WorldWideScience

Sample records for conservation charge

  1. Conservation of Charge and Conservation of Current

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Conservation of current and conservation of charge are nearly the same thing: when enough is known about charge movement, conservation of current can be derived from conservation of charge, in ideal dielectrics, for example. Conservation of current is enforced implicitly in ideal dielectrics by theories that conserve charge. But charge movement in real materials like semiconductors or ionic solutions is never ideal. We present an apparently universal derivation of conservation of current and ...

  2. Cosmological constant is a conserved charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyavsky, Dmitry; Hajian, Kamal

    2018-06-01

    Cosmological constant can always be considered as the on-shell value of a top form in gravitational theories. The top form is the field strength of a gauge field, and the theory enjoys a gauge symmetry. We show that cosmological constant is the charge of the global part of the gauge symmetry, and is conserved irrespective of the dynamics of the metric and other fields. In addition, we introduce its conjugate chemical potential, and prove the generalized first law of thermodynamics which includes variation of cosmological constant as a conserved charge. We discuss how our new term in the first law is related to the volume–pressure term. In parallel with the seminal Wald entropy, this analysis suggests that pressure can also be considered as a conserved charge.

  3. Mass, matter, materialization, mattergenesis and conservation of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2013-01-01

    Conservation of mass in classical physics and in chemistry is considered to be equivalent to conservation of matter and is a necessary condition together with other universal conservation laws to account for observed experiments. Indeed matter conservation is associated to conservation of building blocks (molecules, atoms, nucleons, quarks and leptons). Matter is massive but mass and matter are two distinct concepts even if conservation of mass and conservation of matter represent the same reality in classical physics and chemistry. Conservation of mass is a consequence of conservation of atoms. Conservation of mass is valid because in these cases it is a very good approximation, the variation of mass being tiny and undetectable by weighing. However, nuclear physics and particle physics clearly show that conservation of mass is not valid to express conservation of matter. Mass is one form of energy, is a positive quantity and plays a fundamental role in dynamics allowing particles to be accelerated. Origin of mass may be linked to recently discovered Higgs bosons. Matter conservation means conservation of baryonic number A and leptonic number L, A and L being algebraic numbers. Positive A and L are associated to matter particles, negative A and L are associated to antimatter particles. All known interactions do conserve matter thus could not generate, from pure energy, a number of matter particles different from that of number of antimatter particles. But our universe is material and neutral, this double message has to be deciphered simultaneously. Asymmetry of our universe demands an interaction which violates matter conservation but obeys all universal conservation laws, in particular conservation of electric charge Q. Expression of Q shows that conservation of (A–L) and total flavor TF are necessary and sufficient to conserve Q. Conservation of A and L is indeed a trivial case of conservation of (A–L) and is valid for all known interactions of the standard

  4. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghodrati, M. [University of Michigan, Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory of Physics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Hajian, K. [Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS{sub 3}, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  5. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the ''solution phase space method,'' conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f(R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS 3 , charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z = 3 Lifshitz black holes. (orig.)

  6. Revisiting conserved charges in higher curvature gravitational theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, M.; Hajian, K.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Restricting the covariant gravitational phase spaces to the manifold of parametrized families of solutions, the mass, angular momenta, entropies, and electric charges can be calculated by a single and simple method. In this method, which has been called the "solution phase space method," conserved charges are unambiguous and regular. Moreover, assuming the generators of the charges to be exact symmetries, entropies and other conserved charges can be calculated on almost arbitrary surfaces, not necessarily horizons or asymptotics. Hence, the first law of thermodynamics would be a local identity relating the exact symmetries to which the mass, angular momentum, electric charge, and entropy are attributed. In this paper, we apply this powerful method to the f( R) gravitational theories accompanied by the terms quadratic in the Riemann and Ricci tensors. Furthermore, conserved charges and the first law of thermodynamics for some of their black hole solutions are exemplified. The examples include warped AdS_3, charged static BTZ, and 3-dimensional z=3 Lifshitz black holes.

  7. Out-of-equilibrium quantum fields with conserved charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedingham, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the out-of-equilibrium evolution of an O(2)-invariant scalar field in which a conserved charge is stored. We apply a loop expansion of the 2-particle irreducible effective action to 3-loop order. Equations of motion are derived which conserve both total charge and total energy yet allow for the effects of scattering whereby charge and energy can transfer between modes. Working in 1+1 dimensions we solve the equations of motion numerically for a system knocked out of equilibrium by a sudden temperature quench. We examine the initial stages of the charge and energy redistribution. This provides a basis from which we can understand the formation of Bose-Einstein condensates from first principles

  8. Conservation of lepton charges, massive majorana and massless neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petcov, S.T.; Toshev, S.T.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the necessary and sufficient condition for the presence of k massless and (n-k) massive nondegenerate Majorana neutrinos in a theory with n neutrino flavours and a neutrino mass term of Majorana type is the existence of k standard and no other conserved lepton charges. Two-loop Majorana mass corrections for neutrinos, massless at tree level, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  9. Charge-conserving FEM-PIC schemes on general grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos Pinto, M.; Jund, S.; Salmon, S.; Sonnendruecker, E.

    2014-01-01

    Particle-In-Cell (PIC) solvers are a major tool for the understanding of the complex behavior of a plasma or a particle beam in many situations. An important issue for electromagnetic PIC solvers, where the fields are computed using Maxwell's equations, is the problem of discrete charge conservation. In this article, we aim at proposing a general mathematical formulation for charge-conserving finite-element Maxwell solvers coupled with particle schemes. In particular, we identify the finite-element continuity equations that must be satisfied by the discrete current sources for several classes of time-domain Vlasov-Maxwell simulations to preserve the Gauss law at each time step, and propose a generic algorithm for computing such consistent sources. Since our results cover a wide range of schemes (namely curl-conforming finite element methods of arbitrary degree, general meshes in two or three dimensions, several classes of time discretization schemes, particles with arbitrary shape factors and piecewise polynomial trajectories of arbitrary degree), we believe that they provide a useful roadmap in the design of high-order charge-conserving FEM-PIC numerical schemes. (authors)

  10. Azimuthal angle dependence of the charge imbalance from charge conservation effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    BoŻek, Piotr

    2018-03-01

    The experimental search for the chiral magnetic effect in heavy-ion collisions is based on charge-dependent correlations between emitted particles. Recently, a sensitive observable comparing event-by-event distributions of the charge splitting projected on the directions along and perpendicular to the direction of the elliptic flow has been proposed. The results of a (3 + 1)-dimensional hydrodynamic model show that the preliminary experimental data of the STAR Collaboration can be explained as due to background effects, such as resonance decays and local charge conservation in the particle production. A related observable based on the third-order harmonic flow is proposed to further investigate such background effects in charge-dependent correlations.

  11. The spectrum of the conserved charges in affine Toda theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedermaier, M.R.

    1992-07-01

    A vertex operator construction for the phase of the minimal form factor is used to predict the exact spectrum of the infinite set of conserved charges on the multi-particle states in affine Toda theories from the bootstrap S-matrix. Conversely, the scattering phase can be recovered from the spectral information. The result is checed against the classical spectrum which is calculated ab-initio using the τ-function formalism. The latter is shown to provide a considerable shortcut compared to the traditional use of the inverse scattering transform. (orig.)

  12. A simple formula for the conserved charges of soliton theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Luiz Agostinho; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple formula for all the conserved charges of soliton theories, evaluated on the solutions belonging to the orbit of the vacuum under the group of dressing transformations. For pedagogical reasons we perform the explicit calculations for the case of the sine-Gordon model, taken as a prototype of soliton theories. We show that the energy and momentum are boundary terms for all the solutions on the orbit of the vacuum. That orbit includes practically all the solutions of physical interest, namely solitons, multi-solitons, breathers, and combinations of solitons and breathers. The example of the mKdV equation is also given explicitly

  13. High cumulants of conserved charges and their statistical uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Zhu, Chen; Ye-Yin, Zhao; Xue, Pan; Zhi-Ming, Li; Yuan-Fang, Wu

    2017-10-01

    We study the influence of measured high cumulants of conserved charges on their associated statistical uncertainties in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. With a given number of events, the measured cumulants randomly fluctuate with an approximately normal distribution, while the estimated statistical uncertainties are found to be correlated with corresponding values of the obtained cumulants. Generally, with a given number of events, the larger the cumulants we measure, the larger the statistical uncertainties that are estimated. The error-weighted averaged cumulants are dependent on statistics. Despite this effect, however, it is found that the three sigma rule of thumb is still applicable when the statistics are above one million. Supported by NSFC (11405088, 11521064, 11647093), Major State Basic Research Development Program of China (2014CB845402) and Ministry of Science and Technology (MoST) (2016YFE0104800)

  14. Conserved charges of minimal massive gravity coupled to scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, the theory of topologically massive gravity non-minimally coupled to a scalar field has been proposed, which comes from the Lorentz-Chern-Simons theory (JHEP 06, 113, 2015), a torsion-free theory. We extend this theory by adding an extra term which makes the torsion to be non-zero. We show that the BTZ spacetime is a particular solution to this theory in the case where the scalar field is constant. The quasi-local conserved charge is defined by the concept of the generalized off-shell ADT current. Also a general formula is found for the entropy of the stationary black hole solution in context of the considered theory. The obtained formulas are applied to the BTZ black hole solution in order to obtain the energy, the angular momentum and the entropy of this solution. The central extension term, the central charges and the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators for the BTZ black hole solution are thus obtained. The energy and the angular momentum of the BTZ black hole using the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators are calculated. Also, using the Cardy formula, the entropy of the BTZ black hole is found. It is found that the results obtained in two different ways exactly match, just as expected.

  15. Conserved charges of minimal massive gravity coupled to scalar field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setare, M.R.; Adami, H.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, the theory of topologically massive gravity non-minimally coupled to a scalar field has been proposed, which comes from the Lorentz-Chern-Simons theory (JHEP 06, 113, 2015), a torsion-free theory. We extend this theory by adding an extra term which makes the torsion to be non-zero. We show that the BTZ spacetime is a particular solution to this theory in the case where the scalar field is constant. The quasi-local conserved charge is defined by the concept of the generalized off-shell ADT current. Also a general formula is found for the entropy of the stationary black hole solution in context of the considered theory. The obtained formulas are applied to the BTZ black hole solution in order to obtain the energy, the angular momentum and the entropy of this solution. The central extension term, the central charges and the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators for the BTZ black hole solution are thus obtained. The energy and the angular momentum of the BTZ black hole using the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators are calculated. Also, using the Cardy formula, the entropy of the BTZ black hole is found. It is found that the results obtained in two different ways exactly match, just as expected. (orig.)

  16. Conserved charges of minimal massive gravity coupled to scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R.; Adami, H. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2018-02-15

    Recently, the theory of topologically massive gravity non-minimally coupled to a scalar field has been proposed, which comes from the Lorentz-Chern-Simons theory (JHEP 06, 113, 2015), a torsion-free theory. We extend this theory by adding an extra term which makes the torsion to be non-zero. We show that the BTZ spacetime is a particular solution to this theory in the case where the scalar field is constant. The quasi-local conserved charge is defined by the concept of the generalized off-shell ADT current. Also a general formula is found for the entropy of the stationary black hole solution in context of the considered theory. The obtained formulas are applied to the BTZ black hole solution in order to obtain the energy, the angular momentum and the entropy of this solution. The central extension term, the central charges and the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators for the BTZ black hole solution are thus obtained. The energy and the angular momentum of the BTZ black hole using the eigenvalues of the Virasoro algebra generators are calculated. Also, using the Cardy formula, the entropy of the BTZ black hole is found. It is found that the results obtained in two different ways exactly match, just as expected. (orig.)

  17. On the checking of electric charge conservation law and the pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun', L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This is a short critical review of the attempts to check the accuracy with which are carried out in experiment the electric charge conservation law and the Pauli principle. The absence of the inwardly noncontradictory phenomenological theory is emphasized, which could describe the charge conservation and/or the Pauli principle violation. Under charge nonconservation longitudinal photons are of a principal importance. New suggestions concerning the principle Puli checking are discussed

  18. Quantum conserved charges in N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric sine-Gordon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Uematsu, Tsuneo; Yu Yangzheng

    1993-01-01

    We investigate quantum conservation laws in the N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric sine-Gordon theories. We study conserved charges at the quantum level based on perturbation theory formulated in superspace. It will turn out that there exist extra conserved charges of the vertex operator type at the quantum level and they generate a quantum group symmetry in supersymmetric sine-Gordon systems. We also discuss the implication of the quantum group symmetry on the S-matrix structure. (orig.)

  19. Quasilocal energy and conserved charges derived from the gravitational action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.D.; York, J.W. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The quasilocal energy of gravitational and matter fields in a spatially bounded region is obtained by employing a Hamilton-Jacobi analysis of the action functional. First, a surface stress-energy-momentum tensor is defined by the functional derivative of the action with respect to the three-metric on 3 B, the history of the system's boundary. Energy surface density, momentum surface density, and spatial stress are defined by projecting the surface stress tensor normally and tangentially to a family of spacelike two-surfaces that foliate 3 B. The integral of the energy surface density over such a two-surface B is the quasilocal energy associated with a spacelike three-surface Σ whose orthogonal intersection with 3 B is the boundary B. The resulting expression for quasilocal energy is given in terms of the total mean curvature of the spatial boundary B as a surface embedded in Σ. The quasilocal energy is also the value of the Hamiltonian that generates unit magnitude proper-time translations on 3 B in the timelike direction orthogonal to B. Conserved charges such as angular momentum are defined using the surface stress tensor and Killing vector fields on 3 B. For spacetimes that are asymptotically flat in spacelike directions, the quasilocal energy and angular momentum defined here agree with the results of Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner in the limit that the boundary tends to spatial infinity. For spherically symmetric spacetimes, it is shown that the quasilocal energy has the correct Newtonian limit, and includes a negative contribution due to gravitational binding

  20. What is the significance of the conservation of electric charge Q?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2007-01-01

    Conservation of electric charge Q is a universal law in the sense that it should be conserved in any interaction, known or yet unknown. However Q should not be considered as a simple number but as the half sum of two irreducible quantities BAL= A-L (A is the baryonic number and L is the leptonic number) and total flavour TF. Conservation of electric charge implies obviously conservation of Q (considered as a simple number) but also BAL and TF. We verify that electromagnetism and strong interaction which conserve Q, A and L and all individual flavours conserve obviously BAL and TF; likely weak interaction which conserves Q, A and L conserves also BAL and TF. However conservation of BAL does not imply necessarily conservation of A and L. In effect ΔBAL=0 has another solution ΔA= ΔL= ± 1 which points to a possible solution to explain how a material and neutral universe could arise evolving from A=0 L=0 Q=0 state to A>0 Q=0 state through a process which would conserve BAL and TF without conserving separately A and L. (author)

  1. What is the significance of the conservation of electric charge Q?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsan, Ung Chan [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3-CNRS et Universite Joseph Fourier, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2007-07-01

    Conservation of electric charge Q is a universal law in the sense that it should be conserved in any interaction, known or yet unknown. However Q should not be considered as a simple number but as the half sum of two irreducible quantities BAL= A-L (A is the baryonic number and L is the leptonic number) and total flavour TF. Conservation of electric charge implies obviously conservation of Q (considered as a simple number) but also BAL and TF. We verify that electromagnetism and strong interaction which conserve Q, A and L and all individual flavours conserve obviously BAL and TF; likely weak interaction which conserves Q, A and L conserves also BAL and TF. However conservation of BAL does not imply necessarily conservation of A and L. In effect {delta}BAL=0 has another solution {delta}A= {delta}L= {+-} 1 which points to a possible solution to explain how a material and neutral universe could arise evolving from A=0 L=0 Q=0 state to A>0 Q=0 state through a process which would conserve BAL and TF without conserving separately A and L. (author)

  2. What is the significance of the conservation of electric charge Q?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, U.C.

    2006-01-01

    Conservation of electric charge Q is a universal law in the sense that it should be conserved in any interaction, known or yet unknown. However Q should not be considered as a simple number but as the half sum of two irreducible quantities BAL = A-L (A is the baryon number and L is the lepton number) and total flavour TF. Conservation of electric charge implies obviously conservation of Q (considered as a simple number) but also BAL and TF. We verify that electromagnetism and strong interaction which conserve Q, A and L and all individual flavours conserve obviously BAL and TF; likely weak interaction which conserves Q, A and L conserves also BAL and TF. However conservation of BAL does not imply necessarily conservation of A and L. In effect ΔBAL=0 has another solution ΔA=ΔL= ±1 which points to a possible solution to explain how a material and neutral universe could arise evolving from A=0 L=0 Q=0 state to A>0 Q=0 state through a process which would conserve BAL and TF without conserving separately A and L. (author)

  3. What is the significance of the conservation of electric charge Q?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsan, U.C. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, IN2P3-CNRS and Universite Joseph Fourier, 53 Avenue des Martyrs, F38026 Grenoble Cedex (France)

    2006-07-01

    Conservation of electric charge Q is a universal law in the sense that it should be conserved in any interaction, known or yet unknown. However Q should not be considered as a simple number but as the half sum of two irreducible quantities BAL = A-L (A is the baryon number and L is the lepton number) and total flavour TF. Conservation of electric charge implies obviously conservation of Q (considered as a simple number) but also BAL and TF. We verify that electromagnetism and strong interaction which conserve Q, A and L and all individual flavours conserve obviously BAL and TF; likely weak interaction which conserves Q, A and L conserves also BAL and TF. However conservation of BAL does not imply necessarily conservation of A and L. In effect {delta}BAL=0 has another solution {delta}A={delta}L= {+-}1 which points to a possible solution to explain how a material and neutral universe could arise evolving from A=0 L=0 Q=0 state to A>0 Q=0 state through a process which would conserve BAL and TF without conserving separately A and L. (author)

  4. Electric Double-Layer Interaction between Dissimilar Charge-Conserved Conducting Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-09-15

    Small metallic particles used in forming nanostructured to impart novel optical, catalytic, or tribo-rheological can be modeled as conducting particles with equipotential surfaces that carry a net surface charge. The value of the surface potential will vary with the separation between interacting particles, and in the absence of charge-transfer or electrochemical reactions across the particle surface, the total charge of each particle must also remain constant. These two physical conditions require the electrostatic boundary condition for metallic nanoparticles to satisfy an equipotential whole-of-particle charge conservation constraint that has not been studied previously. This constraint gives rise to a global charge conserved constant potential boundary condition that results in multibody effects in the electric double-layer interaction that are either absent or are very small in the familiar constant potential or constant charge or surface electrochemical equilibrium condition.

  5. R-charge Conservation and More in Factorizable and Non-Factorizable Orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Bizet, Nana Geraldine Cabo; Pena, Damian Kaloni Mayorga; Parameswaran, Susha L; Schmitz, Matthias; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We consider the string theory origin of R-charge conservation laws in heterotic orbifold compactifications, deriving the corresponding string coupling selection rule for factorizable and non-factorizable orbifolds, with prime ordered and non-prime ordered point groups. R-charge conservation arises due to symmetries among the worldsheet instantons that can mediate the couplings. Among our results is a previously missed non-trivial contribution to the conserved R-charges from the Gamma-phases in non-prime orbifolds, which weakens the R-charge selection rule. Symmetries among the worldsheet instantons can also lead to additional selection rules for some couplings. We make a similar analysis for Rule 4 or the 'torus lattice selection rule'. Moreover, we identify a new string selection rule, that we call Rule 6 or the 'coset vector selection rule'.

  6. Charge conserving current deposition scheme for PIC simulations in modified spherical coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F.; Grismayer, T.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2017-10-01

    Global models of pulsar magnetospheres have been actively pursued in recent years. Both macro and microscopic (PIC) descriptions have been used, showing that collective processes of e-e + plasmas dominate the global structure of pulsar magnetospheres. Since these systems are best described in spherical coordinates, the algorithms used in cartesian simulations must be generalized. A problem of particular interest is that of charge conservation in PIC simulations. The complex geometry and irregular grids used to improve the efficiency of these algorithms represent major challenges in the design of a charge conserving scheme. Here we present a new first-order current deposition scheme for a 2D axisymmetric, log-spaced radial grid, that rigorously conserves charge. We benchmark this scheme in different scenarios, by integrating it with a spherical Yee scheme and Boris/Vay pushers. The results show that charge is conserved to machine precision, making it unnecessary to correct the electric field to guarantee charge conservation. This scheme will be particularly important for future studies aiming to bridge the microscopic physical processes of e-e + plasma generation due to QED cascades, its self-consistent acceleration and radiative losses to the global dynamics of pulsar magnetospheres. Work supported by the European Research Council (InPairs ERC-2015-AdG 695088), FCT (Portugal) Grant PD/BD/114307/2016, and the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation through the 2016 Scientific Research Stimulus Program.

  7. Hidden-beauty charged tetraquarks and heavy quark spin conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maiani, L.; Polosa, A.D.; Riquer, V. [Rome-3 Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; INFN, Sezione di Roma (Italy)

    2014-12-15

    Assuming the dominance of the spin-spin interaction in a diquark, we point out that the mass differences in the beauty sector M(Z'{sub b}){sup ±}-M(Z{sub b}){sup ±} scale with quark masses as expected in QCD, with respect to the corresponding mass difference M(Z'{sub c}){sup ±}-M(Z{sub c}){sup ±}. Notably, we show that the decays Υ(10890)→(h{sub b}(1P),h{sub b}(2P))π{sup +}π{sup -} are compatible with heavy-quark spin conservation once the contributions of Z{sub b},Z'{sub b} intermediate states are taken into account, Υ(10890) being either a Υ(5S) or the beauty analog of Y{sub c}(4260). We also consider the role of Z{sub b},Z'{sub b} in Υ(10890)→Υ(nS)ππ decays and of light quark spin non-conservation in Z{sub b}, Z'{sub b} decays into BB{sup *} and B{sup *}B{sup *}. Indications on possible signatures of the still missing X{sub b} resonance are proposed.

  8. Off-shell Noether current and conserved charge in Horndeski theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Jin Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We derive the off-shell Noether current and potential in the context of Horndeski theory, which is the most general scalar–tensor theory with a Lagrangian containing derivatives up to second order while yielding at most to second-order equations of motion in four dimensions. Then the formulation of conserved charges is proposed on basis of the off-shell Noether potential and the surface term got from the variation of the Lagrangian. As an application, we calculate the conserved charges of black holes in a scalar–tensor theory with non-minimal coupling between derivatives of the scalar field and the Einstein tensor.

  9. Prospects for Parity Non-conservation Experiments with Highly Charged Heavy Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, M.; Schäfer, A.; Greiner, W.; Indelicato, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the prospects for parity non-conservation experiments with highly charged heavy ions. Energy levels and parity mixing for heavy ions with two to five electrons are calculated. We investigate two-photon-transitions and the possibility to observe interference effects between weak-matrix elements and Stark matrix elements for periodic electric field configurations.

  10. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPherson, Allen L.; Knoll, Dana A.; Cieren, Emmanuel B.; Feltman, Nicolas; Leibs, Christopher A.; McCarthy, Colleen; Murthy, Karthik S.; Wang, Yijie

    2012-01-01

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  11. A 2-D Implicit, Energy and Charge Conserving Particle In Cell Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McPherson, Allen L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Knoll, Dana A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cieren, Emmanuel B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feltman, Nicolas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Leibs, Christopher A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; McCarthy, Colleen [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Murthy, Karthik S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Yijie [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-10

    Recently, a fully implicit electrostatic 1D charge- and energy-conserving particle-in-cell algorithm was proposed and implemented by Chen et al ([2],[3]). Central to the algorithm is an advanced particle pusher. Particles are moved using an energy conserving scheme and are forced to stop at cell faces to conserve charge. Moreover, a time estimator is used to control errors in momentum. Here we implement and extend this advanced particle pusher to include 2D and electromagnetic fields. Derivations of all modifications made are presented in full. Special consideration is taken to ensure easy coupling into the implicit moment based method proposed by Taitano et al [19]. Focus is then given to optimizing the presented particle pusher on emerging architectures. Two multicore implementations, and one GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) implementation are discussed and analyzed.

  12. Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges near the QCD critical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Weijie; Wu Yueliang

    2010-01-01

    We study the fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges, such as the baryon number, the electric charge and the strangeness, at the finite temperature and the nonzero baryon chemical potential in an effective model. The fluctuations are calculated up to the fourth-order and the correlations to the third-order. We find that the second-order fluctuations and correlations have a peak or valley structure when the chiral phase transition takes place with the increase of the baryon chemical potential; the third-order fluctuations and correlations change their signs during the chiral phase transition; and the fourth-order fluctuations have two maxima and one minimum. We also depict contour plots of various fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in the plane of temperature and the baryon chemical potential. It is found that higher-order fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges are superior to the second-order ones to be used to search for the critical point in heavy ion collision experiments.

  13. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M.R. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Science, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory. (orig.)

  14. Quasi-local conserved charges in Lorenz-diffeomorphism covariant theory of gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, H.; Setare, M. R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, using the combined Lorenz-diffeomorphism symmetry, we find a general formula for the quasi-local conserved charge of the covariant gravity theories in a first order formalism of gravity. We simplify the general formula for the Lovelock theory of gravity. Afterwards, we apply the obtained formula on BHT gravity to obtain the energy and angular momentum of the rotating OTT black hole solution in the context of this theory.

  15. Conserved charge fluctuations at vanishing and non-vanishing chemical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsch, Frithjof

    2017-11-01

    Up to 6th order cumulants of fluctuations of net baryon-number, net electric charge and net strangeness as well as correlations among these conserved charge fluctuations are now being calculated in lattice QCD. These cumulants provide a wealth of information on the properties of strong-interaction matter in the transition region from the low temperature hadronic phase to the quark-gluon plasma phase. They can be used to quantify deviations from hadron resonance gas (HRG) model calculations which frequently are used to determine thermal conditions realized in heavy ion collision experiments. Already some second order cumulants like the correlations between net baryon-number and net strangeness or net electric charge differ significantly at temperatures above 155 MeV in QCD and HRG model calculations. We show that these differences increase at non-zero baryon chemical potential constraining the applicability range of HRG model calculations to even smaller values of the temperature.

  16. Thermal blurring effects on fluctuations of conserved charges in rapidity space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Onishi, Y.; Sakaida, M.

    2016-12-15

    We argue that the diffusion in the hadron phase and the thermal blurring at thermal freezeout affect observed conserved charge fluctuations considerably in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and show that their effects are of similar order at RHIC and LHC, and thus equally important in understanding experimental data. We also argue that, in order to disentangle them and obtain the initial state charge fluctuations, which we are interested in, it is crucial to measure their dependence on the rapidity window size. In the energy range of the beam energy scan program at RHIC, the diffusion effect would be less important because of the shorter duration of the hadron phase, but the importance of thermal blurring is not reduced. In addition, it is necessary to take account of the complex correspondence between the space-time rapidity and rapidity of observed particles, there.

  17. Higher conserved charges and integrability for spinning strings in AdS5 x S5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engquist, Johan

    2004-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of an infinite number of local commuting charges for classical solutions of the string sigma model on AdS 5 x S 5 associated with a certain circular three-spin solution spinning with large angular momenta in three orthogonal directions on the five-sphere. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we find agreement to one-loop with the tower of conserved higher charges in planar N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory associated with the dual composite single-trace operator in the highest weight representation (J 1 ,J 2 ,J 2 ) of SO(6). The agreement can be explained by the presence of integrability on both sides of the duality. (author)

  18. On conserved charges and thermodynamics of the AdS{sub 4} dyonic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cárdenas, Marcela [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Fuentealba, Oscar; Matulich, Javier [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2016-05-02

    We consider four-dimensional gravity in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field and an Abelian gauge field. This theory corresponds to the bosonic sector of a Kaluza-Klein reduction of eleven-dimensional supergravity which induces a specific self-interacting potential for the scalar field. We compute the conserved charges and carry out the thermodynamics of an anti-de Sitter (AdS) dyonic black hole solution that was proposed recently. The charges coming from symmetries of the action are computed using the Regge-Teitelboim Hamiltonian approach. They correspond to the mass, which acquires contributions from the scalar field, and the electric charge. We introduce integrability conditions because the scalar field leads to non-integrable terms in the variation of the mass. These conditions are generically solved by introducing boundary conditions that relate the leading and subleading terms of the scalar field fall-off. The Hamiltonian Euclidean action, computed in the grand canonical ensemble, is obtained by demanding the action to have an extremum. Its value is given by a radial boundary term plus an additional polar angle boundary term due to the presence of a magnetic monopole. Remarkably, the magnetic charge can be identified from the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term, confirming that the first law of black hole thermodynamics is a consequence of having a well-defined and finite Hamiltonian action principle, even if the charge does not come from a symmetry of the action. The temperature and electrostatic potential are determined by demanding regularity of the black hole solution, whereas the value of the magnetic potential is determined by the variation of the additional polar angle boundary term. Consequently, the first law of black hole thermodynamics is identically satisfied by construction.

  19. Quasi-local conserved charges of spin-3 topologically massive gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we obtain conserved charges of spin-3 topologically massive gravity by using a quasi-local formalism. We find a general formula to calculate conserved charge of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity which corresponds to a Killing vector field ξ. We show that this general formula reduces to the previous one for the ordinary spin-3 gravity presented in [18] when we take into account only transformation under diffeomorphism, without considering generalized Lorentz gauge transformation (i.e. λξ=0, and by taking 1μ→0. Then we obtain a general formula for the entropy of black hole solutions of the spin-3 topologically massive gravity. Finally we apply our formalism to calculate energy, angular momentum and entropy of a special black hole solution and we find that obtained results are consistent with previous results in the limiting cases. Moreover our results for energy, angular momentum and entropy are consistent with the first law of black hole mechanics.

  20. Lorentz-diffeomorphism quasi-local conserved charges and Virasoro algebra in Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Setare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The Chern–Simons-like theories of gravity (CSLTG are formulated at first order formalism. In this formalism, the derivation of the entropy of a black hole on bifurcation surface, as a quasi-local conserved charge is problematic. In this paper we overcome these problems by considering the concept of total variation and the Lorentz–Lie derivative. We firstly find an expression for the ADT conserved current in the context of the CSLTG which is based on the concept of the Killing vector fields. Then, we generalize it to be conserved for all diffeomorphism generators. Thus, we can extract an off-shell conserved charge for any vector field which generates a diffeomorphism. The formalism presented here is based on the concept of quasi-local conserved charges which are off-shell. The charges can be calculated on any codimension two space-like surface surrounding a black hole and the results are independent of the chosen surface. By using the off-shell quasi-local conserved charge, we investigate the Virasoro algebra and find a formula to calculate the central extension term. We apply the formalism to the BTZ black hole solution in the context of the Einstein gravity and the Generalized massive gravity, then we find the eigenvalues of their Virasoro generators as well as the corresponding central charges. Eventually, we calculate the entropy of the BTZ black hole by the Cardy formula and we show that the result exactly matches the one obtained by the concept of the off-shell conserved charges.

  1. Hiding of the conserved (anti)baryonic charge into black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is considered. It is suggested that the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is generated by black hole evaporation in a specific mechanism proposed by Zeldovich. Net amount of baryons evaporated by a black hole is shown can be unequal to that of antibaryons, even if the baryon charge is microscopically conserved. It is concluded that the discussed mechanism can provide the observed baryon assymetry of the Universe if primary black holes with the mass M=10sup(4+-2)Msub(P), where Msub(P)=10sup(19) GeV is the Planck mass, give noticeable contribution into the total energy density of the Universe

  2. Momentum transfer theory of non-conservative charged particle transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.

    1995-01-01

    Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles

  3. A low-dispersion, exactly energy-charge-conserving semi-implicit relativistic particle-in-cell algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guangye; Luis, Chacon; Bird, Robert; Stark, David; Yin, Lin; Albright, Brian

    2017-10-01

    Leap-frog based explicit algorithms, either ``energy-conserving'' or ``momentum-conserving'', do not conserve energy discretely. Time-centered fully implicit algorithms can conserve discrete energy exactly, but introduce large dispersion errors in the light-wave modes, regardless of timestep sizes. This can lead to intolerable simulation errors where highly accurate light propagation is needed (e.g. laser-plasma interactions, LPI). In this study, we selectively combine the leap-frog and Crank-Nicolson methods to produce a low-dispersion, exactly energy-and-charge-conserving PIC algorithm. Specifically, we employ the leap-frog method for Maxwell equations, and the Crank-Nicolson method for particle equations. Such an algorithm admits exact global energy conservation, exact local charge conservation, and preserves the dispersion properties of the leap-frog method for the light wave. The algorithm has been implemented in a code named iVPIC, based on the VPIC code developed at LANL. We will present numerical results that demonstrate the properties of the scheme with sample test problems (e.g. Weibel instability run for 107 timesteps, and LPI applications.

  4. Conservation of charge conjugation in {eta} meson decay; Etude de la conservation de la conjugaison de charge dans les desintegrations du meson {eta}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 91 - Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-03-01

    The charge asymmetry in the {eta} meson decay is investigated. With 10709 events {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} the asymmetry is (0.3 {+-} 1.1) per cent. 1620 decays {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} give (1.5 {+-} 2.5) per cent. There is no evidence for charge conjugation violation in electro-magnetic or semi-strong interactions. (author) [French] La symetrie de charge est etudiee dans la desintegration du meson {eta}. Avec 10709 desintegrations {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} l'asymetrie obtenue est de (0.3 {+-} 1.1) pour cent. Les 1620 desintegrations {eta} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} donnent (1.5 {+-} 2.5) pour cent. Il n'y a aucune evidence de violation de la conjugaison de charge dans les interactions electromagnetiques ou semi-fortes. (auteur)

  5. Quasi-integrable non-linear Schrödinger models, infinite towers of exactly conserved charges and bright solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, H.; do Bonfim, A. C. R.; Vilela, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    Deformations of the focusing non-linear Schrödinger model (NLS) are considered in the context of the quasi-integrability concept. We strengthen the results of JHEP 09 (2012) 103 10.1007/JHEP06(2015)177" TargetType="URL"/> for bright soliton collisions. We addressed the focusing NLS as a complement to the one in JHEP 03 (2016) 005 10.1007/JHEP06(2015)177" TargetType="URL"/> , in which the modified defocusing NLS models with dark solitons were shown to exhibit an infinite tower of exactly conserved charges. We show, by means of analytical and numerical methods, that for certain two-bright-soliton solutions, in which the modulus and phase of the complex modified NLS field exhibit even parities under a space-reflection symmetry, the first four and the sequence of even order charges are exactly conserved during the scattering process of the solitons. We perform extensive numerical simulations and consider the bright solitons with deformed potential V=2η /2+\\upepsilon{({|ψ |}^2)}^{2+\\upepsilon},\\upepsilon \\in \\mathbb{R},η <0 . However, for two-soliton field components without definite parity we also show numerically the vanishing of the first non-trivial anomaly and the exact conservation of the relevant charge. So, the parity symmetry seems to be a sufficient but not a necessary condition for the existence of the infinite tower of conserved charges. The model supports elastic scattering of solitons for a wide range of values of the amplitudes and velocities and the set { η, ɛ}. Since the NLS equation is ubiquitous, our results may find potential applications in several areas of non-linear science.

  6. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions by inducing energy conservation and distributed generation from elimination of electric utility customer charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, Joshua M.; Harris, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper quantifies the increased greenhouse gas emissions and negative effect on energy conservation (or 'efficiency penalty') due to electric rate structures that employ an unavoidable customer charge. First, the extent of customer charges was determined from a nationwide survey of US electric tariffs. To eliminate the customer charge nationally while maintaining a fixed sum for electric companies for a given amount of electricity, an increase of 7.12% in the residential electrical rate was found to be necessary. If enacted, this increase in the electric rate would result in a 6.4% reduction in overall electricity consumption, conserving 73 billion kW h, eliminating 44.3 million metric tons of carbon dioxide, and saving the entire US residential sector over $8 billion per year. As shown here, these reductions would come from increased avoidable costs, thus leveraging an increased rate of return on investments in energy efficiency, energy conservation behavior, distributed energy generation, and fuel choices. Finally, limitations of this study and analysis are discussed and conclusions are drawn for proposed energy policy changes

  7. Lorentz invariance violation and charge (non)conservation: A general theoretical frame for extensions of the Maxwell equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laemmerzahl, Claus; Macias, Alfredo; Mueller, Holger

    2005-01-01

    All quantum gravity approaches lead to small modifications in the standard laws of physics which in most cases lead to violations of Lorentz invariance. One particular example is the extended standard model (SME). Here, a general phenomenological approach for extensions of the Maxwell equations is presented which turns out to be more general than the SME and which covers charge nonconservation (CNC), too. The new Lorentz invariance violating terms cannot be probed by optical experiments but need, instead, the exploration of the electromagnetic field created by a point charge or a magnetic dipole. Some scalar tensor theories and higher dimensional brane theories predict CNC in four dimensions and some models violating special relativity have been shown to be connected with CNC. Its relation to the Einstein Equivalence Principle has been discussed. Because of this upcoming interest, the experimental status of electric charge conservation is reviewed. Up to now there seem to exist no unique tests of charge conservation. CNC is related to the precession of polarization, to a modification of the 1/r-Coulomb potential, and to a time dependence of the fine structure constant. This gives the opportunity to describe a dedicated search for CNC

  8. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noteboom, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    The IUCN/WWF Plants Conservation Programme 1984 — 1985. World Wildlife Fund chose plants to be the subject of their fund-raising campaign in the period 1984 — 1985. The objectives were to: 1. Use information techniques to achieve the conservation objectives of the Plants Programme – to save plants;

  9. Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Audubon Society, New York, NY.

    This set of teaching aids consists of seven Audubon Nature Bulletins, providing the teacher and student with informational reading on various topics in conservation. The bulletins have these titles: Plants as Makers of Soil, Water Pollution Control, The Ground Water Table, Conservation--To Keep This Earth Habitable, Our Threatened Air Supply,…

  10. Relativistic extension of a charge-conservative finite element solver for time-dependent Maxwell-Vlasov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, D.-Y.; Moon, H.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Teixeira, F. L.

    2018-01-01

    Accurate modeling of relativistic particle motion is essential for physical predictions in many problems involving vacuum electronic devices, particle accelerators, and relativistic plasmas. A local, explicit, and charge-conserving finite-element time-domain (FETD) particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithm for time-dependent (non-relativistic) Maxwell-Vlasov equations on irregular (unstructured) meshes was recently developed by Moon et al. [Comput. Phys. Commun. 194, 43 (2015); IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1353 (2016)]. Here, we extend this FETD-PIC algorithm to the relativistic regime by implementing and comparing three relativistic particle-pushers: (relativistic) Boris, Vay, and Higuera-Cary. We illustrate the application of the proposed relativistic FETD-PIC algorithm for the analysis of particle cyclotron motion at relativistic speeds, harmonic particle oscillation in the Lorentz-boosted frame, and relativistic Bernstein modes in magnetized charge-neutral (pair) plasmas.

  11. Axisymmetric charge-conservative electromagnetic particle simulation algorithm on unstructured grids: Application to microwave vacuum electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Dong-Yeop; Omelchenko, Yuri A.; Moon, Haksu; Borges, Ben-Hur V.; Teixeira, Fernando L.

    2017-10-01

    We present a charge-conservative electromagnetic particle-in-cell (EM-PIC) algorithm optimized for the analysis of vacuum electronic devices (VEDs) with cylindrical symmetry (axisymmetry). We exploit the axisymmetry present in the device geometry, fields, and sources to reduce the dimensionality of the problem from 3D to 2D. Further, we employ 'transformation optics' principles to map the original problem in polar coordinates with metric tensor diag (1 ,ρ2 , 1) to an equivalent problem on a Cartesian metric tensor diag (1 , 1 , 1) with an effective (artificial) inhomogeneous medium introduced. The resulting problem in the meridian (ρz) plane is discretized using an unstructured 2D mesh considering TEϕ-polarized fields. Electromagnetic field and source (node-based charges and edge-based currents) variables are expressed as differential forms of various degrees, and discretized using Whitney forms. Using leapfrog time integration, we obtain a mixed E - B finite-element time-domain scheme for the full-discrete Maxwell's equations. We achieve a local and explicit time update for the field equations by employing the sparse approximate inverse (SPAI) algorithm. Interpolating field values to particles' positions for solving Newton-Lorentz equations of motion is also done via Whitney forms. Particles are advanced using the Boris algorithm with relativistic correction. A recently introduced charge-conserving scatter scheme tailored for 2D unstructured grids is used in the scatter step. The algorithm is validated considering cylindrical cavity and space-charge-limited cylindrical diode problems. We use the algorithm to investigate the physical performance of VEDs designed to harness particle bunching effects arising from the coherent (resonance) Cerenkov electron beam interactions within micro-machined slow wave structures.

  12. Charge-and-energy conserving moment-based accelerator for a multi-species Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Ampère system, part I: Collisionless aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taitano, William T., E-mail: taitano@lanl.gov; Chacón, Luis

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we propose a charge, momentum, and energy conserving discretization for the 1D–1V Vlasov–Ampère system of equations on an Eulerian grid. The new conservative discretization is nonlinear in nature, but can be efficiently converged with a moment-based nonlinear accelerator algorithm. We demonstrate the conservation and convergence properties of the scheme with various numerical examples, including a multi-scale ion–acoustic shockwave problem.

  13. Conserved charge fluctuations using the D measure in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Garg, P.

    2017-05-01

    We study the net-charge fluctuation D -measure variable, in high-energy heavy-ion collisions in heavy-ion jet interaction generator (HIJING), ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD), and hadron resonance gas (HRG) models for various center-of-mass energies (√{sNN}). The effects of kinematic acceptance and resonance decay, in the pseudorapidity acceptance interval (Δ η ) and lower transverse momentum (pTmin) threshold, on fluctuation measures are discussed. A strong dependence of D with the Δ η in HIJING and UrQMD models is observed as opposed to results obtained from the HRG model. The dissipation of fluctuation signal is estimated by fitting the D measure as a function of the Δ η . An extrapolated function for higher Δ η values at lower √{sNN} is different from the results obtained from models. Particle species dependence of D and the effect of the pTmin selection threshold are discussed in HIJING and HRG models. The comparison of D , at midrapidity, of net-charge fluctuations at various √{sNN} obtained from the models with the data from the A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) experiment is discussed. The results from the present paper as a function of Δ η and √{sNN} will provide a baseline for comparison to experimental measurements.

  14. Conserved charges for black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics in AdS space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by possible applications within the framework of anti-de Sitter gravity/conformal field theory correspondence, charged black holes with AdS asymptotics, which are solutions to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity in D dimensions, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics are studied. For a topological static black hole ansatz, the field equations are exactly solved in terms of the electromagnetic stress tensor for an arbitrary nonlinear electrodynamic Lagrangian in any dimension D and for arbitrary positive values of Gauss-Bonnet coupling. In particular, this procedure reproduces the black hole metric in Born-Infeld and conformally invariant electrodynamics previously found in the literature. Altogether, it extends to D>4 the four-dimensional solution obtained by Soleng in logarithmic electrodynamics, which comes from vacuum polarization effects. Falloff conditions for the electromagnetic field that ensure the finiteness of the electric charge are also discussed. The black hole mass and vacuum energy as conserved quantities associated to an asymptotic timelike Killing vector are computed using a background-independent regularization of the gravitational action based on the addition of counterterms which are a given polynomial in the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures.

  15. Charge-and-energy conserving moment-based accelerator for a multi-species Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Ampère system, part II: Collisional aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taitano, William T., E-mail: taitano@lanl.gov; Knoll, Dana A.; Chacón, Luis

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we extend the moment-based acceleration algorithm for the charge, momentum, and energy conserving Vlasov–Ampère discretization developed in Ref. [1] by including a reduced Fokker–Planck operator. We propose an energy conserving discretization for the Fokker–Planck collision operator. We show by numerical experiment that the new algorithm 1) efficiently converges the nonlinearly coupled Vlasov–Fokker–Planck–Ampère system, and 2) accurately steps over stiff time-scales such as the inverse electron plasma frequency, and the electron–electron collision time-scale. We demonstrate that discrete energy conservation is critical to eliminate numerical heating issues when strong density gradients exist.

  16. Evolutionary conservativeness of electric field in the Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase active site. Evidence for co-ordinated mutation of charged amino acid residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desideri, A; Falconi, M; Polticelli, F; Bolognesi, M; Djinovic, K; Rotilio, G

    1992-01-05

    Equipotential lines were calculated, using the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, for six Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases with different protein electric charge and various degrees of sequence homology, namely those from ox, pig, sheep, yeast, and the isoenzymes A and B from the amphibian Xenopus laevis. The three-dimensional structures of the porcine and ovine superoxide dismutases were obtained by molecular modelling reconstruction using the structure of the highly homologous bovine enzyme as a template. The three-dimensional structure of the evolutionary distant yeast Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase was recently resolved by us, while computer-modelled structures are available for X. laevis isoenzymes. The six proteins display large differences in the net protein charge and distribution of electrically charged surface residues but the trend of the equipotential lines in the proximity of the active sites was found to be constant in all cases. These results are in line with the very similar catlytic rate constants experimentally measured for the corresponding enzyme activities. This analysis shows that electrostatic guidance for the enzyme-substrate interaction in Cu,Zn superoxide dismutases is related to a spatial distribution of charges, arranged so as to maintain, in the area surrounding the active sites, an identical electrostatic potential distribution, which is conserved in the evolution of this protein family.

  17. Conserved charges and black holes in the Einstein-Maxwell theory on AdS{sub 3} reconsidered

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pérez, Alfredo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Riquelme, Miguel [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción,Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Tempo, David [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Université Libre de Bruxelles and International Solvay Institutes,ULB Campus Plaine C.P.231, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Troncoso, Ricardo [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECs),Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile)

    2015-10-26

    Stationary circularly symmetric solutions of General Relativity with negative cosmological constant coupled to the Maxwell field are analyzed in three spacetime dimensions. Taking into account that the fall-off of the fields is slower than the standard one for a localized distribution of matter, it is shown that, by virtue of a suitable choice of the electromagnetic Lagrange multiplier, the action attains a bona fide extremum provided the asymptotic form of the electromagnetic field fulfills a nontrivial integrability condition. As a consequence, the mass and the angular momentum become automatically finite, without the need of any regularization procedure, and they generically acquire contributions from the electromagnetic field. Therefore, unlike the higher-dimensional case, it is found that the precise value of the mass and the angular momentum explicitly depends on the choice of boundary conditions. It can also be seen that requiring compatibility of the boundary conditions with the Lorentz and scaling symmetries of the class of stationary solutions, singles out a very special set of “holographic boundary conditions” that is described by a single parameter. Remarkably, in stark contrast with the somewhat pathological behaviour found in the standard case, for the holographic boundary conditions (i) the energy spectrum of an electrically charged (rotating) black hole is nonnegative, and (ii) for a fixed value of the mass, the electric charge is bounded from above.

  18. Confronting fluctuations of conserved charges in central nuclear collisions at the LHC with predictions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Redlich, Krzysztof; Stachel, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    We construct net baryon number and strangeness susceptibilities as well as correlations between electric charge and strangeness from experimental data of the ALICE Collaboration at the CERN LHC. The data were taken in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$=2.76 TeV. The resulting fluctuations and correlations are consistent with Lattice QCD results at the chiral crossover pseudocritical temperature $T_c\\simeq 155$ MeV. This agreement lends strong support to the assumption that the fireball created in these collisions is of thermal origin and exhibits characteristic properties expected in QCD at the transition from the quark gluon plasma to the hadronic phase. The volume of the fireball for one unit of rapidity at $T_c$ is found to exceed 4000 fm$^3$. A detailed discussion on uncertainties in the temperature and volume of the fireball is presented. The results are linked to pion interferometry measurements and predictions from percolation theory.

  19. Confronting fluctuations of conserved charges in central nuclear collisions at the LHC with predictions from Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Braun-Munzinger, P.; Redlich, K.; Stachel, J.

    2016-01-01

    We construct net baryon number and strangeness susceptibilities as well as correlations between electric charge, strangeness and baryon number from experimental data on the particle production yields at midrapidity of the ALICE Collaboration at CERN. The data were taken in central Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}$~=~2.76~TeV and cover one unit of rapidity. We show that the resulting fluctuations and correlations are consistent with Lattice QCD results at the chiral crossover pseudocritical temperature $T_{c} \\simeq$ 155 MeV. This agreement lends strong support to the assumption that the fireball created in these collisions is of thermal origin and exhibits characteristic properties expected in QCD at the transition from the quark gluon plasma to the hadronic phase. Since Lattice QCD calculations are performed at a baryochemical potential of $\\mu_{B}$ = 0, the comparisons with LHC data are the most direct due to the vanishing baryon transport to midrapidity at these high energies.

  20. Experimental determination of the steady-state charging probabilities and particle size conservation in non-radioactive and radioactive bipolar aerosol chargers in the size range of 5–40 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinger, Peter, E-mail: peter.kallinger@univie.ac.at; Szymanski, Wladyslaw W. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Three bipolar aerosol chargers, an AC-corona (Electrical Ionizer 1090, MSP Corp.), a soft X-ray (Advanced Aerosol Neutralizer 3087, TSI Inc.), and an α-radiation-based {sup 241}Am charger (tapcon & analysesysteme), were investigated on their charging performance of airborne nanoparticles. The charging probabilities for negatively and positively charged particles and the particle size conservation were measured in the diameter range of 5–40 nm using sucrose nanoparticles. Chargers were operated under various flow conditions in the range of 0.6–5.0 liters per minute. For particular experimental conditions, some deviations from the chosen theoretical model were found for all chargers. For very small particle sizes, the AC-corona charger showed particle losses at low flow rates and did not reach steady-state charge equilibrium at high flow rates. However, for all chargers, operating conditions were identified where the bipolar charge equilibrium was achieved. Practically, excellent particle size conservation was found for all three chargers.

  1. Irrational Charge from Topological Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, R.; Sondhi, S. L.

    2010-10-01

    Topological or deconfined phases of matter exhibit emergent gauge fields and quasiparticles that carry a corresponding gauge charge. In systems with an intrinsic conserved U(1) charge, such as all electronic systems where the Coulombic charge plays this role, these quasiparticles are also characterized by their intrinsic charge. We show that one can take advantage of the topological order fairly generally to produce periodic Hamiltonians which endow the quasiparticles with continuously variable, generically irrational, intrinsic charges. Examples include various topologically ordered lattice models, the three-dimensional resonating valence bond liquid on bipartite lattices as well as water and spin ice. By contrast, the gauge charges of the quasiparticles retain their quantized values.

  2. Tests of conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, M.

    1988-01-01

    For quite a while it has been realized that some discrete quantum numbers are conserved in some interactions but not in others. The most conspicuous cases are parity P, charge conjugation C, and the product CP which are conserved in strong and electromagnetic interactions but not in weak interactions. The question arises whether for some of the other conserved quantities, which are conserved in strong, electromagnetic and weak interactions, there is an interaction intermediate in strength between weak and gravitational which violates these quantum numbers, e.g., baryon number B and lepton number L. The possibility exists that these conservation laws, if they are broken at all, are only broken by the gravitational force which would make the mass of an intermediate boson which induces the break-down equal to the Planck mass. (orig.)

  3. Common vacuum conservation amplitude in the theory of the radiation of mirrors in two-dimensional space-time and of charges in four-dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritus, V.I.

    1999-01-01

    The changes in the action (and thus the vacuum conservation amplitudes) in the proper-time representation are found for an accelerated mirror interacting with scalar and spinor vacuum fields in 1+1 space. They are shown to coincide to within a factor of e 2 with changes in the action of electric and scalar charges accelerated in 3+1 space. This coincidence is attributed to the fact that the Bose and Fermi pairs emitted by a mirror have the same spins 1 and 0 as do the photons and scalar quanta emitted by charges. It is shown that the propagation of virtual pairs in 1+1 space can be described by the causal Green's function Δ f (z,μ) of the wave equation for 3+1 space. This is because the pairs can have any positive mass and their propagation function is represented by an integral of the causal propagation function of a massive particle in 1+1 space over mass which coincides with Δ f (z,μ). In this integral the lower limit μ is chosen small, but nonzero, to eliminate the infrared divergence. It is shown that the real and imaginary parts of the change in the action are related by dispersion relations, in which a mass parameter serves as the dispersion variable. They are a consequence of the same relations for Δ f (z,μ). Therefore, the emergence of a real part in the change in the action is a direct consequence of causality, according to which Re Δ f (z,μ)≠0 only for timelike and lightlike intervals

  4. Charge imbalance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.

    1981-01-01

    This article provides a long theoretical development of the main ideas of charge imbalance in superconductors. Concepts of charge imbalance and quasiparticle charge are introduced, especially in regards to the use of tunnel injection in producing and detecting charge imbalance. Various mechanisms of charge relaxation are discussed, including inelastic scattering processes, elastic scattering in the presence of energy-gap anisotropy, and various pair-breaking mechanisms. In each case, present theories are reviewed in comparison with experimental data

  5. The conserved basic residues and the charged amino acid residues at the α-helix of the zinc finger motif regulate the nuclear transport activity of triple C2H2 zinc finger proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ying

    2018-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) motifs on proteins are frequently recognized as a structure for DNA binding. Accumulated reports indicate that ZF motifs contain nuclear localization signal (NLS) to facilitate the transport of ZF proteins into nucleus. We investigated the critical factors that facilitate the nuclear transport of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. Three conserved basic residues (hot spots) were identified among the ZF sequences of triple C2H2 ZF proteins that reportedly have NLS function. Additional basic residues can be found on the α-helix of the ZFs. Using the ZF domain (ZFD) of Egr-1 as a template, various mutants were constructed and expressed in cells. The nuclear transport activity of various mutants was estimated by analyzing the proportion of protein localized in the nucleus. Mutation at any hot spot of the Egr-1 ZFs reduced the nuclear transport activity. Changes of the basic residues at the α-helical region of the second ZF (ZF2) of the Egr-1 ZFD abolished the NLS activity. However, this activity can be restored by substituting the acidic residues at the homologous positions of ZF1 or ZF3 with basic residues. The restored activity dropped again when the hot spots at ZF1 or the basic residues in the α-helix of ZF3 were mutated. The variations in nuclear transport activity are linked directly to the binding activity of the ZF proteins with importins. This study was extended to other triple C2H2 ZF proteins. SP1 and KLF families, similar to Egr-1, have charged amino acid residues at the second (α2) and the third (α3) positions of the α-helix. Replacing the amino acids at α2 and α3 with acidic residues reduced the NLS activity of the SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The reduced activity can be restored by substituting the α3 with histidine at any SP1 and KLF6 ZFD. The results show again the interchangeable role of ZFs and charge residues in the α-helix in regulating the NLS activity of triple C2H2 ZF proteins. PMID:29381770

  6. Fractional charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saminadayar, L.

    2001-01-01

    20 years ago fractional charges were imagined to explain values of conductivity in some materials. Recent experiments have proved the existence of charges whose value is the third of the electron charge. This article presents the experimental facts that have led theorists to predict the existence of fractional charges from the motion of quasi-particles in a linear chain of poly-acetylene to the quantum Hall effect. According to the latest theories, fractional charges are neither bosons nor fermions but anyons, they are submitted to an exclusive principle that is less stringent than that for fermions. (A.C.)

  7. 18 CFR 420.41 - Schedule of water charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule of water charges. 420.41 Section 420.41 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Charges; Exemptions § 420.41 Schedule of water...

  8. Internal Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    (1) High energy (>100keV) electrons penetrate spacecraft walls and accumulate in dielectrics or isolated conductors; (2) Threat environment is energetic electrons with sufficient flux to charge circuit boards, cable insulation, and ungrounded metal faster than charge can dissipate; (3) Accumulating charge density generates electric fields in excess of material breakdown strenght resulting in electrostatic discharge; and (4) System impact is material damage, discharge currents inside of spacecraft Faraday cage on or near critical circuitry, and RF noise.

  9. Conservation Value

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper outlines the significance of the concept of conservation value and discusses ways in which it is determined paying attention to views stemming from utilitarian ethics and from deontological ethics. The importance of user costs in relation to economic decisions about the conservation and use of natural resources is emphasised. Particular attention is given to competing views about the importance of conserving natural resources in order to achieve economic sustainability. This then l...

  10. Charge preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaminade, R.; Passerieux, J.P.

    1961-01-01

    We describe a charge preamplifier having the following properties: - large open loop gain giving both stable gain and large input charge transfer; - stable input grid current with aging and without any adjustment; - fairly fast rise; - nearly optimum noise performance; - industrial material. (authors)

  11. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  12. Charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medlin, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine. 3 claims, 11 drawing figures

  13. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G A [Washington Univ., Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Physics; van Oers, W T.H. [Manitoba Univ., Winnipeg, MB (Canada). Dept. of Physics; [TRIUMF, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  14. Charge independence and charge symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.A.

    1994-09-01

    Charge independence and charge symmetry are approximate symmetries of nature, violated by the perturbing effects of the mass difference between up and down quarks and by electromagnetic interactions. The observations of the symmetry breaking effects in nuclear and particle physics and the implications of those effects are reviewed. (author). 145 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs

  15. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-06-04

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles.

  16. Fractional charge definitions and conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, Alfred Scharff

    2003-01-01

    The phenomenon of fractional charge has come to prominence in recent decades through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects which carry fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, baryon number B and lepton number L. It is shown here on the basis of a few simple assumptions that all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which many-body correlations can produce familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, and in some circumstances nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. The fractional charges may be carried either by fundamental particles or by fundamental solitons. This excludes nontopological solitons and also skyrmions: The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d=1), the vortex (d=2), and the magnetic monopole (d=3). Further, for a charge which is not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional local values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  17. Fractional Charge Definitions and Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Fractional charge is known through theoretical and experimental discoveries of isolable objects carrying fractions of familiar charge units--electric charge Q, spin S, and the difference of baryon and lepton numbers B-L. With a few simple assumptions all these effects may be described using a generalized version of charge renormalization for locally conserved charges, in which medium correlations yield familiar adiabatic, continuous renormalization, or sometimes nonadiabatic, discrete renormalization. Fractional charges may be carried by fundamental particles or fundamental solitons. Either picture works for the simplest fractional-quantum-Hall-effect quasiholes, though the particle description is far more general. The only known fundamental solitons in three or fewer space dimensions d are the kink (d = 1), the vortex (d = 2), and the magnetic monopole (d = 3). Further, for a charge not intrinsically coupled to the topological charge of a soliton, only the kink and the monopole may carry fractional values. The same reasoning enforces fractional values of B-L for electrically charged elementary particles

  18. Energy conservation in rented buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingberg, T.; Broechner, J.; Forsman, J.; Gaunt, L.; Holgersson, M.

    1984-08-01

    The bulletin is an anthology of nine essays by different authors addressing the issue of energy conservation in buildings, where there exists a landlord/tenant relationship. After an overview of the rental market and the stock of rental buildings different types of rental contracts and energy charges are described.

  19. Conservation endocrinology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Stephen; Romero, L. Michael

    2017-01-01

    Endocrinologists can make significant contributions to conservation biology by helping to understand the mechanisms by which organisms cope with changing environments. Field endocrine techniques have advanced rapidly in recent years and can provide substantial information on the growth, stress, and reproductive status of individual animals, thereby providing insight into current and future responses of populations to changes in the environment. Environmental stressors and reproductive status can be detected nonlethally by measuring a number of endocrine-related endpoints, including steroids in plasma, living and nonliving tissue, urine, and feces. Information on the environmental or endocrine requirements of individual species for normal growth, development, and reproduction will provide critical information for species and ecosystem conservation. For many taxa, basic information on endocrinology is lacking, and advances in conservation endocrinology will require approaches that are both “basic” and “applied” and include integration of laboratory and field approaches.

  20. Charge Fluctuations of an Uncharged Black Hole

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we calculate charge fluctuations of a Schwarzschild black-hole of mass $M$ confined within a perfectly reflecting cavity of radius R in thermal equilibrium with various species of radiation and fermions . Charge conservation is constrained by a Lagrange multiplier (the chemical potential). Black hole charge fluctuations are expected owing to continuous absorption and emission of particles by the black hole. For black holes much more massive than $10^{16} g$ , these fluctuations ...

  1. [Conservation Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Each of the six instructional units deals with one aspect of conservation: forests, water, rangeland, minerals (petroleum), and soil. The area of the elementary school curriculum with which each correlates is indicated. Lists of general and specific objectives are followed by suggested teaching procedures, including ideas for introducing the…

  2. Creative conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bentham, Roelof J.

    1968-01-01

    The increasing exploitation of our natural resources, the unlimited occupation of ever more new areas, and the intensification of land-use, make it necessary for us to expand the concept of conservation. But we also need to reconsider that concept itself. For the changing conditions in the

  3. Reshaping conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Mikkel; Danielsen, Finn; Ngaga, Yonika

    2013-01-01

    members strengthen the monitoring practices to their advantage, and to some extent move them beyond the reach of government agencies and conservation and development practitioners. This has led to outcomes that are of greater social and strategic value to communities than the original 'planned' benefits...

  4. 18 CFR 284.123 - Rates and charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates and charges. 284.123 Section 284.123 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... AUTHORITIES Certain Transportation by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.123 Rates and charges. (a) General rule...

  5. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  6. Continuum analysis of biological systems conserved quantities, fluxes and forces

    CERN Document Server

    Suraishkumar, G K

    2014-01-01

    This book addresses the analysis, in the continuum regime, of biological systems at various scales, from the cellular level to the industrial one. It presents both fundamental conservation principles (mass, charge, momentum and energy) and relevant fluxes resulting from appropriate driving forces, which are important for the analysis, design and operation of biological systems. It includes the concept of charge conservation, an important principle for biological systems that is not explicitly covered in any other book of this kind. The book is organized in five parts: mass conservation; charge conservation; momentum conservation; energy conservation; and multiple conservations simultaneously applied. All mathematical aspects are presented step by step, allowing any reader with a basic mathematical background (calculus, differential equations, linear algebra, etc.) to follow the text with ease. The book promotes an intuitive understanding of all the relevant principles and in so doing facilitates their applica...

  7. Hidden charged dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Kaplinghat, Manoj; Tu, Huitzu; Yu, Hai-Bo

    2009-01-01

    Can dark matter be stabilized by charge conservation, just as the electron is in the standard model? We examine the possibility that dark matter is hidden, that is, neutral under all standard model gauge interactions, but charged under an exact (\\rm U)(1) gauge symmetry of the hidden sector. Such candidates are predicted in WIMPless models, supersymmetric models in which hidden dark matter has the desired thermal relic density for a wide range of masses. Hidden charged dark matter has many novel properties not shared by neutral dark matter: (1) bound state formation and Sommerfeld-enhanced annihilation after chemical freeze out may reduce its relic density, (2) similar effects greatly enhance dark matter annihilation in protohalos at redshifts of z ∼ 30, (3) Compton scattering off hidden photons delays kinetic decoupling, suppressing small scale structure, and (4) Rutherford scattering makes such dark matter self-interacting and collisional, potentially impacting properties of the Bullet Cluster and the observed morphology of galactic halos. We analyze all of these effects in a WIMPless model in which the hidden sector is a simplified version of the minimal supersymmetric standard model and the dark matter is a hidden sector stau. We find that charged hidden dark matter is viable and consistent with the correct relic density for reasonable model parameters and dark matter masses in the range 1 GeV ∼ X ∼< 10 TeV. At the same time, in the preferred range of parameters, this model predicts cores in the dark matter halos of small galaxies and other halo properties that may be within the reach of future observations. These models therefore provide a viable and well-motivated framework for collisional dark matter with Sommerfeld enhancement, with novel implications for astrophysics and dark matter searches

  8. Net charge fluctuations and local charge compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jinghua

    2006-01-01

    We propose net charge fluctuation as a measure of local charge correlation length. It is demonstrated that, in terms of a schematic multiperipheral model, net charge fluctuation satisfies the same Quigg-Thomas relation as satisfied by charge transfer fluctuation. Net charge fluctuations measured in finite rapidity windows depend on both the local charge correlation length and the size of the observation window. When the observation window is larger than the local charge correlation length, the net charge fluctuation only depends on the local charge correlation length, while forward-backward charge fluctuations always have strong dependence on the observation window size. Net charge fluctuations and forward-backward charge fluctuations measured in the present heavy ion experiments show characteristic features similar to those from multiperipheral models. But the data cannot all be understood within this simple model

  9. Additive versus multiplicative muon conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemethy, P.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental elucidation of the question of muon conservation is reviewed. It is shown that neutral-current experiments have not yet yielded information about muonium-antimuonium conversion at the weak-interaction level and that all the charged-current experiments agree that there is no evidence for a multiplicative law. The best limits, from the muon-decay neutrino experiment at LAMPF and from the inverse muon-decay experiment in the CERN neutrino beam, definitely exclude multiplicative law schemes with a branching ratio R approximately 1/2. It is concluded that unless the dynamics conspire to make a multiplicative law with very small R it would appear that muon conservation obeys conserved additive lepton flavor law. (U.K.)

  10. CHARGE Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semanti Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy, gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age, GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 ΅IU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient′s karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness. [1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have

  11. Charged Massive Particle’s Tunneling from Charged Nonrotating Microblack Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Soleimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the tunneling framework of Hawking radiation, charged massive particle’s tunneling in charged nonrotating TeV-scale black hole is investigated. To this end, we consider natural cutoffs as a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum through a generalized uncertainty principle. We focus on the role played by these natural cutoffs on the luminosity of charged nonrotating microblack hole by taking into account the full implications of energy and charge conservation as well as the backscattered radiation.

  12. 18 CFR 420.51 - Hydroelectric power plant water use charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydroelectric power... BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-WATER SUPPLY CHARGES Hydroelectric Power Water Use Charges § 420.51 Hydroelectric power plant water use charges. (a) Annual base charges. Owners of...

  13. Dynamical instability of a charged gaseous cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss dynamical instability of a charged dissipative cylinder under radial oscillations. For this purpose, we follow the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to evaluate linearized perturbed equation of motion. We formulate perturbed pressure in terms of adiabatic index by applying the conservation of baryon numbers. A variational principle is established to determine characteristic frequencies of oscillation which define stability criteria for a gaseous cylinder. We compute the ranges of radii as well as adiabatic index for both charged and uncharged cases in Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that dynamical instability occurs in the presence of charge if the gaseous cylinder contracts to the radius R*.

  14. Depilating Global Charge From Thermal Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    March-Russell, John David; March-Russell, John; Wilczek, Frank

    2001-01-01

    At a formal level, there appears to be no difficulty involved in introducing a chemical potential for a globally conserved quantum number into the partition function for space-time including a black hole. Were this possible, however, it would provide a form of black hole hair, and contradict the idea that global quantum numbers are violated in black hole evaporation. We demonstrate dynamical mechanisms that negate the formal procedure, both for topological charge (Skyrmions) and complex scalar-field charge. Skyrmions collapse to the horizon; scalar-field charge fluctuates uncontrollably.

  15. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Ryder, Carrie [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Lommele, Stephen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  16. Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Blokhin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.

  17. Conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, J.B.; Laflamme, R.; Marolf, D.

    1995-01-01

    We investigate conservation laws in the quantum mechanics of closed systems and begin by reviewing an argument that exact decoherence implies the exact conservation of quantities that commute with the Hamiltonian. However, we also show that decoherence limits the alternatives that can be included in sets of histories that assess the conservation of these quantities. In the case of charge and energy, these limitations would be severe were these quantities not coupled to a gauge field. However, for the realistic cases of electric charge coupled to the electromagnetic field and mass coupled to spacetime curvature, we show that when alternative values of charge and mass decohere they always decohere exactly and are exactly conserved. Further, while decohering histories that describe possible changes in time of the total charge and mass are also subject to the limitations mentioned above, we show that these do not, in fact, restrict physical alternatives and are therefore not really limitations at all

  18. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  19. Equilibration of particles with abelian charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redlich, K.; Tounsi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We formulate the kinetic equation for time evolution and chemical equilibration of particles that carries an abelian charge. We show that dependently on the thermal conditions inside a fireball the system approaches to different chemical equilibrium limits. The role of exact conservation of quantum numbers in the kinetic description of rarely produced particles is explained. (orig.)

  20. Why not energy conservation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    Energy conservation is a deep principle that is obeyed by all of the fundamental forces of nature. It puts stringent constraints on all systems, particularly systems that are ‘isolated,’ meaning that no energy can enter or escape. Notwithstanding the success of the principle of stationary action, it is fair to wonder to what extent physics can be formulated from the principle of stationary energy. We show that if one interprets mechanical energy as a state function, then its stationarity leads to a novel formulation of classical mechanics. However, unlike Lagrangian and Hamiltonian mechanics, which deliver their state functions via algebraic proscriptions (i.e., the Lagrangian is always the difference between a system’s kinetic and potential energies), this new formalism identifies its state functions as the solutions to a differential equation. This is an important difference because differential equations can generate more general solutions than algebraic recipes. When applied to Newtonian systems for which the energy function is separable, these state functions are always the mechanical energy. However, while the stationary state function for a charged particle moving in an electromagnetic field proves not to be energy, the function nevertheless correctly encodes the dynamics of the system. Moreover, the stationary state function for a free relativistic particle proves not to be the energy either. Rather, our differential equation yields the relativistic free-particle Lagrangian (plus a non-dynamical constant) in its correct dynamical context. To explain how this new formalism can consistently deliver stationary state functions that give the correct dynamics but that are not always the mechanical energy, we propose that energy conservation is a specific realization of a deeper principle of stationarity that governs both relativistic and non-relativistic mechanics. (paper)

  1. Cayley number and conservation laws for elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollendorf, F.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the five conservation laws of charge, hyper-charge, barion number and the two lepton numbers lead to the construction of a commutative non-associative 24 dimensional linear algebra. Each element of the algebra is an ordered set of three Cayley numbers. (orig.) [de

  2. 18 CFR 2.105 - Gas supply charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas supply charges. 2.105 Section 2.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION... prior to nominations by the customers a firm price or pricing formula for the service, and hold that...

  3. Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in Atomic and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Symmetry Principles and Conservation Laws in. Atomic and Subatomic Physics – 2. P C Deshmukh .... dicated that parity conservation, though often assumed, had not been verified in weak interactions. Acting on ... The gauge bosons W§ have a charge of +1 and −1 unit, but the Z0 boson of the standard model is neutral.

  4. Conservation potential of agricultural water conservation subsidies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, Ray

    2008-07-01

    A current policy subsidizes farmers to invest in improved on-farm irrigation efficiency, expecting water to be conserved off farm. Contrary to expectation, water has been increasingly depleted in some regions after such improvements. This paper investigates the policy's failure to conserve water consistently by (1) formulating an economic model of irrigated crop production to determine a profit-maximizing irrigator's range of responses to a subsidy and (2) embedding these responses into hypothetical streamflow diagrams to ascertain their potential to conserve water under various hydrologic regimes. Testable hypotheses are developed to predict the conservation potential of a subsidy in real-world application.

  5. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... § 382.203 Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. (a) The adjusted costs of administration of...

  6. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  7. Linear shaped charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  8. Behaviour of Charged Spinning Massless Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the classical theory of a relativistic massless charged point particle with spin and interacting with an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we give a proper definition of its kinetic energy and its total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We also write the conservation laws for the linear and angular momenta. Finally, we find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin—electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.

  9. Color and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, B.R.

    1976-01-01

    Schwinger's conjecture that the color degree of freedom of a quark is equivalent to its degree of freedom of taking different magnetic charges provides a plausible motivation for extending color to leptons. Leptons are just quarks with zero magnetic charges. It is shown that baryon number and lepton number can be replaced by fermion number and magnetic charge

  10. Space Charge Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrario, M.; Palumbo, L.

    2014-12-19

    The space charge forces are those generated directly by the charge distribution, with the inclusion of the image charges and currents due to the interaction of the beam with a perfectly conducting smooth pipe. Space charge forces are responsible for several unwanted phenomena related to beam dynamics, such as energy loss, shift of the synchronous phase and frequency , shift of the betatron frequencies, and instabilities. We will discuss in this lecture the main feature of space charge effects in high-energy storage rings as well as in low-energy linacs and transport lines.

  11. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  12. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were reviewed in order to place the problems in proper perspective: history and goals, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The effect of changing prices and available supplies of energy sources and their causes on consumption levels during the last few decades were described. Some examples of attainable conservation goals were listed and justified. A number of specific criteria applicable to conservation accounting were given. Finally, a discussion was presented to relate together the following aspects of energy conservation: widespread impact, involvement of government, industry, politics, moral and ethical aspects, urgency and time element.

  13. Lie n-algebras of BPS charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sati, Hisham [University of Pittsburgh,Pittsburgh, PA, 15260 (United States); Mathematics Program, Division of Science and Mathematics, New York University Abu Dhabi,Saadiyat Island, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Schreiber, Urs [Mathematics Institute of the Academy,Žitna 25, Praha 1, 115 67 (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-16

    We uncover higher algebraic structures on Noether currents and BPS charges. It is known that equivalence classes of conserved currents form a Lie algebra. We show that at least for target space symmetries of higher parameterized WZW-type sigma-models this naturally lifts to a Lie (p+1)-algebra structure on the Noether currents themselves. Applied to the Green-Schwarz-type action functionals for super p-brane sigma-models this yields super Lie (p+1)-algebra refinements of the traditional BPS brane charge extensions of supersymmetry algebras. We discuss this in the generality of higher differential geometry, where it applies also to branes with (higher) gauge fields on their worldvolume. Applied to the M5-brane sigma-model we recover and properly globalize the M-theory super Lie algebra extension of 11-dimensional superisometries by 2-brane and 5-brane charges. Passing beyond the infinitesimal Lie theory we find cohomological corrections to these charges in higher analogy to the familiar corrections for D-brane charges as they are lifted from ordinary cohomology to twisted K-theory. This supports the proposal that M-brane charges live in a twisted cohomology theory.

  14. Coulombic charge ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClarty, P. A.; O'Brien, A.; Pollmann, F.

    2014-05-01

    We consider a classical model of charges ±q on a pyrochlore lattice in the presence of long-range Coulomb interactions. This model first appeared in the early literature on charge order in magnetite [P. W. Anderson, Phys. Rev. 102, 1008 (1956), 10.1103/PhysRev.102.1008]. In the limit where the interactions become short ranged, the model has a ground state with an extensive entropy and dipolar charge-charge correlations. When long-range interactions are introduced, the exact degeneracy is broken. We study the thermodynamics of the model and show the presence of a correlated charge liquid within a temperature window in which the physics is well described as a liquid of screened charged defects. The structure factor in this phase, which has smeared pinch points at the reciprocal lattice points, may be used to detect charge ice experimentally. In addition, the model exhibits fractionally charged excitations ±q/2 which are shown to interact via a 1/r potential. At lower temperatures, the model exhibits a transition to a long-range ordered phase. We are able to treat the Coulombic charge ice model and the dipolar spin ice model on an equal footing by mapping both to a constrained charge model on the diamond lattice. We find that states of the two ice models are related by a staggering field which is reflected in the energetics of these two models. From this perspective, we can understand the origin of the spin ice and charge ice ground states as coming from a dipolar model on a diamond lattice. We study the properties of charge ice in an external electric field, finding that the correlated liquid is robust to the presence of a field in contrast to the case of spin ice in a magnetic field. Finally, we comment on the transport properties of Coulombic charge ice in the correlated liquid phase.

  15. Ethics of conservation triage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie A Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conservation triage seems to be at a stalemate between those who accept triage based on utilitarian rationalization, and those that reject it based on a number of ethical principles. We argue that without considered attention to the ethics of conservation triage we risk further polarization in the field of conservation. We draw lessons from the medical sector, where triage is more intuitive and acceptable, and also from disaster planning, to help navigate the challenges that triage entails for conservation science, practice, and policy. We clarify the consequentialist, deontological, and virtue ethical stances that influence the level of acceptance of triage. We emphasize the ethical dimensions of conservation triage in principle and in practice, particularly in the context of stakeholder diversity, a wide range of possible objectives and actions, broader institutions, and significant uncertainties. A focus on a more diverse set of ethics, more considered choice of triage as a conservation tool, open communication of triage objectives and protocols, greater consideration of risk preferences, and regular review and adaptation of triage protocols is required for conservation triage to become more acceptable among diverse conservation practitioners, institutions, and the general public. Accepting conservation triage as fundamentally an ethical problem would foster more open dialogue and constructive debate about the role of conservation triage in a wider system of care.

  16. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  17. Dynamics of Current, Charge and Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenberg Bob

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Electricity plays a special role in our lives and life. The dynamics of electrons allow light to flow through a vacuum. The equations of electron dynamics are nearly exact and apply from nuclear particles to stars. These Maxwell equations include a special term, the displacement current (of a vacuum. The displacement current allows electrical signals to propagate through space. Displacement current guarantees that current is exactly conserved from inside atoms to between stars, as long as current is defined as the entire source of the curl of the magnetic field, as Maxwell did.We show that the Bohm formulation of quantum mechanics allows the easy definition of the total current, and its conservation, without the dificulties implicit in the orthodox quantum theory. The orthodox theory neglects the reality of magnitudes, like the currents, during times that they are not being explicitly measured.We show how conservation of current can be derived without mention of the polarization or dielectric properties of matter. We point out that displacement current is handled correctly in electrical engineering by ‘stray capacitances’, although it is rarely discussed explicitly. Matter does not behave as physicists of the 1800’s thought it did. They could only measure on a time scale of seconds and tried to explain dielectric properties and polarization with a single dielectric constant, a real positive number independent of everything. Matter and thus charge moves in enormously complicated ways that cannot be described by a single dielectric constant,when studied on time scales important today for electronic technology and molecular biology. When classical theories could not explain complex charge movements, constants in equations were allowed to vary in solutions of those equations, in a way not justified by mathematics, with predictable consequences. Life occurs in ionic solutions where charge is moved by forces not mentioned or described in the

  18. Jet Vertex Charge Reconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Nektarijevic, Snezana; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed algorithm called the jet vertex charge tagger, aimed at identifying the sign of the charge of jets containing $b$-hadrons, referred to as $b$-jets, is presented. In addition to the well established track-based jet charge determination, this algorithm introduces the so-called \\emph{jet vertex charge} reconstruction, which exploits the charge information associated to the displaced vertices within the jet. Furthermore, the charge of a soft muon contained in the jet is taken into account when available. All available information is combined into a multivariate discriminator. The algorithm has been developed on jets matched to generator level $b$-hadrons provided by $t\\bar{t}$ events simulated at $\\sqrt{s}$=13~TeV using the full ATLAS detector simulation and reconstruction.

  19. Charge Islands Through Tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Daryl C.

    2002-01-01

    It has been recently reported that the electrical charge in a semiconductive carbon nanotube is not evenly distributed, but rather it is divided into charge "islands." This paper links the aforementioned phenomenon to tunneling and provides further insight into the higher rate of tunneling processes, which makes tunneling devices attractive. This paper also provides a basis for calculating the charge profile over the length of the tube so that nanoscale devices' conductive properties may be fully exploited.

  20. Conservation: Toward firmer ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The following aspects of energy conservation were discussed: conservation history and goals, conservation modes, conservation accounting-criteria, and a method to overcome obstacles. The conservation modes tested fall into one of the following categories: reduced energy consumption, increased efficiency of energy utilization, or substitution of one or more forms of energy for another which is in shorter supply or in some sense thought to be of more value. The conservation accounting criteria include net energy reduction, economic, and technical criteria. A method to overcome obstacles includes (approaches such as: direct personal impact (life style, income, security, aspiration), an element of crisis, large scale involvement of environmental, safety, and health issues, connections to big government, big business, big politics, involvement of known and speculative science and technology, appeal to moral and ethical standards, the transient nature of opportunities to correct the system.

  1. Econometric modelling of conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.; Seal, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The issue of energy conservation in general, and conservation in the natural gas markets in particular, has recently had a much lower profile than in the past, when energy prices were significantly higher and energy costs composed a much larger proportion of industrial operating costs than today. The recent downward trend in energy prices has diverted attention away from this issue. In the face of expected significant real price increases, increasing pressure from environmental groups, and directives on the part of regulator authorities, conservation is once again becoming a topic of consideration in the energy industry. From the point of view of gas demand forecasting, conservation has received too little attention. The intentions of this paper are to establish the need for forecasting conservation in the natural gas utility sector, and to construct a model of industrial demand which incorporates conservation and is appropriate for use as a forecasting tool

  2. Big break for charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the

  3. Contractor Software Charges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Granetto, Paul

    1994-01-01

    .... Examples of computer software costs that contractors charge through indirect rates are material management systems, security systems, labor accounting systems, and computer-aided design and manufacturing...

  4. Handbook on energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-12-01

    This book shows energy situation in recent years, which includes reserves of energy resource in the world, crude oil production records in OPEC and non OPEC, supply and demand of energy in important developed countries, prospect of supply and demand of energy and current situation of energy conservation in developed countries. It also deals with energy situation in Korea reporting natural resources status, energy conservation policy, measurement for alternative energy, energy management of Korea, investment in equipment and public education for energy conservation.

  5. Lepton charges and lepton mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, B.

    1978-01-01

    A review is given of theoretical and experimental investigations of lepton charges and lepton mixing known to the author at the time of the Budapest Conference, July 1970. The review is more biased towards experiment than theory. The recent and relevant expermental limits on possible lepton charge non-conservation are summarized, which were obtained by measuring probabilities of various processes. The status of the lepton mixing theory in the case when the only neutral leptons are neutrinos is reviewed, the main points being the μ→eγ decay and neutrino oscillations. The ''solar neutrino puzzle'' is discussed. A model of the μ→eγ and μ→3e decays is given as an example of drastic effects of heavy lepton mixing, and the relation between processes like μ→eγ, etc., and neutrino oscillations is considered. Recent papers on lepton nonconservation effects are then classified in groups, the related literature being presented extensively, if not fully

  6. Charge Screening in a Charged Condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabadadze, Gregory; Rosen, Rachel A.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a highly dense system of helium-4 nuclei and electrons in which the helium-4 nuclei have condensed. We present the condensation mechanism in the framework of low energy effective field theory and discuss the screening of electric charge in the condensate.

  7. Surface Charging and Points of Zero Charge

    CERN Document Server

    Kosmulski, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Presents Points of Zero Charge data on well-defined specimen of materials sorted by trademark, manufacturer, and location. This text emphasizes the comparison between particular results obtained for different portions of the same or very similar material and synthesizes the information published in research reports over the past few decades

  8. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  9. Biodiversity Conservation and Conservation Biotechnology Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    This special issue is dedicated to the in vitro tools and methods used to conserve the genetic diversity of rare and threatened species from around the world. Species that are on the brink of extinction, due to the rapid loss of genetic diversity and habitat, come mainly from resource poor areas the...

  10. Paradigms for parasite conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Eric R; Carlson, Colin J; Bueno, Veronica M; Burgio, Kevin R; Cizauskas, Carrie A; Clements, Christopher F; Seidel, Dana P; Harris, Nyeema C

    2016-08-01

    Parasitic species, which depend directly on host species for their survival, represent a major regulatory force in ecosystems and a significant component of Earth's biodiversity. Yet the negative impacts of parasites observed at the host level have motivated a conservation paradigm of eradication, moving us farther from attainment of taxonomically unbiased conservation goals. Despite a growing body of literature highlighting the importance of parasite-inclusive conservation, most parasite species remain understudied, underfunded, and underappreciated. We argue the protection of parasitic biodiversity requires a paradigm shift in the perception and valuation of their role as consumer species, similar to that of apex predators in the mid-20th century. Beyond recognizing parasites as vital trophic regulators, existing tools available to conservation practitioners should explicitly account for the unique threats facing dependent species. We built upon concepts from epidemiology and economics (e.g., host-density threshold and cost-benefit analysis) to devise novel metrics of margin of error and minimum investment for parasite conservation. We define margin of error as the risk of accidental host extinction from misestimating equilibrium population sizes and predicted oscillations, while minimum investment represents the cost associated with conserving the additional hosts required to maintain viable parasite populations. This framework will aid in the identification of readily conserved parasites that present minimal health risks. To establish parasite conservation, we propose an extension of population viability analysis for host-parasite assemblages to assess extinction risk. In the direst cases, ex situ breeding programs for parasites should be evaluated to maximize success without undermining host protection. Though parasitic species pose a considerable conservation challenge, adaptations to conservation tools will help protect parasite biodiversity in the face of

  11. Uncomfined fractionally charged quarks and the problem of hidrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun, L.B.; Shifman, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    A model for partial confinement of fractionally charged quarks with broken local but conserved global color symmetry is discussed. It is shown that it is impossible to liberate quarks and gluons in this way without severe contradictions with experimental data. The model predicts either observable violations of asymptotic freedom or hidrons - new hadron-like objects with mass around 1 GeV and fractional charges

  12. Dosimeter charging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, F.A.; Moorman, Ch.J.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for charging a dosimeter which has a capacitor connected between first and second electrodes and a movable electrode in a chamber electrically connected to the first electrode. The movable electrode deflects varying amounts depending upon the charge present on said capacitor. The charger apparatus includes first and second charger electrodes couplable to the first and second dosimeter electrodes. To charge the dosimeter, it is urged downwardly into a charging socket on the charger apparatus. The second dosimeter electrode, which is the dosimeter housing, is electrically coupled to the second charger electrode through a conductive ring which is urged upwardly by a spring. As the dosimeter is urged into the socket, the ring moves downwardly, in contact with the second charger electrode. As the dosimeter is further urged downwardly, the first dosimeter electrode and first charger electrode contact one another, and an insulator post carrying the first and second charger electrodes is urged downwardly. Downward movement of the post effects the application of a charging potential between the first and second charger electrodes. After the charging potential has been applied, the dosimeter is moved further into the charging socket against the force of a relatively heavy biasing spring until the dosimeter reaches a mechanical stop in the charging socket

  13. Spacecraft Surface Charging Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Charging of Large Spwc Structure• . in Polut Otbil.’" Prweedings of thre Air For’e Grespykirs fitrano, W4r4 nop em Natural Charging of large Space Stru, ures...3, p. 1433- 1440, 1991. Bowman, C., Bogorad, A., Brucker, G., Seehra, S., and Lloyd, T., "ITO-Coated RF Transparent Materials for Antenna Sunscreen

  14. Unilateral CHARGE association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trip, J; van Stuijvenberg, M; Dikkers, FG; Pijnenburg, MWH

    A case with a predominantly unilateral CHARGE association is reported. The CHARGE association refers to a combination of congenital malformations. This boy had left-sided anomalies consisting of choanal atresia. coloboma and peripheral facial palsy. The infant had a frontal encephalocele. an anomaly

  15. Nondissipative optimum charge regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, R.; Vitebsky, J. N.

    1970-01-01

    Optimum charge regulator provides constant level charge/discharge control of storage batteries. Basic power transfer and control is performed by solar panel coupled to battery through power switching circuit. Optimum controller senses battery current and modifies duty cycle of switching circuit to maximize current available to battery.

  16. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  17. Introducing Conservation of Momentum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Marjorie; Brunt, Geoff

    2013-01-01

    The teaching of the principle of conservation of linear momentum is considered (ages 15 + ). From the principle, the momenta of two masses in an isolated system are considered. Sketch graphs of the momenta make Newton's laws appear obvious. Examples using different collision conditions are considered. Conservation of momentum is considered…

  18. Water Conservation Resource List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NJEA Review, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Alarmed by the growing water shortage, the New Jersey State Office of Dissemination has prepared this annotated list of free or inexpensive instructional materials for teaching about water conservation, K-l2. A tipsheet for home water conservation is appended. (Editor/SJL)

  19. Controllability of conservative behaviours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, Shodhan

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we first define the class of J-conservative behaviours with observable storage functions, where J is a symmetric two-variable polynomial matrix. We then provide two main results. The first result states that if J(-xi,xi) is nonsingular, the input cardinality of a J-conservative

  20. Conservation Science Fair Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    Included are ideas, suggestions, and examples for selecting and designing conservation science projects. Over 70 possible conservation subject areas are presented with suggested projects. References are cited with each of these subject areas, and a separate list of annotated references is included. The references pertain to general subject…

  1. Fixism and conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Alexandre; Fontaine, Colin; Veron, Simon; Monnet, Anne-Christine; Legrand, Marine; Clavel, Joanne; Chantepie, Stéphane; Couvet, Denis; Ducarme, Frédéric; Fontaine, Benoît; Jiguet, Frédéric; le Viol, Isabelle; Rolland, Jonathan; Sarrazin, François; Teplitsky, Céline; Mouchet, Maud

    2017-08-01

    The field of biodiversity conservation has recently been criticized as relying on a fixist view of the living world in which existing species constitute at the same time targets of conservation efforts and static states of reference, which is in apparent disagreement with evolutionary dynamics. We reviewed the prominent role of species as conservation units and the common benchmark approach to conservation that aims to use past biodiversity as a reference to conserve current biodiversity. We found that the species approach is justified by the discrepancy between the time scales of macroevolution and human influence and that biodiversity benchmarks are based on reference processes rather than fixed reference states. Overall, we argue that the ethical and theoretical frameworks underlying conservation research are based on macroevolutionary processes, such as extinction dynamics. Current species, phylogenetic, community, and functional conservation approaches constitute short-term responses to short-term human effects on these reference processes, and these approaches are consistent with evolutionary principles. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  2. Setting conservation priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerrie A; Carwardine, Josie; Possingham, Hugh P

    2009-04-01

    A generic framework for setting conservation priorities based on the principles of classic decision theory is provided. This framework encapsulates the key elements of any problem, including the objective, the constraints, and knowledge of the system. Within the context of this framework the broad array of approaches for setting conservation priorities are reviewed. While some approaches prioritize assets or locations for conservation investment, it is concluded here that prioritization is incomplete without consideration of the conservation actions required to conserve the assets at particular locations. The challenges associated with prioritizing investments through time in the face of threats (and also spatially and temporally heterogeneous costs) can be aided by proper problem definition. Using the authors' general framework for setting conservation priorities, multiple criteria can be rationally integrated and where, how, and when to invest conservation resources can be scheduled. Trade-offs are unavoidable in priority setting when there are multiple considerations, and budgets are almost always finite. The authors discuss how trade-offs, risks, uncertainty, feedbacks, and learning can be explicitly evaluated within their generic framework for setting conservation priorities. Finally, they suggest ways that current priority-setting approaches may be improved.

  3. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development welcomes the results of original research, field surveys, advances in field and laboratory techniques, book reviews, and informal status reports from research, conservation, development and management programs and in-field projects in Madagascar. In addition, notes on changes ...

  4. Resource Conservation Glossary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    This glossary is a composite of terms selected from 13 technologies, and is the expanded revision of the original 1952 edition of "The Soil and Water Conservation Glossary." The terms were selected from these areas: agronomy, biology, conservation, ecology, economics, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology, range, recreation, soils, and…

  5. Creative Soil Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martha

    2010-01-01

    Take plant lessons outdoors with this engaging and inquiry-based activity in which third-grade students learn how to apply soil conservation methods to growing plants. They also collect data and draw conclusions about the effectiveness of their method of soil conservation. An added benefit to this activity is that the third-grade students played…

  6. Japan's energy conservation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoda, Kenichi

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews developments in Japanese energy conservation since the 1970s. The industrial sector has achieved the greatest success, due to industrial restructuring as well as improvements in energy efficiency. In the residential/commercial sector, the efficiency of appliances has been much improved. Although improvements have been made in the fuel efficiency of passenger cars, energy consumption in the transportation sector has risen slightly owing to increased transport of passengers and freight. The overall responsibility for energy conservation policy rests with the Ministry of International Trade and Industry. MITI is also responsible for implementing specific conservation policies in regard to the industrial and commercial sectors. In the residential sector, MITI works with the Ministry of Construction and in the transportation sector with the Ministry of Transport. To realize the goals of energy conservation policy through general research, dissemination of public information and other activities, MITI works with the Energy Conservation Center (ECC). (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  7. Current conserving theory at the operator level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jiangtao; Wang, Yin; Wang, Jian

    The basic assumption of quantum transport in mesoscopic systems is that the total charge inside the scattering region is zero. This means that the potential deep inside reservoirs is effectively screened and therefore the electric field at interface of scattering region is zero. Thus the current conservation condition can be satisfied automatically which is an important condition in mesoscopic transport. So far the current conserving ac theory is well developed by considering the displacement current which is due to Coulomb interaction if we just focus on the average current. However, the frequency dependent shot noise does not satisfy the conservation condition since we do not consider the current conservation at the operator level. In this work, we formulate a generalized current conserving theory at the operator level using non-equilibrium Green's function theory which could be applied to both average current and frequency dependent shot noise. A displacement operator is derived for the first time so that the frequency dependent correlation of displacement currents could be investigated. Moreover, the equilibrium shot noise is investigated and a generalized fluctuation-dissipation relationship is presented.

  8. Charge gradient microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Andreas; Hong, Seungbum

    2018-02-06

    A method for rapid imaging of a material specimen includes positioning a tip to contact the material specimen, and applying a force to a surface of the material specimen via the tip. In addition, the method includes moving the tip across the surface of the material specimen while removing electrical charge therefrom, generating a signal produced by contact between the tip and the surface, and detecting, based on the data, the removed electrical charge induced through the tip during movement of the tip across the surface. The method further includes measuring the detected electrical charge.

  9. Charging equipment. Ladegeraet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, E

    1981-09-17

    The invention refers to a charging equipment, particularly on board charging equipment for charging traction batteries of an electric vehicle from the AC mains supply, consisting of a DC converter, which contains a controlled power transistor, a switching off unloading circuit and a power transmitter, where the secondary winding is connected in series with a rectifier diode, and a smoothing capacitor is connected in parallel with this series circuit. A converter module is provided, which consists of two DC voltage converters, whose power transistors are controlled by a control circuit in opposition with a phase displacement of 180/sup 0/.

  10. Topological charge algebra of optical vortices in nonlinear interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Alexandra A; Shutova, Mariia; Bahari, Aysan; Zhi, Miaochan; Sokolov, Alexei V

    2015-12-28

    We investigate the transfer of orbital angular momentum among multiple beams involved in a coherent Raman interaction. We use a liquid crystal light modulator to shape pump and Stokes beams into optical vortices with various integer values of topological charge, and cross them in a Raman-active crystal to produce multiple Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands. We measure the resultant vortex charges using a tilted-lens technique. We verify that in every case the generated beams' topological charges obey a simple relationship, resulting from angular momentum conservation for created and annihilated photons, or equivalently, from phase-matching considerations for multiple interacting beams.

  11. Higher charges in dynamical spin chains for SYM theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Abhishek; Ferretti, Gabriele

    2005-01-01

    We construct, to the first two non-trivial orders, the next conserved charge in the su(2|3) sector of N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. This represents a test of integrability in a sector where the interactions change the number of sites of the chain. The expression for the charge is completely determined by the algebra and can be written in a diagrammatic form in terms of the interactions already present in the hamiltonian. It appears likely that this diagrammatic expression remains valid in the full theory and can be generalized to higher loops and higher charges thus helping in establishing complete integrability for these dynamical chains

  12. Gravitational charges of transverse asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebeci, Hakan; Sarioglu, Oezguer; Tekin, Bayram

    2006-01-01

    Using Killing-Yano symmetries, we construct conserved charges of spacetimes that asymptotically approach to the flat or anti-de Sitter spaces only in certain directions. In D dimensions, this allows one to define gravitational charges (such as mass and angular momenta densities) of p-dimensional branes/solitons or any other extended objects that curve the transverse space into an asymptotically flat or AdS one. Our construction answers the question of what kind of charges the antisymmetric Killing-Yano tensors lead to

  13. The invariant charges of the Nambu-Goto theory: Their geometric origin and their completeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmeyer, K.; Rehren, K.H.

    1988-01-01

    We give an alternative construction of the reparametrization invariant 'non-local' conserved charges of the Nambu-Goto theory which elucidates their geometric nature and their completeness property. (orig.)

  14. Pion double charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.D.

    1978-01-01

    The pion double charge exchange data on the oxygen isotopes is reviewed and new data on 9 Be, 12 C, 24 Mg, and 28 Si are presented. Where theoretical calculations exist, they are compared to the data. 9 references

  15. Water Quality Protection Charges

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The Water Quality Protection Charge (WQPC) is a line item on your property tax bill. WQPC funds many of the County's clean water initiatives including: • Restoration...

  16. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karner, Donald [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Garetson, Thomas [Electric Transportation Inc., Rogers, AR (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to “… produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today’s gasoline-powered vehicles …” [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  17. Space-Charge Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, N

    2013-01-01

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented. (author)

  18. Space-Charge Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chauvin, N.

    2013-12-16

    First, this chapter introduces the expressions for the electric and magnetic space-charge internal fields and forces induced by high-intensity beams. Then, the root-mean-square equation with space charge is derived and discussed. In the third section, the one-dimensional Child-Langmuir law, which gives the maximum current density that can be extracted from an ion source, is exposed. Space-charge compensation can occur in the low-energy beam transport lines (located after the ion source). This phenomenon, which counteracts the spacecharge defocusing effect, is explained and its main parameters are presented. The fifth section presents an overview of the principal methods to perform beam dynamics numerical simulations. An example of a particles-in-cells code, SolMaxP, which takes into account space-charge compensation, is given. Finally, beam dynamics simulation results obtained with this code in the case of the IFMIF injector are presented.

  19. EV Charging Infrastructure Roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karner, Donald; Garetson, Thomas; Francfort, Jim

    2016-01-01

    As highlighted in the U.S. Department of Energy's EV Everywhere Grand Challenge, vehicle technology is advancing toward an objective to ''... produce plug-in electric vehicles that are as affordable and convenient for the average American family as today's gasoline-powered vehicles ...'' [1] by developing more efficient drivetrains, greater battery energy storage per dollar, and lighter-weight vehicle components and construction. With this technology advancement and improved vehicle performance, the objective for charging infrastructure is to promote vehicle adoption and maximize the number of electric miles driven. The EV Everywhere Charging Infrastructure Roadmap (hereafter referred to as Roadmap) looks forward and assumes that the technical challenges and vehicle performance improvements set forth in the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge will be met. The Roadmap identifies and prioritizes deployment of charging infrastructure in support of this charging infrastructure objective for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge

  20. Charged weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlay, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this review of charged weak currents I shall concentrate on inclusive high energy neutrino physics. There are surely still things to learn from the low energy weak interaction but I will not discuss it here. Furthermore B. Tallini will discuss the hadronic final state of neutrino interactions. Since the Tokyo conference a few experimental results have appeared on charged current interaction, I will present them and will also comment on important topics which have been published during the last past year. (orig.)

  1. Relativistic charged Bose gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hines, D.F.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The charged Bose has been previously studied as a many body problem of great intrinsic interest which can also serve as a model of some real physical systems, for example, superconductors, white dwarf stars and neutron stars. In this article the excitation spectrum of a relativistic spin-zero charged Bose gas is obtained in a dielectric response formulation. Relativity introduces a dip in the spectrum and consequences of this dip for the thermodynamic functions are discussed

  2. A Resource Conservation Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Philip D.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a variety of learning activities for teaching elementary and junior high students about air, water, and energy conservation techniques. Suggests community resources, social studies objectives, language skills, and 20 activities. (CK)

  3. Hearing Conservation Team

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hearing Conservation Team focuses on ways to identify the early stages of noise-induced damage to the human ear.Our current research involves the evaluation of...

  4. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Conservation & Development. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 9, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  5. Metro Conservation Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The Metro Conservation Corridors (MeCC) grow out of the natural resource analysis work done by the DNR in the late '90's, documented in the Metro Greenprint...

  6. Madagascar Conservation & Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    www.journalmcd.com

    2012-02-19

    Feb 19, 2012 ... MADAGASCAR CONSERVATION & DEVELOPMENT. VOLUME 7 ... die within a short period of time (e.g., infanticide) (Erhart and. Overdorff 1998 .... been as deep or may have healed by the time of examination. Falls during ...

  7. Birds of Conservation Concern

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The 1988 amendment to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act mandates the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to “identify species, subspecies, and populations of...

  8. Mesocycles in conserving plastics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shashoua, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    driven by the need to balance the requirements for reversibility in conservation practices with the artist’s intent and significance. Developments within each of the three mesocycles from the 1990s to date are discussed in this article. Environmental science and toxicology of waste plastics offer a novel...... source of information about real time degradation in terrestrial and marine microenvironments that seems likely to contribute to the conservation of similar materials in contemporary artworks....

  9. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  10. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  11. Conservation laws and symmetries in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polettini, Matteo; Bulnes-Cuetara, Gregory; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2016-11-01

    Phenomenological nonequilibrium thermodynamics describes how fluxes of conserved quantities, such as matter, energy, and charge, flow from outer reservoirs across a system and how they irreversibly degrade from one form to another. Stochastic thermodynamics is formulated in terms of probability fluxes circulating in the system's configuration space. The consistency of the two frameworks is granted by the condition of local detailed balance, which specifies the amount of physical quantities exchanged with the reservoirs during single transitions between configurations. We demonstrate that the topology of the configuration space crucially determines the number of independent thermodynamic affinities (forces) that the reservoirs generate across the system and provides a general algorithm that produces the fundamental affinities and their conjugate currents contributing to the total dissipation, based on the interplay between macroscopic conservations laws for the currents and microscopic symmetries of the affinities.

  12. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  13. Hydrology and Conservation Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2006-12-01

    Responses to change in the behavior of ecological systems are largely governed by interactions at different levels. Research is essential and is to be necessarily designed to gain insights into various interactions at the community level. Sustainable resource management is only possible if conservation of biodiversity can be accomplished by properly using the knowledge discovered. It is well known that the United States Department of Agriculture provides technical information, resources, and data necessary to assist the researchers in addressing their conservation needs. Conservation aims to protect, preserve and conserve the earth's natural resources. These include, but not limited to the conservation of soil, water, minerals, air, plants and all living beings. The United States Department of Agriculture also encourages farmers and ranchers to voluntarily address threats to soil and water. Protection of wetlands and wildlife habitat has been on the radar screen of conservation experts for a very long time. The main objective has always been to help farmers and landowners conform and comply with federal and state environmental laws. During the implementation phase, farmers should be encouraged to make beneficial, cost-effective changes to methods of irrigation systems. In some cases, the hydrologic regime of the project area can be thought of as principally an issue of river flow regimes for floodplain forests. In this presentation, the author tries to focus on the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology on global warming. He also discusses the impact of hydrology and conservation ecology global air concerns such as greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere. References: Chow, V. T, D. R. Maidment, and L. W. Mays. 1988. Applied Hydrology. McGraw-Hill, Inc. U.S. Soil Conservation Service. Technical Release 55: Urban Hydrology for Small Watersheds. USDA (U.S. Department of Agriculture). June 1986. Lehner, B. and P. Döll (2004). Development and validation

  14. Design of achromatic bending systems in the presence of space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.; Svaton, E.M.; Blind, B.; Heighway, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The usual conditions for achromaticity of a dispersive system are shown to be inadequate when space-charge effects are included. Using a matrix formulation describing linear space-charge forces, we give generalized criteria necessary for a system to be achromatic. Additionally, these conditions are necessary for conservation of transverse emittances. An example of such a system is given

  15. Design of achromatic bending systems in the presence of space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jason, A.J.; Svaton, E.M.; Blind, B.; Heighway, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The usual conditions for achromaticity of a dispersive system are shown to be inadequate when space-charge effects are included. Using a matrix formulation describing linear space-charge forces, the authors give generalized criteria necessary for a system to be achromatic. Additionally, these conditions are necessary for conservation of transverse emittances. An example of such a system is given

  16. 18 CFR 284.266 - Rates and charges for interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Emergency Natural Gas Sale, Transportation, and Exchange Transactions... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates and charges for interstate pipelines. 284.266 Section 284.266 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY...

  17. Quick charge battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parise, R.J.

    1998-07-01

    Electric and hybrid electric vehicles (EVs and HEVs) will become a significant reality in the near future of the automotive industry. Both types of vehicles will need a means to store energy on board. For the present, the method of choice would be lead-acid batteries, with the HEV having auxiliary power supplied by a small internal combustion engine. One of the main drawbacks to lead-acid batteries is internal heat generation as a natural consequence of the charging process as well as resistance losses. This limits the re-charging rate to the battery pack for an EV which has a range of about 80 miles. A quick turnaround on recharge is needed but not yet possible. One of the limiting factors is the heat buildup. For the HEV the auxiliary power unit provides a continuous charge to the battery pack. Therefore heat generation in the lead-acid battery is a constant problem that must be addressed. Presented here is a battery that is capable of quick charging, the Quick Charge Battery with Thermal Management. This is an electrochemical battery, typically a lead-acid battery, without the inherent thermal management problems that have been present in the past. The battery can be used in an all-electric vehicle, a hybrid-electric vehicle or an internal combustion engine vehicle, as well as in other applications that utilize secondary batteries. This is not restricted to only lead-acid batteries. The concept and technology are flexible enough to use in any secondary battery application where thermal management of the battery must be addressed, especially during charging. Any battery with temperature constraints can benefit from this advancement in the state of the art of battery manufacturing. This can also include nickel-cadmium, metal-air, nickel hydroxide, zinc-chloride or any other type of battery whose performance is affected by the temperature control of the interior as well as the exterior of the battery.

  18. Charge transfer in astrophysical nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Charge transfer has become a standard ingredient in models of ionized nebulae, supernovae remnants and active galactic nuclei. Charge transfer rate coefficients and the physics of ionized nebulae are considered. Charge transfer is applied to the ionization structure and line emission of ionized nebulae. Photoionized nebulae observations are used to test theoretical predictions of charge transfer rates. (author)

  19. Tourism and Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budeanu, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Tourism is promoted by policy makers and international organizations as a tool for advancing conservation agendas, while contributing to poverty alleviation and human development, under the banner of ecotourism or sustainable tourism. However, the indiscriminating use of complex and ambiguous...... concepts such as “poverty” and “sustainability” hide important nuances with regards to the variety of processes and subsequent effects that are triggered when tourism and conservation are being adjoined. Experiences with tourism developments show that destinations that are weak economically find it harder...... to draw benefits from tourism developments or to decline participation in tourism with only little or no losses of sources of income and wealth. If tourism should fulfil sustainability goals related to conservation, poverty, and human development, it needs consistent governmental intervention...

  20. Conservation of Mangifera sylvatica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhter, Sayma

    and conservation of these valuable species. The present study considers an underutilised and threatened species of Bangladesh, namely wild mango (Mangifera sylvatica Roxb.). Although this wild mango is one of the genetically closest species to the common mango (Mangifera indica L.) research is very limited...... and mostly focused on wood quality and phylogenetic relationships. Therefore, this study investigated the conservation potential of wild mango considering its contribution for food, nutrition and livelihoods. To do so, an assessment was made of the current and future distribution of the species, which...... explored. The study conveyed five key messages: 1. Wild mango may become extinct under future climate change scenarios so it is high time to start thinking about conservation initiatives. 2. Wild mango is a small sized mango with a large kernel in relation to other Mangifera species which provides...

  1. Resource conservation management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.

    1999-01-01

    Resource conservation management is a management program similar to financial management in that its success requires commitment by all levels of the organization to the process as well as an accounting procedure and auditing of critical components. Resource conservation management provides a framework for all elements of efficient building operations and maintenance. The savings connected with the program are principally connected with changes in the way buildings are operated and maintained. Given the reduction in rebates for the installation of energy-efficient equipment, this approach has considerable promise. This paper discusses the evolution of the resource conservation management service and the savings associated with a two-year pilot effort with seven school districts, as well as the critical components of a successful program

  2. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  3. Charge pulse preamplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libs, Gerard.

    1973-01-01

    A charge pulse preamplifier with very low background noise is described. The inlet stage of that preamplifier comprises a cooled field-effect transistor receiving the signal to be amplified at its gate input. Preferably, the charge resistor of said transistor is a field effect transistor, the source inlet of which is connected to the drain inlet of the former transistor through a self-induction coil and a resistor mounted in series. This can be applied to the treatment of the signals delivered by a particle detector in the form of a semi-conductor [fr

  4. Conservation reaches new heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepall, J; Khanal, P

    1992-10-01

    The conservation program with the management assistance of the Woodlands Mountain Institute in 2 contiguous parks, the Mount Everest National Park in Nepal and the Qomolangma Nature Reserve in China, in 2 countries is described. The focus is on conservation of the complex ecosystem with sustainable development by showing local people how to benefit from the park without environmental damage. Cultural diversity is as important as biological diversity. The area has been designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site with the "last pure ecological seed" of the Himalayas. The regional geography and culture are presented. Population growth has impacted natural resources through overgrazing, cultivation of marginal land, and deforestation; future plans to build a dam and road bordering the nature reserve pose other threats. Proposed management plans for the Makalu-Barun Nature Park (established in November 1991) and Conservation Area include a division of the park into nature reserve areas free of human activity, protected areas which permit traditional land use, and special sites and trail for tourists and religious pilgrims. The conservation area will act as a buffer for the park and provide economic opportunities; further subdivisions include land use for biodiversity protection, community forest and pasture, agroforestry, and agriculture and settlement. Efforts will be made to increase the welfare of women and local people; proposed projects include the introduction of higher milk-producing animals for stall feeding. Also proposed is a cultural and natural history museum. 70% of the project's resources will be directed to local community participation in consultation and park maintenance. The project is a model of how conservation and protection of natural resources can coexist with local economic development and participation; an integration of preservation of biological diversity, mountain wisdom, and the value of local people as resources for conservation.

  5. Energy conservation in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pembleton, P.

    1992-01-01

    Energy Conservation in Industry is the first number in the Energy and Environmental Series of the Industrial and Technological Information Bank (INTIB). The Series supersedes the INECA Journal and reflects the broader information programme undertaken by INTIB. The present number of the Series contains contributions from three major international databases and five topic-specific sources, including three United Nations Organizations. The present publication consists of a recent technical report on a current topic: reducing energy loss in four industrial sectors and improving energy conservation through waste-heat recovery, followed by two sections containing abstracts of technical materials

  6. Local instant conservation equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaje, Dzh.

    1984-01-01

    Local instant conservation equations for two-phase flow are derived. Derivation of the equation starts from the recording of integral laws of conservation for a fixed reference volume, containing both phases. Transformation of the laws, using the Leibniz rule and Gauss theory permits to obtain the sum of two integrals as to the volume and integral as to the surface. Integrals as to the volume result in local instant differential equations, in particular derivatives for each phase, and integrals as to the surface reflect local instant conditions of a jump on interface surface

  7. Diesel conservation: GSRTC'S experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh Kumar, I V

    1980-01-01

    The Gujarat State Road Transport Corporation (GSRTC) in India has a fleet of about 6000 buses. The increasing cost of fuel and lubricants added to uncertainty in supplies, has necessitated the need for conserving High Speed Diesel Oil (HSD). GSRTC had achieved an overall average Kilometre Per Litre (kmpl) of 4.44 in the year 1976-1977 due to a variety of measures. In the year 1978-1979 the average kmpl was 4.52 and it is expected to be 4.60 for 1979-1980. The case study outlined describes the measures taken by GSRTC in conserving high speed diesel oil by various methods.

  8. Information, conservation and retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eng, T [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Norberg, E [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden); Torbacke, J [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of History; Jensen, M [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: `Active preservation - otherwise no achieves`; `The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue`; and, `Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories`.

  9. Information, conservation and retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, T.; Norberg, E.; Torbacke, J.

    1996-12-01

    The seminar took place on the Swedish ship for transportation of radioactive wastes, M/S Sigyn, which at summer time is used for exhibitions. The seminar treated items related to general information needs in society and questions related to radioactive waste, i.e. how knowledge about a waste repository should be passed on to future generations. Three contributions are contained in the report from the seminar and are indexed separately: 'Active preservation - otherwise no achieves'; 'The conservation and dissemination of information - A democratic issue'; and, 'Conservation and retrieval of information - Elements of a strategy to inform future societies about nuclear waste repositories'

  10. Escape of charged particles from a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of particle trajectories in an axisymmetric magnetic field, formulated by C. Stormer, can be extended to cover conservative force fields as well. As such, it is an ideal tool to study the escape of charged particles from a rapidly rotating neutron star, enabling one to determine the maximum range of their trajectories in space. With the aid of this theory, it is shown that a neutron star, rotating in a vacuum with rotation and magnetic axes aligned, will not evolve a perfectly conducting magnetosphere if the neutron star is the only source of charge. The sign of charge accelerated from the equatorial regions will be magnetically trapped to a toroidal region very near the star, and the opposite sign of charge, emerging from the polar regions, will escape from the magnetosphere until a critical stellar charge is reached, after which polar charges will be electrostatically bound to the magnetosphere. This selective magnetic trapping of one sign of charge, which prevents the formation of a stellar wind, is a consequence of the magnetic field's orientation relative to the internal charge density of the neutron star

  11. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  12. Resonance charge exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duman, E.L.; Evseev, A.V.; Eletskij, A.V.; Radtsig, A.A.; Smirnov, B.M.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation results for the resonance charge exchange cross sections for positive and negative atomic and molecular ions are given. The calculations are performed on the basis of the asymptotic theory. The factors affecting the calculation accuracy are analysed. The calculation data for 28 systems are compared with the experiment

  13. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  14. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible to introduce many types of symmetries on the manifold which restrict the ... metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics .... In this analysis we have studied the role of symmetries for charged perfect ...

  15. Charged singularities: repulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Felice, F; Nobili, L [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Fisica; Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1980-07-01

    The repulsive phenomena which a particle experiences in the vicinity of a naked singularity are investigated in the Kerr-Newman space-time. The aim is to extend the knowledge of this fact to charged solutions and to have a direct indication of how, in these situations, the gravitational and electrostatic interactions are competing.

  16. Fractional charge search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, W.; Klein, S.; Perl, M.; Price, J.C.

    1982-06-01

    A device to search for fractional charge in matter is described. The sample is coupled to a low-noise amplifier by a periodically varying capacitor and the resulting signal is synchronously detected. The varying capacitor is constructed as a rapidly spinning wheel. Samples of any material in volumes of up to 0.05 ml may be searched in less than an hour

  17. Science Experience Unit: Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    GRADES OR AGES: Intermediate grades. SUBJECT MATTER: Conservation. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into 24 experiments. It is mimeographed and staple-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: A specific skill or knowledge objective is stated at the beginning of each experiment. Detailed procedures are listed…

  18. (ICTs) And Environmental Conservation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ICTs have a potential for improving the accessibility of environmental information, and if appropriately applied, they can empower local people to make informed decisions regarding environmental issues, thus enhancing environmental conservation. However, the challenge is on how to define particular roles that ...

  19. Conservative Delta Hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    an exact method for converting such intervals into arbitrage based prices of financial derivatives or industrial or contractual options. We call this...procedure conservative delta hedging . As existing procedures are of an ad hoc nature, the proposed approach will permit an institution’s man agement a greater oversight of its exposure to risk.

  20. [Lateral epicondylitis: conservative - operative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Burak; Greiner, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common disease of the common extensor origin at the lateral humerus. Despite its common self-limitation it can lead to chronic therapy-resistant pain with remarkable functional disability of the affected arm. Different conservative and operative treatment options of lateral epicondylitis are described and compared regarding benefits and risks. Additionally, recent surgical techniques and their complications are mentioned. Based on the current literature, it is shown which treatment option can be recommended. This review was based on the literature analysis in PubMed regarding "conservative and operative therapy of lateral epicondylitis" as well as the clinical experience of the authors. Conservative treatment is the primary choice for the treatment of lateral epicondylitis if concomitant pathologies such as instability among others can be excluded. It should include strengthening against resistance with eccentric stretching of the extensor group. In persistent cases, operative treatment is warranted. Resection of the pathologic tissue at the extensor origin with debridement and refixation of the healthy tendinous tissue yields good results. Most patients with lateral epicondylitis can be treated conservatively with success. Radiological evaluation should be performed in therapy-resistant cases. In the case of partial or complete rupture of the extensor origin, operative therapy is indicated.

  1. Biological science in conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Johns

    2000-01-01

    Large-scale wildlands reserve systems offer one of the best hopes for slowing, if not reversing, the loss of biodiversity and wilderness. Establishing such reserves requires both sound biology and effective advocacy. Attempts by The Wildlands Project and its cooperators to meld science and advocacy in the service of conservation is working, but is not without some...

  2. Speyeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Sims

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Speyeria (Nymphalidae are a conspicuous component of the North American butterfly fauna. There are approximately 16 species and >100 associated subspecies (or geographical variants. Speyeria are univoltine, occupy a wide range of habitats, overwinter as first instar larvae, and feed only on native violets. Speyeria species have become a model group for studies of evolution, speciation, and conservation. Several species and subspecies are threatened or endangered. The reasons for this vary with the taxa involved, but always involve the degradation or loss of quality habitat for larvae and adults. The impacts of climate change must be considered among the causes for habitat degradation and in the establishment of conservation measures. In addition to increasing the available habitat, conservation efforts should consider maintaining habitat in a seral “disturbed” successional stage that selectively favors the growth of violets and preferred adult nectar sources. A major future challenge will be determining the most effective allocation of conservation resources to those species and subspecies that have the greatest potential to respond favorably to these efforts.

  3. Conservation and gene banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant conservation has several objectives the main ones include safeguarding our food supply, preserving crop wild relatives for breeding and selection of new cultivars, providing material for industrial and pharmaceutical uses and preserving the beauty and diversity of our flora for generations to ...

  4. Crowdfunding biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Cajiao, E; Archibald, C; Friedman, R; Steven, R; Fuller, R A; Game, E T; Morrison, T H; Ritchie, E G

    2018-05-26

    Raising funds is critical for conserving biodiversity and hence so too is scrutinizing emerging financial mechanisms that might help achieve this goal. In this context, anecdotal evidence indicates crowdfunding is being used to support a variety of activities needed for biodiversity conservation, yet its magnitude and allocation remain largely unknown. We conducted a global analysis to help address this knowledge gap, based on empirical data from conservation-focused projects extracted from crowdfunding platforms. For each project, we determined the funds raised, date, country of implementation, proponent characteristics, activity type, biodiversity realm, and target taxa. We identified 72 relevant platforms and 577 conservation-focused projects that have raised US$4 790 634 since 2009. Whilst proponents were based in 38 countries, projects were delivered across 80 countries, indicating a potential mechanism of resource mobilization. Proponents were from non-governmental organizations (35%), universities (30%), or were freelancers (26%). Most projects were for research (40%), persuasion (31%), and on-ground actions (21%). Projects have focused primarily on species (57.7%) and terrestrial ecosystems (20.3%), and less on marine (8.8%) and freshwater ecosystems (3.6%). Projects have focused on 208 species, including a disproportionate number of threatened bird and mammal species. Crowdfunding for biodiversity conservation has now become a global phenomenon and presents signals for potential expansion, despite possible pitfalls. Opportunities arise from its spatial amplifying effect, steady increase over time, inclusion of Cinderella species, adoption by multiple actors, and funding of a range of activities beyond research. Our study paves the way for further research on key questions, such as campaign success rates, effectiveness, and drivers of adoption. Even though the capital input of crowdfunding so far has been modest compared to other conservation finance

  5. Covariant form for the conserved currents of the sine-Gordon and Liouville theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Lerda, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Penati, S.

    1990-01-01

    A conserved covariant fourth rank tensor current J μαβγ is constructed for these models both in flat and constant curvature space. For flat space, ∫ dx + J ++++ and its parity conjugate agree with well known results for the lowest grade sine-Gordon conserved charges. However potentially new charges such as ∫ dx + J +++- and ∫ dx + J +++α ε αβ x β either vanish or fail to be conserved because J μαβγ is not symmetric in μ↔γ. There is one curious exception for sine-Gordon models in anti-de Sitter space. (orig.)

  6. Kinetics of particle ensembles with variable charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S.; Klumov, B.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V. N.; Angelis, U. de

    2005-01-01

    One of the remarkable features distinguishing complex (dusty) plasmas from usual plasmas is that charges on the grains are not constant, but fluctuate in time around some equilibrium value which, in then, is some function of spatial coordinates. Generally, ensembles of particles with variable charges are non-Hamiltonian systems where the mutual collisions do not conserve energy. Therefore, the use of thermodynamic potentials to describe such systems is not really valid. An appropriate way to investigate their evolution is to employ the kinetic approach. We studied (both analytical and numerically) two cases: (a) inhomogeneous charge-it depends on the particle coordinate but does not change in time, and (b)fluctuating charge-it changes in time around the equilibrium value, which is constant in space. For both cases we used the Fokker-Planck approach to derive the collision integral which describes the momentum and energy transfer in mutual particle collisions as well as in the collisions with neutrals. We obtained that the mean particle energy grows in time when the neutral friction is below a certain threshold (as shown in Fig. 1). In case (a) the energy changes as ∞(t c r-t)''2, in case (b) it scales as ∞(t c r-t)''-1, exhibiting the explosion-like growth with t c r a critical time scale. The obtained solutions can be of significant importance for laboratory dusty plasmas as well as for space plasma environments, where inhomogeneous charge distributions are often present. For instance, the instability can cause dust heating in low-pressure complex plasma experiments, it can be responsible for the melting of plasma crystals, it might operate in protoplanetary disks and effect the kinetics of the planet formation, etc. (Author)

  7. Conservation businesses and conservation planning in a biological diversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Minin, Enrico; Macmillan, Douglas Craig; Goodman, Peter Styan; Escott, Boyd; Slotow, Rob; Moilanen, Atte

    2013-08-01

    The allocation of land to biological diversity conservation competes with other land uses and the needs of society for development, food, and extraction of natural resources. Trade-offs between biological diversity conservation and alternative land uses are unavoidable, given the realities of limited conservation resources and the competing demands of society. We developed a conservation-planning assessment for the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal, which forms the central component of the Maputaland-Pondoland-Albany biological diversity hotspot. Our objective was to enhance biological diversity protection while promoting sustainable development and providing spatial guidance in the resolution of potential policy conflicts over priority areas for conservation at risk of transformation. The conservation-planning assessment combined spatial-distribution models for 646 conservation features, spatial economic-return models for 28 alternative land uses, and spatial maps for 4 threats. Nature-based tourism businesses were competitive with other land uses and could provide revenues of >US$60 million/year to local stakeholders and simultaneously help meeting conservation goals for almost half the conservation features in the planning region. Accounting for opportunity costs substantially decreased conflicts between biological diversity, agricultural use, commercial forestry, and mining. Accounting for economic benefits arising from conservation and reducing potential policy conflicts with alternative plans for development can provide opportunities for successful strategies that combine conservation and sustainable development and facilitate conservation action. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Effects of Discrete Charge Clustering in Simulations of Charged Interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grime, John M A; Khan, Malek O

    2010-10-12

    A system of counterions between charged surfaces is investigated, with the surfaces represented by uniform charged planes and three different arrangements of discrete surface charges - an equispaced grid and two different clustered arrangements. The behaviors of a series of systems with identical net surface charge density are examined, with particular emphasis placed on the long ranged corrections via the method of "charged slabs" and the effects of the simulation cell size. Marked differences are observed in counterion distributions and the osmotic pressure dependent on the particular representation of the charged surfaces; the uniformly charged surfaces and equispaced grids of discrete charge behave in a broadly similar manner, but the clustered systems display a pronounced decrease in osmotic pressure as the simulation size is increased. The influence of the long ranged correction is shown to be minimal for all but the very smallest of system sizes.

  9. Trap-controlled charge transport in corona-charged Teflon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, B.; Giacometti, J.A.; Ferreira, G.F.L.; Moreno A, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The stability of negatively charged Teflon electrets is discussed. It is stated that it can only be explained by the assumption that the transport of excess charge is trap - controlled rather than mobility - controlled. (I.C.R.) [pt

  10. Charge exchange cross-sections for multiply charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midha, J.M.; Gupta, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new empirical relation for charge exchange cross-section has been proposed for different charge states of C, N and O colliding with neutral hydrogen. Results are compared with the experimental data. (Author)

  11. Methods of equipment conservation of a carboelectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado Higuera, Julio Cesar

    2001-01-01

    Several conservation methods are mentioned like they are those of conservation in dry, in humid, conservation of bombs of water conservation, of turbines, of generators, of transformers, of electric motors and conservation of coal piles

  12. Measurement of Neutrino Induced, Charged Current, Charged Pion Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilking, Michael Joseph [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-05-01

    Neutrinos are among the least understood particles in the standard model of particle physics. At neutrino energies in the 1 GeV range, neutrino properties are typically determined by observing the outgoing charged lepton produced in a charged current quasi-elastic interactions. The largest charged current background to these measurements comes from charged current pion production interactions, for which there is very little available data.

  13. Effects of Macroion Geometry and Charge Discretization in Charge Reversal

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Arup K.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of discrete macroion surface charge distribution and valences of these surface charges and counterions on charge reversal have been studied for macroions of three different geometries and compared with those of continuous surface charge distributions. The geometry of the macroion has been observed to play an important role in overcharging in these cases. The interplay of valences of discrete microions and counterions have noticeable effects on overcharging efficiency. For some val...

  14. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  15. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  16. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  17. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  18. Spacecraft Charge Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembel, L.

    2003-12-01

    We are currently developing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. The device will use a recently proposed high energy-resolution electron spectroscopic technique to determine spacecraft floating potential. The inspiration for the technique came from data collected by the Atmosphere Explorer (AE) satellites in the 1970s. The data available from the AE satellites indicate that the SCM may be able to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 V under certain conditions. Such accurate measurement of spacecraft charge could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements. The device may also be able to measure spacecraft floating potential in the solar wind and in orbit around other planets.

  19. The quasilocalized charge approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P

    2005-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two

  20. Extremally charged line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzner, Jirí; Žofka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the properties of a static, cylindrically symmetric Majumdar–Papapetrou-type solution of Einstein–Maxwell equations. We locate its singularities, establish its algebraic type, find its asymptotic properties and weak-field limit, study the structure of electrogeodesics, and determine the mass and charge of its sources. We provide an interpretation of the spacetime and discuss the parameter appearing in the metric. (paper)

  1. Constraints on a Parity-Conserving Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oers, Willem T. H.

    Time-reversal-invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with parity violating (P-odd)/time-reversal-invariance-odd (T-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with P-even/T-odd interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a P-odd/T-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron (with a present upper limit of 6 × 10-26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a P-odd/T-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10-4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a P-even/T-odd interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges it can be shown that only charged rho-meson exchange and A1-meson exchange can lead to a P-even/T-odd interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). Weak decay experiments may provide limits which will possibly be comparable. All other experiments, like gamma decay experiments, detailed balance experiments, polarization-analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order of magnitude less sensitive. The question then emerges: is there room for further experimentation?

  2. Controlling charge on levitating drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Ryan T; Westphall, Michael S; Smith, Lloyd M

    2007-08-01

    Levitation technologies are used in containerless processing of materials, as microscale manipulators and reactors, and in the study of single drops and particles. Presented here is a method for controlling the amount and polarity of charge on a levitating drop. The method uses single-axis acoustic levitation to trap and levitate a single, initially neutral drop with a diameter between 400 microm and 2 mm. This drop is then charged in a controllable manner using discrete packets of charge in the form of charged drops produced by a piezoelectric drop-on-demand dispenser equipped with a charging electrode. The magnitude of the charge on the dispensed drops can be adjusted by varying the voltage applied to the charging electrode. The polarity of the charge on the added drops can be changed allowing removal of charge from the trapped drop (by neutralization) and polarity reversal. The maximum amount of added charge is limited by repulsion of like charges between the drops in the trap. This charging scheme can aid in micromanipulation and the study of charged drops and particles using levitation.

  3. On momentum conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karastoyanov, A.

    1990-01-01

    The relativistic law of momentum transformation shows that the sum of momenta of even isolated particles is not invariable in all inertial reference systems. This is connected with the relativistic change of kinetic energy and mass of a system of particles in result of internal interactions. The paper proposes a short and simple proof on the necessity of potential momentum. The momentum conservation law (for all interactions in the Minkowski world) is expressed in a generalized form. The constancy of the sum of kinetic and potential momentum of closed system of particles is shown. The energy conservation is a necessary condition. The potential momentum is defined as usual (e.g. as in the Berkeley Physics Course). (author). 13 refs

  4. Conservation laws shape dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Riccardo; Esposito, Massimiliano

    2018-02-01

    Starting from the most general formulation of stochastic thermodynamics—i.e. a thermodynamically consistent nonautonomous stochastic dynamics describing systems in contact with several reservoirs—we define a procedure to identify the conservative and the minimal set of nonconservative contributions in the entropy production. The former is expressed as the difference between changes caused by time-dependent drivings and a generalized potential difference. The latter is a sum over the minimal set of flux-force contributions controlling the dissipative flows across the system. When the system is initially prepared at equilibrium (e.g. by turning off drivings and forces), a finite-time detailed fluctuation theorem holds for the different contributions. Our approach relies on identifying the complete set of conserved quantities and can be viewed as the extension of the theory of generalized Gibbs ensembles to nonequilibrium situations.

  5. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  6. Charge states of ions, and mechanisms of charge ordering transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Warren E.; Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor

    2014-07-01

    To gain insight into the mechanism of charge ordering transitions, which conventionally are pictured as a disproportionation of an ion M as 2Mn+→M(n+1)+ + M(n-1)+, we (1) review and reconsider the charge state (or oxidation number) picture itself, (2) introduce new results for the putative charge ordering compound AgNiO2 and the dual charge state insulator AgO, and (3) analyze the cationic occupations of the actual (not formal) charge, and work to reconcile the conundrums that arise. We establish that several of the clearest cases of charge ordering transitions involve no disproportion (no charge transfer between the cations, and hence no charge ordering), and that the experimental data used to support charge ordering can be accounted for within density functional-based calculations that contain no charge transfer between cations. We propose that the charge state picture retains meaning and importance, at least in many cases, if one focuses on Wannier functions rather than atomic orbitals. The challenge of modeling charge ordering transitions with model Hamiltonians isdiscussed.

  7. Search for fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A search was made for fractional charges of the form Z plus two-thirds e, where Z is an integer. It was assumed that the charges exist in natural form bound with other fractional charges in neutral molecules. It was further assumed that these neutral molecules are present in air. Two concentration schemes were employed. One sample was derived from the waste gases from a xenon distillation plant. This assumes that high mass, low vapor pressure components of air are concentrated along with the xenon. The second sample involved ionizing air, allowing a brief recombination period, and then collecting residual ions on the surface of titanium discs. Both samples were analyzed at the University of Rochester in a system using a tandem Van de Graff to accelerate particles through an essentially electrostatic beam handling system. The detector system employed both a Time of Flight and an energy-sensitive gas ionization detector. In the most sensitive mode of analysis, a gas absorber was inserted in the beam path to block the intense background. The presence of an absorber limited the search to highly penetrating particles. Effectively, this limited the search to particles with low Z and masses greater than roughly fifty GeV. The final sensitivities attained were on the order of 1 x 10 -20 for the ionized air sample and 1 x 10 -21 for the gas sample. A discussion of the caveats that could reduce the actual level of sensitivity is included

  8. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  9. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  10. Gravitational field of charged gyratons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frolov, Valeri P [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Zelnikov, Andrei [Theoretical Physics Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2J1 (Canada); Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky prospect 53, 119 991, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2006-03-21

    We study relativistic gyratons which carry an electric charge. The Einstein-Maxwell equations in arbitrary dimensions are solved exactly in the case of a charged gyraton propagating in an asymptotically flat metric.

  11. Space charge effects of CSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yong; Xia Jiawen; Xu Xiangyang; Lu Xiaowen; Wu Junli

    2000-01-01

    Cooler Storage Ring (CSR), and upgrading program planned at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), will supply beams with higher quality and intensity. Space charge effects should be considered due to this magnitude of intensity in CSR. The concept and some phenomena of space charge effects are discussed. Space charge intensity limit and space charge tune shift of normal CSR operation are given. It is of significance for the construction and operation of the future facility

  12. Water Well Locations - Conservation Wells

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — The conservation well layer identifies the permitted surface location of oil and gas conservation wells that have not been plugged. These include active, regulatory...

  13. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  14. Accretion onto a charged higher-dimensional black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M.; Iftikhar, Sehrish [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-03-15

    This paper deals with the steady-state polytropic fluid accretion onto a higher-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. We formulate the generalized mass flux conservation equation, energy flux conservation and relativistic Bernoulli equation to discuss the accretion process. The critical accretion is investigated by finding the critical radius, the critical sound velocity, and the critical flow velocity. We also explore gas compression and temperature profiles to analyze the asymptotic behavior. It is found that the results for the Schwarzschild black hole are recovered when q = 0 in four dimensions. We conclude that the accretion process in higher dimensions becomes slower in the presence of charge. (orig.)

  15. Charging Users for Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  16. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staal, Oscar

    2010-12-01

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new web page collecting charged Higgs resources is presented. (orig.)

  17. Charge orders in organic charge-transfer salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Ryui; Valentí, Roser; Tocchio, Luca F; Becca, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental suggestions of charge-order-driven ferroelectricity in organic charge-transfer salts, such as κ -(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu[N(CN) 2 ]Cl, we investigate magnetic and charge-ordered phases that emerge in an extended two-orbital Hubbard model on the anisotropic triangular lattice at 3/4 filling. This model takes into account the presence of two organic BEDT-TTF molecules, which form a dimer on each site of the lattice, and includes short-range intramolecular and intermolecular interactions and hoppings. By using variational wave functions and quantum Monte Carlo techniques, we find two polar states with charge disproportionation inside the dimer, hinting to ferroelectricity. These charge-ordered insulating phases are stabilized in the strongly correlated limit and their actual charge pattern is determined by the relative strength of intradimer to interdimer couplings. Our results suggest that ferroelectricity is not driven by magnetism, since these polar phases can be stabilized also without antiferromagnetic order and provide a possible microscopic explanation of the experimental observations. In addition, a conventional dimer-Mott state (with uniform density and antiferromagnetic order) and a nonpolar charge-ordered state (with charge-rich and charge-poor dimers forming a checkerboard pattern) can be stabilized in the strong-coupling regime. Finally, when electron–electron interactions are weak, metallic states appear, with either uniform charge distribution or a peculiar 12-site periodicity that generates honeycomb-like charge order. (paper)

  18. Paying for Pollution: Water Quality and Effluent Charges. Proceedings from a Conference (Chicago, Illinois, May 19, 1977).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This publication gives the proceedings from a 1977 conference sponsored by the Conservation Foundation. Participants discuss the appropriate means to control water pollution, emphasizing the use of effluent charges as economic incentive for polluters to clean up their waters. (MA)

  19. Constraints of a parity-conserving/time-reversal-non-conserving interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oers, Willem T.H. van

    2002-01-01

    Time-Reversal-Invariance non-conservation has for the first time been unequivocally demonstrated in a direct measurement at CPLEAR. One then can ask the question: What about tests of time-reversal-invariance in systems other than the kaon system? Tests of time-reversal-invariance can be distinguished as belonging to two classes: the first one deals with time-reversal-invariance-non-conserving (T-odd)/parity violating (P-odd) interactions, while the second one deals with T-odd/P-even interactions (assuming CPT conservation this implies C-conjugation non-conservation). Limits on a T-odd/P-odd interaction follow from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron ( -26 e.cm [95% C.L.]). It provides a limit on a T-odd/P-odd pion-nucleon coupling constant which is less than 10 -4 times the weak interaction strength. Experimental limits on a T-odd/P-even interaction are much less stringent. Following the standard approach of describing the nucleon-nucleon interaction in terms of meson exchanges, it can be shown that only charged ρ-meson exchange and A 1 -meson exchange can lead to a T-odd/P-even interaction. The better constraints stem from measurements of the electric dipole moment of the neutron and from measurements of charge-symmetry breaking in neutron-proton elastic scattering. The latter experiments were executed at TRIUMF (497 and 347 MeV) and at IUCF (183 MeV). All other experiments, like detailed balance experiments, polarization - analyzing power difference determinations, and five-fold correlation experiments with polarized incident nucleons and aligned nuclear targets, have been shown to be at least an order to magnitude less sensitive. Is there room for further experimentation?

  20. Conservation Education: A Position Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil Conservation Society of America, Ankeny, IA.

    The Soil Conservation Society of America's (SCSA) aim is to advance the science and art of good land and water use. Conservation education has a significant role in achieving the wise use of these resources. In this report, perspectives are offered on: (1) the requirements for effective conservation education programs; (2) rationale for…

  1. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the Madagascar Conservation & Development community. Finally, Madagascar Conservation & Development serves as a conduit for debate and discussion and welcomes contributions on any aspect of the legal or scientific status of any species living in Madagascar, or on conservation and development philosophy.

  2. Integrating conservation costs into sea level rise adaptive conservation prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjian Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiversity conservation requires strategic investment as resources for conservation are often limited. As sea level rises, it is important and necessary to consider both sea level rise and costs in conservation decision making. In this study, we consider costs of conservation in an integrated modeling process that incorporates a geomorphological model (SLAMM, species habitat models, and conservation prioritization (Zonation to identify conservation priorities in the face of landscape dynamics due to sea level rise in the Matanzas River basin of northeast Florida. Compared to conservation priorities that do not consider land costs in the analysis process, conservation priorities that consider costs in the planning process change significantly. The comparison demonstrates that some areas with high conservation values might be identified as lower priorities when integrating economic costs in the planning process and some areas with low conservation values might be identified as high priorities when considering costs in the planning process. This research could help coastal resources managers make informed decisions about where and how to allocate conservation resources more wisely to facilitate biodiversity adaptation to sea level rise.

  3. Charge sniffer for electrostatics demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinca, Mihai P.

    2011-02-01

    An electronic electroscope with a special design for demonstrations and experiments on static electricity is described. It operates as an electric charge sniffer by detecting slightly charged objects when they are brought to the front of its sensing electrode. The sniffer has the advantage of combining high directional sensitivity with a logarithmic bar display. It allows for the identification of electric charge polarity during charge separation by friction, peeling, electrostatic induction, batteries, or secondary coils of power transformers. Other experiments in electrostatics, such as observing the electric field of an oscillating dipole and the distance dependence of the electric field generated by simple charge configurations, are also described.

  4. Hearing Conservation Live #2430

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-09

    Occupational hearing loss is one of the most common work-related illnesses in the United States (US). From 22 to 30 million US workers are exposed to hazardous noise levels at work, and 25% of these workers will develop permanent hearing loss. Hearing loss from noise is slow and painless, and you can have a disability before you notice it. This course presents the hazards associated with workplace noise, the purpose and elements of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Hearing Conservation Program (HCP), and controls that are available to reduce your exposure to hazardous levels of noise.

  5. Energy conservation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtright, H.A. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The conservation of energy through the efficiency improvement of existing end-uses and the development of new technologies to replace less efficient systems is an important component of the overall effort to reduce greenhouse gases which may contribute to global climate change. Even though uncertainties exist on the degree and causes of global warming, efficiency improvements in end-use applications remain in the best interest of utilities, their customers and society because efficiency improvements not only reduce environmental exposures but also contribute to industrial productivity, business cost reductions and consumer savings in energy costs.

  6. Integrating Agriculture and Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandever, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    The USGS produces the needed science-based information to guide management actions and policy decisions that support wildlife habitat and other environmental services compatible with USDA conservation goals and farm operations. The Policy Analysis and Science Assistance Branch of the Fort Collins Science Center (FORT) has conducted research involving a national landowner survey and numerous short- and long-term evaluations regarding vegetation responses to land management practices. This research helps land and resource managers to make informed decisions and resolve resource management conflicts.

  7. Multipion correlations induced by isospin conservation of coherent emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gangadharan, Dhevan

    2016-01-01

    Recent measurements have revealed a significant suppression of multipion Bose–Einstein correlations in heavy-ion collisions at the LHC. The suppression may be explained by postulating coherent pion emission. Typically, the suppression of Bose–Einstein correlations due to coherence is taken into account with the coherent state formalism in quantum optics. However, since charged pion correlations are most often measured, the additional constraint of isospin conservation, which is absent in quantum optics, needs to be taken into account. As a consequence, correlations emerge between pions of opposite charge. A calculation of the correlations induced by isospin conservation of coherent emission is made for two, three- and four-pion correlation functions and compared to the data from the LHC.

  8. Fuel charging machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchikawa, Sadao.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To enable continuous fuel discharging and charging steps in a bwr type reactor by effecting positioning only for once by providing a plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives co-axially on a rotatable surface. Constitution: A plurality of fuel assembly grippers and their drives are provided co-axially on a rotatable surface. For example, a gripper A, a drive B, a gripper C and a drive D are arranged co-axially in symmetric positions on a disk rotated on rails by wheels and rotational drives. A new fuel in a fuel pool is gripped by the gripper A and transported above the reactor core. Then, the disk is positioned so that the gripper C can grip the spent fuel in the core, and the fuel to be discharged is gripped and raised by the gripper C. Then the disk is rotated by 180 0 and the new fuel in the gripper A is charged into the position from which the old fuel has been discharged and, finally, the discharged fuel is sent to the fuel pool for storage. (Seki, T.)

  9. What is a conservation actor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Jepson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available As a crisis-oriented discipline, conservation biology needs actions to understand the state of nature and thwart declines in biodiversity. Actors-traditionally individuals, institutions, and collectives-have been central to delivering such goals in practice. However, the definition of actors within the discipline has been narrow and their role in influencing conservation outcomes inadequately conceptualised. In this paper, we examine the question ′What is a conservation actor?′ Who or what creates the capacity to influence conservation values and actions? Drawing from theoretical developments in Actor-Network Theory and collective governance, we argue that the concept of an actor in conservation biology should be broadened to include non-humans, such as species and devices, because they have the agency and ability to influence project goals and outcomes. We illustrate this through four examples: the Asian elephant, International Union for Conservation of Nature red lists, the High Conservation Value approach, and an Integrated Conservation and Development Project. We argue that a broader conceptualisation of actors in conservation biology will produce new forms of understanding that could open up new areas of conservation research, enhance practice and draw attention to spheres of conservation activity that might require stronger oversight and governance.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  11. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  12. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  13. Selling energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, D

    1995-01-01

    This article concerns the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) crisis and its impact on energy efficiency measures in the US. In 1985, when the OPEC collapsed, the US government had avoided the need to construct 350 gigawatts of new electric capacity. The most successful efficiency improvements, especially in household appliances and equipment, lighting and tightened energy efficiency standards in new buildings, resulted from the OPEC event. The real innovation of that time was the change in profit rules for utilities. This revolution and the way some US utilities view energy have not caught on elsewhere. Despite the initiative toward improving energy efficiency in homes, offices and industries, the change has been slow. Partly to blame are the big development banks, which pointed out that short-term conservation and efficiency measures could save at least 15% of the total energy demand without the need for major investment. The benefits of energy conservation was shown during the oil shock when per capita energy consumption fell by 5% in the member states of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development, while the per capita gross domestic product grew by a third. There has been a decrease in energy expenditure worldwide, and the scope for further energy savings is enormous, but governments need to recognize and seize the opportunity.

  14. Lyme disease and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.

    1994-01-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness that is wide-spread in North America, especially in the northeastern and northcentral United States. This disease could negatively influence efforts to conserve natural populations in two ways: (1) the disease could directly affect wild animal health; and (2) tick control efforts could adversely affect natural populations and communities. Lyme disease affects several domestic animals, but symptoms have been reported in only a few wild species. Direct effects of Lyme disease on wild animal populations have not been reported, but the disease should be considered as a possible cause in cases of unexplained population declines in endemic areas. Methods available to manage ticks and Lyme disease include human self-protection techniques, manipulation of habitats and hosts species populations, biological control, and pesticide applications. The diversity of available techniques allows selection of approaches to minimize environmental effects by (1) emphasizing personal protection techniques, (2) carefully targeting management efforts to maximize efficiency, and (3) integrating environmentally benign techniques to improve management while avoiding broad-scale environmentally destructive approaches. The environmental effects of Lyme disease depend, to a large extent, on the methods chosen to minimize human exposure to infected ticks. Conservation biologists can help design tick management programs that effectively lower the incidence of human Lyme disease while simultaneously minimizing negative effects on natural populations.

  15. Intensity Conserving Spectral Fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimchuk, J. A.; Patsourakos, S.; Tripathi, D.

    2015-01-01

    The detailed shapes of spectral line profiles provide valuable information about the emitting plasma, especially when the plasma contains an unresolved mixture of velocities, temperatures, and densities. As a result of finite spectral resolution, the intensity measured by a spectrometer is the average intensity across a wavelength bin of non-zero size. It is assigned to the wavelength position at the center of the bin. However, the actual intensity at that discrete position will be different if the profile is curved, as it invariably is. Standard fitting routines (spline, Gaussian, etc.) do not account for this difference, and this can result in significant errors when making sensitive measurements. Detection of asymmetries in solar coronal emission lines is one example. Removal of line blends is another. We have developed an iterative procedure that corrects for this effect. It can be used with any fitting function, but we employ a cubic spline in a new analysis routine called Intensity Conserving Spline Interpolation (ICSI). As the name implies, it conserves the observed intensity within each wavelength bin, which ordinary fits do not. Given the rapid convergence, speed of computation, and ease of use, we suggest that ICSI be made a standard component of the processing pipeline for spectroscopic data.

  16. Peltier effect in multilayered nanopillars under high density charge current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravier, L; Fukushima, A; Kubota, H; Yamamoto, A; Yuasa, S

    2006-01-01

    From the basic equations of thermoelectricity, we model the thermal regimes that develop in multilayered nanopillar elements experiencing continuous charge currents. The energy conservation principle was applied to all layer-layer and layer-electrode junctions. The obtained set of equations was solved to derive the temperature of each junction. The contribution of the Peltier effect is included in an effective resistance. This model gives satisfactory fits to experimental data obtained on a series of reference nanopillar elements

  17. Effect of kinematic acceptance on conserved number fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.; Singh, B.K.; Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Mohanty, B.

    2013-01-01

    Studying the moments of distribution for conserved quantities like net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness number for systems undergoing strong interactions as in high energy heavy-ion collisions, have recently provided rich physics insights. In the present work, we demonstrate the effect of the above experimental limitations on the physics observables χ (3) /χ (2) and χ (4) /χ (2) using HRG model

  18. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  19. Surface charge compensation for a highly charged ion emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.W.; Hamza, A.V.; Newman, M.W.; Holder, J.P.; Schneider, D.H.G.; Schenkel, T.

    2003-01-01

    A surface charge compensation electron flood gun has been added to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) highly charged ion (HCI) emission microscope. HCI surface interaction results in a significant charge residue being left on the surface of insulators and semiconductors. This residual charge causes undesirable aberrations in the microscope images and a reduction of the Time-Of-Flight (TOF) mass resolution when studying the surfaces of insulators and semiconductors. The benefits and problems associated with HCI microscopy and recent results of the electron flood gun enhanced HCI microscope are discussed

  20. Total charge fluctuation in heavy ion collision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K.; Garg, P.

    2014-01-01

    Event-by-event fluctuations of positive, negative, total and net charge produced in relativistic nuclear collisions have been of interest to explore phase transition and/or a critical end point (CEP) which is believed to exist somewhere between the hadronic phase and the quark-gluon phase of the QCD phase diagram. The entropy is closely related to the particle multiplicity, and it is expected to be approximately conserved during the evolution of the matter created at the early stage. The entropy fluctuations are not directly observed but can be inferred from the experimentally measured quantities. The final state mean multiplicity is proportional to the entropy of the initial state ( ∼ S). The particle multiplicity can be measured on an event-by-event basis, whereas the entropy is defined by averaging the particle multiplicities in the ensemble of events. Thus, the dynamical entropy fluctuations can be measured experimentally by measuring the fluctuations in the mean multiplicity

  1. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  2. Charge parity exotic mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burden, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Evidence for a meson with exotic quantum numbers J PC 1 -+ , the ρ(1405), has been observed at the AGS at Brookhaven and Crystal Barrel at CERN. This meson is exotic to the extent that its quantum numbers are not consistent with the generalised Pauli exclusion principle applied to the naive constituent quark model. In a fully relativistic field theoretic treatment, however, there is nothing in principle to preclude the existence of charge parity exotics. Using our earlier covariant Bethe-Salpeter model of light-quark mesons with no new parameter fitting we demonstrate the existence of a q - q-bar bound state with the quantum numbers of the ρ

  3. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  4. Reactor fuel charging equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, Elman.

    1977-01-01

    In many types of reactor fuel charging equipment, tongs or a grab, attached to a trolley, housed in a guide duct, can be used for withdrawing from the core a selected spent fuel assembly or to place a new fuel assembly in the core. In these facilities, the trolley may have wheels that roll on rails in the guide duct. This ensures the correct alignment of the grab, the trolley and fuel assembly when this fuel assembly is being moved. By raising or lowering such a fuel assembly, the trolley can be immerged in the coolant bath of the reactor, whereas at other times it can be at a certain level above the upper surface of the coolant bath. The main object of the invention is to create a fuel handling apparatus for a sodium cooled reactor with bearings lubricated by the sodium coolant and in which the contamination of these bearings is prevented [fr

  5. μe conversion experiments. Testing charged lepton flavor violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, Andries van der

    2004-01-01

    The recent evidence for neutrino mixing shows that lepton flavor is not a conserved quantity. Due to the smallness of the neutrino masses effective flavor changing neutral currents among charged leptons remain negligible in the Standard Model. Whereas b → sγ has a probability of O(10 -4 )μ → eγ is expected with a branching ratio around 10 -50 . Observable rates would be an unambiguous signal for physics beyond the Standard Model and indeed, many extensions of the model are constrained best by the present experimental limits on charged lepton flavor violation. In this talk I will discuss experimental searches for charged lepton flavor violation with emphasis on μe conversion in muonic atoms. (author)

  6. Stochastic Coulomb interactions in space charge limited electron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nijkerk, M.D.; Kruit, P.

    2004-01-01

    Emission models that form the basis of self-consistent field computations make use of the approximation that emitted electrons form a smooth space charge jelly. In reality, electrons are discrete particles that are subject to statistical Coulomb interactions. A Monte Carlo simulation tool is used to evaluate the influence of discrete space charge effects on self-consistent calculations of cathode-ray tube optics. We find that interactions in the space charge cloud affect the electron trajectories such that the velocity distribution is Maxwellian, regardless of the current density. Interactions near the emitter effectively conserve the Maxwellian distribution. The surprising result is that the width of the distribution of transversal velocities does not change. The distribution of longitudinal velocities does broaden, as expected from existing theories

  7. Collective charge and mass transfer in heavy ion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this thesis the dynamics of the charge and mass asymmetry degree of freedom was studied in the framework of the fragmentation theory by means of a time-dependent Schroedinger equation. New is the introduction of a friction potential which describes the coupling of these collective degrees of freedom to the not explicitely treated other collective respectively internal degrees of freedom. Thereby it was shown that the measured widths of the isobaric charge distributions in the 86 Kr+sup(92,98)Mo reaction can be explained mainly by the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the charge asymmetry degree of freedom. The charge equilibration occurring at the begin of a deep inelastic collision can therefore by considered as a quantum mechanical, collective, damped motion which is connected with the excitation of the isovector giant dipole resonance of the nucleus-nucleus system. The study of the mass transfer in the reactions 132 Xe+ 120 Sn and 86 Kr+ 166 Er shows, how important at the begin of a deep inelastic collision shell structures and their conservation are for a large part of the reaction, even if the elemental distribution show no maxima in the region of magic shell closures. The experimental width are up to 10 MeV/A well described under conservation of the shell structure. (orig./HSI) [de

  8. Conservation and ethnobotanical exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, G J

    1994-01-01

    In recent years conservationists have realized that the maintenance of protected areas is closely linked to rural development. As part of their efforts to improve local people's standards of living, they have sought the advice of researchers who work in communities, especially those that border on nature reserves. Ethnobotanists, who are turning their attention to the cultural and ecological crises confronting the regions in which they work, are natural allies in this venture. The joint efforts of conservationists and ethnobotanists are being supported by non-profit organizations, intergovernmental agencies and research institutes. The search for new drugs and other natural products from plants is an important element in this collaboration, but it cannot be divorced from the broader objective of promoting the survival of biological and cultural diversity. Conservationists will support biodiversity prospecting and related efforts only if there is a clear benefit for local communities and protected areas. An example of the concrete actions being taken by conservation agencies is the People and Plants Initiative, a joint effort of the World Wide Fund for Nature, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. The main objective is to support the work of ethnobotanists in developing countries in studies of sustainable plant use and application of their work to conservation and community development. The initiative provides training workshops and relevant literature; coordinators work in collaboration with local people to create inventories of useful plants and appraise the impact of harvesting specific plant resources in and around protected areas. Phytochemical screening of medicinal plants and preparation of extracts are carried out as part of some projects.

  9. Conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, P.; Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, B.; Mohanty, A.K.; Singh, B.K.; Xu, N.

    2013-01-01

    Net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions are discussed within the framework of a hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. Ratios of the conserved number susceptibilities calculated in HRG are being compared to the corresponding experimental measurements to extract information about the freeze-out condition and the phase structure of systems with strong interactions. We emphasize the importance of considering the actual experimental acceptances in terms of kinematics (pseudorapidity (η) and transverse momentum (p T )), the detected charge state, effect of collective motion of particles in the system and the resonance decay contributions before comparisons are made to the theoretical calculations. In this work, based on HRG model, we report that the net-baryon number fluctuations are least affected by experimental acceptances compared to the net-charge and net-strangeness number fluctuations

  10. Solar Charged Stand Alone Inverter

    OpenAIRE

    M.Vasugi; Prof R.Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with solar powered stand alone inverter which converts the variable dc output of a photovoltaic solar panel into ac that can be fed to loads. Stand alone inverters are used in systems where the inverter get its energy from batteries charged by photo voltaic arrays. A charge controller limits the rate at which electric current is added to or drawn from electric batteries. This charge discharge controller is needed to prevent the battery from being overcharged o...

  11. Experiments on Dust Grain Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, M. N.; Craven, P. D.; Spann, J. F.; Tankosic, D.; LeClair, A.; West, E. A.

    2004-01-01

    Dust particles in various astrophysical environments are charged by a variety of mechanisms generally involving collisional processes with other charged particles and photoelectric emission with UV radiation from nearby sources. The sign and the magnitude of the particle charge are determined by the competition between the charging processes by UV radiation and collisions with charged particles. Knowledge of the particle charges and equilibrium potentials is important for understanding of a number of physical processes. The charge of a dust grain is thus a fundamental parameter that influences the physics of dusty plasmas, processes in the interplanetary medium and interstellar medium, interstellar dust clouds, planetary rings, cometary and outer atmospheres of planets etc. In this paper we present some results of experiments on charging of dust grains carried out on a laboratory facility capable levitating micron size dust grains in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. The charging/discharging experiments were carried out by exposing the dust grains to energetic electron beams and UV radiation. Photoelectric efficiencies and yields of micron size dust grains of SiO2, and lunar simulates obtained from NASA-JSC will be presented.

  12. Low-charge-state linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepard, K.W.; Kim, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    A design is being developed for a low-charge-state linac suitable for injecting ATLAS with a low-charge-state, radioactive beam. Initial work indicates that the existing ATLAS interdigital superconducting accelerating structures, together with the superconducting quadrupole transverse focussing element discussed above, provides a basis for a high-performance low-charge-state linac. The initial 2 or 3 MV of such a linac could be based on a normally-conducting, low-frequency RFQ, possibly combined with 24-MHz superconducting interdigital structures. Beam dynamics studies of the whole low-charge-state post-accelerator section were carried out in early FY 1995.

  13. Lagrange and Noether analysis of polarization laws of conservation for electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krivskij, I.Yu.; Simulik, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    Both well-known Bessel-Hagen conservation laws and conservation laws of polarized character are derived for electromagnetic field in the Lagrange approach to electrodynamics in terms of intensities (without using the A μ potentials as variation variables). The laws mentioned are derived according to Noether theorem because symmetry to which such concervation laws correspond is lost during the transition from intensities to potentials. Based on Noether theorem (and its generalization for Naeik's symmetries) and Lagrange function scalar in relation to complete Poincare group in terms of intensity tensor, a convenient formula for calculating and values conserved for electromagnetic field is derived which sets up a physically adequate symmetry operator -conservation law correlation and thus links the presence of conservation laws of polarized character with symmetry properties of Maxwell equations. Adiabaticity of conservation laws of polarized character under the presence of interaction with currents and charges is indicated

  14. Electric energy utilization and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of electric energy utilization and conservation are discussed. First chapter reviews thermodynamic aspects of energy conservation. Subsequent chapters describe possibilities and methods of energy conservation in thermal power plants, airconditioning and ventilation systems, electric lighting systems, electric heating systems in industries, and railway electrification. Chapter 8 describes various modes of energy storage and compares their economies. The next chapter discusses various facets of energy economics and the last chapter discusses the practical aspects of energy conservation in different industries and power utilities. (M.G.B.). 100 refs

  15. Charge migration and charge transfer in molecular systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Jakob Wörner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of charge at the molecular level plays a fundamental role in many areas of chemistry, physics, biology and materials science. Today, more than 60 years after the seminal work of R. A. Marcus, charge transfer is still a very active field of research. An important recent impetus comes from the ability to resolve ever faster temporal events, down to the attosecond time scale. Such a high temporal resolution now offers the possibility to unravel the most elementary quantum dynamics of both electrons and nuclei that participate in the complex process of charge transfer. This review covers recent research that addresses the following questions. Can we reconstruct the migration of charge across a molecule on the atomic length and electronic time scales? Can we use strong laser fields to control charge migration? Can we temporally resolve and understand intramolecular charge transfer in dissociative ionization of small molecules, in transition-metal complexes and in conjugated polymers? Can we tailor molecular systems towards specific charge-transfer processes? What are the time scales of the elementary steps of charge transfer in liquids and nanoparticles? Important new insights into each of these topics, obtained from state-of-the-art ultrafast spectroscopy and/or theoretical methods, are summarized in this review.

  16. Bounds on charged lepton mixing with exotic charged leptons Ф

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    imposing the constraints that the amplitude should not exceed the perturbative unitarity limit at high energy (. Ф. × = A), we obtain bounds on light heavy charged lepton mixing parameter sin. 2. (2 a. L) where a. L is the mixing angle of the ordinary charged lepton with its exotic partner. For A = 1 TeV, no bound is obtained on ...

  17. Charge Pricing Optimization Model for Private Charging Piles in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingping Zhang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a charge pricing model for private charging piles (PCPs by considering the environmental and economic effects of private electric vehicle (PEV charging energy sources and the impact of PCP charging load on the total load. This model simulates users’ responses to different combinations of peak-valley prices based on the charging power of PCPs and user charging transfer rate. According to the regional power structure, it calculates the real-time coal consumption, carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and power generation costs of PEVs on the power generation side. The empirical results demonstrate that the proposed peak-valley time-of-use charging price can not only minimize the peak-valley difference of the total load but also improve the environmental effects of PEVs and the economic income of the power system. The sensitivity analysis shows that the load-shifting effect of PCPs will be more obvious when magnifying the number of PEVs by using the proposed charging price. The case study indicates that the proposed peak, average, and valley price in Beijing should be 1.8, 1, and 0.4 yuan/kWh, which can promote the large-scale adoption of PEVs.

  18. Intrinsic space charge resonances and the space charge limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzen, G.

    1990-01-01

    A study has been done of the dependence of the space charge limit on the choice of ν-values using a simulation program. This study finds a strong dependence of the space charge limit on the location of the ν-values relative to the intrinsic space charge resonances, which are driven by the space charge forces due to the beam itself. Four accelerators were studied. For some of these accelerators the study suggest that the space charge limit can be increased by about a factor of 2 proper choice of the ν-values. The lower order 1/2 and 1/4 intrinsic resonances appear to be the important resonances. There is some evidence for effects due to the 1/6 and 1/8 intrinsic resonances, particularly for larger synchrotrons. 5 figs

  19. Bond charges and electronic charge transfer in ternary semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, U.

    1986-01-01

    By means of a simple molecule-theoretic model of 'linear superposition of two-electron molecules' the bond charges between nearest neighbours and the effective charges of ions are calculated for ternary zinc-blende structure alloys as well as chalcopyrite semiconductors. Taking into account both, the charge transfer among the ions caused by the differences of electronegativities of atoms used and between the bonds created by the internal stress of the lattice a nearly unvaried averaged bond charge amount of the alloy is found, but rather dramatically changed local bond charge parameters in comparison with the respective values of binary compounds used. This fact should influence the noncentral force interaction in such semiconductors. (author)

  20. Prairie Conservation in Canada: The Prairie Conservation Action Plan Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean Nernberg; David Ingstrup

    2005-01-01

    In Canada, grassland conservation has been mobilized and directed through the development of Prairie Conservation Action Plans and Action Plan Committees in the three prairie provinces of Alberta (45 partner agencies and organizations), Saskatchewan (26 partners), and Manitoba (26 partners). In Alberta, 43 percent of the native prairie remains; in Saskatchewan and...

  1. Community markets for conservation: Markets to advance conservation mission

    OpenAIRE

    Fay, J.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the function and economics of COMACO (Community Markets for Conservation), discusses the current reality of climate change, and then explores how possible market mechanism approaches to ameliorating climate change may fit into COMACO's work and research. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  2. Radiation by moving charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geloni, Gianluca; Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni

    2017-04-01

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between ''true'' particle trajectory vector x(t) calculated or measured in

  3. On the structure on non-local conservation laws in the two-dimensional non-linear sigma-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamolodchikov, Al.B.

    1978-01-01

    The non-local conserved charges are supposed to satisfy a special multiplicative law in the space of asymptotic states of the non-linear sigma-model. This supposition leads to factorization equations for two-particle scattering matrix elements and determines to some extent the action of these charges in the asymptotic space. Their conservation turns out to be consistent with the factorized S-matrix of the non-linear sigma-model. It is shown also that the factorized sine-Gordon S-matrix is consistent with a similar family of conservation laws

  4. Initial charge reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyono, Takeshi

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To effectivity burn fuels and improve the economical performance in an inital charge reactor core of BWR type reactors or the likes. Constitution: In a reactor core constituted with a plurality of fuel assemblies which are to be partially replaced upon fuel replacement, the density of the fissionable materials and the moderator - fuel ratio of a fuel assembly is set corresponding to the period till that fuel assembly is replaced, in which the density of the nuclear fissionable materials is lowered and the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly with a shorter period from the fueling to the fuel exchange and, while on the other hand, the density of the fissionable materials is increased and the moderator - fuel ratio is decreased for the fuel assembly with a longer period from the fueling to the replacement. Accordingly, since the moderator - fuel ratio is increased for the fuel assembly to be replaced in a shorter period, the neutrons moderating effect is increased to increase the reactivity. (Horiuchi, T.)

  5. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  6. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordero, Ruben [Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas del I.P.N., Unidad Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 9, 07738 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Molgado, Alberto [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas Zac. (Mexico); Rojas, Efrain, E-mail: cordero@esfm.ipn.mx, E-mail: amolgado@fisica.uaz.edu.mx, E-mail: efrojas@uv.mx [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Fisica e Inteligencia Artificial, Universidad Veracruzana, 91000 Xalapa, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2011-03-21

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  7. Quantum charged rigid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordero, Ruben; Molgado, Alberto; Rojas, Efrain

    2011-01-01

    The early Dirac proposal to model the electron as a charged membrane is reviewed. A rigidity term, instead of the natural membrane tension, involving linearly the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the membrane is considered in the action modeling the bubble in the presence of an electromagnetic field. We set up this model as a genuine second-order derivative theory by considering a non-trivial boundary term which plays a relevant part in our formulation. The Lagrangian in question is linear in the bubble acceleration and by means of the Ostrogradski-Hamiltonian approach, we observed that the theory comprises the management of both first- and second-class constraints. We thus show that our second-order approach is robust allowing for a proper quantization. We found an effective quantum potential which permits us to compute bounded states for the system. We comment on the possibility of describing brane world universes by invoking this kind of second-order correction terms.

  8. Electrical conductivity and charge diffusion in thermal QCD from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Amato, Alessandro [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Giudice, Pietro [Universität Münster, Institut für Theoretische Physik Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Skullerud, Jon-Ivar [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland Maynooth Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2015-02-27

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of the charge diffusion coefficient, the electrical conductivity and various susceptibilities of conserved charges, for a range of temperatures below and above the deconfinement crossover. The calculations include the contributions from up, down and strange quarks. We find that the diffusion coefficient is of the order of 1/(2πT) and has a dip around the crossover temperature. Our results are obtained with lattice simulations containing 2+1 dynamical flavours on anisotropic lattices. The Maximum Entropy Method is used to construct spectral functions from correlators of the conserved vector current.

  9. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  10. Energy conservation in SIMMER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, L.A.; Knowles, J.B.

    1983-11-01

    The SIMMER code contains models of the many interacting thermo-hydraulic processes that occur during a hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA), to provide an overall picture from accident initiation to containment loading. In calculations of roof loadings following the HCDA, errors in computing the overall energy balance were found to be up to ten times the kinetic energy of the sodium slug which creates the loading. On this account, the results were considered to be seriously compromised. This report describes a systematic investigation into the effect, nature and origin of the energy discrepancies. Its main conclusion are that, the errors stem from a systematic rather than a random source, energy errors for individual cells can be two decades larger than the mean value provided by the code, and cellular mass and energy errors are strongly correlated and they can actually increase when the mesh is refined. A likely cause of the conservation errors is identified as the solution of the liquid phase mass and energy equations at effectively different time instants during each timestep. (author)

  11. Charge distributions and correlations in fragmentation models for soft hadron collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, E.A. de

    1984-01-01

    Data on charge distributions and charge correlations in pp and meson-proton interactions at PS and SPS energies are successfully compared with the Lund fragmentation model for low-psub(T) hadron collisions. It is argued that local conservation of quantum numbers and resonance production, as implemented in fragmentation models, are sufficient ingredients to explain most of the available experimental results at these energies. No necessity is found for dual-sheet contributions considered in DTU-based parton models. (orig.)

  12. Multigroup constants for charged particle elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; Perkins, S.T.

    1977-01-01

    Multi-group averaged reaction rates and transfer matrices were calculated for charged particle induced elastic nuclear (plus interference) scattering. Results are presented using a ten group structure for all twenty-five permutations of projectile and target for the following charged particles: p, d, t, 3 He and alpha. Transfer matrices are presented in a simplified form for both incident projectile and the knock-ons; these matrices explicitly conserve energy

  13. Cathodic hydrogen charging of zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagopoulos, C.N.; Georgiou, E.P.; Chaliampalias, D.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Incorporation of hydrogen into zinc and formation of zinc hydrides. •Investigation of surface residual stresses due to hydrogen diffusion. •Effect of hydrogen diffusion and hydride formation on mechanical properties of Zn. •Hydrogen embrittlement phenomena in zinc. -- Abstract: The effect of cathodic hydrogen charging on the structural and mechanical characteristics of zinc was investigated. Hardening of the surface layers of zinc, due to hydrogen incorporation and possible formation of ZnH 2 , was observed. In addition, the residual stresses brought about by the incorporation of hydrogen atoms into the metallic matrix, were calculated by analyzing the obtained X-ray diffraction patterns. Tensile testing of the as-received and hydrogen charged specimens revealed that the ductility of zinc decreased significantly with increasing hydrogen charging time, for a constant value of charging current density, and with increasing charging current density, for a constant value of charging time. However, the ultimate tensile strength of this material was slightly affected by the hydrogen charging procedure. The cathodically charged zinc exhibited brittle transgranular fracture at the surface layers and ductile intergranular fracture at the deeper layers of the material

  14. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  15. Charge transport in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bässler, Heinz; Köhler, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Modern optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes, field-effect transistors and organic solar cells require well controlled motion of charges for their efficient operation. The understanding of the processes that determine charge transport is therefore of paramount importance for designing materials with improved structure-property relationships. Before discussing different regimes of charge transport in organic semiconductors, we present a brief introduction into the conceptual framework in which we interpret the relevant photophysical processes. That is, we compare a molecular picture of electronic excitations against the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger semiconductor band model. After a brief description of experimental techniques needed to measure charge mobilities, we then elaborate on the parameters controlling charge transport in technologically relevant materials. Thus, we consider the influences of electronic coupling between molecular units, disorder, polaronic effects and space charge. A particular focus is given to the recent progress made in understanding charge transport on short time scales and short length scales. The mechanism for charge injection is briefly addressed towards the end of this chapter.

  16. Geometric origin of central charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukierski, J.; Rytel, L.

    1981-05-01

    The complete set of N(N-1) central charge generators for D=4 N-extended super Poincare algebra is obtained by suitable contraction of OSp (2N; 4) superalgebra. The superspace realizations of the spinorial generators with central charges are derived. The conjugate set of N(N-1) additional bosonic superspace coordinates is introduced in an unique and geometric way. (author)

  17. Environmental charges in airline markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik [Goeteborg Univ., Dept. of Economics, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2002-07-01

    Over the last two decades many airline markets have been deregulated, resulting in increased competition and use of different types of networks. At the same time there has been an intense discussion on environmental taxation of airline traffic. It is likely that an optimal environmental charge and the effects of a charge differ between different types of aviation markets. In this paper, we derive optimal flight (environmental) charges for different types of airline markets. The first type of market is a multiproduct monopoly airline operating either a point-to-point network or a hub-and-spoke network. The optimal charge is shown to be similar in construction to an optimal charge for a monopolist. We also compare the environmental impact of the two types of networks. Given no differences in marginal damages between airports we find that an airline will always choose the network with the highest environmental damages. The second type of market we investigate is a multiproduct duopoly, where two airlines compete in both passengers and flights. The formulation of the optimal charge is similar to the optimal charge of a single product oligopoly. However, we also show that it is, because of strategic effects, difficult to determine the effects of the charge on the number of flights. (Author)

  18. Charge Master: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Wenshuai; Itri, Jason

    2016-01-01

    Prices charged for imaging services can be found in the charge master, a catalog of retail list prices for medical goods and services. This article reviews the evolution of reimbursement in the United States and provides a balanced discussion of the factors that influence charge master prices. Reduced payments to hospitals have pressured hospitals to generate additional revenue by increasing charge master prices. An unfortunate consequence is that those least able to pay for health care, the uninsured, are subjected to the highest charges. Yet, differences in pricing also represent an opportunity for radiology practices, which provide imaging services that are larger in scope or superior in quality to promote product differentiation. Physicians, hospital executives, and policy makers need to work together to improve the existing reimbursement system to promote high-quality, low-cost imaging. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Search for free fractional charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilig, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Recent results of searches for free fractional charge have been null with the exception of the experiment at Stanford under the leadership of W. Fairbank. His experiment, while claiming the observation of free fractional charge, has yet to show that this observation was not spurious. The need for a confirming experiment with a different physical system is the motivation for the current work. A torsional pendulum has been constructed of a fused silica fiber with an attached fused silica crossbar. A transverse electric field is applied to the end of the crossbar, and the resulting deflection of the crossbar is used to measure the torque applied by the field. To date the limit of measurement for the charge on the crossbar (without sample) is 0 +/- 24 electronic charges. The history of this experiment is discussed, along with plans for pushing the limits of measurement to below the single-charge level

  20. Concrete: Too young for conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heineman, H.A.; Hees, R.P.J. van; Nijland, T.G.

    2008-01-01

    The 20th century built heritage is one of the new conservation challenges, due to its architectural differences from the traditional heritage and new materials. One major new material is concrete; its quantity and importance for the new heritage requires a tailored conservation approach. Until now,

  1. Habitat modeling for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot

    2006-01-01

    Habitat models address only 1 component of biodiversity but can be useful in addressing and managing single or multiple species and ecosystem functions, for projecting disturbance regimes, and in supporting decisions. I review categories and examples of habitat models, their utility for biodiversity conservation, and their roles in making conservation decisions. I...

  2. Relativistic dynamics without conservation laws

    OpenAIRE

    Rothenstein, Bernhard; Popescu, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    We show that relativistic dynamics can be approached without using conservation laws (conservation of momentum, of energy and of the centre of mass). Our approach avoids collisions that are not easy to teach without mnemonic aids. The derivations are based on the principle of relativity and on its direct consequence, the addition law of relativistic velocities.

  3. Educating Astronauts About Conservation Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the training of astronauts in the interdisciplinary work of conservation biology. The primary responsibility of the conservation biologist at NASA is directing and supporting the photography of the Earth and maintaining the complete database of the photographs. In order to perform this work, the astronauts who take the pictures must be educated in ecological issues.

  4. Is international conservation aid enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-01

    Bare et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 10 125010) ask an important question: is international conservation enough? Since the 1990’s international conservation donors have spent over 3.4 billion on biodiversity conservation related projects in sub-Saharan Africa. Both donors and recipients have a right to know if this is effective. Surprisingly, this question is rarely asked. It is a difficult question—involving many rival social, environmental, and economic explanations. Bare, Kauffman and Miller uncover some interesting associations, supporting existing hypotheses and proposing their own: that conservation aid alone is insufficient to mitigate drivers of deforestation (and in some cases may even exacerbate forest loss). This controversial result warrants further investigation—but what is needed now is nuance and robustness in further analyses, to have more confidence in the critique and it’s implications for international conservation aid.

  5. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  6. Radiation by moving charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, Gianluca [European XFEL GmbH, Hamburg (Germany); Kocharyan, Vitali; Saldin, Evgeni [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    It is generally accepted that in order to describe the dynamics of relativistic particles in the laboratory (lab) frame it is sufficient to take into account the relativistic dependence of the particle momenta on the velocity. This solution of the dynamics problem in the lab frame makes no reference to Lorentz transformations. For this reason they are not discussed in particle tracking calculations in accelerator and plasma physics. It is generally believed that the electrodynamics problem can be treated within the same ''single inertial frame'' description without reference to Lorentz transformations. In particular, in order to evaluate radiation fields arising from charged particles in motion we need to know their velocities and positions as a function of the lab frame time t. The relativistic motion of a particle in the lab frame is described by Newton's second law ''corrected'' for the relativistic dependence of momentum on velocity. It is assumed in all standard derivations that one can perform identification of the trajectories in the source part of the usual Maxwell's equations with the trajectories vector x(t) measured (or calculated by using the corrected Newton's second law) in the lab frame. This way of coupling fields and particles is considered since more than a century as the relativistically correct procedure.We argue that this procedure needs to be changed, and we demonstrate the following, completely counterintuitive statement: the results of conventional theory of radiation by relativistically moving charges are not consistent with the principle of relativity. In order to find the trajectory of a particle in the lab frame consistent with the usual Maxwell's equations, one needs to solve the dynamic equation inmanifestly covariant form by using the coordinate-independent proper time τ to parameterize the particle world-line in space-time. We show that there is a difference between &apos

  7. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoe, Jun-etsu

    1995-01-01

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  8. Optimal conservation of migratory species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara G Martin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Migratory animals comprise a significant portion of biodiversity worldwide with annual investment for their conservation exceeding several billion dollars. Designing effective conservation plans presents enormous challenges. Migratory species are influenced by multiple events across land and sea-regions that are often separated by thousands of kilometres and span international borders. To date, conservation strategies for migratory species fail to take into account how migratory animals are spatially connected between different periods of the annual cycle (i.e. migratory connectivity bringing into question the utility and efficiency of current conservation efforts. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the first framework for determining an optimal conservation strategy for a migratory species. Employing a decision theoretic approach using dynamic optimization, we address the problem of how to allocate resources for habitat conservation for a Neotropical-Nearctic migratory bird, the American redstart Setophaga ruticilla, whose winter habitat is under threat. Our first conservation strategy used the acquisition of winter habitat based on land cost, relative bird density, and the rate of habitat loss to maximize the abundance of birds on the wintering grounds. Our second strategy maximized bird abundance across the entire range of the species by adding the constraint of maintaining a minimum percentage of birds within each breeding region in North America using information on migratory connectivity as estimated from stable-hydrogen isotopes in feathers. We show that failure to take into account migratory connectivity may doom some regional populations to extinction, whereas including information on migratory connectivity results in the protection of the species across its entire range. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate that conservation strategies for migratory animals depend critically upon two factors: knowledge of

  9. Effect of the source charge on charged-boson interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoppa, T. D.; Koonin, S. E.; Seki, R.

    2000-01-01

    We investigate quantal perturbations of the interferometric correlations of charged bosons by the Coulomb field of an instantaneous, charged source. The source charge increases the apparent source size by weakening the correlation at nonzero relative momenta. The effect is strongest for pairs with a small total momentum and is stronger for kaons than for pions of the same momenta. The low-energy data currently available are well described by this effect. A simple expression is proposed to account for the effect. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  10. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  11. Electron-beam-charged dielectrics: Internal charge distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, B. L.; Pine, V. W.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of an electron transport model of the charging of dielectrics due to electron bombardment are compared to measurements of internal charge distributions. The emphasis is on the distribution of Teflon. The position of the charge centroid as a function of time is not monotonic. It first moves deeper into the material and then moves back near to the surface. In most time regimes of interest, the charge distribution is not unimodal, but instead has two peaks. The location of the centroid near saturation is a function of the incident current density. While the qualitative comparison of theory and experiment are reasonable, quantitative comparison shows discrepancies of as much as a factor of two.

  12. Conservation through the economics lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Although conservation is an inherently transdisciplinary issue, there is much to be gained from examining the problem through an economics lens. Three benefits of such an approach are laid out in this paper. First, many of the drivers of environmental degradation are economic in origin, and the better we understand them, the better we can conserve ecosystems by reducing degradation. Second, economics offers us a when-to-stop rule, which is equivalent to a when-to-conserve rule. All economic production is based on the transformation of raw materials provided by nature. As the economic system grows in physical size, it necessarily displaces and degrades ecosystems. The marginal benefits of economic growth are diminishing, and the marginal costs of ecological degradation are increasing. Conceptually, we should stop economic growth and focus on conservation when the two are equal. Third, economics can help us understand how to efficiently and justly allocate resources toward conservation, and this paper lays out some basic principles for doing so. Unfortunately, the field of economics is dominated by neoclassical economics, which builds an analytical framework based on questionable assumptions and takes an excessively disciplinary and formalistic approach. Conservation is a complex problem, and analysis from individual disciplinary lenses can make important contributions to conservation only when the resulting insights are synthesized into a coherent vision of the whole. Fortunately, there are a number of emerging transdisciplines, such as ecological economics and environmental management, that are dedicated to this task.

  13. Making conservation work for everyone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, J. [Veridian Corp., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This presentation discussed the economic value of conservation, the optimal deployment of energy conservation. A sample load profile was presented to demonstrate how much electricity the average residential customer uses on a summer day. The average customer does not have the tools to understand the financial consequences of conservation for different types of equipment at different times of the day. Smart metering technology could help in this regard. Accurate unsubsidized prices are also considered to be the best incentive to conserve because customers will reduce electricity use when the prices are high. It was also suggested that standards for new appliances should be increased effectively to their economic value. The enablers to energy conservation include solid consumer education programs, real time metering in places where it is cost effective, real time pricing in places where it is practical, and power rates that reflect real costs. Barriers to energy conservation include the residual economic advantage that may be insufficient to justify investment; support from local distribution companies and transmission companies if the lost revenue adjustment mechanism (LRAM) is not sufficient to recover lost revenue and if LDCs are not sufficiently involved in the design of the electricity conservation program. 7 figs.

  14. Space, time and conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronov, R.A.; Ugarov, V.A.

    1978-01-01

    The Neter theorem establishing correspondence between conservation laws and symmetry properties (space and time in particular) is considered. The theorem is based on one of the possible ways of finding equations of motion for a physical system. From a certain expression (action functional) equations of motion for a system can be obtained which do not contain new physical assertions in principal in comparison with the Newtonian laws. Neter suggested a way of deriving conservation laws by transforming space and time coordinates. Neter theorem consequences raise a number of problems: 1). Are conservation laws (energy, momentum) consequences of space and time symmetry properties. 2). Is it possible to obtain conservation laws in theory neglecting equations of motion. 3). What is of the primary importance: equations of motion, conservation laws or properties of space and time symmetry. It is shown that direct Neter theorem does not testify to stipulation of conservation laws by properties of space and time symmetry and symmetry properties of other non-space -time properties of material systems in objective reality. It says nothing of whether there is any subordination between symmetry properties and conservation laws

  15. Mistaken identity: activating conservative political identities induces "conservative" financial decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael W; Carranza, Erica; Fox, Craig R

    2008-11-01

    Four studies investigated whether activating a social identity can lead group members to choose options that are labeled in words associated with that identity. When political identities were made salient, Republicans (but not Democrats) became more likely to choose the gamble or investment option labeled "conservative." This shift did not occur in a condition in which the same options were unlabeled. Thus, the mechanism underlying the effect appears to be not activated identity-related values prioritizing low risk, but rather activated identity-related language (the group label "conservative"). Indeed, when political identities were salient, Republicans favored options labeled "conservative" regardless of whether the options were low or high risk. Finally, requiring participants to explain the label "conservative" before making their choice did not diminish the effect, which suggests that it does not merely reflect inattention to content or construct accessibility. We discuss the implications of these results for the literatures on identity, priming, choice, politics, and marketing.

  16. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Private - Volusia County Conservation Corridor

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — The Volusia Conservation Corridor (VCC) is a mosaic of contiguous parcels of land, approximately 55,000 acres in size, which sits essentially in the middle of the...

  17. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  18. Charge density waves in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Gor'kov, LP

    2012-01-01

    The latest addition to this series covers a field which is commonly referred to as charge density wave dynamics.The most thoroughly investigated materials are inorganic linear chain compounds with highly anisotropic electronic properties. The volume opens with an examination of their structural properties and the essential features which allow charge density waves to develop.The behaviour of the charge density waves, where interesting phenomena are observed, is treated both from a theoretical and an experimental standpoint. The role of impurities in statics and dynamics is considered and an

  19. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storozhev, V. B.

    2004-08-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm.

  20. Electrostatic field and charge distribution in small charged dielectric droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storozhev, V.B.

    2004-01-01

    The charge distribution in small dielectric droplets is calculated on the basis of continuum medium approximation. There are considered charged liquid spherical droplets of methanol in the range of nanometer sizes. The problem is solved by the following way. We find the free energy of some ion in dielectric droplet, which is a function of distribution of other ions in the droplet. The probability of location of the ion in some element of volume in the droplet is a function of its free energy in this element of volume. The same approach can be applied to other ions in the droplet. The obtained charge distribution differs considerably from the surface distribution. The curve of the charge distribution in the droplet as a function of radius has maximum near the surface. Relative concentration of charges in the vicinity of the center of the droplet does not equal to zero, and it is the higher, the less is the total charge of the droplet. According to the estimates the model is applicable if the droplet radius is larger than 10 nm

  1. Geographies of Conservation I: De-extinction and Precision Conservation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, William Mark

    2016-01-01

    Extinction has long been a central concern in biodiversity conservation. Today, de-extinction offers interesting possibilities of restoring charismatic species and ecosystem function, but also risks and costs. Most de-extinction depends on genetic engineering and synthetic biology. These technologies are also proposed for use in ‘gene tweaking’ in wild species to enhance their chance of survival. Within conservation, the resulting debates pit an optimistic world of high-tech ‘precision con...

  2. Charge-exchange breakup of the deuteron with the production of two protons and spin structure of the amplitude of the nucleon charge transfer reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glagolev, V.V.; Lyuboshits, V.L.; Lyuboshits, V.V.; Piskunov, N.M.

    1999-01-01

    In the framework of the impulse approximation, the relation between the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron d + a → (pp) + b and the effective cross section of the charge transfer process n + a → p + b is discussed. In doing so, the effects of the proton identity (Fermi-statistics) and of the Coulomb and strong interactions of protons in the final state are taken into account. The distribution over relative momenta of the protons, produced in the charge-exchange process d + p → (pp) + n in the forward direction, is investigated. At the transfer momenta being close to zero the effective cross section of the charge-exchange breakup of a fast deuteron, colliding with the proton target, is determined only by the spin-flip part of the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n at the zero angle. It is shown that the study of the process d + p → (pp) + n in a beam of the polarized (aligned) deuterons allows one, in principle, to separate two spin-dependent terms in the amplitude of the charge transfer reaction n + p → p + n, one of which does not conserve and the other one conserves the projection of the nucleon spin onto the direction of momentum at the transition of the neutron into the proton

  3. Climate, Carbon, Conservation and Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaugn, Kit; Brickell, Emily [WWF-UK (United Kingdom); Roe, Dilys; Reid, Hannah; Elliot, Jo

    2007-07-01

    The growing market for carbon offers great opportunities for linking greenhouse gas mitigation with conservation of forests and biodiversity, and the generation of local livelihoods. For these combined objectives to be achieved, strong governance is needed along with institutions that ensure poor people win, rather than lose out, from the new challenges posed by climate change. This briefing paper explores the opportunities from and limitations to carbon-based funds for conservation and development. It highlights mechanisms that may help secure benefits for climate, conservation and communities.

  4. The conservation of orbital symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, R B

    2013-01-01

    The Conservation of Orbital Symmetry examines the principle of conservation of orbital symmetry and its use. The central content of the principle was that reactions occur readily when there is congruence between orbital symmetry characteristics of reactants and products, and only with difficulty when that congruence does not obtain-or to put it more succinctly, orbital symmetry is conserved in concerted reaction. This principle is expected to endure, whatever the language in which it may be couched, or whatever greater precision may be developed in its application and extension. The book ope

  5. Local Responses to Participatory Conservation in Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadka, Damodar; Nepal, Sanjay K.

    2010-02-01

    Biodiversity conservation has undergone a profound change in philosophy, policies and management approaches over the last forty years. The traditional top-down approach to nature protection has been widely criticized for failing to include critical social elements in management practices, and is being gradually replaced by a slew of participatory strategies under the rubric of bottom-up conservation. The new approach recognizes local communities as key partners in wildlife management and seeks their participation in social development and biodiversity conservation. However, every social context is different in its structure and functions, and in the way social groups respond to calls for participation. In order to gain a better understanding of the approach and the barriers encountered in its implementation, a questionnaire survey of 188 households was employed in the communities of the Upper Mustang extension of Annapurna Conservation Area (ACA) in Nepal. The study provides a comparative analysis of community participation and its barriers between Non-Tourist (NT) and Tourist (TV) villages. The results revealed important differences between the two groups in terms of their participation in community programs, barriers to participation, and perception of benefits from participation. Owing to their distinct spatial, demographic and attitudinal differences, the two village groups have their own sets of needs, values and motivation factors which cannot be generalized and treated as such. The research clearly identifies the need for the conservation agency to be creative in devising strategies and initiatives appropriate to specific social groups so as to optimize their input in participatory conservation.

  6. Influence of kinematic cuts on the net charge distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, Hannah [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Oliinychenko, Dmytro [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Steinheimer, Jan [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Bleicher, Marcus [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Goethe Universität, Max-von-Laue-Str. 1, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    The higher moments of the net charge distributions, e.g. the skewness and kurtosis, are studied within an infinite hadronic matter calculation in a transport approach. By dividing the box into several parts, the volume dependence of the fluctuations is investigated. After confirming that the initial distributions follow the expectations from a binomial distribution, the influence of quantum number conservation in this case the net charge in the system on the higher moments is evaluated. For this purpose, the composition of the hadron gas is adjusted and only pions and ρ mesons are simulated to investigate the charge conservation effect. In addition, the effect of imposing kinematic cuts in momentum space is analysed. The role of resonance excitations and decays on the higher moments can also be studied within this model. This work is highly relevant to understand the experimental measurements of higher moments obtained in the RHIC beam energy scan and their comparison to lattice results and other theoretical calculations assuming infinite matter.

  7. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  8. ESA's tools for internal charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen, J.; Rodgers, D.J.; Ryden, K.A.; Latham, P.M.; Wrenn, G.L.; Levy, L.; Panabiere, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrostatic discharges, caused by bulk charging of spacecraft insulating materials, are a major cause of satellite anomalies. This is a presentation of ESA's tools to assess whether a given structure is liable to experience electrostatic discharges. (authors)

  9. Measurements of W Charge Asymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzbauer, J. L. [Mississippi U.

    2015-10-06

    We discuss W boson and lepton charge asymmetry measurements from W decays in the electron channel, which were made using 9.7 fb$^{-1}$ of RunII data collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. The electron charge asymmetry is presented as a function of pseudo-rapidity out to |$\\eta$| $\\le$ 3.2, in five symmetric and asymmetric kinematic bins of electron transverse momentum and the missing transverse energy of the event. We also give the W charge asymmetry as a function of W boson rapidity. The asymmetries are compared with next-to-leading order perturbative quantum chromodynamics calculations. These charge asymmetry measurements will allow more accurate determinations of the proton parton distribution functions and are the most precise to date.

  10. Charged particle acceleration with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo O, A.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 10 7 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs

  11. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  12. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  13. Sodium vapor charge exchange cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiddleston, H.R.; Fasolo, J.A.; Minette, D.C.; Chrien, R.E.; Frederick, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    An operational sequential charge-exchange ion source yielding a 50 MeV H - current of approximately 8 mA is planned for use with the Argonne 500 MeV booster synchrotron. We report on the progress for development of a sodium vapor charge-exchange cell as part of that planned effort. Design, fabrication, and operating results to date are presented and discussed. (author)

  14. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  15. 118 CONSERVATION NARRATIVES AND CONTESTED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2017-07-01

    Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...

  16. Electric power conservation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollanda, J.B. de

    1989-01-01

    The Brazilian Electric Power Conservation Program (PROCEL) is discussed. The main objective of this program is the optimization of electric power use, including consideration about prices, technology development and legislation. (M.V.M.)

  17. Interactions between charged spherical macroions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.J.; Falk, M.L.; Robbins, M.O.

    1996-01-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were used to study the screened interactions between charged spherical macroions surrounded by discrete counterions, and to test previous theories of screening. The simulations were performed in the primitive cell of the bcc lattice, and in the spherical Wigner endash Seitz cell that is commonly used in approximate calculations. We found that the Wigner endash Seitz approximation is valid even at high volume fractions φ and large macroion charges Z, because the macroion charge becomes strongly screened. Pressures calculated from Poisson endash Boltzmann theory and local density functional theory deviate from MC values as φ and Z increase, but continue to provide upper and lower bounds for the MC results. While Debye endash Hueckel (DH) theory fails badly when the bare charge is used, MC pressures can be fit with an effective DH charge, Z DH , that is nearly independent of volume fraction. As Z diverges, Z DH saturates at zψ max R m /λ, where z is the counterion charge, R m is the macroion radius, λ is the Bjerrum length, and ψ max is a constant of order 10. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  18. Cosmology of a charged universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Proca generalization of electrodynamics admits the possibility that the universe could possess a net electric charge uniformly distributed throughout space, while possessing no electric field. A charged intergalactic (and intragalactic) medium of this kind could contain enough energy to be of cosmological importance. A general-relativistic model of cosmological expansion dominated by such a charged background has been calculated, and is consistent with present observational limits on the Hubble constant, the decleration parameter, and the age of the universe. However, if this cosmology applied at the present epoch, the very early expansion of the universe would have been much more rapid than in conventional ''big bang'' cosmologies, too rapid for cosmological nucleosynthesis or thermalization of the background radiation to have occurred. Hence, domination of the present expansion by background charge appears to be incompatible with the 3 K background and big-bang production of light elements. If the present background charge density were sufficiently small (but not strictly zero), expansion from the epoch of nucleosynthesis would proceed according to the conventional scenario, but the energy due to the background charge would have dominated at some earlier epoch. This last possibility leads to equality of pressure and energy density in the primordial universe, a condition of special significance in certain cosmological theories

  19. Enabling fast charging - Vehicle considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meintz, Andrew; Zhang, Jiucai; Vijayagopal, Ram; Kreutzer, Cory; Ahmed, Shabbir; Bloom, Ira; Burnham, Andrew; Carlson, Richard B.; Dias, Fernando; Dufek, Eric J.; Francfort, James; Hardy, Keith; Jansen, Andrew N.; Keyser, Matthew; Markel, Anthony; Michelbacher, Christopher; Mohanpurkar, Manish; Pesaran, Ahmad; Scoffield, Don; Shirk, Matthew; Stephens, Thomas; Tanim, Tanvir

    2017-11-01

    To achieve a successful increase in the plug-in battery electric vehicle (BEV) market, it is anticipated that a significant improvement in battery performance is required to increase the range that BEVs can travel and the rate at which they can be recharged. While the range that BEVs can travel on a single recharge is improving, the recharge rate is still much slower than the refueling rate of conventional internal combustion engine vehicles. To achieve comparable recharge times, we explore the vehicle considerations of charge rates of at least 400 kW. Faster recharge is expected to significantly mitigate the perceived deficiencies for long-distance transportation, to provide alternative charging in densely populated areas where overnight charging at home may not be possible, and to reduce range anxiety for travel within a city when unplanned charging may be required. This substantial increase in charging rate is expected to create technical issues in the design of the battery system and the vehicle's electrical architecture that must be resolved. This work focuses on vehicle system design and total recharge time to meet the goals of implementing improved charge rates and the impacts of these expected increases on system voltage and vehicle components.

  20. Dictionary of applied energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kut, D

    1982-01-01

    The escalating cost of energy is drawing an ever increasing number of people into the planning and execution of energy conservation measures and programs and confronts them with the specialist terminology of the conservationist. The object of this illustrated dictionary is to list the generality of terms employed in energy conservation practice and to explain, with the aid of appropriate illustrations, the basic definitions and underlying techniques.

  1. Energy conservation. Ambitions and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    From results of monitoring it is shown that energy conservation in the Netherlands is behind the ambitions of the Dutch government. The Dutch Court of Audit examined the reasons why energy conservation targets are not met and what the consequences are for the national and European energy and climate goals for 2020. Also the Dutch Court of Audit looked at the possibilities to make energy saving policies more effective. [nl

  2. A Novel Methodology for Charging Station Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yunwei; He, Yueying; Li, Mingzhe

    2018-02-01

    Lack of charging stations has been a main obstacle to the promotion of electric vehicles. This paper studies deploying charging stations in traffic networks considering grid constraints to balance the charging demand and grid stability. First, we propose a statistical model for charging demand. Then we combine the charging demand model with power grid constraints and give the formulation of the charging station deployment problem. Finally, we propose a theoretical solution for the problem by transforming it to a Markov Decision Process.

  3. Energy conservation, efficiency and energy audit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the author discusses the conservation, efficiency, audit, fundamentals, differences and methods, the objectives of energy conservation, definitions of energy audit, scope, short term, medium term and long term measures to be taken for conservation are discussed

  4. Conservation genetics of Iberian raptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez–Cruz, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I provide an overview of conservation genetics and describe the management actions in the wild that can benefit from conservation genetic studies. I describe the genetic factors of risk for the survival of wild species, the consequences of loss of genetic diversity, inbreeding and outbreeding depression, and the use of genetic tools to delimitate units of conservation. Then I introduce the most common applications of conservation genetics in the management of wild populations. In a second part of the paper I review the conservation genetic studies carried on the Iberian raptors. I introduce several studies on the Spanish imperial eagle, the bearded vulture, the black vulture and the red kite that were carried out using autosomal microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequencing. I describe studies on the lesser kestrel and Egyptian vulture that additionally applied major histocompatibility complex (MHC markers, with the purpose of incorporating the study of non–neutral variation. For every species I explain how these studies can be and/or are applied in the strategy of conservation in the wild.

  5. Rapid charging of nickel-cadmium accumulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruck, F

    1972-01-01

    Four types of charging of gas-tight Ni-Cd accumulators (a) normal; (b) accelerated; (c) rapid; and (d) ultra-rapid are described. For rapid charging, a built-in temperature sensor cuts off charging current at a prescribed point. In ultra-rapid charging, 50% charge can be attained in 3.5 min. and 25% charge within 50 sec. In the second phase of ultra-rapid charging, a surplus of oxygen is released at the positive electrode and a safety valve is provided for pressure reduction. Characteristic curves are given for various rates of charging and some data on discharge rates is also given.

  6. The Poisson algebra of the invariant charges of the Nambu-Goto theory: Casimir elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmeyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    The reparametrization invariant ''non-local'' conserved charges of the Nambu-Goto theory form an algebra under Poisson bracket operation. The center of the formal closure of this algebra is determined. The relation of the central elements to the constraints of the Nambu-Goto theory is clarified. (orig.)

  7. The classical equations of motion for a spinning point particle with charge and magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, E.G.P.; Rowe, G.T.

    1987-01-01

    The classical, special relativistic equations of motion are derived for a spinning point particle interacting with the electromagnetic field through its charge and magnetic moment. Radiation reaction is included. The energy tensors for the particle and for the field are developed as well-defined distributions; consequently no infinities appear. The magnitude of spin and the rest mass are conserved. (orig.)

  8. Three-parameter relativistic dynamics. 1. Equation of motion, energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogachevskii, A.G.

    1995-01-01

    A formally geometric analog of the relativistic dynamics of a point charged particle is constructed. Time as a function of the spatial coordinates is taken as the trajectory equation, i.e., the trajectory is a hypersurface in Minkowski space. The dynamics is presented. The law of open-quotes energyclose quotes conservation is examined

  9. Management of the spotted owl: a case history in conservation biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    B.R. Noon; K.S. McKelvey

    1996-01-01

    Official conservation efforts for the northern spotted owl began in the United States in 1975 when it was declared “threatened” in the state of Oregon; efforts continued in a sporadic and unsystematic way through the 1980s. In 1989 the Interagency Scientific Committee (ISC) was established by Congress and charged with the development of a scientifically defensible...

  10. Tuned and Balanced Redistributed Charge Scheme for Combined Quantum Mechanical and Molecular Mechanical (QM/MM) Methods and Fragment Methods: Tuning Based on the CM5 Charge Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2013-02-12

    Tuned and balanced redistributed charge schemes have been developed for modeling the electrostatic fields of bonds that are cut by a quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical boundary in combined quantum mechanical and molecular mechanical (QM/MM) methods. First, the charge is balanced by adjusting the charge on the MM boundary atom to conserve the total charge of the entire QM/MM system. In the balanced smeared redistributed charge (BSRC) scheme, the adjusted MM boundary charge is smeared with a smearing width of 1.0 Å and is distributed in equal portions to the midpoints of the bonds between the MM boundary atom and the MM atoms bonded to it; in the balanced redistributed charge-2 (BRC2) scheme, the adjusted MM boundary charge is distributed as point charges in equal portions to the MM atoms that are bonded to the MM boundary atom. The QM subsystem is capped by a fluorine atom that is tuned to reproduce the sum of partial atomic charges of the uncapped portion of the QM subsystem. The new aspect of the present study is a new way to carry out the tuning process; in particular, the CM5 charge model, rather than the Mulliken population analysis applied in previous studies, is used for tuning the capping atom that terminates the dangling bond of the QM region. The mean unsigned error (MUE) of the QM/MM deprotonation energy for a 15-system test suite of deprotonation reactions is 2.3 kcal/mol for the tuned BSRC scheme (TBSRC) and 2.4 kcal/mol for the tuned BRC2 scheme (TBRC2). As was the case for the original tuning method based on Mulliken charges, the new tuning method performs much better than using conventional hydrogen link atoms, which have an MUE on this test set of about 7 kcal/mol. However, the new scheme eliminates the need to use small basis sets, which can be problematic, and it allows one to be more consistent by tuning the parameters with whatever basis set is appropriate for applications. (Alternatively, since the tuning parameters and partial charges

  11. Evaluating local benefits from conservation in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepal, Sanjay K

    2008-09-01

    Protected areas are integral to the global effort to conserve biodiversity, and, over the past two decades, protected area managers have begun to recognize that conservation objectives are next to impossible to achieve without considering the needs and concerns of local communities. Incentive-based programs (IBPs) have become a favored approach to protected area management, geared at fostering local stewardship by delivering benefits tied to conservation to local people. Effective IBPs require benefits to accrue to and be recognized by those experiencing the greatest consequences as a result of the protected area, and those likely to continue extractive activities if their livelihood needs are compromised. This research examines dispersal of IBP benefits, as perceived by local residents in Nepal's Annapurna Conservation Area. Results reported here are based on questionnaire interviews with 188 households conducted between September and December 2004. Results indicate that local residents primarily identify benefits from social development activities, provisions for resource extraction, and economic opportunities. Overall, benefits have been dispersed equally to households in villages on and off the main tourist route, and regardless of a household's participation in tourism. However, benefits are not effectively targeted to poorer residents, those highly dependent on natural resources, and those experiencing the most crop damage and livestock loss from protected wildlife. This article provides several suggestions for improving the delivery of conservation incentives.

  12. Constructing Conservation Impact: Understanding Monitoring and Evaluation in Conservation NGOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Benson Wahlén

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of scholars critically examine large conservation organisations to explore organisational intentions, practices, and outcomes. In parallel, other scholars have problematised audit cultures, suggesting that these seemingly good practices of evaluation and measurement are not neutral and instead have consequences for governance and power. This article combines literature on conservation NGOs, organisational theory, and audit culture to study the inner workings of conservation and to understand the construction of effectiveness and impact. I draw on semi-structured interviews to examine how a large, international conservation organisation, which I term the World Conservation Organisation (WCO; a pseudonym, coordinates monitoring and evaluation (M&E processes among its international, national, and local offices. I find individual staff within WCO make varying assumptions about the M&E policies and place different values on M&E, which results in different institutional logics towards M&E and a broader organisational failure to measure progress and reflect upon outcomes. The findings also show difficulties in translating broad organisational goals into specific project activities, underscoring tensions in implementation and limitations in M&E practice. I also find that organisational and managerial pressure to report success is greater than donor pressure, a finding that expands understandings of NGO-donor dynamics.

  13. Local conservation law and dark radiation in cosmological braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamitsuji, Masato; Sasaki, Misao

    2004-01-01

    In the context of the Randall-Sundrum (RS) single-brane scenario, we discuss the bulk geometry and dynamics of a cosmological brane in terms of the local energy conservation law which exists for the bulk that allows slicing with a maximally symmetric three-space. This conservation law enables us to define a local mass in the bulk. We show that there is a unique generalization of the dark radiation on the brane, which is given by the local mass. We find there also exists a conserved current associated with the Weyl tensor, and the corresponding local charge, which we call the Weyl charge, is given by the sum of the local mass and a certain linear combination of the components of the bulk energy-momentum tensor. This expression of the Weyl charge relates the local mass to the projected Weyl tensor, E μν , which plays a central role in the geometrical formalism of the RS braneworld. On the brane, in particular, this gives a decomposition of the projected Weyl tensor into the local mass and the bulk energy-momentum tensor. Then, as an application of these results, we consider a null dust model for the bulk energy-momentum tensor and discuss the black hole formation in the bulk. We investigate the causal structure by identifying the locus of the apparent horizon and clarify possible brane trajectories in the bulk. We find that the brane stays always outside the black hole as long as it is expanding. We also find an upper bound on the value of the Hubble parameter in terms of the matter energy density on the brane, irrespective of the energy flux emitted from the brane

  14. Charge-exchange collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grozdanov, T.P.; Janev, R.K.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of electron transfer between neutral atoms and multiply charged ions is considered at low and medium energies. It is assumed that a large number of final states are available for the electron transition so that the electron-capture process is treated as a tunnel effect caused by the strong attractive Coulomb field of the multicharged ions. The electron transition probability is obtained in a closed form using the modified-comparison-equation method to solve the Schroedinger equation. An approximately linear dependence of the one-electron transfer cross section on the charge of multicharged ion is found. Cross-section calculations of a number of charge-exchange reactions are performed

  15. Charge balancing and the fall off of the ridge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bożek, Piotr [AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Broniowski, Wojciech [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, ul. Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Krakow (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jan Kochanowski University, 25-406 Kielce (Poland)

    2013-05-02

    Two-dimensional correlation functions in Δη – Δϕ for charged hadrons emitted in heavy-ion collisions are calculated in event-by-event hydrodynamics. With the Glauber model for the initial density distributions in the transverse plane and elongated density profiles in the longitudinal direction, the flow patterns in the azimuthal angle of the two-dimensional correlation function are properly reproduced. We show that the additional fall-off of the same-side ridge in the longitudinal direction can be explained as an effect of local charge conservation at a late stage of the evolution. This additional non-flow effect increases the harmonic flow coefficients for the unlike-sign particle pairs.

  16. Evaluation of presenting conserved foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asl Soleimani H

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Food, it's production and preserving has been one of the most important problems in human life. Limitation of production due to climatic, geographic and papulational situations and conservation due to providance and prosecting for solution of one of the most fundamental human needs, has been discussed much. Difference between the lands, temperature, humidity and rainfall on one hand and texture and accumulation of papulation on the other hand, not only has limited the amount and kind of food production but also has improved the preserving methods as much as possible. Extra production in fertile lands and confirmed need for receiving food in deserts and dry areas, makes the need of exchanging and transfer of food inevitable because of economic and ethical matters and sanitation of food. Avoidance of being contaminated and resistance against decay seems very important and vital. So process of preserving and conserving of eaw or cooked food became a fundamental problem. In previous 200 years, many advanced methods have been designed for preserving food in which the role of conserving and packing in vital often. Because of industrial production, conserved food have a great influence on sanitation of people nutrition, and herefor the rate of diseases from consumption of contaminated food has been reduced in industrial countries and the tensancy of people to use conventional food has been decreased gradually. Because of high cost of industrial conserved food production some people produce conserved foods in the way which is not hygienic. That may have a high risk when ingested. In this article we discuss about unwarranted conserved foods productions.

  17. Domain architecture conservation in orthologs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background As orthologous proteins are expected to retain function more often than other homologs, they are often used for functional annotation transfer between species. However, ortholog identification methods do not take into account changes in domain architecture, which are likely to modify a protein's function. By domain architecture we refer to the sequential arrangement of domains along a protein sequence. To assess the level of domain architecture conservation among orthologs, we carried out a large-scale study of such events between human and 40 other species spanning the entire evolutionary range. We designed a score to measure domain architecture similarity and used it to analyze differences in domain architecture conservation between orthologs and paralogs relative to the conservation of primary sequence. We also statistically characterized the extents of different types of domain swapping events across pairs of orthologs and paralogs. Results The analysis shows that orthologs exhibit greater domain architecture conservation than paralogous homologs, even when differences in average sequence divergence are compensated for, for homologs that have diverged beyond a certain threshold. We interpret this as an indication of a stronger selective pressure on orthologs than paralogs to retain the domain architecture required for the proteins to perform a specific function. In general, orthologs as well as the closest paralogous homologs have very similar domain architectures, even at large evolutionary separation. The most common domain architecture changes observed in both ortholog and paralog pairs involved insertion/deletion of new domains, while domain shuffling and segment duplication/deletion were very infrequent. Conclusions On the whole, our results support the hypothesis that function conservation between orthologs demands higher domain architecture conservation than other types of homologs, relative to primary sequence conservation. This supports the

  18. Coulomb energy of uniformly charged spheroidal shell systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhao, Vikram; Yao, Zhenwei; Thomas, Creighton K; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

    2015-03-01

    We provide exact expressions for the electrostatic energy of uniformly charged prolate and oblate spheroidal shells. We find that uniformly charged prolate spheroids of eccentricity greater than 0.9 have lower Coulomb energy than a sphere of the same area. For the volume-constrained case, we find that a sphere has the highest Coulomb energy among all spheroidal shells. Further, we derive the change in the Coulomb energy of a uniformly charged shell due to small, area-conserving perturbations on the spherical shape. Our perturbation calculations show that buckling-type deformations on a sphere can lower the Coulomb energy. Finally, we consider the possibility of counterion condensation on the spheroidal shell surface. We employ a Manning-Oosawa two-state model approximation to evaluate the renormalized charge and analyze the behavior of the equilibrium free energy as a function of the shell's aspect ratio for both area-constrained and volume-constrained cases. Counterion condensation is seen to favor the formation of spheroidal structures over a sphere of equal area for high values of shell volume fractions.

  19. Charge distribution in the ternary fragmentation of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil Kannan, M.T.; Balasubramaniam, M. [Bharathiar University, Department of Physics, Coimbatore (India)

    2017-08-15

    We present here, for the first time, a study on ternary fragmentation charge distribution of {sup 252}Cf using the convolution integral method and the statistical theory. The charge distribution for all possible charge combinations of a ternary breakup are grouped as a bin containing different mass partitions. Different bins corresponding to various third fragments with mass numbers from A{sub 3} = 16 to 84 are identified with the available experimental masses. The corresponding potential energy surfaces are calculated using the three cluster model for the two arrangements A{sub 1} + A{sub 2} + A{sub 3} and A{sub 1} + A{sub 3} + A{sub 2}. The ternary fragmentation yield values are calculated for the ternary combination from each bin possessing minimum potential energy. The yields of the resulting ternary combinations as a function of the charge numbers of the three fragments are analyzed for both the arrangements. The calculations are carried out at different excitation energies of the parent nucleus. For each excitation energy the temperature of the three fragments are iteratively computed conserving the total energy. The distribution of fragment temperatures corresponding to different excitation energies for some fixed third fragments are discussed. The presence of the closed shell nucleus Sn in the favourable ternary fragmentation is highlighted. (orig.)

  20. Microscopic dynamics of charge separation at the aqueous electrochemical interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattirtzi, John A; Limmer, David T; Willard, Adam P

    2017-12-19

    We have used molecular simulation and methods of importance sampling to study the thermodynamics and kinetics of ionic charge separation at a liquid water-metal interface. We have considered this process using canonical examples of two different classes of ions: a simple alkali-halide pair, Na + I - , or classical ions, and the products of water autoionization, H 3 O + OH - , or water ions. We find that for both ion classes, the microscopic mechanism of charge separation, including water's collective role in the process, is conserved between the bulk liquid and the electrode interface. However, the thermodynamic and kinetic details of the process differ between these two environments in a way that depends on ion type. In the case of the classical ion pairs, a higher free-energy barrier to charge separation and a smaller flux over that barrier at the interface result in a rate of dissociation that is 40 times slower relative to the bulk. For water ions, a slightly higher free-energy barrier is offset by a higher flux over the barrier from longer lived hydrogen-bonding patterns at the interface, resulting in a rate of association that is similar both at and away from the interface. We find that these differences in rates and stabilities of charge separation are due to the altered ability of water to solvate and reorganize in the vicinity of the metal interface.

  1. Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2017-11-01

    The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.

  2. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yang; Zhou, Zhaoqi; Sun, Yajuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  3. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhaoqi [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Yajuan, E-mail: sunyj@lsec.cc.ac.cn [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-02-12

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  4. Charge- and transverse momentum dependence of correlations in proton-proton interactions at very high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W.

    1977-07-01

    The charge- and momentum dependence of correlations between secondaries emitted in pp-collisions at √s = 52 GeV was investigated using the Split-Field-Magnet spectrometer at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR). For nondiffractive inelastic events the central particle production is characterized by local conservation of charge and global compensation of transverse momenta. Strong short range correlations due to cluster decay and Bose-Einstein effects are observed. A consistent description of the correlations is given in the framework of cluster models. Local conservation of charge is also detected in events, where a particle of high transverse momentum is produced. The observations are in good agreement with the predictions of a simple quark parton model. (orig.) [de

  5. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A conservative Fourier pseudospectral algorithm for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Jia-Xiang; Wang Yu-Shun

    2013-01-01

    We derive a new method for a coupled nonlinear Schrödinger system by using the square of first-order Fourier spectral differentiation matrix D 1 instead of traditional second-order Fourier spectral differentiation matrix D 2 to approximate the second derivative. We prove the proposed method preserves the charge and energy conservation laws exactly. In numerical tests, we display the accuracy of numerical solution and the role of the nonlinear coupling parameter in cases of soliton collisions. Numerical experiments also exhibit the excellent performance of the method in preserving the charge and energy conservation laws. These numerical results verify that the proposed method is both a charge-preserving and an energy-preserving algorithm

  7. Symmetry and conservation laws in particle physics in the fifties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper puzzles over why symmetry, so central to particle physics today, was so little attended to in the 1950s when the need for it was becoming profound, with the notion of parity violation and other break-downs in conservation laws, such as angular momentum and charge conjugation. Group theory, including Lie groups, would also have helped understanding of the particle physics discoveries of the 1950s such as strange particles, resonances, and associated production. They were adopted ten years too late by the physics community. (UK)

  8. Quark flavour conserving violations of the lepton number

    CERN Document Server

    Binétruy, Pierre; Lavignac, Stephane; Savoy, C A

    1998-01-01

    We study supersymmetric models of lepton and baryon number violation based on an abelian family gauge group. Due to possible lepton-Higgs mixing, the lepton violating couplings are related to the Yukawa couplings and may be generated by them even if they were absent in the original theory. Such terms may be dominant and are not given by the naive family charge counting rules. This enhancement mechanism can provide an alignment between lepton-number violating terms and Yukawa couplings: as a result they conserve quark flavour. A natural way of suppressing baryon number violation in this class of models is also proposed.

  9. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  10. Nuclear fuel pellet charging device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komuro, Kojiro.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention concerns a nuclear fuel pellet loading device, in which nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged from an open end of a fuel can while rotating the can. That is, a fuel can sealed at one end with an end plug and opened at the other end is rotated around its pipe axis as the center on a rotationally diriving table. During rotation of the fuel can, nuclear fuel pellets are successively charged by means of a feed rod of a feeding device to the inside of the fuel can. The fuel can is rotated while being supported horizontally and the fuel pellets are charged from the open end thereof. Alternatively, the fuel can is rotated while being supported obliquely and the fuel pellets are charged gravitationally into the fuel can. In this way, the damages to the barrier of the fuel can can be reduce. Further, since the fuel pellets can be charged gravitationally by rotating the fuel can while being supported obliquely, the damages to the barrier can be reduced remarkably. (I.S.)

  11. Diffusive charge transport in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhao

    The physical mechanisms limiting the mobility of graphene on SiO 2 are studied and printed graphene devices on a flexible substrate are realized. Intentional addition of charged scattering impurities is used to study the effects of charged impurities. Atomic-scale defects are created by noble-gas ions irradiation to study the effect of unitary scatterers. The results show that charged impurities and atomic-scale defects both lead to conductivity linear in density in graphene, with a scattering magnitude that agrees quantitatively with theoretical estimates. While charged impurities cause intravalley scattering and induce a small change in the minimum conductivity, defects in graphene scatter electrons between the valleys and suppress the minimum conductivity below the metallic limit. Temperature-dependent measurements show that longitudinal acoustic phonons in graphene produce a small resistivity which is linear in temperature and independent of carrier density; at higher temperatures, polar optical phonons of the SiO2 substrate give rise to an activated, carrier density-dependent resistivity. Graphene is also made into high mobility transparent and flexible field effect device via the transfer-printing method. Together the results paint a complete picture of charge carrier transport in graphene on SiO2 in the diffusive regime, and show the promise of graphene as a novel electronic material that have potential applications not only on conventional inorganic substrates, but also on flexible substrates.

  12. Conservation and non-conservation in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1990-01-01

    The difficulties of conservation laws in general relativity are discussed, with special reference to the non-tangible nature of gravitational energy and its transformation into tangible forms of energy. Inductive transfer of energy is marked out as wholly distinct from wave transfer. Slow (adiabatic) changes are utilized to make clear, in the axi-symmetric case, that the mass of an isolated body is conserved irrespective of any local changes (e.g. of shape) and that in inductive transfer the movement of energy between two bodies can readily be traced by the changes in their masses. (author)

  13. The role of angular momentum conservation law in statistical mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Dubrovskii

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the limits of Khinchin ideas [A.Y. Khinchin, Mathematical Foundation of Statistical Mechanics. NY, Ed. Dover, 1949] the importance of momentum and angular momentum conservation laws was analyzed for two cases: for uniform magnetic field and when magnetic field is absent. The law of momentum conservation does not change the density of probability distribution in both cases, just as it is assumed in the conventional theory. It is shown that in systems where the kinetic energy depends only on particle momenta canonically conjugated with Cartesian coordinates being their diagonal quadric form,the angular momentum conservation law changes the density of distribution of the system only in case the full angular momentum of a system is not equal to zero. In the gas of charged particles in a uniform magnetic field the density of distribution also varies if the angular momentum is zero [see Dubrovskii I.M., Condensed Matter Physics, 2206, 9, 23]. Two-dimensional gas of charged particles located within a section of an endless strip filled with gas in magnetic field is considered. Under such conditions the angular momentum is not conserved. Directional particle flows take place close to the strip boundaries, and, as a consequence, the phase trajectory of the considered set of particles does not remain within the limited volume of the phase space. In order to apply a statistical thermodynamics method, it was suggested to consider near-boundary trajectories relative to a reference system that moves uniformly. It was shown that if the diameter of an orbit having average thermal energy is much smaller than a strip width, the corrections to thermodynamic functions are small depending on magnetic field. Only the average velocity of near-boundary particles that form near-boundary electric currents creating the paramagnetic moment turn out to be essential.

  14. Conserving and managing the subnivium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerberg, Benjamin; Pauli, Jonathan N

    2018-02-08

    In regions where snowfall historically has been a defining seasonal characteristic of the landscape, warming winters have reduced the depth, duration, and extent of snowpack. However, most management and conservation has focused on how aboveground wildlife will be affected by altered snow conditions, even though the majority of species that persist through the winter do so under the snowpack in a thermally stable refugium: the subnivium. Shortened winters, forest management practices, and winter recreation can alter subnivium conditions by increasing snow compaction and compromising thermal stability at the soil-snow interface. To help slow the loss of the subnivium in the face of rapidly changing winter conditions, we suggest managers adopt regional conservation plans for identifying threatened snow-covered environments; measure and predict the effects land cover and habitat management has on local subnivium conditions; and control the timing and distribution of activities that disturb and compact snow cover (e.g., silvicultural practices, snow recreation, and road and trail maintenance). As a case study, we developed a spatially explicit model of subnivium presence in a working landscape of the Chequamegon National Forest, Wisconsin. We identified landscapes where winter recreation and management practices could threaten potentially important areas for subnivium persistence. Similar modeling approaches could inform management decisions related to subnivium conservation. Current climate projections predict that snow seasons will change rapidly in many regions, and as result, we advocate for the immediate recognition, conservation, and management of the subnivium and its dependent species. © 2018 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Coulomb interactions in charged fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernizzi, Graziano; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; de la Cruz, Monica Olvera

    2011-07-01

    The use of Ewald summation schemes for calculating long-range Coulomb interactions, originally applied to ionic crystalline solids, is a very common practice in molecular simulations of charged fluids at present. Such a choice imposes an artificial periodicity which is generally absent in the liquid state. In this paper we propose a simple analytical O(N(2)) method which is based on Gauss's law for computing exactly the Coulomb interaction between charged particles in a simulation box, when it is averaged over all possible orientations of a surrounding infinite lattice. This method mitigates the periodicity typical of crystalline systems and it is suitable for numerical studies of ionic liquids, charged molecular fluids, and colloidal systems with Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations.

  16. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  17. Alternator control for battery charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  18. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid...... method where distribution system operator (DSO) optimizes the cost of EV charging while taking substation transformer capacity into account....

  19. Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T.; Merlet, Céline; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A.; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers, in particular, an efficient, accurate, and physically insightful route to the differential capacitance that is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.

  20. Charge fluctuations in nanoscale capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David T; Merlet, Céline; Salanne, Mathieu; Chandler, David; Madden, Paul A; van Roij, René; Rotenberg, Benjamin

    2013-09-06

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with histogram reweighting techniques. This approach offers, in particular, an efficient, accurate, and physically insightful route to the differential capacitance that is broadly applicable. We demonstrate these methods with three different capacitors: pure water between platinum electrodes and a pure as well as a solvent-based organic electrolyte each between graphite electrodes. The total charge distributions with the pure solvent and solvent-based electrolytes are remarkably Gaussian, while in the pure ionic liquid the total charge distribution displays distinct non-Gaussian features, suggesting significant potential-driven changes in the organization of the interfacial fluid.

  1. 10 CFR 904.7 - Base charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base charge. 904.7 Section 904.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Marketing § 904.7 Base charge. (a) The Base Charge shall be developed by the Administrator and promulgated in accordance with appropriate DOE regulations. The Base Charge shall be composed of a capacity...

  2. On the forces acting on radiating charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatrian, B.V.

    2001-01-01

    It is shown that the force acting on a radiating charge is stipulated by two reasons- owing to exchange of a momentum between the radiating charge and electromagnetic field of radiation, and also between the charge and field accompanying the charge. 7 refs

  3. 75 FR 7411 - Schedule of Water Charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 410 Schedule of Water Charges AGENCY: Delaware River... Administrative Manual--Part III--Basin Regulations--Water Supply Charges to revise the schedule of water charges... commenter and the subject line ``Schedule of Water Charges.'' FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, CONTACT: Please...

  4. Quality control in breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, G.F.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past 15 years, breast conservation has become an accepted option for treatment of Stages I and II carcinoma of the breast; in this practice in 1991, more than 80% of these patients were treated in this manner. A surgical procedure to excise the primary lesion and to dissect the axilla is generally required to prepare patients for breast conservation, concurrently maximizing esthetic appearance of the breast, minimizing the risk of local recurrence and providing appropriate information for recommendations concerning adjuvant therapy. The volume of breast tissue to be removed, significance of findings at surgical margins, and extent of the axillary dissection are all somewhat controversial subjects. Based upon a personal series of almost 800 patients undergoing breast conservation, observations that reflect the findings from this experience may be shared. (author)

  5. The Conservation Ideological State Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared D Margulies

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers Louis Althusser's theory of the ideological state apparatuses (ISAs for advancing political ecology scholarship on the functioning of the state in violent environments. I reflect on a series of events in which a state forest department in South India attempted to recast violent conflicts between themselves and local communities over access to natural resources and a protected area as a debate over human-wildlife conflicts. Through the example of conservation as ideology in Wayanad, Kerala, I show how the ISAs articulate the functioning of ideology within the state apparatuses in order for us to understand the larger mechanics of the state apparatus and the reproduction of the relations of production necessary for the reproduction of capitalism. Revisiting the ISAs as a theoretical framework for studies in political ecology and conservation is timely given the resurgence of militarised conservation tactics, the emancipatory aims of Althusser's theory, and political ecology's turn towards praxis.

  6. Understanding and managing conservation conflicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redpath, Steve M; Young, Juliette; Evely, Anna; Adams, William M; Sutherland, William J; Whitehouse, Andrew; Amar, Arjun; Lambert, Robert A; Linnell, John D C; Watt, Allan; Gutiérrez, R J

    2013-02-01

    Conservation conflicts are increasing and need to be managed to minimise negative impacts on biodiversity, human livelihoods, and human well-being. Here, we explore strategies and case studies that highlight the long-term, dynamic nature of conflicts and the challenges to their management. Conflict management requires parties to recognise problems as shared ones, and engage with clear goals, a transparent evidence base, and an awareness of trade-offs. We hypothesise that conservation outcomes will be less durable when conservationists assert their interests to the detriment of others. Effective conflict management and long-term conservation benefit will be enhanced by better integration of the underpinning social context with the material impacts and evaluation of the efficacy of alternative conflict management approaches. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Charge densities and charge noise in mesoscopic conductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This generalization leads to a local Wigner–Smith life-time matrix. Keywords. Density ... Of interest is the charge distribution in such a conductor and ..... is the transmission probability of the scattering problem without absorption if .... as a voltage probe which has its potential adjusted in such a way that there is no net current.

  8. Equilibrium configurations of tripolar charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yershov, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that an ensemble of particles with tripolar (color) charges will necessarily cohere in a hierarchy of structures, from simple clusters and strings to complex aggregates and cyclic molecule-like structures. The basic combinatoric rule remains essentially the same on different levels of the hierarchy, thus leading to a pattern of resemblance between different levels. The number of primitive charges in each structure is determined by the symmetry of the combined effective potential of this structure. The outlined scheme can serve as a framework for building a model of composite fundamental fermions. (author)

  9. Energy conservation and the principle of equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugan, M.P.

    1979-01-01

    If the equivalence principle is violated, then observers performing local experiments can detect effects due to their position in an external gravitational environment (preferred-location effects) or can detect effects due to their velocity through some preferred frame (preferred frame effects). We show that the principle of energy conservation implies a quantitative connection between such effects and structure-dependence of the gravitational acceleration of test bodies (violation of the Weak Equivalence Principle). We analyze this connection within a general theoretical framework that encompasses both non-gravitational local experiments and test bodies as well as gravitational experiments and test bodies, and we use it to discuss specific experimental tests of the equivalence principle, including non-gravitational tests such as gravitational redshift experiments, Eoetvoes experiments, the Hughes-Drever experiment, and the Turner-Hill experiment, and gravitational tests such as the lunar-laser-ranging ''Eoetvoes'' experiment, and measurements of anisotropies and variations in the gravitational constant. This framework is illustrated by analyses within two theoretical formalisms for studying gravitational theories: the PPN formalism, which deals with the motion of gravitating bodies within metric theories of gravity, and the THepsilonμ formalism that deals with the motion of charged particles within all metric theories and a broad class of non-metric theories of gravity

  10. The Third Wave. . . America's New Conservation, Conservation Yearbook No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    Concerned first with the definition of conservation and its problems, and then with specific actions by the Department of the Interior in response to these problems, this 1966 yearbook provides highlights of work done by the 26 bureaus, offices, and/or administrations within the Department. Coverage is broad, relating to many aspects of…

  11. Conception, development, and test of an apparature for the measurement of the electrical charge of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The electric charge of the neutron is related to the question of charge conservation: If there exists a neutron charge there can be no quantization of charge in units of the elementary charge e. Charge quantization is not inherent in the theories of electrodynamics and the minimal standard model and hence it would not falsify them. But in further theories as grand unified theories charge quantization is an important aspect, for example to allow the decay of the proton. A measurement of a neutron charge would test these theories. In the past three years an apparatus for the measurement of the electric charge of the neutron was constructed. The principle was used before in 1988 but the current apparatus is an improvement in many aspects. E.g. the fluid Fomblin neutron mirror was the first use of a fluid neutron mirror ever. With all the improvements it was possible to reach an sensitivity five times higher than before. A possible neutron charge can be measured with an sensitivity of δq n =2.15.10 -20 (e)/(√(day)). In winter 2014 the measurement of the charge will be performed. Till then the sensitivity will be augmented to δq n =1.4.10 -21 (e)/(√(day)).

  12. 43 CFR 427.1 - Water conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water conservation. 427.1 Section 427.1... INTERIOR WATER CONSERVATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 427.1 Water conservation. (a) In general. The Secretary shall encourage the full consideration and incorporation of prudent and responsible water conservation...

  13. 7 CFR 633.9 - Conservation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conservation plan. 633.9 Section 633.9 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WATER BANK PROGRAM § 633.9 Conservation plan. (a) The program participant... conservation plan for the acreage designated under an agreement. (b) The conservation plan is the basis for the...

  14. The Conservation of Panel paintings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Until the early 17th century almost all portable paintings were created on wood supports, including masterpieces by famous painters, ranging from Giotto to Dürer to Rembrandt. The structural conservation of these paintings requires specific knowledge and skills as the supports are susceptible...... and conservation of these artworks. The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO) and the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam brought together a group of experts from different disciplines to recommend specific areas in the field that would benefit from systematic research. The experts concluded that targeted...

  15. Conserving energy by eliminating waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, N. H.

    1979-07-01

    Some ways in which energy is wasted in industry are discussed and the losses involved are quantified. Reference is made to a particular loss in annealing furnaces; wasted energy in factory and lighting systems; heat generated by motors and lighting and by such processes as welding; unlagged hot pipework and most hot processes; and poor building envelope features. It is concluded that an industry should declare its intention of conservation at the highest possible level, identify conservation as a manufacturing target, and invest the responsibility in people for whom it is a full-time activity. (MCW)

  16. Community Forestry and Forest Conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milhøj, Anders; Casse, Thorkil

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs there is a g......This paper is a meta-study of local forest management experiences in developing countries drawn from a review of 56 case-studies presented in 52 papers. Many case-studies report positive links between community forestry and forest conservation. In international organizations and NGOs...

  17. Fuel conservation: the airline - ATC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grundy, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The air traffic control system has a greater impact on fuel conservation than any other factor in aviation, the most energy intensive industry in the world. The article discusses various measures that could be adopted by airlines and air traffic controllers to increase fuel conservation. These include: reducing operating empty weights, flying at optimum altitude, direct routing, linear holding, speed control, flight planning, loading for favorable center of gravity to reduce trim drag, minimizing route mileage, and clearance priorities for more fuel demanding aircraft during landing.

  18. Energy conservation. A goal for Albertans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwicky, L

    1988-01-01

    In late 1985, the Public Advisory Committees to the Environmental Council of Alberta began working toward a draft conservation strategy for Alberta. A prospectus was published and meetings and workshops held, the goal being a conservation strategy in place by 1992. This report is one of a series of discussion papers on relevant sectors such as agriculture, fish and wildlife, tourism, and various specific energy sources. This report focuses on energy use in general in the province, including the role of energy conservation in a conservation strategy, the potential for energy conservation, barriers, actions to encourage conservation, the impacts of conserving energy, and the next steps to take. 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Surface charges for gravity and electromagnetism in the first order formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frodden, Ernesto; Hidalgo, Diego

    2018-02-01

    A new derivation of surface charges for 3  +  1 gravity coupled to electromagnetism is obtained. Gravity theory is written in the tetrad-connection variables. The general derivation starts from the Lagrangian, and uses the covariant symplectic formalism in the language of forms. For gauge theories, surface charges disentangle physical from gauge symmetries through the use of Noether identities and the exactness symmetry condition. The surface charges are quasilocal, explicitly coordinate independent, gauge invariant and background independent. For a black hole family solution, the surface charge conservation implies the first law of black hole mechanics. As a check, we show the first law for an electrically charged, rotating black hole with an asymptotically constant curvature (the Kerr–Newman (anti-)de Sitter family). The charges, including the would-be mass term appearing in the first law, are quasilocal. No reference to the asymptotic structure of the spacetime nor the boundary conditions is required and therefore topological terms do not play a rôle. Finally, surface charge formulae for Lovelock gravity coupled to electromagnetism are exhibited, generalizing the one derived in a recent work by Barnich et al Proc. Workshop ‘ About Various Kinds of Interactions’ in honour of Philippe Spindel (4–5 June 2015, Mons, Belgium) C15-06-04 (2016 (arXiv:1611.01777 [gr-qc])). The two different symplectic methods to define surface charges are compared and shown equivalent.

  20. Exact solutions for rotating charged dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Earlier work by the author on rotating charged dust is summarized. An incomplete class of exact solutions for differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory for the equal mass and charge case that was found earlier is completed. A new global exact solution for cylindrically symmetric differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory is presented. Lastly, a new exact solution for cylindrically symmetric rigidly rotating charged dust in general relativity is given. (author)

  1. Mainstreaming the social sciences in conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Roth, Robin; Klain, Sarah C; Chan, Kai M A; Clark, Douglas A; Cullman, Georgina; Epstein, Graham; Nelson, Michael Paul; Stedman, Richard; Teel, Tara L; Thomas, Rebecca E W; Wyborn, Carina; Curran, Deborah; Greenberg, Alison; Sandlos, John; Veríssimo, Diogo

    2017-02-01

    Despite broad recognition of the value of social sciences and increasingly vocal calls for better engagement with the human element of conservation, the conservation social sciences remain misunderstood and underutilized in practice. The conservation social sciences can provide unique and important contributions to society's understanding of the relationships between humans and nature and to improving conservation practice and outcomes. There are 4 barriers-ideological, institutional, knowledge, and capacity-to meaningful integration of the social sciences into conservation. We provide practical guidance on overcoming these barriers to mainstream the social sciences in conservation science, practice, and policy. Broadly, we recommend fostering knowledge on the scope and contributions of the social sciences to conservation, including social scientists from the inception of interdisciplinary research projects, incorporating social science research and insights during all stages of conservation planning and implementation, building social science capacity at all scales in conservation organizations and agencies, and promoting engagement with the social sciences in and through global conservation policy-influencing organizations. Conservation social scientists, too, need to be willing to engage with natural science knowledge and to communicate insights and recommendations clearly. We urge the conservation community to move beyond superficial engagement with the conservation social sciences. A more inclusive and integrative conservation science-one that includes the natural and social sciences-will enable more ecologically effective and socially just conservation. Better collaboration among social scientists, natural scientists, practitioners, and policy makers will facilitate a renewed and more robust conservation. Mainstreaming the conservation social sciences will facilitate the uptake of the full range of insights and contributions from these fields into

  2. q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, Hyper-charged fermion coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Sanru; Li Guanghua; Long Junyan

    1994-01-01

    By virtue of the algebra of the q-deformed fermion oscillators, the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are discussed. The explicit forms of the two kinds of coherent states mentioned above are obtained by making use of the completeness of base vectors in the q-fermion Fock space. By comparing the q-deformed results with the ordinary results, it is found that the q-deformed charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged, hyper-charged fermion coherent states are automatically reduced to the ordinary charged fermion coherent states and SU(3) charged hyper-charged fermion coherent states if the deformed parameter q→1

  3. The economics of workplace charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Kaplan, Sigal

    2016-01-01

    subsidies to charging facility costs and adjustments in electricity tariffs or loading technologies. We find that direct subsidies to WPC facilities or subsidies combined with specific energy price policies could be a way to foster WPC provision. In contrast measures on the employee side that may help...

  4. Take Charge of Your Career

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Marshall A.

    2013-01-01

    Today's work world is full of uncertainty. Every day, people hear about another organization going out of business, downsizing, or rightsizing. To prepare for these uncertain times, one must take charge of their own career. This article presents some tips for surviving in today's world of work: (1) Be self-managing; (2) Know what you…

  5. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    401–406. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 401. Charging transient in polyvinyl formal. P K KHARE*, P L JAIN† and R K PANDEY‡. Department of Postgraduate Studies & Research in Physics & Electronics, Rani Durgavati University,. Jabalpur 482 001, India. †Department of Physics, Government PG College, Damoh 470 ...

  6. Pump trials for charged liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroni, J.C.; Niver, A.

    1964-01-01

    The pumps intended for the circulation of charged and radioactive liquids have particular qualities. The choice of such a pump has called for endurance tests with various types of equipment: a Goodyear volumetric screw pumps, and RICHIER, Klein and SCHABAVER centrifugal pumps. The latter, fitted with a special oakum, gave the best results. (authors) [fr

  7. Charge Fluctuations in Nanoscale Capacitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limmer, D.T.; Merlet, C.; Salanne, M.; Chandler, D.; Madden, P.A.; van Roij, R.H.H.G.; Rotenberg, B.

    2013-01-01

    The fluctuations of the charge on an electrode contain information on the microscopic correlations within the adjacent fluid and their effect on the electronic properties of the interface. We investigate these fluctuations using molecular dynamics simulations in a constant-potential ensemble with

  8. Stability of charged thin shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  9. 3-dimensional Charge Collection Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Kodak, Umut

    2013-01-01

    In this project, we designed a simulation program to create the efficiency map of a 3 dimensional rectangular detector. Efficiency is calculated by observing the collected charge at the output. Using this simulation program, one can observe the inefficient regions at not only on the surface of detector but at the depths of detector.

  10. Floating liquid bridge charge dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschke, Omar; Soares, David Mendez; Gomes, Whyllerson Evaristo; Valente Filho, Juracyr Ferraz

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of liquid with electric fields is investigated in a configuration where up to 13 kV are applied between electrodes resulting in a 106 V/m electric field in the capillaries and where there is the formation of a free-standing fluid bridge in the interelectrode gap. The Mott-Gurney equation was fitted to the measured ionization current vs applied voltage curve which indicates that the ionization rate at the high-voltage anode electrode dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) interface and space charging in the interelectrode gap determine the floating liquid bridge current for a given cathode-to-anode voltage. Space charge effects were measured in the cathode becker and also at the liquid bridge since the ionized charges at the anode migrate to the bridge outer surface and decrease the interfacial tension from 43 mJ/m2 to 29 mJ/m2. Two distinct structural regions then form the bridge, a charged plastic (bulk modulus ˜100 MPa) conducting outer layer with a surface conductivity of ˜10-9 Ω-1, which shapes and supports the floating fluid structure, and an inner liquid cylinder, where DMSO molecules flow.

  11. Modern charge-density analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gatti, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on developments from the past 10-15 years, this volume presents an objective overview of the research in charge density analysis. The most promising methodologies are included, in addition to powerful interpretative tools and a survey of important areas of research.

  12. Scarcity rents and airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.

    2015-01-01

    This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way

  13. H- charge exchange injection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankenbrandt, C.; Curtis, C.; Hojvat, C.; Johnson, R.P.; Owen, C.; Schmidt, C.; Teng, L.; Webber, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and components required for injection of protons into cyclic accelerators by means of H - charge exchange processes are reviewed, with emphasis on the experience at Fermilab. The advantages of the technique are described. The design and performance of the system of injection of H - ions into the Fermilab Booster are detailed. (Auth.)

  14. Death by a thousand charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuse, Martin

    2018-05-01

    Battery charging and discharging regimes mostly attempt to maximize potential profit by following price signals. Combining a technical understanding of batteries with financial theory, researchers now present a framework that allows optimization of economic benefits considering both potential revenues and battery degradation.

  15. Fractional charge and anomalous commutators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frishman, Y.; Gepner, D.

    1983-06-01

    Non-integer charges on topological objects in the presence of fermions are further investigated. The connection with anomalous commutators is discussed. The reason for the identical results in two-dimensional solutions and four-dimensional monopoles is pointed out. (author)

  16. Charge exchange in galaxy clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; de Plaa, Jelle; Raassen, A. J. J.; Shah, Chintan; Kaastra, Jelle S.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Though theoretically expected, the charge exchange emission from galaxy clusters has never been confidently detected. Accumulating hints were reported recently, including a rather marginal detection with the Hitomi data of the Perseus cluster. As previously suggested, a detection of charge exchange line emission from galaxy clusters would not only impact the interpretation of the newly discovered 3.5 keV line, but also open up a new research topic on the interaction between hot and cold matter in clusters. Aim. We aim to perform the most systematic search for the O VIII charge exchange line in cluster spectra using the RGS on board XMM-Newton. Methods: We introduce a sample of 21 clusters observed with the RGS. In order to search for O VIII charge exchange, the sample selection criterion is a >35σ detection of the O VIII Lyα line in the archival RGS spectra. The dominating thermal plasma emission is modeled and subtracted with a two-temperature thermal component, and the residuals are stacked for the line search. The systematic uncertainties in the fits are quantified by refitting the spectra with a varying continuum and line broadening. Results: By the residual stacking, we do find a hint of a line-like feature at 14.82 Å, the characteristic wavelength expected for oxygen charge exchange. This feature has a marginal significance of 2.8σ, and the average equivalent width is 2.5 × 10-4 keV. We further demonstrate that the putative feature can be barely affected by the systematic errors from continuum modeling and instrumental effects, or the atomic uncertainties of the neighboring thermal lines. Conclusions: Assuming a realistic temperature and abundance pattern, the physical model implied by the possible oxygen line agrees well with the theoretical model proposed previously to explain the reported 3.5 keV line. If the charge exchange source indeed exists, we expect that the oxygen abundance could have been overestimated by 8-22% in previous X

  17. Global sea turtle conservation successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaris, Antonios D; Schofield, Gail; Gkazinou, Chrysoula; Almpanidou, Vasiliki; Hays, Graeme C

    2017-09-01

    We document a tendency for published estimates of population size in sea turtles to be increasing rather than decreasing across the globe. To examine the population status of the seven species of sea turtle globally, we obtained 299 time series of annual nesting abundance with a total of 4417 annual estimates. The time series ranged in length from 6 to 47 years (mean, 16.2 years). When levels of abundance were summed within regional management units (RMUs) for each species, there were upward trends in 12 RMUs versus downward trends in 5 RMUs. This prevalence of more upward than downward trends was also evident in the individual time series, where we found 95 significant increases in abundance and 35 significant decreases. Adding to this encouraging news for sea turtle conservation, we show that even small sea turtle populations have the capacity to recover, that is, Allee effects appear unimportant. Positive trends in abundance are likely linked to the effective protection of eggs and nesting females, as well as reduced bycatch. However, conservation concerns remain, such as the decline in leatherback turtles in the Eastern and Western Pacific. Furthermore, we also show that, often, time series are too short to identify trends in abundance. Our findings highlight the importance of continued conservation and monitoring efforts that underpin this global conservation success story.

  18. Energy & Conservation Glossary. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amend, John; And Others

    Defined in this glossary are nearly 800 terms related to energy and conservation. Space provided at the end of each alphabetic section allows users to add new words and definitions. This publication is part of a set of resources prepared for teachers by "Energy and Man's Environment." (Author/WB)

  19. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conservation in India. They are ... cuss these with case studies on some cat species in India. Introduction ... fallout since vital resources such as clean air, water, and food ... tion, climate change has become a much-dreaded catchword, and .... (Eastern. Mangroves Total and West- ern). /Inland wetlands. DNA extraction. 66.

  20. Molecular Tools For Biodiversity Conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... habits that make them difficultstudy subjects when using conventional field techniques.Molecular tools can be used to decipher distributions andpopulation connectedness in fragmented habitats and identifypopulations of immediate conservation concern. We discussthese with case studies on some cat species in India.

  1. Conservation of South African Rivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Keeffe, JH

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The report presents the proceedings of a three-day workshop at Midmar Dam designed to establish a consensus view of river conservation and to provide professional conservationists, managers and planners with a set of guidelines. These indicate what...

  2. Conservation tax rebates under scrutiny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    This article describes federal legislative response to an Internal Revenue Service (IRS) ruling that rebates offered as incentives by utilities are taxable as gross income. A bill is being introduced that will reverse the situation. Statements from various conservation and industry organizations are offered in support of the bill. The IRS is also reviewing its ruling

  3. Understanding Conservation: A Playful Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefaloukos, Mary-Anne; Bobis, Janette

    2011-01-01

    This article describes some aspects of Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. It highlights the importance of giving young children specific access to explore conservation in measurement, which will give students invaluable experiences in measurement that in years to come will be regarded as their prior knowledge of the concept. This is…

  4. Arizona Conserve Water Educators Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project WET Foundation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This award-winning, 350-page, full-color book provides a thorough study of Arizona water resources from a water conservation perspective. Its background section contains maps, graphs, diagrams and photos that facilitate the teaching of 15 interactive, multi-disciplinary lessons to K-12 students. In addition, 10 Arizona case studies are highlighted…

  5. Conservation of threatened natural habitats

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hall, AV

    1984-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this book is to give a holistic setting to the conservation of plants and animals. Instead of concentrating on species alone, the aim is to spread the concern to the physical and biological features; including humanity that make up...

  6. Energy conservation applications of microprocessors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, James Y.

    1979-07-01

    A survey of the application of microprocessors for industrial and commercial energy conservation has been made. Microprocessor applications for HVAC, chiller control, and automotive equipment are discussed. A case study of successful replacement of a conventional cooling plant control is recounted. The rapid advancement of microelectronic technology will affect efficient energy control, more sophisticated control methodology, and more investment in controls.

  7. Food production and nature conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordon, Iain J.; Squire, Geoff R.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding the world's growing human population is increasingly challenging, especially as more people adopt a western diet and lifestyle. Doing so without causing damage to nature poses an even greater challenge. This book argues that in order to create a sustainable food supply whilst conserving

  8. Ecology for conserving our sirenians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonde, Robert K.

    2012-01-01

    Review of: Ecology and conservation of the sirenia: dugongs and manatees. Helene Marsh, Thomas J. O'Shea and John E. Reynolds III. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2012, 521 pp, ISBN 978-0-521-88828-8, US$135 and 978-0-521-71643-7, US$65.

  9. Nonlinearity, Conservation Law and Shocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, genuine nonlinearity is always present in an ideal gas. The conservation form of the equation (25) brings in shocks which cut off the growing part of the amplitUde as shown in. Figure 15. Acknowledgements. The author sincerely thanks the two referees whose valuable comments led to an improvement of the ...

  10. Conservative approach to rectosigmoid endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egekvist, Anne G; Marinovskij, Edvard; Forman, Axel

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the risk of surgery after initial conservative treatment of rectosigmoid endometriosis in relation to demographic data. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted on the tertiary endometriosis referral unit, Aarhus University Hospital. Medical...

  11. Madagascar Conservation & Development: Journal Sponsorship

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Madagascar Wildlife Conservation/JGI Switzerland. ISSN: 1662-2510. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for Journals ...

  12. Conservative Ideology and Ambivalent Sexism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Andrew N.; Mull, Melinda S.

    2006-01-01

    To assess the relationship between different facets of conservative ideology and ambivalent sexism, 246 residents of two towns in southern Michigan completed a social dominance orientation scale (SDO), a right-wing authoritarianism scale (RWA), a Protestant work ethic scale (PWE), and the Glick and Fiske (1996) Ambivalent Sexism Inventory via a…

  13. Ecological restoration: Biodiversity and conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Rios, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    In this essay the principal concepts and methods applied on projects aimed at ecological restoration are reviewed, with emphasis on the relationship between conservation, biodiversity and restoration. The most common definitions are provided and the steps to take into account to develop projects on ecological restoration, which will be determined by the level of degradation of the ecosystem to be intervened.

  14. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  15. New issues in orchid conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2011), s. 5 ISSN 1805-0174 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : orchid conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour http://www.ejes.cz/index.php/ejes/article/view/46

  16. Tapir health and conservation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Medici, Emilia Patrícia; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2012-12-01

    Tapirs have unique nutritional needs, as well as anatomical, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations that must be considered when managing their health, both in the wild and in captivity. Information about how tapirs live in their natural habitats can provide crucial knowledge to prevent many of the health problems found in captivity such as infectious and parasitic diseases, reproductive issues and nutritional and behavioral disorders. Likewise, proper management in captivity can significantly contribute to in situ conservation programs. Conservation medicine is a science created to address the global health crisis that jeopardizes biodiversity causing imbalances among ecosystem, human, animal and vegetal health. In this context, common threats to tapir health and conservation, such as isolated and small populations surrounded by human activity, chemical pollution, domestic animals and their pathogenic agents, need to be better understood. This manuscript provides information about the health of tapirs both in captivity and in the wild and aims to encourage tapir conservationists worldwide to gather information about pathogen and disease dynamics and manifestation, as well as implications for tapir conservation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  17. Conservation and Renewable Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaughan, K.H.

    1991-05-01

    This bibliography lists reports and selected papers published under the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Conservation and Renewable Energy Program from 1986 through February 1991. Information on documents published prior to 1986 can be obtained from ORNL. Most of the documents in the bibliography are available from Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Energy conservation and petroleum substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kebbekus, J; Kraft-Woelfel, G

    1982-04-01

    Shortage and price increases for energy have caused large population groups to give new thought to the subject. For the knowledge on energy necessary to make a decision, ultimate consumers mostly rely on their social environment, personal contacts and the media. Important information on energy conservation should be provided by regional electric utilities. A concept for this purpose is discussed.

  19. Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes: Effect of charge distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Mingtian; Li, Baohui; Zhou, Jihan; Su, Cuicui; Niu, Lin; Liang, Dehai

    2015-01-01

    Complexation behavior of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes in a solution is investigated using a combination of computer simulations and experiments, focusing on the influence of polyelectrolyte charge distributions along the chains on the structure of the polyelectrolyte complexes. The simulations are performed using Monte Carlo with the replica-exchange algorithm for three model systems where each system is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged model polyelectrolyte chains (EGEG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , (EEGG) 5 /(KKGG) 5 , and (EEGG) 5 /(KGKG) 5 , in a solution including explicit solvent molecules. Among the three model systems, only the charge distributions along the chains are not identical. Thermodynamic quantities are calculated as a function of temperature (or ionic strength), and the microscopic structures of complexes are examined. It is found that the three systems have different transition temperatures, and form complexes with different sizes, structures, and densities at a given temperature. Complex microscopic structures with an alternating arrangement of one monolayer of E/K monomers and one monolayer of G monomers, with one bilayer of E and K monomers and one bilayer of G monomers, and with a mixture of monolayer and bilayer of E/K monomers in a box shape and a trilayer of G monomers inside the box are obtained for the three mixture systems, respectively. The experiments are carried out for three systems where each is composed of a mixture of two types of oppositely charged peptide chains. Each peptide chain is composed of Lysine (K) and glycine (G) or glutamate (E) and G, in solution, and the chain length and amino acid sequences, and hence the charge distribution, are precisely controlled, and all of them are identical with those for the corresponding model chain. The complexation behavior and complex structures are characterized through laser light scattering and atomic force microscopy measurements. The order of the apparent weight

  20. Googling trends in conservation biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Raphaël; Massicotte, Philippe; Pépino, Marc

    2014-02-01

    Web-crawling approaches, that is, automated programs data mining the internet to obtain information about a particular process, have recently been proposed for monitoring early signs of ecosystem degradation or for establishing crop calendars. However, lack of a clear conceptual and methodological framework has prevented the development of such approaches within the field of conservation biology. Our objective was to illustrate how Google Trends, a freely accessible web-crawling engine, can be used to track changes in timing of biological processes, spatial distribution of invasive species, and level of public awareness about key conservation issues. Google Trends returns the number of internet searches that were made for a keyword in a given region of the world over a defined period. Using data retrieved online for 13 countries, we exemplify how Google Trends can be used to study the timing of biological processes, such as the seasonal recurrence of pollen release or mosquito outbreaks across a latitudinal gradient. We mapped the spatial extent of results from Google Trends for 5 invasive species in the United States and found geographic patterns in invasions that are consistent with their coarse-grained distribution at state levels. From 2004 through 2012, Google Trends showed that the level of public interest and awareness about conservation issues related to ecosystem services, biodiversity, and climate change increased, decreased, and followed both trends, respectively. Finally, to further the development of research approaches at the interface of conservation biology, collective knowledge, and environmental management, we developed an algorithm that allows the rapid retrieval of Google Trends data. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  1. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  2. 78 FR 73589 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors; Proposed... Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric Motors AGENCY... proposes energy conservation standards for a number of different groups of electric motors that DOE has not...

  3. Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana; Papadimitriou, Ioannis; Skenderis, Kostas

    2017-01-01

    Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS 4 black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.

  4. Moduli, Scalar Charges, and the First Law of Black Hole Thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G.; Kallosh, R.; Kol, B.

    1996-01-01

    We show that under variation of moduli fields φ the first law of black hole thermodynamics becomes dM=κdA/8π +ΩdJ+ψdq+χdp-Σdφ, where Σ are the scalar charges. Also the ADM mass is extremized at fixed A, J, (p,q) when the moduli fields take the fixed value φ fix (p,q) which depend only on electric and magnetic charges. Thus the double-extreme black hole minimizes the mass for fixed conserved charges. We can now explain the fact that extreme black holes fix the moduli fields at the horizon φ=φ fix (p,q): φ fix is such that the scalar charges vanish: Σ(φ fix ,(p,q))=0. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  5. Phases of planar AdS black holes with axionic charge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldarelli, Marco M.; Christodoulou, Ariana [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Papadimitriou, Ioannis [SISSA and INFN - Sezione di Trieste,Via Bonomea 265, I 34136 Trieste (Italy); Skenderis, Kostas [Mathematical Sciences and STAG Research Centre, University of Southampton,Highfield, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-03

    Planar AdS black holes with axionic charge have finite DC conductivity due to momentum relaxation. We obtain a new family of exact asymptotically AdS{sub 4} black branes with scalar hair, carrying magnetic and axion charge, and we study the thermodynamics and dynamic stability of these, as well as of a number of previously known electric and dyonic solutions with axion charge and scalar hair. The scalar hair for all solutions satisfy mixed boundary conditions, which lead to modified holographic Ward identities, conserved charges and free energy, relative to those following from the more standard Dirichlet boundary conditions. We show that properly accounting for the scalar boundary conditions leads to well defined first law and other thermodynamic relations. Finally, we compute the holographic quantum effective potential for the dual scalar operator and show that dynamical stability of the hairy black branes is equivalent to positivity of the energy density.

  6. Model improvements to simulate charging in SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arat, K. T.; Klimpel, T.; Hagen, C. W.

    2018-03-01

    Charging of insulators is a complex phenomenon to simulate since the accuracy of the simulations is very sensitive to the interaction of electrons with matter and electric fields. In this study, we report model improvements for a previously developed Monte-Carlo simulator to more accurately simulate samples that charge. The improvements include both modelling of low energy electron scattering and charging of insulators. The new first-principle scattering models provide a more realistic charge distribution cloud in the material, and a better match between non-charging simulations and experimental results. Improvements on charging models mainly focus on redistribution of the charge carriers in the material with an induced conductivity (EBIC) and a breakdown model, leading to a smoother distribution of the charges. Combined with a more accurate tracing of low energy electrons in the electric field, we managed to reproduce the dynamically changing charging contrast due to an induced positive surface potential.

  7. Conservation laws with coinciding smooth solutions but different conserved variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Rinaldo M.; Guerra, Graziano

    2018-04-01

    Consider two hyperbolic systems of conservation laws in one space dimension with the same eigenvalues and (right) eigenvectors. We prove that solutions to Cauchy problems with the same initial data differ at third order in the total variation of the initial datum. As a first application, relying on the classical Glimm-Lax result (Glimm and Lax in Decay of solutions of systems of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws. Memoirs of the American Mathematical Society, No. 101. American Mathematical Society, Providence, 1970), we obtain estimates improving those in Saint-Raymond (Arch Ration Mech Anal 155(3):171-199, 2000) on the distance between solutions to the isentropic and non-isentropic inviscid compressible Euler equations, under general equations of state. Further applications are to the general scalar case, where rather precise estimates are obtained, to an approximation by Di Perna of the p-system and to a traffic model.

  8. Charge splitters and charge transport junctions based on guanine quadruplexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Ruojie; Xiang, Limin; Liu, Chaoren; Balaeff, Alexander; Zhang, Yuqi; Zhang, Peng; Li, Yueqi; Beratan, David N.; Tao, Nongjian; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2018-04-01

    Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction. By attaching specific terminal groups to the motif, we demonstrate that charges can enter the structure from one terminal at one end of a three-way G4 motif, and can exit from one of two terminals at the other end with minimal carrier transport attenuation. Moreover, we study four-way G4 junction structures by performing theoretical calculations to assist in the design and optimization of these connectors.

  9. Comparison between various notions of conserved charges in asymptotically AdS spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Marolf, Donald

    2005-01-01

    We derive Hamiltonian generators of asymptotic symmetries for general relativity with asymptotic AdS boundary conditions using the 'covariant phase space' method of Wald et al. We then compare our results with other definitions that have been proposed in the literature. We find that our definition agrees with that proposed by Ashtekar et al, with the spinor definition, and with the background-dependent definition of Henneaux and Teitelboim. Our definition disagrees with that obtained from the 'counterterm subtraction method', but the difference is found to consist only of a 'constant offset' that is determined entirely in terms of the boundary metric. We finally discuss and justify our boundary conditions by a linear perturbation analysis, and we comment on generalizations of our boundary conditions, as well as inclusion of matter fields

  10. CPT-conserving hamiltonians and their nonlinear supersymmetrization using differential charge-operators C

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bagchi, B.; Quesne, C.; Znojil, Miloslav; Banerjee, A.; Geyer, HB; Caliceti, E.; Cannata, F.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 30 (2005), s. 7107-7128 ISSN 0217-751X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1048302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : PT-symmetric Hamiltonians * CPT-symmetric quantum-mechanics * supersymmetric quantum mechanics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.472, year: 2005

  11. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1988-01-01

    The Pahang and Johore State Governments have agreed to declare the 92,000 hectare Endau-Rompin Forest as a State Park. It had been proposed as a National Park in 1975, but, as usual, this did not prevent logging in the core area in 1977. This was halted after considerable national protest, but

  12. Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    CITES: In February 1987 Singapore finally ratified the Washington Treaty on the international trade in threatened species, exceptions have been made for the trade in crocodile products. A serious breach has now been closed that was of some impediment to the trade between Singapore and many of its

  13. Leadership: a new frontier in conservation science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Jim C; Chan, Kai M; Finkelstein, Myra E; Stephens, Scott; Nelson, Cara R; Grant, Jacqualine B; Dombeck, Michael P

    2009-08-01

    Leadership is a critical tool for expanding the influence of conservation science, but recent advances in leadership concepts and practice remain underutilized by conservation scientists. Furthermore, an explicit conceptual foundation and definition of leadership in conservation science are not available in the literature. Here we drew on our diverse leadership experiences, our reading of leadership literature, and discussions with selected conservation science leaders to define conservation-science leadership, summarize an exploratory set of leadership principles that are applicable to conservation science, and recommend actions to expand leadership capacity among conservation scientists and practitioners. We define 2 types of conservation-science leadership: shaping conservation science through path-breaking research, and advancing the integration of conservation science into policy, management, and society at large. We focused on the second, integrative type of leadership because we believe it presents the greatest opportunity for improving conservation effectiveness. We identified 8 leadership principles derived mainly from the "adaptive leadership" literature: recognize the social dimension of the problem; cycle frequently through action and reflection; get and maintain attention; combine strengths of multiple leaders; extend your reach through networks of relationships; strategically time your effort; nurture productive conflict; and cultivate diversity. Conservation scientists and practitioners should strive to develop themselves as leaders, and the Society for Conservation Biology, conservation organizations, and academia should support this effort through professional development, mentoring, teaching, and research.

  14. Charge symmetry at the partonic level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Londergan, J. T.; Peng, J. C.; Thomas, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    This review article discusses the experimental and theoretical status of partonic charge symmetry. It is shown how the partonic content of various structure functions gets redefined when the assumption of charge symmetry is relaxed. We review various theoretical and phenomenological models for charge symmetry violation in parton distribution functions. We summarize the current experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation in parton distributions. A series of experiments are presented, which might reveal partonic charge symmetry violation, or alternatively might lower the current upper limits on parton charge symmetry violation.

  15. Charge imbalance: its relaxation, diffusion and oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pethick, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the authors use a model for charge density based on two charge components: the normal quasiparticle component and the superfluid/condensate component. Based on the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation, this two-component model, when used in nonequilibrium contexts, is fruitful in describing a variety of charge-imbalance phenomena in superconductors. The authors discuss various methods of generating charge-imbalances, charge-imbalance relaxation processes (such as phonons, impurity scattering and magnetic impurities) and applications of the two-component model of charge imbalance to spatially inhomogeneous conditions

  16. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  17. Charged gravastars in higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, S., E-mail: shnkghosh122@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, B. Garden, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, F., E-mail: rahaman@associates.iucaa.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Guha, B.K., E-mail: bkguhaphys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, B. Garden, Howrah 711103, West Bengal (India); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@associates.iucaa.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, 73 A.C.B. Lane, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India)

    2017-04-10

    We explore possibility to find out a new model of gravastars in the extended D-dimensional Einstein–Maxwell space–time. The class of solutions as obtained by Mazur and Mottola of a neutral gravastar have been observed as a competent alternative to D-dimensional versions of the Schwarzschild–Tangherlini black hole. The outer region of the charged gravastar model therefore corresponds to a higher dimensional Reissner–Nordström black hole. In connection to this junction conditions, therefore we have formulated mass and the related Equation of State of the gravastar. It has been shown that the model satisfies all the requirements of the physical features. However, overall observational survey of the results also provide probable indication of non-applicability of higher dimensional approach for construction of a gravastar with or without charge from an ordinary 4-dimensional seed as far as physical ground is concerned.

  18. ABC's of pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, W.R.; Kaufmann, W.B.; Siegel, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Calculations of pion single charge exchange using the PWIA and DWIA are presented. Emphasis is given to the effects of absorbtion and blocking. A microscopic calculation of the 0 0 excitation and low energy angular distribution is in excellent agreement with the data. A fixed nucleon multiple scattering calculation of the pion double charge exchange reaction is presented. Various valence neutron wave functions are used, and the contributions of different spatial orientations of the last two neutrons to the reaction are examined. The DCX cross section is found to be very sensitive to the inclusion of correlations in the two-neutron wave function. Satisfactory agreement with DCX data on 14 C can be obtained using a nucleonic picture of the nucleus

  19. Anisotropic charged generalized polytropic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, A.; Azam, M.

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we found some new anisotropic charged models admitting generalized polytropic equation of state with spherically symmetry. An analytic solution of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is obtained through the transformation introduced by Durgapal and Banerji (Phys. Rev. D 27:328, 1983). The physical viability of solutions corresponding to polytropic index η =1/2, 2/3, 1, 2 is analyzed graphically. For this, we plot physical quantities such as radial and tangential pressure, anisotropy, speed of sound which demonstrated that these models achieve all the considerable physical conditions required for a relativistic star. Further, it is mentioned here that previous results for anisotropic charged matter with linear, quadratic and polytropic equation of state can be retrieved.

  20. Lepton flavor non-conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosmas, T.S.; Tuebingen Univ.; Leontaris, G.K.; Vergados, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the present work we review the most prominent lepton flavor violating processes (μ → eγ, μ → 3e, (μ - , e -) conversion, M - M oscillations etc.), in the context of unified gauge theories. Many currently fashionable extensions of the standard model are considered, such as: i) extensions of the fermion sector (right-handed neutrino); ii) minimal extensions involving additional Higgs scalars (more than one isodoublets, singly and doubly charged isosinglets, isotriplets with doubly charged members etc.); iii) supersymmetric or superstring inspired unified models emphasizing the implications of the renormalization group equations in the leptonic sector. Special attention is given to the experimentally most interesting (μ - , e - ) conversion in the presence of nuclei. The relevant nuclear aspects of the amplitudes are discussed in a number of fashionable nuclear models. The main features of the relevant experiments are also discussed, and detailed predictions of the above models are compared to the present experimental limits. (Author)

  1. Photoelectric charging of dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Photoemission from the surface of a dust grain in vacuum is considered. It is shown that the cutoff in the energy spectrum of emitted electrons leads to the formation of a steady-state electron cloud. The equation describing the distribution of the electric potential in the vicinity of a dust grain is solved numerically. The dust grain charge is found as a function of the grain size.

  2. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  3. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  4. Thunderstorm Charge Structures Producing Negative Gigantic Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, L.; Liu, N.; Riousset, J. A.; Shi, F.; Rassoul, H.

    2016-12-01

    Here we present observational and modeling results that provide insight into thunderstorm charge structures that produce gigantic jet discharges. The observational results include data from four different thunderstorms producing 9 negative gigantic jets from 2010 to 2014. We used radar, very high frequency (VHF) and low frequency (LF) lightning data to analyze the storm characteristics, charge structures, and lightning activity when the gigantic jets emerged from the parent thunderstorms. A detailed investigation of the evolution of one of the charge structures by analyzing the VHF data is also presented. The newly found charge structure obtained from the observations was analyzed with fractal modeling and compared with previous fractal modeling studies [Krehbiel et al., Nat. Geosci., 1, 233-237, 2008; Riousset et al., JGR, 115, A00E10, 2010] of gigantic jet discharges. Our work finds that for normal polarity thunderstorms, gigantic jet charge structures feature a narrow upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region. There also likely exists a `ring' of negative screening charge located around the perimeter of the upper positive charge. This is different from previously thought charge structures of the storms producing gigantic jets, which had a very wide upper positive charge region over a wide middle negative charge region, with a very small negative screening layer covering the cloud top. The newly found charge structure results in leader discharge trees in the fractal simulations that closely match the parent flashes of gigantic jets inside and outside the thundercloud. The previously used charge structures, while vital to the understanding of gigantic jet initiation and the role of charge imbalances inside the cloud, do not produce leader discharge trees that agree with observed gigantic jet discharges.Finally, the newly discovered gigantic jet charge structures are formed near the end of a convective pulse [Meyer et al., JGR, 118

  5. Electrostatic charge characteristics of jet nebulized aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Trietsch, Sebastiaan J; Kumon, Michiko; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2010-06-01

    Liquid droplets can be spontaneously charged in the absence of applied electric fields by spraying. It has been shown by computational simulation that charges may influence particle deposition in the airways. The electrostatic properties of jet nebulized aerosols and their potential effects on lung deposition have hardly been studied. A modified electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) was employed to characterize the aerosol charges generated from jet nebulized commercial products. The charge and size measurements were conducted at 50% RH and 22 degrees C with a modified ELPI. Ventolin, Bricanyl, and Atrovent were nebulized using PARI LC Plus jet nebulizers coupled to a DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide compressor. The aerosols were sampled in 30-sec durations. The drug deposits on the impactor stages were assayed chemically using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The charges of nebulized deionized water, isotonic saline, and the three commercial products diluted with saline were also measured to analyze the contributions of the major nebule ingredients on charging. No mass assays were performed on these runs. All three commercial nebules generated net negative charges. The magnitude of the charges reduced over the period of nebulization. Ventolin and Bricanyl yielded similar charge profiles. Highly variable charges were produced from deionized water. On the other hand, nebulized saline reproducibly generated net positive charges. Diluted commercial nebules showed charge polarity inversion. The charge profiles of diluted salbutamol and terbutaline solutions resembled those of saline, while the charges from diluted ipratropium solutions fluctuated near neutrality. The charge profiles were shown to be influenced by the concentration and physicochemical properties of the drugs, as well as the history of nebulization. The drugs may have unique isoelectric concentrations in saline at which the nebulized droplets would carry near-zero charges. According to results from

  6. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R V

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  7. Built heritage monitoring conservation management

    CERN Document Server

    Boriani, Maurizio; Guidi, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date overview on the most pressing issues in the conservation and management of archaeological, architectural, and urban landscapes. Multidisciplinary research is presented on a wide range of built heritage sites, from archaeological ruins and historic centers through to twentieth century and industrial architectural heritage. The role of ICT and new technologies, including those used for digital archiving, surveying, modeling, and monitoring, is extensively discussed, in recognition of their importance for professionals working in the field. Detailed attention is also paid to materials and treatments employed in preventive conservation and management. With contributions from leading experts, including university researchers, professionals, and policy makers, the book will be invaluable for all who seek to understand, and solve, the challenges faced in the protection and enhancement of the built heritage.

  8. Current conservation status of Ratites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Living Ratites, which include several species or subspecies of ostriches, cassowaries, emus, rheas and kiwis, all with an important function in the ecosystem dynamics, endure the danger of extinction similarly to the extinct moas and elephant-birds. Whereas ostriches and emus, except for specific populations, are not seen as being endangered, cassowaries and kiwis are on the brink of extinction. Hunting by humans contributed most to the declining numbers in all families of Ratites. Some conservation management strategies have been developed for conservation of kiwis, one subspecies of cassowary, and some populations of ostriches, emus and rheas. These include captive breeding and release, habitat restoration, and public awareness. However, consideration of the limitations of the above techniques is often ignored.

  9. Integrating marine conservation and tourism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salm, R.V.

    1985-01-01

    Tropical reefs and beaches attract hordes of tourists from temperature zones. These environments may be the most valuable resource of small island nations, providing fish, coastal protection and support for a tourist industry. However, tourism can strain the resource base resulting in damage to habitat's from intensified fishing activity and the depletion of species through over exploitation. Conflict develops between subsistence requirements of local residents, the recreational demands of tourists and conservation constraints. When included in national development planning, the establishment of conservation areas can help reduce conflicts through zoning for different uses the protected areas. This enable the grouping of compatible activities into specific zones and the separation of those which are incompatible. This paper discusses the planning of protected areas which have tourism as a major component, drawing on two case studies in Indonesia. Some techniques are listed for controlling visitor use of protected areas.

  10. Cubication of conservative nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, Augusto; Alvarez, Mariela L; Fernandez, Elena; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2009-01-01

    A cubication procedure of the nonlinear differential equation for conservative nonlinear oscillators is analysed and discussed. This scheme is based on the Chebyshev series expansion of the restoring force, and this allows us to approximate the original nonlinear differential equation by a Duffing equation in which the coefficients for the linear and cubic terms depend on the initial amplitude, A, while in a Taylor expansion of the restoring force these coefficients are independent of A. The replacement of the original nonlinear equation by an approximate Duffing equation allows us to obtain an approximate frequency-amplitude relation as a function of the complete elliptic integral of the first kind. Some conservative nonlinear oscillators are analysed to illustrate the usefulness and effectiveness of this scheme.

  11. Make dark matter charged again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, Prateek; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Randall, Lisa; Scholtz, Jakub, E-mail: prateekagrawal@fas.harvard.edu, E-mail: fcyrraci@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: randall@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: jscholtz@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We revisit constraints on dark matter that is charged under a U(1) gauge group in the dark sector, decoupled from Standard Model forces. We find that the strongest constraints in the literature are subject to a number of mitigating factors. For instance, the naive dark matter thermalization timescale in halos is corrected by saturation effects that slow down isotropization for modest ellipticities. The weakened bounds uncover interesting parameter space, making models with weak-scale charged dark matter viable, even with electromagnetic strength interaction. This also leads to the intriguing possibility that dark matter self-interactions within small dwarf galaxies are extremely large, a relatively unexplored regime in current simulations. Such strong interactions suppress heat transfer over scales larger than the dark matter mean free path, inducing a dynamical cutoff length scale above which the system appears to have only feeble interactions. These effects must be taken into account to assess the viability of darkly-charged dark matter. Future analyses and measurements should probe a promising region of parameter space for this model.

  12. Charged dust in saturn's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendis, D.A.; Hill, J.R.; Houpis, H.L.F.

    1983-01-01

    Gravito-electrodynamic theory of charged dust grains is used to explain a variety of phenomena in those portions of the Saturnian ring system that are known to be dominated by fine (micron- and submicron-sized) dust, and in which collisional forces and Coulomb drag can be neglected. Among the phenomena discussed are the formation and evolution of the rotating near-radial spokes in the B-ring, the formation of waves in the F-ring, the cause of eccentricities of certain isolated ringlets, and the origin and morphology of the broad diffuse E-ring. Several novel processes predicted by the gravitoelectrodynamic theory, including 'magneto-gravitational capture' of exogenic dust by the magnetosphere, '1:1 magneto-gravitational orbital resonances' of charged dust with nearby satellites, and 'gyro-orbital resonances,' are used to explain individual observations. The effect of a ring current associated with this charged dust is also evaluated. Finally, the cosmogonic implications of the magneto-gravitational theory are briefly discussed. While several (although not all) of these processes have been discussed by one or more of the present authors elsewhere, the purpose of this paper is to synthesize all these processes within the framework of gravito-electrodynamics, and also to show its range of applicability within Saturn's ring system

  13. Space charge in nanostructure resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Peter J.

    1996-10-01

    In quantum ballistic propagation of electrons through a variety of nanostructures, resonance in the energy-dependent transmission and reflection probabilities generically is associated with (1) a quasi-level with a decay lifetime, and (2) a bulge in electron density within the structure. It can be shown that, to a good approximation, a simple formula in all cases connects the density of states for the latter to the energy dependence of the phase angles of the eigen values of the S-matrix governing the propagation. For both the Lorentzian resonances (normal or inverted) and for the Fano-type resonances, as a consequence of this eigen value formula, the space charge due to filled states over the energy range of a resonance is just equal (for each spin state) to one electron charge. The Coulomb interaction within this space charge is known to 'distort' the electrical characteristics of resonant nanostructures. In these systems, however, the exchange effect should effectively cancel the interaction between states with parallel spins, leaving only the anti-parallel spin contribution.

  14. Spherically symmetric charged compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-08-15

    In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)

  15. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  16. China's brick history and conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shu, C. X.; Cantisani, E.; Fratini, F.

    2017-01-01

    . This study focuses on Shanghai as a representative city in that transitional period, aims at addressing the true condition of the modern changes in China's brick history and the heritage today. The paper presents the first results of an interdisciplinary investigation. Fourteen brick samples and one sample...... critical issues: the provenance of the bricks, the hitherto undocumented changes in the manufacturing technology, and the condition of the brick material in terms of conservation....

  17. Island biodiversity conservation needs palaeoecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogué, Sandra; de Nascimento, Lea; Froyd, Cynthia A.

    2017-01-01

    to human activities. Consequently, even the most degraded islands are a focus for restoration, eradication, and monitoring programmes to protect the remaining endemic and/or relict populations. Here, we build a framework that incorporates an assessment of the degree of change from multiple baseline...... and the introduction of non-native species. We provide exemplification of how such approaches can provide valuable information for biodiversity conservation managers of island ecosystems....

  18. The ubiquity of conservative translations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeřábek, Emil

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2012), s. 666-678 ISSN 1755-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0545 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : conservative translation * deductive system * nonclassical logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.500, year: 2012 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8757256

  19. Consequences of Not Conserving Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.; Crawford, L.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of fresh water is not only local, but also global. In certain parts of the world, much needed rain is becoming less frequent, possibly due to the effects of global warming. The resources of clean fresh water on earth are very limited and are reducing every year due to pollution like industrial waste, oil spills, untreated sewage, inefficient irrigation systems, waste and leakage, etc. This is destroying the ecosystem of the entire planet. Of course, in some parts of world there is rain almost throughout the year. Regardless, major problems are still prevalent because of a variety of reasons such as drainage, storage, evaporation, cleanliness, etc. It is all too well known that evapotranspiration contributes to a significant water loss from drainage basins. Most of the citizens of this world are still careless about water usage and are unappreciative of the need for water conservation. This is a very unpleasant fact and needs to change. Cost expenditures for the development of infrastructure to supply water to households and industries are becoming prohibitively expensive. Many parts in this world have extremely dry terrain and rainfall is not as frequent as it should be. As a result, the underground water tables are not replenished properly, thereby turning regions to arid land and deserts. Unless effective irrigation methods are used, potential evapotranspiration may be actually greater than precipitation provided by nature. The soil therefore dries out creating an arid landmass. The earth and its inhabitants can sustain only if creative methods of clean water conservation ideas are effectively implemented. (Co-author: Dr. Mysore Narayanan) References: http://www.epa.gov/oaintrnt/water/http://www.usda.gov/wps/portal/usda/usdahome?navid=conservationhttp://www.ecy.wa.gov/programs/wr/ws/wtrcnsv.htmlhttp://www.sandiego.gov/water/conservation/http://www.swcs.org/http://www.awwa.org/resources-tools/water-knowledge/water-conservation.aspxhttp://www.benefits-of-recycling.com/waterconservationmethods/

  20. A Conservative Formulation for Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    concepts that apply to a broad class of macroscopic models: plastic deformation and plastic flow rule. CONSERVATIVE PLASTICITY 469 3a. Plastic Defrrnation...temperature. We illustrate these concepts with a model that has been used to describe high strain-rate plastic flow in metals [11, 31, 32]. In the case...JOURDREN, AND P. VEYSSEYRE. Un Modele ttyperelastique- Plastique Euldrien Applicable aux Grandes Dtformations: Que/ques R~sultats 1-D. preprint, 1991. 2. P

  1. Lepton-number-charged scalars and neutrino beamstrahlung

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Jeffrey M.; de Gouvêa, André; Kelly, Kevin J.; Zhang, Yue

    2018-04-01

    Experimentally, baryon number minus lepton number, B -L , appears to be a good global symmetry of nature. We explore the consequences of the existence of gauge-singlet scalar fields charged under B -L -dubbed lepton-number-charged scalars (LeNCSs)—and postulate that these couple to the standard model degrees of freedom in such a way that B -L is conserved even at the nonrenormalizable level. In this framework, neutrinos are Dirac fermions. Including only the lowest mass-dimension effective operators, some of the LeNCSs couple predominantly to neutrinos and may be produced in terrestrial neutrino experiments. We examine several existing constraints from particle physics, astrophysics, and cosmology to the existence of a LeNCS carrying B -L charge equal to two, and discuss the emission of LeNCSs via "neutrino beamstrahlung," which occurs every once in a while when neutrinos scatter off of ordinary matter. We identify regions of the parameter space where existing and future neutrino experiments, including the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment, are at the frontier of searches for such new phenomena.

  2. Moving charged particles in lattice Boltzmann-based electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Rempfer, Georg; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. Moving boundary conditions are needed to simulate multiple arbitrarily moving colloids. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such a particle coupling scheme, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure lattice Boltzmann solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute species and a partial-volume smoothing of the solute fluxes to minimize discretization artifacts. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness by simulating the electrophoresis of charged spheres in an external field; for a single sphere we compare to the equivalent electro-osmotic (co-moving) problem. Our method's efficiency and ease of implementation should prove beneficial to future simulations of the dynamics in a wide range of complex nanoscopic and colloidal systems that were previously inaccessible to lattice-based continuum algorithms.

  3. Obliquely propagating large amplitude solitary waves in charge neutral plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Verheest

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals in a consistent way with the implications, for the existence of large amplitude stationary structures in general plasmas, of assuming strict charge neutrality between electrons and ions. With the limit of pair plasmas in mind, electron inertia is retained. Combining in a fluid dynamic treatment the conservation of mass, momentum and energy with strict charge neutrality has indicated that nonlinear solitary waves (as e.g. oscillitons cannot exist in electron-ion plasmas, at no angle of propagation with respect to the static magnetic field. Specifically for oblique propagation, the proof has turned out to be more involved than for parallel or perpendicular modes. The only exception is pair plasmas that are able to support large charge neutral solitons, owing to the high degree of symmetry naturally inherent in such plasmas. The nonexistence, in particular, of oscillitons is attributed to the breakdown of the plasma approximation in dealing with Poisson's law, rather than to relativistic effects. It is hoped that future space observations will allow to discriminate between oscillitons and large wave packets, by focusing on the time variability (or not of the phase, since the amplitude or envelope graphs look very similar.

  4. Eleven cases of breast conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Toshio; Sekine, Kenshi; Miyagawa, Akira; Sugimoto, Toichi

    1991-01-01

    Eleven patients with T1 and small T2 breast cancer were treated by a combination of quadrantectomy, axillary dissection and radiotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 44.6 years. Mean follow-up period was 7.1 months. Six patients had clinical stage I, and five patients had clinical stage II. Four patients had involvement of axillary content (36.3%) on histological examination. There were eight scirrhous carcinomas and three papillotubular carcinomas. The incidence of local and distant recurrence was none in our group. The multifocality of breast cancer based on pathologic studies had been shown. On the basis of these findings we concluded that the patients undergoing breast conservation should be subjected to postoperative radiotherapy. Psychological morbidity was compared in 10 patients treated by breast conservation and 23 patients treated by mastectomy. There were no statistically significant differences between two groups in the estimation of adjustment disorder, depression, anxiety and stress. The patients in breast conservation group had a significant excess or nervousness and the patients of the mastectomy group had an anger. (author)

  5. Nonprice incentives and energy conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Omar I; Delmas, Magali A

    2015-02-10

    In the electricity sector, energy conservation through technological and behavioral change is estimated to have a savings potential of 123 million metric tons of carbon per year, which represents 20% of US household direct emissions in the United States. In this article, we investigate the effectiveness of nonprice information strategies to motivate conservation behavior. We introduce environment and health-based messaging as a behavioral strategy to reduce energy use in the home and promote energy conservation. In a randomized controlled trial with real-time appliance-level energy metering, we find that environment and health-based information strategies, which communicate the environmental and public health externalities of electricity production, such as pounds of pollutants, childhood asthma, and cancer, outperform monetary savings information to drive behavioral change in the home. Environment and health-based information treatments motivated 8% energy savings versus control and were particularly effective on families with children, who achieved up to 19% energy savings. Our results are based on a panel of 3.4 million hourly appliance-level kilowatt-hour observations for 118 residences over 8 mo. We discuss the relative impacts of both cost-savings information and environmental health messaging strategies with residential consumers.

  6. Genetic conservation and paddlefish propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloss, Brian L.; Klumb, Robert A.; Heist, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    The conservation of genetic diversity of our natural resources is overwhelmingly one of the central foci of 21st century management practices. Three recommendations related to the conservation of paddlefish Polyodon spathula genetic diversity are to (1) identify genetic diversity at both nuclear and mitochondrial DNA loci using a suggested list of 20 sampling locations, (2) use genetic diversity estimates to develop genetic management units, and (3) identify broodstock sources to minimize effects of supplemental stocking on the genetic integrity of native paddlefish populations. We review previous genetic work on paddlefish and described key principles and concepts associated with maintaining genetic diversity within and among paddlefish populations and also present a genetic case study of current paddlefish propagation at the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Gavins Point National Fish Hatchery. This study confirmed that three potential sources of broodfish were genetically indistinguishable at the loci examined, allowing the management agencies cooperating on this program flexibility in sampling gametes. This study also showed significant bias in the hatchery occurred in terms of male reproductive contribution, which resulted in a shift in the genetic diversity of progeny compared to the broodfish. This shift was shown to result from differential male contributions, partially attributed to the mode of egg fertilization. Genetic insights enable implementation of a paddlefish propagation program within an adaptive management strategy that conserves inherent genetic diversity while achieving demographic goals.

  7. Water and the conservation movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1958-01-01

    Every age has its unique touchstone, its hallmark. The Nineties were thought gay. The Twenties had jazz and John Held, Jr. The Thirties had breadlines, dust bowls, the forgotten man. And each recent period has been studded with so many flashy gems, both paste and genuine, that no hallmark would alone be enough to label it.Of the present age, one of the nameplates will carry the word "Conservation." The first time a museum visitor walks by that label he will probably stop, push back the plexiglas globe of his space helmet and say to himself, "I never thought that conservation was a keynote of the Fifties." But I imagine he might agree as the pathetic truth of that label dawned on his tired body, accustomed to canned entertainment, synthetic flavors, and fighting the afternoon traffic of the jet lanes. I can imagine him musing: "Conservation, the hallmark of the Fifties. Somebody about that time said about something or other, 'too little and too late.'"

  8. Reconciling biodiversity and carbon conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Chris D; Anderson, Barbara J; Moilanen, Atte; Eigenbrod, Felix; Heinemeyer, Andreas; Quaife, Tristan; Roy, David B; Gillings, Simon; Armsworth, Paul R; Gaston, Kevin J

    2013-05-01

    Climate change is leading to the development of land-based mitigation and adaptation strategies that are likely to have substantial impacts on global biodiversity. Of these, approaches to maintain carbon within existing natural ecosystems could have particularly large benefits for biodiversity. However, the geographical distributions of terrestrial carbon stocks and biodiversity differ. Using conservation planning analyses for the New World and Britain, we conclude that a carbon-only strategy would not be effective at conserving biodiversity, as have previous studies. Nonetheless, we find that a combined carbon-biodiversity strategy could simultaneously protect 90% of carbon stocks (relative to a carbon-only conservation strategy) and > 90% of the biodiversity (relative to a biodiversity-only strategy) in both regions. This combined approach encapsulates the principle of complementarity, whereby locations that contain different sets of species are prioritised, and hence disproportionately safeguard localised species that are not protected effectively by carbon-only strategies. It is efficient because localised species are concentrated into small parts of the terrestrial land surface, whereas carbon is somewhat more evenly distributed; and carbon stocks protected in one location are equivalent to those protected elsewhere. Efficient compromises can only be achieved when biodiversity and carbon are incorporated together within a spatial planning process. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  9. Energy conservation using face detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.

    2011-10-01

    Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.

  10. Science, conservation, and camera traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas; O'Connel, Allan F.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Nichols, James D.; Karanth, K. Ullas

    2011-01-01

    Biologists commonly perceive camera traps as a new tool that enables them to enter the hitherto secret world of wild animals. Camera traps are being used in a wide range of studies dealing with animal ecology, behavior, and conservation. Our intention in this volume is not to simply present the various uses of camera traps, but to focus on their use in the conduct of science and conservation. In this chapter, we provide an overview of these two broad classes of endeavor and sketch the manner in which camera traps are likely to be able to contribute to them. Our main point here is that neither photographs of individual animals, nor detection history data, nor parameter estimates generated from detection histories are the ultimate objective of a camera trap study directed at either science or management. Instead, the ultimate objectives are best viewed as either gaining an understanding of how ecological systems work (science) or trying to make wise decisions that move systems from less desirable to more desirable states (conservation, management). Therefore, we briefly describe here basic approaches to science and management, emphasizing the role of field data and associated analyses in these processes. We provide examples of ways in which camera trap data can inform science and management.

  11. Superfluid plasmas: Multivelocity nonlinear hydrodynamics of superfluid solutions with charged condensates coupled electromagnetically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, D.D.; Kupershmidt, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Four levels of nonlinear hydrodynamic description are presented for a nondissipative multicondensate solution of superfluids with vorticity. First, the multivelocity superfluid (MVSF) theory is extended to the case of a multivelocity superfluid plasma (MVSP), in which some of the superfluid condensates (protons, say) are charged and coupled electromagnetically to an additional, normal, charged fluid (electrons). The resulting drag-current density is derived due to the electromagnetic coupling of the condensates with the normal fluids. For the case of one charged condensate, the MVSP equations simplify to what we call superfluid Hall magnetohydrodynamics (SHMHD) in the approximation that displacement current and electron inertia are negligible, and local charge neutrality is imposed. The contribution of the charged condensate to the Hall drift force is determined. In turn, neglecting the Hall effect in SHMHD gives the equations of superfluid magnetohydrodynamics (SMHD). Each set of equations (MVSF, MVSP, SHMHD, and SMHD) is shown to be Hamiltonian and to possess a Poisson bracket associated with the dual space of a corresponding semidirect-product Lie algebra with a generalized two-cocycle defined on it. Topological conservation laws (helicities) associated with the kernels of these Lie algebras are also discussed as well as those associated physically with generalized Kelvin theorems for conservation of superfluid circulation around closed loops moving with the normal fluid

  12. Course Notes: United States Particle Accelerator School Beam Physics with Intense Space-Charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, J.J.; Lund, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the physics of beams with intense space charge. This course is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in accelerator systems that require sufficient high intensity where mutual particle interactions in the beam can no longer be neglected. This course is intended to give the student a broad overview of the dynamics of beams with strong space charge. The emphasis is on theoretical and analytical methods of describing the acceleration and transport of beams. Some aspects of numerical and experimental methods will also be covered. Students will become familiar with standard methods employed to understand the transverse and longitudinal evolution of beams with strong space charge. The material covered will provide a foundation to design practical architectures. In this course, we will introduce you to the physics of intense charged particle beams, focusing on the role of space charge. The topics include: particle equations of motion, the paraxial ray equation, and the Vlasov equation; 4-D and 2-D equilibrium distribution functions (such as the Kapchinskij-Vladimirskij, thermal equilibrium, and Neuffer distributions), reduced moment and envelope equation formulations of beam evolution; transport limits and focusing methods; the concept of emittance and the calculation of its growth from mismatches in beam envelope and from space-charge non-uniformities using system conservation constraints; the role of space-charge in producing beam halos; longitudinal space-charge effects including small amplitude and rarefaction waves; stable and unstable oscillation modes of beams (including envelope and kinetic modes); the role of space charge in the injector; and algorithms to calculate space-charge effects in particle codes. Examples of intense beams will be given primarily from the ion and proton accelerator communities with applications from, for example, heavy-ion fusion, spallation

  13. Determination of critical density of charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1992-11-01

    In this work is given a full theoretically treatment of the problem how to determine the critical density of charge on nonconductive rectangular charged surfaces placed near a small spherical conductive and earthed surface. (author). 11 refs, 2 figs

  14. Complementary surface charge for enhanced capacitive deionization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Porada, S.; Omosebi, A.; Liu, K.L.; Biesheuvel, P.M.; Landon, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercially available activated carbon cloth electrodes are treated using nitric acid and ethylenediamine solutions, resulting in chemical surface charge enhanced carbon electrodes for capacitive deionization (CDI) applications. Surface charge enhanced electrodes are then configured in a CDI

  15. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-04-16

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.

  16. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  17. On the charge distribution of calcium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traeger, F.

    1981-01-01

    The mean square charge radii and the quadrupole moments of Ca nuclei are discussed in the light of theoretical predictions. The very peculiar dependence of the charge radii on the mass number between double magic 40 Ca and double magic 48 Ca can be ascribed to changes of the nuclear deformation, whereas the volume of the nuclear charge remains constant for all the Ca isotopes. Furthermore, correlations between nuclear charge radii and binding energies are discussed. (orig.)

  18. An Improved Wireless Battery Charging System

    OpenAIRE

    Woo-Seok Lee; Jin-Hak Kim; Shin-Young Cho; Il-Oun Lee

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a direct wireless battery charging system. The output current of the series-series compensated wireless power transfer (SS-WPT) system is used as a current source, and the output voltage of AC-DC converter controls the current source. Therefore, the proposed wireless battery charging system needs no battery charging circuit to carry out charging profiles, and can solve space constraints and thermal problems in many battery applications. In addition, the proposed wireless b...

  19. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  20. Charge Transport Along Phenylenevinylene Molecular Wires

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Abstract A model to calculate the mobility of charges along molecular wires is presented. The model is based on the tight-binding approximation and combines a quantum mechanical description of the charge with a classical description of the structural degrees of freedom. It is demonstrated that the average mobility of charge carriers along molecular wires can be obtained by time-propagation of states which are initially localised. The model is used to calculate the mobility of charg...