependency of global primary bioenergy crop potentials in 2050 on food systems, yields, biodiversity conservation and political stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erb, Karl-Heinz; Haberl, Helmut; Plutzar, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    The future bioenergy crop potential depends on (1) changes in the food system (food demand, agricultural technology), (2) political stability and investment security, (3) biodiversity conservation, (4) avoidance of long carbon payback times from deforestation, and (5) energy crop yields. Using a biophysical biomass-balance model, we analyze how these factors affect global primary bioenergy potentials in 2050. The model calculates biomass supply and demand balances for eleven world regions, eleven food categories, seven food crop types and two livestock categories, integrating agricultural forecasts and scenarios with a consistent global land use and NPP database. The TREND scenario results in a global primary bioenergy potential of 77 EJ/yr, alternative assumptions on food-system changes result in a range of 26–141 EJ/yr. Exclusion of areas for biodiversity conservation and inaccessible land in failed states reduces the bioenergy potential by up to 45%. Optimistic assumptions on future energy crop yields increase the potential by up to 48%, while pessimistic assumptions lower the potential by 26%. We conclude that the design of sustainable bioenergy crop production policies needs to resolve difficult trade-offs such as food vs. energy supply, renewable energy vs. biodiversity conservation or yield growth vs. reduction of environmental problems of intensive agriculture. - Highlights: ► Global energy crop potentials in 2050 are calculated with a biophysical biomass-balance model. ► The study is focused on dedicated energy crops, forestry and residues are excluded. ► Depending on food-system change, global energy crop potentials range from 26–141 EJ/yr. ► Exclusion of protected areas and failed states may reduce the potential up to 45%. ► The bioenergy potential may be 26% lower or 45% higher, depending on energy crop yields.

  7. Stakeholder engagement in scenario development process - bioenergy production and biodiversity conservation in eastern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haatanen, Anniina; den Herder, Michael; Leskinen, Pekka; Lindner, Marcus; Kurttila, Mikko; Salminen, Olli

    2014-03-15

    In this study participatory approaches were used to develop alternative forest resource management scenarios with particular respect to the effects on increased use of forest bioenergy and its effect on biodiversity in Eastern Finland. As technical planning tools, we utilized a forest management planning system (MELA) and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA) to visualize the impacts of the scenarios. We organized a stakeholder workshop where group discussions were used as a participatory method to get the stakeholder preferences and insights concerning forest resource use in the year 2030. Feedback from the workshop was then complemented with a questionnaire. Based on the results of the workshop and a questionnaire we developed three alternative forest resource scenarios: (1) bioenergy 2030 - in which energy production is more centralized and efficient; (2) biodiversity 2030 - in which harvesting methods are more nature friendly and protected forests make up 10% of the total forest area; and (3) mixed bioenergy + biodiversity 2030 scenario - in which wood production, recreation and nature protection are assigned to the most suitable areas. The study showed that stakeholder engagement combined with the MELA and ToSIA tools can be a useful approach in scenario development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. On the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin and new examples of integrable conservative systems on S^2

    OpenAIRE

    Selivanova, E. N.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe a class of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta. We prove that this class of systems consists off the case of Goryachev-Chaplygin, the one-parameter family of systems which has been found by the author in the previous paper (dg-ga/9711005) and a new two-parameter family of conservative systems on $S^2$ possessing an integral cubic in momenta.

  9. Predator persistence through variability of resource productivity in Tritrophic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soudijn, Floor Helena; de Roos, Andre M.

    2017-01-01

    The trophic structure of species communities depends on the energy transfer between trophic levels. Primary productivity varies strongly through time, challenging the persistence of species at higher trophic levels. Yet resource variability has mostly been studied in systems with only one or two...... trophic levels. We test the effect of variability in resource productivity in a tritrophic model system including a resource, a size-structured consumer, and a size-specific predator. The model complies with fundamental principles of mass conservation and the body-size dependence of individual......-level energetics and predator-prey interactions. Surprisingly, we find that resource variability may promote predator persistence. The positive effect of variability on the predator arises through periods with starvation mortality of juvenile prey, which reduces the intraspecific competition in the prey population...

  10. HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, William S.

    2001-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) needs improved technologies to decontaminate large areas of both concrete and steel surfaces. The technology should have high operational efficiency, minimize exposures to workers, and produce low levels of secondary waste. In order to meet the DOE's needs, an applied research and development project for the improvement of a current decontamination technology, Vacuum Blasting, is proposed. The objective of this project is to improve the productivity and lower the expense of the existing vacuum blasting technology which has been widely used in DOE sites for removing radioactive contamination, PCBs, and lead-based paint. The proposed work would increase the productivity rate and provide safe and cost-effective decontamination of the DOE sites

  11. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  12. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  13. NDSI products system based on Hadoop platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Jiang, He; Yang, Xiaoxia; Geng, Erhui

    2015-12-01

    Snow is solid state of water resources on earth, and plays an important role in human life. Satellite remote sensing is significant in snow extraction with the advantages of cyclical, macro, comprehensiveness, objectivity, timeliness. With the continuous development of remote sensing technology, remote sensing data access to the trend of multiple platforms, multiple sensors and multiple perspectives. At the same time, in view of the remote sensing data of compute-intensive applications demand increase gradually. However, current the producing system of remote sensing products is in a serial mode, and this kind of production system is used for professional remote sensing researchers mostly, and production systems achieving automatic or semi-automatic production are relatively less. Facing massive remote sensing data, the traditional serial mode producing system with its low efficiency has been difficult to meet the requirements of mass data timely and efficient processing. In order to effectively improve the production efficiency of NDSI products, meet the demand of large-scale remote sensing data processed timely and efficiently, this paper build NDSI products production system based on Hadoop platform, and the system mainly includes the remote sensing image management module, NDSI production module, and system service module. Main research contents and results including: (1)The remote sensing image management module: includes image import and image metadata management two parts. Import mass basis IRS images and NDSI product images (the system performing the production task output) into HDFS file system; At the same time, read the corresponding orbit ranks number, maximum/minimum longitude and latitude, product date, HDFS storage path, Hadoop task ID (NDSI products), and other metadata information, and then create thumbnails, and unique ID number for each record distribution, import it into base/product image metadata database. (2)NDSI production module: includes

  14. Ultra-Deepwater Production Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. L. Smith; M. E. Leveque

    2003-09-30

    This report includes technical progress made during the period October, 2002 through September, 2003. At the end of the second technical progress report, the ConocoPhillips opportunities to apply subsea processing in the Gulf of Mexico had been exhausted, and an alternative site was identified in Norway. This was a non-ConocoPhillips operated field, and the subsea processing was proposed as a phased development approach with 2-phase separation at the field, and then gas and liquids exported via pipeline to remote platform locations for processing. Although the unrisked economics were quite favorable, the risked economic evaluation compelled the operator to develop the field with the more conventional and proven Floating Production, Storage and Offloading (FPSO) option. Work on the subsea processing was suspended at this time. Discussions with DOE regarding two other step-change deepwater technologies ensued. One was an effort to develop a light-weight, high pressure composite production riser. A field demonstration of the design would then be performed by deploying a limited number of composite joints in a Gulf of Mexico deepwater development. The other was to begin the process of taking drilling with casing technology to the deepwater. This is called, ''close-tolerance liner drilling''. It was agreed that both technologies should be pursued, and the work began. During this reporting period, the initial production riser design had been completed and preliminary test sample components were being fabricated. Regarding the liner drilling, the sub-contractors were selected, the design basis was agreed and designs progressed towards meeting a projected first quarter, 2004 onshore test program.

  15. The development and adoption of conservation tillage systems on the Canadian Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Awada

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major agricultural innovations on the Canadian Prairies over the last 40 years has been the introduction of conservation tillage (CT. Conservation tillage-a system that includes minimum and zero tillage (ZT -was introduced as an alternative to traditional (conventional tillage (TT to control soil degradation and to promote agricultural sustainability. The development and adoption of CT systems involved pioneer farmers, engineers, scientists, and farmer associations. By the end of the 1970s, CT started to take shape on the Prairies, but for a number of economic, technical, political and social reasons, the adoption of CT did not occur on any major scale before the 1990s. Today, more than 75% of the Prairie's cropland is under some form of CT with more than 50% under ZT. In this paper, the factors behind the development and adoption of conservation tillage technology on the Prairies in the period between 1930 and 2011 are reviewed. Then, some of the benefits of the adoption of CT on the Prairies are highlighted. The data show that CT and ZT became profitable for the majority of farmers during and after the 1990s, and that the increased use of CT contributed to the dramatic decrease in the area under summerfallow and to the increase in the area sown to canola and pulse crops. These changes contributed to the reduction of all forms of land degradation and to decreases in agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  16. A multi-harmonic generalized energy balance method for studying autonomous oscillations of nonlinear conservative systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, Nidish Narayanaa; Krishna, I. R. Praveen; Padmanabhan, C.

    2018-05-01

    The Harmonic Balance Method (HBM) is a frequency-domain based approximation approach used for obtaining the steady state periodic behavior of forced dynamical systems. Intrinsically these systems are non-autonomous and the method offers many computational advantages over time-domain methods when the fundamental period of oscillation is known (generally fixed as the forcing period itself or a corresponding sub-harmonic if such behavior is expected). In the current study, a modified approach, based on He's Energy Balance Method (EBM), is applied to obtain the periodic solutions of conservative systems. It is shown that by this approach, periodic solutions of conservative systems on iso-energy manifolds in the phase space can be obtained very efficiently. The energy level provides the additional constraint on the HBM formulation, which enables the determination of the period of the solutions. The method is applied to the linear harmonic oscillator, a couple of nonlinear oscillators, the elastic pendulum and the Henon-Heiles system. The approach is used to trace the bifurcations of the periodic solutions of the last two, being 2 degree-of-freedom systems demonstrating very rich dynamical behavior. In the process, the advantages offered by the current formulation of the energy balance is brought out. A harmonic perturbation approach is used to evaluate the stability of the solutions for the bifurcation diagram.

  17. A conservative Fourier pseudospectral algorithm for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jia-Xiang; Wang Yu-Shun

    2013-01-01

    We derive a new method for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system by using the square of first-order Fourier spectral differentiation matrix D 1 instead of traditional second-order Fourier spectral differentiation matrix D 2 to approximate the second derivative. We prove the proposed method preserves the charge and energy conservation laws exactly. In numerical tests, we display the accuracy of numerical solution and the role of the nonlinear coupling parameter in cases of soliton collisions. Numerical experiments also exhibit the excellent performance of the method in preserving the charge and energy conservation laws. These numerical results verify that the proposed method is both a charge-preserving and an energy-preserving algorithm

  18. Integrated Monitoring System of Production Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oborski Przemysław

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Integrated monitoring system for discrete manufacturing processes is presented in the paper. The multilayer hardware and software reference model was developed. Original research are an answer for industry needs of the integration of information flow in production process. Reference model corresponds with proposed data model based on multilayer data tree allowing to describe orders, products, processes and save monitoring data. Elaborated models were implemented in the integrated monitoring system demonstrator developed in the project. It was built on the base of multiagent technology to assure high flexibility and openness on applying intelligent algorithms for data processing. Currently on the base of achieved experience an application integrated monitoring system for real production system is developed. In the article the main problems of monitoring integration are presented, including specificity of discrete production, data processing and future application of Cyber-Physical-Systems. Development of manufacturing systems is based more and more on taking an advantage of applying intelligent solutions into machine and production process control and monitoring. Connection of technical systems, machine tools and manufacturing processes monitoring with advanced information processing seems to be one of the most important areas of near future development. It will play important role in efficient operation and competitiveness of the whole production system. It is also important area of applying in the future Cyber-Physical-Systems that can radically improve functionally of monitoring systems and reduce the cost of its implementation.

  19. Conserving the Greater Sage-grouse: A social-ecological systems case study from the California-Nevada region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvall, Alison L; Metcalf, Alexander L.; Coates, Peter S.

    2016-01-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) continues to serve as one of the most powerful and contested federal legislative mandates for conservation. In the midst of heated debates, researchers, policy makers, and conservation practitioners champion the importance of cooperative conservation and social-ecological systems approaches, which forge partnerships at multiple levels and scales to address complex ecosystem challenges. However, few real-world examples exist to demonstrate how multifaceted collaborations among stakeholders who share a common goal of conserving at-risk species may be nested within a systems framework to achieve social and ecological goals. Here, we present a case study of Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) conservation efforts in the “Bi-State” region of California and Nevada, United States. Using key-informant interviews, we explored dimensions and drivers of this landscape-scale conservation effort. Three themes emerged from the interviews, including 1) ESA action was transformed into opportunity for system-wide conservation; 2) a diverse, locally based partnership anchored collaboration and engagement across multiple levels and scales; and 3) best-available science combined with local knowledge led to “certainty of effectiveness and implementation”—the criteria used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service to evaluate conservation efforts when making listing decisions. Ultimately, collaborative conservation through multistakeholder engagement at various levels and scales led to proactive planning and implementation of conservation measures and precluded the need for an ESA listing of the Bi-State population of Greater Sage-grouse. This article presents a potent example of how a systems approach integrating policy, management, and learning can be used to successfully overcome the conflict-laden and “wicked” challenges that surround at-risk species conservation.

  20. Fast sweeping methods for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws at steady state II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engquist, Björn; Froese, Brittany D.; Tsai, Yen-Hsi Richard

    2015-04-01

    The idea of using fast sweeping methods for solving stationary systems of conservation laws has previously been proposed for efficiently computing solutions with sharp shocks. We further develop these methods to allow for a more challenging class of problems including problems with sonic points, shocks originating in the interior of the domain, rarefaction waves, and two-dimensional systems. We show that fast sweeping methods can produce higher-order accuracy. Computational results validate the claims of accuracy, sharp shock curves, and optimal computational efficiency.

  1. C-11 cyanide production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyun; Alexoff, David; Kim, Sung Won; Hooker, Jacob M.; Ferrieri, Richard A.

    2017-11-21

    A method for providing .sup.11C-labeled cyanides from .sup.11C labeled oxides in a target gas stream retrieved from an irradiated high pressure gaseous target containing O.sub.2, wherein .sup.11C labeled oxides are reduced with H.sub.2 in the presence of a nickel catalyst under a pressure and a temperature sufficient to form a product stream comprising at least about 95% .sup.11CH.sub.4, the .sup.11CH.sub.4 is then combined with an excess of NH.sub.3 in a carrier/reaction stream flowing at an accelerated velocity and the combined .sup.11CH4 carrier/reaction stream is then contacted with a platinum (Pt) catalyst particulate supported on a substantially-chemically-nonreactive heat-stable support at a temperature of at least about 900.degree. C., whereby a product stream comprising at least about 60% H.sup.11CN is provided in less than 10 minutes from retrieval of the .sup.11C labeled oxide.

  2. Consumer attitudes to different pig production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Grunert, Klaus G; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2013-01-01

    In many Western countries, consumers have shown an increasing interest to the way in which food products are being produced. This study investigates Chinese consumers' attitudes towards different pig production systems by means of a conjoint analysis. While there has been a range of studies...... on Western consumers' attitudes to various forms of food production, little is known about the level of Chinese consumers' attitudes. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 472 participants in six Chinese cities. Results indicate that Chinese consumers prefer industrial pig production systems, where...... from Cluster 1 focus almost exclusively on the food safety aspect (food safety focused). Consumers from cluster 2 (indifferent) show generally weak attitudes to pig production systems in general. Cluster 3 (industrial production oriented) stands out by being very positive about industrial, large size...

  3. 76 FR 19077 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Decision and Order Granting a Waiver to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... technology. Specifically, DOE granted GE, Whirlpool, Electrolux (3 waivers), LG, Samsung (2 waivers), and...- freezer products for compliance, marketing, or other purposes only to the extent that such products have...

  4. Toyota production system beyond large-scale production

    CERN Document Server

    Ohno, Taiichi

    1998-01-01

    In this classic text, Taiichi Ohno--inventor of the Toyota Production System and Lean manufacturing--shares the genius that sets him apart as one of the most disciplined and creative thinkers of our time. Combining his candid insights with a rigorous analysis of Toyota's attempts at Lean production, Ohno's book explains how Lean principles can improve any production endeavor. A historical and philosophical description of just-in-time and Lean manufacturing, this work is a must read for all students of human progress. On a more practical level, it continues to provide inspiration and instruction for those seeking to improve efficiency through the elimination of waste.

  5. Improvement of Artistic Cast Production System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Władysiak R.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the technology and organization of the artistic cast production. On the basis of the actual cast production system, the manufacturing process was shown, in particular sand–piece moulding, which is a very important process and a time-consuming part of the entire manufacture of the casts. The current state of the production process as well as the organization of the work and production technology were analysed with the use of methods and techniques of production improvement, the Lean Manufacturing concept and computer systems. The results of the analysis and studies were shown with use of schemes and graphs of the layout of the production resources, a flow chart of the production process, value stream mapping, and a costs table for the production and modernization of the moulding stage. The work has shown that there are possibilities to improve the artistic cast production system. This improvement leads to increased productivity, lower production costs of artistic casts and increased competitiveness of the foundry.

  6. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  7. 76 FR 38287 - Energy Conservation Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... Program: Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Consumer Products and Commercial and Industrial... products will be required to submit certification reports no later than December 31, 2012. DATES: This rule... some certification requirements for these products but make those requirements [[Page 38289

  8. Evolutionary conservation advice for despotic populations: habitat heterogeneity favours conflict and reduces productivity in Seychelles magpie robins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Sepulcre, Andrés; Kokko, Hanna; Norris, Ken

    2010-11-22

    Individual preferences for good habitat are often thought to have a beneficial stabilizing effect for populations. However, if individuals preferentially compete for better-quality territories, these may become hotspots of conflict. We show that, in an endangered species, this process decreases the productivity of favoured territories to the extent that differences in productivity between territories disappear. Unlike predictions from current demographic theory on site-dependent population regulation (ideal despotic distribution), we show that population productivity is reduced if resources are distributed unevenly in space. Competition for high-quality habitat can thus have detrimental consequences for populations even though it benefits individuals. Manipulating conflict (e.g. by reducing variation in habitat quality) can therefore prove an effective conservation measure in species with strong social or territorial conflict.

  9. Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Mei-Ling; Wang Xiao-Xiao; Xie Yin-Li; Jia Li-Qun; Sun Xian-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Lie symmetry and the generalized Hojman conserved quantity of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion are studied. The determining equation of Lie symmetry of Nielsen equations for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion under the infinitesimal transformations of groups is given. The expression of generalized Hojman conserved quantity deduced directly from Lie symmetry for a variable mass holonomic system of relative motion is obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  10. Possibilities for conservation and efficiency of irrigation systems in hydropower; Possibilidades de conservacao e eficientizacao hidroenergetica em sistemas de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Energia], emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, mateus@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a literature review on efficiency and conservation of electricity and water in irrigation systems, focusing on the pumping systems used for that purpose. It's made an introduction to the theory about pumping systems and irrigation, which provides the conceptual basis for the understanding of the technologies and best practices on conservation and rational use of water and electricity presented in the paper development. (author)

  11. A method of applying two-pump system in automatic transmissions for energy conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Dong

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the hydraulic efficiency, modern automatic transmissions tend to apply electric oil pump in their hydraulic system. The electric oil pump can support the mechanical oil pump for cooling, lubrication, and maintaining the line pressure at low engine speeds. In addition, the start–stop function can be realized by means of the electric oil pump; thus, the fuel consumption can be further reduced. This article proposes a method of applying two-pump system (one electric oil pump and one mechanical oil pump in automatic transmissions based on the forward driving simulation. A mathematical model for calculating the transmission power loss is developed. The power loss transfers to heat which requires oil flow for cooling and lubrication. A leakage model is developed to calculate the leakage of the hydraulic system. In order to satisfy the flow requirement, a flow-based control strategy for the electric oil pump is developed. Simulation results of different driving cycles show that there is a best combination of the size of electric oil pump and the size of mechanical oil pump with respect to the optimal energy conservation. Besides, the two-pump system can also satisfy the requirement of the start–stop function. This research is extremely valuable for the forward design of a two-pump system in automatic transmissions with respect to energy conservation and start–stop function.

  12. Maximizing Conservation and Production with Intensive Forest Management: It's All About Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittler, Rebecca; Filotas, Élise; Kroese, Jasmin; Messier, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Functional zoning has been suggested as a way to balance the needs of a viable forest industry with those of healthy ecosystems. Under this system, part of the forest is set aside for protected areas, counterbalanced by intensive and extensive management of the rest of the forest. Studies indicate this may provide adequate timber while minimizing road construction and favoring the development of large mature and old stands. However, it is unclear how the spatial arrangement of intensive management areas may affect the success of this zoning. Should these areas be agglomerated or dispersed throughout the forest landscape? Should managers prioritize (a) proximity to existing roads, (b) distance from protected areas, or (c) site-specific productivity? We use a spatially explicit landscape simulation model to examine the effects of different spatial scenarios on landscape structure, connectivity for native forest wildlife, stand diversity, harvest volume, and road construction: (1) random placement of intensive management areas, and (2-8) all possible combinations of rules (a)-(c). Results favor the agglomeration of intensive management areas. For most wildlife species, connectivity was the highest when intensive management was far from the protected areas. This scenario also resulted in relatively high harvest volumes. Maximizing distance of intensive management areas from protected areas may therefore be the best way to maximize the benefits of intensive management areas while minimizing their potentially negative effects on forest structure and biodiversity.

  13. Animal production systems in the industrialised world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, J T; Edwards, S; Noordhuizen, J; Gunnarsson, S

    2006-08-01

    The production of food from animal origin is relatively stable in the industrialised world. However, animal production systems are changing dramatically with respect to location, herd size and specialisation. Increased pressure from a critical public is moving animal-based production towards systems such as organic production and loose-housing systems which allow the animals to better express normal behaviour. The focus on food safety promotes systems with a high degree of biosecurity, often associated with an increase in herd size and self-containment. The globalisation of agricultural trade and increased competition also favours an increase in herd size and specialisation. These trends also lead to regions with livestock-dense areas, giving rise to environmental concerns. Therefore, good farming practice regulations and systems to provide a higher level of transparency, such as quality risk management programmes, are being developed.

  14. A parametrization of two-dimensional turbulence based on a maximum entropy production principle with a local conservation of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavanis, Pierre-Henri

    2014-01-01

    In the context of two-dimensional (2D) turbulence, we apply the maximum entropy production principle (MEPP) by enforcing a local conservation of energy. This leads to an equation for the vorticity distribution that conserves all the Casimirs, the energy, and that increases monotonically the mixing entropy (H-theorem). Furthermore, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity dissipates monotonically all the generalized enstrophies. These equations may provide a parametrization of 2D turbulence. They do not generally relax towards the maximum entropy state. The vorticity current vanishes for any steady state of the 2D Euler equation. Interestingly, the equation for the coarse-grained vorticity obtained from the MEPP turns out to coincide, after some algebraic manipulations, with the one obtained with the anticipated vorticity method. This shows a connection between these two approaches when the conservation of energy is treated locally. Furthermore, the newly derived equation, which incorporates a diffusion term and a drift term, has a nice physical interpretation in terms of a selective decay principle. This sheds new light on both the MEPP and the anticipated vorticity method. (paper)

  15. Preliminary checklists for applying SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation to rivers in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodorović Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the first steps in gathering biological data to assess the conservation value of rivers in Serbia, using SERCON (System for Evaluating Rivers for Conservation. SERCON was developed in the UK to improve consistency in assessments of river ‘quality’ by using a scoring system to evaluate habitat features and species groups, catchment characteristics, and the potential impacts to which river systems may be subjected. This paper provides checklists for aquatic, semiaquatic and marginal plants, macroinvertebrates, fish and birds associated with rivers in Serbia, collated from a wide range of published and unpublished sources. These lists should be regarded as provisional because few wide-ranging biological surveys have been carried out specifically on Serbian rivers; further revisions are likely as more information becomes available in future. Ultimately, the work will benefit regulators and decision-makers with responsibility for river management under the new Water Law, and contribute to river protection and conservation in Serbia. [Acknowledgments. The hydromorphology dataset was prepared for the project ‘Biosensing Technologies and Global System for Long-Term Research and Integrated Management of Ecosystems’ (Biosensing tehnologije i globalni sistem za kontinuirana istraživanja i integrisano upravljanje ekosistema III 043002 grant, while the biodiversity dataset was prepared the project Plant biodiversity of Serbia and the Balkans – assessment, sustainable use and protection (Biodiverzitet biljnog sveta Srbije i Balkanskog poluostrva – procena, održivo korišćenje i zaštita 173030 Grant, supported by Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia

  16. Observed benefits from product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders; Mortensen, Niels Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... affected by the use of product configu-ration systems e.g. increased sales, decrease in the number of SKU's, improved ability to introduce new products, and cost reductions.......This article presents a study of the benefits obtained from applying product configuration systems based on a case study in four industry companies. The impacts are described according to main objectives in literature for imple-menting product configuration systems: lead time in the specification...... processes, on-time delivery of the specifica-tions, and resource consumption for making specifications, quality of specifications, optimization of products and services, and other observations. The purpose of the study is partly to identify specific impacts observed from implementing product configuration...

  17. PROPOSING A DIGITAL INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR THE MANAGEMENT AND CONSERVATION OF THE QHAPAQ ÑAN – ANDEAN ROAD SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Duperré

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.

  18. Proposing a Digital Information System for the Management and Conservation of the Qhapaq ÑAN - Andean Road System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duperré, G. N.

    2017-08-01

    The ancient network of roads in the Andean region is one of the most important works of infrastructure in South America. The extensive territory where the main exchanges between their communities were locally performed is previous to the expansion of the Inca Empire. In the year 2014, the region was included on the World Heritage List by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. This communication network is the Qhapaq Ñan, Andean Road System. The Incas planned their route in the diverse landscape of the Andes to promote social and economic ties among the Andean communities. The routes originated in the central square of Cusco, creating cross-connections in a wide geographical area. The Tawantinsuyu depended on this sole route to link very distant production and worship centers. The Qhapaq Ñan was the result of a political project. Even nowadays, it continues to articulate the development of cultural traditions in the Andean region. The present contribution analyzes its transcendental importance as a Cultural Heritage and the singularity of its nomination by the UNESCO, as for the first time six countries are sharing common objectives towards guaranteeing its protection. Furthermore, this research explores the sense of timing in Latin American countries and the implicit challenges in the implementation of the new information technologies for the dissemination of information on Main Andean Road and for its conservation. Although many of the countries have already incorporated the necessary digital tools in this matter, we conclude that there is a need to implement an Integrated Digital Model for the coordinated management in the countries that form the region.

  19. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  20. Platform strategy for complex products and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    The thesis of Alex Alblas presents a design reuse strategy for firms producing complex products and systems (CoPS). Examples of CoPS include industrial machinery, oil-rigs, electrical power distribution systems, integrated mail processing systems and printing press machinery. CoPS firms are

  1. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reine, R.; Barrantes, O.; Chocarro, C.; Juarez, A.; Broca, A.; Maestro, M.; Ferrer, C.

    2014-06-01

    In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV), phyto sociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV). We identified two main types of meadows: (i) those that had more intensive management, relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii) those that had less intensive management, distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in other forbs, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that other forbs have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood. (Author)

  2. Pyrenean meadows in Natura 2000 network: grass production and plant biodiversity conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Reiné

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In semi-natural mountain meadows, yield and forage quality must be reconciled with plant biodiversity conservation. This study was performed to analyze the relationships between these three parameters. To quantify plant biodiversity and pastoral value (PV, phytosociological inventories were performed in 104 semi-natural meadows in the Central Spanish Pyrenees included in the Natura 2000 network. Forage yields were calculated and forage samples were analyzed for relative feed value (RFV. We identified two main types of meadows: (i those that had “more intensive management,” relatively close to farm buildings, with little or no slope, dominated by grasses, with low plant biodiversity, high PV and yield, but low forage quality and (ii those that had “less intensive management,” distant from farm buildings, on slopes, richer in “other forbs”, with high plant biodiversity and forage quality, but low PV and yield. Conservation policies should emphasize less intensive management practices to maintain plant diversity in the semi-natural meadows in the Pyrenees. The widespread view that “other forbs” have low nutritional value should be revised in future research. These species often are undervalued by the PV method, because their nutritional quality, digestibility and intake are poorly understood.

  3. A solar still desalination system with enhanced productivity

    KAUST Repository

    Ayoub, George M.

    2014-07-10

    Abstract: Increasing the productivity of solar stills has been the focus of intensive research. Many introduced developments, however, require complex components and entail notable increases in cost and land requirements. Developing a compact, productive, and easy-to-operate system is a main challenge. This paper describes a sustainable modification of the solar still that significantly enhances its productivity without forsaking its basic features. A simple amendment in the form of a slowly rotating drum is introduced allowing the formation of thin water films that evaporate rapidly and are continually renewed. The performance of this system was compared against a control without the introduced drum. Throughout the experiment, the new system gave considerably higher yield than the control with an average increase in daily productivity of 200%. Moreover, during sunshine hours, the increase in yield could surpass 6–8 times that of the control. Important parameters such as ease of handling, material availability, efficacy, low cost, safe water quality, and space conservation are maintained. One side-benefit of this design is solving stagnation problems that usually develop in conventional stills. The new simple modification in this study presents a cost-effective and efficient design to solar stills especially in areas with abundant sunshine.

  4. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  5. Nitrogen performance indicators for dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, De Cecile A.M.; Monaghan, Ross M.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Gourley, Cameron J.P.; Oenema, Oene; Mark Powell, J.

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is invaluable for maintaining agricultural production, but its use, and particularly inefficient use, can lead to environmental losses. This paper reviews N use efficiency (NUE) and N surplus indicators for dairy production systems to assess their utility for optimising N use outcomes

  6. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.; Yan, Hengjing

    2014-01-01

    by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate

  7. High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The High Production Volume Information System (HPVIS) provides access to select health and environmental effect information on chemicals that are manufactured in...

  8. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM MODELS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    models of aquacultural production systems with the aim of adopting a suitable one for ... of predicting the environmental condition, so as to determine point of diminishing returns and optimize yield in an ..... sale of fish are also tracked.

  9. A systems perspective on nursing productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Nicola; Hughes, Frances

    2012-01-01

    Recent New Zealand reports have identified the nursing workforce for its potential to make a significant contribution to increased productivity in health services. The purpose of this paper is to review critically the recent and current labour approaches to improve nursing productivity in New Zealand, in a context of international research and experience. An examination of government documents regarding productivity, and a review of New Zealand and international literature and research on nursing productivity and its measurement form the basis of the paper. It is found that productivity improvement strategies are influenced by theories of labour economics and scientific management that conceptualise a nurse as a labour unit and a cost to the organisation. Nursing productivity rose significantly with the health reforms of the 1990s that reduced nursing input costs but impacts on patient safety and nurses were negative. Current approaches to increasing nursing productivity, including the "productive ward" and reconfiguration of nursing teams, also draw on manufacturing innovations. Emerging thinking considers productivity in the context of the work environment and changing professional roles, and proposes reconceptualising the nurse as an intellectual asset to knowledge-intensive health organisations. Strategies that take a systems approach to nursing productivity, that view nursing as a capital asset, that focus on the interface between nurse and working environment and measure patient and nurse outcomes are advocated. The paper shows that reframing nursing productivity brings into focus management strategies to raise productivity while protecting nursing and patient outcomes.

  10. 77 FR 3559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Long-Time and Variable Defrost Test Method To Fully Capture Energy Use for Temperature Recovery D... product classes. 55 FR 42845 (October 24, 1990). DOE again updated the performance standards for...: (1) Compartment temperature changes; (2) modified volume calculation methods; (3) products that...

  11. 76 FR 69147 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination To Treat Non-Compressor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ... use for such products, (e.g., thermoelectric wine chillers) is likely to exceed the 100 kilowatt-hour.... DOE's analysis describes both the burdens and benefits of potential standards, pursuant to 42 U.S.C... efforts to amend the standards for these products, interested parties urged DOE to include wine chillers...

  12. 75 FR 78809 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... discusses the treatment of combination wine storage-freezer products that were the subject of a recent test... interim final rule incorporate by reference into part 430 the following industry standards: (1) ANSI/AHAM... Rule III. Discussion A. Products Covered by the Proposed Revisions B. Combination Wine Storage-Freezer...

  13. Predominant natural red-shift of quasi-conservative nonlinear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola Maria; Carpinteri, Alberto; Delsanto, Pier Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Recent discoveries of nonclassical nonlinear phenomena are attracting a large interest in the scientific community, especially in material science. In spite of this, the natural frequency shift related to the appearance of such phenomena remains partially unclear. In this paper, we apply the general and only recently developed Interaction Box Formalism for investigating if a universality in the natural frequency shift of quasi-conservative nonlinear systems exists. Such universality clearly emerges as a rupture in the symmetry, usually leading to a red-shift, quantifiable as a function of the higher- and sub-harmonic generation.

  14. Integrating factors and conservation theorems for Hamilton‘s canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonmic nonconservative dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李仁杰; 刘洋; 等

    2002-01-01

    We present a general approach to the construction of conservation laws for variable mass noholonmic nonconservative systems.First,we give the definition of integrating factors,and we study in detail the necessary conditions for the existence of the conserved quantities,Then,we establish the conservatioin theorem and its inverse theorem for Hamilton's canonical equations of motion of variable mass nonholonomic nonocnservative dynamical systems.Finally,we give an example to illustrate the application of the results.

  15. Can we conserve trans-resveratrol content and antioxidant activity during industrial production of chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, Izabela; Massarioli, Adna P; Silva, Anna Paula S; Malaguetta, Heloísa; Melo, Priscilla S; Alencar, Severino M

    2018-05-23

    Cocoa exhibits high content of phenolic compounds, among which trans-resveratrol stands out, associated with several bioactive activities such as antioxidant properties. Chocolate contains reduced amounts of these bioactive compounds due to losses during the production process. Therefore, this study aimed to assess changes in total phenolic content and specifically trans-resveratrol, as well as in the antioxidant activity of cocoa and its products during industrial production of chocolate. A total of ten different cocoa products were analyzed. The processes of fermentation and roasting caused significant loss of total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity. However, due to high temperature, roasting had a major influence on this loss (71% for total phenolic compounds and 53% to 77% for antioxidant activity), except for trans-resveratrol. The content of trans-resveratrol formed after fermentation (9.8 μg kg -1 ) showed little variation during the processes, and it was detected in higher concentrations both in natural (11.4 μg kg -1 ) and in alkalized cocoa powder (13.5 μg kg -1 ). Alkalization of cocoa products led to loss of capacity of deactivating superoxide radical. These findings contribute to the optimization of the production process of chocolate and other food products containing cocoa and its derivatives aiming to better preserve their bioactive compounds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... average number of burner operating hours for mobile home furnaces (BOH SS) . BOH SS is the same as in 10.4....2.12 (non-condensing systems), 11.3.12 (condensing systems), 11.4.12 (non-condensing modulating systems), and 11.5.12 (condensing modulating systems) of ANSI/ASHRAE 103-1993 (incorporated by reference...

  17. Modelling Product Families for Product Configuration Systems with Product Variant Master

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hvam, Lars; Haug, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an evaluation of applying a suggested method for modelling product families for product configuration based on theory for modelling mechanical products,systems theory and object-oriented modelling. The modelling technique includes a so-called product variant master and CRC-cards...... the three views. Modelling of characteristics of the product variants in a product family Modelling of constraints between parts in the product family Visualisation of the entire product family on a poster e.g. 1x2 meters The product variant master and CRC-cards are means to bridge the gap between domain...... experts and IT-developers, thus making it possible for the domain experts (e.g. engineers from product development) to express their knowledge in a form that is understandable both for the domain experts and the IT-developers. The product variant master and CRC-cards have currently been tested and further...

  18. Conceptual Modelling for Product Configuration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara

    Individual customization of goods and processes in different industries leads to complexity due to a growing mix of products both regarding characteristics of products and support services. In order to eliminate complexity and challenges in product/process customizing, smart IT systems called...... Product Configuration Systems (PCS), have been proposed as the solution both by researchers and practitioners and various benefits are mentioned from utilizing PCSs. Based on the latest literature, there are challenges reported in all phases of PCS projects including planning, development......, and documentation. Moreover, the challenges become more serious when it involves complicated products/processes in engineer-to-order (ETO) companies. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to the existing knowledge of managing PCS projects by proposing frameworks and tools to address some of the main...

  19. 78 FR 65223 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Proposed Determination of Miscellaneous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... defined these items in terms of their ability to safely store fresh food. In so doing, the agency has.... (2013). ``U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk...

  20. 75 FR 41167 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Whirlpool...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Products Other Than Automobiles.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291-6309) Part A includes definitions, test procedures... consumers. 1. Petitioner. Whirlpool Corporation is the world's leading manufacturer and marketer of major...

  1. 75 FR 22586 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Appliances Corp. (Bosch-Siemens Hausgerate GmbH), Electrolux Home Products, Equator, Fisher & Paykel... Corp. filed and was granted its waiver petition, \\2\\ as was Electrolux \\3\\ and Samsung.\\4\\ \\1\\ FR Vol...

  2. 77 FR 31742 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... product is prescribed, no manufacturer may make any representation with respect to water usage of such... or plastic plate that requires the testing laboratory to adapt its test depending on the specific...

  3. 75 FR 81258 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of Electrolux...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... associate General Counsel, Electrolux Home Products, Inc., 20445 Emerald Parkway, SW., Suite 250, P.O. Box... insight, to meet the real needs of consumers and professionals. Electrolux's principal clothes washer...

  4. Integration of 3d Models and Diagnostic Analyses Through a Conservation-Oriented Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Achille, C.; Tommasi, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In the recent years, mature technologies for producing high quality virtual 3D replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artefacts has grown thanks to the progress of Information Technologies (IT) tools. These methods are an efficient way to present digital models that can be used with several scopes: heritage managing, support to conservation, virtual restoration, reconstruction and colouring, art cataloguing and visual communication. The work presented is an emblematic case of study oriented to the preventive conservation through monitoring activities, using different acquisition methods and instruments. It was developed inside a project founded by Lombardy Region, Italy, called "Smart Culture", which was aimed to realise a platform that gave the users the possibility to easily access to the CH artefacts, using as an example a very famous statue. The final product is a 3D reality-based model that contains a lot of information inside it, and that can be consulted through a common web browser. In the end, it was possible to define the general strategies oriented to the maintenance and the valorisation of CH artefacts, which, in this specific case, must consider the integration of different techniques and competencies, to obtain a complete, accurate and continuative monitoring of the statue.

  5. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  6. Production Flexibility in Extensive Beef Farming Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Astigarraga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to assess the flexibility of production allowed by extensive production conditions faced with variations in the environment, i.e., market variations and climatic fluctuations, of Limousin beef systems. The study used a case-based methodology in which seven beef farms with less than 1 LU/ha were chosen. Data collection was based on three interviews using a semistructured questionnaire and on the analysis of productive and economic results over a 15-year period (1991-2005. The main evolution of these farms is related to a rise in work productivity associated with an increase in herd size. Herd increase was made possible by enlarging the area, the margin of intensification being limited in these regions. To take advantage of the enlarged land area, females were reared for fattening or for reproduction instead of selling them at weaning. The Limousin female provides a wide product mix because of its plasticity, as has been studied by several researchers. This mix flexibility is achieved by delaying product differentiation, a form of production flexibility that can reduce the risk of under-producing or over-producing varied product configurations. On the other hand, calves sold to the Italian market after weaning are generic products, associated with a flexible production process to overcome fluctuations in forage availability due to climatic variations. The introduction of maize silage for feeding acts as an alternative route, actual and potential, through the system to overcome unexpected forage shortage from natural grasslands as a result of droughts. The study shows that extensive farming systems have developed types of flexibility to match different factors of uncertainty from the environment. Finally, the issue of farm system performance is thus not so much a question of whether a farm is fit at a specific moment in time, but whether it transforms into a less or more sustainable orientation.

  7. Ventilation system for 99Mo production apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumo, Mishiroku; Okane, Shougo; Sorita, Takami; Aoyama, Saburou

    1978-04-01

    In production of 20 Ci 99 Mo from 235 U fission, about 120 Ci of radioiodine ( 131 I, 132 I, and 133 I) is involved. To remove airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air from production apparatus and minimize radioiodine release to the atmosphere, the ventilation system is equipped with 2 units of Model-FD charcoal filter (KI 3 -Impregnated charcoal 2 inch thick of Barnebey-Cheney Co.). From September 1976 to December 1977, 21 runs of 99 Mo production involving airborne radioiodine were carried out. The ventilation system was operated continuously for the whole 15 months period; variation in removal efficiency of airborne radioiodine from the exhaust air stream was observed. In the runs valuable experiences were gained in operation and maintenance of the ventilation system including activated charcoal filter and health-physics management of such facility. Following are the results: (1) Airborne radioiodine from 99 Mo production apparatus is reduced to 10 -3 % of the original quantity. (2) When the ventilation system is operated at a maximum air flow rate through the filter, the average efficiency during 15 months is over 98%. (3) Airborne radioiodine released from 99 Mo production apparatus to the ventilation system is less than 5% particulate iodine and alkyl iodines and more than 95% inorganic iodine. (4) Airborne radioiodine released from the stack is less than 28 μCi/run, which is below the limit in regulations on Radioisotope Production Laboratory. (auth.)

  8. Managing complexity of product mix and production flow in configure-to-order production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Bonev, Martin; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In designing configure-to-order production systems for a growing product variety, companies are challenged with an increased complexity for obtaining high productivity levels and cost-effectiveness. In academia several optimization methods and conceptual frameworks for substituting components, or...

  9. Heat pipe based cold energy storage systems for datacenter energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Randeep; Mochizuki, Masataka; Mashiko, Koichi; Nguyen, Thang

    2011-01-01

    system concept. -- Highlights: → The paper presents novel concept for datacenter thermal management using heat-pipe based energy conservation system utilizing cold ambient energy. → Two type of system: ice storage and cold water storage has been identified and discussed. → Ice storage or two-phase system can provide long term storage and can be used as datacenter emergency support system. → Cold water or single-phase system can be employed as precooler for coolant before it is cooled by electrical chiller. → These two types of storage approaches can help to minimize chiller electrical load thus saving electricity and associated cost.

  10. Expert system for estimating LWR plutonium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.

    1988-01-01

    An Artificial Intelligence-Expert System called APES (Analysis of Proliferation by Expert System) has been developed and tested to permit a non proliferation expert to evaluate the capability and capacity of a specified LWR reactor and PUREX reprocessing system for producing and separating plutonium even when system information may be limited and uncertain. APES employs an expert system coded in LISP and based upon an HP-RL (Hewlett Packard-Representational Language) Expert System Shell. The user I/O interface communicates with a blackboard and the knowledge base which contains the quantitative models required to describe the reactor, selected fission product production and radioactive decay processes, Purex reprocessing and ancillary knowledge

  11. Banana production systems: identification of alternative systems for more sustainable production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Angelina Sanderson

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale, monoculture production systems dependent on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, increase yields, but are costly and have deleterious impacts on human health and the environment. This research investigates variations in banana production practices in Costa Rica, to identify alternative systems that combine high productivity and profitability, with reduced reliance on agrochemicals. Farm workers were observed during daily production activities; 39 banana producers and 8 extension workers/researchers were interviewed; and a review of field experiments conducted by the National Banana Corporation between 1997 and 2002 was made. Correspondence analysis showed that there is no structured variation in large-scale banana producers' practices, but two other banana production systems were identified: a small-scale organic system and a small-scale conventional coffee-banana intercropped system. Field-scale research may reveal ways that these practices can be scaled up to achieve a productive and profitable system producing high-quality export bananas with fewer or no pesticides.

  12. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT......-tool concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  13. Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation and Timber Production in Mixed Uneven-Aged Mountain Forests: Identification of Ecological Intensification Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, Valentine; Cordonnier, Thomas; Courbaud, Benoît

    2015-11-01

    Mixed uneven-aged forests are considered favorable to the provision of multiple ecosystem services and to the conciliation of timber production and biodiversity conservation. However, some forest managers now plan to increase the intensity of thinning and harvesting operations in these forests. Retention measures or gap creation are considered to compensate potential negative impacts on biodiversity. Our objectives were to assess the effect of these management practices on timber production and biodiversity conservation and identify potential compensating effects between these practices, using the concept of ecological intensification as a framework. We performed a simulation study coupling Samsara2, a simulation model designed for spruce-fir uneven-aged mountain forests, an uneven-aged silviculture algorithm, and biodiversity models. We analyzed the effect of parameters related to uneven-aged management practices on timber production, biodiversity, and sustainability indicators. Our study confirmed that the indicators responded differently to management practices, leading to trade-offs situations. Increasing management intensity had negative impacts on several biodiversity indicators, which could be partly compensated by the positive effect of retention measures targeting large trees, non-dominant species, and deadwood. The impact of gap creation was more mitigated, with a positive effect on the diversity of tree sizes and deadwood but a negative impact on the spruce-fir mixing balance and on the diversity of the understory layer. Through the analysis of compensating effects, we finally revealed the existence of possible ecological intensification pathways, i.e., the possibility to increase management intensity while maintaining biodiversity through the promotion of nature-based management principles (gap creation and retention measures).

  14. Energy condensed packaged systems. Composition, production, properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor L. Kovalenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is presented the substantiation of choice of fuel phase composition and optimal technology of emulsion production on the basis of binary solution of ammonium and calcium nitrates, which provide the obtaining of energy condensed packaged systems with specified properties. The thermal decomposition of energy condensed systems on the basis of ammonium nitrate is investigated. It is shown that the fuel phase of emulsion systems should be based on esters of polyunsaturated acids or on combinations thereof with petroleum products. And ceresin or petroleum wax can be used as the structuring additive. The influence of the technology of energy condensed systems production on the physicochemical and detonation parameters of emulsion explosives is considered. It is shown the possibility of obtaining of emulsion systems with dispersion of 1.3...1.8 microns and viscosity higher than 103 Pa∙s in the apparatus of original design. The sensitizing effect of chlorinated paraffin CP-470 on the thermolysis of energy condensed emulsion system is shown. The composition and production technology of energy condensed packaged emulsion systems of mark Ukrainit-P for underground mining in mines not dangerous on gas and dust are developed.

  15. Higher order Godunov methods for general systems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.B.; Colella, P.; Trangenstein, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    We describe an extension of higher order Godunov methods to general systems of hyperbolic conservation laws. This extension allow the method to be applied to problems that are not strictly hyperbolic and exhibit local linear degeneracies in the wave fields. The method constructs an approximation of the Riemann problem from local wave information. A generalization of the Engquist--Osher flux for systems is then used to compute a numerical flux based on this approximation. This numerical flux replaces the Godunov numerical flux in the algorithm, thereby eliminating the need for a global Riemann problem solution. The additional modifications to the Godunov methodology that are needed to treat loss of strict hyperbolicity are described in detail. The method is applied to some simple model problems for which the glocal analytic structure is known. The method is also applied to the black-oil model for multiphase flow in petroleum reservoirs. copyright 1989 Academic Press, Inc

  16. Asymptotic behavior of equilibrium states of reaction-diffusion systems with mass conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chern, Jann-Long; Morita, Yoshihisa; Shieh, Tien-Tsan

    2018-01-01

    We deal with a stationary problem of a reaction-diffusion system with a conservation law under the Neumann boundary condition. It is shown that the stationary problem turns to be the Euler-Lagrange equation of an energy functional with a mass constraint. When the domain is the finite interval (0 , 1), we investigate the asymptotic profile of a strictly monotone minimizer of the energy as d, the ratio of the diffusion coefficient of the system, tends to zero. In view of a logarithmic function in the leading term of the potential, we get to a scaling parameter κ satisfying the relation ε : =√{ d } =√{ log ⁡ κ } /κ2. The main result shows that a sequence of minimizers converges to a Dirac mass multiplied by the total mass and that by a scaling with κ the asymptotic profile exhibits a parabola in the nonvanishing region. We also prove the existence of an unstable monotone solution when the mass is small.

  17. The importance of incorporating functional habitats into conservation planning for highly mobile species in dynamic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Matthew H; Terauds, Aleks; Tulloch, Ayesha; Bell, Phil; Stojanovic, Dejan; Heinsohn, Robert

    2017-10-01

    The distribution of mobile species in dynamic systems can vary greatly over time and space. Estimating their population size and geographic range can be problematic and affect the accuracy of conservation assessments. Scarce data on mobile species and the resources they need can also limit the type of analytical approaches available to derive such estimates. We quantified change in availability and use of key ecological resources required for breeding for a critically endangered nomadic habitat specialist, the Swift Parrot (Lathamus discolor). We compared estimates of occupied habitat derived from dynamic presence-background (i.e., presence-only data) climatic models with estimates derived from dynamic occupancy models that included a direct measure of food availability. We then compared estimates that incorporate fine-resolution spatial data on the availability of key ecological resources (i.e., functional habitats) with more common approaches that focus on broader climatic suitability or vegetation cover (due to the absence of fine-resolution data). The occupancy models produced significantly (P increase or decrease in the area of one functional habitat (foraging or nesting) did not necessarily correspond to an increase or decrease in the other. Thus, an increase in the extent of occupied area may not equate to improved habitat quality or function. We argue these patterns are typical for mobile resource specialists but often go unnoticed because of limited data over relevant spatial and temporal scales and lack of spatial data on the availability of key resources. Understanding changes in the relative availability of functional habitats is crucial to informing conservation planning and accurately assessing extinction risk for mobile resource specialists. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Fish and aquatic habitat conservation in South America: a continental overview with emphasis on neotropical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barletta, M; Jaureguizar, A J; Baigun, C; Fontoura, N F; Agostinho, A A; Almeida-Val, V M F; Val, A L; Torres, R A; Jimenes-Segura, L F; Giarrizzo, T; Fabré, N N; Batista, V S; Lasso, C; Taphorn, D C; Costa, M F; Chaves, P T; Vieira, J P; Corrêa, M F M

    2010-06-01

    Fish conservation in South America is a pressing issue. The biodiversity of fishes, just as with all other groups of plants and animals, is far from fully known. Continuing habitat loss may result in biodiversity losses before full species diversity is known. In this review, the main river basins of South America (Magdalena, Orinoco, Amazon and Paraná-La Plata system), together with key aquatic habitats (mangrove-fringed estuaries of the tropical humid, tropical semi-arid and subtropical regions) are analysed in terms of their characteristics and main concerns. Habitat loss was the main concern identified for all South American ecosystems. It may be caused by damming of rivers, deforestation, water pollution, mining, poor agricultural practice or inadequate management practice. Habitat loss has a direct consequence, which is a decrease in the availability of living resources, a serious social and economic issue, especially for South American nations which are all developing countries. The introduction of exotic species and overfishing were also identified as widespread across the continent and its main freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems. Finally, suggestions are made to find ways to overcome these problems. The main suggestion is a change of paradigm and a new design for conservation actions, starting with integrated research and aiming at the co-ordinated and harmonized management of the main transboundary waters of the continent. The actions would be focused on habitat conservation and social rescue of the less well-off populations of indigenous and non-indigenous peoples. Energy and freshwater demands will also have to be rescaled in order to control habitat loss.

  19. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Shi-Wang; Wang Jian-Bo; Chen Xiang-Wei; Xie Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system. (general)

  20. 77 FR 7547 - Energy Conservation Standards for Wine Chillers and Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting and availability of the framework document. SUMMARY: The U.S... of this notice. To inform stakeholders and facilitate this process, DOE has prepared a framework... set at ENERGY STAR levels effective in 2005 for the two most popular product classes of refrigerators...

  1. 75 FR 34726 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Notice of Petition for Waiver of LG...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ..., and Whirlpool. LG is a manufacturer of digital appliances, as well as mobile communications, digital displays, and digital media products. Its appliances include refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, air.... Furthermore, continued employment creation and ongoing investments in its marketing, sales and servicing...

  2. Use, production and conservation of palm fiber in South America: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaza, C.; Bernal, R.; Howard, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    South American ethnic groups traditionally use palm fiber, which provides materials for domestic, commercial, and ceremonial purposes. A literature review of 185 references was carried out in order to identify and understand the extent of palm fiber production and the sustainability of harvesting

  3. 76 FR 51281 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... standards, DOE divides covered products into classes based on the type of energy used, their size or... often receive considerable attention when they are introduced, over time, public comments tend to focus... methodologies and results of fuel switching more explicit in all rulemakings in which fuel switching might occur...

  4. 78 FR 21215 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... rule remains unchanged. AHAM argued that DOE has not explained what it considers to be de minimis, and... because the proposed amendments change what energy will be measured (i.e., the end of cycle energy... off of the ``Energy Star'' list, which may result in discontinuing production of the impacted models...

  5. 78 FR 79643 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... consumer behavior; and questions about why comments on the Draft National Climate Assessment were not... Program for Consumer Products: Landmark Legal Foundation; Petition for Reconsideration AGENCY: Office of... Energy Consumers of America (IECA), American Gas Association (AGA), Cato Institute Center for Study of...

  6. Rebalancing food production and nature conservation; the need for design-oriented research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Sabatier, R.; Teillard, F.; Groot, J.C.J.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented impacts of humans on the Earth (e.g. Rockström et al., 2009; Sachs et al., 2010; Foley, 2011) have prompted a debate on the future of land use and, with agriculture as the major anthropogenic use, on new models of agricultural production. In addition to concerns about the eects of

  7. 75 FR 29823 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    .... This NOPR also discusses the proposed treatment of combination wine storage-freezer products that were.... Combination Wine Storage-Freezer Units C. Establishing New Appendices A and B, and Compliance Date for the... rule published in the Federal Register on September 14, 1977. 42 FR 46140. Industry representatives...

  8. 78 FR 41609 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... September 14, 1977. 42 FR 46140. Industry representatives viewed these test procedures as too complex and... Freezers'' (HRF-1- 1979). Using this industry-created test procedure, DOE revised its test procedures on... compartment of such a product to be at a level that would effectively exclude the coverage of combination wine...

  9. PLACE OF PRODUCTION COSTS SYSTEM ANALYSIS IN SYSTEM ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia CHEREDNYCHENKO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Current economic conditions require the development and implementation of an adequate system of production costs, which would ensure a steady profit growth and production volumes in a highly competitive, constantly increasing input prices and tariffs. This management system must be based on an integrated production costs system analysis (PCSA, which would provide all operating costs management subsystems necessary information to design and make better management decisions. It provides a systematic analysis of more opportunities in knowledge, creating conditions of integrity mechanism knowledge object consisting of elements that show intersystem connections, each of which has its own defined and limited objectives, relationship with the environment.

  10. Conserved role of the Vsx genes supports a monophyletic origin for bilaterian visual systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erclik, Ted; Hartenstein, Volker; Lipshitz, Howard D; McInnes, Roderick R

    2008-09-09

    Components of the genetic network specifying eye development are conserved from flies to humans, but homologies between individual neuronal cell types have been difficult to identify. In the vertebrate retina, the homeodomain-containing transcription factor Chx10 is required for both progenitor cell proliferation and the development of the bipolar interneurons, which transmit visual signals from photoreceptors to ganglion cells. We show that dVsx1 and dVsx2, the two Drosophila homologs of Chx10, play a conserved role in visual-system development. DVSX1 is expressed in optic-lobe progenitor cells, and, in dVsx1 mutants, progenitor cell proliferation is defective, leading to hypocellularity. Subsequently, DVSX1 and DVSX2 are coexpressed in a subset of neurons in the medulla, including the transmedullary neurons that transmit visual information from photoreceptors to deeper layers of the visual system. In dVsx mutant adults, the optic lobe is reduced in size, and the medulla is small or absent. These results suggest that the progenitor cells and photoreceptor target neurons of the vertebrate retina and fly optic lobe are ancestrally related. Genetic and functional homology may extend to the neurons directly downstream of the bipolar and transmedullary neurons, the vertebrate ganglion cells and fly lobula projection neurons. Both cell types project to visual-processing centers in the brain, and both sequentially express the Math5/ATO and Brn3b/ACJ6 transcription factors during their development. Our findings support a monophyletic origin for the bilaterian visual system in which the last common ancestor of flies and vertebrates already contained a primordial visual system with photoreceptors, interneurons, and projection neurons.

  11. On certain two-dimensional conservative mechanical systems with a cubic second integral

    CERN Document Server

    Yehia, H M

    2002-01-01

    In a previous paper (Yehia H M 1986 J. Mec. Theor. Appl. 5 55-71) we have introduced a method for constructing integrable conservative two-dimensional mechanical systems whose second integral of motion is polynomial in the velocities. This method has proved successful in constructing a multitude of irreversible systems (involving gyroscopic forces) with a second quadratic integral (Yehia H M 1992 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 25 197-221). The objective of this paper is to apply the same method for the systematic construction of mechanical systems with a cubic integral. As in our previous works, the configuration space is not assumed to be a Euclidean plane. This widens the range of applicability of the results to diverse mechanical systems to include such problems as rigid body dynamics. Several new reversible and irreversible integrable systems are obtained. Some of these systems generalize previously known ones by introducing additional parameters which may change either or both of the configuration manifold and t...

  12. 76 FR 65616 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... pages 2- 3. Both the American Heating and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) and Trane stated that the... untested split system combinations for SEER and HSPF. \\4\\ ARMs are computer simulations used to rate... procedure, which is detailed in section 0, and comprises whole system testing, not testing or simulation of...

  13. Structural Equation and Mei Conserved Quantity of Mei Symmetry for Appell Equations in Holonomic Systems with Unilateral Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Liqun; Cui Jinchao; Zhang Yaoyu; Luo Shaokai

    2009-01-01

    Structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints are investigated. Appell equations and differential equations of motion for holonomic mechanic systems with unilateral constraints are established. The definition and the criterion of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints under the infinitesimal transformations of groups are also given. The expressions of the structural equation and Mei conserved quantity of Mei symmetry for Appell equations in holonomic systems with unilateral constraints expressed by Appell functions are obtained. An example is given to illustrate the application of the results. (general)

  14. Modular Product Families and Assembly Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    This research centres on assembly systems designed for utilizing product modularization. Altogether, the task for companies has become an issue of managing the overall trade-off between the external market’s desire for variety and the internal efficiency and effectiveness. Product modularization...... a number of theoretical and managerial implications are identified. From a management point of view, the most im-portant finding is that modularization needs to be configured for the two competitive situations, i.e. 1) the volume flexible configuration focusing on generational product variety and 2......) the mix flexible con-figuration focusing on the simultaneous product variety. These two views are in particular different in respect to the understanding of product modularization. All in all, modularization needs to be, and can be, configured in regard to the specific task, which is believed constituting...

  15. A step towards seascape scale conservation: using vessel monitoring systems (VMS to map fishing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Witt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conservation of marine ecosystems will require a holistic understanding of fisheries with concurrent spatial patterns of biodiversity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using data from the UK Government Vessel Monitoring System (VMS deployed on UK-registered large fishing vessels we investigate patterns of fisheries activity on annual and seasonal scales. Analysis of VMS data shows that regions of the UK European continental shelf (i.e. Western Channel and Celtic Sea, Northern North Sea and the Goban Spur receive consistently greater fisheries pressure than the rest of the UK continental shelf fishing zone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VMS provides a unique and independent method from which to derive patterns of spatially and temporally explicit fisheries activity. Such information may feed into ecosystem management plans seeking to achieve sustainable fisheries while minimising putative risk to non-target species (e.g. cetaceans, seabirds and elasmobranchs and habitats of conservation concern. With multilateral collaboration VMS technologies may offer an important solution to quantifying and managing ecosystem disturbance, particularly on the high-seas.

  16. Business cases for product configuration systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiee, Sara; Kristjansdottir, Katrin; Hvam, Lars

    In the recent years, product configuration systems (PCSs) have received greater attention from industries providing customized products as a response to increased demand to fulfil diverse customers’ needs for customized products. Before developing a PCS, a well-established business case has...... to be made in order to secure the success and delivery of the project as it will increase the commitment from the business side. This paper presents a framework for supporting the development of business cases for PCSs and discusses the experiences from multiple case studies benefiting from the suggested...

  17. Operator Hydrodynamics, OTOCs, and Entanglement Growth in Systems without Conservation Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, C. W.; Rakovszky, Tibor; Pollmann, Frank; Sondhi, S. L.

    2018-04-01

    Thermalization and scrambling are the subject of much recent study from the perspective of many-body quantum systems with locally bounded Hilbert spaces ("spin chains"), quantum field theory, and holography. We tackle this problem in 1D spin chains evolving under random local unitary circuits and prove a number of exact results on the behavior of out-of-time-ordered commutators (OTOCs) and entanglement growth in this setting. These results follow from the observation that the spreading of operators in random circuits is described by a "hydrodynamical" equation of motion, despite the fact that random unitary circuits do not have locally conserved quantities (e.g., no conserved energy). In this hydrodynamic picture, quantum information travels in a front with a "butterfly velocity" vB that is smaller than the light-cone velocity of the system, while the front itself broadens diffusively in time. The OTOC increases sharply after the arrival of the light cone, but we do not observe a prolonged exponential regime of the form ˜eλL(t -x /v ) for a fixed Lyapunov exponent λL. We find that the diffusive broadening of the front has important consequences for entanglement growth, leading to an entanglement velocity that can be significantly smaller than the butterfly velocity. We conjecture that the hydrodynamical description applies to more generic Floquet ergodic systems, and we support this idea by verifying numerically that the diffusive broadening of the operator wavefront also holds in a more traditional nonrandom Floquet spin chain. We also compare our results to Clifford circuits, which have less rich hydrodynamics and consequently trivial OTOC behavior, but which can nevertheless exhibit linear entanglement growth and thermalization.

  18. Synergies for Improving Oil Palm Production and Forest Conservation in Floodplain Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abram, Nicola K.; Xofis, Panteleimon; Tzanopoulos, Joseph; MacMillan, Douglas C.; Ancrenaz, Marc; Chung, Robin; Peter, Lucy; Ong, Robert; Lackman, Isabelle; Goossens, Benoit; Ambu, Laurentius; Knight, Andrew T.

    2014-01-01

    these into policy and practice, may provide conservation and economic opportunities within these seemingly high opportunity cost landscapes. PMID:24887555

  19. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, D.H.

    1980-06-01

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  20. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape's spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape's character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system's conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  1. Multi-objective Operation Chart Optimization for Aquatic Species Habitat Conservation of Cascaded Hydropower System on Yuan River, Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, X.; Lei, X.; Fang, G.; Huang, X.

    2017-12-01

    Extensive cascading hydropower exploitation in southwestern China has been the subject of debate and conflict in recent years. Introducing limited ecological curves, a novel approach for derivation of hydropower-ecological joint operation chart of cascaded hydropower system was proposed, aiming to optimize the general hydropower and ecological benefits, and to alleviate the ecological deterioration in specific flood/dry conditions. The physical habitat simulation model is proposed initially to simulate the relationship between streamflow and physical habitat of target fish species and to determine the optimal ecological flow range of representative reach. The ecological—hydropower joint optimization model is established to produce the multi-objective operation chart of cascaded hydropower system. Finally, the limited ecological guiding curves were generated and added into the operation chart. The JS-MDS cascaded hydropower system on the Yuan River in southwestern China is employed as the research area. As the result, the proposed guiding curves could increase the hydropower production amount by 1.72% and 5.99% and optimize ecological conservation degree by 0.27% and 1.13% for JS and MDS Reservoir, respectively. Meanwhile, the ecological deterioration rate also sees a decrease from 6.11% to 1.11% for JS Reservoir and 26.67% to 3.89% for MDS Reservoir.

  2. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  3. Decision analysis for conservation breeding: Maximizing production for reintroduction of whooping cranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Des H.V.; Converse, Sarah J.; Gibson, Keith; Moehrenschlager, Axel; Link, William A.; Olsen, Glenn H.; Maguire, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Captive breeding is key to management of severely endangered species, but maximizing captive production can be challenging because of poor knowledge of species breeding biology and the complexity of evaluating different management options. In the face of uncertainty and complexity, decision-analytic approaches can be used to identify optimal management options for maximizing captive production. Building decision-analytic models requires iterations of model conception, data analysis, model building and evaluation, identification of remaining uncertainty, further research and monitoring to reduce uncertainty, and integration of new data into the model. We initiated such a process to maximize captive production of the whooping crane (Grus americana), the world's most endangered crane, which is managed through captive breeding and reintroduction. We collected 15 years of captive breeding data from 3 institutions and used Bayesian analysis and model selection to identify predictors of whooping crane hatching success. The strongest predictor, and that with clear management relevance, was incubation environment. The incubation period of whooping crane eggs is split across two environments: crane nests and artificial incubators. Although artificial incubators are useful for allowing breeding pairs to produce multiple clutches, our results indicate that crane incubation is most effective at promoting hatching success. Hatching probability increased the longer an egg spent in a crane nest, from 40% hatching probability for eggs receiving 1 day of crane incubation to 95% for those receiving 30 days (time incubated in each environment varied independently of total incubation period). Because birds will lay fewer eggs when they are incubating longer, a tradeoff exists between the number of clutches produced and egg hatching probability. We developed a decision-analytic model that estimated 16 to be the optimal number of days of crane incubation needed to maximize the number of

  4. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model for a multi-product production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuejuan; Wang, Wenbin; Peng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a production system that can produce multiple products alternately. Products go through the system in a sequence and a complete run of all products forms a production cycle. An integrated production, inventory and preventive maintenance model is constructed, which is characterized by the delay-time concept. Two different situations are studied based on whether the unqualified products and downtime caused by the failures of the system, set-up and preventive maintenance can be ignored or not. Three cases are considered for each situation, depending on the position of the preventive maintenance epochs: the first case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at the end of each production cycle; the second case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at each set-up time of the products; and the third case, where preventive maintenance is carried out at some set-up times only, since it may not always be optimal to carry out preventive maintenance at the end of the production cycle or at each set-up time. The modeling objectives are to find the optimal number of production cycles per year and the optimal position of preventive maintenance that will maximize the expected profit per unit time. Numerical examples, using real data, are presented to illustrate the model. - Highlights: • We propose an integrated economic production quantity and preventive maintenance model. • The situation that multiple products are produced on the same system alternately is studied. • Two situations are studied based on whether the downtime and the product quality can be ignored or not. • We use enumeration method and analytical method to select the optimal preventive maintenance policy, respectively. • We use the delay-time concept to model the preventive maintenance policy

  5. Development of Souvenir Production Transaction Processing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumambi, H.; Kaparang, R.; Lintong, J.

    2018-01-01

    This research aims to design a souvenir production transaction processing system for the craftsmen in North Sulawesi. The craftsmen make very simple recordings about souvenir production transactions and use documents that are not in accordance with the generally accepted accounting practices. This research uses qualitative method. The data is collected through interviews, observations, documents and literatures studies. The research stages are conducted in preliminary studies, data collection, data analyzed and system design. The design of system is built from chart of account, accounting cycle and documents as input and get processed in accounting recording. The outputs are financial statements. The system design provides benefits for the craftsmen in assessing the financial performance and getting financing from bank.

  6. The Next Generation ATLAS Production System

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Mikhail; The ATLAS collaboration; Golubkov, Dmitry; Klimentov, Alexei; Maeno, Tadashi; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Vaniachine, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The ATLAS experiment at LHC data processing and simulation grows continuously, as more data and more use cases emerge. For data processing the ATLAS experiment adopted the data transformation approach, where software applications transform the input data into outputs. In the ATLAS production system, each data transformation is represented by a task, a collection of many jobs, dynamically submitted by the ATLAS workload management system (PanDA/JEDI) and executed on the Grid, clouds and supercomputers. Patterns in ATLAS data transformation workflows composed of many tasks provided a scalable production system framework for template definitions of the many-tasks workflows. User interface and system logic of these workflows are being implemented in the Database Engine for Tasks (DEFT). Such development required using modern computing technologies and approaches. We report technical details of this development: database implementation, server logic and Web user interface technologies.

  7. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M; Akçakaya, H Resit; Burgess, Neil D; Butchart, Stuart H M; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C; Rodrigues, Ana S L; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E

    2016-02-16

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird &Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.

  8. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Burgess, Neil D.; Butchart, Stuart H.M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; MacSharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C.; Rodrigues, Ana S.L.; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E.

    2016-01-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments. PMID:26881749

  9. Analysing biodiversity and conservation knowledge products to support regional environmental assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Thomas M.; Akçakaya, H. Resit; Burgess, Neil D.; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Hoffmann, Michael; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Kingston, Naomi; Macsharry, Brian; Parr, Mike; Perianin, Laurence; Regan, Eugenie C.; Rodrigues, Ana S. L.; Rondinini, Carlo; Shennan-Farpon, Yara; Young, Bruce E.

    2016-02-01

    Two processes for regional environmental assessment are currently underway: the Global Environment Outlook (GEO) and Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES). Both face constraints of data, time, capacity, and resources. To support these assessments, we disaggregate three global knowledge products according to their regions and subregions. These products are: The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Key Biodiversity Areas (specifically Important Bird & Biodiversity Areas [IBAs], and Alliance for Zero Extinction [AZE] sites), and Protected Planet. We present fourteen Data citations: numbers of species occurring and percentages threatened; numbers of endemics and percentages threatened; downscaled Red List Indices for mammals, birds, and amphibians; numbers, mean sizes, and percentage coverages of IBAs and AZE sites; percentage coverage of land and sea by protected areas; and trends in percentages of IBAs and AZE sites wholly covered by protected areas. These data will inform the regional/subregional assessment chapters on the status of biodiversity, drivers of its decline, and institutional responses, and greatly facilitate comparability and consistency between the different regional/subregional assessments.

  10. An anaerobic bioreactor system for biobutanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paekkilae, J.; Hillukkala, T.; Myllykoski, L.; Keiski, R.L. (Univ. of Oulu, Dept. of Process and Environmental Engineering (Finland)). email: johanna.pakkila@oulu.fi

    2009-07-01

    evaporation, perstraction, pervaporation and reverse osmosis with high selectivity are the most promising product recovery techniques despite of the tendency for clogging and fouling. Process development to achieve an economical and efficient production process have been done also by genetic strain manipulation, regulation of substrate utilization and butanol production, by using cell immobilization or cell recycling, and by using different kinds of product recovery techniques. The aim of this research was to design and build a system for the anaerobic bacteria cultivation. The purpose was to discover suitable cultivation conditions for strict anaerobic clostridia bacteria

  11. TAXATION SYSTEM AT INTRA PRODUCTION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the analysis concerning taxation in the country at the level of an enteфrise and its structural sub-divisions in the period of transforming economy.Recommendations are given on the following aspects: modernization of income taxation system for natural persons; tax payment in case of wage computation; exclusion of tax payments and assignments fi-om production cost value which are not connected with the production process; tax computation for real property; evaluation of enterprise taxation level.The paper shows the possible cases concerning formation of tax payments and assignments of an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.Taxation system is shown at the level of enterprise structural sub-divisions (shop, department, at the level of shop structural sub-divisions (section, team, for works to be executed by an individual person of the production process (operation, product, works, services. This system promotes to efficient functioning of intra-production economical relations.The paper provides possible variants of formation of taxation payments and assignments for an enterprise and its structural sub-divisions.

  12. A locally conservative non-negative finite element formulation for anisotropic advective-diffusive-reactive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudunuru, M. K.; Shabouei, M.; Nakshatrala, K.

    2015-12-01

    Advection-diffusion-reaction (ADR) equations appear in various areas of life sciences, hydrogeological systems, and contaminant transport. Obtaining stable and accurate numerical solutions can be challenging as the underlying equations are coupled, nonlinear, and non-self-adjoint. Currently, there is neither a robust computational framework available nor a reliable commercial package known that can handle various complex situations. Herein, the objective of this poster presentation is to present a novel locally conservative non-negative finite element formulation that preserves the underlying physical and mathematical properties of a general linear transient anisotropic ADR equation. In continuous setting, governing equations for ADR systems possess various important properties. In general, all these properties are not inherited during finite difference, finite volume, and finite element discretizations. The objective of this poster presentation is two fold: First, we analyze whether the existing numerical formulations (such as SUPG and GLS) and commercial packages provide physically meaningful values for the concentration of the chemical species for various realistic benchmark problems. Furthermore, we also quantify the errors incurred in satisfying the local and global species balance for two popular chemical kinetics schemes: CDIMA (chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid) and BZ (Belousov--Zhabotinsky). Based on these numerical simulations, we show that SUPG and GLS produce unphysical values for concentration of chemical species due to the violation of the non-negative constraint, contain spurious node-to-node oscillations, and have large errors in local and global species balance. Second, we proposed a novel finite element formulation to overcome the above difficulties. The proposed locally conservative non-negative computational framework based on low-order least-squares finite elements is able to preserve these underlying physical and mathematical properties

  13. 78 FR 40403 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products and Certain Commercial and Industrial Equipment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... from today's proposed determination. There currently is no statutory definition of portable ACs. DOE...\\ Transparency Media Research. Air Conditioning Systems Market--Global Scenario, Trends, Industry Analysis, Size... amended by the Small Business Regulatory Enforcement Fairness Act of 1996) requires preparation of an...

  14. Structural Materials for Efficient Energy Production Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Briceno, D.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the efficiency of electric power production systems implies increasing the operating temperature above those of systems currently in operation. The viability of new systems depends completely on the availability of structural materials that withstand the operating conditions specified in the design: adequate features under mechanical stress at high temperatures and compatibility with the medium. In the case of nuclear systems (fission, fusion), an important requirement is their response to irradiation induced damage. In spite of the significant differences that exist in the design of nuclear power plants, fusion reactors, innovative fission systems, supercritical fossil plants, biomass plants, solar concentration thermal plants, etc., all of them have as a common characteristic the use of resistant materials at high temperatures. The qualification of existing materials for the new and more demanding operating conditions and the development of new materials is one of the challenges faced by the electric power production industry. The science of materials and the understanding of the basic processes that take place in structural materials on exposure to the operating conditions of energy production systems are the tools that are available to obtain safe and economically viable solutions. (Authors) 4 refs.

  15. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors.

  16. Multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems

    CERN Document Server

    Schönemann, Malte

    2017-01-01

    Addressing the challenge of improving battery quality while reducing high costs and environmental impacts of the production, this book presents a multiscale simulation approach for battery production systems along with a software environment and an application procedure. Battery systems are among the most important technologies of the 21st century since they are enablers for the market success of electric vehicles and stationary energy storage solutions. However, the performance of batteries so far has limited possible applications. Addressing this challenge requires an interdisciplinary understanding of dynamic cause-effect relationships between processes, equipment, materials, and environmental conditions. The approach in this book supports the integrated evaluation of improvement measures and is usable for different planning horizons. It is applied to an exemplary battery cell production and module assembly in order to demonstrate the effectiveness and potential benefits of the simulation.

  17. DEA Sensitivity Analysis for Parallel Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerami

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce systems consisting of several production units, each of which include several subunits working in parallel. Meanwhile, each subunit is working independently. The input and output of each production unit are the sums of the inputs and outputs of its subunits, respectively. We consider each of these subunits as an independent decision making unit(DMU and create the production possibility set(PPS produced by these DMUs, in which the frontier points are considered as efficient DMUs. Then we introduce models for obtaining the efficiency of the production subunits. Using super-efficiency models, we categorize all efficient subunits into different efficiency classes. Then we follow by presenting the sensitivity analysis and stability problem for efficient subunits, including extreme efficient and non-extreme efficient subunits, assuming simultaneous perturbations in all inputs and outputs of subunits such that the efficiency of the subunit under evaluation declines while the efficiencies of other subunits improve.

  18. R-parity-violating production of single top squarks with R-parity-conserving decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.L.; Harris, B.W.; Sullivan, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Single-top-squark production probes R-parity-violating extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model though the λ 3ij double p rime coupling. For top-squark masses in the range 180-325 GeV, and λ 3ij double p rime > 0.02-0.06, we show that discovery of the top squark is possible with 2 fb -1 of integrated luminosity at run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The bound on λ 3ij double p rime can be reduced by up to an order of magnitude with existing data from run I, and by two orders of magnitude at run II if the top squark is not found

  19. Energy saving industrial products in Italy (marketing research, conservation program planning)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, M.; Clo' , A.; Goldoni, G. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))

    1989-09-01

    This article gathers the essential results of research, carried out by Nomisma for ENEA (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energy Sources) about the market and industry structure of 7 different products for energy saving, i.e. high performance boilers, cogeneration plants, thermal insulation, organic residual combustors, heat pumps, heat recovery equipment and measuring and control instruments. The singling out of the operating firms and the collection of numerous, even if incomplete, economic and technical data, permit a first evaluation of the trend of the Italian energy saving market during the period 1983-87. This will be a useful tool in order to appraise the efficiency of past policies and direct future ones.

  20. Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical ...

  1. Entanglement production in quantized chaotic systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quantum chaos is a subject whose major goal is to identify and to investigate different quantum signatures of classical chaos. Here we study entanglement production in coupled chaotic systems as a possible quantum indicator of classical chaos. We use coupled kicked tops as a model for our extensive numerical studies.

  2. Air pollution restrictions in electrical production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallizioli, G.

    1993-01-01

    A description of the principal characteristics regarding the Italian electrical power system and the evolution of standardization in air pollution control is given. Afterwards, ENEL (the Italian National Electricity Board) actions in the environmental protection field (with particular respect to thermo-electrical production) are presented. Finally, principal ENEL research programs on new air pollution control technologies are discussed

  3. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape’s spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape’s character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system’s conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  4. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  5. A direct Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian ADER-WENO finite volume scheme on unstructured tetrahedral meshes for conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic systems in 3D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with

  6. A Web-based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-07-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) as well as many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a spatial decision support system based on geospatial cyberinfrastructure (GCI) can address all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry, and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on land management and soil conservation. The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry, and urban planning issues through the Web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the south of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project (SOILCONSWEB). The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart Web-based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last very important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  7. A web based spatial decision supporting system for land management and soil conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terribile, F.; Agrillo, A.; Bonfante, A.; Buscemi, G.; Colandrea, M.; D'Antonio, A.; De Mascellis, R.; De Michele, C.; Langella, G.; Manna, P.; Marotta, L.; Mileti, F. A.; Minieri, L.; Orefice, N.; Valentini, S.; Vingiani, S.; Basile, A.

    2015-02-01

    Today it is evident that there are many contrasting demands on our landscape (e.g. food security, more sustainable agriculture, higher income in rural areas, etc.) but also many land degradation problems. It has been proved that providing operational answers to these demands and problems is extremely difficult. Here we aim to demonstrate that a Spatial Decision Support System based on geospatial cyber-infrastructure (GCI) can embody all of the above, so producing a smart system for supporting decision making for agriculture, forestry and urban planning with respect to the landscape. In this paper, we discuss methods and results of a special kind of GCI architecture, one that is highly focused on soil and land conservation (SOILCONSWEB-LIFE+ project). The system allows us to obtain dynamic, multidisciplinary, multiscale, and multifunctional answers to agriculture, forestry and urban planning issues through the web. The system has been applied to and tested in an area of about 20 000 ha in the South of Italy, within the framework of a European LIFE+ project. The paper reports - as a case study - results from two different applications dealing with agriculture (olive growth tool) and environmental protection (soil capability to protect groundwater). Developed with the help of end users, the system is starting to be adopted by local communities. The system indirectly explores a change of paradigm for soil and landscape scientists. Indeed, the potential benefit is shown of overcoming current disciplinary fragmentation over landscape issues by offering - through a smart web based system - truly integrated geospatial knowledge that may be directly and freely used by any end user (http://www.landconsultingweb.eu). This may help bridge the last much important divide between scientists working on the landscape and end users.

  8. Production planning and control of less emitting production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasis, H.D. [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    1995-12-31

    The concept of integral environmental protection has been growing in importance within Western Europe in recent years. Increasingly, it has come to be recognized that no one part of the environment is separate from any other, it functions as a whole. Yet, pollution control was until recently, usually based on an approach which considers emissions to air, water, and land separately. That has begun to change, particularly since the 1987 report by the World Commission on Environment and Development. This can be recognized, for example, within the proposal for a Directive of the Council of the European Union on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. By this, the environmental media are placed on an equal legislative footing so that the final result will be that the way in which an installation is operated will be better for the whole environment. In other words, less emission production systems are obtained. Realization of an integral concept or of less emission production systems initially requires technical measures for the avoidance and the minimization of emissions, as well as recovery and recycling of materials and substances

  9. Production planning and control of less emitting production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haasis, H D [Bremen Univ. (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The concept of integral environmental protection has been growing in importance within Western Europe in recent years. Increasingly, it has come to be recognized that no one part of the environment is separate from any other, it functions as a whole. Yet, pollution control was until recently, usually based on an approach which considers emissions to air, water, and land separately. That has begun to change, particularly since the 1987 report by the World Commission on Environment and Development. This can be recognized, for example, within the proposal for a Directive of the Council of the European Union on Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. By this, the environmental media are placed on an equal legislative footing so that the final result will be that the way in which an installation is operated will be better for the whole environment. In other words, less emission production systems are obtained. Realization of an integral concept or of less emission production systems initially requires technical measures for the avoidance and the minimization of emissions, as well as recovery and recycling of materials and substances

  10. Conserved ABC Transport System Regulated by the General Stress Response Pathways of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrou, Julien; Willett, Jonathan W.; Czy; #380; , Daniel M.; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Kim, Youngchang; Crosson, Sean (UC)

    2016-12-19

    ABSTRACT

    Brucella abortusσE1is an EcfG family sigma factor that regulates the transcription of dozens of genes in response to diverse stress conditions and is required for maintenance of chronic infection in a mouse model. A putative ATP-binding cassette transporter operon,bab1_0223-bab1_0226, is among the most highly activated gene sets in the σE1regulon. The proteins encoded by the operon resemble quaternary ammonium-compatible solute importers but are most similar in sequence to the broadly conserved YehZYXW system, which remains largely uncharacterized. Transcription ofyehZYXWis activated by the general stress sigma factor σSinEnterobacteriaceae, which suggests a functional role for this transport system in bacterial stress response across the classesAlphaproteobacteriaandGammaproteobacteria. We present evidence thatB. abortusYehZYXW does not function as an importer of known compatible solutes under physiological conditions and does not contribute to the virulence defect of a σE1-null strain. The solein vitrophenotype associated with genetic disruption of this putative transport system is reduced growth in the presence of high Li+ion concentrations. A crystal structure ofB. abortusYehZ revealed a class II periplasmic binding protein fold with significant structural homology toArchaeoglobus fulgidusProX, which binds glycine betaine. However, the structure

  11. Production Management System for AMS Computing Centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choutko, V.; Demakov, O.; Egorov, A.; Eline, A.; Shan, B. S.; Shi, R.

    2017-10-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer [1] (AMS) has collected over 95 billion cosmic ray events since it was installed on the International Space Station (ISS) on May 19, 2011. To cope with enormous flux of events, AMS uses 12 computing centers in Europe, Asia and North America, which have different hardware and software configurations. The centers are participating in data reconstruction, Monte-Carlo (MC) simulation [2]/Data and MC production/as well as in physics analysis. Data production management system has been developed to facilitate data and MC production tasks in AMS computing centers, including job acquiring, submitting, monitoring, transferring, and accounting. It was designed to be modularized, light-weighted, and easy-to-be-deployed. The system is based on Deterministic Finite Automaton [3] model, and implemented by script languages, Python and Perl, and the built-in sqlite3 database on Linux operating systems. Different batch management systems, file system storage, and transferring protocols are supported. The details of the integration with Open Science Grid are presented as well.

  12. Feasibility, safety, and economic implications of whey-recovered water in cleaning-in-place systems: A case study on water conservation for the dairy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Yulie E; Flores, Rolando A

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity is threatening food security and business growth in the United States. In the dairy sector, most of the water is used in cleaning applications; therefore, any attempt to support water conservation in these processes will have a considerable effect on the water footprint of dairy products. This study demonstrates the viability for recovering good quality water from whey, a highly pollutant cheese-making by-product, to be reused in cleaning-in-place systems. The results obtained in this study indicate that by using a combined ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis system, 47% of water can be recovered. This system generates protein and lactose concentrates, by-products that once spray-dried fulfill commercial standards for protein and lactose powders. The physicochemical and microbiological quality of the recovered permeate was also analyzed, suggesting suitable properties to be reused in the cleaning-in-place system without affecting the quality and safety of the product manufactured on the cleaned equipment. A cost analysis was conducted for 3 cheese manufacturing levels, considering an annual production of 1, 20, and 225 million liters of whey. Results indicate the feasibility of this intervention in the dairy industry, generating revenues of $0.18, $3.05, and $33.4 million per year, respectively. The findings provide scientific evidence to promote the safety of reuse of reconditioned water in food processing plants, contributing to building a culture of water conservation and sustainable production throughout the food supply chain. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Mei Symmetry and New Conserved Quantities of Tzénoff Equations for the Variable Mass Higher-Order Nonholonomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Shi-Wang; WANG Jian-Bo; CHEN Xiang-Wei; XIE Jia-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems,and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system.We study the Mei symmetry of Tzénoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived.The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented.This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.%Operational systems of spacecraft are general variable mass mechanics systems, and their symmetries and conserved quantities imply profound physical rules of the space system. We study the Mei symmetry of Tzenoff equations for a variable mass nonholonomic system and the new conserved quantities derived. The function expression of the new conserved quantities and the criterion equation which deduces these conserved quantities are presented. This result has some theoretical values in further research of conservation laws obeyed by the variable mass system.

  14. Exact solutions and conservation laws of the system of two-dimensional viscous Burgers equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulwahhab, Muhammad Alim

    2016-10-01

    Fluid turbulence is one of the phenomena that has been studied extensively for many decades. Due to its huge practical importance in fluid dynamics, various models have been developed to capture both the indispensable physical quality and the mathematical structure of turbulent fluid flow. Among the prominent equations used for gaining in-depth insight of fluid turbulence is the two-dimensional Burgers equations. Its solutions have been studied by researchers through various methods, most of which are numerical. Being a simplified form of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and its wide range of applicability in various fields of science and engineering, development of computationally efficient methods for the solution of the two-dimensional Burgers equations is still an active field of research. In this study, Lie symmetry method is used to perform detailed analysis on the system of two-dimensional Burgers equations. Optimal system of one-dimensional subalgebras up to conjugacy is derived and used to obtain distinct exact solutions. These solutions not only help in understanding the physical effects of the model problem but also, can serve as benchmarks for constructing algorithms and validation of numerical solutions of the system of Burgers equations under consideration at finite Reynolds numbers. Independent and nontrivial conserved vectors are also constructed.

  15. Comparative biology of the pentraxin protein family: evolutionarily conserved component of innate immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Peter B

    2015-01-01

    The immune system is based on the actions of the collection of specialized immune defense cells and their secreted proteins and peptides that defend the host against infection by parasites. Parasites are organisms that live part or all of their lives in close physical association with the host and extract nutrients from the host and, by releasing toxins and virulence factors, cause disease with the potential for injury and premature death of that host. Parasites of the metazoa can be viruses, eubacteria, fungi, protozoans, and other metazoans. The immune system operates to kill or eliminate parasites and eliminate or detoxify their toxins and virulence factors. Although some of the elements of immune systems are specific to a particular phylum of metazoans, others show extensive evolutionary conservation, being present in several or all major phyla of the metazoa. The pentraxins display this latter character in their roles in immune defense. Pentraxins have been documented in vertebrates, nonvertebrate chordates, arthropods, and mollusks and may be present in other taxa of metazoans. Presumably the pentraxins appeared early in the evolution of metazoa, prior to their evolutionary divergence in the Precambrian epoch into many phyla present today, and have been preserved for the 542 million years since that explosive evolutionary radiation. The fidelity with which these phyla have preserved the pentraxins suggests that the functions of these proteins are important for survival of the members of these diverse taxa of animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-10-28

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. © 2015 The Authors.

  17. Evolution of tsunami warning systems and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Eddie; Titov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    Each year, about 60 000 people and $4 billion (US$) in assets are exposed to the global tsunami hazard. Accurate and reliable tsunami warning systems have been shown to provide a significant defence for this flooding hazard. However, the evolution of warning systems has been influenced by two processes: deadly tsunamis and available technology. In this paper, we explore the evolution of science and technology used in tsunami warning systems, the evolution of their products using warning technologies, and offer suggestions for a new generation of warning products, aimed at the flooding nature of the hazard, to reduce future tsunami impacts on society. We conclude that coastal communities would be well served by receiving three standardized, accurate, real-time tsunami warning products, namely (i) tsunami energy estimate, (ii) flooding maps and (iii) tsunami-induced harbour current maps to minimize the impact of tsunamis. Such information would arm communities with vital flooding guidance for evacuations and port operations. The advantage of global standardized flooding products delivered in a common format is efficiency and accuracy, which leads to effectiveness in promoting tsunami resilience at the community level. PMID:26392620

  18. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia's Marine Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M; Armitage, Derek R

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the 'messiness' inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) 'bridging' is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond.

  19. Bridging Organizations Drive Effective Governance Outcomes for Conservation of Indonesia’s Marine Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdej, Samantha M.; Armitage, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the influence of bridging organizations on governance outcomes for marine conservation in Indonesia. Conservation challenges require ways of governing that are collaborative and adaptive across boundaries, and where conservation actions are better coordinated, information flows improved, and knowledge better integrated and mobilized. We combine quantitative social network analysis and qualitative data to analyze bridging organizations and their networks, and to understand their contributions and constraints in two case studies in Bali, Indonesia. The analysis shows 1) bridging organizations help to navigate the ‘messiness’ inherent in conservation settings by compensating for sparse linkages, 2) the particular structure and function of bridging organizations influence governing processes (i.e., collaboration, knowledge sharing) and subsequent conservation outcomes, 3) ‘bridging’ is accomplished using different strategies and platforms for collaboration and social learning, and 4) bridging organizations enhance flexibility to adjust to changing marine conservation contexts and needs. Understanding the organizations that occupy bridging positions, and how they utilize their positionality in a governance network is emerging as an important determinant of successful conservation outcomes. Our findings contribute to a relatively new body of literature on bridging organizations in marine conservation contexts, and add needed empirical investigation into their value to governance and conservation in Coral Triangle nations and beyond. PMID:26794003

  20. Controls on anastomosis in lowland river systems: Towards process-based solutions to habitat conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowski, Paweł; Grabowski, Robert C; Okruszko, Tomasz

    2017-12-31

    Anastomosing rivers were historically common around the world before extensive agricultural and industrial development in river valleys. Few lowland anastomosing rivers remain in temperate zones, and the protection of these river-floodplain systems is an international conservation priority. However, the mechanisms that drive the creation and maintenance of multiple channels, i.e. anabranches, are not well understood, particularly for lowland rivers, making it challenging to identify effective management strategies. This study uses a novel multi-scale, process-based hydro-geomorphological approach to investigate the natural and anthropogenic controls on anastomosis in lowland river reaches. Using a wide range of data (hydrologic, cartographic, remote-sensing, historical), the study (i) quantifies changes in the planform of the River Narew, Poland over the last 100years, (ii) documents changes in the natural and anthropogenic factors that could be driving the geomorphic change, and (iii) develops a conceptual model of the controls of anastomosis. The results show that 110km of anabranches have been lost from the Narew National Park (6810ha), a 42% reduction in total anabranch length since 1900. The rates of anabranch loss have increased as the number of pressures inhibiting anabranch creation and maintenance has multiplied. The cessation of localized water level and channel management (fishing dams, water mills and timber rafting), the loss of traditional floodplain activities (seasonal mowing) and infrastructure construction (embanked roads and an upstream dam) are contributing to low water levels and flows, the deposition of sediment at anabranch inlets, the encroachment of common reed (Phragmites australis), and the eventual loss of anabranches. By identifying the processes driving the loss of anabranches, this study provides transferable insights into the controls of anastomosis in lowland rivers and the management solutions needed to preserve the unique

  1. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  2. Protocols for In Vitro Propagation, Conservation, Synthetic Seed Production, Embryo Rescue, Microrhizome Production, Molecular Profiling, and Genetic Transformation in Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmal Babu, K; Samsudeen, K; Divakaran, Minoo; Pillai, Geetha S; Sumathi, V; Praveen, K; Ravindran, P N; Peter, K V

    2016-01-01

    Ginger is a rhizomatous plant that belongs to the family Zingiberaceae. It is a herbaceous perennial but cultivated as annual, with crop duration of 7-10 months. Ginger is native to India and Tropical South Asia. The tuberous rhizomes or underground stems of ginger are used as condiment, an aromatic stimulant, and food preservative as well as in traditional medicine. Ginger is propagated vegetatively with rhizome bits as seed material. Cultivation of ginger is plagued by rhizome rot diseases, most of which are mainly spread through infected seed rhizomes. Micropropagation will help in production of disease-free planting material. Sexual reproduction is absent in ginger, making recombinant breeding very impossible. In vitro technology can thus become the preferred choice as it can be utilized for multiplication, conservation of genetic resources, generating variability, gene transfer, molecular tagging, and their utility in crop improvement of these crops.

  3. Hydrogen production from biomass by biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifan, H.R.; Qader, S.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen gas is seen as a future energy carrier, not involved in 'greenhouse' gas and its released energy in combustion can be converted to electric power. Biological system with low energy can produce hydrogen compared to electrochemical hydrogen production via solar battery-based water splitting which requires the use of solar batteries with high energy requirements. The biological hydrogen production occurs in microalgae and cyanobacteria by photosynthesis. They consume biochemical energy to produce molecular hydrogen. Hydrogen in some algae is an anaerobic production in the absence of light. In cyanobacteria the hydrogen production simultaneously happens with nitrogen fixation, and also catalyzed by nitrogenase as a side reaction. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic bacteria is mediated by nitrogenase activity, although hydrogenases may be active for both hydrogen production and hydrogen uptake under some conditions. Genetic studies on photosynthetic microorganisms have markedly increased in recent times, relatively few genetic engineering studies have focused on altering the characteristics of these microorganisms, particularly with respect to enhancing the hydrogen-producing capabilities of photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria. (author)

  4. The greenGain project - Biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work for renewable energy production in the EU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clalüna, Aline; Baumgarten, Wibke; García Galindo, Daniel; Lenz, Klaus; Doležal, Jan; De Filippi, Federico; Lorenzo, Joaquín; Montagnoli, Louis

    2017-04-01

    The project greenGain is looking for solutions to increase the energy production with regional and local biomass from landscape conservation and maintenance work, which is performed in the public interest. The relevant resources analysed in the greenGain model regions are, among others, biomass residues from clearing invasive vegetation in marginal agricultural lands in Spain, and residues from abandoned vineyards and olive groves in landscape protected areas in Italy. The main target groups are regional and local players who are responsible for maintenance and conservation work and for the biomass residue management in their regions. Moreover, the focus will be on service providers - including farmers and forest owners, their associations, NGOs, energy providers and consumers. Local companies, municipalities and public authorities are collaborating to identify the still underutilised non-food biomass resources and to discuss the way to integrate them into the local and regional biomass markets. Since the start of the three year project in January 2015, the partners from Italy, Spain, Czech Republic and Germany analysed, among other, the biomass feedstock potential coming from landscape maintenance work, and assessed various technological options to utilise this type of biomass. Further, political, legal and environmental aspects as well as awareness raising and public acceptance actions regarding the energetic use of biomass from public areas were assessed. greenGain also facilitates the exchange between model regions and other similar relevant players in the EU and shares examples of good practice. General guidelines will be prepared to guarantee a wide dissemination to other regions in the EU. Thus, the project shows how to build-up reliable knowledge on local availability of this feedstock and provides know-how concerning planning, harvesting, pre-treatment, storage and sustainable conversion pathways to a wide range of stakeholders in the EU.

  5. Auditing Information System : Delivery Product Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purwoko Purwoko

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the research is to ensure the securities of information system asset and to ensure if informa-tion system support the operational and data collected was valid. Research method that used in this research were library studies and field studies. Field studies such an observation, questioner, and inter-view. the expected result are founding the weakness of security management control, operational man-agement control, input control, and output control of risk happened in the company. Conclusion of this research are the system on the company work good and there’s no potential risk happened and make an impact to the delivery process of information system.Index Terms - Auditing Information system, Delivery product process.

  6. Toyota production system - one example to shipbuilding industry

    OpenAIRE

    Delmo Alves de Moura; Rui Carlos Botter

    2017-01-01

    The shipbuilding system can use the techniques used in the Toyota Production System as an example for its production process. Production should be lean, minimize defects, stop production and reduce or eliminate inventories. Lean production is regarded by many as simply an enhancement of mass production methods, whereas agility implies breaking out of the mass production mould and producing much more highly customized products - where the customer wants them in any quantity. In a product line ...

  7. Production grid systems and their programming

    CERN Document Server

    Kacsuk, P; Stefan, P

    2004-01-01

    Summary form only given. There are a large variety of grid test-beds that can be used for experimental purposes by a small community. However, the number of production grid systems that can be used as a service for a large community is very limited. The current tutorial provides introduction to three of these very few production grid systems. They represent different models and policies of using grid resources and hence understanding and comparing them is an extremely useful exercise to everyone interested in grid technology. The Hungarian ClusterGrid infrastructure connects clusters during the nights and weekends. These clusters are used during the day for educational purposes at the Hungarian universities and polytechnics. Therefore, a unique feature of this grid is the switching mechanism by which the day time and night time working modes are loaded to the computers. In order to manage the system as a production, one, the system is homogeneous, all the machines should install the same grid software package...

  8. Bioelectrochemical Systems for Indirect Biohydrogen Production

    KAUST Repository

    Regan, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioelectrochemical systems involve the use of exoelectrogenic (i.e., anode-reducing) microbes to produce current in conjunction with the oxidation of reduced compounds. This current can be used directly for power in a microbial fuel cell, but there are alternate uses of this current. One such alternative is the production of hydrogen in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC), which accomplishes cathodic proton reduction with a slight applied potential by exploiting the low redox potential produced by exoelectrogens at the anode. As an indirect approach to biohydrogen production, these systems are not subject to the hydrogen yield constraints of fermentative processes and have been proven to work with virtually any biodegradable organic substrate. With continued advancements in reactor design to reduce the system internal resistance, increase the specific surface area for anode biofilm development, and decrease the material costs, MECs may emerge as a viable alternative technology for biohydrogen production. Moreover, these systems can also incorporate other value-added functionalities for applications in waste treatment, desalination, and bioremediation.

  9. Systems biology of microbial exopolysaccharides production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem eAtes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPS produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore a systems-based approach constitutes an important step towards understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan and dextran.

  10. Systems Biology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by diverse group of microbial systems are rapidly emerging as new and industrially important biomaterials. Due to their unique and complex chemical structures and many interesting physicochemical and rheological properties with novel functionality, the microbial EPSs find wide range of commercial applications in various fields of the economy such as food, feed, packaging, chemical, textile, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, agriculture, and medicine. EPSs are mainly associated with high-value applications, and they have received considerable research attention over recent decades with their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and both environmental and human compatibility. However, only a few microbial EPSs have achieved to be used commercially due to their high production costs. The emerging need to overcome economic hurdles and the increasing significance of microbial EPSs in industrial and medical biotechnology call for the elucidation of the interrelations between metabolic pathways and EPS biosynthesis mechanism in order to control and hence enhance its microbial productivity. Moreover, a better understanding of biosynthesis mechanism is a significant issue for improvement of product quality and properties and also for the design of novel strains. Therefore, a systems-based approach constitutes an important step toward understanding the interplay between metabolism and EPS biosynthesis and further enhances its metabolic performance for industrial application. In this review, primarily the microbial EPSs, their biosynthesis mechanism, and important factors for their production will be discussed. After this brief introduction, recent literature on the application of omics technologies and systems biology tools for the improvement of production yields will be critically evaluated. Special focus will be given to EPSs with high market value such as xanthan, levan, pullulan, and dextran.

  11. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

  12. Macoilin, a conserved nervous system-specific ER membrane protein that regulates neuronal excitability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto Arellano-Carbajal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequence comparisons have highlighted many novel gene families that are conserved across animal phyla but whose biological function is unknown. Here, we functionally characterize a member of one such family, the macoilins. Macoilins are characterized by several highly conserved predicted transmembrane domains towards the N-terminus and by coiled-coil regions C-terminally. They are found throughout Eumetazoa but not in other organisms. Mutants for the single Caenorhabditis elegans macoilin, maco-1, exhibit a constellation of behavioral phenotypes, including defects in aggregation, O₂ responses, and swimming. MACO-1 protein is expressed broadly and specifically in the nervous system and localizes to the rough endoplasmic reticulum; it is excluded from dendrites and axons. Apart from subtle synapse defects, nervous system development appears wild-type in maco-1 mutants. However, maco-1 animals are resistant to the cholinesterase inhibitor aldicarb and sensitive to levamisole, suggesting pre-synaptic defects. Using in vivo imaging, we show that macoilin is required to evoke Ca²(+ transients, at least in some neurons: in maco-1 mutants the O₂-sensing neuron PQR is unable to generate a Ca²(+ response to a rise in O₂. By genetically disrupting neurotransmission, we show that pre-synaptic input is not necessary for PQR to respond to O₂, indicating that the response is mediated by cell-intrinsic sensory transduction and amplification. Disrupting the sodium leak channels NCA-1/NCA-2, or the N-,P/Q,R-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channels, also fails to disrupt Ca²(+ responses in the PQR cell body to O₂ stimuli. By contrast, mutations in egl-19, which encodes the only Caenorhabditis elegans L-type voltage-gated Ca²(+ channel α1 subunit, recapitulate the Ca²(+ response defect we see in maco-1 mutants, although we do not see defects in localization of EGL-19. Together, our data suggest that macoilin acts in the ER to regulate assembly or

  13. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  14. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  15. Development of large scale and wind energy conservation system. Operational studies on a large-scale wind energy conservation system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no unten kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for operational studies on a large-scale wind energy conversion system. A total of 8 domestic and foreign cases are studied for wind energy conversion cost, to clarify the causes for higher cost of the Japanese system. The wind power systems studied include Japanese (5 units at Tappi Wind Park, the same type supplied by company M), US (California Wind Farm, 300 units) and UK (Wales Wind Farm, 103 units) systems. The investment costs are 639, 285 and 189 thousand yen/kW for the Japanese, US and UK systems, respectively. It is also revealed that the power plant itself and assembling costs account for a majority (70 to 88%) of the total investment cost. The higher cost of the Japanese system results from a smaller number of units installed, and the power plant cost can be drastically reduced by mass production. Increasing size also reduces cost greatly.

  16. Wood products used in constructing conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States, 1962 and 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. H. Reid; D. B. McKeever

    Estimates of the amounts of wood products used in constructing civil conservation and development projects by the Corps of Engineers in the United States are presented for the years 1962 and 1978. Amounts of lumber, laminated lumber, poles and piling, and plywood used in construction are stratified by five construction categories, and three types of uses. Estimates of...

  17. Balancing development and conservation? An assessment of livelihood and environmental outcomes of nontimber forest product trade in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, K.; Achdiawan, R.; Belcher, B.; Ruiz Pérez, M.; Hussain, A.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question, to what extent and under which conditions nontimber forest product (NTFP) trade leads to both livelihood improvement and forest conservation. We based the analysis on a standardized expert-judgment assessment of the livelihood and environmental outcomes of 55

  18. Systemic representation of a production system: the Sagace method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkhannouche, S.; Penalva, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The systemic approach used in this study is devoted at a high level radioactive waste vitrification pilot. The Sagace method permits to realize a global view of this pilot plant taking in account the process, the production subsystems and the control process subsystems. 4 figs., 4 refs

  19. Effect of soil and water conservation on rehabilitation of degraded lands and crop productivity in Maego watershed, North Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gebremariam Yaebiyo Dimtsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many soil and water conservation (SWC measures were undertaken to decrease land degradation in Ethiopia. However, evaluation of their performance is essential to understand their success or failure and readjusting accordingly in the future planning.  Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effectiveness of SWC measures in rehabilitation of degraded watershed and increase crop productivity in Maego watershed, Ethiopia. Seventy six sample plots were randomly taken from treated and untreated sub-watersheds for woody species and soil sampling. Crops yield was measured on top side, middle zone and below side of SWC structures. There were significantly higher woody species density and diversity, total nitrogen (TN, soil organic matter (SOM and soil moisture in the treated uncultivated land than the untreated one. The highest tree and sapling species density and diversity, TN and SOM were recorded on the exclosure part of the treated sub-watershed. Landscape position affected soil fertility, but has no effect on woody species density and diversity. The highest barley and wheat yield was measured on top side of SWC structures. Therefore, physical SWC structures should be integrated with exclosure to enhance rehabilitation of degraded watersheds/landscapes. Integration of biological SWC measures that improve soil fertility are essential on the cultivated land of the watershed. Most of the existing SWC structures, especially the old ones are filled with accumulated sediment, so maintenance is needed.

  20. "Toward High School Biology": Helping Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions and Conservation of Mass in Nonliving and Living Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Koppal, Mary; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Modern biology has become increasingly molecular in nature, requiring students to understand basic chemical concepts. Studies show, however, that many students fail to grasp ideas about atom rearrangement and conservation during chemical reactions or the application of these ideas to biological systems. To help provide students with a better…