WorldWideScience

Sample records for conservation energy building

  1. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  2. Building Standards and Codes for Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, James G.; Pierlert, James H.

    1977-01-01

    Current activity intended to lead to energy conservation measures in building codes and standards is reviewed by members of the Office of Building Standards and Codes Services of the National Bureau of Standards. For journal availability see HE 508 931. (LBH)

  3. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume II. Energy conservation technology: for the building inspector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This training manual contains the basic information necessary to acquaint the field building inspector with the concepts of energy conservation in buildings and instructs him in the basic techniques of field inspection of energy compliance.

  4. Energy Conservation of the Designated Government Buildings in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangskarn Prapat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The designated government buildings have implemented and administered energy program under the energy development and promotion Act 2007 for many years continuously until 2015. Appointment person responsible for energy, performing energy management and implementing the energy conservation work plan and measures are legal requirements for the designated buildings. Therefore, the ministry of Energy has launched the project to support the implementation of energy management. The aim of the project was to create the energy management system in the designated government buildings, and to reduce energy consumption. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented from the achievements of 839 designated government buildings. The energy saving is more than 440 ktoe/year. This is about 3% of energy consumptions of buildings.

  5. Energy conservation in developing countries using green building idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Akram; Qureshi, Ijaz Mansoor

    2013-01-01

    Green buildings uses processes that are environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle. In these buildings Certain energy conservative and environment friendly steps are considered and implemented from design, construction, operation, maintenance and renovation. In present era no doubt new technologies are constantly constructed and used in creating greener structures, energy efficient buildings. The common objective is to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health using available energy efficiently. To increase the efficiency of the System or the building, Onsite generation of renewable energy through solar power, wind power, hydro power, or biomasscan significantly reduce the environmental impact of the building. Power generation is generally the most expensive feature to add to a building. Any how power generation using renewable sources that is Solar system may further enhance energy conservation ideas. Power Factor improvement can also be another source of efficient tool for efficient use of Electrical Energy in green buildings. In developing countries a significant amount of Electrical Energy can be conserved and System efficiency as a whole can be increased by Power Factor correction. The reverse flow of power can be locally engaged instead of creating extra stress and opposition to the existing grid lines.

  6. Energy conservation in new and older buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehm, H

    1978-07-01

    For buildings, the building permits of which had been asked for after 1.9.77, new regulations according to the heat protection term are to be observed. The possibility of restricting heat losses, the simplified manifestation for restricting the transmission heat consumption and details of the new demands and the special regulation for neighbouring buildings are reported. Furthermore, the demands for restricting heat losses due to leaks and for the purpose of ventilation, as well as at buildings with low internal temperatures and buildings for sport and gathering purposes, are dealt with. The simplified heat balance calculation represents a key to the problem solution. In detail it is shown how to make a proper selection of improvement measures.

  7. Analysis of alternative strategies for energy conservation in new buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, J. M.; Tawil, J.

    1980-12-01

    The policy instruments considered include: greater reliance on market forces; research and development; information, education and demonstration programs; tax incentives and sanctions; mortgage and finance programs; and regulations and standards. The analysis starts with an explanation of the barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors. Individual policy instruments are described and evaluated with respect to energy conservation, economic efficiency, equity, political impacts, and implementation and other transitional impacts. Five possible strategies are identified: (1) increased reliance on the market place; (2) energy consumption tax and supply subsidies; (3) Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) with no sanctions and no incentives; (4) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (price control); and (5) BEPS with sanctions and incentives (no price controls). A comparative analysis is performed. Elements are proposed for inclusion in a comprehensive strategy for conservation in new buildings.

  8. Energy conservation in selected buildings, Gdansk. 1. final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    This Final Report marks the end of the implementation stage of the project: 'Energy Conservation in Selected Buildings in Gdansk, Poland' supported by the Danish Environment-related Energy Sector Programme for Poland under the Danish Energy Agency. The residential and commercial sectors together with public buildings account for 40-45% of the total energy consumption and are dominated by the use of space heating and hot water. The sector has a significant over-consumption of energy, which first of all is due to the lack of or too weak incentives for the individual tenants to decrease the energy consumption. Bad thermal insulation of buildings and inefficient central heating systems with a widespread lack of measurement and automatic control systems give cause for extensive heat losses. The objective of the project has been to document the effects of energy savings in 18 multi-family houses when different types of energy saving measures are applied. These measures include thermal insulation of buildings, refurbishment of the heating system and introduction of individual billing system for heating and hot tap water. Energy audits of 18 buildings were performed by combination of on-site inspection of all buildings and data collection from the available drawings, technical descriptions, etc. The on-site inspection was carried out by use of an energy audit scheme specially developed for this project. (EG)

  9. Energy conservation in selected buildings, Gdansk. 1. final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    This Final Report marks the end of the implementation stage of the project: `Energy Conservation in Selected Buildings in Gdansk, Poland` supported by the Danish Environment-related Energy Sector Programme for Poland under the Danish Energy Agency. The residential and commercial sectors together with public buildings account for 40-45% of the total energy consumption and are dominated by the use of space heating and hot water. The sector has a significant over-consumption of energy, which first of all is due to the lack of or too weak incentives for the individual tenants to decrease the energy consumption. Bad thermal insulation of buildings and inefficient central heating systems with a widespread lack of measurement and automatic control systems give cause for extensive heat losses. The objective of the project has been to document the effects of energy savings in 18 multi-family houses when different types of energy saving measures are applied. These measures include thermal insulation of buildings, refurbishment of the heating system and introduction of individual billing system for heating and hot tap water. Energy audits of 18 buildings were performed by combination of on-site inspection of all buildings and data collection from the available drawings, technical descriptions, etc. The on-site inspection was carried out by use of an energy audit scheme specially developed for this project. (EG)

  10. Conserving energy in new buildings: analysis of nonregulatory policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheer, R.M.; Nieves, L.A.; Mazzucchi, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    The costs and effectiveness of non-regulatory options relative to those of a regulatory approach are analyzed. Nonregulatory program alternatives identified are: information and education programs, tax incentives and disincentives, and mortage and finance programs. Chapter 2 briefly reviews survey data to assess present public awareness of energy issues and energy-efficient building design. Homebuyer and homebuilder surveys are reviewed and conservation motivations are discussed. Chapter 3 examines the provision of technical and economic information to various factors affecting building design decisions. This approach assumes that the economic incentives and technical means to achieve energy conservation goals already exist but that critical information is lacking. Chapter 4 examines how adjustments to the tax structure could enhance economic incentives and counter economic disincentives for energy conservation. Qualifying buildings for tax benefits would almost certainly require certification of design energy consumption. The effectiveness of tax incentives would depend in part on dissemination of public information regarding the incentives. Chapter 5 examines subsidies, such as subsidized mortgages and loan guarantees, which lower the cost of money or other costs but do not change the market structure facing the consumer. Certification that buildings qualify for such treatment would probably be required. Chapter 6 presents recommendations based on the study's findings. (MCW)

  11. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  12. Operation of buildings: Energy supply and energy conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, H

    1985-01-01

    Energy saving in public administration. A list-like collection of the measures to monitor the consumption, the measures of saving energy at existing buildings, new systems and by new techniques. Examples with figures for the savings achieved in the region of Marburg-Biedenkopf (Hesse). Guidelines are set up which are mainly based on energy saving, heat recovery, use of new technologies and renewable energy sources, fluidized-bed combustion also in smaller plants of ca. 2 MW, waste management separating wastes into burnable/unburnable, information of the public administration and the people and the setting up of energy concepts. (PJH).

  13. Building Energy Efficiency in India: Compliance Evaluation of Energy Conservation Building Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Evans, Meredydd; Delgado, Alison

    2014-03-26

    India is experiencing unprecedented construction boom. The country doubled its floorspace between 2001 and 2005 and is expected to add 35 billion m2 of new buildings by 2050. Buildings account for 35% of total final energy consumption in India today, and building energy use is growing at 8% annually. Studies have shown that carbon policies will have little effect on reducing building energy demand. Chaturvedi et al. predicted that, if there is no specific sectoral policies to curb building energy use, final energy demand of the Indian building sector will grow over five times by the end of this century, driven by rapid income and population growth. The growing energy demand in buildings is accompanied by a transition from traditional biomass to commercial fuels, particularly an increase in electricity use. This also leads to a rapid increase in carbon emissions and aggravates power shortage in India. Growth in building energy use poses challenges to the Indian government. To curb energy consumption in buildings, the Indian government issued the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007, which applies to commercial buildings with a connected load of 100 kW or 120kVA. It is predicted that the implementation of ECBC can help save 25-40% of energy, compared to reference buildings without energy-efficiency measures. However, the impact of ECBC depends on the effectiveness of its enforcement and compliance. Currently, the majority of buildings in India are not ECBC-compliant. The United Nations Development Programme projected that code compliance in India would reach 35% by 2015 and 64% by 2017. Whether the projected targets can be achieved depends on how the code enforcement system is designed and implemented. Although the development of ECBC lies in the hands of the national government – the Bureau of Energy Efficiency under the Ministry of Power, the adoption and implementation of ECBC largely relies on state and local governments. Six years after ECBC

  14. Energy conservation and management system using efficient building automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S. Faiz; Hazry, D.; Tanveer, M. Hassan; Joyo, M. Kamran; Warsi, Faizan A.; Kamarudin, H.; Wan, Khairunizam; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.; Hussain, A. T.

    2015-05-01

    In countries where the demand and supply gap of electricity is huge and the people are forced to endure increasing hours of load shedding, unnecessary consumption of electricity makes matters even worse. So the importance and need for electricity conservation increases exponentially. This paper outlines a step towards the conservation of energy in general and electricity in particular by employing efficient Building Automation technique. It should be noted that by careful designing and implementation of the Building Automation System, up to 30% to 40% of energy consumption can be reduced, which makes a huge difference for energy saving. In this study above mentioned concept is verified by performing experiment on a prototype experimental room and by implementing efficient building automation technique. For the sake of this efficient automation, Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) is employed as a main controller, monitoring various system parameters and controlling appliances as per required. The hardware test run and experimental findings further clarifies and proved the concept. The added advantage of this project is that it can be implemented to both small and medium level domestic homes thus greatly reducing the overall unnecessary load on the Utility provider.

  15. Retrofit energy conservation in residential buildings in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R. H.; Birur, G. C.; Daksla, C.

    1982-01-01

    The common energy conservation techniques (ECTs) that can be retrofit-installed into residential buildings are surveyed. The quantity of saved energy for heating and cooling attributable to each ECT is evaluated for three common modes of heating: natural gas heating at 60/therm; heating via heat pump at $1.20/therm; and electric resistance heating at $2.40/therm. In every case, a life cycle cost comparison is made between the long term revenue due to energy conservation and a safe and conventional alternative investment that might be available to the prudent homeowner. The comparison between investment in an ECT and the alternative investment is brought into perspective using the life cycle payback period and an economic Figure of Merit (FOM). The FOM allows for relative ranking between candidate ECTs. Because the entire spectrum of winter heating climates in California is surveyed, the decision maker can determine whether or not a considered ECT is recommended in a given climate, and under what conditions an ECT investment becomes attractive.

  16. A review of building energy regulation and policy for energy conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaro, Joseph; Mwasha, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of energy use, worldwide, hfs raised concerns over problems of energy supply and exhaustion of energy resources. Most of the developed countries are implementing building energy regulations such as energy standards, codes etc., to reduce building energy consumption. The position of developing countries with respect to energy regulations implementation and enforcement is either poorly documented or not documented at all. In addition, there is a lack of consistent data, which makes it difficult to understand the underlying changes that affect energy regulation implementation in developing countries. In that respect, this paper investigates the progress of building energy regulations in developing countries and its implication for energy conservation and efficiency. The present status of building energy regulations in 60 developing countries around the world was analysed through a survey of building energy regulations using online survey. The study revealed the present progress made on building energy regulations in relation to implementation, development and compliance; at the same time the study recommends possible solutions to the barriers facing building energy regulation implementation in the developing world. - Research Highlights: →Progress and implications of energy regulations in developing countries. →Investigation assessed the progress made on energy regulations using online survey. →Energy regulation activities is progressively increasing in developing countries. →The study identified 25 developing countries without energy regulatory standards. →The study shows relationship between energy regulation and energy consumption.

  17. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential. Part V. Energy efficient buildings: the causes of litigation against energy conservation building codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benenson, P.; Codina, R.; Cornwall, B.

    1978-09-01

    The guidelines laid out for the five subjects investigated in this series are to take a holistic view of energy conservation policies by describing the overall system in which they are implemented; provide analytical tools and sufficiently disagregated data bases that can be adapted to answer a variety of questions by the users; identify and discuss some of the important issues behind successful energy conservation policy; and develop an energy conservation policy in depth. Three specific cases reviewed are: the California nonresidential code (1976); the California residential code (1978); and the Farmers Home Administration code (1978). Although these three suits were brought by the building industry, this report also discusses considerations relevant to architects, bankers, and building inspectors. These cases are discussed from three perspectives: (1) objections to the codes explicitly stated in court, (2) industry conditions and practices behind objections stated in court, and (3) general beliefs not stated in court. This discussion focuses on suits intended to limit those building codes which the building industry sees as too strong. However, some energy conservation industries may sue to strengthen codes which they consider too weak. An example of such a case is Polarized Corporation's current suit against the Lighting section of ASHRAE 90-75 (Los Angeles Federal District Court, see Murnane, 1978). (MCW)

  18. New scripts for old buildings : conserving both identity and energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schoor, Tineke; Peine, Alexander; van Lente, Harro

    2014-01-01

    The ambition of a transition to a sustainable society brings forth the dual challenge to preserve historical buildings and simultaneously improve the energy performance of our built environment. While engineers claim that a dramatic reduction of energy use in the built environment is feasible, it

  19. Simplified energy design economics: Principles of economics applied to energy conservation and solar energy investments in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, H. E.; Ruegg, R. T.; Wilson, F.

    1980-01-01

    Economic analysis techniques for evaluating alternative energy conservation investments in buildings are presented. Life cycle cost, benefit cost, savings to investment, payback, and rate of return analyses are explained and illustrated. The procedure for discounting is described for a heat pump investment. Formulas, tables of discount factors, and detailed instructions are provided to give all information required to make economic evaluations of energy conserving building designs.

  20. Use of vegetation to ameliorate building microclimates: an assessment of energy-conservation potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, B.A.; Taylor, F.G.; Wendt, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    The space-conditioning energy conservation potentials of landscapes designed to ameliorate building microclimates are evaluated. The physical bases for vegetative modifications of climate are discussed, and results of past study of the effects of vegetation on space-conditioning energy consumption in buildings are reviewed. The state-of-the-art of energy-conserving landscape designs is assessed and recommendations are presented for further research.

  1. Mixed strategies for energy conservation and alternative energy utilization (solar) in buildings. Final report. Volume III. Appendixes. [10 appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-06-01

    This appendix summarizes building characteristics used to determine heating and cooling loads for each of the five building types in each of the four regions. For the selected five buildings, the following data are attached: new and existing construction characteristics; new and existing construction thermal resistance; floor plan and elevation; people load schedule; lighting load schedule; appliance load schedule; ventilation schedule; and hot water use schedule. For the five building types (single family, apartment buildings, commercial buildings, office buildings, and schools), data are compiled in 10 appendices. These are Building Characteristics; Alternate Energy Sources and Energy Conservation Techniques Description, Costs, Fuel Price Scenarios; Life Cycle Cost Model; Simulation Models; Solar Heating/Cooling System; Condensed Weather; Single and Multi-Family Dwelling Characteristics and Energy Conservation Techniques; Mixed Strategies for Energy Conservation and Alternative Energy Utilization in Buildings. An extensive bibliography is given in the final appendix. (MCW)

  2. Training program for energy conservation in new-building construction. Volume IV. Energy conservation technology: advanced course for plan examiners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    A Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. This manual contains a more in-depth training in the review techniques and concepts required by the plan examiners and code officials in administering the code for conventional (buildings of 3 stories or less) construction.

  3. ASEAN-USAID buildings energy conservation project. Volume 1, Energy standards: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.][Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Deringer, J.J. [Deringer Group, Riva, MD (United States)

    1992-06-01

    Mandatory or voluntary energy-efficiency standards for new or existing buildings can play an important role in a national program aimed at promoting energy conservation. Building codes and standards can provide a degree of control over design and building practices throughout the construction process, and encourage awareness of energy-conscious design. Studies in developed countries indicate that efficiency standards can produce energy reductions on the order of 20 to 40% or more. Within ASEAN, analyses of the savings potential from the proposed standards suggest that if implemented, these standards would produce savings over current new design practice of 19% to 24%. In this volume we provide an overview of the ASEAN-USAID project aimed at promulgating standards for energy efficiency in commercial buildings. The process of developing and implementing energy-efficiency standards for buildings can be subdivided into two key components: policy development; and technical and economic analysis. Each of these involves a number of steps and processes, as outlined in Figure 1-1. This volume describes the technical and economic analyses used to develop the proposed energy efficiency standards for four countries (Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines, and Indonesia), and to refine an energy standard existing in Singapore since 1979. Though oriented toward the ASEAN region, the analysis methods described here are applicable in a range of settings, provided appropriate modifications are made for local building construction, climatic, economic, and political conditions. Implementation issues are not specifically addressed here; rather this volume is oriented towards the analytical work needed to establish or revise an energy standard for buildings.

  4. Training program for energy conservation in new building construction. Volume III. Energy conservation technology for plan examiners and code administrators. Energy Conservation Technology Series 200

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-12-01

    Under the sponsorship of the United States Department of Energy, a Model Code for Energy Conservation in New Building Construction has been developed by those national organizations primarily concerned with the development and promulgation of model codes. The technical provisions are based on ASHRAE Standard 90-75 and are intended for use by state and local officials. The subject of regulation of new building construction to assure energy conservation is recognized as one in which code officials have not had previous exposure. It was also determined that application of the model code would be made at varying levels by officials with both a specific requirement for knowledge and a differing degree of prior training in the state-of-the-art. Therefore, a training program and instructional materials were developed for code officials to assist them in the implementation and enforcement of energy efficient standards and codes. The training program for Energy Conservation Tehnology for Plan Examiners and Code Administrators (ECT Series 200) is presented.

  5. Environmental issues and energy conservation in buildings in Pakistan: role of architectural intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arif, S.; Khan, A.; Alamgir, K.; Alamgir, K.

    2011-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental catastrophe is the severe problem globally and particularly important for the developing countries like Pakistan. There is a serious need to solve the problem for a sustainable building environment as the building sector has become a major consumer of energy. An attempt has been made for the building professionals and building users for adherence into their design and construction the energy conservation measures to reduce environmental problems more easily after the thorough review of the famous authors' research work and findings in this field. The ultimate aim is the establishment of awareness for the building professionals for delivering sustainable buildings in Pakistan. Through the implementation of design measures to mitigate the urban heat island, the general public can decrease their demand for energy and effectively cool the urban landscape. In addition to the economic benefits, energy conservation leads to reductions in CO/sub 2/ emissions. (author)

  6. The effect of building regulations and energy conservation measures in domestic sector on national energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samo, S.R.; Akhund, M.A.; Brohi, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    In England, housing accounts for some 30% of total fuel consumption and a similar proportion of energy-related carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. A study has been conducted to analyse the effect of the legislations and UK thermal building regulations on national energy consumption in housing. This research paper presents data on the percentage of dwelling stock, the energy consumption, energy cost and carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in different types of dwellings, which comply different building regulations from 1965 to 1995. It was found that. 66% of the dwelling stock, which comply the building Regulations before 1965, consumes 73% of total energy used in housing. This dwelling stock is also responsible for 75% of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission. Whereas currently only 4% of the dwelling stock complies the latest building regulations 1995 which consume 2 % of energy and produce a similar percentage of carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) emission in housing. Since the large portion of the dwelling stock is comprised of old dwellings, therefore the greatest potential for energy conservation measures can be found in improving these dwellings instead of constructing new dwellings. (author)

  7. Energy conservation according to the building codes of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning; Energihushaallning enligt Boverkets byggregler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-10-15

    To comply with international and national targets for energy use, the National Board has adopted rules setting the levels to be met in order to conserve energy in buildings. The rules for buildings are shown in Boverkets building regulations (BBR). The BBR lists comprehensive requirements in order to ensure that a building must not use more than a certain number of kilowatt hours per square meter and year. There are more detailed requirements for thermal insulation, heating, cooling and air conditioning installations, efficient use of electricity and installation of metering systems for monitoring of building energy. The latest version of the BBR came into force on February 1, 2009 and has more stringent requirements for the buildings heated by electricity or comfort cooling powered by electricity. This handbook presents comments and answers to questions about the new rules for energy conservation. It replaces our previous handbook 'Thermal calculations'

  8. Travelling energy systems: knowledge transfer for energy efficiency and conservation from European to Australian building projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Tema Technology and Social Change, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden); Inst. for Sustainable Futures, Univ. of Technology, Sydney (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    Energy efficiency and conservation in the Australian built environment have not yet been implemented to any great extent. Despite favourable prerequisites, such as vast windswept unpopulated areas suitable for wind power and many hours of direct sunlight in most populated areas, electricity is mainly generated by burning brown coal and buildings are poorly equipped for hot summers and cool winters. Australia urgently needs to convert to alternative energy sources and implement energy efficiency measures, since its carbon dioxide emissions per capita are among the highest in the world. In a recent major redevelopment in Sydney, the Carlton and United Brewery (CUB) site knowledge of energy efficiency and conservation measures used in European buildings was transferred and implemented in local designs and infrastructure. This knowledge came mainly from urban planning and developments in London, but also from high-profile architectural firms based in Paris and Germany. The arrival of this knowledge in Australia led to phases when the knowledge was translated and enacted in local spaces and the constituent ideas were transformed into action. The present research is based on ten months of ethnographic fieldwork in which the planning and design of the CUB site was observed. The results of the study identify barriers to and opportunities for energy system knowledge transfer between different cultures and local spaces. Substantial time must be spent overcoming cultural barriers, so the involved parties can start talking the same language. This is not only true for stakeholders operating in different continents, but for stakeholders operating in different local arenas in the same country.

  9. ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project. Final report, Volume 3: Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, J.M.; Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    The auditing subproject of the ASEAN-USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project has generated a great deal of auditing activity throughout the ASEAN region. Basic building characterisfic and energy consumption data were gathered for over 200 buildings and are presented in this volume. A large number of buildings were given more detailed audits and were modeled with either the ASEAM-2 computer program or the more complex DOE-2 program. These models were used to calculate the savings to be generated by conservabon measures. Specially audits were also conducted, including lighting and thermal comfort surveys. Many researchers in the ASEAN region were trained to perform energy audits in a series of training courses and seminars. The electricity intensifies of various types of ASEAN buildings have been calculated. A comparison to the electricity intensity of the US building stock tentatively concludes that ASEAN office buildings are comparable, first class hotels and retail stores are more ewctricity intensive than their US counterparts, and hospitals are less intensive. Philippine and Singapore lighting surveys indicate that illuminance levels in offices tend to be below the minimum accepted standard. Computer simulations of the energy use in various building types generally agree that for most ASEAN buildings, electricity consumption for air-conditioning (including fan power) consumes approximately 60% of total building electricity. A review of the many studies made during the Project to calculate the savings from energy conservation opportunities (ECOS) shows a median potential savings of approximately 10%, with some buildings saving as much as 50%. Singapore buildings, apparently as a result of previously implemented efficient energy-use practices, shows a lower potential for savings than the other ASEAN nations. Air-conditioning ECOs hold the greatest potential for savings.

  10. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs

  11. Health effects associated with energy conservation measures in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Baechler, M.C.

    1990-09-01

    Indoor air quality can be impacted by hundreds of different chemicals. More than 900 different organic compounds alone have been identified in indoor air. Health effects that could arise from exposure to individual pollutants or mixtures of pollutants cover the full range of acute and chronic effects, including largely reversible responses, such as rashes and irritations, to the irreversible toxic and carcinogenic effects. These indoor contaminants are emitted from a large variety of materials and substances that are widespread components of everyday life. Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with indoor air contaminants for the Bonneville Power Administration to aid the agency in the preparation of environmental documents. Results are reported in two volumes. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the search of the peer-reviewed literature on health effects associated with a selected list of indoor air contaminants. In addition, the report discusses potential health effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorofluorocarbons. All references to the literature reviewed are found in this document Volume 2. Volume 2 provides detailed information from the literature reviewed, summarizes potential health effects, reports health hazard ratings, and discusses quantitative estimates of carcinogenic risk in humans and animals. Contaminants discussed in this report are those that; have been measured in the indoor air of a public building; have been measured (significant concentrations) in test situations simulating indoor air quality (as presented in the referenced literature); and have a significant hazard rating. 38 refs., 7 figs., 23 tabs.

  12. Energy conservation in buildings: a subject not to be swept under the carpet anymore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunde, W

    1977-04-01

    Energy shortages and price increases make the consumer conscious of having to show more concern for appropriate behavior, but conservation measures which are technically feasible and economically necessary cannot be obtained without legal regulations. Measures not only the gas supply companies have to deal with, but also the sanitary, heating and building industry are pointed out.

  13. The Power of Flexibility: Autonomous Agents That Conserve Energy in Commercial Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jun-young

    Agent-based systems for energy conservation are now a growing area of research in multiagent systems, with applications ranging from energy management and control on the smart grid, to energy conservation in residential buildings, to energy generation and dynamic negotiations in distributed rural communities. Contributing to this area, my thesis presents new agent-based models and algorithms aiming to conserve energy in commercial buildings. More specifically, my thesis provides three sets of algorithmic contributions. First, I provide online predictive scheduling algorithms to handle massive numbers of meeting/event scheduling requests considering flexibility , which is a novel concept for capturing generic user constraints while optimizing the desired objective. Second, I present a novel BM-MDP ( Bounded-parameter Multi-objective Markov Decision Problem) model and robust algorithms for multi-objective optimization under uncertainty both at the planning and execution time. The BM-MDP model and its robust algorithms are useful in (re)scheduling events to achieve energy efficiency in the presence of uncertainty over user's preferences. Third, when multiple users contribute to energy savings, fair division of credit for such savings to incentivize users for their energy saving activities arises as an important question. I appeal to cooperative game theory and specifically to the concept of Shapley value for this fair division. Unfortunately, scaling up this Shapley value computation is a major hindrance in practice. Therefore, I present novel approximation algorithms to efficiently compute the Shapley value based on sampling and partitions and to speed up the characteristic function computation. These new models have not only advanced the state of the art in multiagent algorithms, but have actually been successfully integrated within agents dedicated to energy efficiency: SAVES, TESLA and THINC. SAVES focuses on the day-to-day energy consumption of individuals and

  14. Performance evaluation of gas-power strategies for building energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbar, Hossam A.; Runge, Jason; Bondarenko, Daniel; Bower, Lowell; Pandya, Devarsh; Musharavati, Farayi; Pokharel, Shaligram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of natural gas and hydrogen fuels for energy conservation in buildings. • Comparison between hydrogen and natural gas fuel cell is performed. • Simulations of building energy supply. • Performance evaluation of two potential gas-power supply scenarios in buildings. • Natural gas fuel cell showed better performance over hydrogen fuel cell. - Abstract: The work provided herein involves a comparison of natural gas and hydrogen fuels for the purpose of energy conservation for buildings via alternative energy generation methodologies. A case study simulation was developed for an average type of commercial building, a nine storey hotel located in Toronto. The two alternative energy source case studies involved the generation of hydrogen via the wind turbine for the fuel cell, and the use of natural gas directly in the steam reforming fuel cell. The simulations for both scenarios were run and the recorded results were compared to the original case study, as well as between the scenarios. To supply for the base load of the building the fuel cells were given the same kW rating for both scenarios. The identification of all existing technologies for hydrogen gas and natural gas has been carried out, and the similar technologies between the two gases were found. For the purpose of realism, only existing purchasable technologies were considered in this paper. Due to the lack of commercially available technologies for hydrogen gas, only a comparison of fuel cell systems could be accomplished. Over the course of the investigative work it was found that when there is no direct supply of hydrogen to the site of utilization, the natural gas fuel cell is beneficial to the building due to its greater efficiency and lower cost. The major drawback for the hydrogen gas fuel cell, when the on-site generation is involved, is that no thermal power extraction systems currently exist for purchase and utilization in the buildings

  15. Bainbridge Energy Challenge. Energy efficiency and conservation block grant (EECBG) - Better buildings neighborhood program. Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Yvonne X.

    2014-02-14

    RePower Bainbridge and Bremerton (RePower) is a residential energy-efficiency and conservation program designed to foster a sustainable, clean, and renewable energy economy. The program was a 3.5 year effort in the cities of Bainbridge Island and Bremerton, Washington, to conserve and reduce energy use, establish a trained home performance trade ally network, and create local jobs. RePower was funded through a $4.8 million grant from the US Department of Energy, Better Buildings Program. The grant’s performance period was August 1, 2010 through March 30, 2014.

  16. Human disease from radon exposures: the impact of energy conservation in buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budnitz, R.J.; Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Nazaroff, W.W.; Nero, A.V.; Rosenfeld, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    The level of radon and its daughters inside conventional buildings is often higher than the ambient background level. Interest in conserving energy is motivating home-owners and builders to reduce the rate of infiltration of fresh air into homes, and hence to increase the concentration of indoor air contaminants, including radon. It is unlikely, but possible, that the present radiation levels from radon daughters account for much of the lung cancer rate in non-smokers. In any event, it is likely that some increased lung cancer risk would result from increased radon exposures; hence, it is desirable not to allow radon concentrations to rise significantly. There are several ways to circumvent the increased risk without compromising energy conservation considerations

  17. An Investigation into Energy Requirements and Conservation Techniques for Sustainable Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Jad

    (such as Thermal Building Envelopes) and Passive Systems and that rating systems may wish to incorporate such criteria more thoroughly and explicitly within their evaluation scheme of metrics. Hence, this paper will also aim at evaluating the inclusion of energy conservation techniques into the different rating schemes.

  18. Energy conservation in state-owned civil buildings 1978 - 1995; Wnoek-arbeidet i sivile statlige bygg 1978-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustad, Hilde

    1996-12-31

    This report sums up the work done on energy conservation in state-owned civil buildings in Norway in 1978 - 1995. Departmental funding was provided for such projects annually in 1978 - 1993, while in 1994 - 1995 energy conservation work consisted in completing running projects. The calculated energy saving amounts to 162 GWh per year. About 60% of the reduction in energy consumption is due to energy conservation measures that lower the energy consumption from oil-based heating. These measures represent an annual reduction of environmentally harmful emissions of 26240 ton carbon dioxide and 41 ton sulfur dioxide. In addition to specific energy conservation measures, much work went into arranging courses and on making consumers follow-up their energy consumption with respect to efficiency. The report is aimed at people and technical committees involved in energy conservation work. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG)- Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Donisha; Harris, Barbara; Blue, Cynthia; Gaskins, Charla

    2014-09-16

    The original BetterBuildings for Greensboro grant program included an outreach campaign to inform 100% of the Greensboro community about the benefits of reducing energy use; a plan to reduce energy consumption in at least 34% of the homes and 10% of the other buildings in the east Greensboro target area; and a plan to create and retain jobs in the energy conservation industry. Under the original program structure the City of Greensboro planned to partner with local and regional lenders to create a diversified portfolio of loan products to meet the needs of various income levels and building types. All participants would participate in the loan programs as a method of meeting the program’s 5 to1 private capital match/leverage requirements. In June 2011 the program was restructured to include partnerships with large commercial and multifamily projects, with these partners providing the greater portion of the required match/leverage. The geographic focus was revised to include reducing energy consumption across the entire City of Greensboro, targeting neighborhoods with high concentrations of low-moderate income households and aged housing stock. The community outreach component used a neighborhood-based approach to train community residents and volunteers to conduct door-to-door neighborhood sweeps; delivered high quality information on available program resources; helped residents to evaluate alternative energy efficiency measures and alternative financing sources; assisted with contractor selections and monitoring/evaluation of work; coordinated activities with BetterBuildings program partners; and collected data required by the Department of Energy. Additionally, HERO (Home Energy Response Officers) delivered intro packages (energy efficiency information and products) to thousands of households at the initial point of contact. A pilot program (Early Adopters) was offered from March 1, 2011 through June 30, 2011. The Early Adopters program was designed to offer

  20. ASEAN--USAID Buildings Energy Conservation Project final report. Volume 2, Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Busch, J.F. [eds.

    1992-06-01

    This volume reports on research in the area of energy conservation technology applied to commercial buildings in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) region. Unlike Volume I of this series, this volume is a compilation of original technical papers prepared by different authors in the project. In this regard, this volume is much like a technical journal. The papers that follow report on research conducted by both US and ASEAN researchers. The authors representing Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and Thailand, come from a range of positions in the energy arena, including government energy agencies, electric utilities, and universities. As such, they account for a wide range of perspectives on energy problems and the role that technology can play in solving them. This volume is about using energy more intelligently. In some cases, the effort is towards the use of more advanced technologies, such as low-emittance coatings on window glass, thermal energy storage, or cogeneration. In others, the emphasis is towards reclaiming traditional techniques for rendering energy services, but in new contexts such as lighting office buildings with natural light, or cooling buildings of all types with natural ventilation. Used in its broadest sense, the term ``technology`` encompasses all of the topics addressed in this volume. Along with the more customary associations of technology, such as advanced materials and equipment and the analysis of their performance, this volume treats design concepts and techniques, analysis of ``secondary`` impacts from applying technologies (i.e., unintended impacts, or impacts on parties not directly involved in the purchase and use of the technology), and the collection of primary data used for conducting technical analyses.

  1. Measured energy savings and cost-effectiveness of conservation retrofits in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greely, K.M.; Harris, J.P.; Hatcher, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the measured savings and cost-effectiveness of 447 commercial retrofit projects in the US, Canada, and Europe, representing over 1,700 buildings. For these projects, they examine savings and cost-effectiveness by building type and retrofit strategy, savings from individual measures, peak electric demand savings, comparisons of measured vs. predicted savings, and the persistence of savings in the years following a retrofit. Median annual site energy savings amounted to 20 kBtu/ft 2 , or 18% of whole-building usage; median retrofit cost was $0.56/ft 2 (1988 $), the median payback time was 3.1 years, and the median cost of conserved energy was $3.10/site MBtu. When examined by retrofit strategy, they found that projects with only HVAC and/or lighting retrofits had median payback times of one to three years, while those affecting the building shell, either alone or in combination with other types of measures, had payback times of five or more years. Projects in which only maintenance practices were changed typically saved 12% of their pre-retrofit consumption, often using in-house labor. Their research suggests that, despite significant savings and short payback times for the majority of projects, optimum savings are often not being achieved, due to limited owner willingness to invest in all cost-effective measures, as well as to improper retrofit installation and/or maintenance. A comprehensive understanding of energy management as a process is needed, including both inspection and commissioning of installed retrofits and ongoing tracking of energy consumption as an indicator of operating problems

  2. SUSTAINED LIVEABILITY: A FRAMEWORK BEYOND ENERGY CONSCIOUS BUILDING CONSERVATION OF MARKET HALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Hamza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Market halls are commonly found in  contexts of cultural and heritage value. Positioned in urban centres and transport networks, these unique buildings were originally constructed in the 19th century to ensure better food distribution in growing European cities, then copied to other territories such as Egypt.  We argue that leaving market halls, with their large spanning structures and indoor open space, for dilapidation is a lost opportunity for sustaining community engagement, and educating the public on the original sustainability, neighbourhood regeneration and cultural thinking that underpinned these buildings. The proposed framework extends current sustainable ‘heritage conservation frameworks’ beyond concepts of adding renewable energy technologies, recycling and sustainable goods movement,  to ‘sustaining liveability and social inclusion’. We argue that market halls offer the opportunities to merge the daily activities of buying and selling food with creating local creative economies such as culinary art exhibitions, and culinary schools. The paper consists of two parts: the first discusses the historical urban context of market halls in Cairo; the second proposes a sustainable heritage conservation model for market halls.

  3. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  4. Energy conservation measures in an institutional building in sub-tropical climate in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Rasul, M.G.; Khan, M.M.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, various energy conservation measures (ECMs) on heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems for a four-storied institutional building in sub-tropical (hot and humid climate) Queensland, Australia are evaluated using the simulation software called DesignBuilder (DB). Base case scenario of energy consumption profiles of existing systems are analysed and simulated first then, the simulated results are verified by on-site measured data. Three categories of ECMs, namely major investment ECMs (variable air volume (VAV) systems against constant air volume (CAV); and low coefficient of performance (COP) chillers against high COP chillers); minor investment ECMs (photo electric dimming control system against general lighting, and double glazed low emittance windows against single-glazed windows) and zero investment ECMs (reset heating and cooling set point temperatures) are evaluated. It is found that the building considered in this study can save up to 41.87% energy without compromising occupancies thermal comfort by implementing the above mentioned ECMs into the existing system.

  5. Energy conservation in existing office buildings. Appendices to report, Phase I, Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    A blank form of Questionnaire No. 1 is first presented, followed by data compiled from that questionnaire. Then data are presented on the analyses of the 436 buildings, statistical validation for selection of the 44 building sample, and some examples of the matching buildings for the 44 building sample. Questionnaire No. 2 is then given, followed by additional data collected from the study concerning energy consumption and building characteristics. To complete the appendices, a simulation of a typical building and a hypothetical building is included. (MCW)

  6. Energy Building Regulations: The Effect of the Federal Performance Standards on Building Code Administration and the Conservation of Energy in New Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopper, William D.

    1980-01-01

    Explores the changes in the administration and enforcement of building regulations that will be engendered by the proposed federal energy building standards. Also evaluates the effectiveness of those standards in meeting congressional intent. Available from U.C. Davis Law Review, School of Law, Martin Luther King Jr. Hall, University of…

  7. Infrastructure improvement project for rationalization of international energy use. Survey project on best practices of energy conservation for buildings in south-east Asian countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Surveys were performed to provide the ASEAN countries with technical assistance so that smooth promotion will be implemented on the energy conservation awards system for commercial buildings in the countries. This system has been newly established by the ASEAN Center for Energy (ACE) to suppress the energy consumption in commercial buildings, for which 11 candidates were proposed from among six countries. The EGCO Tower in Bangkok, Thailand, and the Revenue House in Singapore were selected. Japan has provided the building energy inspection technologies used in Japan, and performed the surveys on these two buildings. The surveys were performed from December 12 through 14, 2000 on the EGCO Tower, and from January 29 through 31, 2001 on the Revenue House. The surveys included checks on application forms for the buildings, measurement and analysis of energy consumption by using different measuring devices, inspection of the actual energy conservation activities done in the buildings, reports on the survey results, proposals on energy conservation promoting means, and provision of appendix materials for energy conservation. (NEDO)

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, H. C.; Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a study to demonstrate use of its Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings. The demonstration study was conducted by DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The demonstration is the second step in a three-step process: I) development of interim standards, 2) demonstration of the interim standards, and 3) development of final standards. The standards are mandatory for federal agency housing procurements. Nevertheless, PNL found at the start of the demonstration that agency use of the interim standards had been minimal. The purpose of the standards is to improve the energy efficiency of federal housing and increase the use of nondepletable energy sources. In accordance with the legislation, the standards were to be performance-based rather than prescribing specific energy conservation measures. To fulfill this aspect of the legislation, the standards use a computer software program called COSTSAFR which generates a point system that individualizes the standards to specific projects based on climate, housing type, and fuel costs. The standards generate minimum energy-efficiency requirements by applying the life-cycle cost methodology developed for federal projects. For the demonstration, PNL and DOE chose five federal agency housing projects which had been built in diverse geographic and climate regions. Participating agencies were the Air Force, the Army (which provided two case studies), the Navy, and the Department of Health and Human Services. PNL worked with agency housing procurement officials and designers/architects to hypothetically apply the interim standards to the procurement and design of each housing project. The demonstration started at the point in the project where agencies would establish their energyefficiency requirements for the project and followed the procurement process through the designers' use of the point

  9. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings - volume 3: Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    The Energy Conservation for New Buildings Act of 1976, as amended, 42 U.S.C Section 6831 et. seq. requires the US Department of Energy to issue energy conservation standards for the design of new residential and commercial buildings. The standards will be mandatory only for the design of new federal buildings, and will serve as voluntary guidelines for the design of new non-federal buildings. This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations, from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations have been developed over the past 25 months by a multidisciplinary project team, under the management of the US Department of Energy and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Volume III -- Introduction and Background to the Standard Development Effort is a description of the Standard development process and contains the rationale for the general approach and specific criteria contained within the recommendations.

  10. Energy Conservation and Solar Retrofitting for Existing Buildings in Oregon: An Architectural Design Class Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oregon Univ., Eugene. School of Architecture and Allied Arts.

    Five privately owned homes and two university owned homes were examined by architecture students in order to formulate design alternatives to fit the houses with solar collection, storage, and control devices for supplementing domestic space and/or water heating. General principles advanced include why energy conservation and solar retrofitting…

  11. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) - Better Buildings Neighborhood Program at Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance: Home Performance with Energy Star® and Better Buildings Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzhauser, Andy; Jones, Chris; Faust, Jeremy; Meyer, Chris; Van Divender, Lisa

    2013-12-30

    The Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (Energy Alliance) is a nonprofit economic development agency dedicated to helping Greater Cincinnati and Northern Kentucky communities reduce energy consumption. The Energy Alliance has launched programs to educate homeowners, commercial property owners, and nonprofit organizations about energy efficiency opportunities they can use to drive energy use reductions and financial savings, while extending significant focus to creating/retaining jobs through these programs. The mission of the Energy Alliance is based on the premise that investment in energy efficiency can lead to transformative economic development in a region. With support from seven municipalities, the Energy Alliance began operation in early 2010 and has been among the fastest growing nonprofit organizations in the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky area. The Energy Alliance offers two programs endorsed by the Department of Energy: the Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® Program for homeowners and the Better Buildings Performance Program for commercial entities. Both programs couple expert guidance, project management, and education in energy efficiency best practices with incentives and innovative energy efficiency financing to help building owners effectively invest in the energy efficiency, comfort, health, longevity, and environmental impact of their residential or commercial buildings. The Energy Alliance has raised over $23 million of public and private capital to build a robust market for energy efficiency investment. Of the $23 million, $17 million was a direct grant from the Department of Energy Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP). The organization’s investments in energy efficiency projects in the residential and commercial sector have led to well over $50 million in direct economic activity and created over 375,000 hours of labor created or retained. In addition, over 250 workers have been trained through the Building Performance Training

  12. Energy conservation in industrial buildings. Higher energy efficiency with smart control systems; Energieeinsparung im Gewerbebau. Hoehere Energieeffizienz durch 'intelligente' Regeltechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, Edgar [CentraLine c/o Honeywell GmbH, Schoenaich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    With smart control systems, the energy conservation potential of industrial buildings could be fully utilized. This means, e.g., that classic control algorithms must be replaced by new solutions. New methods will ensure higher energy efficiency with maximum comfort; they will also prolong the service life and the inspection intervals of the technical facilities. (orig.)

  13. BizWatts: A modular socio-technical energy management system for empowering commercial building occupants to conserve energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulbinas, R.; Jain, R.K.; Taylor, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a socio-technical commercial building energy management system. • It was designed for directly engaging and connecting building occupants via feedback. • We collected an array of clickstream data for internal design validation. • A pilot study validated its ability to drive energy savings in commercial buildings. - Abstract: Commercial buildings represent a significant portion of energy consumption and environmental emissions worldwide. To help mitigate the environmental impact of building operations, building energy management systems and behavior-based campaigns designed to reduce energy consumption are becoming increasingly popular. In this paper, we describe the development of a modular socio-technical energy management system, BizWatts, which combines the two approaches by providing real-time, appliance-level power management and socially contextualized energy consumption feedback. We describe in detail the physical and virtual architecture of the system, which simultaneously engages building occupants and facility managers, as well as the main principles behind the interface design and component functionalities. A discussion about how the data collection capabilities of the system enable insightful commercial building energy efficiency studies and quantitative network analysis is also included. We conclude by commenting on the validation of the system, identifying current system limitations and introducing new research avenues that the development and deployment of BizWatts enables

  14. Establishment of Passive Energy Conservation Measure and Economic Evaluation of Fenestration System in Nonresidential Building of Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Eun Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ECO2 (building energy efficiency rating program and passive energy conservation measures (ECMs were established as a basic study for targeted methodologies and decision support systems development in Korea to meet national regulations. The primary energy consumption and economic evaluation of nonresidential buildings was performed. Passive ECMs were classified as planning and performance elements. The planning elements are the window-to-wall ratio (WWR and horizontal shading angle. The performance elements are the thermal transmittance (U-value of the walls, roof, and floor and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC of windows. This study focused on the window-to-wall ratio and the U-value and solar heat gain coefficient of windows. An economic efficiency database for the constructed alternatives was built; the target building was set and the Passive ECM List for the target building was derived. The energy consumption evaluation and economic evaluation were performed for each of the constructed alternatives, and a methodology for guiding energy efficiency decisions was proposed based on the performance evaluation results, and the optimal Passive ECM List for the target building was derived.

  15. Comparison of energy conservation building codes of Iran, Turkey, Germany, China, ISO 9164 and EN 832

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayaz, Rima; Kari, Behrouz M.

    2009-01-01

    To improve the energy efficiency of buildings via compliance to regulation in Iran, Code No. 19 was devised in 1991. The code lacks high level aims and objectives, addressing the characteristics of Iranian buildings. As a consequence, the code has been revised and is not completely implemented in practice, and still remains inefficient. As with any energy coding system, this code has to identify the right balance between the different energy variables for the Iranian climate and way of life. In order to assist improvements to high level objectives of Code 19, this code is compared with ISO 9164, EN 832, German regulation, TS 825 of Turkey and China's GB 50189 to understand how these have adapted international standards to national features. In order to test the appropriateness of Code 19, five case study buildings in Iran are assessed against Code 19 as well as Turkish standard TS 825 and the results are compared. The results demonstrate that Code 19 is efficient in calculations of building envelope, but it needs improvements in the areas of ventilation, gains from internal and solar sources. The paper concludes by offering suggestions for improving the code.

  16. Heat demand profiles of energy conservation measures in buildings and their impact on a district heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundström, Lukas; Wallin, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy savings impact on an low CO 2 emitting district heating system. • Heat profiles of eight building energy conservation measures. • Exhaust air heat pump, heat recovery ventilation, electricity savings etc. • Heat load weather normalisation with segmented multivariable linear regression. - Abstract: This study highlights the forthcoming problem with diminishing environmental benefits from heat demand reducing energy conservation measures (ECM) of buildings within district heating systems (DHS), as the supply side is becoming “greener” and more primary energy efficient. In this study heat demand profiles and annual electricity-to-heat factors of ECMs in buildings are computed and their impact on system efficiency and greenhouse gas emissions of a Swedish biomass fuelled and combined heat and power utilising DHS are assessed. A weather normalising method for the DHS heat load is developed, combining segmented multivariable linear regressions with typical meteorological year weather data to enable the DHS model and the buildings model to work under the same weather conditions. Improving the buildings’ envelope insulation level and thereby levelling out the DHS heat load curve reduces greenhouse gas emissions and improves primary energy efficiency. Reducing household electricity use proves to be highly beneficial, partly because it increases heat demand, allowing for more cogeneration of electricity. However the other ECMs considered may cause increased greenhouse gas emissions, mainly because of their adverse impact on the cogeneration of electricity. If biomass fuels are considered as residuals, and thus assigned low primary energy factors, primary energy efficiency decreases when implementing ECMs that lower heat demand.

  17. Energy Conservation in an Office Building Using an Enhanced Blind System Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edorta Carrascal-Lekunberri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The two spaces office module is usually considered as a representative case-study to analyse the energetic improvement in office buildings. In this kind of buildings, the use of a model predictive control (MPC scheme for the climate system control provides energy savings over 15% in comparison to classic control policies. This paper focuses on the influence of solar radiation on the climate control of the office module under Belgian weather conditions. Considering MPC as main climate control, it proposes a novel distributed enhanced control for the blind system (BS that takes into account part of the predictive information of the MPC. In addition to the savings that are usually achieved by MPC, it adds a potential 15% improvement in global energy use with respect to the usually proposed BS hysteresis control. Moreover, from the simulation results it can be concluded that the thermal comfort is also improved. The proposed BS scheme increases the energy use ratio between the thermally activated building system (TABS and air-handling unit (AHU; therefore increasing the use of TABS and allowing economic savings, due to the use of more cost-effective thermal equipment.

  18. Optimization of Energy Efficiency and Conservation in Green Building Design Using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyanto, T. R.; Matradji; Syamsi, M. N.; Fibrianto, H. Y.; Afdanny, N.; Rahman, A. H.; Gunawan, K. S.; Pratama, J. A. D.; Malwindasari, A.; Abdillah, A. I.; Bethiana, T. N.; Putra, Y. A.

    2017-11-01

    The development of green building has been growing in both design and quality. The development of green building was limited by the issue of expensive investment. Actually, green building can reduce the energy usage inside the building especially in utilization of cooling system. External load plays major role in reducing the usage of cooling system. External load is affected by type of wall sheathing, glass and roof. The proper selection of wall, type of glass and roof material are very important to reduce external load. Hence, the optimization of energy efficiency and conservation in green building design is required. Since this optimization consist of integer and non-linear equations, this problem falls into Mixed-Integer-Non-Linear-Programming (MINLP) that required global optimization technique such as stochastic optimization algorithms. In this paper the optimized variables i.e. type of glass and roof were chosen using Duelist, Killer-Whale and Rain-Water Algorithms to obtain the optimum energy and considering the minimal investment. The optimization results exhibited the single glass Planibel-G with the 3.2 mm thickness and glass wool insulation provided maximum ROI of 36.8486%, EUI reduction of 54 kWh/m2·year, CO2 emission reduction of 486.8971 tons/year and reduce investment of 4,078,905,465 IDR.

  19. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  20. Energy management systems in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lush, D. M.

    1979-07-01

    An investigation is made of the range of possibilities available from three types of systems (automatic control devices, building envelope, and the occupants) in buildings. The following subjects are discussed: general (buildings, design and personnel); new buildings (envelope, designers, energy and load calculations, plant design, general design parameters); existing buildings (conservation measures, general energy management, air conditioned buildings, industrial buildings); man and motivation (general, energy management and documentation, maintenance, motivation); automatic energy management systems (thermostatic controls, optimized plant start up, air conditioned and industrial buildings, building automatic systems). (MCW)

  1. Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG): Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, Kat A.

    2014-01-10

    The Neighbor to Neighbor Energy Challenge (N2N) brought together a consortium of 14 leading clean energy rural, suburban, and low income communities throughout Connecticut. N2N was awarded $4.2 million from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) competitive BetterBuildings Neighborhood Program on August 10, 2010 to run a two-year pilot program (plus one year of transition and evaluation) (Award No. EMCBC- 00969-10). N2N tested innovative program models and hypotheses for improving Connecticut’s existing residential energy efficiency programs that are overseen by the ratepayer fund board and administered by CT utilities. N2N’s original goal was to engage 10 percent of households in participating communities to reduce their energy usage by 20 percent through energy upgrades and clean energy measures. N2N planned for customers to complete more comprehensive whole-home energy efficiency and clean energy measures and to achieve broader penetration than existing utility-administered regulated programs. Since this was an ARRA award, we report the following figures on job creation in Table 1. Since N2N is not continuing in its current form, we do not provide figures on job retention. Table 1 N2N Job Creation by Quarter Jobs Created 2010 Q4 6.65 2011 Q1 7.13 2011 Q2 4.98 2011 Q3 9.66 2011 Q4 5.43 2012 Q1 11.11 2012 Q2 6.85 2012 Q3 6.29 2012 Q4 6.77 2013 Q1 5.57 2013 Q2 8.35 2013 Q3 6.52 Total 85.31 The N2N team encountered several gaps in the existing efficiency program performance that hindered meeting N2N’s and DOE’s short-term program goals, as well as the State of Connecticut’s long-term energy, efficiency, and carbon reduction goals. However, despite the slow program start, N2N found evidence of increasing upgrade uptake rates over time, due to delayed customer action of one to two years from N2N introduction to completion of deeper household upgrades. Two main social/behavioral principles have contributed to driving deeper upgrades in CT: 1. Word of mouth

  2. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  3. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  4. Energy conservation progress in building equipment. Energy conservation on the sports facilities; Kenchiku setsubi ni okeru sho energy no shiten. Supotsu reja shisetsu no sho energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakura, I.; Kayo, M. [Kajima Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-05

    There are various kinds of sports and leisure facilities. Due to their classes, aims, operation styles and so forth, the grades of aimed environments and facilities change. For example, like a baseball, swimming and skating, quantity of motion and grade of sportswear are different due to their classes and a target environment is also differs. On the other hand, public facility for citizen use is required its cheaper fee, but private facility on commercial base is required its user-collecting capability with added-value. In order to content individual needs of each facility, it is important to combine properly its target environment and its equipment system. The sports and leisure facilities have often large space on their characteristics, and are necessary to maintain their target environments as well as to treat their thermal emission in closed space and to supply their required air. Therefore, it is an extremely meaningful to conduct the energy saving in the facility apt to consume a lot of energy, which is described in this paper mainly on in-door large space facilities. 17 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  6. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  7. Performance evaluation of an integrated solar water heater as an option for building energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dharuman, C.; Arakeri, J.H.; Srinivasan, K. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalaore (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    Since a majority of residential and industrial building hot water needs are around 50 {sup o}C, an integrated solar water heater could provide a bulk source that blends collection and storage into one unit. This paper describes the design, construction and performance test results of one such water-heating device. The test unit has an absorber area of 1.3 m{sup 2} and can hold 170 l of water, of which extractable volume per day is 100 l. Its performance was evaluated under various typical operating conditions. Every morning at about 7:00 a.m., 100 l of hot water were drawn from the sump and replaced with cold water from the mains. Although, during most of the days, the peak temperatures of water obtained are between 50 and 60 {sup o}C, the next morning temperatures were lower at 45-50 {sup o}C. Daytime collection efficiencies of about 60% and overall efficiencies of about 40% were obtained. Tests were conducted with and without stratification. Night radiation losses were reduced by use of a screen insulation. (author)

  8. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Alternative Natural Energy Sources in Building Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Albert J.; Schubert, Robert P.

    This publication provides a discussion of various energy conserving building systems and design alternatives. The information presented here covers alternative space and water heating systems, and energy conserving building designs incorporating these systems and other energy conserving techniques. Besides water, wind, solar, and bio conversion…

  10. Performance evaluation of operational energy use in refurbishment, reuse, and conservation of heritage buildings for optimum sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Akande

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The operational phase of a building project has increasingly gained importance with their energy performance becoming valuable and determining their operational excellence. In most heritage building projects (HBPs, the operational energy use aspects are less considered, and a systematic way of analyzing their energy performance following project delivery is often lacking. The aim of this study is to evaluate the operational performance of refurbishment and reuse of UK listed church projects. The objective is to assess the operational energy use with a view to optimizing their sustainable performance. The methodology includes eight selected case study buildings refurbished and converted for multipurpose use. The case study approach provided qualitative insights into how the study contributes to a more structured requirements for energy management in HBPs with specific attention to energy-efficient building operations. The findings show the need to focus on fundamental areas of operational management (i.e. by developing and implementing more focused policy on operational energy performance of heritage buildings to minimize the energy required to operate them. The challenges of implementing changes in operational energy performance improvement of heritage buildings are addressed in the form of recommendations that could lead to real results. The study concludes that leveraging these areas requires commitment from all heritage building stakeholders because they all have substantial roles in harmonizing the requirement for the project׳s sustainability and not just the building operators. Meanwhile, baseline project planning, periodic updating, monitoring, and managing the energy use pattern are suggested as measures that could greatly facilitate better energy performance to optimizing their sustainable reuse compared with the traditional approach of trying to improve their thermal performance.

  11. Fiscal 1997 survey report on the project on energy conservation by effectively using building energy in Indonesia; 1997 nendo chosa hokokusho (Indonesia ni okeru biru energy yuko riyo ni yoru sho energy ka project chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    As an energy conservation method for a model building, the following eight methods were selected and trially calculated of the effects. 1) adoption of high efficient illumination apparatus, 2) introduction of an illuminance control system, 3) cooling water secondary pump with invertor, 4) ventilation control for parking lots, 5) heightening of the established temperature, 6) improvement of the 24-hour run chiller, 7) elevator with invertor, and 8) introduction of the photovoltaic power generation. As a result, it was found out that energy was totally reduced by about 3,837.4 MWh/yr or 25.6%. If viewed from the amount of reduction in greenhouse gas, the amount of CO2 emitted from office buildings, approximately 0.22 million t-C/yr, decreases to approximately 0.16 million t-C/yr. Further, approximately 0.93 million t-C/yr, the amount of CO2 emitted from commercial use facilities such as office buildings, department stores and hotels is reduced to about 0.69 million t-C/yr, thanks to the effect of the project on energy saving buildings, which made a CO2 reduction by approximately 0.24 million t-C/yr possible. Validity of the project on energy conservation in Indonesia was confirmed. 2 refs., 55 figs., 38 tabs.

  12. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  13. Energy - efficient buildings in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohail, M.; Qureshi, M.U.D.

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is one of the countries with the highest energy consumption for domestic use. Annual energy consumption by the domestic sector is 45.9 % of the total, while the industrial sector, consumes about 27.5%. About half of the total energy consumed is used in buildings and/or heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) and lighting appliances. The energy consumed for the same purposes in China and UK is 25 to 30 % and 40 %, respectively, even in extreme weather conditions. Energy deficiency in Pakistan is approximately 5,000 MWe, which results in worst load-shedding in summers and, lately, even in winters. Building new energy sources like dams, coal power plants and renewable energy power projects are some possible solutions, but these are time taking and need at least 2 to 6 years to complete, depending upon the nature of the project. Fast development of energy-efficient buildings is, therefore, necessary to deal with exacerbating energy-crisis and related environmental impact in Pakistan. Innovations in the prevailing building-design will help the country in reducing the energy burden. These innovations may include improved architectural designs, energy-efficient building materials, electrical appliances and implementation of building energy-efficiency codes. In 1987, the National Energy Conservation Centre (ENERCON), was established under Ministry of Environment, Government of Pakistan, with the aim to build awareness among the masses for energy conservation, and to make policies regarding energy-conservation structures in the country. But no policy regarding building energy codes has been introduced by ENERCON till now. In collaboration with Pakistan Engineering Council (PEC), ENERCON has recently finalized the Building Energy Code of Pakistan Energy Provisions 2011 for which statutory notification is under process for necessary amendment in the building by-laws. The implementation of this Energy Code will result in 25 to 30 % of energy savings in the

  14. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  15. A guidebook for insulated low-slope roof systems. IEA Annex 19, Low-slope roof systems: International Energy Agency Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    Low-slope roof systems are common on commercial and industrial buildings and, to a lesser extent, on residential buildings. Although insulating materials have nearly always been a component of low-slope roofs, the amount of insulation used has increased in the past two decades because of escalation of heating and cooling costs and increased awareness of the need for energy conservation. As the amount of insulation has increased, the demand has intensified for design, installation, and maintenance information specifically for well-insulated roofs. Existing practices for design, installation, and maintenance of insulated roofs have evolved from experience. Typically, these practices feature compromises due to the different properties of materials making up a given roof system. Therefore, they should be examined from time to time to ensure that they are appropriate as new materials continue to enter the market and as the data base on existing systems expands. A primary purpose of this International Energy Agency (IEA) study is to assess current roofing insulation practices in the context of an accumulating data base on performance.

  16. Energy audit for energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanetkar, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    Energy audit is a very effective management tool for betterment of plant performance. The energy audit has a problem solving approach rather than a fault finding technique. The energy conservation is a rational use of energy. It has been the experience of the developed countries that energy is one issue which results into cost savings with relatively much less efforts/cost in comparison with other resources used in production, development and adoption of energy efficiency equipment and practices in most of production process has been the result of same technique. (author). 1 tab

  17. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  18. Understanding Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salom, Jaume; Widén, Joakim; Candanedo, José

    2011-01-01

    Although several alternative definitions exist, a Net-Zero Energy Building (Net ZEB) can be succinctly described as a grid-connected building that generates as much energy as it uses over a year. The “net-zero” balance is attained by applying energy conservation and efficiency measures...... and by incorporating renewable energy systems. While based on annual balances, a complete description of a Net ZEB requires examining the system at smaller time-scales. This assessment should address: (a) the relationship between power generation and building loads and (b) the resulting interaction with the power grid...

  19. A review on energy conservation in building applications with thermal storage by latent heat using phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, Amar M.; Farid, Mohammed M.

    2004-01-01

    Energy storage in the walls, ceiling and floor of buildings may be enhanced by encapsulating suitable phase change materials (PCMs) within these surfaces to capture solar energy directly and increase human comfort by decreasing the frequency of internal air temperature swings and maintaining the temperature closer to the desired temperature for a longer period of time. This paper summarizes the investigation and analysis of thermal energy storage systems incorporating PCMs for use in building applications. Researches on thermal storage in which the PCM is encapsulated in concrete, gypsum wallboard, ceiling and floor have been ongoing for some time and are discussed. The problems associated with the application of PCMs with regard to the selection of materials and the methods used to contain them are also discussed

  20. Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probasco, Jack; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

  1. Exploitation of political and technical scopes for free play. Energy conservation in buildings - part of a future-oriented energy policy; Politische und technische Handlungsspielraeume nutzen. Energieeinsparung im Gebaeudebereich - Teil einer zukunftsweisenden Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehm, H. [Bundesministerium fuer Verkehr, Bau- und Wohnungswesen, Berlin (Germany)

    1999-09-01

    In April of this year, the section of architecture of the University of Kassel conferred on Professor Dr. Herbert Ehm, department head at the federal building ministry, the title of honorary doctor for his achievements in the sector of energy-saving construction. In his address given at the awarding ceremony, entitled 'Energy conservation in buildings - part of a future-oriented energy policy', the recipient underlined the necessity of energy conservation measures in buildings because of the current high energy consumption and outlined approaches. (orig.) [German] Im April dieses Jahres verlieh der Fachbereich Architektur der Universitaet/GSH Kassel Professor Dr. Herbert Ehm, Abteilungsleiter im Bundesbauministerium, die Ehrendoktorwuerde fuer seine Verdienste um das energiesparende Bauen. In seinem Festvortrag 'Energieeinsparung im Gebaeudebereich - Teil einer zukunftsweisenden Energiepolitik' unterstrich der Geehrte wegen des erheblichen Verbrauchs die Notwendigkeit der Sparmassnahmen im Wohnungsbau und skizzierte Loesungswege. (orig.)

  2. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  3. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Molecular-Bridged Expanded Graphite/Polyethylene Glycol Composite Phase Change Materials for Building Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong; Chen, Meizhu; Liu, Quantao; Wan, Jiuming; Hu, Jinxuan

    2018-05-16

    Using phase change materials (PCMs) in building envelopes became a reliable method to improve indoor comfort and reduce buildings' energy consumption. This research developed molecular-bridged expanded graphite (EG)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) composite PCMs (m-EPs) to conserve energy in buildings. The m-EPs were prepared through a vacuum absorption technique, and a titanate coupling agent was used to build a molecular bridge between EG and PEG. SEM, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), the leakage test, microcalorimetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) were conducted to characterize the morphology, pore structure, absorbability, and modifying effects of the m-EPs. The phase change temperature, latent heat, thermal stability, and thermal conductivity of the m-EPs were determined by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), TGA, and a thermal constants analyzer. Results showed that the maximum mass ratio of PEG to EG without leakage was 1:7, and a stable connection was established in the m-EPs after modification. Compared with the unmodified EPs, the supercooling degree of the m-EPs reduced by about 3 °C, but the latent heats and initial decomposition temperatures increased by approximately 10% and 20 °C, respectively, which indicated an improvement in the thermal energy storage efficiency. The thermal conductivities of the m-EPs were 10 times higher than those of the pristine PEGs, which ensured a rapid responding to building temperature fluctuations.

  4. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  5. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  6. Multi-level, Multi-stage and Stochastic Optimization Models for Energy Conservation in Buildings for Federal, State and Local Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Billy Ray

    Energy Conservation Measure (ECM) project selection is made difficult given real-world constraints, limited resources to implement savings retrofits, various suppliers in the market and project financing alternatives. Many of these energy efficient retrofit projects should be viewed as a series of investments with annual returns for these traditionally risk-averse agencies. Given a list of ECMs available, federal, state and local agencies must determine how to implement projects at lowest costs. The most common methods of implementation planning are suboptimal relative to cost. Federal, state and local agencies can obtain greater returns on their energy conservation investment over traditional methods, regardless of the implementing organization. This dissertation outlines several approaches to improve the traditional energy conservations models. . Any public buildings in regions with similar energy conservation goals in the United States or internationally can also benefit greatly from this research. Additionally, many private owners of buildings are under mandates to conserve energy e.g., Local Law 85 of the New York City Energy Conservation Code requires any building, public or private, to meet the most current energy code for any alteration or renovation. Thus, both public and private stakeholders can benefit from this research. . The research in this dissertation advances and presents models that decision-makers can use to optimize the selection of ECM projects with respect to the total cost of implementation. A practical application of a two-level mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC) improves the current best practice for agencies concerned with making the most cost-effective selection leveraging energy services companies or utilities. The two-level model maximizes savings to the agency and profit to the energy services companies (Chapter 2). An additional model presented leverages a single congressional appropriation to implement ECM

  7. Net positive energy buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.; Barreiro, E.; Sanchez Zabala, V.

    2010-01-01

    Buildings are great consumers of energy, being responsible for almost 36% of CO2 emissions in Europe. Though there are many initiatives towards the reduction of energy consumption and CO2 emissions in buildings, many of the alternatives are diminished due to a lack of a unique and holistic approach to the problem. This paper reports a new innovative concept of Positive Energy Buildings (EB+), as well as an integral methodology that covers the overall design process for achieving them. The methodology evaluates energy efficiency solutions at different scales, from building site to generation systems. An educational building design in Navarra serves as a case study to check the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The study concludes that the key to achieve a Positive Energy Building is a minimized energy demand, complemented by efficient facilities and enhanced by distributed power generation from renewable sources. (Author).

  8. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basir, W. N. F. W. A.; Setan, H.; Majid, Z.; Chong, A.

    2014-02-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed.

  9. Geospatial database for heritage building conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basir, W N F W A; Setan, H; Majid, Z; Chong, A

    2014-01-01

    Heritage buildings are icons from the past that exist in present time. Through heritage architecture, we can learn about economic issues and social activities of the past. Nowadays, heritage buildings are under threat from natural disaster, uncertain weather, pollution and others. In order to preserve this heritage for the future generation, recording and documenting of heritage buildings are required. With the development of information system and data collection technique, it is possible to create a 3D digital model. This 3D information plays an important role in recording and documenting heritage buildings. 3D modeling and virtual reality techniques have demonstrated the ability to visualize the real world in 3D. It can provide a better platform for communication and understanding of heritage building. Combining 3D modelling with technology of Geographic Information System (GIS) will create a database that can make various analyses about spatial data in the form of a 3D model. Objectives of this research are to determine the reliability of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) technique for data acquisition of heritage building and to develop a geospatial database for heritage building conservation purposes. The result from data acquisition will become a guideline for 3D model development. This 3D model will be exported to the GIS format in order to develop a database for heritage building conservation. In this database, requirements for heritage building conservation process are included. Through this research, a proper database for storing and documenting of the heritage building conservation data will be developed

  10. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  11. Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per; Bourrelle, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Zero Energy Building (ZEB) has gained wide international attention during last few years and is now seen as the future target for the design of buildings. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires......, (4) the type of energy balance, (5) the accepted renewable energy supply options, (6) the connection to the energy infrastructure and (7) the requirements for the energy efficiency, the indoor climate and in case of gird connected ZEB for the building–grid interaction. This paper focuses...

  12. Net Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Bourrelle, Julien S.; Gustavsen, Arild

    2010-01-01

    and identify possible renewable energy supply options which may be considered in calculations. Finally, the gap between the methodology proposed by each organisation and their respective national building code is assessed; providing an overview of the possible changes building codes will need to undergo......The international cooperation project IEA SHC Task 40 / ECBCS Annex 52 “Towards Net Zero Energy Solar Buildings”, attempts to develop a common understanding and to set up the basis for an international definition framework of Net Zero Energy Buildings (Net ZEBs). The understanding of such buildings...

  13. The super conservation energy building of the Ohbayashi corporation in Tokyo, Japan; El edificio super conservador de energia de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio Japon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Vargas, Ricardo [Instituto Tecnologico de La Laguna, La Laguna (Mexico)

    1994-12-31

    The main building of the Institute of Technical Investigation of Ohbayashi Corporation in Tokyo, Japan, was built with the objective of being the best all over the world in the grounds of energy conservation. The utilization of this building was initiated on April 15, 1982 registering an annual energy consumption in the first two years of 87 and 96 Million calories/m{sup 2} respectively, that is, less than one fourth the consumption in conventional buildings. The inside ambient is better or equal to the one of ordinary buildings and the time for the investment recuperation was estimated of 8.7 years. The classification for the energy consumption in those first two years was of 31% for air conditioning, 41% for lighting/wall receptacles and 25% for others. The maximum consumption was in the month of August and was of 10 to 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. The minimum consumption corresponded to the month of November and was 6 to 7 Mcal/m{sup 2}. In 1984 this building won the prize Energy of the ASHRAE. A total od 98 conservation measures were adopted for its construction and operation. [Espanol] El principal edificio del Instituto de Investigacion Tecnica de la corporacion Ohbayashi en Tokio, Japon, fue construido con el objetivo de ser el mejor en el mundo en el terreno de la conservacion de energia. La utilizacion de este edificio comenzo el 15 de abril de 1982, registrando un consumo anual de energia en los dos primeros anos de 87 y 96 Mcal/m{sup 2} respectivamente, esto es, menos de un cuarto del consumo en edificios convencionales. El ambiente interno es mejor o igual que el de edificios ordinarios y el tiempo de recuperacion de la inversion se estimo en 8.7 anos. La clasificacion en el consumo de energia para esos dos primeros anos fue de 31% para el acondicionamiento de aire, 41% para la iluminacion/contactos y 25% para otros. El maximo consumo aparecio en el mes de agosto y fue de 10 a 11 Mcal/m{sup 2}. El minimo consumo correspondio al mes de noviembre fue de 6 a 7 Mcal

  14. Profit by conserving energy in your restaurant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This manual is aimed at the Canadian restaurant sector with a view of promoting sound energy conservation practices. Monitoring is recommended to identify energy consumption and measure results of a conservation effects. These efforts can be done with respect to selection, operation, and maintenance of restaurant equipment used in food preparation, HVAC systems, refrigeration, water heating, and lighting. Overall building design and planning of new installations are also considered. 27 figs.

  15. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  16. Italian energy conservation laws: Implementation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Italian energy conservation Law No. 9 was designed to reduce Italy's worrisome 82% dependency on foreign energy supplies by encouraging the development and use of renewable energy sources, fuel diversification and auto-production/cogeneration by private industry. Law No. 10 was intended to promote energy conservation initiatives especially with regard to the efficient use of energy for space heating in public buildings. Both of these legal incentives have encountered great difficulties in implementation due to the inability of the Government to provide the necessary timely and sufficient start-up funds, as well as, due to the excessive bureaucratism that was built into the administrative procedures

  17. New governmental subsidies and taxation relief for modernization and energy conservation measures in residential and commercial buildings: the new Modernization and Energy Conservation Act. [in German]. Neue Staatszuschuesse und Steuerverguenstigungen fuer Modernisierungs- und Energieeinsparungsmassnahmen bei Wohnungen und gewerblichen Gebaeuden. Das neue Modernisierungs- und Energieeinsparungsgesetz (ModEnG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krautzberger, M; Eisel, R; Raff, H

    1978-01-01

    The new Modernization and Energy Conservation Act was put into force on July 1, 1978, thus providing a new legal basis for and initiating governmental promotion of constructional measures for the purpose of energy conservation. The promotion of the modernization of residential buildings was likewise extended by an amendment to the Income Tax Act. This compilation of legal regulations and explanations is not meant to serve as a legal textbook but rather as a guide for those working in trade and industry or in the administration, and for tenants and landlords interested in the subject, in order to facilitate access to the regulations governing governmental promotion of modernization and energy conservation measures.

  18. An analysis of heating and cooling conservation features in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    One purpose of this study is to estimate the relationship in commercial buildings between conservation investments, fuel prices, building occupancy and building characteristics for new buildings and for existing buildings. The data base is a nationwide survey of energy in commercial buildings conducted by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 1986. Some simple cross-tabulations indicate that conservation measures vary with building size, building age, type of building, and fuel used for building heating. Regression estimates of a conservation model indicate that the number of conservation features installed during construction is a positive function of the price of the heating fuel at the time of construction. Subsequent additions of conservation features are positively correlated with increases in heating fuel prices. Given the EIA projection of relatively stable future energy prices, the number of retrofits may not increase significantly. Also, energy efficiency in new buildings may not continue to increase relative to current new buildings. If fuel prices affect consumption via initial conservation investments, current fuel prices, marginal or average, are not the appropriate specification. The fuel price regression results indicate that conservation investments in new buildings are responsive to market signals. Retrofits are less responsive to market signals. The number of conservation features in a building is not statistically related to the type of occupancy (owner versus renter), which implies that conservation strategies are not impeded by the renting or leasing of buildings

  19. Municipal Building Energy Usage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set contains energy use data from 2009-2014 for 139 municipally operated buildings. Metrics include: Site & Source EUI, annual electricity, natural...

  20. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  1. Focus on energy conservation: a project list

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    The Urban Land Institute (ULI) has prepared the following list of outstanding energy conserving projects for the US Department of Energy. As requested by the Department, the list includes descriptions of land developments and individual buildings suggested by members of ULI and by other sources. The projects have been selected to exemplify the major energy saving techniques in use today, with emphasis on those strategies most significant for people engaged in the business of land development. To make the list a useful reference for developers and public officials, ULI has attempted to cover energy conservation in the broadest sense from overall site planning to the functioning of individual building components. Focusing too closely on the myriad types of hardware available has been avoided and examples of the basic considerations important to energy-conscious planning and design are provided. Details on some heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems are provided in order to acquaint readers with major innovations in the field.

  2. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  3. New design concepts for energy-conserving buildings. Results of a national competition among students in schools of architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The National Student Competition in Energy Conscious Design held among professional schools of architecture in 1976 is documented. Fifty-five schools participated, submitting 115 entries; twelve were chosen as finalists. Details are presented on the twelve winning designs and excerpts from the remaining 103 entries are published. (MCW)

  4. Energy requirements for new buildings in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M., Email: miimu.airaksinen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Buildings account for circa 40% of the total energy use in Europe [1] and for about 36% of the EU's total CO{sub 2} emissions [2], including the existing energy conservation in buildings [3]. Key features of the Finnish energy policy are improved energy efficiency and increased use of renewable energy sources. To achieve a sustainable shift in the energy system, a target set by the authorities, both energy savings and increased use of low-pollution energy sources are therefore priority areas. Building low-energy buildings is in accordance with the declared national aim of reducing energy use and thus reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. The main motivation in renewing building codes for new buildings was to build more energy efficiently, encourage the use the most efficient energy sources and to enhance the use of renewable energy sources. In addition the aim was to give more freedom to fi nd the real optimal solutions for energy efficiency by optimising all aspects including the building architecture and different systems with demand controls. However, in order to ensure the good quality of buildings certain minimum requirements for structure U-values are given. (orig.)

  5. Analysis and Optimization of Building Energy Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Jun Wei

    Energy is one of the most important resources required by modern human society. In 2010, energy expenditures represented 10% of global gross domestic product (GDP). By 2035, global energy consumption is expected to increase by more than 50% from current levels. The increased pace of global energy consumption leads to significant environmental and socioeconomic issues: (i) carbon emissions, from the burning of fossil fuels for energy, contribute to global warming, and (ii) increased energy expenditures lead to reduced standard of living. Efficient use of energy, through energy conservation measures, is an important step toward mitigating these effects. Residential and commercial buildings represent a prime target for energy conservation, comprising 21% of global energy consumption and 40% of the total energy consumption in the United States. This thesis describes techniques for the analysis and optimization of building energy consumption. The thesis focuses on building retrofits and building energy simulation as key areas in building energy optimization and analysis. The thesis first discusses and evaluates building-level renewable energy generation as a solution toward building energy optimization. The thesis next describes a novel heating system, called localized heating. Under localized heating, building occupants are heated individually by directed radiant heaters, resulting in a considerably reduced heated space and significant heating energy savings. To support localized heating, a minimally-intrusive indoor occupant positioning system is described. The thesis then discusses occupant-level sensing (OLS) as the next frontier in building energy optimization. OLS captures the exact environmental conditions faced by each building occupant, using sensors that are carried by all building occupants. The information provided by OLS enables fine-grained optimization for unprecedented levels of energy efficiency and occupant comfort. The thesis also describes a retrofit

  6. Research and Development Data to Define the Thermal Performance of Reflective Materials Used to Conserve Energy in Building Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenberg, J

    2001-04-09

    A comprehensive experimental laboratory study has been conducted on the thermal performance of reflective insulation systems. The goal of this study was to develop test and evaluation protocols and to obtain thermal performance data on a selected number of idealized and commercial systems containing reflective airspaces for use in analytical models. Steady-state thermal resistance has been measured on 17 different test panels using two guarded hot boxes. Additional instrumentation was installed to measure the temperature of critical locations inside the test panels. The test parameters which have been studied are heat flow direction (horizontal, up, and down), number of airspaces comprising the cavity, airspace effective emittance, airspace aspect ratio, airspace mean temperature and temperature difference, and the thermal resistance of the stud material. Tests have also been performed on similar constructions with mass insulation. Two one-dimensional calculation techniques (ASHRAE and proposed ASTM) have been employed to determine the cavity thermal resistance from the measured test panel results. The measured cavity thermal resistance is compared with literature data which is commonly employed to calculate the thermal resistance of reflective airspace assemblies. A consumer-oriented handbook pertaining to reflective insulation for building and commercial applications has also been prepared as part of this study.

  7. Improving building energy efficiency in India: State-level analysis of building energy efficiency policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Sha; Tan, Qing; Evans, Meredydd; Kyle, Page; Vu, Linh; Patel, Pralit L.

    2017-11-01

    India is expected to add 40 billion m2 of new buildings till 2050. Buildings are responsible for one third of India’s total energy consumption today and building energy use is expected to continue growing driven by rapid income and population growth. The implementation of the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) is one of the measures to improve building energy efficiency. Using the Global Change Assessment Model, this study assesses growth in the buildings sector and impacts of building energy policies in Gujarat, which would help the state adopt ECBC and expand building energy efficiency programs. Without building energy policies, building energy use in Gujarat would grow by 15 times in commercial buildings and 4 times in urban residential buildings between 2010 and 2050. ECBC improves energy efficiency in commercial buildings and could reduce building electricity use in Gujarat by 20% in 2050, compared to the no policy scenario. Having energy codes for both commercial and residential buildings could result in additional 10% savings in electricity use. To achieve these intended savings, it is critical to build capacity and institution for robust code implementation.

  8. International energy conservation: comparative law and policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    Ernest C. Baynard III, in the Foreword to the conference, told of the purpose of the conference - to compare and discuss the policies and laws that highly industrialized nations have used and considered to meet the challenge of energy conservation. The following countries participated in the conference: U.K.; Australia; Federal Republic of Germany; Japan; France; Canada; Sweden; Italy; the Netherlands; and the U.S. The IEA and the Commission of the European Communities also participated. The conference format consisted of ministerial addresses to the conference, interspersed with panel discussions focusing on energy conservation in transportation, industry, agriculture, and utilities; residential, commercial, and industrial buildings; and emergency situations. There was also a panel discussion on the role of government in energy conservation and energy information collection. The panels were composed of participating countries' representatives. (MCW)

  9. Industrial energy conservation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, P.S.; Williams, M.A. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 60 papers included in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 21 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  10. Industrial Energy Conservation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 55 papers presented in this volume, all of which will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA); 18 were selected for Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (MCW)

  11. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  12. Energy conservation in mechanical industry; Maitrise de l`energie dans les industries mecaniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The workshop is composed of 12 communications on the theme of energy consumption, conservation and management in industry, and more especially in metal industry: evaluation of the energy savings potential in the French industry; official energy diagnosis procedure in buildings; the French national gas utility policy for energy conservation and economical performance in industry; energy conservation with speed variators for electric motors; energy audits and energy metering for conservation objectives. Examples of energy efficient systems or energy audits in various industrial sectors (compressed air, industrial buildings, heat treatments, curing...) are also presented. The electric power quality EDF`s contract is also discussed

  13. Careers in the Renewable Energy and Conservation Professions and Trades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    Many kinds of jobs can be found in the renewable energy and energy conservation industries. This pamphlet indicates that a large career potential exists within the solar and conservation professions and trades. These careers consist of individuals who design, build, or install solar heating or hot water systems, who implement energy conservation…

  14. The building network energy statistics 2002[Norway]; Bygningsnettverkets energistatistikk 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The report surveys a Norwegian network within the construction business and the energy utilization particularly in various buildings. There are sections on the network structure, the energy use in 2002, the building aspects and various project types. The emphasis is on energy conservation aspects. Various technologies and energy systems as well as building types, are discussed. (tk)

  15. Energy Conservation. The Best of ERIC, Number 19.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.

    The 13 articles in this annotated bibliography cover a wide range of concerns from the finances of energy conservation to solar energy applications, to building design, to building maintenance, and to the role of the science teacher as an energy analyst and activist. (IRT)

  16. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  17. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  18. Energy conservation in foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natu, V.M.

    1994-01-01

    In any foundry, the cost of fuel in the form of coal, oil or electrical power, is about 10 to 15% of the cost of the product. Saving of the order of 30 to 50% can be achieved in energy by reducing consumption of fuel and increasing efficiency. This has been illustrated by describing 4 examples in foundry industry. In each case, saving in terms of rupees is also indicated. (N.B.)

  19. Building a conservation culture : progress report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceksters, G. [Enersource Corp., Mississauga, ON (Canada); Cananzi, M. [Horizon Utilities Corp., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Leclair, R. [Hydro Ottawa Holding Inc., Ottawa, ON (Canada); Bentz, B. [PowerStream, Markham, ON (Canada); O' Brien, D.S. [Toronto Hydro, ON (Canada); Angemeer, M.C. [Veridian Connections, Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The PowerWise Team is comprised of the 6 largest electricity companies in Ontario, who joined forces to lay the foundation for a conservation culture in Ontario. This progress report provided details of plans implemented for their customers in order to support the province's vision of reducing peak electricity demand by 5 per cent by 2007. Accomplishments of the team to date include the development of the PowerWise website, which provides customers with updated information about conservation programs as well as energy saving tips. Members of the team have also re-branded 1100 of their fleet vehicles with the PowerWise logo. Two in-store and retail coupon programs were launched as a means of encouraging customers to experiment with new energy efficiency products, resulting in the distribution of over 2.3 million coupons. The PowerWise business incentive program was developed to encourage industrial and commercial customers to make their workplaces more energy efficient. In addition, a total of 11,175 smart meters were installed by the PowerWise alliance in a series of pilot programs to lay the foundation for the widespread introduction of smart metering. In addition to describing PowerWise programs and initiatives, an overview of programs undertaken by individual utilities was presented, with details of total conservation and demand management investment and annual energy savings. Significant strides were taken in 2005 to pave the way for a change in attitude about conservation. Plans for the future include inviting more local distribution companies to join the team, and continuing to deliver significant energy consumption reductions. 22 figs.

  20. Overview of energy-conservation research opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopp, W.J.; Hauser, S.G.; Hane, G.J.; Gurwell, W.E.; Bird, S.P.; Cliff, W.C.; Williford, R.E.; Williams, T.A.; Ashton, W.B.

    1981-12-01

    This document is a study of research opportunities that are important to developing advanced technologies for efficient energy use. The study's purpose is to describe a wide array of attractive technical areas from which specific research and development programs could be implemented. Research areas are presented for potential application in each of the major end-use sectors. The study develops and applies a systematic approach to identifying and screening applied energy conservation research opportunities. To broadly cover the energy end-use sectors, this study develops useful information relating to the areas where federally-funded applied research will most likely play an important role in promoting energy conservation. This study is not designed to produce a detailed agenda of specific recommended research activities. The general information presented allows uniform comparisons of disparate research areas and as such provides the basis for formulating a cost-effective, comprehensive federal-applied energy conservation research strategy. Chapter 2 discusses the various methodologies that have been used in the past to identify research opportunities and details the approach used here. In Chapters 3, 4, and 5 the methodology is applied to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors and the opportunities for applied research in these sectors are discussed.Chapter 6 synthesizes the results of the previous three chapters to give a comprehensive picture of applied energy conservation research opportunities across all end-use sectors and presents the conclusions to the report.

  1. Energy Flexibility in Retail Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2017-01-01

    Retail buildings has an important role for demand side energy flexibility because of their high energy consumption, variety of energy flexibility resources, and centralized control via building control systems. Energy flexibility requires agreements and collaborations among different actors......), with the discussion of the stakeholders’ roles and their interrelation in delivering energy flexibility with the influential factors to the actual implementation of energy flexible operation of their buildings. Based on a literature analysis, the results cover stakeholders’ types and roles, perceptions (drivers......, barriers, and benefits), energy management activities and technology adoptions, and the stakeholders’ interaction for the energy flexibility in retail buildings....

  2. Defining net zero energy buildings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jonker Klunne, W

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide increasing attention to energy consumption and associated environmental impacts thereof has resulted in a critical attitude towards energy usage of building. Increasing costs of energy and dependence on energy service providers add...

  3. A Compendium of Energy Conservation Success Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office{endash}Energy Utilization Research{endash}sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  4. A compendium of energy conservation success stories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    Three-quarters of DOE's Conservation R and D funds have been devoted to technology research and development: basic and applied research, exploratory R and D, engineering feasibility studies, pilot-scale prototype R and D, and technology demonstration. Non R and D projects have involved technology assessment program planning and analysis, model development, technology transfer and consumer information, health effects and safety research, and technical support for rule making. The success stories summarized in this compendium fall into three general categories: Completed Technology Success Stories, projects that have resulted in new energy-saving technologies that are presently being used in the private sector; Technical Success Stories, projects that have produced or disseminated important scientific/technical information likely to result in future energy savings; Program Success Stories, non-R and D activities that have resulted in nationally significant energy benefits. The Energy Conservation research and development program at DOE is managed by the Office of Conservation under the direction of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Conservation. Three subordinate Program Offices correspond to the buildings, transportation, and industrial end-use sectors. A fourth subordinate Program Office/endash/Energy Utilization Research/endash/sponsors research and technical inventions for all end-use sectors.

  5. Energy Conservation: Heating Navy Hangars

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    temperature, IF Tf Inside air temperature 1 foot above the floor, OF T. Inside design temperature, IF To Hot water temperature setpoint , OF TON Chiller ...systems capable of optimizing energy usage base-wide. An add-on to an existing large scale EMCS is probably the first preference, followed by single...the building comfort conditions are met during hours of building occupancy. 2. Optimized Start/Stop turns on equipment at the latest possible time and

  6. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. Energy Performance of Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    "Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development and are c......"Sustainable development" has been defined best by the Brundtland Commission as "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Adequate and affordable energy supplies have been key to economic development...... and are central to improving social and economic well- being, and human welfare and raising living standards. Even if energy is essential for development, it is only a means to an end. The end is good health, high living standards, a sustainable economy and a clean environment. The European Climate change...... programme (ECCP) was established in June 2000 to help identify the most environmentally cost-effective measures enabling the EU to meet its target under the Kyoto Protocol, namely an 8% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from 1990 levels by 2012. Energy use in buildings accounts for almost half of all CO...

  8. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  9. Commercial Building Energy Saver: An energy retrofit analysis toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Chen, Yixing; Lee, Sang Hoon; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.; Zhang, Rongpeng; Sun, Kaiyu; Price, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Commercial Building Energy Saver is a powerful toolkit for energy retrofit analysis. • CBES provides benchmarking, load shape analysis, and model-based retrofit assessment. • CBES covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • CBES includes a web app, API, and a database of energy efficiency performance. • CBES API can be extended and integrated with third party energy software tools. - Abstract: Small commercial buildings in the United States consume 47% of the total primary energy of the buildings sector. Retrofitting small and medium commercial buildings poses a huge challenge for owners because they usually lack the expertise and resources to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy retrofit strategies. This paper presents the Commercial Building Energy Saver (CBES), an energy retrofit analysis toolkit, which calculates the energy use of a building, identifies and evaluates retrofit measures in terms of energy savings, energy cost savings and payback. The CBES Toolkit includes a web app (APP) for end users and the CBES Application Programming Interface (API) for integrating CBES with other energy software tools. The toolkit provides a rich set of features including: (1) Energy Benchmarking providing an Energy Star score, (2) Load Shape Analysis to identify potential building operation improvements, (3) Preliminary Retrofit Analysis which uses a custom developed pre-simulated database and, (4) Detailed Retrofit Analysis which utilizes real-time EnergyPlus simulations. CBES includes 100 configurable energy conservation measures (ECMs) that encompass IAQ, technical performance and cost data, for assessing 7 different prototype buildings in 16 climate zones in California and 6 vintages. A case study of a small office building demonstrates the use of the toolkit for retrofit analysis. The development of CBES provides a new contribution to the field by providing a straightforward and uncomplicated decision

  10. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  11. Foreign energy conservation integrated programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, Maria Luiza Viana; Bajay, Sergio Valdir

    1999-01-01

    The promotion of energy economy and efficiency is recognized as the single most cost-effective and least controversial component of any strategy of matching energy demand and supply with resource and environmental constraints. Historically such efficiency gains are not out of reach for the industrialized market economy countries, but are unlikely to be reached under present conditions by developing countries and economics in transition. The aim of the work was to analyze the main characteristics of United Kingdom, France, Japan, Canada, Australia and Denmark energy conservation integrated programs

  12. Energy conservation attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors in science laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplowitz, Michael D.; Thorp, Laurie; Coleman, Kayla; Kwame Yeboah, Felix

    2012-01-01

    Energy use per square foot from science research labs is disproportionately higher than that of other rooms in buildings on campuses across the nation. This is partly due to labs’ use of energy intensive equipment. However, laboratory management and personnel behavior may be significant contributing factors to energy consumption. Despite an apparent increasing need for energy conservation in science labs, a systematic investigation of avenues promoting energy conservation behavior in such labs appears absent in scholarly literature. This paper reports the findings of a recent study into the energy conservation knowledge, attitude and behavior of principle investigators, laboratory managers, and student lab workers at a tier 1 research university. The study investigates potential barriers as well as promising avenues to reducing energy consumption in science laboratories. The findings revealed: (1) an apparent lack of information about options for energy conservation in science labs, (2) existing operational barriers, (3) economic issues as barriers/motivators of energy conservation and (4) a widespread notion that cutting edge science may be compromised by energy conservation initiatives. - Highlights: ► Effective energy conservation and efficiency depend on social systems and human behaviors. ► Science laboratories use more energy per square foot than any other academic and research spaces. ► Time, money, quality control, and convenience overshadow personnel’s desire to save energy. ► Ignorance of conservation practices is a barrier to energy conservation in labs.

  13. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    U.S. and China are the world’s top two economics. Together they consumed one-third of the world’s primary energy. It is an unprecedented opportunity and challenge for governments, researchers and industries in both countries to join together to address energy issues and global climate change. Such joint collaboration has huge potential in creating new jobs in energy technologies and services. Buildings in the US and China consumed about 40% and 25% of the primary energy in both countries in 2010 respectively. Worldwide, the building sector is the largest contributor to the greenhouse gas emission. Better understanding and improving the energy performance of buildings is a critical step towards sustainable development and mitigation of global climate change. This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  14. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Feng, Wei; Lu, Alison; Xia, Jianjun; Yang, Le; Shen, Qi; Im, Piljae; Bhandari, Mahabir

    2013-06-01

    This project aimed to develop a standard methodology for building energy data definition, collection, presentation, and analysis; apply the developed methods to a standardized energy monitoring platform, including hardware and software, to collect and analyze building energy use data; and compile offline statistical data and online real-time data in both countries for fully understanding the current status of building energy use. This helps decode the driving forces behind the discrepancy of building energy use between the two countries; identify gaps and deficiencies of current building energy monitoring, data collection, and analysis; and create knowledge and tools to collect and analyze good building energy data to provide valuable and actionable information for key stakeholders.

  15. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Energy Innovations for Healthy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogucz, Edward A. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States)

    2016-09-23

    Healthy buildings provide high indoor environmental quality for occupants while simultaneously reducing energy consumption. This project advanced the development and marketability of envisioned healthy, energy-efficient buildings through studies that evaluated the use of emerging technologies in commercial and residential buildings. The project also provided resources required for homebuilders to participate in DOE’s Builders Challenge, concomitant with the goal to reduce energy consumption in homes by at least 30% as a first step toward achieving envisioned widespread availability of net-zero energy homes by 2030. In addition, the project included outreach and education concerning energy efficiency in buildings.

  17. Energy Metrics for State Government Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Trevor

    Measuring true progress towards energy conservation goals requires the accurate reporting and accounting of energy consumption. An accurate energy metrics framework is also a critical element for verifiable Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Energy conservation in government can reduce expenditures on energy costs leaving more funds available for public services. In addition to monetary savings, conserving energy can help to promote energy security, air quality, and a reduction of carbon footprint. With energy consumption/GHG inventories recently produced at the Federal level, state and local governments are beginning to also produce their own energy metrics systems. In recent years, many states have passed laws and executive orders which require their agencies to reduce energy consumption. In June 2008, SC state government established a law to achieve a 20% energy usage reduction in state buildings by 2020. This study examines case studies from other states who have established similar goals to uncover the methods used to establish an energy metrics system. Direct energy consumption in state government primarily comes from buildings and mobile sources. This study will focus exclusively on measuring energy consumption in state buildings. The case studies reveal that many states including SC are having issues gathering the data needed to accurately measure energy consumption across all state buildings. Common problems found include a lack of enforcement and incentives that encourage state agencies to participate in any reporting system. The case studies are aimed at finding the leverage used to gather the needed data. The various approaches at coercing participation will hopefully reveal methods that SC can use to establish the accurate metrics system needed to measure progress towards its 20% by 2020 energy reduction goal. Among the strongest incentives found in the case studies is the potential for monetary savings through energy efficiency. Framing energy conservation

  18. Potential benefits of cool roofs on commercial buildings. Conserving energy, saving money, and reducing emission of greenhouse gases and air pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levinson, R.; Akbari, H.

    2010-01-01

    Cool roofs - roofs that stay cool in the sun by minimizing solar absorption and maximizing thermal emission - lessen the flow of heat from the roof into the building, reducing the need for space cooling energy in conditioned buildings. Cool roofs may also increase the need for heating energy in cold climates. For a commercial building, the decrease in annual cooling load is typically much greater than the increase in annual heating load. This study combines building energy simulations, local energy prices, local electricity emission factors, and local estimates of building density to characterize local, state average, and national average cooling energy savings, heating energy penalties, energy cost savings, and emission reductions per unit conditioned roof area. The annual heating and cooling energy uses of four commercial building prototypes - new office (1980+), old office (pre-1980), new retail (1980+), and old retail (pre-1980) - were simulated in 236 US cities. Substituting a weathered cool white roof (solar reflectance 0.55) for a weathered conventional gray roof (solar reflectance 0.20) yielded annually a cooling energy saving per unit conditioned roof area ranging from 3.30 kWh/m 2 in Alaska to 7.69 kWh/m 2 in Arizona (5.02 kWh/m 2 nationwide); a heating energy penalty ranging from 0.003 therm/m 2 in Hawaii to 0.14 therm/m 2 in Wyoming (0.065 therm/m 2 nationwide); and an energy cost saving ranging from USD 0.126/m 2 in West Virginia to USD 1.14/m 2 in Arizona (USD 0.356/m 2 nationwide). It also offered annually a CO2 reduction ranging from 1.07 kg/m 2 in Alaska to 4.97 kg/m 2 in Hawaii (3.02 kg/m 2 nationwide); an NOx reduction ranging from 1.70 g/m 2 in New York to 11.7 g/m 2 in Hawaii (4.81 g/m 2 nationwide); an SO2 reduction ranging from 1.79 g/m 2 in California to 26.1 g/m 2 in Alabama (12.4 g/m 2 nationwide); and an Hg reduction ranging from 1.08 μg/m 2 in Alaska to 105 μg/m 2 in Alabama (61.2 μg/m 2 nationwide). Retrofitting 80% of the 2

  19. Transportation energy conservation data book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebl, A. S.; Bjornstad, D. J.; Burch, D. F.; Howard, E. B.; Hull, J. F.; Madewell, D. G.; Malthouse, N. S.; Ogle, M. C.

    1976-10-01

    Statistics which characterize the major transportation modes are assembled and displayed, and data on other factors which influence the transportation sector in the nation are presented. Statistical data on energy use in the transportation sector are presented in the form of tables, graphs, and charts. The following topics are covered in six chapters: Characteristics of Transportation Modes; Energy Characteristics, including energy consumption by source and by sector and energy intensiveness; Conservation Alternatives; Government Impacts, including expenditures, regulations and research, development, and demonstration spending; Energy Supply, including domestic petroleum production, prices, and projections; and Transportation Demand, including population characteristics and economic determinants. A bibliography of data sources is provided at the end of each chapter. A more general bibliography glossary, and subject index are included at the end of the book.

  20. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  1. 78 FR 9631 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of public meeting.... Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J...

  2. Building energy governance in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, YiHsiu Michelle

    With Asia's surging economies and urbanization, the region is adding to its built environment at an unprecedented rate, especially those population centers in China and India. With numerous existing buildings, plus a new building boom, construction in these major Asian cities has caused momentous sustainability challenges. This dissertation focuses on China's leading city, Shanghai, to explore and assess its existing commercial building energy policies and practices. Research estimates that Shanghai's commercial buildings might become a key challenge with regard to energy use and CO2 emissions as compared to other major Asian cities. Relevant building energy policy instruments at national and local levels for commercial buildings are reviewed. In addition, two benchmarks are established to further assess building energy policies in Shanghai. The first benchmark is based on the synthesis of relevant criteria and policy instruments as recommended by professional organizations, while the second practical benchmark is drawn from an analysis of three global cities: New York, London and Tokyo. Moreover, two large-scale commercial building sites - Shanghai IKEA and Plaza 66 - are selected for investigation and assessment of their efforts on building energy saving measures. Detailed building energy savings, CO2 reductions, and management cost reductions based on data availability and calculations are presented with the co-benefits approach. The research additionally analyzes different interventions and factors that facilitate or constrain the implementation process of building energy saving measures in each case. Furthermore, a multi-scale analytical framework is employed to investigate relevant stakeholders that shape Shanghai's commercial building energy governance. Research findings and policy recommendations are offered at the close of this dissertation. Findings and policy recommendations are intended to facilitate commercial building energy governance in Shanghai and

  3. Personality traits and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Meng; Cui, Qingbin; Fu, Liping

    2015-01-01

    As a cost-effective solution to energy conservation, behavior based method focuses on changing people's behavior through normative feedback for energy efficiency. While the application of behavior-based method is promising, the challenge exists to achieve efficiently sustainable behavioral change. Based on multi-period observation of energy behavior at the Joint Base Andrews in Maryland, this paper presents a model-based approach aimed to improve the nationally popular and deep-seated benchmark setting strategy for normative feedback used in home energy reports. The improved approach has its merits of countering the undesirable boomerang effect and enhancing the effectiveness of normative feedback targeting different personalities. By introducing a modified opinion dynamics model, this paper simulates the process of energy behavior change and therefore identifies the driver and elementary rules of behavioral change. In particular, the paper defines various behavioral zones in accordance with people's personality and proposes a new customized energy reporting mechanism that maps normative benchmark to personality trait. The new energy reporting policy has strong industrial implication for promoting behavior-based method towards a sustained energy conservation movement. -- Highlights: •We explore the personality driving resident behavior change under peer pressure. •We map the distribution of behavior clusters driven by personality and benchmarks. •The model is tested using data from an experiment conducted in Maryland, U.S. •The population exposed to normative feedback can be divided into six categories. •A personality trait-based home energy reporting mechanism is proposed

  4. Non conventional energy sources and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno M, F.

    1995-01-01

    Geographically speaking, Mexico is in an enviable position. Sun, water, biomass and geothermal fields main non conventional energy sources with commercial applications, are presents and in some cases plentiful in national territory. Moreover the coastal tidal power which is in research stage in several countries. Non conventional energy sources are an alternative which allow us to reduce the consumption of hydrocarbons or any other type of primary energetic, are not by oneself choices for the energy conservation, but energy replacements. At the beginning of this year, CONAE created the Direction of Non conventional Energy Sources, which main objective is to promote and impulse programs inclined towards the application of systems based in renewable energy sources. The research centers represent a technological and consultative support for the CONAE. They have an infrastructure developed along several years of continuous work. The non conventional energy sources will be a reality at the same time that their cost be equal or lower than the cost for the traditional generating systems. CONAE (National Commission for Energy Conservation). (Author)

  5. Psychological dimensions of Energy Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonello, Graciela

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the most serious current environmental problems is the depletion of non renewable natural resources. The vast majority of our daily actions involve the consumption of energy and they increase the problem. Environmental psychology studies the psychological motivations that determine pro-ecological behaviour. In this context the aim of this review was to determine which psychological models and variables are better descriptors of residential energy conservation, comparing the predictive power of different models related to behaviour, residential consumption as well as to the acceptability of energy policies. Results suggest that energy saving is mainly linked to altruistic motivations, followed by egoistic reasons and in a minor way to environmental concerns. People would act according to these dimensions when contextual conditions are perceived as appropriate.

  6. Energy conservation in agriculture sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maggo, J.N.

    1991-01-01

    The annual production of foodgrains in India rose from 50.8 million tonnes in 1950-51 to 178 million tonnes in 1989-90. One of the factors which led to this impressive growth is the continued increase in input of mechanization and energy in the agricultural sector by way of tractors running on diesel and pumps (for water supply) based on diesel and electricity. Electricity consumption in agricultural sector rose from 833 million kWh in 1960-61 to 47000 million kWh in 1990-91 and is further expected to rise to 81.8 TWH in 1999-2000. Considering the heavy investments required for production and supply of energy, it has become imperative to avoid wasteful use of energy and to use energy more efficiently. This can be done by : (1) Changing the electricity tariff structure from the present horse power related rates to energy consumption related rates. This will induce farmers to avoid waste in energy use. (2) Adopting energy efficiency measures. These measures are : (1) replacement of inefficient foot valves, suction pipes and delivery pipes of the pump sets, (2) increasing power factor of electric motors used for pumps sets, (3) reducing distribution losses over LT lines, and (4) optimizing use of fertilizers. This optimization will indirectly conserve energy by reducing electricity consumption by fertilizer industry. (M.G.B.). 5 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Building application of solar energy. Study no. 2: Representative buildings for solar energy performance analysis and market penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) Assignment of population to microclimatic zones; (2) specifications of the mix of buildings in the SCE territory; (3) specification of four typical buildings for thermal analysis and market penetration studies; (4) identification of the materials and energy conserving characteristics of these typical buildings; (5) specifications of the HVAC functions used in each typical building, and determination of the HVAC systems used in each building; and (6) identification of the type of fuel used in each building.

  8. 77 FR 59712 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... amended energy conservation standards, DOE conducted a market survey using all available public... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Dishwashers AGENCY: Office of Energy... establish amended energy conservation standards for dishwashers in the Federal Register on May 30, 2012. DOE...

  9. 77 FR 38743 - Energy Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Efficiency Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Battery Chargers and External Power Supplies AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION... Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue SW...

  10. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    .... EERE-2010-BT-STD-0011] RIN 1904-AC22 Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  11. On energy conservation in extended magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Keiji; Morrison, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic study of energy conservation for extended magnetohydrodynamic models that include Hall terms and electron inertia is performed. It is observed that commonly used models do not conserve energy in the ideal limit, i.e., when viscosity and resistivity are neglected. In particular, a term in the momentum equation that is often neglected is seen to be needed for conservation of energy

  12. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  13. Dark Energy from Violation of Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Thibaut; Perez, Alejandro; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2017-01-13

    In this Letter, we consider the possibility of reconciling metric theories of gravitation with a violation of the conservation of energy-momentum. Under some circumstances, this can be achieved in the context of unimodular gravity, and it leads to the emergence of an effective cosmological constant in Einstein's equation. We specifically investigate two potential sources of energy nonconservation-nonunitary modifications of quantum mechanics and phenomenological models motivated by quantum gravity theories with spacetime discreteness at the Planck scale-and show that such locally negligible phenomena can nevertheless become relevant at the cosmological scale.

  14. Economical optimization of building elements for use in design of nearly zero energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne

    2012-01-01

    Nearly zero energy buildings are to become a requirement as part of the European energy policy. There are many ways of designing nearly zero energy buildings, but there is a lack of knowledge on how to end up with the most economical optimal solution. Therefore this paper present a method...... for finding the economical optimal solutions based on the use of the cost of conserved energy for each main building envelope part and building service system and cost of produced energy for each energy producing system. By use of information on construction cost and developed models of the yearly energy use...

  15. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage

  16. Proceedings of the second US Department of Energy environmental control symposium. Volume 2. Nuclear energy, conservation, and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    These proceedings document the presentations given at the Second Environmental Control Symposium. Symposium presentations highlighted environmental control activities which span the entire DOE. Volume II contains papers relating to: environmental control aspects of nuclear energy use and development; nuclear waste management; renewable energy sources; transportation and building conservation (fuel economy, gasohol, building standards, and industry); and geothermal energy, power transmission, and energy storage. (DMC)

  17. Building Maintenance in Old Buildings Conservation Approach: An Overview of Related Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brit Kayan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Building maintenance in conservation of old buildings is one of the approaches applied within the built environment of Malaysia. For instance, it is realised that these old buildings contribute an important significance to our nation's priceless heritage and unique historical development. However, most of these buildings' maintenance is influenced by related problems that affect the overall building conservation approach. Therefore, these old buildings face problems which greatly affect their overall condition and performance: building structure; building appearance and aesthetic; building materials and building character. In most critical situations, there is a greater possibility that we could lose the cultural significance and heritage values of these old buildings through ignoring the related problems. This paper tries to identify the related problems, reveal the findings and discuss suitable approaches to conserving these old buildings.

  18. How energy efficiency fails in the building industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryghaug, Marianne; Sorensen, Knut H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how energy efficiency fails in the building industry based on many years of research into the integration of energy efficiency in the construction of buildings and sustainable architecture in Norway. It argues that energy-efficient construction has been seriously restrained by three interrelated problems: (1) deficiencies in public policy to stimulate energy efficiency, (2) limited governmental efforts to regulate the building industry, and (3) a conservative building industry. The paper concludes that innovation and implementation of new, energy-efficient technologies in the building industry requires new policies, better regulations and reformed practices in the industry itself

  19. California commercial building energy benchmarking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, Satkartar; Piette, Mary Ann

    2003-07-01

    Building energy benchmarking is the comparison of whole-building energy use relative to a set of similar buildings. It provides a useful starting point for individual energy audits and for targeting buildings for energy-saving measures in multiple-site audits. Benchmarking is of interest and practical use to a number of groups. Energy service companies and performance contractors communicate energy savings potential with ''typical'' and ''best-practice'' benchmarks while control companies and utilities can provide direct tracking of energy use and combine data from multiple buildings. Benchmarking is also useful in the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. Energy managers and building owners have an ongoing interest in comparing energy performance to others. Large corporations, schools, and government agencies with numerous facilities also use benchmarking methods to compare their buildings to each other. The primary goal of Task 2.1.1 Web-based Benchmarking was the development of a web-based benchmarking tool, dubbed Cal-Arch, for benchmarking energy use in California commercial buildings. While there were several other benchmarking tools available to California consumers prior to the development of Cal-Arch, there were none that were based solely on California data. Most available benchmarking information, including the Energy Star performance rating, were developed using DOE's Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS), which does not provide state-level data. Each database and tool has advantages as well as limitations, such as the number of buildings and the coverage by type, climate regions and end uses. There is considerable commercial interest in benchmarking because it provides an inexpensive method of screening buildings for tune-ups and retrofits. However, private companies who collect and manage consumption data are concerned that the

  20. Energy conservation policy in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haugland, T; Roland, K [ECON-Centre for Economic Analysis, Oslo (NO)

    1992-02-01

    Energy market developments and the state of the environment will be decisive for economic growth and modernization of Chinese society. Lack of adequate energy supplies could in the future seriously impair the growth potential of the economy, as it has partly done during the 1980s. Environmental damage creates major health problems for the population and hamper the productive capacity of Chinese agriculture and industry. One obvious and effective measure to meet these challenges is a policy that pursues more efficient use of energy supplies. China achieved impressive results in energy efficiency improvements during the 1980s, largely on the back of the cheapest and most obvious conservation opportunities. These are now exhausted. Further improvements will require stronger measures. It is difficult to see how the current rate of economic growth (above 6 per cent) and energy efficiency improvements can be sustained without comprehensive market reforms. Economic growth and development is however, in Chinese policy, subordinate to political stability and continuity. The disruption of the political and economic reform processes in 1988-9 was largely motivated by a perceived fear of political instability and disintegration of the state. Thus, there may exist some degree of conflict between the objective of strong economic growth and the existing 'social order and stability'. To balance the potential conflict inherent in this development process is the big challenge facing Chinese society for the coming decades. (author).

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT BUILDINGS PROGRAM. CHAPTER FROM THE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT DIVISION ANNUAL REPORT 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Authors, Various

    1979-12-01

    The research reported in this volume was undertaken during FY 1979 within the Energy & Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This volume will comprise a section of the Energy & Environment Division 1979 Annual Report, to be published in the summer of 1980. Work reported relate to: thermal performance of building envelopes; building ventilation and indoor air quality; a computer program for predicting energy use in buildings; study focused specifically on inherently energy intensive hospital buildings; energy efficient windows and lighting; potential for energy conservation and savings in the buildings sector; and evaluation of energy performance standards for residential buildings.

  2. Energy conservation. Federal shared energy savings contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Milans, Flora H.; Kirk, Roy J.; Welker, Robert A.; Sparling, William J.; Butler, Sharon E.; Irwin, Susan W.

    1989-04-01

    A number of impediments have discouraged federal agencies from using shared energy savings contracts. As of November 30, 1988, only two federal agencies - the U.S. Postal Service (USPS) and the Department of the Army -had awarded such contracts even though they can yield significant energy and cost savings. The three major impediments we identified were uncertainty about the applicability of a particular procurement policy and practice, lack of management incentives, and difficulty in measuring energy and cost savings. To address the first impediment, the Department of Energy (DOE) developed a manual on shared energy savings contracting. The second impediment was addressed when the 100th Congress authorized incentives for federal agencies to enter into shared savings contracts. DOE addressed the third impediment by developing a methodology for calculating energy consumption and cost savings. However, because of differing methodological preferences, this issue will need to be addressed on a contract-by-contract basis. Some state governments and private sector firms are using performance contracts to reduce energy costs in their buildings and facilities. We were able to identify six states that were using performance contracts. Five have established programs, and all six states have projects under contract. The seven energy service companies we contacted indicated interest in federal shared energy savings contracting

  3. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program: Bibliography, 1988 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H. (comp.)

    1988-04-01

    The 831 references covering the period 1980 through Feb. 1988, are arranged under the following: analysis and evaluation, building equipment, building thermal envelope systems and materials, community systems and cogeneration, residential conservation service, retrofit, advanced heat engine ceramics, alternative fuels, microemulsion fuels, industrial chemical heat pumps, materials for waste heat utilization, energy conversion and utilization materials, tribology, emergency energy conservation,inventions, electric energy systems, thermal storage, biofuels production, biotechnology, solar technology, geothermal, and continuous chromatography in multicomponent separations. An author index is included.

  4. Smart buildings: Energy efficient conditioning of building occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Houten, van M.A.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    To further optimize energy performance of buildings, intelligent building control offers new possibilities. Intelligent Software Agents (ISA) can be implemented at different levels of building automation. Individual agents for individual climate control for each user of the building in combination

  5. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M. (Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark)); Langkilde, G.; Olesen, Bjarne W. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)); Moerck, O. (Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark)); Sundman, O. (DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Engelund Thomsen, K. (Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark))

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  6. Energy performance contracting - energy saving potential of selected energy conservation measures (ECM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, M [Dansk Energi Analyse A/S, Frederiksberg (Denmark); Langkilde, G; Olesen, Bjarne W [Technical Univ. of Denmark, ICIEE, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Moerck, O [Cenergia Energy Consultants, Herlev (Denmark); Sundman, O [DONG Energy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Engelund Thomsen, K [Aalborg Univ., SBi, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2008-09-15

    This report has been developed under the research project 'Etablering af grundlag for energitjenester i Danmark' (project number: ENS-33031-0185) under the Danish research programme - EFP. The objective of this project has been to contribute to the utilisation of the large potential for energy conservations in the building sector within the public, industry and service sectors through the development of a better basis for decision making for both the Energy Service Companies (ESCOes) and the building owners. The EU directive on Energy Service Contracting points at the buildings as the area where the biggest potential market for energy services and energy efficiency improvements are. The EFP-project has two parts: (1) A Danish part and (2) participation in the international cooperation project 'Holistic Assesment Tool-Kit on Energy Efficient Retrofit Measures for Government Buildings (EnERGo)', Annex 46 under the IEA R and D program 'Energy Conservation In Buildings And Community Systems' (ECBCS). This report describes the Danish contributions to the IEA projects subtask B, which has a primary objective to develop a database of energy conservation measures (ECM) with descriptions and performance characteristics of these. (au)

  7. 78 FR 54197 - Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    .... EERE-2013-BT-STD-0030] RIN 1904-AD01 Energy Efficiency Program for Commercial and Industrial Equipment: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial Packaged Boilers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and..., Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Office, EE-2J, 1000 Independence...

  8. Tropical Zero Energy Office Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Kristensen, Poul Erik

    2006-01-01

    The new headquarter for Pusat Tenaga Malaysia is designed to be a Zero Emission Office Building (ZEO). A full range of passive and active energy efficiency measures are implemented such that the building will need no more electricity than what can be produced via its own Building Integrated PV...... lighting. These measures include the use of high efficient lighting controlled according to demand, high efficiency pumps and fans, a high efficiency chiller, and use of energy efficient office equipment. The buildings PV system is connected to the grid. Solar electricity is exported to the grid during...... of 24 – 26 oC can be maintained throughout the office hours. The PV roof of the building serves multiple purposes. During daytime, the roof becomes the powerplant of the building, and during nighttime, the PV roof becomes the “cooling tower” for the chiller. The roof will be covered by a thin water film...

  9. A Retrofit Tool for Improving Energy Efficiency of Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark; Feng, Wei; Ke, Jing; Hong, Tianzhen; Zhou, Nan

    2013-06-06

    Existing buildings will dominate energy use in commercial buildings in the United States for three decades or longer and even in China for the about two decades. Retrofitting these buildings to improve energy efficiency and reduce energy use is thus critical to achieving the target of reducing energy use in the buildings sector. However there are few evaluation tools that can quickly identify and evaluate energy savings and cost effectiveness of energy conservation measures (ECMs) for retrofits, especially for buildings in China. This paper discusses methods used to develop such a tool and demonstrates an application of the tool for a retrofit analysis. The tool builds on a building performance database with pre-calculated energy consumption of ECMs for selected commercial prototype buildings using the EnergyPlus program. The tool allows users to evaluate individual ECMs or a package of ECMs. It covers building envelope, lighting and daylighting, HVAC, plug loads, service hot water, and renewable energy. The prototype building can be customized to represent an actual building with some limitations. Energy consumption from utility bills can be entered into the tool to compare and calibrate the energy use of the prototype building. The tool currently can evaluate energy savings and payback of ECMs for shopping malls in China. We have used the tool to assess energy and cost savings for retrofit of the prototype shopping mall in Shanghai. Future work on the tool will simplify its use and expand it to cover other commercial building types and other countries.

  10. Energy conservation at the Nippon Steel Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, Shigetoshi

    1979-07-01

    Characteristics of the Japanese energy demand-supply structure are discussed. Nippon Steel's energy consumption and energy conservation measures are discussed. Results of Nippon's energy conservation activities are summarized. Additional information on the Japanese short-range measures for the reduction in oil consumption, the effect of efforts for the reduction of petroleum consumption, and concrete measures for securing the effect is included.

  11. Energy simulation in building design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, J.L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Design decision support related to building energy consumption and / or indoor climate, should be based on an integral approach of environment, building, heating, ventilating and airconditioning (HVAC) system and occupants. The tools to achieve this are now available in the form of computer

  12. Energy conservation prospects through electric load management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Shirbeeny, E H.T.

    1984-04-01

    In this paper, concepts of electric load management are discussed for effective energy conservation. It is shown that the conservation program must be comprehensive to provide solutions to the problems facing the electric consumer, the electric utility and the society by reducing the rate of growth of energy consumption and power system peak demand requirements. The impact of energy management programs on electric energy conservation is examined, with emphasis on efficiency, storage, cogeneration and controls with computers.

  13. Recovery Act. Development of a Model Energy Conservation Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-07-05

    The overall objective of this project was to develop an updated model Energy Conservation training program for stationary engineers. This revision to the IUOE National Training Fund’s existing Energy Conservation training curriculum is designed to enable stationary engineers to incorporate essential energy management into routine building operation and maintenance tasks. The curriculum uses a blended learning approach that includes classroom, hands-on, computer simulation and web-based training in addition to a portfolio requirement for a workplace-based learning application. The Energy Conservation training program goal is development of a workforce that can maintain new and existing commercial buildings at optimum energy performance levels. The grant start date was July 6, 2010 and the project continued through September 30, 2012, including a three month non-funded extension.

  14. On the area of tension between energy conservation, environmental impact and IAQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rolloos, M.

    1999-01-01

    With the aim of conserving energy in the building sector, the Dutch Building Regulations incorporate requirements for the energy performance of houses and utility building. Use of the energy performance coefficient (EPC, see Box 1) offers excellent opportunities for enhancing the energy performance

  15. Energy management handbook for building operating engineers student workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    The handbook provides operating engineers with the basic information needed to implement specific energy conservation opportunities, and additional information is presented relative to the formulation and development of the energy management plan. Chapters are entitled: The Need for Energy Management (International Factors, The US Energy Situation, Energy and the Building Owner); The Fundamentals of Energy Consumption in Buildings (Energy Basics, Heat Basics, Heat Flow and the Building Envelope, Air and Comfort, Factors Affecting Energy Use In Buildings); Principles of Energy Conservation (Building Energy Consumption Characteristics); Planning the Energy Management Program (Obtaining Commitment and Support, Establishing the Energy Use Index, Organizing to Develop the Plan, Developing and Implementing the Plan); Conducting a Survey of Facilities and Operations (The Energy Audit, Preparation of Building and Systems Profile, Measurement and Instrumentation); Guidelines for Energy Conservation (Operator ECO's, Owner ECO'S); Developing the Draft Final Plan (Analyze Survey Findings, Putting the Plan on Paper, Review and Submit); Implementing the Program (Developing the Final Plan, Implementing the Plan, Monitoring and Updating the Program). A glossary is included and specific information on degree days and cooling hours for some selected cities and a computer energy study data for the New York Hilton are included in appendices. (MCW)

  16. Energy use in office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    This is the report on Task IB, Familiarization with Additional Data Collection Plans of Annual Survey of BOMA Member and Non-Member Buildings in 20 Cities, of the Energy Use in Office Buildings project. The purpose of the work was to monitor and understand the efforts of the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) in gathering an energy-use-oriented data base. In order to obtain an improved data base encompassing a broad spectrum of office space and with information suitable for energy analysis in greater detail than is currently available, BOMA undertook a major data-collection effort. Based on a consideration of geographic area, climate, population, and availability of data, BOMA selected twenty cities for data collection. BOMA listed all of the major office space - buildings in excess of 40,000 square feet - in each of the cities. Tax-assessment records, local maps, Chamber of Commerce data, recent industrial-development programs, results of related studies, and local-realtor input were used in an effort to assemble a comprehensive office-building inventory. In order to verify the accuracy and completeness of the building lists, BOMA assembled an Ad-Hoc Review Committee in each city to review the assembled inventory of space. A questionnaire on office-building energy use and building characteristics was developed. In each city BOMA assembled a data collection team operating under the supervision of its regional affiliate to gather the data. For each city a random sample of buildings was selected, and data were gathered. Responses for over 1000 buildings were obtained.

  17. Overview of rural building energy efficiency in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Bao-jie; Yang, Li; Ye, Miao; Mou, Ben; Zhou, Yanan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past three decades, people's living standard in China has been greatly improved, accompanied by the rapid increasing building energy consumption. Rural building energy consumption has become one of the most important parts of the total energy consumption in China, which deserves to be paid much attention. It is of vital importance to promote building energy efficiency for the New Socialist Countryside and energy conservation and emission reduction. This paper provides an overview of building energy consumption in the countryside, which figures out the situation and challenges in energy-saving work. The government has worked for years on rural building code system aimed at narrowing the energy gap between urban areas, but it is in the beginning phase. This paper has analyzed the only special issues about rural building energy efficiency and the mandatory standards for urban buildings, which can facilitate the development of rural building energy efficiency. Based on the above analysis, some recommendations regarding the improvement of rural building energy efficiency are given. - Highlights: • Situation of rural energy consumption in China. • Challenges in rural building energy-saving work. • Design standard, special plan and some pilot projects are analyzed. • Effects of existing energy policies for urban buildings. • Some recommendations are given

  18. Indoor air quality issues related to the acquisition of conservation in commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M.C.; Hadley, D.L.; Marseille, T.J.

    1990-09-01

    The quality of indoor air in commercial buildings is dependent on the complex interaction between sources of indoor pollutants, environmental factors within buildings such as temperature and humidity, the removal of air pollutants by air-cleaning devices, and the removal and dilution of pollutants from outside air. To the extent that energy conservation measures (ECMs) may affect a number of these factors, the relationship between ECMs and indoor air quality is difficult to predict. Energy conservation measures may affect pollutant levels in other ways. Conservation measures, such as caulking and insulation, may introduce sources of indoor pollutants. Measures that reduce mechanical ventilation may allow pollutants to build up inside structures. Finally, heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may provide surface areas for the growth of biogenic agents, or may encourage the dissemination of pollutants throughout a building. Information about indoor air quality and ventilation in both new and existing commercial buildings is summarized in this report. Sick building syndrome and specific pollutants are discussed, as are broader issues such as ventilation, general mitigation techniques, and the interaction between energy conservation activities and indoor air quality. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) prepared this review to aid the Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) in its assessment of potential environmental effects resulting from conservation activities in commercial buildings. 76 refs., 2 figs., 19 tabs.

  19. Interference and the Law of Energy Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drosd, Robert; Minkin, Leonid; Shapovalov, Alexander S.

    2014-01-01

    Introductory physics textbooks consider interference to be a process of redistribution of energy from the wave sources in the surrounding space resulting in constructive and destructive interferences. As one can expect, the total energy flux is conserved. However, one case of apparent non-conservation energy attracts great attention. Imagine that…

  20. Consumer Central Energy Flexibility in Office Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility in buildings will play an important role in the smart energy system. Office buildings have more potentials to provide energy flexibility to the grid compared to other types of buildings, due to the existing building management, control systems and large energy consumption....... Consumers in office buildings (building owners/managers and occupants) take a main role for adopting and engaging in building energy flexibility. In this paper provides a systematic review of consumer central energy flexibility in office buildings with the discussion of social, technical and business...... can boost energy flexibility in the office buildings....

  1. Energy efficiency buildings program, FY 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    A separate abstract was prepared on research progress in each group at LBL in the energy efficient buildings program. Two separate abstracts were prepared for the Windows and Lighting Program. Abstracts prepared on other programs are: Energy Performance of Buildings; Building Ventilation and Indoor Air Quality Program; DOE-21 Building Energy Analysis; and Building Energy Data Compilation, Analysis, and Demonstration. (MCW)

  2. Conservation genetics and the resilience of reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Gates, Ruth D

    2006-11-01

    Coral reefs have suffered long-term decline due to a range of anthropogenic disturbances and are now also under threat from climate change. For appropriate management of these vulnerable and valuable ecosystems it is important to understand the factors and processes that determine their resilience and that of the organisms inhabiting them, as well as those that have led to existing patterns of coral reef biodiversity. The scleractinian (stony) corals deposit the structural framework that supports and promotes the maintenance of biological diversity and complexity of coral reefs, and as such, are major components of these ecosystems. The success of reef-building corals is related to their obligate symbiotic association with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium. These one-celled algal symbionts (zooxanthellae) live in the endodermal tissues of their coral host, provide most of the host's energy budget and promote rapid calcification. Furthermore, zooxanthellae are the main primary producers on coral reefs due to the oligotrophic nature of the surrounding waters. In this review paper, we summarize and critically evaluate studies that have employed genetics and/or molecular biology in examining questions relating to the evolution and ecology of reef-building corals and their algal endosymbionts, and that bear relevance to coral reef conservation. We discuss how these studies can focus future efforts, and examine how these approaches enhance our understanding of the resilience of reef-building corals.

  3. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  4. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool... heating equipment and pool heaters. Table I.1--Amended Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water... for national energy and water conservation; and 7. Other factors the Secretary of Energy (Secretary...

  5. Conservation heating for a museum environment in a monumental building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuhaus, E.; Schellen, H.L.

    2007-01-01

    For the conservation of an important museum collection in a historic building a better controlled indoor climate may be necessary. One of the most important factors is controlling relative humidity. Museum collections often are part of the interior of a historic building. In most cases the

  6. 75 FR 20833 - Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...-0012] Building Energy Codes AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of... the current model building energy codes or their equivalent. DOE is interested in better understanding... codes, Standard 90.1-2007, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (or...

  7. Pilot Survey On The Conservation Of Historical Buildings In Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal, Kamarul_Syahril; AbWahab, Lilawati; Ahmad, A_Ghafar

    2008-01-01

    Historic buildings basically represents the single most visible aspect of our past history and culture. Like most other countries in the world, Malaysia has a rich legacy of historic buildings with outstanding craftsmanship and architecture quality. They form an impressive historic features and heritage of the past work of man. It is important to conserve and preserve historic buildings because they provide a sense of identity and continuity in a fast changing world for future generations. Ho...

  8. Performance of two Vermont elementary school integrated energy conservation/solar energy retrofit projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.W. (Marlboro College, VT); Converse, A.O.

    1980-01-01

    Two Vermont elementary school energy conservation/passive solar energy retrofit projects are described. Both masonry buildings were insulated with polystyrene on the east, north and west exterior walls. The south walls of each building were converted to Trombe walls, and, in addition, a portion of the south wall of one building was fitted with a solar greenhouse. The construction details, the predicted performance, and some actual results are reported here.

  9. US energy conservation and efficiency policies. Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K.; Onysko, Ganna [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth; Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future. (author)

  10. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Robert K. [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); McGowan, Elizabeth [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Onysko, Ganna, E-mail: gonysko@thegef.or [Global Environment Facility, Climate Change and Chemicals, 1818 H Street, NW, MSN G6-602, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Scheer, Richard M. [Energetics Incorporated, 7067 Columbia Gateway Drive, Suite 200, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  11. US energy conservation and efficiency policies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Robert K.; McGowan, Elizabeth; Onysko, Ganna; Scheer, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Expanding energy conservation and efficiency in every sector nationwide is one of the most cost-effective instruments for reducing US energy imports, the trade deficit and energy's environmental impacts. For these reasons, energy conservation and efficiency have been essential elements of US energy policy since the oil embargos and price spikes of the 1970s. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA) is the latest federal legislation to expand and strengthen US energy conservation and efficiency policies, programs, and practices. Specifically, EISA and its recent predecessor, the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct05), contain almost 200 titles with new provisions for energy conservation and efficiency aimed at improvements in vehicle fuel economy. These provisions include efficiency of appliances and lighting; energy savings in residential, commercial, and government buildings; the efficiency of industrial manufacturing plants; and the efficiency of electric power delivery and end-use. These actions have begun to contribute to new federal, state, and local policies, programs, and practices across the US, and expectations are high for increases in the level of energy savings. This paper summarizes the history of US energy conservation and efficiency policies, outlines EISA's and EPAct05's key provisions, and considers prospects for the future.

  12. Promoting energy conservation in China's metallurgy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Du, Zhili

    2017-01-01

    China is undergoing rapid industrialization and urbanization, with consequent dramatic increase in energy demand. Given energy scarcity, environmental pollution, energy security and energy cost constraints, energy conservation will be the major strategy in China's transition to a low-carbon economy. Since the metallurgy industry is a main sector of energy consumption, the efficiency of energy conservation in this industry will affect the future prospects of energy savings. This paper analyzes the energy conservation potential of China's metallurgy industry. First, seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to investigate the relationship between energy relative price, R&D input, enterprise ownership structure, enterprise scale and energy intensity of the metallurgy industry. Then, based on the SUR results, we use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consumption and savings potential in the industry in different scenarios. This paper provides references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Seemingly unrelated regression method is applied to analyze the energy intensity of metallurgy industry. • We use the scenario analysis method to predict energy consuming and energy saving of Chinese metallurgy industry. • Provide references for China's government and metallurgy industry in formulating relevant energy conservation policies.

  13. New jobs in the building sector. Employment effects of energy conservation in the built environment; Bouwen en banen. Werkgelegenheidseffecten van energiebesparing in de gebouwde omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkerink, M.; Rougoor, W.; Tieben, B.; Blom, M.; Schepers, B.

    2012-12-15

    Extra investment in energy efficiency in the existing Dutch housing stock would create a significant number of jobs in construction and upstream supply. Depending on the efficiency targets adopted, annual investments of between euro 2.5 and 4 billion would lead to net additional employment of 67,000 to 110,000 man-years through to 2020. Such a programme would entail improving the energy performance of virtually all Dutch homes and would create new jobs in construction and upstream supply, many segments of which are currently suffering a considerable downturn in demand. Unemployment in the building industry is rising rapidly and presently stands at around 40,000. A 2% per annum improvement in energy efficiency through to 2020 would require a total additional investment of around euro 20 billion. Adopting a more robust target (2%+ p.a.) would entail all privately owned homes being upgraded to energy label C and all rented homes to label B. For this scenario a total additional investment of euro 33 billion would be needed. Over and against these investments stand annual savings on energy bills for Dutch households, amounting to euro 1 billion and euro 1.5 billion respectively in the 2% and 2%+ scenario. Depending on how the scheme is funded, there may be a net monthly windfall for households as a result of such investments in energy efficiency [Dutch] Extra investeringen in energiebesparing bij bestaande gebouwen leveren een fors aantal banen in de bouw en de toeleverende industrie op. Dat is de conclusie uit een studie van SEO Economisch Onderzoek en CE Delft voor het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu. Afhankelijk van de besparingsdoelstelling leiden de investeringen van 2,5 tot 4 miljard euro per jaar tot netto werkgelegenheid van 67.000 tot 110.000 arbeidsjaren tot 2020. Het betekent dat vrijwel alle woningen energetisch verbeterd moeten worden. De investeringen leveren nieuwe werkgelegenheid in de bouw en toeleverende industrie, waar op veel fronten nu

  14. Illinois energy conservation plan report: 1979 revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-02-01

    In response to Energy Policy and this Conservation Act (PL 94-163) and Energy Conservation and Production Act (PL 94-385), this paper describes the activities to be undertaken by Illinois to meet the mandatory requirements of the Acts and to carry out other activities to encourage energy conservation by energy-consuming sectors in the state. Programs reach the residential, commercial/industrial, agricultural, educational, transportation, and government sectors. The overall goal of the program is to reduce projected energy consumption in 1980 by 5% through information and educational activities.

  15. Energy conservation employing membrane-based technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    Membranes based processes, if properly adapted to industrial processes have good potential with regard to optimisation and economisation of energy consumption. The specific benefits of MBT (membrane based technology) as an energy conservation methodology are highlighted. (author). 6 refs

  16. Nature conservation guidelines for renewable energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    English Nature commissions this report in order to identify the likely nature conservation implications of renewable energy developments and for wind farm proposals in particular, to give guidance on siting criteria to minimise the nature conservation impact. The report is intended to be of use to developers, local planning authority staff and other interested parties in considering a renewable energy project. In consequence, the report concentrates on planning and nature conservation matters and outlines technical issues where relevant. (UK)

  17. Conservation as an alternative energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    A speech is given outlining the energy situation in the United States. It is warned that the existing energy situation cannot prevail and the time is fast running out for continued growth or even maintenance of present levels. Energy conservation measures are given as an aid to decrease U.S. energy consumption, which would allow more time to develop alternative sources of energy.

  18. Energy conservation potential of surface modification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, H.K.; Horne, D.M.; Silberglitt, R.S.

    1985-09-01

    This report assesses the energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries. The energy conservation impact of surface modification technologies on the metalworking industries is assessed by estimating their friction and wear tribological sinks and the subsequent reduction in these sinks when surface modified tools are used. Ion implantation, coatings, and laser and electron beam surface modifications are considered.

  19. Workplace Energy Conservation at Michigan State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Summer; Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This research contributes to the literature on workplace energy conservation by examining the predictors of individual employee behaviors and policy support in a university. The purpose of this research is to better understand what factors influence energy conservation behaviors in this setting to inform programs and interventions.…

  20. Towards a more conservative energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forman, N.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is treated under the following headings: the meaning of energy policy; previous attempts to formulate United Kingdom energy policy; patterns of energy supply and demand (in the UK) (current and future); towards a more conservative energy policy (the use of energy in the various sectors, the conversion and distribution of energy (coal, nuclear power, electricity, oil and gas, renewable sources)); energy policy in broader perspective (international context, cost benefit assessments, contrasting patterns of energy use, ethical issues). (U.K.)

  1. Energy efficient buildings : a plan for BC : creating a legacy of energy efficient buildings in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-10-01

    A plan to conserve energy and improve energy efficiency in homes and buildings in British Columbia was presented. Benefits of the plan included savings for consumers throughout BC; an increase in the value of homes and buildings; a return on investment after an average of 5 years; improved comfort and indoor air quality in buildings; creation of equipment manufacturing, building design, development and trades jobs across the province; and reduced environmental impacts, including greenhouse gas (GHG) and smog-creating air emissions. An outline of cost-effective energy efficiency targets was presented to complement ongoing local, provincial and federal programs. A number of market challenges were reviewed, such as the lack of information available to consumers on energy efficiency, the increased initial cost of energy efficient buildings, and the fact that opportunities to reduce energy consumption after construction are limited and expensive. It was suggested that energy consumers are not often aware of the environmental and social costs of over-consumption of energy. Details of existing programs that support energy efficiency were presented, as well as information concerning sales tax exemptions for high efficiency heating equipment and other materials used to conserve energy. Various provincial policies and incentives supporting energy conservation were outlined. Cost-effective targets for energy efficiency for new and existing buildings were presented, as well as details of rebates for homeowners. Capital costs for new construction standards were presented, as well as details of incentives and provincial sales tax exemptions

  2. 78 FR 51463 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... merging the metal halide lamp fixture and the high-intensity discharge (HID) lamp rulemakings. This NOPR... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal...: Energy Conservation Standards for Metal Halide Lamp Fixtures AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and...

  3. Establishing a commercial building energy data framework for India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Maithili [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kumar, Satish [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Mathew, Sangeeta [Alliance for an Energy Efficient Economy, New Delhi (India); Stratton, Hannah [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Singh, Mohini [Synurja, Inc. (India)

    2018-04-18

    Buildings account for over 40% of the world’s energy consumption and are therefore a key contributor to a country’s energy as well as carbon budget. Understanding how buildings use energy is critical to understanding how related policies may impact energy use. Data enables decision making, and good quality data arms consumers with the tools to compare their energy performance to their peers, allowing them to differentiate their buildings in the real estate market on the basis of their energy footprint. Good quality data are also essential for policy makers to prioritize their energy saving strategies and track implementation. The United States’ Commercial Building Energy Consumption Survey (CBECS) is an example of a successful data framework that is highly useful for governmental and nongovernmental initiatives related to benchmarking energy forecasting, rating systems and metrics, and more. The Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE) in India developed the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) and launched the Star Labeling program for a few energy-intensive building segments as a significant first step. However, a data driven policy framework for systematically targeting energy efficiency in both new construction and existing buildings has largely been missing. There is no quantifiable mechanism currently in place to track the impact of code adoption through regular reporting/survey of energy consumption in the commercial building stock. In this paper we present findings from our study that explored use cases and approaches for establishing a commercial buildings data framework for India.

  4. Jersey City energy conservation demonstration program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newbold, R.F.

    1978-08-01

    The Aerospace Corporation, the City Government, and the Board of Education of Jersey City have conducted a group of energy-conservation experiments to explore a number of conservation techniques believed to offer quick payback and to be of wide applicability. Experiments include the updating and/or rehabilitation of the energy-consuming features of old buildings and installation of devices designed to minimize energy losses caused by human error or laxity. Specific examples include: upgrading of the deteriorated and inefficient steam-distribution system of the city hall (originally constructed in 1894); an extensive program of reducing infiltration in an old school building; use of several timing devices in connection with heating, ventilation, and lighting systems to encourage energy-conservation practices; retrofit of school classrooms with high-pressure sodium lamps; and demonstration of practical and cost-effective ways of increasing the efficiency of conventional steam boilers. The report presents: the nature of the selected experiments; technical, human, and organizational factors that proved significant in performing and evaluating the experiments; discussions of observations and lessons learned; and general recommendations for an extended program of energy conservation in local governments. It is emphasized that, in retrofit of existing buildings, the unexpected is commonplace; and the habits and attitudes of building occupants are elements of the system that must always be taken into account. This report shows the benefits of energy saving, cost saving, and added comfort that may be attained by retrofitting old buildings, noting typical complications that arise. The effectiveness of the conservation methods is presented in terms of costs relative to effective payback periods calculated from results of their application in Jersey City.

  5. An analysis of energy conservation measure costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.; Ellis, R.; Gellineau, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a Denver Support Office project to evaluate cost estimation in the Institutional Conservation Program. Unit cost characteristics and cost prediction accuracy were evaluated from 1,721 Energy Conservation Measures (ECMs) and 390 Technical Assistance (TA) reports funded in the last six years. This information is especially useful to state and DOE review engineers in determining the reasonableness of future cost estimates. The estimated cost provisions for TA report grants were generally adequate to cover the actual costs. Individually, there was a tendency for TA reports to cost less than estimated by about 10%. TA report unit costs averaged $.09 to $.11 per square foot, and decreased as the building size increased. Individually, there was a tendency for ECMs to cost more than estimated by about 17%. Overall, the estimated costs of the 1,721 measures were $20.4 minion, while the actual costs were $21.4 million. This 4.6% difference indicates that, overall, ECM cost estimates have provided a reasonable basis for grant awards. There was a high variation in ECM unit costs. The data did not support speculation that there is a tendency to manipulate cost estimates to fit ECMs within the simple payback eligibility criteria of 2 to 10 years

  6. Conservation and energy efficiency plan 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    This plan outlined details of Nova Scotia's proposed $5 million incremental investment in energy efficiency and conservation measures in 2006. The plan was developed through consultation with various Canadian utilities, customers and external stakeholders. A team of stakeholders identified lighting, pricing, partnerships and education as opportunities offering the greatest potential for results. Market research was conducted to identify market potential and the identification of barriers to customer adoption of programs as well as customer expectations regarding program implementation. It was anticipated that the plan will reduce electricity usage and result in significant savings for customers, as well as reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The aim of the plan is to help build a conservation and energy efficiency culture in Nova Scotia and to bring Nova Scotia Power together with community-based partners. Specific plans for 2007 included: a 72 GWh reduction in annual electricity usage; approximately $7.7 million in annual savings to customers; a 16 MW reduction in peak electricity demand; and a 50 thousand tonne reduction of GHGs. A business case was presented along with details of proposed residential, commercial and industrial programs. A cost benefit analysis was provided, as well as an outline of the plan's budget and organizational structure. It was concluded that the success of the various program elements will be based on quantitative and qualitative data on the actual effect on energy use of each customer sector, as well as its effect on system demand profiles. Data will be collected through the use of customer surveys, questionnaires, and direct feedback from partners, educators and manufactures and suppliers. 11 tabs., 16 figs

  7. Indian energy conservation- status and strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmalingam, P.

    1996-01-01

    High rates of inflation combined with social justice against a backdrop of ever increasing population- this is a challenge which the Government of India is facing today. It is evident that the annual growth rate of 5.6% as envisaged for the VIIIth five year plan can never be met unless conscious efforts are made to augment energy supplies by energy demand management through energy conservation. In this context, a review of the energy consuming sectors in terms of their consumption trends, energy efficiencies or intensities, energy conservation opportunities, technologies used and energy investment programmes would prove useful and informative. (author). 10 tabs

  8. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... DeLonghi); energy and environmental advocates (American Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ACEEE... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EERE-2013-BT-STD-0020] RIN 1904-AC98 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  9. Energy conservation: its planning and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanda, K.S.; Patra, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Energy conservation, its planning and management and the development of renewable energy systems of proven design are very worthy challenges for all. Energy education at various levels is most important particularly in the development of renewable energy technology. 2 refs., 3 tabs

  10. Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)

  11. Resilient design in the conservation of Johar market heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesmanto, Totok

    2017-12-01

    Johar Market building based on Law of Repubic of Indonesia No.11 of 2010 is a heritage building. It was built in 1936 located near traditional square of Pasebaan and Aloon- Aloon was built by Dutch merchants union in 1678. Semarang based on decentralized policy by the Dutch Government in 1906 became a trading city. Rapid development of trading activities has caused the city planning policy by Semarang Government since 1970 made Aloon-Aloon become market buildings. Johar Market and market buildings in surrounding were on fire in 2015. Basing on Law No.11 of 2010 Semarang Government plans to conserve Johar Market heritage building and reconstruct Aloon-Aloon based on proposal of Roesmanto in 2016. The architect bureau assigned by the Semarang Government designed a new building in the middle of South-Johar Market to accommodate Johar merchants. This study aims to evaluate the design of new building by the architect bureau considering that since 2012 the city of Semarang including earthquake prone areas. The revitalization of Johar Market should use resilient design in order to prevent future damages to heritage buildings located nearby and new building must be spaced sufficiently against surrounding heritage buildings. This research uses descriptive qualitative method base on the field data after Johar Market burned and design planned bureau architect. The results of this study found that the distance between new building and heritage building is less wide.

  12. Energy modelling and capacity building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Planning and Economic Studies Section of the IAEA's Department of Nuclear Energy is focusing on building analytical capacity in MS for energy-environmental-economic assessments and for the elaboration of sustainable energy strategies. It offers a variety of analytical models specifically designed for use in developing countries for (i) evaluating alternative energy strategies; (ii) assessing environmental, economic and financial impacts of energy options; (iii) assessing infrastructure needs; (iv) evaluating regional development possibilities and energy trade; (v) assessing the role of nuclear power in addressing priority issues (climate change, energy security, etc.). These models can be used for analysing energy or electricity systems, and to assess possible implications of different energy, environmental or financial policies that affect the energy sector and energy systems. The models vary in complexity and data requirements, and so can be adapted to the available data, statistics and analytical needs of different countries. These models are constantly updated to reflect changes in the real world and in the concerns that drive energy system choices. They can provide thoughtfully informed choices for policy makers over a broader range of circumstances and interests. For example, they can readily reflect the workings of competitive energy and electricity markets, and cover such topics as external costs. The IAEA further offers training in the use of these models and -just as important- in the interpretation and critical evaluation of results. Training of national teams to develop national competence over the full spectrum of models, is a high priority. The IAEA maintains a broad spectrum of databanks relevant to energy, economic and environmental analysis in MS, and make these data available to analysts in MS for use in their own analytical work. The Reference Technology Data Base (RTDB) and the Reference Data Series (RDS-1) are the major vehicles by which we

  13. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  14. Estimating energy conservation patterns of Greek households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardianou, Eleni

    2007-01-01

    This paper develops an empirical model to investigate the main determinants of household energy conservation patterns in Greece employing cross-section data. In the empirical analysis, household energy-conserving choices models are employed, using a discrete and a latent trait variable respectively as a dependent variable. The results show that socio-economic variables such as consumers' income and family size are suitable to explain differences towards energy conservation preferences. In addition, the results suggest that electricity expenditures and age of the respondent are negatively associated with the number of energy-conserving actions that a consumer is willing to adopt. Finally, other variables such as environmental information feedback and consciousness of energy problems are characteristics of the energy-saver consumer. By evaluating consumer's decision-making process with regards to energy conservation measures, we are able to formulate and propose an effective energy conservation framework for Greece. An energy policy framework is among the main prerequisites not only to achieve sustainable development but also to maintain consumers' quality of life

  15. Grant request: to implement energy conservation measures as part of the state original and supplemental energy conservation plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-16

    The program measures described in this document comprise a grant request to DOE under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 and the Energy Conservation and Production Act of 1976. The amount requested, $5,555,000, will allow the extension, acceleration, and implementation of energy conservation activities already in progress in California. Accomplishments to date have included the adoption of residential standards, and the implementation of an energy survey program for public buildings. Efficiency standards have been established for refrigerators and room and central air conditioners, appliances which utilize a significant amount of residential energy. Before the end of 1977, efficiency standards will be established for clothes dryers, washers, and water heaters. Program elements are: technical/financial assistance; public awareness; standards setting; solar element; research/analysis/evaluation; and coordination and management.

  16. 75 FR 17036 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for small electric motors, which was published on March 9, 2010. In that final rule, the U.S... titled ``Energy Conservation Standards for Small Electric Motors.'' 75 FR 10874. Since the publication of...

  17. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  18. Energy conservations from an environmental viewpoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijikata, Kunio [Tokyo Inst. of Technology, Ohokayama, Meguroku (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    It is not incorrect to state that all major environmental problems, such as the greenhouse effect, destruction of the ozone layer from CFC`s, acid rain due to air pollution by NOx and SOx, etc., are caused by excessive industrial and residential energy consumption. Considering the finite world energy resources and limited global space, the day might be already upon us in which the total amount of energy consumption in the world should be reduced. To maintain a high living standard without increasing energy consumption, waste energy recovery and energy conservation are vitally important. In order to effective use of energy resources, we should really know the meaning of the energy consumption and the characteristics of energy resources. In this paper, the technological aspects of energy conservation are stated from the standpoint of available energy.

  19. 78 FR 72533 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Certain Consumer Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... published on October 23, 2013. That final rule adopted changes to definitions and energy conservation... revised definition and revised energy conservation standards for small duct high velocity central air... Congress has provided in the AEMTCA for the Secretary of Energy to revise definitions and energy...

  20. From (c)old house to an energy-saving house. Information on the energy conservation in the old building; Vom (K)althaus zum Energiesparhaus. Wissenswertes ueber die Energieeinsparung im Altbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicke-Hennig, Werner; Fey, Klaus

    2013-04-01

    The contribution under consideration reports on energy savings opportunities for one- and two-family houses which account for a large part of the building stock. The halving of the consumption of heating energy is a clear message. With the following six steps, an energy efficient house can be attained from each house: insulation of the roof, insulation of exterior walls, new windows with heat-insulating glass, insulating of the basement ceiling, modernization of the heating system as by condensing boilers, power-saving circulating pump, solar water heating system.

  1. Energy savings in Polish buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markel, L.C.; Gula, A.; Reeves, G.

    1995-12-31

    A demonstration of low-cost insulation and weatherization techniques was a part of phase 1 of the Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficient Project. The objectives were to identify a cost-effective set of measures to reduce energy used for space heating, determine how much energy could be saved, and foster widespread implementation of those measures. The demonstration project focused on 4 11-story buildings in a Krakow housing cooperative. Energy savings of over 20% were obtained. Most important, the procedures and materials implemented in the demonstration project have been adapted to Polish conditions and applied to other housing cooperatives, schools, and hospitals. Additional projects are being planned, in Krakow and other cities, under the direction of FEWE-Krakow, the Polish Energie Cities Network, and Biuro Rozwoju Krakowa.

  2. Profit by conserving energy in your restaurant. Economies d'energie et profits a la carte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    This manual is aimed at the Canadian restaurant sector with a view of promoting sound energy conservation practices. Monitoring is recommended to identify energy consumption and measure results of a conservation effects. These efforts can be done with respect to selection, operation, and maintenance of restaurant equipment used in food preparation, HVAC systems, refrigeration, water heating, and lighting. Overall building design and planning of new installations are also considered. 27 figs.

  3. US National energy policy: conservation and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michna, J.; Bednarz, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents extracts from an extended review devoted to recent changes and current trends in the national energy policy pursued in the USA. In 2001 the President Bush proposed an energy strategy for the period to 2025 that would promote energy conservation, repair and expand energy infrastructure, and increase energy supply while protecting the environment. The material stresses the importance of a sound national energy policy addressing supply, energy distribution and conservation. Well - illustrated data are given on the energy production and consumption (total, per capita, per $, by category, by fuel, etc.) and on the emissions (by sector, by fuel, by region, etc.). Giving an accurate account of the current situation with energy in America and a vision of its development for the first quarter of our century, these data are helpful for analyzing the national energy policies in other countries, post - transitional included. (authors)

  4. Principles of the Energy Conservation Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeman, J.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes 21 principles of the draft Energy Conservation Bill. The principles lay down fundamental responsibilities of the government, the municipalities, business entities, citizens and power plants in the field of economical energy management. Included are principles to minimize energy consumption and to stimulate a reasonable energy management, the role of the energy distribution network, responsibilities of the central load dispatching center, and power plant output regulation schemes. (J.B.)

  5. Load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kexel, D.T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the economics of load building versus conservation as demand-side management objectives. Economic criteria to be used in evaluating each type of program from the perspectives of all impacted parties are provided. The impact of DSM programs on electric rates is shown to be a key focal point of a thorough evaluation

  6. Energy conservation in India: a profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The decade and half since the oil crisis of 1973 has been a period that has witnessed a steady growth of the energy conservation ethos in India. Housekeeping and low risk conservation options have been largely preferred so far. The IMWG (Inter-Ministerial Working Group on Utilization and Conservation of Energy) study did not evaluate potential saving through the introduction of high risk and high pay-off technologies. The potential for energy conservation in India is substantial. However, some of the barriers to achieving the potential in the past have been energy prices which deviate from rational tariffs and prices, a lack of information on specific measures and of options for achieving energy conservation, paucity of capital for schemes requiring technology upgradation and efficiency improvements, and the inadequacy if institutional arrangement for promoting energy conservation in different sectors of the economy. Recent efforts pursued by several organizations however provide some basis for optimism. Given the growing capital intensity of the energy sector in India, more vigorous efforts are likely to be made in the future. In particular, success stories in some industrial units indicate that decentralized efforts by the units themselves can achieve a great deal in improving the efficiency of energy use, particularly in the Indian industry. Policies to promote such programmes would help accelerate energy conservation efforts in industrial units and in other sectors. It is therefore hoped that the intensity of energy use in several sectors of the indian economy will be reduced significantly in the coming years. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  7. A compendium of energy conservation: Success stories 90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  8. A Compendium of Energy Conservation: Success Stories 90

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy proudly presents this summary of some its most successful projects and activities. The projects included in this document have made significant contributions to improving energy efficiency and fuel flexibility in the United States. The energy savings that can be realized from these projects are considerable. Americans have shown an impressive ability to reduce energy consumption since 1973. Studies show that 34 quadrillion Btus (quads) of energy were saved in 1988 alone as a result of energy conservation and other factors. These savings, worth approximately $180 billion, represent more energy than the United States obtains from any other single source. The availability of new, energy-efficient technologies has been an important ingredient in achieving these savings. Federal efforts to develop and commercialize energy-saving technologies and processes are a part of the reason for this progress. Over the past 10 years, DOE has carefully invested more than $2 billion in hundreds of research and development (R&D) projects to ensure the availability of advanced technology in the marketplace. These energy-efficient projects are carried out through DOE's Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy and reflect opportunities in the three energy-consuming, end-use sectors of the economy: buildings, transportation, and industry.

  9. Energy consumption and conservation, evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-04-01

    The energy consumption is increasing of more than 1% each year. It is necessary to slow down this growth and much better to inverse it. Observing the main consumption posts, energy saving is possible at short dated for the residential sector and medium and long dated for the transports and the industry. Anyway the individual behaviors are essential. The author presents the situation for each posts, providing data on the energy consumption and saving and recommendations. (A.L.B.)

  10. Energy audit role in building planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipahutar, Riman; Bizzy, Irwin

    2017-11-01

    An energy audit is one way to overcome the excessive use of energy in buildings. The increasing growth of population, economy, and industry will have an impact on energy demand and the formation of greenhouse gas emissions. Indonesian National Standard (SNI) concerning the building has not been implemented optimally due to the socialization process by a government not yet been conducted. An energy audit of buildings has been carried out at offices and public services. Most electrical energy in buildings used for air refresher equipment or air conditioning. Calculation of OTTV has demonstrated the importance of performing since the beginning of the planning of a building to get energy-efficient buildings.

  11. Energy conservation investments: A comparison between China and the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jiang

    2007-01-01

    Growth in energy consumption in China has soared from 2001 to 2004, driven largely by a booming economy and heavy investment in infrastructure and housing. In response, China has poured billions of dollars of investment in building power plants-at a rate of one large power plant (1000 MW) per week. In fact, China in 2004 has added the entire generating capacity of California or Spain in a single year. In contrast, investment in energy conservation projects has weakened considerably in recent years. This paper examines trends in energy efficiency investments in China and the US. The comparison highlights the potential of energy conservation investments in addressing China's current energy crisis as well as the inadequacy of such investments in China. Finally, the paper outlines a few scenarios for appropriate levels of investments in energy efficiency in China in the future

  12. Conservation without borders: building communication and action across disciplinary boundaries for effective conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margles, Shawn W; Peterson, Richard B; Ervin, Jamison; Kaplin, Beth A

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary approaches to conservation research and environmental management continue to garner interest among practitioners, academics, and students. Yet, cases of practitioners and researchers from different disciplines successfully working in concert towards an integrated conservation approach are rare. What is preventing practitioners of multiple disciplines from harmoniously working together? Why are practitioners and academics struggling to apply their graduate training to real world conservation? What is preventing the benefits of cooperation and partnerships between different disciplines addressing conservation from being realized? This special issue "Conservation without Borders: Building Communication and Action across Disciplinary Boundaries for Effective Conservation" asks readers to consider the numerous interpretations and implications of the phrase "Conservation without Borders" and to reflect on how different academic and disciplinary lenses can contribute to a more integrated approach to tackling conservation challenges. The articles that comprise this special issue offer readers insights into the ways in which different disciplines view conservation work and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental problems. Bringing these perspectives and approaches together in one place is a step towards improving communication across disciplines for the purpose of achieving more successful biodiversity conservation.

  13. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  14. NET-ZERO ENERGY BUILDING OPERATOR TRAINING PROGRAM (NZEBOT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizendine, Anthony; Byars, Nan; Sleiti, Ahmad; Gehrig, Bruce; Lu, Na

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Net-Zero Energy Building Operator Training Program (NZEBOT) was to develop certificate level training programs for commercial building owners, managers and operators, principally in the areas of energy / sustainability management. The expected outcome of the project was a multi-faceted mechanism for developing the skill-based competency of building operators, owners, architects/engineers, construction professionals, tenants, brokers and other interested groups in energy efficient building technologies and best practices. The training program draws heavily on DOE supported and developed materials available in the existing literature, as well as existing, modified, and newly developed curricula from the Department of Engineering Technology & Construction Management (ETCM) at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte (UNC-Charlotte). The project goal is to develop a certificate level training curriculum for commercial energy and sustainability managers and building operators that: 1) Increases the skill-based competency of building professionals in energy efficient building technologies and best practices, and 2) Increases the workforce pool of expertise in energy management and conservation techniques. The curriculum developed in this project can subsequently be used to establish a sustainable energy training program that can contribute to the creation of new “green” job opportunities in North Carolina and throughout the Southeast region, and workforce training that leads to overall reductions in commercial building energy consumption. Three energy training / education programs were developed to achieve the stated goal, namely: 1. Building Energy/Sustainability Management (BESM) Certificate Program for Building Managers and Operators (40 hours); 2. Energy Efficient Building Technologies (EEBT) Certificate Program (16 hours); and 3. Energy Efficent Buildings (EEB) Seminar (4 hours). Training Program 1 incorporates the following

  15. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Salah, Wael [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Mujeebu, M. Abdul [School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2009-06-15

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors. (author)

  16. Analysis of sectoral energy conservation in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mofleh, Anwar; Taib, Soib; Mujeebu, M. Abdul; Salah, Wael

    2009-01-01

    The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years, and modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. This article presents a comprehensive picture of the current status of energy consumption and various energy conservation options viable for Malaysian environment. A detailed survey is made to assess the consumption pattern and the existing techniques for energy efficiency. Based on the survey, the feasibility of improving the available systems and adopting new programs in different sectors is investigated. The study reveals the fact that the energy conservation policy of the country has been fairly improved in the last ten years. However the country has to pay more attention to this area and make urgent measures to adopt more energy efficient technologies in various sectors.

  17. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  18. Buildings energy efficiency in the Southeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    In June 1992, energy service providers from around the Southeastern United States gathered at the Shenandoah Environment and Education Center of Georgia Power Company, to discuss issues related to energy efficiency buildings in the region. The meeting was organized by an ad hoc planning committee under the auspices of the Atlanta Support Office of the DOE. The objectives of the Workshop were to provide a forum for regional energy service providers to discuss matters of mutual concern and to identify issues of particular relevance to the Southeast. What characterizes energy use in the Southeast Most lists would include rapid population growth, high temperatures and humidity, a large air conditioning load on utilities, a relatively clean environment, and regulatory processes that seek to keep energy prices low. There was less unanimity on what are the priority issues. No definitive list of priorities emerged from the workshop. Participants did identify several areas where work should be initiated: networking, training/certification/education, performance of technical measures, and studies of market forces/incentives/barriers. The most frequently mentioned context for these work areas was that of utility programs. Presentations given during the first morning provided attendees an overview of energy use in the region and of building energy conservation programs being implemented both by state agencies and by utilities. These were the base for breakout and plenary sessions in which attendees expressed their views on specific topics. The regional need mentioned most often at the workshop was for networking among energy service providers in the region. In this context, this report itself is a follow up action. Participants also requested a regional directory of energy program resources. DOE agreed to assemble a preliminary directory based upon input from workshop attendees. Because the response was quick and positive, a directory is part of this document.

  19. Regulation proposal for voluntary energy efficiency labelling of commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberts, Roberto; Goulart, Solange; Carlo, Joyce; Westphal, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Despite of Brazil not being between the major world energy consumers, the consumption of electricity has significantly increased in the late years. The National Energy Balance of 2005, published by the Brazilian Ministry of Energy, showed an increasing of the participation of electricity in the final energy consumption of 15.7% in 2002 to 16.2% in 2004. Initially, a brief review of the initiatives taken by Brazilian Government aiming to limit and control the energy consumption in buildings is presented. Then, the regulation proposal containing the technical requirements to classify the energy efficiency level of buildings is shown. The purpose of this voluntary regulation is to provide conditions to certify the energy efficiency level of Brazilian buildings (commercial and public). It specifies the methods for energy efficiency rating of buildings and includes requirements to attend energy conservation measures in three main issues: lighting system; air conditioning system and envelope. The regulation applies to large buildings (minimum total area of 500 m 2 or when the energy demand is greater than or equal to 2,3 kV, including: Conditioned buildings; Partially conditioned buildings and Naturally ventilated buildings. (author)

  20. Labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Three papers are presented discussing the labor and energy impacts of energy-conservation measures, namely: Generation of the Industry/Occupation Wage Matrix and Related Matters, by Carole Green; Job Shifts from Energy Conservation (Salary Distribution Effects), by Robert A. Herendeen; and Energy and Labor Implication of Improving Thermal Integrity of New Houses, by John Joseph Nangle. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  1. The Role of Energy Storage in Commercial Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Prakash Kumar, Nirupama; Bandyopadhyay, Gopal K.; Finley, C.; Koritarov, V. S.; Molburg, J. C.; Wang, J.; Zhao, Fuli; Brackney, L.; Florita, A. R.

    2010-09-30

    Motivation and Background of Study This project was motivated by the need to understand the full value of energy storage (thermal and electric energy storage) in commercial buildings, the opportunity of benefits for building operations and the potential interactions between a building and a smart grid infrastructure. On-site or local energy storage systems are not new to the commercial building sector; they have been in place in US buildings for decades. Most building-scale storage technologies are based on thermal or electrochemical storage mechanisms. Energy storage technologies are not designed to conserve energy, and losses associated with energy conversion are inevitable. Instead, storage provides flexibility to manage load in a building or to balance load and generation in the power grid. From the building owner's perspective, storage enables load shifting to optimize energy costs while maintaining comfort. From a grid operations perspective, building storage at scale could provide additional flexibility to grid operators in managing the generation variability from intermittent renewable energy resources (wind and solar). To characterize the set of benefits, technical opportunities and challenges, and potential economic values of storage in a commercial building from both the building operation's and the grid operation's view-points is the key point of this project. The research effort was initiated in early 2010 involving Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify these opportunities from a commercial buildings perspective. This report summarizes the early discussions, literature reviews, stakeholder engagements, and initial results of analyses related to the overall role of energy storage in commercial buildings. Beyond the summary of roughly eight months of effort by the laboratories, the report attempts to substantiate the importance of

  2. Intervention strategies for energy efficient municipal buildings: Influencing energy decisions throughout buildings` lifetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    The current energy-related decisionmaking processes that take place during the lifetimes of municipal buildings in San Francisco do not reflect our ideal picture of energy efficiency as a part of staff awareness and standard practice. Two key problems that undermine the success of energy efficiency programs are lost opportunities and incomplete actions. These problems can be caused by technology-related issues, but often the causes are institutional barriers (organizational or procedural {open_quotes}people problems{close_quotes}). Energy efficient decisions are not being made because of a lack of awareness or policy mandate, or because financial resources are not available to decisionmakers. The Bureau of Energy Conservation (BEC) is working to solve such problems in the City & County of San Francisco through the Intervention Strategies project. In the first phase of the project, using the framework of the building lifetime, we learned how energy efficiency in San Francisco municipal buildings can be influenced through delivering services to support decisionmakers; at key points in the process of funding, designing, constructing and maintaining them. The second phase of the project involved choosing and implementing five pilot projects. Through staff interviews, we learned how decisions that impact energy use are made at various levels. We compiled information about city staff and their needs, and resources available to meet those needs. We then designed actions to deliver appropriate services to staff at these key access points. BEC implemented five pilot projects corresponding to various stages in the building`s lifetime. These were: Bond Guidelines, Energy Efficient Design Practices, Commissioning, Motor Efficiency, and Facilities Condition Monitoring Program.

  3. Energy conserving dehumidification of greenhouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, de H.F.

    2014-01-01

    As greenhouses become better insulated and increasingly airtight, the humidity of the inside air rises easily and may become unfavourably high. Therefore, most greenhouses frequently open their vents to remove the moisture excess. When heated, opening the vents will increase the energy consumption.

  4. Compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Wei; Garmston, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly stringent building energy regulations worldwide, non-compliance exists in practice. This paper examines the profile of compliance with building energy regulations for new-build dwellings. In total 404 new-build dwellings completed in the UK from 2006 to 2009 were investigated. Only a third of these dwellings were evidenced as being compliant with Building Regulations Part L (England and Wales). Such low compliance casts a serious concern over the achievability of the UK Government's target for all new-build homes to be ‘zero carbon’ from 2016. Clearly evidenced was a lack of knowledge of Part L and its compliance requirements among the supply and building control sides of new-build dwellings. The results also indicate that the compliance profile was influenced by factors including Standard Assessment Procedure (UK Government's methodology for energy efficiency) calculation submissions, learning and experience of builders and building controls with Part L, use of Part L1A checklist, the introduction of energy performance certificate (EPC), build method, dwelling type, and project size. Better compliance was associated with flats over houses and timber frame over masonry. The use of EPC and Part L1A checklist should be encouraged. Key to addressing the lack of compliance with building energy regulations is training. -- Highlights: ► There exists a lack of compliance, worldwide, with building energy regulations. ► The implementation of England and Wales building energy regulations is problematic. ► Training, learning and experience of builders and building control are critical. ► Energy performance certificate and Part L 2006 checklist helped achieve compliance. ► Flats achieved better compliance over houses; and timber frame over masonry.

  5. Motivated creativity: A conservation of energy approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation developed a novel conservation of energy principle to explain how approach and avoidance motivation influence performance. On the one hand, we showed that avoidance motivated people can excel when they are sufficiently stimulated to invest their energy and cognitive resources. This

  6. Exploration of energy conservation opportunities through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, R.K.; Swain, A.K.; Subudhi, B.

    1994-01-01

    Developing countries like India, has to cater the imbalance of energy between the supply and demand in almost all the sectors, so as to devise energy conservation strategies. Electricity is one of the most convenient form of energy gifted to the mankind. The raising cost of electricity and the need to raise large resources to meet the required demand is only at the most of other important assets of the country. This gap between demand and supply can be partially met by appropriate energy conservation schemes through energy audit- a scientific approach for balancing the supply and demand. India has to go a long way ahead in it, therefore, energy audit has been initiated at vulnerable energy consuming places. This paper presents the effectiveness of energy audit strategy in achieving energy conservation. The energy audit of Shrama Shakti Bhavan, an office complex at New Delhi, has been taken as a case study for this work. (author). 2 refs., 12 tabs

  7. Exploration of energy conservation opportunities through energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, R.K.; Swain, A.K.; Subudhi, B.

    1995-01-01

    Developing countries like India, has to cater to the imbalance of energy between the supply and demand in almost all the sectors, so as to devise energy conservation strategies. Electricity is one of the most convenient form of energy gifted to the mankind. The raising cost of electricity and the need to raise large resources to meet the required demand is only at the cost of other important assets of the country. This gap between demand and supply can be partially met by appropriate energy conservation schemes through energy audit- a scientific approach for balancing the supply and demand. India has to go a long way ahead in it, therefore, energy audit has been initiated at vulnerable energy consuming places. This paper presents the effectiveness of energy audit strategy in achieving energy conservation. The energy audit of Shrama Shakti Bhavan, an office complex at New Delhi, has been taken as a case study. (author). 2 refs., 12 tabs

  8. Energy as form giver: conservation technologies in architecture's future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vosbeck, R R

    1981-07-01

    The need to conserve energy has changed architecture, which now has distinct energy-conscious designs and a new design vocabulary. Future designs will consider how energy affects buildings and minimize the impact in siting and landscaping decisions. Existing buildings must also be accommodated. No building performance standards exist yet that allow architects to be creative, although architects are working more closely with engineers and builders. Earth-sheltering designs will have to overcome psychological barriers, but the opportunities to preserve open space and views will improve their acceptability. The American Institute of Archiects will assume leadership in this area, but it will not take over all the research programs abandoned by the Reagan administration. Future housing will be more compact, grouped, and closely integrated. (DCK)

  9. Commercial Buildings Energy Performance within Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2015-01-01

    Existing commercial buildings represent a challenge in the energy efficiency domain. Energy efficiency of a building, very often equalized to a building’s performance should not be observed as a standalone issue. For commercial buildings, energy efficiency needs to be observed and assessed within...

  10. Building Energy-Efficiency Best Practice Policies and Policy Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); de la Rue de Can, Stephane [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Williams, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Amann, Jennifer Thorne [American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy (ACEEE), Washington, D.C. (United States); Staniaszek, Dan [Sustainability Consulting Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-26

    This report addresses the single largest source of greenhouse gas emissions and the greatest opportunity to reduce these emissions. The IPCC 4th Assessment Report estimates that globally 35% to 40% of all energy-related CO2 emissions (relative to a growing baseline) result from energy use in buildings. Emissions reductions from a combination of energy efficiency and conservation (using less energy) in buildings have the potential to cut emissions as much as all other energy-using sectors combined. This is especially the case for China, India and other developing countries that are expected to account for 80% or more of growth in building energy use worldwide over the coming decades. In short, buildings constitute the largest opportunity to mitigate climate change and special attention needs to be devoted to developing countries.

  11. Energy conserving site design case study: Shenandoah, Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The case study examines the means by which energy conservation can be achieved at an aggregate community level by using proper planning and analytical techniques for a new town, Shenandoah, Georgia, located twenty-five miles southwest of Atlanta's Hartsfield International Airport. A potentially implementable energy conservation community plan is achieved by a study team examining the land use options, siting characteristics of each building type, alternate infrastructure plans, possible decentralized energy options, and central utility schemes to determine how community energy conservation can be achieved by use of pre-construction planning. The concept for the development of mixed land uses as a passively sited, energy conserving community is based on a plan (Level 1 Plan) that uses the natural site characteristics, maximizes on passive energy siting requirement, and allows flexibility for the changing needs of the developers. The Level 2 Plan is identical with Level 1 plan plus a series of decentraized systems that have been added to the residential units: the single-family detached, the apartments, and the townhouses. Level 3 Plan is similar to the Level 1 Plan except that higher density dwellings have been moved to areas adjacent to central site. The total energy savings for each plan relative to the conventional plan are indicated. (MCW)

  12. Energy prices and the promotion of energy conservation. A background study for energy conservation programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The prices of fuels in the international markets affect the development of consumer prices of energy in Finland. In the near future no factors can be foreseen, which would cause major increases in the prices of oil, coal or gas. It can thus not be expected that increased fuel prices would motivate more efficient energy conservation. In international comparison, consumer prices of energy have been relatively low in Finland. This applies especially to electricity. After the removal of price controls, energy prices have been determined by the markets. The influence of the public authorities in energy pricing is put into effect through taxation. The price of energy has a fairly small effect on energy consumption in a short term, but longer term effects are more significant. Energy products are faxed in all western countries. (orig.)

  13. Energy conservation in electric distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chong-Jin.

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential for energy and power savings that exist in electric power delivery systems. These savings translate into significant financial and environmental benefits for electricity producers and consumers as well as for society in general. AlliedSignal's knowledge and perspectives on this topic are the result of discussions with hundreds of utility executives, government officials and other industry experts over the past decade in conjunction with marketing our Amorphous Metal technology for electric distribution transformers. Amorphous metal is a technology developed by AlliedSignal that significantly reduces the energy lost in electric distribution transformers at an incremental cost of just a few cents per kilo-Watt-hour. The purpose of this paper is to discuss: Amorphous Metal Alloy Technology; Energy Savings Opportunity; The Industrial Barriers and Remedies; Worldwide Demand; and A Low Risk Strategy. I wish this presentation will help KEPCO achieve their stated aims of ensuring sound development of the national economy and enhancement of public life through the economic and stable supply of electric power. AlliedSignal Korea Ltd. in conjunction with AlliedSignal Amorphous Metals in the U.S. are here to work with KEPCO, transformer manufacturers, industry, and government agencies to achieve greater efficiency in power distribution

  14. Energy efficiency of residential buildings. Energy consumption and investment costs of different building energy standards; Energieeffizienz von Wohngebaeuden. Energieverbraeuche und Investitionskosten energetischer Gebaeudestandards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beecken, Christoph; Schulze, Stephan [Bow Ingenieure GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    In view of the impending energy transition in Germany, turning away from fossil fuels and atomic power and leading to renewable energy sources, the construction of very energy efficient new buildings gains more and more in importance. Because the saving of energy with efficient buildings offers the highest potential to achieve the energy transition without loss of comfort and also complying with the climate protection target of limitation of the carbon dioxide emission. For new buildings in the initial project planning phase, the client needs qualified consulting concerning a reasonable energy standard for his building. The consulting should comprise the multitude of energy efficiency standards and the related financial incentives and not only cover the minimum standard of the German Building Energy Conservation Regulation EnEV (Energieeinsparverordnung). But the architect can hardly quantify the potentials to reduce energy consumption of buildings considering the multitude of existing standards with multifarious effects on energy consumption, technical requirements and building costs. With the help of an example multi-storey residential building in Hannover, current energy standards for residential buildings are compared. Besides the building construction also the building services like heating, hot water generation and ventilation are considered and the most important results concerning energy consumption and investment costs are compared.

  15. Consumer energy conservation policy. An analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programmes. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy - economic stability and economic security - are goals well worth pursuing.

  16. China building energy consumption: Situation, challenges and corresponding measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Zhong, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    As one of the biggest parts of total national energy consumption (TNEC), building energy consumption (BEC) catches public eyes and has been regarded as a crucial problem of the current society. For the past 20 years, BEC in china has been increasing at a high speed. To curb the rapid growing of BEC, china has enforced and implemented a series of policies. These include enforcing BEC constraints on new building projects, promoting more environment friendly building designs, establishing a more sophisticated legislation for building energy conservation, and increasing the total budget in the area of BEC control. This article analyzed china BEC situation and the challenges. As the main point, the measures required by China government to improve building energy efficiency were introduced as well.

  17. Energy conservation normatives in Italy: Thermotechnical Committee organizational efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casagrande, A [Comitato Termotecnico Italiano, Milan (Italy)

    1991-10-01

    A recent Italian law (No. 10/91) calls for energy conservation to be implemented in building materials and HVAC systems through the creation of a suitable set of normatives. The CTI (Italian Thermotechnical Committee) has been assigned the task of creating these normatives and is currently in the organizational stage. This paper lists the proposed normatives and reports on CTI's progress in assembling groups of consultants from various sectors - public administration, end users, industrial firms, etc.

  18. Building energy efficiency in rural China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Meredydd; Yu, Sha; Song, Bo; Deng, Qinqin; Liu, Jing; Delgado, Alison

    2014-01-01

    Rural buildings in China now account for more than half of China's total building energy use. Forty percent of the floorspace in China is in rural villages and towns. Most of these buildings are very energy inefficient, and may struggle to provide for basic needs. They are cold in the winter, and often experience indoor air pollution from fuel use. The Chinese government plans to adopt a voluntary building energy code, or design standard, for rural homes. The goal is to build on China's success with codes in urban areas to improve efficiency and comfort in rural homes. The Chinese government recognizes rural buildings represent a major opportunity for improving national building energy efficiency. The challenges of rural China are also greater than those of urban areas in many ways because of the limited local capacity and low income levels. The Chinese government wants to expand on new programs to subsidize energy efficiency improvements in rural homes to build capacity for larger-scale improvement. This article summarizes the trends and status of rural building energy use in China. It then provides an overview of the new rural building design standard, and describes options and issues to move forward with implementation. - Highlights: • Building energy use is larger in rural China than in cities. • Rural buildings are very energy intensive, and energy use is growing with incomes. • A new design standard aims to help rural communities build more efficiently. • Important challenges remain with implementation

  19. Multidisciplinary Energy Assessment of Tertiary Buildings: Automated Geomatic Inspection, Building Information Modeling Reconstruction and Building Performance Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for energy efficiency in buildings within the European framework, considering its environmental implications, and Europe’s energy dependence. Furthermore, the need for enhancing and increasing productivity in the building industry turns new technologies and building energy performance simulation environments into extremely interesting solutions towards rigorous analysis and decision making in renovation within acceptable risk levels. The present work describes a multidisciplinary approach for the estimation of the energy performance of an educational building. The research involved data acquisition with advanced geomatic tools, the development of an optimized building information model, and energy assessment in Building Performance Simulation (BPS software. Interoperability issues were observed in the different steps of the process. The inspection and diagnostic phases were conducted in a timely, accurate manner thanks to automated data acquisition and subsequent analysis using Building Information Modeling based tools (BIM-based tools. Energy simulation was performed using Design Builder, and the results obtained were compared with those yielded by the official software tool established by Spanish regulations for energy certification. The discrepancies between the results of both programs have proven that the official software program is conservative in this sense. This may cause the depreciation of the assessed buildings.

  20. Calorimeter energy calibration using the energy conservation law

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new calorimeter energy calibration method was developed for the proposed ILC detectors. The method uses the center-of-mass energy of the accelerator as the reference. It has been shown that using the energy conservation law it is possible to make ECAL and HCAL cross calibration to reach a good energy resolution ...

  1. Canada's voluntary industrial energy conservation programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Jr., C. A.

    1979-07-01

    The organization of the voluntary industrial energy conservation program is described. There are 15 industrial sectors in the program and the plan implemented by the sectors including individual companies, trade associations, industry task forces, task force coordinating committee, and government is described. Targets for attack are mainly housekeeping projects, energy efficiency in retrofitting, and new processes. Problems are identified. It is concluded that compiled total performance has essentially achieved its target of 12% improved energy efficiency two years ahead of schedule. (MCW)

  2. 77 FR 8525 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Standby Mode and Off Mode for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... way of representing consumer NPV), and (2) the monetary value of the benefits of emission reductions... standards to the Nation (energy savings, positive NPV of consumer benefits, consumer LCC savings, and... and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and...

  3. 75 FR 12144 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    .... 1. Consensus Agreement On January 26, 2010, the Air-Conditioning, Heating and Refrigeration... subsections. B. History of the Standards Rulemaking for Residential Furnaces 1. Background Energy conservation... recommending minimum energy conservation standards for residential central air conditioners, heat pumps, and...

  4. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of... standards for distribution transformers. It was recently discovered that values in certain tables of the...,'' including distribution transformers. The Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT 1992), Public Law 102-486, amended...

  5. Energy conservation: policy issues and end-use scenarios of savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-01

    The enclosed work is based on previous research during this fiscal year, contained in Construction of Energy Conservation Scenarios: Interim Report of Work in Progress, June 1978. Five subjects were investigated and summaries were published for each subject in separate publications. This publication summarizes policy issues on the five subjects: tradeoffs of municipal solid-waste-processing alternatives (economics of garbage collection; mechanical versus home separation of recyclables); policy barriers and investment decisions in industry (methodology for identification of potential barriers to industrial energy conservation; process of industrial investment decision making); energy-efficient recreational travel (information system to promote energy-efficient recreational travel; recreational travel; national importance and individual decision making); energy-efficient buildings (causes of litigation against energy-conservation building codes; description of the building process); and end-use energy-conservation data base and scenaerios (residential; commercial; transportation; and industrial).

  6. Renewable Energy Applications for Existing Buildings: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayter, S. J.; Kandt, A.

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces technical opportunities, means, and methods for incorporating renewable energy (RE) technologies into building designs and operations. It provides an overview of RE resources and available technologies used successfully to offset building electrical and thermal energy loads. Methods for applying these technologies in buildings and the role of building energy efficiency in successful RE projects are addressed along with tips for implementing successful RE projects.

  7. Organizational determinants of energy-conservation management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selmer, J. (Hong Kong Baptist Coll., Kowloon (Hong Kong). Dept. of Management)

    1994-10-01

    Energy-conservation activities require new functional and technical activities in all participating organizations and the prospects of effectively managing such activities are contingent upon the specific organizational setting. Based on a previous large-scale investigation in which we identified five organizational archetypes, in-depth longitudinal case studies were undertaken of five organizations in Sweden during 5 years, each organization representing a different archetype. The five organizations have distinct organizational prerequisites and separate basic motivations to engage and succeed in energy-conservation management. Implications for government policy and managerial action are discussed in detail. (author)

  8. Indoor air quality in energy efficient buildings. A literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomsen, Judith; Berge, Magnar

    2012-07-01

    There is currently a major focus on measures to reduce global warming. Several international studies show that the energy efficiency of buildings is the easiest and most cost-effective climate action. Passive houses are characterized of that the buildings are more airtight, have more insulation and has balanced mechanical ventilation with heat recovery. This report discusses about this one-sided focus on energy conservation, and if {sup c}hange{sup }in building methods can have a negative impact on indoor air quality and people's health. (Author)

  9. Utilizing the building envelope for power generation and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, C.H.; Wang, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    Heat loading of the building envelope is caused by strong solar radiation and incorrect material selection. As a result of the heat loading of the building envelope, the indoor air temperature is increased, resulting in high energy consumption by air conditioners to maintain a comfortable indoor thermal environment. This study explores the use of a hybrid wall integrated with heat collectors (water piping system) and solar thermal power generators, which absorbs solar radiation through water to reduce heat transmission thereby saving energy and generating power. Power generation is achieved by an OD (oscillator device) that installed between a water tank (hot side) and building interior (cold side). The device acts by temperature differences between hot air (expansion) and cold air (contraction). CFD (computational dynamic simulation) was used to assess the effects of the hybrid wall on the interior environment. The results show that exterior heat is absorbed by cool water thereby reducing the heat transmission into the building, resulting in less energy consumption by air conditioners and power generation by use of temperature differences. - Highlights: • This study explores a hybrid building wall to save energy and generate power. • Power generators operated by air pressure change via hot tank and cool interior. • Less energy consumption by air conditioners and heating water. • Performance of CFD simulated results and experiment results are similar. • The energy saving efficiency is around 15 kWh/day via hybrid wall in west façade.

  10. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  11. Energy conservation through thermally insulated structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Dayyeh, Ayoub

    2006-01-01

    The propose of this paper is to explicate its title through investigating the different available thermal insulating materials and the various techniques of application, as practiced in Jordan, in particular, and as practiced in many parts of the world in general, which will satisfy Jordanian standards in terms of heat transmittance and thermal comfort. A brief comparison with international standards will shed some light on the stringent measures enforced in the developed world and on our striving aspirations to keep pace. The paper consists of four main parts, pseudoally divided. The first part will deal with the mechanism of heat loss and heat gain in structures during summer and winter. It will also explain the Time-lag phenomenon which is vital for providing thermal comfort inside the dwellings. The second part will evaluate the damages induced by the temperature gradients on the different elements of the structure, particularly next to exterior opening. The paper will also demonstrate the damages induced by water condensation and fungus growth on the internal surfaces of the structure and within its skeleton. A correlation between condensation and thermal insulation will be established. The third part of the paper will evaluate the different available thermal insulating materials and the application techniques which will satisfy the needs for thermal insulating and thermal comfort at the least cost possible. The criteria of an economical design shall be established. As a conclusion, the paper infers answers to the following different criteria discussed throughout the different parts of the paper. The main theme of questions can be summarized as follows: 1)How energy conservation is possible due to thermal insulation? 2)The feasibility of investing in thermal insulation? 3)Is thermal comfort and a healthy atmosphere possible inside the dwellings during all season! What are the conditions necessary to sustain them? 4)What environmental impacts can exist due to

  12. Energy in buildings: Efficiency, renewables and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koebel, Matthias M.

    2017-07-01

    This lecture summary provides a short but comprehensive overview on the "energy and buildings" topic. Buildings account for roughly 40% of the global energy demands. Thus, an increased adoption of existing and upcoming materials and solutions for the building sector represents an enormous potential to reduce building related energy demands and greenhouse gas emissions. The central question is how the building envelope (insulation, fenestration, construction style, solar control) affects building energy demands. Compared to conventional insulation materials, superinsulation materials such as vacuum insulation panels and silica aerogel achieve the same thermal performance with significantly thinner insulation layers. With low-emissivity coatings and appropriate filler gasses, double and triple glazing reduce thermal losses by up to an order of magnitude compared to old single pane windows, while vacuum insulation and aerogel filled glazing could reduce these even further. Electrochromic and other switchable glazing solutions maximize solar gains during wintertime and minimize illumination demands whilst avoiding overheating in summer. Upon integration of renewable energy systems into the building energy supply, buildings can become both producers and consumers of energy. Combined with dynamic user behavior, temporal variations in the production of renewable energy require appropriate storage solutions, both thermal and electrical, and the integration of buildings into smart grids and energy district networks. The combination of these measures allows a reduction of the existing building stock by roughly a factor of three —a promising, but cost intensive way, to prepare our buildings for the energy turnaround.

  13. Capacity building for sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogner, Hans-Holger

    2006-01-01

    Capacity Building for Sustainable Energy Development - Mission: To build capacity in Member States (MS) for comprehensive energy system, economic and environmental analyses to assist in: - making informed policy decisions for sustainable energy development; - assessing the role of nuclear power; - understanding environmental and climate change issues related to energy production and use

  14. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-09-30

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards.

  15. Energy Efficiency Building Code for Commercial Buildings in Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, John; Greenberg, Steve; Rubinstein, Francis; Denver, Andrea; Rawner, Esther; Franconi, Ellen; Huang, Joe; Neils, Danielle

    2000-01-01

    1.1.1 To encourage energy efficient design or retrofit of commercial buildings so that they may be constructed, operated, and maintained in a manner that reduces the use of energy without constraining the building function, the comfort, health, or the productivity of the occupants and with appropriate regard for economic considerations. 1.1.2 To provide criterion and minimum standards for energy efficiency in the design or retrofit of commercial buildings and provide methods for determining compliance with them. 1.1.3 To encourage energy efficient designs that exceed these criterion and minimum standards

  16. Federal energy conservation programs pursuant to section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94-163). Annual report to Congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-21

    This report provides an overview of the activities and achievements of the executive branch of the Federal Government in implementing the energy conservation requirements and provisions of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1975 (Public Law 94-163). The report describes Federal actions to develop procurement policies that promote energy conservation and efficiency, develop a Federal 10-Year Buildings Energy Conservation Plan, develop responsible public education and information programs, encourage energy conservation and energy efficiency, and promote vanpooling and carpooling arrangements. About half of the Nation's energy is used in our homes and automobiles. Another 48 percent is used by State and local governments, business and insutry, in providing needed goods and services. The Federal Government is the Nation's largest energy user, accouting for 2.2 percent of the total national energy used in 1977. This energy is used by nearly 6 million people in more than 400 thousand buildings and in the operation of more than 600 thousand vehicles. While energy conservation and energy efficiency measures alone cannot solve our immediate problems, they are an essential part of our transition to an era of scarce and expensive energy supplies.

  17. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  18. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  19. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  20. Building energy demand aggregation and simulation tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    to neighbourhoods and cities. Buildings occupy a key place in the development of smart cities as they represent an important potential to integrate smart energy solutions. Building energy consumption affects significantly the performance of the entire energy network. Therefore, a realistic estimation...... of the aggregated building energy use will not only ensure security of supply but also enhance the stabilization of national energy balances. In this study, the aggregation of building energy demand was investigated for a real case in Sønderborg, Denmark. Sixteen single-family houses -mainly built in the 1960s......- were examined, all connected to the regional district heating network. The aggregation of building energy demands was carried out according to typologies, being represented by archetype buildings. These houses were modelled with dynamic energy simulation software and with a simplified simulation tool...

  1. IEA EBC Annex 67 Energy Flexible Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Jensen, Søren Østergaard

    2016-01-01

    know ledge on and demonstration of the Energy Flexibility Buildings can provide for the energy grids as well of to identify critical aspects and possible solutions to manage this Energy Flexibility. The paper discusses the background, the aims and the work plan of IEA (International Energy Agency) EBC......The foreseen large deployment of renewable energy sources may seriously affect the stability of energy grids. It will be necessary to control energy consumption to match instantaneous energy production. The built-in Energy Flexibility in buildings may be utilized for stabilizing the energy grids......, allowing for a larger roll out of renewable technologies. The Energy Flexibility of a building is the ability to manage its energy demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and grid requirements. Energy Flexibility of buildings will thus allow for demand side management...

  2. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  3. Energy production, conversion, storage, conservation, and coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Demirel, Yaşar

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: • Energy production and conversion in importa...

  4. Energy consumption quota of public buildings based on statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Xin Yajuan; Tong Dingding

    2012-01-01

    The establishment of building energy consumption quota as a comprehensive indicator used to evaluate the actual energy consumption level is an important measure for promoting the development of building energy efficiency. This paper focused on the determination method of the quota, and firstly introduced the procedure of establishing energy consumption quota of public buildings including four important parts: collecting data, classifying and calculating EUIs, standardizing EUIs, determining the measure method of central tendency. The paper also illustrated the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation based on the samples of 10 commercial buildings and 19 hotel buildings. According to the analysis of the frequency distribution of standardized EUIs of sample buildings and combining the characteristics of each measure method of central tendency, comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is selected to be the best method for determining the energy consumption quota of public buildings. Finally the paper gave some policy proposals on energy consumption quota to help achieve the goal of further energy conservation. - Highlights: ► We introduce the procedure of determining energy consumption quota (ECQ). ► We illustrate the standardization process of EUI by actual calculation of samples. ► Measures of central tendency are brought into determine the ECQ. ► Comprehensive application of mode and percentage rank is the best method for ECQ. ► Punitive or incentive measures for ECQ are proposed.

  5. Energy conservation indicators. 1982 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzer, D.B.

    1982-09-01

    A series of Energy Conservation Indicators were developed for the Department of Energy to assist in the evaluation of current and proposed conservation strategies. As descriptive statistics that signify current conditions and trends related to efficiency of energy use, indicators provide a way of measuring, monitoring, or inferring actual responses by consumers in markets for energy services. Related sets of indicators are presented in some 40 one-page indicator summaries. Indicators are shown graphically, followed by several paragraphs that explain their derivation and highlight key findings. Indicators are classified according to broad end-use sectors: Aggregate (economy), Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Transportation and Electric Utilities. In most cases annual time series information is presented covering the period 1960 through 1981.

  6. 77 FR 32307 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Washers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial... Efficiency Levels 5. Proprietary Designs 6. Reverse Engineering D. Markups Analysis E. Energy and Water Use... per-cycle hot water energy consumption; (2) the total weighted per-cycle machine electrical energy...

  7. Avoidance Motivation and Conservation of Energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  8. Avoidance motivation and conservation of energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roskes, Marieke; Elliot, Andrew J.; Nijstad, Bernard A.; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    Compared to approach motivation, avoidance motivation evokes vigilance, attention to detail, systematic information processing, and the recruitment of cognitive resources. From a conservation of energy perspective it follows that people would be reluctant to engage in the kind of effortful cognitive

  9. Thermal Comfort and Strategies for Energy Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohles, Frederick H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses studies in thermal comfort which served as the basis for the comfort standard. Examines seven variables in the human response to the thermal environment in terms of the ways in which they can be modified to conserve energy. (Author/MK)

  10. French industry and the energy conservation challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpette, M.

    1979-07-01

    The general position of France and its energy conservation objectives; the action taken by the government to stimulate this policy; and government cooperation with industrial circles and the action of industry itself are discussed. It is observed that the potential for future energy savings are smaller in France than in other countries because consumptions are already down to minimal levels. Consumption patterns in France are illustrated. (MCW)

  11. Motivation: its role in energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J. E.; Kingsley, K. J.

    1979-07-01

    The program at International Kaiser Aluminum and Chemical Corporation to motivate people by emphasizing the importance of the individual to save energy is described. Three major areas of conservation in the industry considered important since they identify the different motivational approaches needed that are discussed are manufacture, recycling, and by conversion to energy saving products. The importance of communication, participation, and recognition are emphasized. (MCW)

  12. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Saifur [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Funded by the U.S. Department of Energy in November 2013, a Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS) platform was engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. According to the Energy Information Administration (EIA), small- (5,000 square feet or smaller) and medium-sized (between 5,001 to 50,000 square feet) commercial buildings constitute about 95% of all commercial buildings in the U.S. These buildings typically do not have Building Automation Systems (BAS) to monitor and control building operation. While commercial BAS solutions exist, including those from Siemens, Honeywell, Johnsons Controls and many more, they are not cost effective in the context of small- and medium-sized commercial buildings, and typically work with specific controller products from the same company. BEMOSS targets small and medium-sized commercial buildings to address this gap.

  13. CO2 reduction through energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    A study was carried out of the potential to economically reduce carbon dioxide emissions through energy conservation in the petroleum and natural gas industry. The study examined current and projected emissions levels, cogeneration at gas plants, flaring, economics, regulation, reporting requirements, implementation, and research and development. Economically attractive energy conservation measures can reduce oil and gas industry, exclusive of Athabasca oil sands operations, CO 2 emissions by 6-7%. The energy conservation options identified range from field energy awareness committees through to equipment retrofits and replacement. At ca 3 million tonnes/y, these reductions will not offset the increases in oil and gas related CO 2 emissions anticipated by producers and Alberta government agencies. There will be increasing emphasis on in-situ bitumen production, more energy intensive light crude oil production and increasing natural gas sales, increasing energy inputs in excess of reductions. Cogeneration of electricity for utility company distribution and for internally required steam at gas plants and in-situ production sites is not economic due to low electricity prices. 8 tabs

  14. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private...... building owners’ approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  15. Life Cycle Cost Optimization of a Bolig+ Zero Energy Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna

    . However, before being fully implemented in the national building codesand international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building...... owners’ approach to it. For thisparticular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took theperspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable...... in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that isbalanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition...

  16. Solar energy in buildings solved by building information modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chudikova, B.; Faltejsek, M.

    2018-03-01

    Building lead us to use renewable energy sources for all types of buildings. The use of solar energy is the alternatives that can be applied in a good ratio of space, price, and resultant benefits. Building Information Modelling is a modern and effective way of dealing with buildings with regard to all aspects of the life cycle. The basis is careful planning and simulation in the pre-investment phase, where it is possible to determine the effective result and influence the lifetime of the building and the cost of its operation. By simulating, analysing and insert a building model into its future environment where climate conditions and surrounding buildings play a role, it is possible to predict the usability of the solar energy and establish an ideal model. Solar systems also very affect the internal layout of buildings. Pre-investment phase analysis, with a view to future aspects, will ensure that the resulting building will be both low-energy and environmentally friendly.

  17. Energy Efficiency, Building Productivity and the Commercial Buildings Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, D.W.

    2002-05-16

    The energy-efficiency gap literature suggests that building buyers are often short-sighted in their failure to apply life-cycle costing principles to energy efficient building technologies, with the result that under investment in these advanced technology occurs. This study examines the reasons this behavior may occur, by analyzing the pressures that market forces place on purchasers of buildings. Our basic conclusion is that the fundamental manner in which the buildings sector does business creates pressures to reduce initial capital outlays and to hedge against a variety of risks, including the ability of building owners to capture benefits from energy efficiency. Starting from the position that building buyers' willingness to pay drives choices over building attributes, we examine basic market principles, the structure of the buildings market, including the role of lenders, and policies that promote penetration of energy efficient technologies. We conclude that greater attention to buyers, and to the incentives and constraints they face, would promote a better understanding of building investment choices and contribute to better policies to promote the penetration of these technologies into markets.

  18. On energy conservation and energy research. Om energioekonomisering og energiforskning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report to the Storting (Parliament) is the third one on energy conservation during the last 10 years. As earlier, the report mainly treats the use of energy for stationary objects. The background for this report is, above all, the increased environmental requirements to the energy policy attached to the use of fossil fuels. The economic energy conservation potential of Norway is estimated on the basis of the present energy prices and available technology. For stationary energy use it amounts to ca 23 TWh, of which 16 TWh refer to electric power and 7 TWh to oil. Among the measures of the authorities to realize this potential, information about energy economy and energy technology is one of the most important. Other important measures are research and development activities as well as temporary arrangements for economic support. Energy conservation efforts, and efforts for a better environment should often be considered together, because higher energy efficiency in general can result in important positive environmental impacts. In the long term, the global enviromental problems may be the strongest motive power for an increased effort in energy conservation. 38 figs., 22 tabs.

  19. 76 FR 20089 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-11

    ... discussed the following major issues at the public meeting: the pros and cons of various efficiency metrics... of Energy, Building Technologies Program, Mailstop EE-2J, 1000 Independence Avenue, SW., Washington... copies. 4. Hand Delivery/Courier: Ms. Brenda Edwards, U.S. Department of Energy, Building Technologies...

  20. Formation of electric energy managers for government buildings; Formacao de gerentes de energia para predios publicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jota, Patricia Romeiro da Silva; Freitas, Maria Eugenia de Almeida; Santos, Tarcisio Antonio dos [Centro de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Nobre, Eduardo Carvalhaes [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents a joint methodology developed by professors of the CEFET - Minas Gerais and the CEMIG, within the Project for Efficient Buildings approved by the PROCEL. The objective of the Course of Manager of Energy in Public Buildings is to provide information and tools that helping the incorporation of modern techniques of rational using and the energy conservation in public buildings.

  1. Energy Conservation Guidebook : to be Used in Conjunction with the Energy Conservation Policies October 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    This guidebook is an instrument for implementing BPA`s Energy Conservation Policies established through the concensus of the four Area Office Managers and the Assistant Administrator for the Office of Energy Resources. As technical support for, and elaboration of, the Energy Conservation Policies, the Guidebook follows the format of the Policies themselves. The Guidebook tackles each section of the Policies in order, again assigning roles and responsibilities where appropriate, enlarging on policy issues and, where appropriate, outlining data considerations. The sections in order are: conservation load reduction, cost-effectiveness limits, BA management targets, consumer contributions, utility contribution, program verification, and program evaluation.

  2. Capturing Energy-Saving Opportunities: Improving Building Efficiency in Rajasthan through Energy Code Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Qing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yu, Sha [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Evans, Meredydd [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mathur, Jyotirmay [Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur (India); Vu, Linh D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    India adopted the Energy Conservation Building Code (ECBC) in 2007. Rajasthan is the first state to make ECBC mandatory at the state level. In collaboration with Malaviya National Institute of Technology (MNIT) Jaipur, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working with Rajasthan to facilitate the implementation of ECBC. This report summarizes milestones made in Rajasthan and PNNL's contribution in institutional set-ups, capacity building, compliance enforcement and pilot building construction.

  3. Energy consumption and conservation in food retailing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassou, S.A.; Ge, Y.; Hadawey, A.; Marriott, D.

    2011-01-01

    The total annual CO 2 emissions associated with the energy consumption of the major retail food outlets in the UK amount to around 4.0 MtCO 2 . The energy consumption and emissions from supermarkets varies widely and can depend on many factors such as the type and size of the store, business and merchandising practices and refrigeration and environmental control systems used. This paper provides energy consumption data of a sample of 2570 retail food stores from a number of major retail food chains in the UK. The sample covers all major store categories from convenience stores to hypermarkets and includes approximately 30% of the total number of stores in the UK having a net sales area more than 280 m 2 . The data show a wide variability of energy intensity even within stores of the same retail chain. A power law can be used to describe the variation of the average electrical energy intensity of the stores in the sample with sales area. If the electrical intensity of the stores above the average is reduced to the average by energy conservation measures, annual energy savings of the order of 10% or 840 GWh can be achieved representing 355,000 tonnes annual reduction in CO 2 emissions. The paper also discusses the major energy consuming processes in retail food stores and identifies opportunities for energy savings. - Research highlights: → Energy consumption by supermarkets in the UK is significant and a wide variability exists between stores of similar size. → Energy conservation measures to reduce energy consumption of individual stores to the average can produce a0% energy savings. → Significant opportunities for energy savings exist from the integration of HVAC and refrigeration equipment.

  4. State energy conservation plan for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The energy-savings and energy-management programs set up by state agencies in New Mexico are presented. Also the energy-savings and energy-management programs for public schools are presented. Plans and summaries are also given for the following program: solar water heaters for secondary schools; solar portable classroom demonstration; energy-savings and energy-management programs for county and municipal governments; energy-savings programs for commercial and residential sectors; weatherization; solar sustenance; energy-savings programs for hospitals and industrial buildings; carpools and vanpools; a program encouraging compliance with the national 55-mph speed limit; waste-oil recycling; utilitites; agriculture; procurement; modification; public information; and an administrative packet containing information on how to facilitate internal accounting procedures.

  5. Consumer energy - conservation policy: an analytical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B.

    1984-06-01

    To capture the potential energy savings available in the consumer sector an analytical approach to conservation policy is proposed. A policy framework is described, and the key constructs including a payoff matrix analysis and a consumer impact analysis are discussed. Implications derived from the considerable amount of prior consumer research are provided to illustrate the effect on the design and implementation of future programs. The result of this analytical approach to conservation policy (economic stability and economic security) are goals well worth pursuing. 13 references, 2 tables.

  6. Energy consumption of electricity end uses in Malaysian historic buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamaruzzaman, Syahrul N.; Edwards, Rodger E.; Zawawi, Emma M.A.

    2007-07-15

    Malaysia has inherited hundreds of heritage buildings from the past including those from the Indian, Chinese and Colonial eras apart from the indigenous traditional buildings. These buildings have the most unique ecstatic value from the viewpoint of architecture, culture, art, etc. Malaysian economy boom in 1980s spurred the need for more buildings especially in large cities. As a result, most of the historic buildings have been converted and transformed into commercial use. As reported by METP, Malaysian buildings energy uses are reflected by the energy consumption in the industrial and commercial sectors. Most of the buildings' energy consumption is electricity, used for running and operating the plants, lighting, lifts and escalators and other equipment in the buildings. These are amongst the factors that have resulted in the high demand for electricity in Malaysia. As outlined in the eighth Malaysia Plan, Malaysia is taking steps in conserving energy and reducing energy consumption on electricity consumption in building. This paper aims to present the breakdown of the major electricity end uses characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. The analysis was performed on annual data, allowing comparison with published benchmarks to give an indication of efficiency. Based on data collected a 'normalisation' calculated electricity consumption was established with the intention of improving the comparison between buildings in different climatic regions or with different occupancy patterns. This is useful for identifying where the design needed further attention and helped pinpoint problem areas within a building. It is anticipated that this study would give a good indication on the electricity consumption characteristics of historic buildings in Malaysia. (Author)

  7. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, R.G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, ralroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. The handbook focuses on new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. The handbook provides building designers with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and evaluates the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. The handbook is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  8. Handbook of energy use for building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, R. G.; Stein, C.; Buckley, M.; Green, M.

    1980-03-01

    The construction industry accounts for over 11.14% of the total energy consumed in the US annually. This represents the equivalent energy value of 1 1/4 billion barrels of oil. Within the construction industry, new building construction accounts for 5.19% of national annual energy consumption. The remaining 5.95% is distributed among new nonbuilding construction (highways, railroads, dams, bridges, etc.), building maintenance construction, and nonbuilding maintenance construction. Emphasis is given to new building construction; however, some information for the other parts of the construction industry is also included. Building designers are provided with information to determine the energy required for buildings construction and to evaluate the energy required for alternative materials, assemblies, and methods. It is also applicable to large-scale planning and policy determination in that it provides the means to estimate the energy required to carry out major building programs.

  9. Department of Energy workshops on industrial energy conservation reporting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Douglas G.

    1979-01-01

    A voluntary industrial energy-conservation program was initiated and now includes 50 trade organizations representing over 3,000 companies. Their current reporting system is an effort to respond to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act requirements, as now modified by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. DOE's Office of Industrial Programs held six workshops in various key locations between November 1978 and February 1979 to enable energy managers to develop ideas and make suggestions that would improve the current and future energy-reporting programs. This report is a summary of the wide range of recommendations that the workshop participants offered as a means of meeting the NECPA requirements and the criticism of the current reporting program. It also reflects industry's views on potential approaches to future reporting. (MCW)

  10. 76 FR 70547 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... the term ``fluorescent lamp,'' which EPCA defines as ``a low pressure mercury electric-discharge... discharge into light,'' and as including the four enumerated types of fluorescent lamps for which EPCA... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Fluorescent Lamp Ballasts; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal...

  11. 78 FR 25626 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Ceiling Fans and Ceiling Fan... for residential ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits in the Federal Register. This document... other aspect of the rulemaking for ceiling fans and ceiling fan light kits. The comment period is...

  12. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  13. Energy conservation education. Need for coordination; Enoek-undervisning. Behov for koordinering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, V

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the energy conservation education at university level in Norway. The energy law of 29 june 1990 marks a turning point in the Norwegian energy policy; the market forces are introduced as the most important means of achieving an efficient socio-economic management of the energy resources. The importance of energy conservation is more fully appreciated. The Government can motivate energy conservation in many ways, above all by means of information and training. The position of coordinator for teaching energy conservation was created at NTH (Norwegian Institute of Technology) in 1989. Later a professorship in energy conservation has been established there. The area of activity of the professor is limited to stationary energy use in buildings and industry. 5 refs.

  14. The development of preliminary energy bench marking for office buildings in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azah Ahmad; Asfaazam Kasbani

    2006-01-01

    Benchmarking energy consumption in buildings means comparing how much energy is used in a building to an average or theoretical standard relative to a set of similar buildings. Building energy benchmarking is a useful starting point for commercial building owners to target energy saving opportunities. Building owners can determine the energy performance efficiency level of their buildings and compare it to the entire group of office buildings of its class. It is also useful during the design stage of a new building or retrofit to determine if a design is relatively efficient. The energy performance of a building can be assessed using Building Energy Index (BEI) regardless of building's size, height or age. In the development of preliminary energy benchmarking for office buildings in Malaysia, Malaysia Energy Centre (PTM) has taken a step through its involvement with The Energy Efficiency and Conservation Network, via the Association of Southeast Asia Nations (ASEAN) Centre for Energy (ACE) through a project a develop a similar benchmarking system for various ASEAN members. Through data collection of 54 office building throughout Malaysia, preliminary or baseline energy consumption could be determined. This paper discusses the findings of current energy consumption of office buildings. I will also examine the overall trends of energy consumption among office buildings in Malaysia

  15. 75 FR 27227 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Central Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ...-7335. E-mail: Wes.Anderson@ee.doe.gov . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of the... additional information regarding visiting the Resource Room. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Wes Anderson, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building...

  16. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Wang, Weimin; Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-27

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Office Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  17. Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide Retail Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Guopeng; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin; Athalye, Rahul A.; Moser, Dave; Crowe, Eliot; Bengtson, Nick; Effinger, Mark; Webster, Lia; Hatten, Mike

    2011-09-19

    The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for Retail Buildings is a component of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Energy Retrofit Guides for Existing Buildings series. The aim of the guides is to facilitate a rapid escalation in the number of energy efficiency projects in existing buildings and to enhance the quality and depth of those projects. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as financial payback metrics for the most common energy efficiency measures, these guides provide a practical roadmap to effectively planning and implementing performance improvements for existing buildings.

  18. The European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Steffen; Hviid, Christian Anker

    This paper investigates the actual energy use for building operation with the calculated energy use according to the Danish implementation of the European Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD). This is important to various stakeholders in the building industry as the calculated energy...... performance is used for estimating investment security, operating budgets and for policy making. A case study shows that the actual and calculated energy use is practically the same in an average scenario. In the worst-case uncertainty scenario, the actual energy use is 20 % higher than the corrected...

  19. Energy conservation by reducing process variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Lafourcade, Sebastien [Pepite S.A., Liege (Belgium); Mack, Philippe [Pepite Technologies Inc., Montreal (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important instrument to stay competitive in today is increasingly global market. Important investments have been made in infrastructure and personnel in order to improve the management of energy such as increased metering, energy dashboards, energy managers, etc. Despite these investments, the results have not materialized and there is still a significant potential to further reduce energy consumption. In this paper a new methodology will be presented that helps industry better operate existing assets in order to reduce energy consumption, without having to make capital investments. The methodology uses a combination of advanced data analysis tools and a specific implementation scheme that has lead to significant savings in industry. The advanced data analysis tools are used to analyze the variability of the process in order to assess when the plant has been operated well or not so well in the past. By finding the root causes of these variations and the key variables that can explain them, improved operating guidelines and models can be developed and implemented. The specific implementation scheme is an important part of the methodology as it involves the people operating the plant. Several user cases will be presented showing an energy conservation of between 10%-20% without capital investments necessary. (author)

  20. Modelling energy demand in the Norwegian building stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-15

    Energy demand in the building stock in Norway represents about 40% of the final energy consumption, of which 22% goes to the residential sector and 18% to the service sector. In Norway there is a strong dependency on electricity for heating purposes, with electricity covering about 80% of the energy demand in buildings. The building sector can play an important role in the achievement of a more sustainable energy system. The work performed in the articles presented in this thesis investigates various aspects related to the energy demand in the building sector, both in singular cases and in the stock as a whole. The work performed in the first part of this thesis on development and survey of case studies provided background knowledge that was then used in the second part, on modelling the entire stock. In the first part, a literature survey of case studies showed that, in a life cycle perspective, the energy used in the operating phase of buildings is the single most important factor. Design of low-energy buildings is then beneficial and should be pursued, even though it implies a somewhat higher embodied energy. A case study was performed on a school building. First, a methodology using a Monte Carlo method in the calibration process was explored. Then, the calibrated model of the school was used to investigate measures for the achievement of high energy efficiency standard through renovation work. In the second part, a model was developed to study the energy demand in a scenario analysis. The results showed the robustness of policies that included conservation measures against the conflicting effects of the other policies. Adopting conservation measures on a large scale showed the potential to reduce both electricity and total energy demand from present day levels while the building stock keeps growing. The results also highlighted the inertia to change of the building stock, due to low activity levels compared to the stock size. It also became clear that a deeper

  1. Implementation of Energy Code Controls Requirements in New Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hatten, Mike [Solarc Energy Group, LLC, Seattle, WA (United States); Jones, Dennis [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States); Cooper, Matthew [Group 14 Engineering, Inc., Denver, CO (United States)

    2017-03-24

    Most state energy codes in the United States are based on one of two national model codes; ANSI/ASHRAE/IES 90.1 (Standard 90.1) or the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Since 2004, covering the last four cycles of Standard 90.1 updates, about 30% of all new requirements have been related to building controls. These requirements can be difficult to implement and verification is beyond the expertise of most building code officials, yet the assumption in studies that measure the savings from energy codes is that they are implemented and working correctly. The objective of the current research is to evaluate the degree to which high impact controls requirements included in commercial energy codes are properly designed, commissioned and implemented in new buildings. This study also evaluates the degree to which these control requirements are realizing their savings potential. This was done using a three-step process. The first step involved interviewing commissioning agents to get a better understanding of their activities as they relate to energy code required controls measures. The second involved field audits of a sample of commercial buildings to determine whether the code required control measures are being designed, commissioned and correctly implemented and functioning in new buildings. The third step includes compilation and analysis of the information gather during the first two steps. Information gathered during these activities could be valuable to code developers, energy planners, designers, building owners, and building officials.

  2. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen L. Witkowski, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and...-0121, (202) 586-7463, e-mail: stephen[email protected] . Ms. Elizabeth Kohl, U.S. Department of... paragraphs (b) and (h) to read as follows: Sec. 430.32 Energy and water conservation standards and their...

  3. NASA Net Zero Energy Buildings Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, S.; Scheib, J.; Torcellini, P.; Hendron, B.; Slovensky, M.

    2014-10-01

    In preparation for the time-phased net zero energy requirement for new federal buildings starting in 2020, set forth in Executive Order 13514, NASA requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a roadmap for NASA's compliance. NASA detailed a Statement of Work that requested information on strategic, organizational, and tactical aspects of net zero energy buildings. In response, this document presents a high-level approach to net zero energy planning, design, construction, and operations, based on NREL's first-hand experience procuring net zero energy construction, and based on NREL and other industry research on net zero energy feasibility. The strategic approach to net zero energy starts with an interpretation of the executive order language relating to net zero energy. Specifically, this roadmap defines a net zero energy acquisition process as one that sets an aggressive energy use intensity goal for the building in project planning, meets the reduced demand goal through energy efficiency strategies and technologies, then adds renewable energy in a prioritized manner, using building-associated, emission- free sources first, to offset the annual energy use required at the building; the net zero energy process extends through the life of the building, requiring a balance of energy use and production in each calendar year.

  4. Environmental issues in planning building energy efficiency R and D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhar, B.C.

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Office of Building Technologies (OBT) has initiated analyses on the relationship and impact of buildings energy conservation on the environment. A plethora of activities involving DOE, its national laboratories and other organizations are addressing various aspects of global climate change, acid rain, stratospheric ozone depletion, and indoor air quality. Elements of the current task include (1) a literature review of buildings' contribution to these problems; (2) inventories of OBT studies directly and indirectly related to these environmental problems, and other germane DOE and non-DOE projects; (3) identifying OBT projects that should be done; and (4) analyzing differential impacts on the environment of alternative OBT planning strategies and varying National Energy Strategy scenarios. The success of this project relies, at least in part, on suggestions from the buildings research community on information sources, literature, and ideas that OBT should consider

  5. Building-owners energy-education program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-12-01

    The objectives of the program are to develop and test market a cogent education program aimed specifically at building owners to help them be more decisive and knowledgeable, and to motivate them to direct their managers and professionals to implement a rational plan for achieving energy conservation in their commercial office buildings and to establish a plan, sponsored by the Building Owners and Managers Association International (BOMA) to implement this educational program on a nation-wide basis. San Francisco, Chicago, and Atlanta were chosen for test marketing a model program. The procedure used in making the energy survey is described. Energy survey results of participating buildings in San Francisco, Chicago, and Atlanta are summarized. (MCW)

  6. Energy conservation and energy prices: the Hungarian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, L.

    1997-01-01

    The main sources of emissions into the outdoor air are from the energy sector (e.g. power plants), industry, the transport sector and the residential sector (buildings). The danger from most of these emissions is the fact that heat plants and boilers of residential buildings in particular, are usually in the areas where people live and work and therefore their emissions may have a direct effect on health. The best way to improve this situation - to diminish emissions and to improve air quality - is to increase the efficiency of both energy production and use. This also has important consequences for the economic use of the national energy carrier stock and diminishes the need to import energy which increases the competitiveness of goods produced. The Hungarian government has set out an Energy Saving Programme to address, among other things the fact that the Hungarian average energy consumption per capita is less than the EU average but the energy intensity (the necessary energy to produce 1 USD GDP) is 3.5-4.0 times higher than the EU average. It has been shown that the best way to save energy is to invest in energy-conscious behaviour and training. Recent studies in public and residential buildings have shown that there is a potential for high energy saving in Hungarian buildings which is independent from the building technology used. Also, the pay-back times of investment in the building envelope are significantly higher than the pay-back times of investment in heating-ventilating or control systems, while the energy saved was of the same magnitude. (author) 5 figs., 5 tabs., 6 refs

  7. Annotated directory of energy conservation programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claxton, J.D.; McDougall, G.H.G.; Ritchie, J.R.B. (eds.)

    1980-01-01

    Summaries of 34 consumer energy conservation programs in Canada and the USA are listed. Areas of focus are: (1) home heating and cooling; (2) household appliances; (3) private transportation; and (4) community involvement. Each summary contains information on the program objectives, operating details, results to date, costs and benefits, and source of funding. The key contact person is identified and background literature references are given. ((MJJ)

  8. BPA's Eighth Annual Energy Conservation Management Conference : Proceedings.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy Conservation Management Conference (8th : 1981); United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1981-01-01

    The five-year energy conservation program at Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is described at the conference. An overview of the program is presented. Topics covered in panel discussions include: how utilities can work effectively with weatherization contractors, homebuilders, energy auditors, and weatherization material suppliers; mechanisms for implementing conservation programs in the commercial sector; experiences gained in existing residential weatherization programs; and streamlining relationships between consumers, utilities, and BPA in providing services and getting feedback. The planning, programming, technical assistance, and engineering thrusts of BPA's conservation programs are discussed. Indoor air quality, renewable energy, and the regulator's role in relationships to energy conservation are discussed. Passive solar programs, DOE initiatives in solar and conservation for buildings, conservation potential in the commercial and industrial sectors, and current conservation research and development are also discussed. (MCW)

  9. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, H.-P.

    2015-08-01

    The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  10. Functional materials for energy-efficient buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert H.-P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The substantial improving of the energy efficiency is essential to meet the ambitious energy goals of the EU. About 40% of the European energy consumption belongs to the building sector. Therefore the reduction of the energy demand of the existing building stock is one of the key measures to deliver a substantial contribution to reduce CO2-emissions of our society. Buildings of the future have to be efficient in respect to energy consumption for construction and operation. Current research activities are focused on the development of functional materials with outstanding thermal and optical properties to provide, for example, slim thermally superinsulated facades, highly integrated heat storage systems or adaptive building components. In this context it is important to consider buildings as entities which fulfill energy and comfort claims as well as aesthetic aspects of a sustainable architecture.

  11. Energy Cloud: Services for Smart Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Lazarova-Molnar, Sanja

    2018-01-01

    , and network technologies. Using smart building energy management systems provides intelligent procedures to control buildings’ equipment such as HVAC (heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning) systems, home and office appliances, and lighting systems to reduce energy consumption while maintaining......Energy consumption in buildings is responsible for a significant portion of the total energy use and carbon emissions in large cities. One of the main approaches to reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact is to convert buildings into smart buildings using computer, software, sensor...... the required quality of living in all of the building’s spaces. This chapter discusses and reviews utilizing cloud computing to provide energy-related services to enhance the operations of smart buildings’ energy management systems. Cloud computing can provide many advantages for smart buildings’ energy...

  12. Windows constructons from ecological materials fullfilling specifications of low energy consuming - and passive building architecture as also the new energy conservation ordinance; Fensterkonstruktion aus oekologischen Baustoffen entsprechend den Anforderungen der Niedrigenergie- und Passivhausbauweise sowie der neuen Energieeinsparverordnung EnEV. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, R.

    2002-04-01

    A newly developed window system for passive standard buildings was investigated with regard to its thermal properties, airtightness, tightness in driving rain, and acoustic properties. The emphasis was on the optimisaiton of the total heat transfer coefficient and the absence of cold gaps between windows, frames, and walls. This involved simulations in consideration of the Energy Conservation Ordinance and current standards and regulations. The measurements and simulations proved that the window was superior to the requirements of current regulations, so the window system was certified as a recommended component for passive buildings (''Passivhaustaugliche Komponente''). Further, an ecological life cycle analysis was carried out, also with good results. A marketing strategy was developed for the new window system and for other components produced by medium-sized organizations.

  13. Building dialogue on complex conservation issues in a conference setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Jenny; Sparrow, Andrew; Wass, Rob; Moller, Henrik

    2014-10-01

    Dialogue about complex science and society issues is important for contemporary conservation agendas. Conferences provide an appropriate space for such dialogue, but despite its recognized worth, best practices for facilitating active dialogue are still being explored. Face-to-face (FTF) and computer-mediated communication (CMC) are two approaches to facilitating dialogue that have different strengths. We assessed the use of these approaches to create dialogue on cultural perspectives of conservation and biodiversity at a national ecology conference. In particular, we aimed to evaluate their potential to enhance dialogue through their integrated application. We used an interactive blog to generate CMC on participant-sourced issues and to prime subsequent discussion in an FTF conference workshop. The quantity and quality of both CMC and FTF discussion indicated that both approaches were effective in building dialogue. Prior to the conference the blog averaged 126 views per day, and 44 different authors contributed a total of 127 comments. Twenty-five participants subsequently participated in active FTF discussion during a 3-h workshop. Postconference surveys confirmed that CMC had developed participants' thinking and deepened FTF dialogue; 88% indicated specifically that CMC helped facilitate the FTF discussion. A further 83% of respondents concluded that preliminary blog discussion would be useful for facilitating dialogue at future conferences. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. China. Top Sector Energy. Sustainable Building. Opportunities for Dutch companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    opportunities in the coming years: application of new energies and energy conservation solutions in architectural design; eco-friendly and energy efficient urban planning designs; high quality and high technology green building materials; environmental protection technologies and products; engineering consultancy providing total energy conservation solutions.

  15. China. Top Sector Energy. Sustainable Building. Opportunities for Dutch companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-08-15

    following areas will offer business opportunities in the coming years: application of new energies and energy conservation solutions in architectural design; eco-friendly and energy efficient urban planning designs; high quality and high technology green building materials; environmental protection technologies and products; engineering consultancy providing total energy conservation solutions.

  16. ImBuild: Impact of building energy efficiency programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, M.J.; Hostick, D.J.; Belzer, D.B.

    1998-04-01

    As part of measuring the impact of government programs on improving the energy efficiency of the Nation`s building stock, the Department of Energy Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) is interested in assessing the economic impacts of its portfolio of programs, specifically the potential impact on national employment and income. The special-purpose version of the IMPLAN model used in this study is called ImBuild. In comparison with simple economic multiplier approaches, such as Department of Commerce RIMS 2 system, ImBuild allows for more complete and automated analysis of the economic impacts of energy efficiency investments in buildings. ImBuild is also easier to use than existing macroeconomic simulation models. The authors conducted an analysis of three sample BTS energy programs: the residential generator-absorber heat exchange gas heat pump (GAX heat pump), the low power sulfur lamp (LPSL) in residential and commercial applications, and the Building America program. The GAX heat pump would address the market for the high-efficiency residential combined heating and cooling systems. The LPSL would replace some highly efficient fluorescent commercial lighting. Building America seeks to improve the energy efficiency of new factory-built, modular, manufactured, and small-volume, site-built homes through use of systems engineering concepts and early incorporation of new products and processes, and by increasing the demand for more energy-efficient homes. The authors analyze a scenario for market penetration of each of these technologies devised for BTS programs reported in the BTS GPRA Metrics Estimates, FY99 Budget Request, December 19, 1997. 46 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Energy conservation achievements by New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawal, N.L.; Trivedi, R.M.

    1994-01-01

    The New Shorrock Mills, Ahmedabad is a textile mill manufacturing cloth. Managerial practices like energy auditing and energy conservation monitoring introduced to conserve energy are described. Various measures implemented to conserve energy in machines power; carding, winding, warping and sizing operations; auto looms and lighting power are described. Cost reduction in terms of rupees is given. (N.B.)

  18. Goodbye Passive House, Hello Energy Flexible Building?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; LaRoche, P.; Schiler, M.

    2016-01-01

    The volume uptake of highly energy-efficient buildings is challenged by transformations in the energy system and the introduction of demand response strategies. In the near future buildings will be able to manage their demand and generation according to local climate conditions, user needs and

  19. Monuments and energy efficiency between conservation and modernization; Denkmal und Energieeffizienz zwischen Konservierung und Anpassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Roswitha [LWL - Amt fuer Denkmalpflege, Muenster (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Protection of monuments does not necessarily mean conservation of buildings in their original state, but modernization with a view to energy conservation should be an important goal as well. The contribution shows how the two goals can be combined. (orig./AKB)

  20. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  1. Life Cycle Cost optimization of a BOLIG+ Zero Energy Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marszal, A.J.

    2011-12-15

    Buildings consume approximately 40% of the world's primary energy use. Considering the total energy consumption throughout the whole life cycle of a building, the energy performance and supply is an important issue in the context of climate change, scarcity of energy resources and reduction of global energy consumption. An energy consuming as well as producing building, labelled as the Zero Energy Building (ZEB) concept, is seen as one of the solutions that could change the picture of energy consumption in the building sector, and thus contribute to the reduction of the global energy use. However, before being fully implemented in the national building codes and international standards, the ZEB concept requires a clear understanding and a uniform definition. The ZEB concept is an energy-conservation solution, whose successful adaptation in real life depends significantly on private building owners' approach to it. For this particular target group, the cost is often an obstacle when investing money in environmental or climate friendly products. Therefore, this PhD project took the perspective of a future private ZEB owner to investigate the cost-optimal Net ZEB definition applicable in the Danish context. The review of the various ZEB approaches indicated a general concept of a Zero Energy Building as a building with significantly reduced energy demand that is balanced by an equivalent energy generation from renewable sources. And, with this as a general framework, each ZEB definition should further specify: (1) the connection or the lack of it to the energy infrastructure, (2) the unit of the balance, (3) the period of the balance, (4) the types of energy use included in the balance, (5) the minimum energy performance requirements (6) the renewable energy supply options, and if applicable (7) the requirements of the building-grid interaction. Moreover, the study revealed that the future ZEB definitions applied in Denmark should mostly be focused on grid

  2. BUILDING DESIGN INFLUENCE ON THE ENERGY PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moga Ligia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient design is a high priority in the national energy strategy of European countries considering the latest requirements of the European Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings. The residential sector is responsible for a significant quantity of energy consumptions from the total amount of consumptions on a worldwide level. In residential building most of the energy consumptions are given mainly by heating, domestic hot water and lighting. Retrofitting the existing building stock offers great opportunities for reducing global energy consumptions and greenhouse gas emissions. The first part of the paper will address the need of thermal and energy retrofit of existing buildings. The second part will provide an overview on how various variables can influence the energy performance of a building that is placed in all four climatic zones from Romania. The paper is useful for specialist and designers from the construction field in understanding that buildings behave differently from the energy point of view in different climatic regions, even if the building characteristic remain the same.

  3. Pollution prevention and energy conservation: Understanding the interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, A.H.

    1992-01-01

    The traditional view holds that pollution prevention is good for energy conservation and vice versa. Analysis of pollution prevention and energy conservation activities indicates, however, that interactions and synergies between environmental and energy factors can mean that pollution prevention can be energy intensive and, conversely, that energy conservation can lead to increased pollution. Full cost accounting, taking into account all media, must be performed before precise pollution prevention-energy conservation interrelationships can be characterized and quantified. Use of a pollution prevention-energy conservation matrix can further this understanding

  4. 76 FR 43941 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Direct Heating Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-22

    ... included the HPBA membership directory, Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI.... Summary of the Proposed Rule II. History of the Energy Conservation Standards Rulemaking and Current... notice. DOE's rationale is presented in further detail immediately below. II. History of the Energy...

  5. Can energy conservation and religion mix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, J

    1987-08-01

    Many churches share problems of inefficient heating systems, drafty windows, high ceilings, and poor insulation. The author has devised a four-stage method to evaluate the energy efficiency of a religious building and to develop recommendations for improvement. The suggested payback period is four years or less. This article describes the proposed method and highlights a successful project in Oshawa, Ontario as an example.

  6. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torcellini, Paul A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eley, Charles [Consultant; Gupta, Smita [Itron; McHugh, Jon [McHugh Energy Consultants; Lui, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Higgins, Cathy [New Buildings Institute; Iplikci, Jessica [Energy Trust of Oregon; Rosenberg, Michael [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-06-01

    Recently, zero net energy (ZNE) buildings have moved from state-of-the-art small project demonstrations to a more widely adopted approach across the country among various building types and sizes. States such as California set policy goals of all new residential construction to be NZE by 2020 and all commercial buildings to be NZE by 2030. However, the market for designing, constructing, and operating ZNE buildings is still relatively small. We bring together distinguished experts to share their thoughts on making ZNE buildings more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This conversation also presents the benefits of ZNE and ways to achieve that goal in the design and operation of buildings. The following is a roundtable conducted by ASHRAE Journal and Bing Liu with Charles Eley, Smita Gupta, Cathy Higgins, Jessica Iplikci, Jon McHugh, Michael Rosenberg, and Paul Torcellini.

  7. Optimization of the Public Buildings Energy Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filipović, P.; Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Ćosić, B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a rising interest in the improvement of energy efficiency in public buildings nowadays atthe EU level. Increasing energy efficiency can lead to both better thermal comfort, as well as netsavings on energy bills. Furthermore, the right choice of energy source can lead to large savings inC...

  8. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings.

  9. Energy efficiency evaluation of hospital building office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitriani, Indah; Sangadji, Senot; Kristiawan, S.A.

    2017-01-01

    One of the strategy employed in building design is reducing energy consumption while maintaining the best comfort zone in building indoor climate. The first step to improve office buildings energy performance by evaluating its existing energy usage using energy consumption intensity (Intensitas Konsumsi Energi, IKE) index. Energy evaluation of office building for hospital dr. Sayidiman at Kabupaten Magetan has been carried out in the initial investigation. The office building is operated with active cooling (air conditioning, AC) and use limited daylighting which consumes 14.61 kWh/m2/month. This IKE value is attributed into a slightly inefficient category. Further investigation was carried out by modeling and simulating thermal energy load and room lighting in every building zone using of Ecotect from Autodesk. Three scenarios of building energy and lighting retrofit have been performed simulating representing energy efficiency using cross ventilation, room openings, and passive cooling. The results of the numerical simulation indicate that the third scenario by employing additional windows, reflector media and skylight exhibit the best result and in accordance with SNI 03-6575-2001 lighting standard. Total thermal load of the existing building which includes fabric gains, indirect solar gains, direct solar gains, ventilation fans, internal gains, inter-zonal gains and cooling load were 162,145.40 kWh. Based on the three scenarios, the thermal load value (kWh) obtained was lowest achieved scenario 2 with the thermal value of 117,539.08 kWh.The final results are interpreted from the total energy emissions evaluated using the Ecotect software, the heating and cooling demand value and specific design of the windows are important factors to determine the energy efficiency of the buildings. (paper)

  10. BLAST: Building energy simulation in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Sai-Keung

    1999-11-01

    The characteristics of energy use in buildings under local weather conditions were studied and evaluated using the energy simulation program BLAST-3.0. The parameters used in the energy simulation for the study and evaluation include the architectural features, different internal building heat load settings and weather data. In this study, mathematical equations and the associated coefficients useful to the industry were established. A technology for estimating energy use in buildings under local weather conditions was developed by using the results of this study. A weather data file of Typical Meteorological Years (TMY) has been compiled for building energy studies by analyzing and evaluating the weather of Hong Kong from the year 1979 to 1988. The weather data file TMY and the example weather years 1980 and 1988 were used by BLAST-3.0 to evaluate and study the energy use in different buildings. BLAST-3.0 was compared with other building energy simulation and approximation methods: Bin method and Degree Days method. Energy use in rectangular compartments of different volumes varying from 4,000 m3 to 40,000 m3 with different aspect ratios were analyzed. The use of energy in buildings with concrete roofs was compared with those with glass roofs at indoor temperature 21°C, 23°C and 25°C. Correlation relationships among building energy, space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation were derived and investigated. The effects of space volume, monthly mean temperature and solar radiation on building energy were evaluated. The coefficients of the mathematical relationships between space volume and energy use in a building were computed and found satisfactory. The calculated coefficients can be used for quick estimation of energy use in buildings under similar situations. To study energy use in buildings, the cooling load per floor area against room volume was investigated. The case of an air-conditioned single compartment with 5 m ceiling height was

  11. Buildings energy management program workshop design. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-12-01

    This document describes activities undertaken by Honeywell's Energy Resources Center for design and development of the format, content, and materials that were used in conducting 129 one-day energy management workshops for specific commercial business audiences. The Building Energy Management Workshop Program was part of a National Workshop Program that was intended to increase awareness of energy-related issues and to encourage energy-conservation actions on the part of commercial and industrial sectors. The total effort included executive conferences for chief executive officers and other senior management personnel; industrial energy-conservation workshops directed at plant management and engineering personnel; vanpooling workshops designed to inform and encourage business in implementing a vanpooling program for employees; and the building energy-management workshops specifically developed for managers, owners, and operators of office and retail facilities, restaurants, and supermarkets. The total program spanned nearly two years and reached approximately 2,500 participants from all parts of the U.S. A detailed followup evaluation is still being conducted to determine the impact of this program in terms of conservation action undertaken by workshop participants.

  12. Policy Pathways: Energy Performance Certification of Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the most effective measures to address energy security, climate change and economic objectives. The Policy Pathways series can help countries capture this potential by assisting with the implementation of the 25 energy efficiency policy recommendations that were published by the International Energy Agency (IEA) in 2008. This policy pathway on energy performance certification of buildings is the second in the series. It aims to provide a 'how-to' guide to policy makers and relevant stakeholders on the essential elements in implementing energy performance certification of buildings programmes. Energy performance certification of buildings is a way to rate the energy efficiency of individual buildings -- whether they be residential, commercial or public. It is a key policy instrument that can assist governments in reducing energy consumption in buildings. This policy pathway showcases experiences from countries around the world to show examples of good practice and delivers a pathway of ten critical steps to implement energy performance certification of buildings programmes.

  13. Energy saving innovations in residential buildings. Energiesparende Innovationen im Eigenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, E; Meyer, T

    1983-01-01

    Socio-economic studies have been carried out in the course of the ''Landstuhl demonstration project'' with the aim of evaluating supporting and hampering factors for the realization of energy saving measures, especially for the use of innovation techniques and the use of passive solar energy in residential buildings. The results of two opinion polls have been presented by means of standardized personal interviews with building-owners (in the whole Federal Republic and in the demonstration area) and with building experts (264 persons questioned). The evaluations of the results of the opinion poll show that energy conservation plays an important but not a dominant part in the planning of residential buildings. In the ''Landstuhl area'' energy saving investments took an above-average high position (large impact of the demonstration project). The building-owners and experts most frequently wanted and recommended increased conventional measures. It could be shown that the imagination of the building-owners was asked too much when taking measures for the use of passive solar energy.

  14. Optimized design of low energy buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Claus Christian; Esbensen, Peter Kjær; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1999-01-01

    concern which can be seen during the construction of new buildings. People want energy-friendly solutions, but they should be economical optimized. An exonomical optimized building design with respect to energy consumption is the design with the lowest total cost (investment plus operational cost over its...... to evaluate different separate solutions when they interact in the building.When trying to optimize several parameters there is a need for a method, which will show the correct price-performance of each part of a building under design. The problem with not having such a method will first be showed...

  15. Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.

  16. Thermal comfort and building energy consumption implications – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Yan, Haiyan; Lam, Joseph C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We review studies of thermal comfort and discuss building energy use implications. • Adaptive comfort models tend to have a wider comfort temperature range. • Higher indoor temperatures would lead to fewer cooling systems and less energy use. • Socio-economic study and post-occupancy evaluation of built environment is desirable. • Important to consider future climate scenarios in heating, cooling and power schemes. - Abstract: Buildings account for about 40% of the global energy consumption and contribute over 30% of the CO 2 emissions. A large proportion of this energy is used for thermal comfort in buildings. This paper reviews thermal comfort research work and discusses the implications for building energy efficiency. Predicted mean vote works well in air-conditioned spaces but not naturally ventilated buildings, whereas adaptive models tend to have a broader comfort temperature ranges. Higher indoor temperatures in summertime conditions would lead to less prevalence of cooling systems as well as less cooling requirements. Raising summer set point temperature has good energy saving potential, in that it can be applied to both new and existing buildings. Further research and development work conducive to a better understanding of thermal comfort and energy conservation in buildings have been identified and discussed. These include (i) social-economic and cultural studies in general and post-occupancy evaluation of the built environment and the corresponding energy use in particular, and (ii) consideration of future climate scenarios in the analysis of co- and tri-generation schemes for HVAC applications, fuel mix and the associated energy planning/distribution systems in response to the expected changes in heating and cooling requirements due to climate change

  17. A comprehensive framework to quantify energy savings potential from improved operations of commercial building stocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar, Elie; Menassa, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    While studies highlight the significant impact of actions performed by occupants and facility managers on building energy performance, current policies ignore the importance of human actions and the potential energy savings from a more efficient operation of building systems. This is mainly attributed to the lack of methods that evaluate non-technological drivers of energy use for large stocks of commercial buildings to support policy making efforts. Therefore, this study proposes a scientific approach to quantifying the energy savings potential due to improved operations of any stock of commercial buildings. The proposed framework combines energy modeling techniques, studies on human actions in buildings, and surveying and sampling methods. The contributions of this study to energy policy are significant as they reinforce the role of human actions in energy conservation, and support efforts to integrate operation-focused solutions in energy conservation policy frameworks. The framework's capabilities are illustrated in a case study performed on the stock of office buildings in the United States (US). Results indicate a potential 21 percent reduction in the current energy use levels of these buildings through realistic changes in current building operation patterns. - Highlights: • Human actions highly influence energy performance of commercial building stocks. • It is challenging to quantify operation-related energy savings potential. • The proposed framework quantifies potential energy savings from improved operations. • The framework can be applied on any stock of commercial buildings. • Applications include support for operation-focused solutions in energy policies

  18. Economic Energy Savings Potential in Federal Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Daryl R.; Dirks, James A.; Hunt, Diane M.

    2000-09-04

    The primary objective of this study was to estimate the current life-cycle cost-effective (i.e., economic) energy savings potential in Federal buildings and the corresponding capital investment required to achieve these savings, with Federal financing. Estimates were developed for major categories of energy efficiency measures such as building envelope, heating system, cooling system, and lighting. The analysis was based on conditions (building stock and characteristics, retrofit technologies, interest rates, energy prices, etc.) existing in the late 1990s. The potential impact of changes to any of these factors in the future was not considered.

  19. Energy efficiency of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhigulina, Anna Yu.; Ponomarenko, Alla M.

    2018-03-01

    The article is devoted to analysis of tendencies and advanced technologies in the field of energy supply and energy efficiency of tall buildings, to the history of the emergence of the concept of "efficiency" and its current interpretation. Also the article show the difference of evaluation criteria of the leading rating systems LEED and BREEAM. Authors reviewed the latest technologies applied in the construction of energy efficient buildings. Methodological approach to the design of tall buildings taking into account energy efficiency needs to include the primary energy saving; to seek the possibility of production and accumulation of alternative electric energy by converting energy from the sun and wind with the help of special technical devices; the application of regenerative technologies.

  20. Municipalities as promoters of energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quitzau, Maj-Britt; Hoffmann, Birgitte; Elle, Morten

    Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since the author......Planning authorities generally experience difficulties in disseminating energy efficient technologies in the built environment. Although planning authorities formulate objectives to promote energy efficient build-ings, these objectives often turn out to be declarations of intent, since...... with practitioners in the building sector at the local level. The aim of this report is to look into municipal efforts to promote energy efficient buildings to learn from their experiences: What types of challenges are municipalities facing, when attempting to disseminate energy efficient technologies in local...... building projects through municipal planning practices, and how do they cope with these challenges? The report is based on an in-depth study of proactive planning practices performed by municipal partners in the Class 1 project and a series of experiences, strategies and instru-ments are identified...

  1. Effects of energy conservation programs: report to IEA (International Energy Agency) Annex 7, Local Government Energy Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Benton, L.; Engebeck, L.; Erikson, B.E.; Fredriksson, G.

    1984-01-01

    This Bulletin is an anthology of 13 essays by different authors covering various aspects of government programs for energy conservation. In six essays effects of energy codes, subsidies to conservation measures in buildings and advisory services are discussed. Results from several empirical studies are presented. Five essays deal with side-effects (or secondary effects) of energy conservation. Moisture and increased radiation from radon are two types of negative effects that are covered. Also positive effects such as promotion of innovations or increased employment are discussed. Policy instruments are normally implemented by the local authorities. This is illustrated by a description of energy planning for a new suburb in one municipality. Some tentative conclusions are presented in the final essay.

  2. A Conversation on Zero Net Energy Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eley, Charles; Gupta, Smita; Torcellini, Paul; Mchugh, Jon; Liu, Bing; Higgins, Cathy; Iplikci, Jessica; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2017-06-30

    The submitted Roundtable discussion covers zero net energy (ZNE) buildings and their expansion into the market as a more widely adopted approach for various building types and sizes. However, the market is still small, and this discussion brings together distinguished researchers, designers, policy makers, and program administrations to represent the key factors making ZNE building more widespread and mainstream from a broad perspective, including governments, utilities, energy-efficiency research institutes, and building owners. This roundtable was conducted by the ASHRAE Journal with Bing Liu, P.E., Member ASHRAE, Charles Eley, FAIA, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Smita Gupta, Itron; Cathy Higgins, New Buildings Institute; Jessica Iplikci, Energy Trust of Oregon; Jon McHugh, P.E., Member ASHRAE; Michael Rosenberg, Member ASHRAE; and Paul Torcellini, Ph.D., P.E., NREL.

  3. Green Tribology Biomimetics, Energy Conservation and Sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of “green tribology” as “the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts” was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.

  4. Electrorheology for energy production and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ke

    Recently, based on the physics of viscosity, we developed a new technology, which utilizes electric or magnetic fields to change the rheology of complex fluids to reduce the viscosity, while keeping the temperature unchanged. The method is universal and applicable to all complex fluids with suspended particles of nano-meter, submicrometer, or micrometer size. Completely different from the traditional viscosity reduction method, raising the temperature, this technology is energy-efficient, as it only requires small amount of energy to aggregate the suspended particles. In this thesis, we will first discuss this new technology in detail, both in theory and practice. Then, we will report applications of our technology to energy science research. Presently, 80% of all energy sources are liquid fuels. The viscosity of liquid fuels plays an important role in energy production and energy conservation. With an electric field, we can reduce the viscosity of asphalt-based crude oil. This is important and useful for heavy crude oil and off-shore crude oil production and transportation. Especially, since there is no practical way to raise the temperature of crude oil inside the deepwater pipelines, our technology may play a key role in future off-shore crude oil production. Electrorehology can also be used to reduce the viscosity of refinery fuels, such as diesel fuel and gasoline. When we apply this technology to fuel injection, the fuel droplets in the fuel atomization become smaller, leading to faster combustion in the engine chambers. As the fuel efficiency of internal combustion engines depends on the combustion speed and timing, the fast combustion produces much higher fuel efficiency. Therefore, adding our technology on existing engines improves the engine efficiency significantly. A theoretical model for the engine combustion, which explains how fast combustion improves the engine efficiency, is also presented in the thesis. As energy is the key to our national

  5. 76 FR 45606 - Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-29

    ...-N131; 80221-1112-80221-F2] Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan, Habitat Conservation Plan and Possible Land Use Plan Amendment, Southern California: Environmental Impact Statement AGENCY: Fish and..., as amended, for the proposed Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan (DRECP). The EIS will be a...

  6. External shading devices for energy efficient building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahdan, M. S.; Ahmad, S. S.; Hussin, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    External shading devices on a building façade is an important passive design strategy as they reduce solar radiation. Although studies have proven the benefits of external shading devices, many are designed solely for aesthetic purposes without fully considering its high potential to reduce solar radiation and glare. Furthermore, explorations into shading devices by the design team are mostly left too late in the design development phases. Hence, the paper looks into the effectiveness of external shading devices on a building towards more energy efficient building. The study aims to analyse the effects of various configurations of external shading devices towards the energy consumption of a case study building based on computer simulations. This study uses Building Information Modelling (BIM) through Autodesk Revit software as simulation tool. The constant variables for the simulation are the orientation of the building, types of glazing used by the building and the internal loads of the building. Whereas, the manipulated variable is the types of shading device used. The data were sorted according to the categories and translated into a chart. Analysis of the findings indicate that shading devices with different configurations show significant results in the energy consumption and the best configuration is the egg-crate shading devices. The study recommends that the consideration for shading device as a passive design strategy needs to be developed at the early stage of the building design.

  7. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  8. Policy Pathways: Modernising Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-01

    Buildings are the largest consumers of energy worldwide and will continue to be a source of increasing energy demand in the future. Globally, the sector’s final energy consumption doubled between 1971 and 2010 to reach 2 794 million tonnes of oil equivalent (Mtoe), driven primarily by population increase and economic growth. Under current policies, the global energy demand of buildings is projected by the IEA experts to grow by an additional 838 Mtoe by 2035 compared to 2010. The challenges of the projected increase of energy consumption due to the built environment vary by country. In IEA member countries, much of the future buildings stock is already in place, and so the main challenge is to renovate existing buildings stock. In non-IEA countries, more than half of the buildings stock needed by 2050 has yet to be built. The IEA and the UNDP partnered to analyse current practices in the design and implementation of building energy codes. The aim is to consolidate existing efforts and to encourage more attention to the role of the built environment in a low-carbon and climate-resilient world. This joint IEA-UNDP Policy Pathway aims to share lessons learned between IEA member countries and non-IEA countries. The objective is to spread best practices, limit pressures on global energy supply, improve energy security, and contribute to environmental sustainability. Part of the IEA Policy Pathway series, Modernising building energy codes to secure our global energy future sets out key steps in planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The Policy Pathway series aims to help policy makers implement the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations endorsed by IEA Ministers (2011).

  9. Energy Consumption Forecasting for University Sector Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Pervez Amber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reliable energy forecasting helps managers to prepare future budgets for their buildings. Therefore, a simple, easier, less time consuming and reliable forecasting model which could be used for different types of buildings is desired. In this paper, we have presented a forecasting model based on five years of real data sets for one dependent variable (the daily electricity consumption and six explanatory variables (ambient temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, weekday index and building type. A single mathematical equation for forecasting daily electricity usage of university buildings has been developed using the Multiple Regression (MR technique. Data of two such buildings, located at the Southwark Campus of London South Bank University in London, have been used for this study. The predicted test results of MR model are examined and judged against real electricity consumption data of both buildings for year 2011. The results demonstrate that out of six explanatory variables, three variables; surrounding temperature, weekday index and building type have significant influence on buildings energy consumption. The results of this model are associated with a Normalized Root Mean Square Error (NRMSE of 12% for the administrative building and 13% for the academic building. Finally, some limitations of this study have also been discussed.

  10. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Energy Audits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W.

    2013-09-26

    The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will conduct energy audits of nine Tribally-owned governmental buildings in three counties in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan to provide a basis for evaluating and selecting the technical and economic viability of energy efficiency improvement options. The Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians will follow established Tribal procurement policies and procedures to secure the services of a qualified provider to conduct energy audits of nine designated buildings. The contracted provider will be required to provide a progress schedule to the Tribe prior to commencing the project and submit an updated schedule with their monthly billings. Findings and analysis reports will be required for buildings as completed, and a complete Energy Audit Summary Report will be required to be submitted with the provider?s final billing. Conducting energy audits of the nine governmental buildings will disclose building inefficiencies to prioritize and address, resulting in reduced energy consumption and expense. These savings will allow Tribal resources to be reallocated to direct services, which will benefit Tribal members and families.

  11. Building energy efficiency labeling programme in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Siew Eang; Rajagopalan, Priyadarsini

    2008-01-01

    The use of electricity in buildings constitutes around 16% of Singapore's energy demand. In view of the fact that Singapore is an urban city with no rural base, which depends heavily on air-conditioning to cool its buildings all year round, the survival as a nation depends on its ability to excel economically. To incorporate energy efficiency measures is one of the key missions to ensure that the economy is sustainable. The recently launched building energy efficiency labelling programme is such an initiative. Buildings whose energy performance are among the nation's top 25% and maintain a healthy and productive indoor environment as well as uphold a minimum performance for different systems can qualify to attain the Energy Smart Office Label. Detailed methodologies of the labelling process as well as the performance standards are elaborated. The main strengths of this system namely a rigorous benchmarking database and an independent audit conducted by a private accredited Energy Service Company (ESCO) are highlighted. A few buildings were awarded the Energy Smart Office Label during the launching of the programme conducted in December 2005. The labeling of other types of buildings like hotels, schools, hospitals, etc. is ongoing

  12. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  13. Zero energy buildings and mismatch compensation factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    This paper takes an overall energy system approach to analysing the mismatch problem of zero energy and zero emission buildings (ZEBs). The mismatch arises from hourly differences in energy production and consumption at the building level and results in the need for exchange of electricity via...... the public grid even though the building has an annual net-exchange of zero. This paper argues that, when looked upon from the viewpoint of the overall electricity supply system, a mismatch can be both negative and positive. Moreover, there are often both an element of levelling out mismatches between...... of the energy production unit. Based on historical data for the electricity supply area in western Denmark, this paper makes a first attempt to quantify mismatch compensation factors. The results indicate that such compensation factors are a little below one for buildings with photovoltaics (PV) and a little...

  14. Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Y. Sungtaek [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Dunn, Bruce [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pei, Qibing [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, C. -J. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-12-14

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the project "Compact MEMS Electrocaloric Cooling Module" sponsored by ARAPA-E as part of its Building Energy Efficiency through Innovative Thermodevices (BEEIT) program.

  15. Solar-Energy System for a Commercial Building--Topeka, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Report describes a solar-energy system for space heating, cooling and domestic hot water at a 5,600 square-foot (520-square-meter) Topeka, Kansas, commercial building. System is expected to provide 74% of annual cooling load, 47% of heating load, and 95% of domestic hot-water load. System was included in building design to maximize energy conservation.

  16. Energy sustainable development through energy efficient heating devices and buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojic, M.

    2006-01-01

    Energy devices and buildings are sustainable if, when they operate, they use sustainable (renewable and refuse) energy and generate nega-energy. This paper covers three research examples of this type of sustainability: (1) use of air-to-earth heat exchangers, (2) computer control of heating and cooling of the building (via heat pumps and heat-recovery devices), and (3) design control of energy consumption in a house. (author)

  17. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  18. Energy balance framework for Net Zero Energy buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Approaching a Net Zero Energy (NZE) building goal based on current definitions is flawed for two principal reasons - they only deal with energy quantities required for operations, and they do not establish a threshold, which ensures that buildings are optimized for reduced consum...

  19. Building energy efficiency in different climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, Joseph C.; Wan, Kevin K.W.; Tsang, C.L.; Yang Liu

    2008-01-01

    Energy simulation was conducted for office buildings in the five major climate zones - severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild, and hot summer and warm winter - in China using DOE-2.1E. The primary aim was to investigate the thermal and energy performance of office buildings with centralised heating, ventilation and air conditioning plants in the major climatic zones in China. The computed results were analysed in three aspects - heating load, cooling load and the corresponding building energy consumption. The building peak monthly heating load varied from 142 MW h (1033 MW h cooling) in Hong Kong to 447 MW h (832 MW h cooling) in Harbin. It was also found that passive solar designs could have large energy savings potential in the severe cold and cold climates. In Harbin, the window solar component helped lower the annual building heating load by 650 MW h. Internal loads (lighting and office equipment) and part load operations of fans and pumps also played a significant role in the overall building energy efficiency. This paper presents the work, its findings and energy efficiency implications

  20. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  1. Energy conservation on Nova Scotia farms: Baseline energy data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, J.A.; Gordon, R.; Burton, D.; Yiridoe, E.K.

    2008-01-01

    Direct energy use is a small but essential component of the farm greenhouse gas (GHG) budget. Improvements in energy efficiency and renewable energy can help reduce farm operating costs, improve air quality and reduce GHG emission levels. Energy conservation is especially important in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada, where fossil fuels, particularly coal, remain the primary source of electrical generation. Responses from mail surveys were used to establish baseline data on a cross-section of NS farms with respect to direct energy costs and usage to demonstrate differences in farm type and size. A 32% (N=224) response rate was achieved. Based on this survey, the average energy bill for a NS farm in 2004 was $11,228, with most (61.7%) of their energy cost attributable to the purchase of petroleum products. Almost all farmers (96.4%) indicated that their energy cost was a primary concern. Farmers identified the operation of vehicles and mobile equipment, as well as lighting and heating as having the greatest energy requirements in their operations. Energy usage varied with farm type and size. NS farms consumed 1.2 petajoules of energy equivalent to 127 kilotonnes of CO 2 with 52.7% of emissions from electricity use in 2004

  2. Energy Conservation, Understanding and Activities for Young People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication on energy conservation is designed as a resource material for the classroom. It is divided into three chapters concerning a definition of energy, the conservation of energy, and the uses of energy. For each subtopic within the chapters, there is background information and suggested project topics designed for secondary school…

  3. Energy conservation-problems and perspectives for developing nations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, P. R. [National Productivity Council, New Delhi, India; Padrmanabhan, S.

    1980-03-15

    While studies of the past indicated a tight coupling of energy consumption and GNP, longer range indications are that they can be mutually decoupled. Developing nations can move forward towards achieving significant energy savings in their economics without fear of economic stagnation. Conservation policies at the national level are difficult to enunciate and the implementation mechanisms have to be strengthened. Macro-level economics may not be easily apparent as unit level economics. If energy conservation is not practiced, we would require the development of additional energy supply capacity with all of its economic implications. The role of science and technology inputs in industrial processes for minimizing energy consumption is significant. Sufficient funds should be allocated for pursuance of R and D activities in energy conservation and in developing alternative energy resources to supplement and later replace the existing costly transient fuels. A climate to promote conservation of energy should formulate policies which lays emphasis on energy conservation strategies rather than soley on energy growth issues. The effort should be directed towards energy programs that are a judicious mix up of energy and energy conservation strategies for achieving economic growth and a reasonable standard of living commensurate with the aspirations of the people. In capital-scarce economies, an account of the fact that energy conservation requires far less investment than energy capital supplies, conservation policies must play a central role in the overall framework of developing nation's national energy policies.

  4. Energy conservation and pomeron loops in high energy evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafson, Goesta

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism which modifies the Mueller Dipole Model such that it incorporates energy-momentum conservation as well as important colour suppressed effects in the cascade evolution. The formalism is implemented in a Monte Carlo simulation program, and the results are compared to inclusive data from HERA and the Tevatron. We here find a generally very good agreement between our model and the experimental data. (author)

  5. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  6. Impacts of Model Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sivaraman, Deepak [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elliott, Douglas B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, Rosemarie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) periodically evaluates national and state-level impacts associated with energy codes in residential and commercial buildings. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), funded by DOE, conducted an assessment of the prospective impacts of national model building energy codes from 2010 through 2040. A previous PNNL study evaluated the impact of the Building Energy Codes Program; this study looked more broadly at overall code impacts. This report describes the methodology used for the assessment and presents the impacts in terms of energy savings, consumer cost savings, and reduced CO2 emissions at the state level and at aggregated levels. This analysis does not represent all potential savings from energy codes in the U.S. because it excludes several states which have codes which are fundamentally different from the national model energy codes or which do not have state-wide codes. Energy codes follow a three-phase cycle that starts with the development of a new model code, proceeds with the adoption of the new code by states and local jurisdictions, and finishes when buildings comply with the code. The development of new model code editions creates the potential for increased energy savings. After a new model code is adopted, potential savings are realized in the field when new buildings (or additions and alterations) are constructed to comply with the new code. Delayed adoption of a model code and incomplete compliance with the code’s requirements erode potential savings. The contributions of all three phases are crucial to the overall impact of codes, and are considered in this assessment.

  7. Accelerating the energy retrofit of commercial buildings using a database of energy efficiency performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann; Sawaya, Geof; Chen, Yixing; Taylor-Lange, Sarah C.

    2015-01-01

    Small and medium-sized commercial buildings can be retrofitted to significantly reduce their energy use, however it is a huge challenge as owners usually lack of the expertise and resources to conduct detailed on-site energy audit to identify and evaluate cost-effective energy technologies. This study presents a DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) that provides a direct resource for quick retrofit analysis of commercial buildings. DEEP, compiled from the results of about ten million EnergyPlus simulations, enables an easy screening of ECMs (energy conservation measures) and retrofit analysis. The simulations utilize prototype models representative of small and mid-size offices and retails in California climates. In the formulation of DEEP, large scale EnergyPlus simulations were conducted on high performance computing clusters to evaluate hundreds of individual and packaged ECMs covering envelope, lighting, heating, ventilation, air-conditioning, plug-loads, and service hot water. The architecture and simulation environment to create DEEP is flexible and can expand to cover additional building types, additional climates, and new ECMs. In this study DEEP is integrated into a web-based retrofit toolkit, the Commercial Building Energy Saver, which provides a platform for energy retrofit decision making by querying DEEP and unearthing recommended ECMs, their estimated energy savings and financial payback. - Highlights: • A DEEP (database of energy efficiency performance) supports building retrofit. • DEEP is an SQL database with pre-simulated results from 10 million EnergyPlus runs. • DEEP covers 7 building types, 6 vintages, 16 climates, and 100 energy measures. • DEEP accelerates retrofit of small commercial buildings to save energy use and cost. • DEEP can be expanded and integrated with third-party energy software tools.

  8. Design and development of Building energy simulation Software for prefabricated cabin type of industrial building (PCES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Li, Ri Yi

    2018-06-01

    Building energy simulation is an important supporting tool for green building design and building energy consumption assessment, At present, Building energy simulation software can't meet the needs of energy consumption analysis and cabinet level micro environment control design of prefabricated building. thermal physical model of prefabricated building is proposed in this paper, based on the physical model, the energy consumption calculation software of prefabricated cabin building(PCES) is developed. we can achieve building parameter setting, energy consumption simulation and building thermal process and energy consumption analysis by PCES.

  9. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Dandan [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Hong, Tianzhen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yan, Da [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Wang, Chuang [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China)

    2012-06-01

    This technical report presented the methodologies, processes, and results of comparing three Building Energy Modeling Programs (BEMPs) for load calculations: EnergyPlus, DeST and DOE-2.1E. This joint effort, between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, USA and Tsinghua University, China, was part of research projects under the US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency (CERC-BEE). Energy Foundation, an industrial partner of CERC-BEE, was the co-sponsor of this study work. It is widely known that large discrepancies in simulation results can exist between different BEMPs. The result is a lack of confidence in building simulation amongst many users and stakeholders. In the fields of building energy code development and energy labeling programs where building simulation plays a key role, there are also confusing and misleading claims that some BEMPs are better than others. In order to address these problems, it is essential to identify and understand differences between widely-used BEMPs, and the impact of these differences on load simulation results, by detailed comparisons of these BEMPs from source code to results. The primary goal of this work was to research methods and processes that would allow a thorough scientific comparison of the BEMPs. The secondary goal was to provide a list of strengths and weaknesses for each BEMP, based on in-depth understandings of their modeling capabilities, mathematical algorithms, advantages and limitations. This is to guide the use of BEMPs in the design and retrofit of buildings, especially to support China’s building energy standard development and energy labeling program. The research findings could also serve as a good reference to improve the modeling capabilities and applications of the three BEMPs. The methodologies, processes, and analyses employed in the comparison work could also be used to compare other programs. The load calculation method of each program was analyzed and compared to

  10. Energy use in farm buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hörndahl, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    In Sweden, the agricultural sector uses an estimated 3.7 TWh per year as electricity or fuel. About 34% of this total is estimated to be used in the production of beef, pork, eggs and milk, including the spreading of manure. Some energy is also used for harvesting ley and cereals as feed, which is not included. Most of the energy used is in the form of electricity (approx 63%). All these estimates are based on a 1981-1984 survey by Nilsson & Påhlstorp (1985). Most of the technical equipment i...

  11. Performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Newcomb, C.; Shea, M.; Mort, D.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a technical description of the methodology and the results of a two year effort to collect field data on the performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California. Sixty-three passive solar houses were visited and several hours were spent with the homeowner obtaining building details, management procedures, architectural plans, photographs, and at least a year of billing data. With this information thermal performance parameters were calculated for each of the houses. Eleven of the above sixty-three Class C sites (nine passive solar and two energy conserving houses) were instrumented and monitored using the SERI Class B methodology as a guideline. Continuous data were collected for one year using up to 18 different sensors to measure temperatures, electric power, insolation, and the status of fans, gas burners, and moveable insulation. In addition careful one time measurements were made to determine the loss coefficient, infiltration rate, and furnace efficiency. Analysis of this data giving comfort conditions maintained and energy uses for a complete heating and cooling season for each of the houses is presented.

  12. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  13. Toward buildings with a positive energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visier, Jean-Christophe

    2008-01-01

    As the results of the recent 'Grenelle of the Environment', which assembled French officials and organizations for a wide-ranging discussion of ecological issues, enter into application, buildings should gradually switch from being the foremost consumers of energy to becoming producers of energy. The stakes, technically, economically and socially, are enormous

  14. Problems of Technology of Energy-Saving Buildings and Their Impact on Energy Efficiency in Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnowski, Pawel; Fedorczak-Cisak, Malgorzata; Knap, Katarzyna

    2017-10-01

    Introduction of EPBD in legislation of the EU member states caused that buildings must meet very stringent requirements of thermal protection and energy efficiency. On the basis of EPBD provisions, EU Member States introduce standard of NZEB (Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings). Such activities cause a need for new, innovative materials and technologies, and new approaches to design, construction and retrofitting of buildings. Indispensable is the precise coordination of the design of structure and technical installations of building, which may be provided in an integrated design process in the system BIM. Good coordination and cooperation of all contractors during the construction phase is also necessary. The article presents the problems and the new methodology for the design, construction and use of energy efficient buildings in terms of energy saving technologies, including discussion of the significant impact of the automation of technical installations on the building energy efficiency.

  15. Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction for the Public in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wujun Wen; Xiaowen Liu; Geng Xu (Research Center for Sustainable Development of Shandong Province, Shandong Normal Univ., Jinan Shandong 250014 (China)). e-mail: wenwj@sdnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-15

    The Ministry of Science and Technology of China organized experts to develop the Internet-based software Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction to directly measure energy conservation and emission reduction potentials in people's daily lives. Research and testing of the software have been completed, and the software is available to the public on the Internet. The Counter of Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction software is being promoted with the aim of stimulating the public's enthusiasm for energy conservation and emission reduction. The software is of great significance in energy conservation and emission reduction education oriented to elementary and middle school students and community residents, thus changing the lagged public participation of Chinese citizens in energy conservation and emission reduction. The counter can calculate people's energy conservation and emission reduction potential in six aspects of daily life. The user can know his or her value of energy conservation and emission reduction in each aspect by clicking the options in keeping with his or her true daily routines. The user can also know the amounts of energy conservation and emission reduction as well as the potential energy conservation and emission reduction of the whole nation by clicking the Effect Calculation Button. Family life areas mainly include the methods and habits of water use, the use of energy conservation cookers, methods of saving paper, the use of environmental protection products, the habit of home appliance use, and the methods of washing clothing, especially the use of the washing machine with the function of energy conservation. Housing includes the building materials, the heating and cooling systems, the temperature control measures, and the lighting, etc. Heating and cooling times for the house by air conditioner should be reduced. Architects can do a great deal by using energy-efficient building materials and designing houses

  16. Energy conservation in nationalised transportation sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, R C

    1980-01-01

    About 60% of high speed diesel is consumed by the road transport industry. The hike in fuel prices calls for urgent measures to conserve diesel. The paper discusses the various measures undertaken to conserve diesel in the nationalized transport sector.

  17. 78 FR 7296 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Small, Large, and Very Large...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Unit Challenge (RTU Challenge). This program provides a market mechanism that reduces barriers for... commercial air-cooler air conditioners and heat pumps in the field. \\7\\ U.S. Department of Energy. Building... the IEER more than the EER for commercial air conditioners and heat pumps. D. Engineering Analysis The...

  18. Energy efficiency and conservation in Sri Lanka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarasekura, S W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Sri Lanka is a tropical, predominantly agricultural island with a mixed population. The economy is rapidly expanding since 1977. So far the country is self-sufficient in rice, which is the staple food of the population. Indiscriminate cutting of forests for firewood resulted in a disastrous upsetting of the rain pattern. The existing capacity of hydro-electric power plants is not adequate to meet the demands of the rapidly growing industries and of households where the use of appliances increases dramatically with the progress of the economy. Periodic cut-offs of electric power supply became necessary. These are very harmful to industry. In order to keep the balance of payments in equilibrium, the government is fostering the development of new sources of foreign income, such as tourism and export of gems and spices. Remedies used to master the energy crisis are: the building of new hydroelectric plants, reforestation; introduction of ''kerosene stamps'' which will restrict the sale of this product at subsidized prices to the needy only; encouraging the use of fuel-efficient motorcycles in preference to automobiles; introduction (in cooperation with Honda) of alcohol-powered motorcycles; appointment of a Ministerial Committee endowed with broad powers to formulate and implement national energy policy. Although the general energy situation in Sri Lanka is rather bleak for the moment, it is confidently hoped that these measures will bear fruit in the long run.

  19. Strategies for energy conservation in HWP (M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, V.V.S.; Gupta, R.V.; Rao, A.L.N.

    2002-01-01

    Heavy water plant at Manuguru is designed to produce 185 MTY of NG heavy water based on bi-thermal H 2 S-H 2 O exchange process. Being a plant based on isotopic separation process, the requirement of feed water, utilities and the inventory of H 2 S is very huge. Sustained efforts have brought down the specific energy consumption from 53.3 GJ/Kg of nuclear grade product in the financial year 1997-98 to a value of 37.6 GJ/Kg of product in the financial year 2001-02, which amounts to a reduction of 29.5%. Several modifications have been done in the following areas, which contributed towards significant energy conservation eg. reduction in consumption of steam, electric power, chemicals and man hours and in the down time of the plant/equipment's, reduction in the loss of H 2 S, D 2 O and various utilities, enhanced recycling of liquid effluents, increase in production, on stream hours, purity of the inputs, avoiding trips and unusual occurrences, trimming the built in cushions, changes in the design/elimination of certain design provisions resulting in savings, increase in operational flexibility to facilitate smooth operation, improved house keeping and quality management, improved O and M practices, upgradation of required skills/qualifications of the personnel and increasing their motivation. This paper highlights the improvements done/being taken up since the year 2000. (author)

  20. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government energy management and conservation programs, Fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-06

    This report provides sinformation on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet statutory requirements of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act. It also describes energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. Implementation activities undertaken during FY94 by the Federal agencies under the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and Executive Orders 12759 and 12902 are also described. During FY94, total (gross) energy consumption of the US Government, including energy consued to produce, process, and transport energy, was 1.72 quadrillion Btu. This represents {similar_to}2.0% of the total 85.34 quads used in US.

  1. A Review of Green Building Development in China from the Perspective of Energy Saving

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Zhang; Jian Kang; Hong Jin

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews the history of green building development and assessment standards in China, particularly from the perspective of energy saving. It is divided into four parts: (1) the development of policies of green building in China that have been proposed for meeting energy-conservation and emission-reduction targets; (2) the scientific research on green building by the Chinese government, including the promotion of maximum resource sustainability, environmental protection, and the redu...

  2. Development of An Energy Modeling Approach to Analyse Historical Building Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Giuliani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    In the last years the attentions on the energy efficiency on historical buildings grows, as different research project took place across Europe. The attention on combining, the need of the preservation of the buildings, their value and their characteristic, with the need of the reduction of energy consumption and the improvements of indoor comfort condition, stimulate the discussion of two points of view that are usually in contradiction, buildings engineer and Conservation Institution. The r...

  3. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  4. Modeling energy flexibility of low energy buildings utilizing thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred; Rode, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    In the future energy system a considerable increase in the penetration of renewable energy is expected, challenging the stability of the system, as both production and consumption will have fluctuating patterns. Hence, the concept of energy flexibility will be necessary in order for the consumption...... to match the production patterns, shifting demand from on-peak hours to off-peak hours. Buildings could act as flexibility suppliers to the energy system, through load shifting potential, provided that the large thermal mass of the building stock could be utilized for energy storage. In the present study...... the load shifting potential of an apartment of a low energy building in Copenhagen is assessed, utilizing the heat storage capacity of the thermal mass when the heating system is switched off for relieving the energy system. It is shown that when using a 4-hour preheating period before switching off...

  5. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  6. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  7. Solar energy in buildings: Implications for California energy policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshberg, A. S.; Davis, E. S.

    1977-01-01

    An assessment of the potential of active solar energy systems for buildings in California is summarized. The technology used for solar heating, cooling, and water heating in buildings is discussed. The major California weather zones and the solar energy designs are described, as well as the sizing of solar energy systems and their performance. The cost of solar energy systems is given both at current prices and at prices consistent with optimistic estimates for the cost of collectors. The main institutional barriers to the wide spread use of solar energy are summarized.

  8. Building stock dynamics and its impacts on materials and energy demand in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Lixuan; Zhou, Nan; Feng, Wei; Khanna, Nina; Fridley, David; Zhao, Yongqiang; Sandholt, Kaare

    2016-01-01

    China hosts a large amount of building stocks, which is nearly 50 billion square meters. Moreover, annual new construction is growing fast, representing half of the world's total. The trend is expected to continue through the year 2050. Impressive demand for new residential and commercial construction, relative shorter average building lifetime, and higher material intensities have driven massive domestic production of energy intensive building materials such as cement and steel. This paper developed a bottom-up building stock turnover model to project the growths, retrofits and retirements of China's residential and commercial building floor space from 2010 to 2050. It also applied typical material intensities and energy intensities to estimate building materials demand and energy consumed to produce these building materials. By conducting scenario analyses of building lifetime, it identified significant potentials of building materials and energy demand conservation. This study underscored the importance of addressing building material efficiency, improving building lifetime and quality, and promoting compact urban development to reduce energy and environment consequences in China. - Highlights: •Growths of China's building floorspace were projected from 2010 to 2050. •A building stock turnover model was built to reflect annual building stock dynamics. •Building related materials and energy demand were projected.

  9. 40 CFR 73.26 - Conservation and renewable energy reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conservation and renewable energy... renewable energy reserve. The Administrator will allocate 300,000 allowances to the Conservation and Renewable Energy Reserve subaccount of the Acid Rain Data System. Allowances from this Reserve will be...

  10. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Lin, H.; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Song, Bo; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in China, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope and HVAC) for commercial and residential buildings in China.

  11. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halverson, Mark A.; Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-30

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in U.S., including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in the U.S.

  12. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd; Somasundaram, Sriram

    2009-04-02

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Australia, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Australia.

  13. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Meredydd; Shui, Bin; Takagi, T.

    2009-04-15

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America (U.S.). This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Japan, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, and lighting) for commercial and residential buildings in Japan.

  14. Country Report on Building Energy Codes in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Bin; Evans, Meredydd

    2009-04-06

    This report is part of a series of reports on building energy efficiency codes in countries associated with the Asian Pacific Partnership (APP) - Australia, South Korea, Japan, China, India, and the United States of America . This reports gives an overview of the development of building energy codes in Canada, including national energy policies related to building energy codes, history of building energy codes, recent national projects and activities to promote building energy codes. The report also provides a review of current building energy codes (such as building envelope, HVAC, lighting, and water heating) for commercial and residential buildings in Canada.

  15. The effectiveness of energy management system on energy efficiency in the building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julaihi, F.; Ibrahim, S. H.; Baharun, A.; Affendi, R.; Nawi, M. N. M.

    2017-10-01

    Energy plays a key role in achieving the desired economic growth for the country. Worldwide industries use 40 percent energy for material and consumption protection to fulfil human needs which contributes almost 37 percent of global greenhouse gases emissions. One of the approach in order to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the environment is by conserving energy. This could be executed by implementing energy management especially in commercial and office buildings as daily electricity consumption is high in this type of building. Energy management can also increase the efficiency of energy in the building. Study has been conducted to investigate the performance on implementation of energy management system in office building. Energy management is one of the contemporary challenges, thus study adopts an exploratory approach by using a tool developed by UNIDO called EnMS or Energy Management System. Findings show that by implementing energy management can reduce electricity consumption up to 30%. However, serious initiatives by the organization are needed to promote the effectiveness of energy management.

  16. Energy efficiency in buildings. Yearbook 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeschk, Juergen

    2016-01-01

    Viewpoints, concepts and projects of policy and practice are the main focus of the Yearbook, which has become the standard work of housing and real estate sector in Germany in the 2016th. The energy transition has long been only a electricity transition. ''Building'' has become a topic of increasing concern to the political and public debate - and quite controversial. In this yearbook attempt is made to illuminate the topic of energy efficiency in buildings in its complexity. The more than 30 contributions by renowned specialist authors are divided into the following chapters: Political strategies and positions; studies and concepts; energy research for buildings and districts; models from practice; tenant electricity: concepts and projects, human factor: information - motivation - behavior change. [de

  17. Zero energy office building renovation; Energieneutrale kantoorrenovatie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguelle, D.; Krijnen, M. [DHV, Amersfoort (Netherlands); Heijnis, J. [cepezed, Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Building Brains has been set up by TNO as a cooperative and started September 21, 2009. The aim of the project was to answer the question how the energy consumption in the Netherlands can be reduced by 50% up to 2030 or how the built environment can be made energy-neutral. This issue of the magazine is dedicated to Building Brains project. Four different renovation concepts are compared: energy-neutral renovation that involves the exclusive use of sustainable generated energy;.the application of the passive construction principles; the use of Double Skin Facades; and decentralized facade-integrated installation techniques. Following the results of this study two optimized refurbishment approaches for a zero energy office are designed. [Dutch] Building Brains is een door TNO opgezet samenwerkingsproject dat op 21 september 2009 van start ging. Het doel van het project is antwoord te geven op de vraag hoe tot 2030 het energiegebruik in Nederland kan worden gehalveerd of hoe de gebouwde omgeving energieneutraal kan worden gemaakt. Deze aflevering van het tijdschrift TVVL is vrijwel geheel gewijd aan het Building Brains project. Er is onderzocht hoe verschillende renovatieconcepten scoren. Er zijn vier renovatieconcepten met elkaar vergeleken: energie neutraal renoveren door middel van duurzame energieopwekking, toepassen van het passiefhuisprincipe, toepassen van een tweedehuidfacade en toepassen van een decentrale, gevel-geintegreerde installatie. Uit de studie kwamen twee geoptimaliseerde concepten voor een energieneutrale kantoorrenovatie naar voren.

  18. Energy and architecture: improvement of energy performance in existing buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, Matthias; Wycmans, Annemie; Solbraa, Anne; Grytli, Eir

    2011-07-01

    This book aims to give an overview of different aspects of retrofitting existing buildings. The target group is students of architecture and building engineering as well as building professionals. Eight out of ten buildings which we will inhabit in 2050 already exist. This means that a great potential for reducing our carbon footprint lies in the existing building stock. Students from NTNU have used the renovation of a 1950s school building at Linesoeya in Soer-Trondelag as a case to increase their awareness and knowledge about the challenges building professionals need to overcome to unite technical details and high user quality into good environmental performance. The students were invited by the building owners and initiators of LIPA Eco Project to contribute to its development: By retrofitting an existing building to passive house standards and combining this with energy generated on site, LIPA Eco Project aims to provide a hands-on example with regard to energy efficiency, architectural design and craftsmanship for a low carbon society. The overall goal for this project is to raise awareness regarding resource efficiency measures in architecture and particularly in existing building mass.(au)

  19. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  20. Energy based prediction models for building acoustics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunskog, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach robust and simplified yet accurate prediction models, energy based principle are commonly used in many fields of acoustics, especially in building acoustics. This includes simple energy flow models, the framework of statistical energy analysis (SEA) as well as more elaborated...... principles as, e.g., wave intensity analysis (WIA). The European standards for building acoustic predictions, the EN 12354 series, are based on energy flow and SEA principles. In the present paper, different energy based prediction models are discussed and critically reviewed. Special attention is placed...... on underlying basic assumptions, such as diffuse fields, high modal overlap, resonant field being dominant, etc., and the consequences of these in terms of limitations in the theory and in the practical use of the models....

  1. Department of Defense Facilities Energy Conservation Policies and Spending

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrews, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    .... This report reviews energy conservation legislation and Executive Orders that apply to the Department of Defense, directives and instructions to the military departments and agencies on implementing...

  2. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... average unit costs of residential energy in a Federal Register notice entitled, ``Energy Conservation... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  3. Models for residential- and commercial-sector energy-conservation analysis: applications, limitations, and future potential. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Henry E.; Fullen, Robert E.

    1980-09-01

    This report reviews four of the major models used by the Department of Energy (DOE) for energy conservation analyses in the residential- and commercial-building sectors. The objective is to provide a critical analysis of how these models can serve as tools for DOE and its Conservation Policy Office in evaluating and quantifying their policy and program requirements. For this, the study brings together information on the models' analytical structure and their strengths and limitations in policy applications these are then employed to assess the most-effective role for each model in addressing future issues of buildings energy-conservation policy and analysis. The four models covered are: Oak Ridge Residential Energy Model; Micro Analysis of Transfers to Households/Comprehensive Human Resources Data System (MATH/CHRDS) Model; Oak Ridge Commercial Energy Model; and Brookhaven Buildings Energy Conservation Optimization Model (BECOM).

  4. ACEEE 1990 summer study on energy efficiency in buildings: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This panel on commercial data, design, and technologies offers both an archival set of data analyses that capture much of what is known today about commercial building energy use and a look into new technologies. The emphasis on data appears to be a trend likely to continue in the coming years. Utilities are sponsoring load research to produce, at a local level, building energy use intensities and load shapes. Data analysis techniques, many of which have been and continue to be reported in the Performance Measurement and Analysis panel, are stronger and are increasingly grounded in solid data. Ongoing programs that have produced rich data sets are now yielding useful results area such issues as the cost of energy conservation measures. Finally, data analysis should naturally lead to improved technologies and building designs, as architects and engineers profit from what is shaping up as a very fruitful period of building performance assessment. For these conference proceedings, individual papers are processed separately for the Energy Data Base

  5. Energy conservation measures adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, R.V.; Venugopal, M.

    1997-01-01

    The importance of conservation of energy is well recognised all over the world as the world reserves of fossil fuels will eventually run out depending on the rate of their use. This paper deals with various energy conservation schemes adopted at Heavy Water Plant, Manuguru (HWPM). Most energy conservation measures offer large financial saving with very short pay back periods. This fact has been well recognised by the management of HWPM as well as Heavy Water Board and their wholehearted and enthusiastic approach to energy conservation and energy management yielded very good results in reducing the operating cost. The process of energy conservation is not a one time exercise. Persistent efforts are on to identify the areas like condition of heat exchangers, margins in control valves, steam and condensate leakages etc. for further reduction in energy consumption

  6. Energy conservation efforts in Indian mining industry - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, G.K.; Chattoraj, P.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of energy is a national agenda as had been set by our Prime Minister at various fora, in the case of coal mining also there is ample scope to reduce specific energy conservation. The issue can be resolved through 'energy audit' so as to identify the areas of improvement, technology to introduce and innovative system to adopt. In a nutshell it can be concluded that, through energy audit, we can immediately save 10-15 % of energy without any major investment

  7. Building Energy Codes: Policy Overview and Good Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Globally, 32% of total final energy consumption is attributed to the building sector. To reduce energy consumption, energy codes set minimum energy efficiency standards for the building sector. With effective implementation, building energy codes can support energy cost savings and complementary benefits associated with electricity reliability, air quality improvement, greenhouse gas emission reduction, increased comfort, and economic and social development. This policy brief seeks to support building code policymakers and implementers in designing effective building code programs.

  8. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  9. Consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, J. de; Ester, P.; Mindell, C.; Schopman, M.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an overview of consumer energy conservation policies and programs in the Netherlands and analyses them in terms of program objectives, conservation strategies, program instruments, context elements, and impacts on energy consumption, on consumers' lifestyles and on the environment. Part 1 briefly outlines the energy situation in the Netherlands. Diversification of energy sources and conservation of energy use are the main themes of Dutch energy policy. Controversial issues are the export volume of natural gas and the acceptability of nuclear energy. Part 2 describes and evaluates a number of consumer energy conservation programs. A broad range of programs is presented, including governmental programs (mass media compaigns, the national insulation program), initiatives from consumer organizations and environmental groups, as well as projects on the community level. Part 3 summarizes the main findings and suggests some policy recommendations. The climate of opinion in the Netherlands appears to be quite favorable towards energy conservation. The commitment to conserve, however, is not very strong. Given the broad variety of conservation programs the necessity of coordination is emphasized. As consumers tend to be weakly represented in the program agencies, it is recommended to extend or introduce their participation. Particular attention is given to the lack of evaluation studies. Usually, program impacts are unknown. The desirability of utilizing community level indicators in the assessment of energy conservation policy is underlined. (orig.)

  10. A Review of Green Building Development in China from the Perspective of Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the history of green building development and assessment standards in China, particularly from the perspective of energy saving. It is divided into four parts: (1 the development of policies of green building in China that have been proposed for meeting energy-conservation and emission-reduction targets; (2 the scientific research on green building by the Chinese government, including the promotion of maximum resource sustainability, environmental protection, and the reduction of pollution; (3 the development of assessment standards for green building in China; and (4 the development of green building technologies in China.

  11. Implementation of Quality Management System for Historical Building Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahari N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this study are twofold. Firstly, to identify the implementation of ISO 9001 procedures being used as references for conservation works and the development of Quality Management System (QMS guidelines. Data were solicited from three (3 conservation areas. The analysis involved of descriptive approach and statistical methods. The findings revealed that QMS is not structurally established, implemented and enforced as part of conservation practice in Malaysia. From the findings, the authors hope to give clear perception to the reader on current preservation practice and the existence of QMS with reference to ISO 9001 for future conservation mechanism.

  12. Holistic energy retrofitting of multi-storey building to low energy level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morelli, Martin; Tommerup, Henrik M.; Tafdrup, Morten K.

    2011-01-01

    a holistic energy retrofitting of a multi-storey building from 1930 with facades worth preserving. Different single measures, e.g. windows and wall insulation, are assessed with regard to energy saving and economy. The best performing single measures are combined in a holistic retrofitting. The total energy...... consumption of the holistic solution is theoretically calculated, and the economy is documented based on calculations of cost of conserved energy. The results show that many single measures are cost-effective. However, when they are combined, the holistic retrofitting solution turns out not to be cost...

  13. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  14. 10 CFR 430.34 - Energy and water conservation standards amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy and water conservation standards amendments 430.34 Section 430.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Energy and Water Conservation Standards § 430.34 Energy and water conservation standards...

  15. Energy savings in CSFR - building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, F.R.

    1993-01-01

    The Czechoslovak/Danish project on energy savings in buildings proves that it is possible to save up to 30% of the energy in buildings. 10% can be saved at an investment of 27 bill KCS. The total investment that is needed to save 30% is 140 bill KCS. Further energy savings can be obtained through more energy efficient supply systems. Information dissemination is important for the energy saving programme as are economic incentives. Investments in energy savings should be profitable for the investor, but this is not the case in the Czech and Slovak republics today. Changes are needed. Energy prices are still to low, compared to investment costs. Financial possibilities are not satisfactory for private investors. Price systems are not favourable to investment in energy savings. Training is needed for boiler men and energy consultants. Legislation is essential for the support of the full range of activities in the energy sector. Research and Development activities must back up the development of the sector. Pilot projects can illuminate the savings potential. The production of technical equipment for control and metering and production of insulation materials must be promoted. (AB)

  16. Balancing energy conservation and occupant needs in ventilation rate standards for Big Box stores and other commercial buildings in California. Issues related to the ASHRAE 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Apte, Mike G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-10-31

    This report considers the question of whether the California Energy Commission should incorporate the ASHRAE 62.1 ventilation standard into the Title 24 ventilation rate (VR) standards, thus allowing buildings to follow the Indoor Air Quality Procedure. This, in contrast to the current prescriptive standard, allows the option of using ventilation rate as one of several strategies, which might include source reduction and air cleaning, to meet specified targets of indoor air concentrations and occupant acceptability. The research findings reviewed in this report suggest that a revised approach to a ventilation standard for commercial buildings is necessary, because the current prescriptive ASHRAE 62.1 Ventilation Rate Procedure (VRP) apparently does not provide occupants with either sufficiently acceptable or sufficiently healthprotective air quality. One possible solution would be a dramatic increase in the minimum ventilation rates (VRs) prescribed by a VRP. This solution, however, is not feasible for at least three reasons: the current need to reduce energy use rather than increase it further, the problem of polluted outdoor air in many cities, and the apparent limited ability of increasing VRs to reduce all indoor airborne contaminants of concern (per Hodgson (2003)). Any feasible solution is thus likely to include methods of pollutant reduction other than increased outdoor air ventilation; e.g., source reduction or air cleaning. The alternative 62.1 Indoor Air Quality Procedure (IAQP) offers multiple possible benefits in this direction over the VRP, but seems too limited by insufficient specifications and inadequate available data to provide adequate protection for occupants. Ventilation system designers rarely choose to use it, finding it too arbitrary and requiring use of much non-engineering judgment and information that is not readily available. This report suggests strategies to revise the current ASHRAE IAQP to reduce its current limitations. These

  17. Energy management in buildings using photovoltaics

    CERN Document Server

    Papadopoulou, Elena

    2012-01-01

    Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how ad

  18. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  19. Self-energy production applied to buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlo, Fabricio Ramos del; Balestieri, Jose Antonio Perrella [Sao Paulo State University Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: perrella@feg.unesp.br; Holanda, Marcelo Rodrigues de [Sao Paulo Univ. (EEL/USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Engineering School], E-mail: marcelo@debas.eel.usp.br

    2010-07-01

    The decentralization of energy production in order to obtain better environmental conditions, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the cost reduction of electricity and thermal energy consumed in residential buildings has been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes to demonstrate what are the chances of having a microcogeneration system toward the residential application. In this study, we contemplate the technologies involved and their possible inputs that are arranged in a superstructure to be studied. As a first step we obtain the cost of the products generated by the configuration that consists basically of two sources of power generation, and through optimization calculations intended to obtain the best configuration, taking into consideration the selection between four fuels, two equipment generators (Fuel Cell and Internal Combustion Engine)and three levels of energy production for each one. An economic analysis is also presented to evaluate the opportunity of selling the energy generated considering the fluctuations of the residential building consumption needs. (author)

  20. Building energy, building leadership : recommendations for the adoption, development, and implementation of a commercial building energy code in Manitoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akerstream, T. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Allard, K. [City of Thompson, Thompson, MB (Canada); Anderson, N.; Beacham, D. [Manitoba Office of the Fire Commissioner, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Andrich, R. [The Forks North Portage Partnership, MB (Canada); Auger, A. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Downs, R.G. [Shindico Realty Inc., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Eastwood, R. [Number Ten Architectural Group, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Hewitt, C. [SMS Engineering Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Joshi, D. [City of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Klassen, K. [Manitoba Dept. of Energy Science and Technology, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Phillips, B. [Unies Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Wiebe, R. [Ben Wiebe Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Woelk, D. [Bockstael Construction Ltd., Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Ziemski, S. [CREIT Management LLP, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    This report presented a strategy and a set of recommendations for the adoption, development and implementation of an energy code for new commercial construction in Manitoba. The report was compiled by an advisory committee comprised of industry representatives and government agency representatives. Recommendations were divided into 4 categories: (1) advisory committee recommendations; (2) code adoption recommendations; (3) code development recommendations; and (4) code implementation recommendations. It was suggested that Manitoba should adopt an amended version of the Model National Energy Code for Buildings (1997) as a regulation under the Buildings and Mobile Homes Act. Participation in a national initiative to update the Model National Energy Code for Buildings was also advised. It was suggested that the energy code should be considered as the first step in a longer-term process towards a sustainable commercial building code. However, the code should be adopted within the context of a complete market transformation approach. Other recommendations included: the establishment of a multi-stakeholder energy code task group; the provision of information and technical resources to help build industry capacity; the establishment of a process for energy code compliance; and an ongoing review of the energy code to assess impacts and progress. Supplemental recommendations for future discussion included the need for integrated design by building design teams in Manitoba; the development of a program to provide technical assistance to building design teams; and collaboration between post-secondary institutions to develop and deliver courses on integrated building design to students and professionals. 17 refs.

  1. Quantification protocol for energy efficiency in commercial and institutional buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-10-15

    Alberta Environment has developed an approved methodology that can be used to quantify the reduction of direct and indirect greenhouse gas emission observed after the implementation of energy efficiency measures in commercial and institutional buildings. This methodology concerns energy conservation measures that target the heating system, the ventilation, the air conditioning and lightning systems, but also includes building envelope, tap water heating, elevators, occupant small electrical equipment, outdoor lighting, swimming pool pumping or heating. Calculation methodologies for energy conservation proposed by the Efficiency Valuation Organization were adapted by Alberta Environment. The protocol detailed in this document is based on the fact that emissions reductions are represented by the difference between the energy use in the project condition and a baseline. This approach proposes simple and advanced calculation methodologies that allow project developers to use one or the other, depending on the availability of data and on the limitations of the project, to maximize the greenhouse gas emissions reductions quantified. 14 refs., 11 tabs., 5 figs.

  2. Atomic energy, environment and energy conservation in Eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Koko

    1990-01-01

    About 12 % of generated electric power is the nuclear power in Eastern European countries. Generally electric power is short in these countries, and as the countermeasures for environment, the promotion of nuclear power generation is considered. However, the public opinion opposing it is also strong. The situation in respective countries is briefly discussed. The prevention of warming of the earth and the reduction of carbon dioxide gas release are the largest environmental problems discussed in western countries, but in Eastern European countries, the far more primitive problem of the damage due to SO 2 is serious. Notwithstanding high sulfur brown coal is the main fuel, the installation of desulfurizing facilities has been neglected. The demand for the countermeasures to environmental pollution by people has become strong. The energy efficiency in Eastern European countries is poor, and it is one of the causes of environmental pollution. The industrial structure is centering around heavy industries which consume much energy, the energy loss arises due to the delay of equipment modernization, and the energy is cheap, so its saving is neglected. Energy conservation is important. (K.I.)

  3. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy'', dated April 26, 2012... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency...

  4. Integrated Energy Design of the Building Envelope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Vraa

    This thesis describes the outcome of the PhD project Integrated energy design of the building envelope carried out through a combination of scientific dissemination reported through peer-reviewed journals and a wide range of affiliated projects involved in at an architectural firm. The research...

  5. Classification of low energy houses in Danish Building Regulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The new Danish Building Regulations (Building Regulations, 2005) introduces the total energy consumption, i.e. energy use for heating, ventilation, cooling and domestic hot water, for buildings as a measure for the energy efficiency of new buildings, i.e. moving away from the former U-value demands....... In addition to the minimum requirements for new buildings, the new Building Regulations also specify requirements for characterizing a building as either low energy building class 1 or low energy building class 2. This paper describes a type-house that is presently being built in Denmark. The type......-house easily meets the requirements for being categorized as a low energy building class 1, and the paper investigates how much U-values can be increased if the type-house were to fulfil the requirements for a low energy building class 2 or a building that just fulfils the minimum demands....

  6. Model calibration for building energy efficiency simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafaraj, Giorgio; Marini, Dashamir; Costa, Andrea; Keane, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developing a 3D model relating to building architecture, occupancy and HVAC operation. • Two calibration stages developed, final model providing accurate results. • Using an onsite weather station for generating the weather data file in EnergyPlus. • Predicting thermal behaviour of underfloor heating, heat pump and natural ventilation. • Monthly energy saving opportunities related to heat pump of 20–27% was identified. - Abstract: This research work deals with an Environmental Research Institute (ERI) building where an underfloor heating system and natural ventilation are the main systems used to maintain comfort condition throughout 80% of the building areas. Firstly, this work involved developing a 3D model relating to building architecture, occupancy and HVAC operation. Secondly, the calibration methodology, which consists of two levels, was then applied in order to insure accuracy and reduce the likelihood of errors. To further improve the accuracy of calibration a historical weather data file related to year 2011, was created from the on-site local weather station of ERI building. After applying the second level of calibration process, the values of Mean bias Error (MBE) and Cumulative Variation of Root Mean Squared Error (CV(RMSE)) on hourly based analysis for heat pump electricity consumption varied within the following ranges: (MBE) hourly from −5.6% to 7.5% and CV(RMSE) hourly from 7.3% to 25.1%. Finally, the building was simulated with EnergyPlus to identify further possibilities of energy savings supplied by a water to water heat pump to underfloor heating system. It found that electricity consumption savings from the heat pump can vary between 20% and 27% on monthly bases

  7. Energy conservation and efficiency in manufacturing: Employee decisions and actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Marla D.

    Energy conservation and intensity reduction efforts are becoming increasingly more prevalent and ultimately necessary, especially for energy-intensive manufacturing companies in particular to stay in business. Typical actions are to change technology, and thus, realize an energy cost savings in overall utilities. However, in today's competitive market, with climate change and other environmental impacts as well, it is necessary for the cost of energy to be valued as a cost of making a product, and thus, managed at the same level as the cost of labor or materials. This research assessed human behavior at the individual and organizational levels both at work and at home that either prompted or prohibited employees from taking daily action to conserve energy or develop greater energy efficient practices. Ultimately, the questions began with questions regarding employee views and knowledge of energy at work and at home and what drives both behaviors toward conservation or efficiency. And, the contribution identifies the key drivers, barriers, and/or incentives that affect those behaviors. The results of this study show that the key driver and motivator for energy conservation both at home and work is cost savings. The study showed that to further motivate individuals to conserve energy at home and work, more knowledge of the impact their actions have or could have as well as tools would be needed. The most poinient aspect of the research was the level of importance placed on energy conservation and the desire to conserve. The feedback given to the open ended questions was quite impressive regarding what employees have done and continue to do particularly within their homes to conserve energy. These findings brought about final recommendations that were in fact not expected but could significantly influence an increase in energy conservation at work by leveraging the existing desire to conserve which is a key component to decision making.

  8. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  9. Annual report to Congress on Federal Government Energy Management and Conservation Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report on Federal Energy Management for Fiscal year (FY) 1992 provides information on energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations and documents activities conducted by Federal agencies to meet the statutory requirements of Title V, Part 3, of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (NECPA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 8251-8261, and Title VIII of NECPA, 42 U.S.C. 8287-8287b. This report also describes the energy conservation and management activities of the Federal Government under the authorization of section 381 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), as amended, 42 U.S.C. 6361. Implementation activities undertaken during FY 1992 by the Federal agencies under Executive Order 12759 on Federal Energy Management are also described in this report.

  10. Conservation of energy for the Euler-Korteweg equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dębiec, Tomasz

    2017-12-30

    In this article we study the principle of energy conservation for the Euler-Korteweg system. We formulate an Onsager-type sufficient regularity condition for weak solutions of the Euler-Korteweg system to conserve the total energy. The result applies to the system of Quantum Hydrodynamics.

  11. 24 CFR 965.306 - Energy conservation equipment and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Measures § 965.306 Energy conservation equipment and practices. In purchasing original or, when needed, replacement equipment, PHAs shall acquire only equipment that meets or exceeds the minimum efficiency... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Energy conservation equipment and...

  12. Financial Energy Conservation Projects at Independent Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting financial decisions for energy conservation projects at independent colleges and universities and methods that may be used when making a financial investment decision are examined, along with sources of funding for the projects. Projects that result in the conservation of energy resources might, in a time of extreme shortages,…

  13. Energy conservation in molecular dynamics simulations of classical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toxværd, Søren; Heilmann, Ole; Dyre, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Classical Newtonian dynamics is analytic and the energy of an isolated system is conserved. The energy of such a system, obtained by the discrete “Verlet” algorithm commonly used in molecular dynamics simulations, fluctuates but is conserved in the mean. This is explained by the existence...

  14. A Better 2-D Mechanical Energy Conservation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paesler, Michael

    2012-01-01

    A variety of simple classical mechanics energy conservation experiments are used in teaching laboratories. Typical one-dimensional (1-D) setups may involve falling balls or oscillating springs. Many of these can be quite satisfying in that students can confirm--within a few percent--that mechanical energy is conserved. Students generally have…

  15. Conservation of energy for the Euler-Korteweg equations

    KAUST Repository

    Dębiec, Tomasz; Gwiazda, Piotr; Świerczewska-Gwiazda, Agnieszka; Tzavaras, Athanasios

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study the principle of energy conservation for the Euler-Korteweg system. We formulate an Onsager-type sufficient regularity condition for weak solutions of the Euler-Korteweg system to conserve the total energy. The result applies to the system of Quantum Hydrodynamics.

  16. Facts about industrial energy conservation in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, William A.

    1979-07-01

    The story of energy conservation in the US with particular emphasis on industry is presented. Then, the energy conservation program in General Motors including organization, plant guidelines, communication and motivation techniques, successful case histories, and some concepts for future savings is described in detail. (MCW)

  17. Potential for energy-conserving capital equipment in UK industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fawkes, S D

    1986-01-01

    A summary is given of recent research into the potential for energy-conserving capital equipment in UK industries. The research had significant findings regarding the feasibility of achieving low-energy scenarios. It also stressed the importance of site specific factors in inhibiting incremental technical change such as that common in energy-conservation investments, developed a soft systems model of energy-management activities and investigated current progress and management styles in the brewing, malting, distilling and dairy sectors.

  18. Intercity passenger transportation: energy efficiency and conservation case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate a methodology for energy analysis and to advance technical knowledge on the energy conservation potential in intercity passenger transportation, this paper reports findings of a case study of the Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal multimodal system. From a total (direct and indirect) energy perspective for origin-destination travel, energy efficiency and conservation potential of technological improvements, modal shifts and increased load factors are reported. 11 refs.

  19. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  20. Commercial building energy use in six cities in Southern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Huang, Joe; Shen, Pengyuan; Ma, Xiaowen; Gao, Xuefei; Xu, Qiaolin; Jiang, Han; Xiang, Yong

    2013-01-01

    With China’s continuing economic growth, the percentage of government offices and large commercial buildings has increased tremendously; thus, the impact of their energy usage has grown drastically. In this survey, a database with more than 400 buildings was created and analyzed. We researched energy consumption by region, building type, building size and vintage, and we determined the total energy use and performed end use breakdowns of typical buildings in six cities in southern China. The statistical analysis shows that, on average, the annual building electricity use ranged from 50 to 100 kW h/m 2 for office buildings, 120 to 250 kW h/m 2 for shopping malls and hotels, and below 40 kW h/m 2 for education facilities. Building size has no direct correlation with building energy intensity. Although modern commercial buildings built in the 1990s and 2000s did not use more energy on average than buildings built previously, the highest electricity intensive modern buildings used much more energy than those built prior to 1990. Commercial buildings in China used less energy than buildings in equivalent weather locations in the US and about the same amount of energy as buildings in India. However, commercial buildings in China provide comparatively less thermal comfort than buildings in comparable US climates. - Highlights: ► The worst modern buildings use more energy than the worst old buildings. ► Government office buildings did not use more energy than private office buildings. ► Commercial buildings in China use less energy than buildings in the US. ► Modern commercial buildings don't use more energy than old buildings.

  1. Energy and Architecture: The Solar and Conservation Potential. Worldwatch Paper 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Christopher

    This monograph explores how architecture is influenced by and is responding to the global energy dilemma. Emphasis is placed on conservation techniques (using heavy insulation) and on passive solar construction (supplying most of a building's heating, cooling, and lighting requirements by sunlight). The basic problem is that architecture, like…

  2. Solar energy conscious allotting and building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moor, R.; Winter, R.

    1992-10-01

    In order to use solar energy now and in the future several measures should be taken in the field of urban development and housing construction. A number of policy instruments is available to the local governments to stimulate the use of solar energy. However, little use is made of these possibilities so far. In many municipalities there are uncertainties about the financial consequences of solar energy conscious building. In practice it appears that there are hardly any extra costs for the infrastructure if building blocks and roofs are designed and built with south orientation. Also possibilities to minimize the investment barrier for the occupants of the houses are available. An overview is presented of the policy instruments and practical examples are given for the Dutch municipalities Gouda, Schiedam, Heerhugowaard, Delft and Haarlemmermeer. 2 tabs., 2 appendices, 6 refs

  3. Energy Efficiency Requirements in Building Codes, Energy Efficiency Policies for New Buildings. IEA Information Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laustsen, Jens

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse current approaches to encourage energy efficiency in building codes for new buildings. Based on this analysis the paper enumerates policy recommendations for enhancing how energy efficiency is addressed in building codes and other policies for new buildings. This paper forms part of the IEA work for the G8 Gleneagles Plan of Action. These recommendations reflect the study of different policy options for increasing energy efficiency in new buildings and examination of other energy efficiency requirements in standards or building codes, such as energy efficiency requirements by major renovation or refurbishment. In many countries, energy efficiency of buildings falls under the jurisdiction of the federal states. Different standards cover different regions or climatic conditions and different types of buildings, such as residential or simple buildings, commercial buildings and more complicated high-rise buildings. There are many different building codes in the world and the intention of this paper is not to cover all codes on each level in all countries. Instead, the paper details different regions of the world and different ways of standards. In this paper we also evaluate good practices based on local traditions. This project does not seek to identify one best practice amongst the building codes and standards. Instead, different types of codes and different parts of the regulation have been illustrated together with examples on how they have been successfully addressed. To complement this discussion of efficiency standards, this study illustrates how energy efficiency can be improved through such initiatives as efficiency labelling or certification, very best practice buildings with extremely low- or no-energy consumption and other policies to raise buildings' energy efficiency beyond minimum requirements. When referring to the energy saving potentials for buildings, this study uses the analysis of recent IEA

  4. Airline energy conservation options : summary options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-07-27

    In late May, 1973 the task of determining and evaluating measures for conserving fuel consumed by the airline industry was undertaken. This task was a part of the larger effort conducted by the Transportation Systems Center to determine measures that...

  5. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  6. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Liu, Bing [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  7. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ...-0046] Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... reopening of the time period for submitting comments on the request for information on Building Energy Codes... the request for information on Building Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011...

  8. Authoritarian Inheritance and Conservative Party-Building in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Loxton, James Ivor

    2014-01-01

    Beginning in the late 1970s, with the onset of the third wave of democratization, a host of new conservative parties emerged in Latin America. The trajectories of these parties varied tremendously. While some went on to enjoy long-term electoral success, others failed to take root. The most successful new conservative parties all shared a surprising characteristic: they had deep roots in former dictatorships. They were "authoritarian successor parties," or parties founded by high-level in...

  9. 77 FR 14509 - State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [Docket No. EESEP0216] State Energy Program and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) Program; Request for Information AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (SEP) and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) program, in support of energy...

  10. Energy R and D programme: energy conservation research. Survey of results (1975-1979) and compilation of selected new projects (1979-1983)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zegers, P [ed.

    1981-01-01

    Results obtained in the European Communities Energy Conservation Research and Development (R and D) Program are presented. Energy Conservation R and D was executed in the following subsectors: improved insulation of buildings; use of heat pumps; urban transport; residual heat recovery; materials recycling; production of energy from waste; industrial processes; and storage of secondary energy. Summaries are presented for information gained from the research projects. Then, separate abstracts for all final reports (96), contract numbers, and the authors are given. (MCW)

  11. Overview of energy demand and opportunities for conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, P. J.

    1977-10-15

    The widespread practice of conservation could make a substantial reduction in the rate of growth of demand and hence in the rate at which resources need to be developed and consumed. An attempt is not made to show that conservation is an alternative to increasing energy supply. After reviewing the consumption of energy before the 1973 energy crisis, the main features of conservation which have brought it to the forefront of energy policy are examined. Some information on present consumption patterns in New Zealand is presented.

  12. Collecting memories of the city through the conservation of heritage building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurliani Lukito, Yulia; Nurul Rizky, Amalia

    2018-03-01

    Heritage building has a role for the city and the society that is associated with emotional, cultural, and use values. Those values are parts of collective memory and create the identity of the city. Some heritage buildings are vulnerable to modernization and even when the government conserves those buildings, some important values of the buildings are lost. This paper discusses a colonial building in Jakarta that has been converted into different functions. As a case study is Cut Meutia Mosque in Menteng, designed by a Dutch architect PAJ Moojen during the Dutch late colonial era. The building was initiated in 1922 as N.V. Bouwploeg, an architectural firm that developed the nearby residential area of New Gondangdia. This area was developed according to modern Garden City principles and the Bouwploeg was known as the gate to Menteng area and the architecture of the building was considered very modern and unique at that time – illustrating the importance of the building for the city. After Indonesia’s independence, the government converted the building into different functions such as an office and a mosque. Although the function of the building has changed, the building is still related to triggering a collective memory of the new area that should not be ignored in the effort of conserving the building. Through historical and field research, the paper aims to discuss some changes and lost values of the building as the result of conserving the colonial heritage, especially about collective memory. Hopefully, learning from the conservation of building heritage and city collective memory may support the idea of livable memory of heritage building and even a

  13. Energy conservation for houses and its calculation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S H

    1981-04-01

    The concept of energy conservation of houses has been developed and began to be applied widely since the first oil crisis. Now we can say definitely that insulating a house is the most effective way of saving energy, and the renewable energy sources are useful only when the demand for space heating and hot water is minimized by insulating. If a house is well insulated, it will need a much smaller, simpler and cheaper heating system. So it will be less efficient to put a solar collector and wind generator on a poorly insulated house. Architects and engineers should have a certain level of practical knowledge of insulation for house to persuade customers using insulating materials and structure. Moreover, it is very essential to amend the existing building codes in order to facilitate this basic necessity. For instance, the Building Regulations of Denmark requires a U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC for heavy weight external wall. If the cavity wall has outer and inner leaf of just normal brick with internal finish of 20 mm cement mortar, which is a typical wall construction for houses in Korea, the thickness of insulation materials to the cavity can be calculated in order to fullfil the U-value of 0.4 W/m/sup 2/ degC in addition to the cavity of the external heavy wall: expanded polyurethane 58 mm, urea formaldehyde foam 67 mm, expanded polystyrene 78 mm, mineral wool 94 mm. The economic feasibility of solar heating system has been calculated. By applying 25% of the year inflation ratio for fuel cost, the result turns out economically comparable with solar heating systems.

  14. Automatic generation and simulation of urban building energy models based on city datasets for city-scale building retrofit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yixing; Hong, Tianzhen; Piette, Mary Ann

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Developed methods and used data models to integrate city’s public building records. •Shading from neighborhood buildings strongly influences urban building performance. •A case study demonstrated the workflow, simulation and analysis of building retrofits. •CityBES retrofit analysis feature provides actionable information for decision making. •Discussed significance and challenges of urban building energy modeling. -- Abstract: Buildings in cities consume 30–70% of total primary energy, and improving building energy efficiency is one of the key strategies towards sustainable urbanization. Urban building energy models (UBEM) can support city managers to evaluate and prioritize energy conservation measures (ECMs) for investment and the design of incentive and rebate programs. This paper presents the retrofit analysis feature of City Building Energy Saver (CityBES) to automatically generate and simulate UBEM using EnergyPlus based on cities’ building datasets and user-selected ECMs. CityBES is a new open web-based tool to support city-scale building energy efficiency strategic plans and programs. The technical details of using CityBES for UBEM generation and simulation are introduced, including the workflow, key assumptions, and major databases. Also presented is a case study that analyzes the potential retrofit energy use and energy cost savings of five individual ECMs and two measure packages for 940 office and retail buildings in six city districts in northeast San Francisco, United States. The results show that: (1) all five measures together can save 23–38% of site energy per building; (2) replacing lighting with light-emitting diode lamps and adding air economizers to existing heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are most cost-effective with an average payback of 2.0 and 4.3 years, respectively; and (3) it is not economical to upgrade HVAC systems or replace windows in San Francisco due to the city’s mild

  15. U.S. Building-Sector Energy Efficiency Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Rich; Borgeson, Sam; Koomey, Jon; Biermayer, Peter

    2008-09-30

    This paper presents an estimate of the potential for energy efficiency improvements in the U.S. building sector by 2030. The analysis uses the Energy Information Administration's AEO 2007 Reference Case as a business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, and applies percentage savings estimates by end use drawn from several prior efficiency potential studies. These prior studies include the U.S. Department of Energy's Scenarios for a Clean Energy Future (CEF) study and a recent study of natural gas savings potential in New York state. For a few end uses for which savings estimates are not readily available, the LBNL study team compiled technical data to estimate savings percentages and costs of conserved energy. The analysis shows that for electricity use in buildings, approximately one-third of the BAU consumption can be saved at a cost of conserved energy of 2.7 cents/kWh (all values in 2007 dollars), while for natural gas approximately the same percentage savings is possible at a cost of between 2.5 and 6.9 $/million Btu. This cost-effective level of savings results in national annual energy bill savings in 2030 of nearly $170 billion. To achieve these savings, the cumulative capital investment needed between 2010 and 2030 is about $440 billion, which translates to a 2-1/2 year simple payback period, or savings over the life of the measures that are nearly 3.5 times larger than the investment required (i.e., a benefit-cost ratio of 3.5).

  16. Energy resources, CO2 production and energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Callaghan, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    World fossil fuel reserves, historical and current rates of consumption are reviewed and estimates of indigeneous lives in geographical regions are made. Rates of production and accumulations of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are calculated and correlations made with measured global mean temperatures and concomitant sea-level rises. It is concluded that, if present rates of global fossil-fuel consumptions continue unabated, the world's fossil-fuel store will be depleted by the year 2050. This would be accompanied by a substantial rise in global mean temperature. The effects of various protocols for the reductions of emissions are examined. It is concluded that there is no alternative than to cease the production and release into the atmosphere of the more damaging man-made greenhouse gases as soon as is practicably possible and to seek a sustained reduction in the rates of combustion of fossil fuels world-wide via energy management and conservation. (author)

  17. Conservative modelling of the moisture and heat transfer in building components under atmospheric excitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Blocken, Bert; Carmeliet, Jan

    2007-01-01

    While the transfer equations for moisture and heat in building components are currently undergoing standardisation, atmospheric boundary conditions, conservative modelling and numerical efficiency are not addressed. In a first part, this paper adds a comprehensive description of those boundary...

  18. Green Building Tools for Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribal green building tools and funding information to support tribal building code adoption, healthy building, siting, energy efficiency, renewable energy, water conservation, green building materials, recycling and adaptation and resilience.

  19. Market report: energy conservation with EDP assistance. Marktspiegel: Energieeinsparung mit EDV-Unterstuetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    Also in the area of rational use of energy and use of renewable energy sources modern computer systems gain more and more importance. More and more energy conservation specialists of consulting services, public administration and utility companies use for the preparation, realization and control of energy-saving measures electronic data processing. The aim is to be able to evaluate the partly very complex dependencies in energy consumption - e.g. between building heating, process control and illumination - in an acceptable period of time. A number of software houses has specialized in the development of programs for different partly very specific fields of application in the area of energy. (orig.)

  20. Energy consumptions in existing buildings; Les consommations d'energie des batiments existants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, St. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts et Industries de Strasbourg, 78 - Saint-Remy-Les-Chevreuse (France)]|[Costic, 78 - Sainte Remy les Chevreuses (France)

    2002-05-01

    This document presents a sectoral analysis of the energy consumptions in existing French buildings: 1) - residential sector: social buildings, private dwellings; 2) - tertiary sector: office buildings, hotels, commercial buildings, school buildings, hospitals; 3) - industry; 4) - general status. (J.S.)

  1. Energy efficiency in buildings, industry and transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovanovic, Dobrica; Babic, Milun; Jovicic, Nebojsa; Gordic, Dusan

    2012-11-01

    This paper reviews the literature concerning the energy saving and outlines the importance of energy efficiency, particularly in three the most important areas: buildings, industry and transportation. Improving energy efficiency plays a crucial role in minimizing the societal and environmental impacts of economic growth and offers a powerful tool for achieving sustainable development by reducing the need for investment in new infrastructure, by cutting fuel costs, and by increasing competitiveness for businesses and welfare for consumers. It creates environmental benefits through reduced emissions of greenhouse gases and local air pollutants. It can offer social benefits in the form of increased energy security (through reduced dependence on fossil fuels, particularly when imported) and better energy services.

  2. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  3. Energy Conservation in Dissipative Processes: Teacher Expectations and Strategies Associated with Imperceptible Thermal Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daane, Abigail R.; McKagan, Sarah B.; Vokos, Stamatis; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that many students and some teachers do not consistently apply the conservation of energy principle when analyzing mechanical scenarios. In observing elementary and secondary teachers engaged in learning activities that require tracking and conserving energy, we find that challenges to energy conservation often arise in…

  4. Energy conservation potential in Taiwanese textile industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Gui-Bing; Su, Te-Li; Lee, Jenq-Daw; Hsu, Tsung-Chi; Chen, Hua-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Since Taiwan lacks sufficient self-produced energy, increasing energy efficiency and energy savings are essential aspects of Taiwan's energy policy. This work summarizes the energy savings implemented by 303 firms in Taiwan's textile industry from the on-line Energy Declaration System in 2008. It was found that the total implemented energy savings amounted to 46,074 ton of oil equivalent (TOE). The energy saving was equivalent to 94,614 MWh of electricity, 23,686 kl of fuel oil and 4887 ton of fuel coal. It represented a potential reduction of 143,669 ton in carbon dioxide emissions, equivalent to the annual carbon dioxide absorption capacity of a 3848 ha plantation forest. This study summarizes energy-saving measures for energy users and identifies the areas for making energy saving to provide an energy efficiency baseline.

  5. 'Experience the future of building technologies'. High tech, low energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings cover the contributions presented at the CLIMA 2005 conference held in Lausanne, Switzerland. This four-day conference was sponsored by a large number of companies and organisations active in the Swiss building technologies area. Several keynote lectures were presented as were awards to students active in the building technical services area. The proceedings document the papers presented at the conference. These covered nine main topics. The first, 'Air-conditioning and ventilation' comprised 43 papers on the indoor environment, 15 on room air distribution, 4 on hygiene, 11 on alternative cooling methods, 8 on air-flow, 2 on air-cleaning and filters, 6 on refurbishment and even one concerning air-flow predictions in Egyptian tombs. The second topic, 'Heating', comprised 13 contributions on low-temperature heating and heat pumps, 7 on distributed energy systems, 4 on district heating, 7 on solar heating systems and 3 miscellaneous items. 'Design methods' were examined as a third topic with 11 contributions on building-simulation tools and 26 on computer-based methods for design, construction and operation. In the fourth section, 'Refrigeration', papers were presented on new working fluids (3 contributions), modernisation (5) along with 4 miscellaneous papers. 'Policies, standards and building-codes' were examined in four categories: Implementation of the European Energy Performance Directive with 8 contributions, life-cycle costs with 2 papers, energy conservation with 15 contributions and 2 contributions in the miscellaneous category. 'Domestic water systems and sanitary technology', the sixth section, includes 3 contributions on water conservation. Section 7, 'Building automation, security and control' includes a section on information and communication systems (3 contributions) and 6 various papers. Section 8, 'Building physics and HVAC' includes 8 contributions on double-skin and high-tech building envelopes, 7 on moisture control, and one on

  6. Low energy building with novel cooling unit using PCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaber, Samar

    2012-02-13

    This thesis aims to reduce the energy consumption as well as greenhouse gases to the environment without negatively affecting the thermal comfort. In the present work, thermal, energetic and economic impacts of employing passive solar systems combined with energy conservation systems have been investigated. These energy systems have been integrated with a typical residential building located in three different climate zones in Europe and Middle East regions.Hour-by-hour energy computer simulations have been carried out using TRNSYS and INSEL programs to analyze the performance of integrated energy systems. Furthermore, IESU software module has been developed to simulate a novel cooling unit using Phase Change Material (PCM). This unit is named as Indirect Evaporative and Storage Unit (IESU). Thereafter, complete economic equations for the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) criterion have been formulated. Furthermore this criterion has been optimized for different variables as a function of thermal parameters and economic figures from local markets. An optimum design of both residential buildings and energy systems has great impact on energy consumption. In fact, results showed that the energy consumption is reduced by 85.62%, 86.33% and 74.05% in Berlin, Amman and Aqaba, respectively. Moreover, the LCC criterion is reduced by 41.85% in Berlin, 19.21% in Amman and 15.22% in Aqaba.The macro economic analysis shows that once this research is applied in one million typical residential buildings in the selected climate zones, the annual avoided CO{sub 2} emissions are estimated to be about 5.7 million Tons in Berlin. In Aqaba, around 2.96 million Tons CO{sub 2} emissions will be saved annually and in Amman about 2.98 million Tons will be reduced. The payback period from the achieved saving is 18 years, 11 years and 8.6 years in Amman, Aqaba and Berlin, respectively.

  7. Conservation – a new and efficient source of energy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    National Building Research Institute

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy is becoming increasingly expensive. Conservation can offset the increase in energy cost and can therefore be considered a new and can fairly inexpensive source of energy. The following article looks at the ways in which energy savings in both...

  8. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......In order to achieve nearly net zero energy use, both new and energy refurbished existing buildings will in the future need to be still more efficient and optimized. Since such buildings can be expected to be already well insulated, airtight, and have heat recovery systems installed, one of the next......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...

  9. Integrating Renewable Energy Requirements Into Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, John R.; Hand, James R.; Halverson, Mark A.

    2011-07-01

    This report evaluates how and when to best integrate renewable energy requirements into building energy codes. The basic goals were to: (1) provide a rough guide of where we’re going and how to get there; (2) identify key issues that need to be considered, including a discussion of various options with pros and cons, to help inform code deliberations; and (3) to help foster alignment among energy code-development organizations. The authors researched current approaches nationally and internationally, conducted a survey of key stakeholders to solicit input on various approaches, and evaluated the key issues related to integration of renewable energy requirements and various options to address those issues. The report concludes with recommendations and a plan to engage stakeholders. This report does not evaluate whether the use of renewable energy should be required on buildings; that question involves a political decision that is beyond the scope of this report.

  10. Energy consumption program: A computer model simulating energy loads in buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoller, F. W.; Lansing, F. L.; Chai, V. W.; Higgins, S.

    1978-01-01

    The JPL energy consumption computer program developed as a useful tool in the on-going building modification studies in the DSN energy conservation project is described. The program simulates building heating and cooling loads and computes thermal and electric energy consumption and cost. The accuracy of computations are not sacrificed, however, since the results lie within + or - 10 percent margin compared to those read from energy meters. The program is carefully structured to reduce both user's time and running cost by asking minimum information from the user and reducing many internal time-consuming computational loops. Many unique features were added to handle two-level electronics control rooms not found in any other program.

  11. Advances in Energy Conservation of China Steel Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqiang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI during 1980–2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011–2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years’ research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  12. Advances in energy conservation of China steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenqiang; Cai, Jiuju; Ye, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The course, technical progresses, and achievements of energy conservation of China steel industry (CSI) during 1980-2010 were summarized. Then, the paper adopted e-p method to analyze the variation law and influencing factors of energy consumptions of large- and medium-scale steel plants within different stages. It is pointed out that energy consumption per ton of crude steel has been almost one half lower in these thirty years, with 60% as direct energy conservation owing to the change of process energy consumption and 40% as indirect energy conservation attributed to the adjustment of production structure. Next, the latest research progress of some key common technologies in CSI was introduced. Also, the downtrend of energy consumption per ton of crude steel and the potential energy conservation for CSI during 2011-2025 were forecasted. Finally, it is indicated that the key topic of the next 15 years' research on the energy conservation of CSI is the synergistic operation of material flow and energy flow. It could be achieved by the comprehensive study on energy flow network optimization, such as production, allocation, utilization, recovery, reuse, and resource, according to the energy quantity, quality, and user demand following the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

  13. Methodology for Validating Building Energy Analysis Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, R.; Wortman, D.; O' Doherty, B.; Burch, J.

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this report was to develop a validation methodology for building energy analysis simulations, collect high-quality, unambiguous empirical data for validation, and apply the validation methodology to the DOE-2.1, BLAST-2MRT, BLAST-3.0, DEROB-3, DEROB-4, and SUNCAT 2.4 computer programs. This report covers background information, literature survey, validation methodology, comparative studies, analytical verification, empirical validation, comparative evaluation of codes, and conclusions.

  14. Building Energy Management Open Source Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-20

    This is the repository for Building Energy Management Open Source Software (BEMOSS), which is an open source operating system that is engineered to improve sensing and control of equipment in small- and medium-sized commercial buildings. BEMOSS offers the following key features: (1) Open source, open architecture – BEMOSS is an open source operating system that is built upon VOLTTRON – a distributed agent platform developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). BEMOSS was designed to make it easy for hardware manufacturers to seamlessly interface their devices with BEMOSS. Software developers can also contribute to adding additional BEMOSS functionalities and applications. (2) Plug & play – BEMOSS was designed to automatically discover supported load controllers (including smart thermostats, VAV/RTUs, lighting load controllers and plug load controllers) in commercial buildings. (3) Interoperability – BEMOSS was designed to work with load control devices form different manufacturers that operate on different communication technologies and data exchange protocols. (4) Cost effectiveness – Implementation of BEMOSS deemed to be cost-effective as it was built upon a robust open source platform that can operate on a low-cost single-board computer, such as Odroid. This feature could contribute to its rapid deployment in small- or medium-sized commercial buildings. (5) Scalability and ease of deployment – With its multi-node architecture, BEMOSS provides a distributed architecture where load controllers in a multi-floor and high occupancy building could be monitored and controlled by multiple single-board computers hosting BEMOSS. This makes it possible for a building engineer to deploy BEMOSS in one zone of a building, be comfortable with its operation, and later on expand the deployment to the entire building to make it more energy efficient. (6) Ability to provide local and remote monitoring – BEMOSS provides both local and remote monitoring

  15. Sustainability in energy and buildings. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M' Sirdi, Nacer; Namaane, Aziz [LSIS Laboratory of Systems and Information Sciences, Marseilles (France); Howlett, Robert J. [KES International, Shoreham-by-Sea (United Kingdom); Jain, Lakhmi C. (eds.) [South Australia Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia). School of Electrical and Information Engineering

    2012-07-01

    Welcome to the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Sustainability in Energy and Buildings, SEB'11, held in Marseilles in France, organised by the Laboratoire des Sciences del'Information et des Systemes (LSIS) in Marseille, France in partnership with KES International. SEB'11 formed a welcome opportunity for researchers in subjects related to sustainability, renewable energy technology, and applications in the built environment to mix with other scientists, industrialists and stakeholders in the field. The conference featured presentations on a range of renewable energy and sustainability related topics. In addition the conference explored two innovative themes: - the application of intelligent sensing, control, optimisation and modelling techniques to sustainability and - the technology of sustainable buildings. These two themes combine synergetically to address issues relating to The Intelligent Building. SEB'11 attracted a significant number of submissions from around the world. These were subjected to a two-stage blind peer-review process. With the objective of producing a high-quality conference, only the best 50 or so of these were selected for presentation at the conference and publication in the proceedings. It is hoped that you will find this volume an interesting, informative and useful resource for your research.

  16. Application of energy conservation policies and strategies: their effects on environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chartier, P.

    1991-01-01

    The french energy policy settled after the oil crisis was aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption; statistics show that it was a success, particularly in industry but of lower importance for automobiles as traffic problems around cities increased. Some examples are given (steel, sugar and cement, new buildings, and cars). Rational use of energy and nuclear energy utilization induced a decrease in carbon dioxide emission, one of the most important greenhouse effect gases; the various causes of greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated and compared : energy (residential and commercial buildings, industry, transport), agriculture, putrefying wastes, deforestation, CFC. Cost and emission abatement potential of various policies are compared: fossil energy conservation, high-efficiency wood combustion, substitution of CFC, reforestation, catalytic converters, renewable energies, etc. Potentials of renewable energies are assessed

  17. Development of a methodology for life cycle building energy ratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Patxi; Kenny, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally the majority of building energy use has been linked to its operation (heating, cooling, lighting, etc.), and much attention has been directed to reduce this energy use through technical innovation, regulatory control and assessed through a wide range of rating methods. However buildings generally employ an increasing amount of materials and systems to reduce the energy use in operation, and energy embodied in these can constitute an important part of the building's life cycle energy use. For buildings with 'zero-energy' use in operation the embodied energy is indeed the only life cycle energy use. This is not addressed by current building energy assessment and rating methods. This paper proposes a methodology to extend building energy assessment and rating methods accounting for embodied energy of building components and systems. The methodology is applied to the EU Building Energy Rating method and, as an illustration, as implemented in Irish domestic buildings. A case study dwelling is used to illustrate the importance of embodied energy on life cycle energy performance, particularly relevant when energy use in operation tends to zero. The use of the Net Energy Ratio as an indicator to select appropriate building improvement measures is also presented and discussed. - Highlights: → The definitions for 'zero energy buildings' and current building energy ratings are examined. → There is a need to integrate a life cycle perspective within building energy ratings. → A life cycle building energy rating method (LC-BER), including embodied energy is presented. → Net Energy Ratio is proposed as an indicator to select building energy improvement options.

  18. Selecting Energy Efficient Building Envelope Retrofits to Existing Department of Defense Building Using Value Focused Thinking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pratt, David M

    2006-01-01

    ... these facilities that have the greatest potential for energy efficient building envelope retrofits. There are hundreds of various new building envelope technologies available to retrofit an existing building envelope, including window, roof, and wall technologies...

  19. Energy Gaining Windows for Residental Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Laustsen, Jacob Birck; Svendsen, Svend

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents some of the research done during the last 8 years at the Technical University of Denmark developing improved low-energy window solutions. The focus has been on maximizing the net energy gain of windows for residential buildings. The net energy gain of windows is the solar gain...... minus the heat loss integrated over the heating season. It is assumed that in northern cold climates all of the solar gain during the heating season can be utilized for space heating. Problems with overheating in the summer period must be solved with overhang or moveable solar shading devices. Two...... and longer durability of the window. The glazing in these fiber reinforced polyester windows is both unsealed and sealed triple glazing units. To increase the net energy gain slim frame profiles have been developed to increase the glazing area and thereby the solar gain. The challenge when developing slim...

  20. IEA Energy Training Capacity-building Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    The IEA has carried out training activities in energy-related areas from its origins as an agency, with the Emergency Response Exercises (ERE), designed to prepare member countries for oil supply disruption through a set of specially prepared drills simulating crisis conditions. The globalisation of world energy markets in recent years and the wider engagement of the IEA beyond its members have expanded this role, as demand for training instruction has increased. In response, the IEA has created the Energy Training and Capacity-Building Programme, which, through seminars and workshops, secondments and internships, will offer training in the methods and standards that make IEA work in a wide range of energy-related areas, including statistics, the international standard for objective policy recommendations.