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Sample records for consequences chernobyl accident

  1. The Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  2. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerzabek, M.H.

    1990-10-01

    A collection of three papers about the fallout in Austria from the 1986 Chernobyl reactor accident is given: 1. An overview of the research projects in Austria; 2. On the transfer into and uptake by crops and animal fodder; 3. On the reduction of cesium concentration in food. 18 tabs., 21 figs., 69 refs

  4. The Chernobyl accidents: Causes and Consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chihab-Eddine, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this communication is to discuss the causes and the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. To facilitate the understanding of the events that led to the accident, the author gave a simplified introduction to the important physics that goes on in a nuclear reactor and he presented a brief description and features of chernobyl reactor. The accident scenario and consequences have been presented. The common contribution factors that led to both Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents have been pointed out.(author)

  5. Medical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galstyan I.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the long-term effects of acute radiation syndrome (ARS, developed at the victims of the Chernobyl accident. Material and Methods. 237 people were exposed during the accident, 134 of them were diagnosed with ARS. Dynamic observation implies a thorough annual examination in a hospital. Results. In the first 1.5-2 years after the ARS mean group indices of peripheral blood have returned to normal. However, many patients had transient expressed moderate cytopenias. Granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and erythropenia were the most frequently observed things during the first 5 years after the accident. After 5 years their occurences lowered. In 11 patients the radiation cataract was detected. A threshold dose for its development is a dose of 3.2 Gy Long-term effects of local radiation lesions (LRL range from mild skin figure smoothing to a distinct fibrous scarring, contractures, persistently recurrent late radiation ulcers. During all years of observation we found 8 solid tumors, including 2 thyroid cancers. 5 hematologic diseases were found. During 29 years 26 ARS survivors died of various causes. Conclusion. The health of ones with long-term ARS effects is determined by the evolution of the LRL effects on skin, radiation cataracts, hema-tological diseases and the accession of of various somatic diseases, not caused by radiation.

  6. Real and mythical consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmachkin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation describes the public Unacceptance of Nuclear Power as a consequence of Chernobyl Accident, an accident which was a severest event in the history of the nuclear industry. It was a shock for everybody, who has been involved in nuclear power programs. But nobody could expect that it was also the end romantic page in the nuclear story. The scale of the detriment was a great, and it could be compared with other big technological man-made catastrophes. But immediately after an accident mass media and news agencies started to transmit an information with a great exaggerations of the consequences of the event. In a report on the Seminar T he lessons of the Chernobyl - 1' in 1996 examples of such incorrect information, were cited. Particularly, in the mass media it was declared that consequences of the accident could be compared with a results of the second world war, the number of victims were more than hundred thousand people, more than million of children have the serious health detriments. Such and other cases of the misconstruction have been called as myths. The real consequences of Chernobyl disaster have been summed on the International Conference 'One decade after Chernobyl' - 2, in April 1996. A very important result of the Chernobyl accident was a dissemination of stable unacceptance of the everything connected with 'the atom'. A mystic horror from invisible mortal radiation has been inspired in the masses. And from such public attitude the Nuclear Power Programs in many countries have changed dramatically. A new more pragmatic and more careful atomic era started with a slogan: 'Kernkraftwerk ? Nein, danke'. No doubt, a Chernobyl accident was a serious technical catastrophe in atomic industry. The scale of detriment is connected with a number of involved peoples, not with a number of real victims. In comparison with Bhopal case, earthquakes, crashes of the airplanes, floods, traffic accidents and other risky events of our life - the Chernobyl is

  7. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snihs, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    It summarizes the consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident, describes the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, the measurement strategies, the activity levels and doses and countermeasures and action levels used. Past and remaining problems are discussed and the major investigations and improvements are given. (author)

  8. Consequences in Guatemala of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Sabino, J.F.; Ayala Jimenez, R.E.

    1997-01-01

    Because of the long distance between Guatemala and Chernobyl, the country did not undergo direct consequences of radioactive contamination in the short term. However, the accident repercussions were evident in the medium and long-term, mainly in two sectors, the economic-political and the environmental sectors

  9. Health consequences [of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramoutar, S.

    1996-01-01

    The World Health Organisation Conference on the Health Consequences of the Chernobyl and Other Radiological Accidents, held in Geneva last November, is reported. The lack of representation from the civil nuclear industry led often to one-sided debates instigated by the anti-nuclear lobbies present. Thyroid cancer in children as a result of the Chernobyl accident received particular attention. In Belarus, 400 cases have been noted, 220 in Ukraine and 60 in the Russian Federation. All have been treated with a high degree of success. The incidence of this cancer would be expected to follow the fallout path as the main exposure route was ingestion of contaminated foods and milk products. It was noted that the only way to confirm causality was if those children born since the accident failed to show the same increased incidence. Explanations were offered for the particular susceptibility of children to thyroid cancer following exposure to radiation. Another significant cause of concern was the health consequences to clean-up workers in radiological accidents. The main factor is psychological problems from the stress of knowing that they have received high radiation doses. A dramatic increase in psychological disorders has occurred in the Ukraine over the past ten years and this is attributed to stress generated by the Chernobyl accident, compounded by the inadequacy of the public advice offered at the time and the socio-economic uncertainties accompanying the breakup of the former USSR. (UK)

  10. The Chernobyl nuclear accident and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    An AAEC Task Group was set up shortly after the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to monitor and evaluate initial reports and to assess the implications for Australia. The Task Group issued a preliminary report on 9 May 1986. On 25-29 August 1986, the USSR released details of the accident and its consequences and further information has become available from the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD and the World Health Organisation. The Task Group now presents a revised report summarising this information and commenting on the consequences from the Australian viewpoint

  11. The Chernobyl accident and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenko, V; Ivanov, V; Tsyb, A; Bogdanova, T; Tronko, M; Demidchik, Yu; Yamashita, S

    2011-05-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant was the worst industrial accident of the last century that involved radiation. The unprecedented release of multiple different radioisotopes led to radioactive contamination of large areas surrounding the accident site. The exposure of the residents of these areas was varied and therefore the consequences for health and radioecology could not be reliably estimated quickly. Even though some studies have now been ongoing for 25 years and have provided a better understanding of the situation, these are yet neither complete nor comprehensive enough to determine the long-term risk. A true assessment can only be provided after following the observed population for their natural lifespan. Here we review the technical aspects of the accident and provide relevant information on radioactive releases that resulted in exposure of this large population to radiation. A number of different groups of people were exposed to radiation: workers involved in the initial clean-up response, and members of the general population who were either evacuated from the settlements in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant vicinity shortly after the accident, or continued to live in the affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. Through domestic efforts and extensive international co-operation, essential information on radiation dose and health status for this population has been collected. This has permitted the identification of high-risk groups and the use of more specialised means of collecting information, diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Because radiation-associated thyroid cancer is one of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl accident, a particular emphasis is placed on this malignancy. The initial epidemiological studies are reviewed, as are the most significant studies and/or aid programmes in the three affected countries. Copyright © 2011 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  12. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2003-01-01

    The reactor accident at unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine has deeply affected the living conditions of millions of people. Especially the health consequences have been of public concern up to the present and also been the subject of sometimes absurd claims. The current knowledge on the radiological consequences of the accident is reviewed. Though an increased hazard for some risk groups with high radiation exposure, e.g., liquidators, still cannot be totally excluded for the future, the majority of the population shows no statistically significant indication of radiation-induced illnesses. The contribution of the Research Center Juelich to the assessment of the post-accidental situation and psychological relief of the population is reported. The population groups still requiring special attention include, in particular, children growing up in highly contaminated regions and the liquidators of the years 1986 and 1987 deployed immediately after the accident. (author)

  13. The consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoechel, A.

    1988-01-01

    After the decay of the iodine isotopes the measuring campaigns, in addition to the measuring of soil pollution and pollution of products, concentrated on the way of the cesium isotopes through the food chain, especially in crops, milk, meat and mother's milk. A special programme was developed for the analysis of foreign basic substances for teas, essences and tinctures. In connection with the incorporation measurements in the university hospital Eppendorf the measurement campaigns provided the data material in order to calculate with the aid of the computer program ECOSYS of the GSF the effective dose equivalent which the inhabitants of Hamburg additionally take up due to the accident of Chernobyl. Consequences with regard to measuring methods and social consequences are mentioned. (DG) [de

  14. Radiological consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.

    2002-01-01

    Fifty years of peaceful utilization of nuclear power were interrupted by the reactor accident in unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in Ukraine in 1986, a disruptive event whose consequences profoundly affected the way of life of millions of people, and which has moved the public to this day. Releases of radioactive materials contaminated large areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. Early damage in the form of radiation syndrome was suffered by a group of rescue workers and members of the reactor operating crew, in some cases with fatal consequences, while the population does not, until now, show a statistically significant increase in the rate of late damage due to ionizing radiation expect for thyroid diseases in children. In particular, no increases in the rates of solid tumors, leukaemia, genetic defects, and congenital defects were detected. For some risk groups exposed to high radiation doses (such as liquidators) the hazard may still be greater, but the large majority of the population need not live in fear of serious impacts on health. Nevertheless, the accident shows major negative social and psychological consequences reinforced by the breakdown of the Soviet Union. This may be one reason for the observed higher incidence of other diseases whose association with the effects of radiation as a cause has not so far been proven. The measurement campaign conducted by the federal government in 1991-1993 addressed these very concerns of the public in an effort to provide unbiased information about exposures detected, on the one hand, in order to alleviate the fears of the public and reduce stress and, on the other hand, to contribute to the scientific evaluation of the radiological situation in the regions most highly exposed. The groups of the population requiring special attention in the future include especially children growing up in highly contaminated regions, and the liquidators of 1986 and 1987 employed in the period immediately

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.; Nedvecktaite, T.; Filistovic, V.

    1997-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident of 26 April, 1986, population dose assessment favours the view that the radiation risk of population effected by the early fallout would be different from that in regions contaminated later. Taking into account the short half-time of the most important radioactive iodine isotopes, thyroid disorders would be expected mainly to follow the early fallout distribution. At the time of accident at Unite 4 of the Chernobyl NPP, surface winds were from the Southeast. The initial explosions and heat carried volatile radioactive materials to the 1,5 km height, from where they were transported over the Western part of Belarus, Southern and Western part of Lithuania toward Scandinavian countries. Thus the volatile radioiodine and some other radionuclides were detected in Lithuania on the very first days after the accident. The main task of the work - to conduct short Half-time radioiodine and long half-time radiocesium dose assessment of Lithuanian inhabitants a result of the early Chernobyl accident fallout

  16. Consequences in Sweden of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haegg, Conny.

    1990-01-01

    The radiation doses to man in Sweden due to the Chernobyl accident originate mainly from external irradiation from deposited radionuclides and internal irradiation from consumption of radioactively contaminated food stuffs. Inhalation and external irradiation from the passing cloud give only a minor contribution to the total dose. As an average for the Swedish population the individual radiation dose during the first year amounts to about 0.1 mSv, i.e. 10% of the natural background radiation. In the most contaminated areas, however, the individual dose may become 30 times higher than the average dose. The dose committed over 50 years has estimated to be about six times as high as the first year dose. The collective dose for the Swedish population has been estimated to about 1300 manSv the first year after the accident and the corresponding dose over 50 years to 5000 to 7000 manSv. This could lead to 100 to 200 extra fatal cancers. Furthermore, no damages on man that can be related to Chernobyl fallout, e.g. pre-natal effects, have so far been observed in Sweden. Shortly after the accident, several research projects were initiated in Sweden in order to follow the distribution of radionuclides in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. The results which in many cases are preliminary, shows that the recovery of the ecosystem will take several decades. (author)

  17. The Chernobyl accident: The consequences in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmonds, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The accidental release of radioactive material from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR led to widespread contamination over Europe. The pattern of the contamination was determined by the weather conditions which occurred during the days when the release was continuing. Actual levels depended on a number of factors including the distance and direction from Chernobyl, rainfall during the passage of the radioactive cloud and local conditions such as topography. The highest levels of radioactivity have been found in parts of Scandanavia, which was affected by the early stages of the release, and in areas where it rained during the passage of the plume e.g. in parts of Italy, Greece and West Germany. Following the release of radionuclides to atmosphere people will be irradiated by a number of different routes. While the cloud is overhead people will be exposed to external irradiation from material in the cloud and internal irradiation following inhalation of the material. Radionuclides are removed from the cloud during transit and deposited on the ground. People are then exposed by other routes, notably external irradiation from the deposited material and the transfer of material through the terrestrial environment to foods consumed by people. These four exposure pathways are the most important in estimating the radiation doses received by the European population due to the Chernobyl accident. Environmental data are required to estimate the radiation doses. Such data are collected in all European countries by national authorities following the Chernobyl accident. In East Europe measurement data supplied by the national authorities were supplemented by information obtained by using the British embassies. The Embassies were supplied with instruments to measure external γ dose rates and they also collected food samples for analysis at NRPB. Various countermeasures were introduced in different countries to reduce exposure. These measures included restrictions on

  18. The Chernobyl accident: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Two explosions, one immediately following the other, in Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union signaled the worst disaster ever to befall the commercial nuclear power production industry. This accident, which occurred at 1:24 a.m. on April 26, 1986, resulted from an almost incredible series of operational errors associated, ironically, with an attempt to enhance the capability of the reactor to safely accommodate station blackout accidents (i.e., accidents arising from a loss of station electrical power). Disruption of the core, due to a prompt criticality excursion, resulted in the destruction of the core vault and reactor building and the sudden dispersal of about 3% of the fuel from the core region into the environment. Lesser but significant releases of radioactivity continued through May 6, 1986, before attempts to certain the radioactivity and cool the remnants of the core were successful. The amount and composition of material released in the course of the accident remain somewhat uncertain, and inconsistencies in the release estimates are evident. The Soviet estimates, in addition to the dispersal of about 3% of the fuel, include complete release of the noble gas core inventory, 20% of the fission product iodine inventory, 15% of the tellurium inventory, and 10 to 13% of the fission product cesium inventory. The iodine and cesium release estimates are not consistent with the noble gas values, and are as much as a factor of two less than some estimates made by experts outside the Soviet Union

  19. Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    This ''Information on economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident'' was presented to the July 1990 session of the Economic and Social Council of the United Nations by the delegations of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic. It presents the radiation situation, the medical aspects of the accident, the evacuation of the inhabitants from areas affected by radioactive contamination and their social welfare, the agro-industrial production and forestry in these areas, the decontamination operations, the scientific back-up for the work dealing with the consequences of the accident and the expenditure and losses resulting from the Chernobyl disaster

  20. Incidence Probability of Delayed Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Ghani, A.H.; El-Naggar, A.M.; El-Kadi, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    During the first international Conference on the long -term consequences of the Chernobyl disaster in 1995 at Kiev, and also during the 1996 International Conference at Vienna, Summing up the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the data regarding the delayed health consequences were mainly related to thyroid cancer, hereditary disorders, general morbidity, mortality and psychological disturbances. Contrary to expectations, the incidences of Leukemia and Soft Tissue tumors were similar to the spontaneous incident. The expected delayed effects, however, among the accident survivors, the liquidators and populations resident in contaminated areas would show higher incidence probability to Leukemia. These population groups have been continuously exposed to low level radiation both externally and internally. Application of the new ICRP concept of radiation-induced Detriment, and the Nominal Probability Coefficient for Cancer and hereditary effects for both workers and populations are used as the rationale to calculate the incidence probability of occurrence of delayed health effects of the Chernobyl accidents

  1. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-01-01

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 μSv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  2. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    In this report the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The flow pattern to Greece of the radioactive materials released, the measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some estimations of the population doses and of the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  3. Chernobyl radiological data for accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottino, A.; Sacripanti, A.

    1989-01-01

    In this draft is presented the results of a first effort to summarize information related to the radionuclides behaviour in rural areas, in order to estimate pathway parameters to assess accident consequences. This topic encloses relevant aspects concerning contamination of rural environment, the most important being: 1) dry deposition velocities; 2) washout coefficient; 3) accumulation in lakes; 4) migration in soil; 5) winter conditions; 6) filtering effects of forests

  4. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident: thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu; Ashizawa, Kiyoto

    1997-01-01

    An International Conference entitled 'One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident' was held at the Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996. The aim of conference was to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. It was concluded that a highly significant increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer among those persons in the affected areas who were children in 1986 is the only clear evidence to data of a public health impact of radiation exposure as a result of the Chernobyl accident and both temporal and geographical distributions clearly indicate a relationship of the increase in incidence to radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident. To clarify the relationship between thyroid cancer and radioactive fallout more clearly, a long term prospective study (case-control/cohort) should be conducted in the highly risk groups and the analysis of accurate estimation of exposure dose to external and/or internal radiation is needed. (author)

  5. Source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, R.

    1987-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study of the source term and radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The results two parts. The first part was performed during the first 2 months following the accident and dealt with the evaluation of the source term and an estimate of individual doses in the European countries outside the Soviet Union. The second part was performed after August 25-29, 1986 when the Soviets presented in a IAEA Conference in Vienna detailed information about the accident, including source term and radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. The second part of the study reconfirms the source term evaluated in the first part and in addition deals with the radiological consequences in the Soviet Union. Source term and individual doses are calculated from measured post-accident data, reported by the Soviet Union and European countries, microcomputer program PEAR (Public Exposure from Accident Releases). 22 refs

  6. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph.

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m -2 ), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at present the dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 μSv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded before

  7. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France. Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document proposes a set of commented maps, graphs and drawings which illustrate and describe various consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, such as air contamination (scattering of radioactive particles emitted by the reactor explosion by the wind over thousands of kilometres, evolution of air contamination between April 30 and May 5 1986), ground deposits (influence of rain, heterogeneity of these deposits), contamination of farm products (relationship between the accident date and the deposit characteristics, variable decrease rate of contamination, faster decrease of farm product contamination that caesium radioactive decay since 1987, particular cases of some more sensitive products), health effects (low doses received by the French population, concerns about thyroid cancers)

  8. Reports of the Chernobyl accident consequences in Brazilian newspapers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, Roberto; Oliveira, Rosana Lagua de

    2009-01-01

    The public perception of the risks associated with nuclear power plants was profoundly influenced by the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl Power Plants which also served to exacerbate in the last decades the growing mistrust on the 'nuclear industry'. Part of the mistrust had its origin in the arrogance of nuclear spokesmen and in the secretiveness of nuclear programs. However, press agencies have an important role in shaping and upsizing the public awareness against nuclear energy. In this paper we present the results of a survey in reports of some Brazilian popular newspapers on Chernobyl consequences, as measured by the total death toll of the accident, to show the up and down dance of large numbers without any serious judgment. (author)

  9. Chernobyl accident: Causes, consequences and problems of radiation measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortov, V.; Ustyantsev, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    General description of Chernobyl accident is given in the review. The accident causes are briefly described. Special attention is paid to radiation situation after the accident and radiation measurements problems. Some data on Chernobyl disaster are compared with the corresponding data on Fukushima accident. It is noted that Chernobyl and Fukushima lessons should be taken into account while developing further measures on raising nuclear industry safety. -- Highlights: ► The short comparative analysis of accidents at Chernobyl and Fukushima is given. ► We note the great effect of β-radiation on the radiation situation at Chernobyl. ► We discuss the problems of radiation measurements under these conditions. ► The impact of shelter on the radiation situation near Chernobyl NPS is described

  10. Primary disability of the Chernobyl Accident consequences liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubritskij, M.K.; Plakhotya, L.P.; Kalinina, T.V.; Zhilinskaya, E.I.

    1994-01-01

    The structure of courses of the primary invalidism of the Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators is studies. The main reasons of the loss of a capacity for work are blood circulation diseases (41.9%), neoplasms (19.9%), diseases of the nervous system and sense organs (9.7%), mental disorders (5.9%) and endocrine diseases (5.5%). The invalids distribution in the different regions and in different age groups according to the disease forms is analysed. The average durations of the diseases resulting in the primary invalidism are about 2.8 years. In average the illnesses began in the 3.1 years. 6 refs

  11. First international workshop on severe accidents and their consequences. [Chernobyl Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-07-01

    An international workshop on past severe nuclear accidents and their consequences was held in Dagomys region of Sochi, USSR on October 30--November 3, 1989. The plan of this meeting was approved by the USSR Academy of Sciences and by the USSR State Committee of the Utilization of Atomic Energy. The meeting was held under the umbrella of the ANS-SNS agreement of cooperation. Topics covered include analysis of the Chernobyl accident, safety measures for RBMK type reactors and consequences of the Chernobyl accident including analysis of the ecological, genetic and psycho-social factors. Separate reports are processed separately for the data bases. (CBS)

  12. Consequences of the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, H.M.; Reis, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident, in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR), on April 26, 1986, was the first major nuclear power plant accident that resulted in a large-scale fire and subsequent explosions, immediate and delayed deaths of plant operators and emergency service workers, and the radioactive contamination of a significant land area. The release of radioactive material, over a 10-day period, resulted in millions of Soviets, and other Europeans, being exposed to measurable levels of radioactive fallout. Because of the effects of wind and rain, the radioactive nuclide fallout distribution patterns are not well defined, though they appear to be focused in three contiguous Soviet Republics: the Ukrainian SSR, the Byelorussian SSR, and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Further, because of the many radioactive nuclides (krypton, xenon, cesium, iodine, strontium, plutonium) released by the prolonged fires at Chernobyl, the long-term medical, psychological, social, and economic effects will require careful and prolonged study. Specifically, studies on the medical (leukemia, cancers, thyroid disease) and psychological (reactive depressions, post-traumatic stress disorders, family disorganization) consequences of continued low dose radiation exposure in the affected villages and towns need to be conducted so that a coherent, comprehensive, community-oriented plan may evolve that will not cause those already affected any additional harm and confusion

  13. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The monograph contains the catastrophe's events chronology, the efficiency assessed of those measures assumed for their localization as well as their environmental and socio-economic impact. Among materials of the monograph the results are presented of research on the radioactive contamination field forming as well as those concerning the investigation of biogeochemical properties of Chernobyl radionuclides and their migration process in the environment of the Ukraine. The data dealing with biological effects of the continued combined internal and external radioactive influence on plants, animals and human health under the circumstances of Chernobyl accident are of the special interest. In order to provide the scientific generalizing information on the medical aspects of Chernobyl catastrophe, the great part of the monograph is allotted to appraise those factors affecting the health of different population groups as well as to depict clinic aspects of Chernobyl events and medico-sanitarian help system. The National Programme of Ukraine for the accident consequences elimination and population social protection assuring for the years 1986-1993 and this Programme concept for the period up to the year 2000 with a special regard of the world community participation there

  14. Chernobyl accident: causes and consequences (expert conclusion). Part 3. Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterenko, V.B.

    1992-01-01

    Expert conclusion is presented on the Chernobyl accident effect on Belarus. Problems of ground and food contamination, medical and biological radiation effects on the population are considered. Attention is paid to the radiation monitoring and radiometric gages. Scale of the damage for forestry and agriculture is described and recommendations on the agriculture is described and recommendations on the agricultural production and forest utilization at contaminated areas are given. 24 refs.; 4 figs.; 24 tabs

  15. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanovic, S; Pavlovic, S [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1997-09-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers. 2 refs.

  16. Social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Yugoslavia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milanovic, S.; Pavlovic, S.

    1997-01-01

    A day before the accident in Chernobyl, Yugoslavia was the country with nuclear energy programme, one nuclear power plant and strong affiliation towards nuclear fuel cycle. Public relation programs did not existed. The majority of information were classified and public trust was almost undisturbed. It was almost possible to say that the public attitude was indifferent. A month later everything was quite different. The public has been awaken from sleepy unconscious. The public reaction moved from surprise, interest and hunger for information to chronic suspicion. In years later phobic and radiophonic reaction become common place. The final consequence today is huge magnifying lens of public eye, watching carefully everything connected with radiation, even trivial matters, and thus forming strong pressure to decision makers

  17. Immediate medical consequences of nuclear accidents: lessons from Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    The immediate medical response to the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station involved containment of the radioactivity and evacuation of the nearby population. The next step consisted of assessment of the radiation dose received by individuals, based on biological dosimetry, and treatment of those exposed. Medical care involved treatment of skin burns; measures to support bone marrow failure, gastrointestinal tract injury, and other organ damage (i.e., infection prophylaxis and transfusions) for those with lower radiation dose exposure; and bone marrow transplantation for those exposed to a high dose of radiation. At Chernobyl, two victims died immediately and 29 died of radiation or thermal injuries in the next three months. The remaining victims of the accident are currently well. A nuclear accident anywhere is a nuclear accident everywhere. Prevention and cooperation in response to these accidents are essential goals

  18. Accidents - Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  19. Accident on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. Getting over the consequences and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    The book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of the accident on the 4th Power Unit of the Chernobyl NPP. The power plant construction history, accident reasons, its consequences, the measures on its liquidation are represented. The current state of activity on the Chernobyl power unit decommission, the 'Shelter' object conversion into the ecologically safe system is described. The future of the Chernobyl NPP site and disposal zone is discussed

  20. Legal consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the FRG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The author considers that the Chernobyl accident was a challenge to lawmakers and lawyers. This paper reviews the different aspects under which it has tested the legal system governing the peaceful use of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. In particular, regulations protecting the public from the dangers of ionizing radiation proved to be inadequate and had to be amended (NEA) [fr

  1. The radioecological consequences of Chernobyl accident for fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabov, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    The estimate of dynamics of radionuclides concentration in muscles of some game-fish from Kiev reservoir and likes in Bryansk region for period after Chernobyl accident was carried out. The concentration of 137 Cs in fish has not exceeded the admissible concentration (600 Bq/kg ww) since 1993. The exceptions are the cooling-pond of Chernobyl NPP and Kozlanovskoe Lake where the concentration of 137 Cs in fish's muscles exceeded the admissible level more than 5-6 times even in 1995. It was concluded that chronic irradiation of game-fish in water bodies outside 30-km zone would not affect the volume of fishing

  2. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I.; Satow, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  3. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident for Belarus republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.; Nikolaev, D.; Novikova, I. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus); Satow, Yukio

    1998-03-01

    various uncertainties. Only direct methods, which count the final effect, with all their drawbacks, can provide accurate information on genetic losses. We have estimated possible genetic consequences for the residents of Belarus Republic due to the Chernobyl accident by studying malformations found in legal medical abortuses and by counting congenital anomalies in fetuses and newborns. (J.P.N.)

  4. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  5. Problems of softening the Chernobyl accident consequences. Proceedings of the International seminar. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Proceedings of the International seminar on the Problems to soften the Chernobyl accident consequences held by the International Association of Dissemination of Knowledge and the Russian branch of the Society on the Dissemination of Knowledge in Bryansk in 1993. The proceedings of the seminar deal with the study of scientific and practical activity linked with the elimination of the Chernobyl accident effects. Main theoretical concepts used as the basis of the elaborated regulations are presented, as well; ways and techniques to soften the consequences of the Chernobyl accident to decontaminate the affected territories and to protect the population health are discussed

  6. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its consequences. 3. rev. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a comprehensive survey of measured data explaining the radiation exposure in the Land Hessen, and a chronological survey of the decisions and measures taken by the Hessian regional government in response to the Chernobyl reactor accident. The measures for instance included selection of appropriate measuring methods and sites, checking of various environmental material, waste disposal surveillance, and dose assessments, and a range of monitoring programmes. (PW) [de

  7. Development of information resources package for the Chernobyl accident and its consequences by INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negeri, B.; Tolstenkov, A.; Rieder, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident was a global catastrophe that captured global attention and as such literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains about 21000 bibliographic records and 9000 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to August 2006. Based on these extensive resources INIS released a DVD that contained bibliographic references and full text documents as well a bibliometric study of the Chernobyl references on the occasion of the International Conference entitled 'Chernobyl: Looking Back to Go Forwards' held in Vienna on 6 and 7 September 2005. Subsequently, INIS decided to release Revision 1 of the DVD in August 2006 for the twentieth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident with additional value added information sources. This paper briefly discusses the bibliometric parameters of the references, the contents of DVD and the activities undertaken to produce the Chernobyl information resources package

  8. The international conference ''one decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    An International Conference entitled ''One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' was held at the Austria Center Vienna from 8 to 12 April 1996, the aim being to seek a common and conclusive understanding of the nature and magnitude of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The Conference was attended by 845 participants and observers from 71 countries and 20 organizations and covered by 208 journalists from 31 countries and two organizations

  9. On the sequence and consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennies, H H

    1986-01-01

    A serious reactor accident occurred on April 26, 1986 at Chernobyl near Kiev (Soviet Union) where, after melting of the core, there was a considerable release of radioactivity to the environment and to the atmosphere. The radioactivity release caused irradiation of the operating staff, which led to 24 deaths by June 1986. Hardly anything is known about the irradiation of the environment of the reactor plant, but the population within a radius of 30 km was evacuated. The radioactivity released into the atmosphere spread all over Europe, and Germany was affected a few days after the accident. The article gives a short description of the plant which suffered the accident, one tries to describe the course of the accident and to discuss the applicability to German plants.

  10. Radiological consequence of Chernobyl nuclear power accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    Two years have elapsed since the accident in Chernobyl nuclear power station shocked those concerned with nuclear power generation. The effect that this accident exerted on human environment has still continued directly and indirectly, and the reports on the effect have been made in various countries and by international organizations. In Japan, about the exposure dose of Japanese people due to this accident, the Nuclear Safety Commission and Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute issued the reports. In this report, the available data concerning the envrionmental radioactivity level in Japan due to the Chernobyl accident are collected, and the evaluation of exposure dose which seems most appropriate from the present day scientific viewpoint was attempted by the detailed analysis in the National Institute of Radiological Sciences. The enormous number of the data observed in various parts of Japan were different in sampling, locality, time and measuring method, so difficulty arose frequently. The maximum concentration of I-131 in floating dust was 2.5 Bq/m 3 observed in Fukui, and the same kinds of radioactive nuclides as those in Europe were detected. (Kako, I.)

  11. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Howe, Geoffrey; Ron, Elaine

    2006-01-01

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (review)

  12. Cancer consequences of the Chernobyl accident: 20 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, Elisabeth [International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon CEDEX 08 (France); Howe, Geoffrey [Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, 722 W. 168th Street, Room 1104, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Ron, Elaine [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Building EPS, MS 7238, Rockville, MD 20852 (United States)] (and others)

    2006-06-15

    26 April 2006 marks the 20th anniversary of the Chernobyl accident. On this occasion, the World Health Organization (WHO), within the UN Chernobyl Forum initiative, convened an Expert Group to evaluate the health impacts of Chernobyl. This paper summarises the findings relating to cancer. A dramatic increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed among those exposed to radioactive iodines in childhood and adolescence in the most contaminated territories. Iodine deficiency may have increased the risk of developing thyroid cancer following exposure to radioactive iodines, while prolonged stable iodine supplementation in the years after exposure may reduce this risk. Although increases in rates of other cancers have been reported, much of these increases appear to be due to other factors, including improvements in registration, reporting and diagnosis. Studies are few, however, and have methodological limitations. Further, because most radiation-related solid cancers continue to occur decades after exposure and because only 20 years have passed since the accident, it is too early to evaluate the full radiological impact of the accident. Apart from the large increase in thyroid cancer incidence in young people, there are at present no clearly demonstrated radiation-related increases in cancer risk. This should not, however, be interpreted to mean that no increase has in fact occurred: based on the experience of other populations exposed to ionising radiation, a small increase in the relative risk of cancer is expected, even at the low to moderate doses received. Although it is expected that epidemiological studies will have difficulty identifying such a risk, it may nevertheless translate into a substantial number of radiation-related cancer cases in the future, given the very large number of individuals exposed. (rev0009i.

  13. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  14. RADIOLOGICAL AND MEDICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Bebeshko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available From the position of a 25-years’ experience to overcome the health effects of Chernobyl the dynamics of the radiation environment, the first summarizing at the international level (1988, the results of completed research and practical monitoring are analyzed. Cohort of acute radiation syndrome (ARS survivors under medical observation at the S.I. "Research Center for Radiation Medicine of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine" is the largest. Within the 25 years the functional state of the major organs and body systems, and metabolic homeostasis for this category of persons were studied, a comprehensive assessment of their health, mental and physical performance were given, and risk factors and peculiarities of stochastic and non-stochastic pathology courses were identified, as well as a system of rehabilitation patients after ARS was developed. ARS survivors are suffering from chronic diseases of internal organs and systems (from 5-7 to 10-12 diagnoses at the same time. A correlation between acute radiation effects and specific HLA phenotypes were revealed. The dynamics of the immune system recovery after irradiation was studied. The role and prognostic value of telomere length and programmed cell death of lymphocytes in the formation of the cellular effects of ionizing radiation were determined for the first time. Differences between spontaneous and radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemias were found. Dose-dependent neuropsychiatric, neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neuroimaging deviations were identified after irradiation at doses above 0.3 Sv. It was shown that the lymphocytes of Chernobyl clean-up workers with doses 350 – 690 mGy can induce "the bystander effect" in the non-irradiated cells even after 19 years after exposure. The rates of cancer incidence and mortality of victims, the lessons and key problems to be solved in the third decade after the Chernobyl accident are considered.

  15. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, G.; Rydberg, A.; Åhman, B.

    1990-01-01

    Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption

  16. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaf Åhman

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Large parts of the reindeer hearding area in Sweden were contaminated with radioactive caesium from the Chernobyl fallout. During the first year after the accident no food with activity concentrations exceeding 300 Bq/kg was allowed to be sold in Sweden. This meant that about 75% of all reindeer meat produced in Sweden during the autumn and winter 1986/87 were rejected because of too high caesium activités. In May 1987 the maximum level for Cs-137 in reindeer, game and fresh-water fish was raised to 1500 Bq/kg. During the last two year, 1987/88 and 1988/89, about 25% of the slaughtered reindeer has had activities exceeding this limit. The effective long-time halflife or radiocaesium in reindeer after the nuclear weapon tests in the sixties was about 7 years. If this halflife is correct also for the Chernobyl fallout it will take about 35 years before most of the reinder in Sweden are below the current limit 1500 Bq/kg in the winter. However, by feeding the animals uncontaminated food for about two months, many reindeer can be saved for human consumption.

  17. The consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident in Greece - Report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In this report a realistic estimate of the radioactive fallout on Greece from the Chernobyl nuclear accident is described. The measurements performed on environmental samples and samples of the food chain, as well as some realistic estimations for the population doses and the expected consequences of the accident are presented. The analysis has shown that the radiological impact of the accident in Greece can be considered minor. (J.K.)

  18. Consequences of radioactive fallout - Experience acquired from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutzko Alexandre

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents considerations on the nature of protection measures which were taken following the Chernobyl accident. Six methods used in Belarus aiming at reducing the radionuclide concentration in soils are listed which resulted in a reduction by a factor of 1.5 to 2 of the contamination levels in different agricultural products after 1986. A table is given showing the continuous decrease between 1986 and 1991 in the amount of sold meat and milk on market having doses exceeding the admissible values. In 1994 an increase in the ratio of contaminated products is explained as being due to investment reduction and to augmentation of transfer coefficients produced by an extremely hot summer. In conclusion it is stressed that lifting and removing the superficial layers of contaminated soils proved to be an inefficient method of decontaminating vast areas. Certain lands will not be cultivated for long as no protective action can be conducted to get them returned to agriculture. If one forgives for an instant the natural decay it seems that never one can get rid of the radioactivity. An artificial reduction methods should be supported by an international experience in the field

  19. One decade after Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident. Proceedings of an international conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. Refs, figs, tabs

  20. Accidents - Chernobyl accident; Accidents - accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This file is devoted to the Chernobyl accident. It is divided in four parts. The first part concerns the accident itself and its technical management. The second part is relative to the radiation doses and the different contaminations. The third part reports the sanitary effects, the determinists ones and the stochastic ones. The fourth and last part relates the consequences for the other European countries with the case of France. Through the different parts a point is tackled with the measures taken after the accident by the other countries to manage an accident, the cooperation between the different countries and the groups of research and studies about the reactors safety, and also with the international medical cooperation, specially for the children, everything in relation with the Chernobyl accident. (N.C.)

  1. Cohort formation for epidemiological study of medical consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozhko, A.V.; Masyakin, V.B.; Vlasova, N.G.

    2008-01-01

    Belarus State Registry of the Chernobyl-affected population contains information about 276 000 residents of the Republic of Belarus exposed due to the Chernobyl NPP accident. Evidently, the population who lived in the evacuation zone was exposed mostly to radiation and also people participating in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences (emergency workers) within this zone in early post accident period of the catastrophe. Taking into account this criterion, we singled out the group out of all data files including all people who stayed in the evacuation zone not later than on May 31, 1986. The total number of the group made up 39 548 people including 4251 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. By preliminary estimation the number of person-years taking into account the deceased and left out of observation made up at the beginning of 2007- 735 600. During the period since 1986 there was detected 2671 cases of malignant tumors in the cohort and among people who were children and adolescents in 1986 there was registered 106 cases of malignant tumors (82% -thyroid cancer). Among 7483 of the deceased, malignant tumors is the cause of death at 1260 people. At present the real number of alive and remained subjects under observation makes up 25359 people including 2321 people who were under 18 at the moment of the accident. This group will form the base for further prospective research aiming at assessment of medical consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident. (author)

  2. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 2 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  3. Chernobyl accident and Danmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by the Secretary of State for the Environment. Volume 1 contains copies of original documents issued by Danish authorities during the first accident phase and afterwards. Evaluations, monitoring data, press releases, legislation acts etc. are included. (author)

  4. Level of health of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margine, L.; Vicol, C.

    2009-01-01

    During the period of 1986-1988 about 3,000 Moldova citizens took part in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences elimination. In this article the level of morbidity, disability and mortality among Chernobyl accident consequences liquidation participants is analyzed. As a result of analysis of medical documentation and statistical data was revealed that the sickness rate among disaster fighters 2,3 times higher than general sickness rate of the population in Moldova. Disability in this category is at average of 73 per cent as opposed to the overall index for the population of Moldova - 4,4%, this means it is 17 times higher. Mortality among the participants of the accident at Chernobyl NPP is 6 times higher of general data. The participants of the breakdown elimination of Chernobyl accident consequences are equal in their right with the participants and invalids of war and with the disabled workers. Medical and social security of this group is regulated by the legislation of the Republic of Moldova

  5. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for people and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This report recalls the accident scenario, discusses the dispersion of the radioactive plume, comments the contamination at the vicinity of the power station, discusses and comments data related to radioactive deposits in Europe and in France, comments available information regarding radioactive fallouts in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia (models have been used to assess radioactive deposits). It addresses the issue of food product contamination in these three countries (impact on farm products, on water streams and on forests), but also in France. It comments the health impacts, more particularly on the people who intervened on the site, but also on people who received medium doses. Thyroid cancer data are discussed for the three mainly concerned countries. Other pathologies and non-cancerous effects are also discussed. The mortality induced by the accident is commented. Effects in France are evoked as well as social and economic consequences in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The document provides several links to other documents for further and more detailed information

  6. Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capra, D.; Facchini, U.; Gianelle, V.; Ravasini, G.; Bacci, P.

    1988-01-01

    The radioactive cloud released during the Chernobyl accident reached the Padana plain and Lombardy in the night of April 30th 1986; the cloud remained in the northern Italian skies for a few days and then disappeared either dispersed by winds and washed by rains. The evidence in atmosphere of radionuclides as Tellurium, Iodine, Cesium, was promptly observed. The intense rain, in first week of may, washed the radioactivity and fall-out contamined the land, soil, grass. The present work concerns the overall contamination of the Northern Italy territory and in particular the radioactive fall-out in the Lakes region. Samples of soil have been measured at the gamma spectroscope; a correlation is found between the radionuclides concentration in soil samples and the rain intensity, when appropriate deposition models are considered. A number of measurements has been done on the Como'lake ecosystem: sediments, plankton, fishes and the overall fall-out in the area has been investigated

  7. In Vienna about Chernobyl. Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latek, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Joint EC/IAEA/WHO International Conference ''One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident'' has been held in Vienna, 8-12 April 1996. The most important subjects of the conference was: assessment of total releases and deposits, radiation doses, clinically observed effects, thyroid effects, longer term health effects, psychological and environmental consequences, social economic, institutional and political impact, nuclear safety, sarcophagus, perspective and prognosis

  8. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Takeyoshi

    1999-01-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  9. Research and managing institutions in Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The paper presents temporal changes of the national organizations in managing the Chernobyl accident and its activities. The National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine started its activity from the first days after the accident. In 1990 a special executive body, the State committee of Chernobyl Affairs was established in Ukraine to manage the whole activity to overcome the Chernobyl problems. In 1991 it was rearranged into the Ministry of Chernobyl Affairs. In 1996 a new Ministry of Ukraine on Emergences and Affairs of Population Protection from the Consequences of Chernobyl Catastrophe(MEA) was founded on the basis of the Min. Chernobyl and Headquarters Staff of Civil Defence. The National Commission on Radiological Protection of Ukraine (NCRPU) belongs to the Parliament structure. NCRPU is responsible for approval of radiological safety standards and derived regulations. Very often the regulation approved are stricter than the international recommendations. There is an essential lack of attention within the Parliament to the activity of NCRPU. Ministry of Health is responsible for all kinds of medical care for the people suffering from the Chernobyl Catastrophe. In order to provide permanent medical service, a nation-wide scheme has been worked out. Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine is the leading scientific institute of the Academy of Medical Sciences. The State scientific Center of Environmental Radio geochemistry was created in 1996 on the basis of the two departments of the Institute of Geochemistry. The Center was created in order to improve coordination and managing of scientific researches on the behavior of artificial and natural radionuclides and chemical substances in the environment etc.. The Chernobyl Scientific-Technical center for International Research was created in March,1996. The Ukrainian Scientific Hygienic Center of Ministry of Health was created in 1989 and included two institutions. The subjects, the direction of research works

  10. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirmarche, M.; Kellerer, A.M.; Bazyka, D.

    2006-01-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  11. Studies of radiological consequences on the reports of Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, Takeyoshi [Research Institute for Advanced Science and Technology, Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    1999-09-01

    1) Relation of radiation related quantities such as radioactivity, exposure, absorbed dose, dose equivalent, effective dose equivalent and radiation protection standards were explained as easy as a beginner could understand. 2) Using published data including IAEA data in the report 'One Decade After Chernobyl (Summary of the Conference Results, 1996)' and some reports, outline of explosion, exposure dose and radiation effects which gave to the human body were briefly described and some rational ways for understanding the data were shown. (author)

  12. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic

  13. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs.

  14. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from a round the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Refs, figs, tabs

  15. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident. Poster presentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The consequences attributed to the disastrous accident that occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant on 26 April 1986 have been subjected to extensive scientific examination; however, they are still viewed with widely differing perspectives. It is fitting then that, ten years after the accident, the European Commission (EC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) should jointly sponsor an international conference to review the consequences of the accident and to seek a common and conclusive understanding of their nature and magnitude. The International Conference on One Decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the Consequences of the Accident was held at the Austria Center, Vienna, on 8-12 April 1996. To facilitate the discussions of the Conference, background papers were prepared for the Technical Symposium by teams of scientists from around the world, who collaborated over a period of months to ascertain, consolidate and present the current state of knowledge in six key areas: clinically observed effects; thyroid effects; long term health effects; other health related effects; consequences for the environment; and the consequences in perspective: prognosis for the future. A background paper on the social, economic, institutional and political impact of the accident was prepared by Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. The conclusions of the Forum on Nuclear Safety Aspects served as a background paper on this topic. Ref, figs, tabs.

  16. Levels of endogenous regulatory factors in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liasko, L.I.; Souchkevitch, G.N.; Tsyb, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamics of endogenous regulatory factor levels was studied in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident (mean age - 42 years). Irradiation dose for 90% of examined individuals was within 100 mSv range. We observed a decreased level of synthesis of intracellular processes regulators (cAMP, cGMP) and biased ratio of arachidonic acid metabolites (TxB2, 6-Keto-PGF1α) in persons worked in the zone of accident at different time during the period of 1986-1988. The parameters measured were preserved even 4 years later and the changes apparently did not depend on the individual's age and work conditions. However they were most pronounced in liquidators of 1986 and in those who stayed in the Chernobyl accident zone for a long time. There was no evident connection between the dose and extent of the parameter alterations. (author)

  17. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspaugh, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant located just 100 km from the city of Kyiv in what was then the Soviet Union and now is Ukraine, and consequent ten days' reactor fire resulted in an unprecedented release of radiation and unpredicted adverse consequences both for the public and the environment. Indeed, the IAEA has characterized the event as the 'foremost nuclear catastrophe in human history' and the largest regional release of radionuclides into the atmosphere. Massive radioactive contamination forced the evacuation of more than 100,000 people from the affected region during 1986, and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200,000 from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident and have to deal with its environmental, health, social and economic consequences. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remedy contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine but resulted in substantial transboundary atmospheric transfer and subsequent contamination of numerous European countries that also encountered problems of radiation protection of their populations, although to less extent than the three more affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the impact of the nuclear disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with FAO, UNDP, UNEP, UNOCHA, UNSCEAR, WHO and The World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the Chernobyl Forum in 2003. The mission of the Forum was - through a series of managerial and expert meetings to generate 'authoritative consensual statements' on the environmental consequences and

  18. Chernobyl accident consequences in Germany: Nuclear safety and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelhauser, H.; Wendling, R.D.; Weiss, W.; Klonk, H.; Weil, L.

    1997-01-01

    A working Programme of the Federal Government was initiated on 26 May 1986 to cover all aspects of nuclear safety and public health, including research and public affairs in the light of the European and international activities resulting from the accident

  19. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph

    1998-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  20. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l`accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph

    1997-12-31

    After ten years and the taking in account of numerous data, it can be affirmed that the dosimetric consequences of Chernobyl accident will have been limited in France. for the period 1986-2046, the individual middle efficient dose commitment, for the area the most reached by depositing is inferior to 1500 {mu}Sv, that represents about 1% of middle natural exposure in the same time. but mountains and forests can have more important surface activities than in plain. Everywhere else, it can be considered that the effects of Chernobyl accident are disappearing. the levels of cesium 137 are now often inferior to what they were before the accident. (N.C.)

  1. The French-German initiative for Chernobyl: programme 3: Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tirmarche, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Radiological Protection and Human Health Div. (DRPH), Radiobiology and Epidemiology Dept., 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Kellerer, A.M. [Munchen Univ., Strahlenbiologisches Institut (Germany); Bazyka, D. [Chornobyl Center (CC), Kiev regoin (Ukraine)

    2006-07-01

    - Goals: The main objectives of the health programme are collection and validation of existing data on cancer and non cancer diseases in the most highly contaminated regions of Ukraine, Russia and Belarus, common scientific expertise on main health indicators and reliable dosimetry, and finally communication of the results to the scientific community and to the public. - General Tasks: 1- Comparison between high and low exposed regions, 2- Description of trends over time, 3- Consideration of specific age groups. This methodological approach is applied on Solid cancer incidence and leukaemia incidence in different regions in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, With a special focus on thyroid cancer in young exposed ages. - Thyroid cancer: Those exposed in very young ages continue to express a relatively high excess of thyroid cancer even though they have now reached the age group 15-29. Those exposed as young adults show a small increase, at least partly due to better screening conditions - Leukemia: Description of leukemia trends for various age groups show no clear difference between exposed and unexposed regions when focusing on those exposed at very young ages. The rates of childhood leukemia before and after the accident show no evidence of any increase (oblasts in Belarus over 1982-1998). - Specific studies: Incidence of congenital malformations in Belarus; Infant mortality and morbidity in the most highly contaminated regions; Potential effects of prenatal irradiation on the brain as a result of the Chernobyl accident; Nutritional status of population living in regions with different levels of contamination; Dosimetry of Chernobyl clean-up workers; Radiological passports in contaminated settlements. - Congenital malformations: As a national register was existing since the 1980's and gives the possibility to compare trends before and after the accident, results of congenital malformations describe large results collected over Belarus, There is no evidence of a

  2. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaoglou, A; Desmet, G; Kelly, G N; Menzel, H G [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-07-01

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10{sup th} anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10{sup th} anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support

  3. Proceedings of the first international conference 'The radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karaoglou, A.; Desmet, G.; Kelly, G.N.; Menzel, H.G.

    1996-01-01

    Five main objectives were assigned to the EC/CIS scientific collaborative programme: improvement of the knowledge of the relationship between doses and radiation-induced health effects; updating of the arrangements for off-site emergency management response (shot- and medium term)in the even of a future nuclear accident; assisting the relevant CIS Ministries alleviate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, in particular in the field of restoration of contaminated territories; elaboration of a scientific basis to definite the content of Community assistance programmes; updating of the local technical infrastructure, and implementation of a large programme of exchange of scientists between both Communities. The topics addressed during the Conference mainly reflect the content of the joint collaborative programme: environmental transfer and decontamination, risk assessment and management, health related issues including dosimetry. The main aims of the Conference are to present the major achievements of the joint EC/CIS collaborative research programme (1992-1995) of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and to promote an objective evaluation of them by the international scientific community. The Conference is taking place close to the 10 th anniversary of the accident and we hope it will contribute to more objective communication of the health and environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident, and how these may be mitigated in future. The Conference is expected to be an important milestone in the series of meetings which will take place internationally around the 10 th anniversary of the nuclear accident. It also provides a major opportunity for all participants to become acquainted with software developed within the framework of the collaborative programme, namely: Geographical Information Systems displaying contamination levels and dose-commitments; Decision Support Systems for the management of contaminated territories; Decision Support Systems

  4. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-08-01

    The material is taken from the conclusions of the Government Commission on the causes of the accident at the fourth unit of the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and was prepared by a team of experts appointed by the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy. It contains general material describing the accident, its causes, the action taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences, the radioactive contamination and health of the population and some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety. 7 annexes are devoted to the following topics: water-graphite channel reactors and operating experience with RBMK reactors, design of the reactor plant, elimination of the consequences of the accident and decontamination, estimate of the amount, composition and dynamics of the discharge of radioactive substances from the damaged reactor, atmospheric transport and radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, expert evaluation and prediction of the radioecological state of the environment in the area of the radiation plume from the Chernobyl' nuclear power station, medical-biological problems. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these annexes. The slides presented at the post-accident review meeting are grouped in two separate volumes

  5. Experience with psychological consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.A.; Druzhinin, A.M.; Druzhinina, E.S.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the image of radiation menance. Basic differences in image parameters are revealed for some population groups. The psychological levels of the image are regarded as psychological phenomena. Some specific psychological consequences of mental regression are outlined in the paper

  6. ILK statement on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Taking stock after twenty years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident was the consequence of a reactor design which was not inherently safe, and of a lack of 'safety culture'. The RBMK-type reactor (a Russian graphite-moderated light water reactor design: reaktor bolshoi moshnosty kanalny=high-power channel reactor) had not been designed to a satisfactory safety level, and the operating staff were not informed on the weak spots in plant design. The combination of these factors caused the worst nuclear accident, completely destroying the reactor. The consequences may be seen as the product of two severe accidents superimposed upon each other: the explosion of the reactor, and core melt-down associated with an intense, persistent fire of the graphite moderator. The Statement contains analyses of these points: Release, Propagation and Deposition of Radioactive Materials; Protective Measures; Impact on the Environment and Agriculture; Assessment of Radiation Exposure; Health Impact; Psychological and Societal Impacts; Potential Residual Risks. (orig.)

  7. On the assessment of adverse consequences of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlakova, E.B.

    2007-01-01

    of the damages. With this kind of low-level irradiation, the reparative systems either are not initiated (induced), or function inadequately, or are initiated with a delay, i.e., when the exposed object has already received radiation damages. Recently, the absence of reparation at low irradiation doses was verified on the cell level, and the complex character of the dose dependence was confirmed. Previously, we published a similar scheme of dependence of damages on irradiation dose, which was different for different dose ranges. According to the scheme, the quantitative characteristics were similar for the doses that differed by several orders of magnitude; in a certain dose range, the effect may have an opposite sign.The results obtained and supported by numerous experiments are important because the above dose dependences made it possible to come to conclusion about a radiogenic or non-radiogenic character of changes observed in an irradiated organism. The indisputable conclusion that if the effect increases with the dose it is evidence for its radiogenic nature is by no means in favor of an opposite statement, i.e., that the absence of a direct dose-effect dependence but its nonmonotonic character is evidence for the absence of a relation of the effect to irradiation. The controversial conclusions of International and Russian organizations stem mainly from the underestimation and misunderstanding of the effects of ultra-low and low irradiation doses, reluctance to apply other criteria to assess the consequences of irradiation on human health, and conviction (groundless) that low doses cause either no damages or such minor damages that they may be neglected and disregarded. In the lecture, data that elucidate the above controversies will be presented.

  8. Consequences to health of the Chernobyl accident; Helbredsmaessige konsekvenser af reaktorulykken i Tjernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewerin, I. [Royal Dental College, Dept. of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2001-07-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 has been and still is the subject of great interest. Journalistic reports often contain exaggerations and undocumented statements and much uncertainty about the true consequences of the accident prevails in the population. This article reviews the current literature with the focus on reports from official commissions and documentation in the form of controlled studies. The fatal deterministic consequences comprise about 30 victims. The most important outcome is a marked increase in the incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents in the most heavily contaminated area. Furthermore, pronounced psychosocial problems are dominant in the population of the contaminated area. Other significant and documented health consequences are not seen. (au)

  9. Chernobyl accident and Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    The report describes the Chernobyl accident and its consequences for Denmark in particular. It was commissioned by The Secretary of State for the Environment. The event at the accident site, the release and dispersal of radioactive substances into the atmosphere and over Europe, is described. A discussion of the Danish organisation for nuclear emergencies, how it was activated and adapted to the actual situation, is given. A comprehensive description of the radiological contamination in Denmark following the accident and the estimated health effects, is presented. The situation in other European countries is mentioned. (author)

  10. Hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy in liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shal'nova, S.A.; Smolenskij, A.V.; Shamarin, V.M.; Ehktova, T.V.; Berzak, N.V.; Zemtsova, N.A.; Timofeeva, S.G.; Zhavoronkova, E.A.; Muromtseva, G.A.; Arkad'eva, M.A.; Deev, A.D.

    1998-01-01

    Echocardiography was used for the study of prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in 839 liquidators of consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (left ventricular myocardial mass 134 g/m 2 ) was 10.3, 13.4 and 22.5 % in liquidators with normal blood pressure, borderline hypertension and hypertension, respectively. Liquidators with normal blood pressure had significantly greater left ventricular myocardial mass than normotensive men from general population while liquidators and non liquidators with hypertension had equal values of this parameter [ru

  11. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linge, I I; Melikhova, I A; Pavlovski, O [Nuclear Safety Inst., Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs.

  12. Medico-demographic criteria in estimating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.; Melikhova, I.A.; Pavlovski, O.

    1997-01-01

    Correct comparison of population statistics in affected and unaffected areas prior to and after the accident allows to detect any noticeable deviations in basic medico-demographic parameters in contaminated territories from common trends. In view of that when in 1990 in Nuclear Safety Institute a start has been made on construction of an information support system for government and regional executives to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl disaster a specialized data bank on demography and medical statistics (MDBD) was created. 12 refs, 7 figs, 8 tabs

  13. Functional status of thyroid of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators after 10 years after disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of Chernobyl accident consequences liquidators' complaints is carried out and their clinical surveillance is conducted as well. Pronounced disorders of neuro-immune-endocrine system of the liquidators majority and ahill reflex latency half-period prolongation have been observed. By data of ultrasonic study the majority of examined ones have thyroid hyperplasia without features of chronic autoimmune inflammation and formation of adenomatous knots. Thyroid levels of hormone concentration are reduced. There is direct dependence between hormones levels and irradiation dose. The is concluded, that in delayed period after irradiation by low doses the hypo-function status of thyroid is observing

  14. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in 1986 and 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1988-01-01

    In the accident consequence assessment (ACA) area there is extensive cooperation between the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden), performed within the Nordic Safety Program, and partially funded by the Nordic Council of Ministers, via the Nordic Liaison Committee for Atomic Energy. One of the 17 projects in the ACA-related program area is concerned with the economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Finland, Norway, and Sweden. This paper is limited to describing conditions in Norway. There are areas in Norway where the Chernobyl fallout is >100 kBq/m 2 , and the total amount of radiocesium deposited over Norway is estimated by the National Institute for Radiation Hygiene to be 6% of the radiocesium released from the reactor. The areas where ground concentrations are highest are mostly in sparsely populated mountain areas. These areas are, however, important in connection with several nutritional pathways, notably, sheep, goats, reindeer, and freshwater fish. The purpose of this paper is to summarize information on mitigating actions and economic consequences of the deposited radioactive materials to Norwegian agriculture in the 1986-87 and 1987-88 slaughtering periods

  15. Information on the Chernobyl NPP accident and its consequencies prepared for IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    The information on the accident at the 4th power unit of the Chernobyl NPP and its consequences prepared for IAEA on the basis of the conclusions made by the Government commission constituted for investigating the accident causes and implementing the necessary emergency and reconstruction measures is given. The accident with reactor core disruption and partial destruction of the building Lappened on 26.04.86 at 1 hour and 23 minutes. The accident occurred before reactor shut-down for planned repairs during the testing of one of turbogenerators. The design features of the RBMK-1000 reactor plant, its main physical characteristics and parameters of the NPP safety system are considered. The chronology of the accident development and the results of analysis carried out using a mathematical model are given. The causes of the accident are analyzed. The measures for preventing the accident development and lessening its consequences as well as those for the environment radioactive contamination control and sanitary provisions are described in detail. The conclusion is made that the original cause of the accident is highly improbable combination of disorder and errors in operational conditions made by the personnel of the power unit. It is emphasized that development of the world nuclear engineering, besides advantages in the field of power supply and natural resources conservation, incurs also damages of international character. Among these are transboundary radioactivity transport, in particular, during serious radiation accidents and the danger of international terrorism and specific radiation hazard of nuclear objects under war conditions. All this defines the key necessity of deep international cooperation in the field of nuclear power engineering and its safeguarding.

  16. The accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    RBMK reactors (reactor control, protection systems, containment) and the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl are first presented. The scenario of the accident is given with a detailed chronology. The actions and consequences on the site are reviewed. This report then give the results of the source term estimation (fision product release, core inventory, trajectories, meteorological data...), the radioactivity measurements obtained in France. Health consequences for the French population are evoked. The medical consequences for the population who have received a high level of doses are reviewed [fr

  17. Radioactive contamination of the Dutch soil in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, H.W.; Mattern, F.C.M.; Pennders, R.M.J.

    1987-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl air, contaminated with radioactive materials, spread over the Netherlands. From 2nd May to 6th May, with dry and to a greater extent with wet deposits, important quantities of radionuclides came upon the earth surface. In this period the weather circumstances within the Netherlands differed strongly resulting in distinct variations in deposit. In this document a preliminary picture is given of the contamination of the Dutch bottom on the basis of soil samplings made in the first few months after the accident. No attention is paid to geographic differences in bottom contamination. The contamination of the bottom is expressed in Bq/kg dry soil as well as in Bq/m 2 soil. 5 refs.; 6 tabs. (H.W.)

  18. Consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident with respect to the feeding of infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1987-01-01

    In view of the persisting and understandable fear of parents with regard to radioactivity in the food of their babies as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the Commission on Nutrition of the Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Kinderheilkunde (German Society of Pediatrics) and the Strahlenschutzkommission have published a statement. According to this statement, the maximum permissible level of radioactivity in commercial baby food has been fixed by the EC to be 370 Bq/kg. The dietetic food industry itself has fixed a maximum for its products which is only a tenth of the radioactivity level permitted by the EC directive. The milk powders for infants tested since the reactor accident contained no measurable radioactivity or only very low amounts of Cs 134 or Cs 137, correspondung to a maximum of 25 Bq/kg in the product. Late damage to health is not to be expected. (orig./ECB) [de

  19. General situation of the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grodzinsky, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl Nuclear Accident on April 26, 1986, epidemiological analyses of data point to impressive deterioration of the health of the people affected by radionuclide contamination in the environment. This deterioration of population health embraces a broad spectrum of diseases. Epidemiological prediction of the rate of thyroid cancer in children near Chernobyl seems strikingly compatible with a real increase. But there is a tendency to consider the morbidity augmentation as a result having been associated with the factors of non-radioactive origin (chemical compounds, heavy metals and mainly social-psychological syndrome development). The Chernobyl catastrophe has implied a heavy burden for Ukraine: pollution of air, water, soils and vegetation in all ecosystems, late radiological effects in the health of people, losses of arable land and forest, necessity of mass-evacuation from thousands of settlements in the contaminated regions, severe psychological shock for millions of people, and painful suffering of unexpected life tragedies. Eleven years after, this tragic event with its causes and consequence brings one to very important conclusions concerning moral aspects of human relations within the nuclear society, as well as interactions between the society and the environment. (J.P.N.)

  20. Research activity about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activity to assist its sufferers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Koide, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Keiji

    1998-01-01

    Due to the Chernobyl Accident in April 1986, a series of serious radiological consequences were brought in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. The former Soviet Union and the authorities in the world such as IAEA, however, have been denying serious health consequences among the people around Chernobyl since the beginning of the accident. On the other hand, a lot of works indicating serious health effects of the accident have been reported by scientists in these affected countries although they are not well known in the western countries. Since 1993, under the research grant of the Toyota foundation, we have continued a cooperative program to investigate research activities in these countries about the Chernobyl accident and to look into data and information that were not known so far. The information concerning the social system and activity to assist the sufferers from the accident has been also overviewed, including legal aspects of the Chernobyl problem. Here we are presenting an outline of our cooperation activity and our work concerning dose estimation for the inhabitants around the Chernobyl NPS at the first stage after the accident. The results of our estimation suggest that at least several hundreds of inhabitants received radiation dose exceeding 1 Sv before their evacuation. The whole reports of our cooperation program will be published in English and in Japanese in the next year. (author)

  1. The accident at the Chernobyl' nuclear power plant and its consequences. Pt. 1. General material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The report contains a presentation of the Chernobyl' nuclear power station and of the RBMK-1000 reactor, including its principal physical characteristics, the safety systems and a description of the site and of the surrounding region. After a chronological account of the events which led to the accident and an analysis of the accident using a mathematical model it is concluded that the prime cause of the accident was an extremely improbable combination of violations of instructions and operating rules committed by the staff of the unit. Technical and organizational measures for improving the safety of nuclear power plants with RBMK reactors have been taken. A detailed description of the actions taken to contain the accident and to alleviate its consequences is given and includes the fire fighting at the nuclear power station, the evaluation of the state of the fuel after the accident, the actions taken to limit the consequences of the accident in the core, the measures taken at units 1, 2 and 3 of the nuclear power station, the monitoring and diagnosis of the state of the damaged unit, the decontamination of the site and of the 30 km zone and the long-term entombment of the damaged unit. The measures taken for environmental radioactive contamination monitoring, starting by the assessment of the quantity, composition and dynamics of fission products release from the damaged reactor are described, including the main characteristics of the radioactive contamination of the atmosphere and of the ground, the possible ecological consequences and data on the exposure of plant and emergency service personnel and of the population in the 30 km zone around the plant. The last part of the report presents some recommendations for improving nuclear power safety, including scientific, technical and organizational aspects and international measures. Finally, an overview of the development of nuclear power in the USSR is given

  2. Thyroid cancer in children living near Chernobyl. Expert panel report on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.; Karaoglou, A.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1993-01-01

    In January 1992, the Radiation Protection Research Action formed a panel of thyroid experts in order to evaluate the current situation concerning reported increased rates of thyroid cancer in children living in the neighbourhood of Chernobyl, where the reactor accident occurred on April 26 1986 and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination over large areas of Belarus, Russia, Ukraine. Studies of the Atom Bomb survivors in Japan have revealed that the incidence of leukemia starts to increase some five years after exposure. For Chernobyl accident health consequences are now becoming evident. Thyroid cancer has already been observed in children. Iodine 131 was seen to pose a specific hazard because it is taken up by the body and concentrated in the thyroid gland. At a dose of 5 Gy to the childhood thyroid about 4000 thyroid cancers per 100000 children exposed can be anticipated. An essential component of the verification of this observation is the study of the pathology of the lesions, which derived from four cell types: follicular cells, C cells, lymphoid cells and connective tumor cells. All distant metastases are lung metastases. Measures to be considered for the prevention of the development of thyroid cancer in a radiation-exposed population include correction of iodine deficiency by iodine prophylaxis and suppression of TSH. There are three methods of diagnosis: ultrasound imaging, thyroid scanning, fine needle aspiration performed by skilled personnel. For the therapy total or near-total thyroidectomy is regarded as the treatment of choice. Radioactive iodine can be used to treat lymph node and distant metastases which take up iodine after a total thyroidectomy. Thyroid hormone replacement should be carried out with TSH suppressive doses of L-Thyroxine. 45 refs., 1 annexe

  3. Geochemical consequences of the Chernobyl accident.; Geokhimicheskie posledstviya Chernobyl`skoj katastrofy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopejkin, V A [VNIIGEOLNERUD, Kazan` (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Geochemical features of Cs, Sr, U, Pu behaviour in the zone of their hypergenesis are presented in the article. Necessary conditions for these elements filtration on the natural geochemical barriers are shown. Data of radionuclide composition of water for five years of observation in << Ryzhiy Les >> and dissolved forms of radionuclides are described. Geologic and hydrogeologic conditions of the Chernobyl NPP site are shortly characterized. Radionuclide composition in the ground water of contaminated water pools is analyzed. It is proposed to cover by the law all {alpha}-elements (Pu, Am, Np) and not only plutonium as it currently takes place.

  4. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph; Beaugelin, K; Maubert, H; Ledenvic, Ph [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  5. Radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France; Consequences radioecologiques et dosimetriques de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renaud, Ph.; Beaugelin, K.; Maubert, H.; Ledenvic, Ph. [Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, CEA Centre d' Etudes de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1997-11-01

    This study has as objective a survey of the radioecological and dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France, as well as a prognosis for the years to come. It was requested by the Direction of Nuclear Installation Safety (DSIN) in relation to different organisms which effected measurements after this accident. It is based on the use of combined results of measurements and modelling by means of the code ASTRAL developed at IPSN. Various measurements obtained from five authorities and institutions, were made available, such as: activity of air and water, soil, processed food, agricultural and natural products. However, to achieve the survey still a modelling is needed. ASTRAL is a code for evaluating the ecological consequences of an accident. It allows establishing the correspondence between the soil Remnant Surface Activities (RSA, in Bq.m{sup -2}), the activity concentration of the agricultural production and the individual and collective doses resulting from external and internal exposures (due to inhalation and ingestion of contaminated nurture). The results of principal synthesis documents on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences were also used. The report is structured in nine sections, as follows: 1.Introduction; 2.Objective and methodology; 3.Characterization of radioactive depositions; 4;Remnant surface activities; 5.Contamination of agricultural products and foods; 6.Contamination of natural, semi-natural products and of drinking water; 7.Dosimetric evaluations; 8.Proposals for the environmental surveillance; 9.Conclusion. Finally, after ten years, one concludes that at presentthe dosimetric consequences of the Chernobyl accident in France were rather limited. For the period 1986-2046 the average individual effective dose estimated for the most struck zone is lower than 1500 {mu}Sv, which represents almost 1% of the average natural exposure for the same period. At present, the cesium 137 levels are at often inferior to those recorded

  6. Chernobyl NPP accident. Overcoming experience. Acquired lessons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Klyuchnikov, A.A.; Prister, B.S.

    2006-01-01

    This book is devoted to the 20 anniversary of accident on the Chernobyl NPP unit 4. History of construction, causes of the accident and its consequences, actions for its mitigation are described. Modern situation with Chernobyl NPP decommissioning and transferring of 'Ukryttya' shelter into ecologically safe system are mentioned. The future of Chernobyl site and exclusion zone was discussed

  7. Hygienic evaluation of radiation consequences after the Chernobyl accident in highly populated areas of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karachev, I.I.; Tkachenko, N.V.; Markelova, L.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses radiation exposure to the people in the Ukraine as a result of the Chernobyl accident. As a result of this accident all Ukrainian regions have been heavily contaminated, even though the contamination density obtained in different regions are considerably different. Soils have become contaminated and plants grown in the soils transfer radionuclides to people

  8. The radiological consequences in the USSR from the Chernobyl accident: Description of the scheme of implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, Mona

    2004-01-01

    After October 1989 the Government of the USSR requested the IAEA to organize an international assessment of the 'concept which the USSR has evolved to enable the population to live safely in areas affected by radioactive contamination following the Chernobyl accident, and an evaluation of the effectiveness of the steps taken in these areas to safeguard the health of the population'. The IAEA responded positively to this request for special assistance. The IAEA is carried out an extensive international project involving over 100 experts who assessed the human health and environmental consequences in the affected areas of Byelorussia, the Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, and evaluate measures taken by Soviet authorities to protect the population and the environment

  9. Introductory remarks by the Chairman. [Session 1: Environmental and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Many scientists as well as representatives from UN organizations and governments of affected regions participated in the work of the Chernobyl Forum. Several meetings of the Forum were necessary to initiate the work and monitor the progress of the expert groups. Two expert groups formulated comprehensive reports - one on environmental issues, organized by the IAEA, and one on health issues, organized by the WHO. Experts from throughout the world were invited to contribute to these evaluations. The representatives of governments and the staff of international organizations then reviewed the results of these groups to be sure that the reviews were complete and the evaluations reasonable, so that they could serve as the basis for consensus agreements and effective recommendations for further dealing with the consequences of the accident

  10. The consequences of radioactive contamination of forest ecosystems due to Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglova, A.I.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of forests on the radionuclide primary distribution in different components of the contaminated ecosystems is considered by the example of Chernobyl accident. A basic mathematical model is developed describing 137 Cs biogeochemical cycling under conditions of quasi-steady state radionuclide redistribution in the ecosystem. Forest ecosystems are proved to diminish radionuclide migration in the environment, and forest should be regarded as an important sanitary factor. The contribution of contaminated forests and forest products to the total irradiation dose to local population is estimated. Special countermeasures are elaborated in order to diminish unfavorable consequences of forest radioactive contamination. A long-term dynamics of radioactive situation in the forest ecosystems in forecasted and further studies on the subject are drafted

  11. Application of natural adsorbents as decontamination agents for the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, Yu.I.

    1996-01-01

    The scientific foundations of using natural adsorbents as ion exchangers,filtering media and adagulants for water purification ase presented. The results showing the efficiency of practical application of natural adsorbents for the decontamination of water, clothes, machinery, construction materials, etc. during the elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident in 1986-1987 are presented

  12. Knowledge resources on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences in the INIS Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negeri, B.

    2005-07-01

    Literature on the Chernobyl accident and its consequences is an important subject covered by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) Database. The INIS Database contains 19872 bibliographic records and 8400 full text documents on this subject from 1986 up to 04/2005. A bibliometric study of these records was made to generate statistical summaries that characterise, in general terms, the intellectual content of the records and the nature of the records in terms of its major bibliographic attributes. Environmental aspects and human health constitute the two dominant subjects with a respective contribution of 49% and 38%. The rest is evenly divided among legal aspects, reactor safety and socio-economic impacts of the accident. The three countries that are most affected by the accident, namely Ukraine, Russian Federation and Belarus contributed 44% of the total input. 57% of the literature analysed are conference papers and reports while 25% are journal articles. Most of the documents were written in English (47%) and in Russian (36%). Seven percent of the publications were written in German. (author)

  13. Research activities about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl NPS accident and social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.

    1998-03-01

    The 12th anniversary is coming soon of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the former USSR on April 26, 1986. Many issues are, however, still unresolved about the radiological impacts on the environment and people due to the Chernobyl accident. This report contains the results of an international collaborative project about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident, carried out from November 1995 to October 1997 under the research grant of the Toyota foundation. Collaborative works were promoted along with the following 5 sub-themes: 1) General description of research activities in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine concerning the radiological consequences of the accident. 2) Investigation of the current situation of epidemiological studies about Chernobyl in each affected country. 3) Investigation of acute radiation syndrome among inhabitants evacuated soon after the accident from the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl NPS. 4) Overview of social activities to assist the sufferers by the accident in each affected country. 5) Preparation of special reports of interesting studies being carried out in each affected country. The 27 papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  14. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurengo, A.

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  15. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V. [Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety Institute (IRSN), Dir. of Environment and Intervention (DEI) - CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2004-07-01

    The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

  16. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident - the radioecological database Redac of the French-German initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville-Cavelin, G.; Biesold, H.; Chabanyuk, V.

    2004-01-01

    The French-German Initiative for Chernobyl (FGI), implemented by IRSN and GRS from 1997 until the end of 2003, included the 'Project on the Radioecological Consequences of the Accident'. The most relevant fields of radioecology and post-accidental aspects have been studied, such as radionuclides transfers to plants, to animals, by surface runoff, in the aquatic environment and in the urban environment, wastes management and countermeasures. The main goal was to collect and harmonise, from Belarus, Russia and Ukraine, the highest possible amount of data and results on these different topics. These data have been verified, validated and organized in a common geo-referenced database REDAC (Radioecological Database After Chernobyl). For linking the different data, maps of initial and present contamination by 137 Cs and 90 Sr have been drawn up and relevant environmental non-radioactive data have been included. The operational database built will also allow the management of the wastes disposal sites. Countermeasures used after the accident for urban areas, natural and agricultural environment, have been described and classified. A methodology for evaluating their effectiveness has been developed. This database constitutes a tool for the development and validation of operational, assessment and explicative models. This allows the quantification and assessment of radionuclide transfer in the different compartments of ecosystems. So the main parameters influencing the transfers can be identified. REDAC should be completed by further investigations, for example on transuranic elements and extended to larger geographical zones. The database should also be combined with others provided by different organisations (IAEA, IRSN, UIR, ). (author)

  17. Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning up participants in Ukraine -health status epidemiologic study main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzunov, V.; Omelyanetz, N.; Strapko, N.; Ledoschuck, B.; Krasnikova, L.; Kartushin, G.

    1996-01-01

    The Epidemiologic Studies System for Chernobyl NPP Accident consequences cleaning up participants (CNPP ACCP) health status was worked out and than improving in Ukraine after the CNPP Accident. The State Register of Ukraine both with several other Registers are the organizational, methodological and informational basis here. The ACCP health status worsening ,-was registered in dynamics through the post-accidental period i.e. the nervous system, digestive system, blood circulation system, respiratory system, bone-muscular system, endocrine and genitourinary systems chronic non-tumoral pathology both with mental disorders amount increase. In cohort study the differences of morbidity formation were fixed among emergency workers with different radiation exposure doses. The dependence of leukemia morbidity on presence in 30-km zone duration was noticed, it's access manifested 5 years after the participance in ACC. The ACCP disablement increase with main reason of general somatic diseases, and annual mortality growth are registered. But that doesn't exceed the mortality rate among population of working age in Ukraine

  18. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European countries were also affected as a result of the atmospheric transfer of radioactive material. These countries also encountered problems in the radiation protection of their populations, but to a lesser extent than the three most affected countries. Although the accident occurred nearly two decades ago, controversy still surrounds the real impact of the disaster. Therefore the IAEA, in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, established the

  19. RADIATION HYGIENIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NPP AND THE TASKS OF THEIR MINIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onischenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the role and results of activities of Rospotrebnadzor bodies and institutions in the field of ensuring population radiation protection during various periods since accident at the Chernobyl NPP. Radiation hygienic characterization of territories affected by radioactive contamination from the accident, population exposure dose range, issues of ensuring radiological well-being of population and ways of their solution are being presented in the paper.

  20. 10 years from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident: consequences and lesson learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Published jointly by the Czech State Office for Nuclear Safety and the Czech National Radiation Protection Institute, the publication gives a succinct account of the cause of the Chernobyl accident and its impact on the former Soviet Union, and concentrates on the effects of the accident on the Czech Republic. The topics dealt with in this respect include, among others: radionuclide contents of foods with particular emphasis on milk products for babies, assessment of surface contamination of the Czech Republic due to the accident, internal contamination of the population as determined by whole-body measurements, assessment of the effective dose equivalents from external irradiation and effective dose equivalent commitments from internal irradiation, cesium radioisotopes in natural ecosystems, and the use of post-Chernobyl monitoring to test radionuclide migration models within the IAEA VAMP programme. (P.A.). 12 tabs., 30 figs., 64 refs

  1. Chernobyl and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettemeyer, R.

    1986-01-01

    The accident of 26 April 1986 in Chernobyl with the immense activity release was a catastrophe which took many victims and will still take many. This fact should not be hidden. This brochure represents an attempt to reflect the poor information from Chernobyl in a generally understandable manner and to assess them. Its goal is especially to make clear why even in maximum accidents in German nuclear power plants there is no danger to the population. The effects of the radioactive substances released after the accident in Chernobyl on Germany are described and put into relation. All presentations and descriptions were kept as models and were simplified and are therefore incomplete. This brochure was not meant to be an educational book; it only tries to respond to the questions raised by the accident in Chernobyl in the minds of non-professionals thus taking away the fear and strengthening the confidence in the safety of German reactors. (orig.) [de

  2. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarkog, A. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Alexakhin, R. [Russian Inst. of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Arkhipov, N.P. [Scientific and Technical Centre of the RIA `Pripyat` (Ukraine); Johansson, K.-J. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems.

  3. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident for the natural and human environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.; Aarkog, A.; Alexakhin, R.; Anspaugh, L.; Arkhipov, N.P.; Johansson, K.-J.

    1996-07-01

    In the ten years since the Chernobyl accident, an enormous amount of work has been done to assess the consequences to the natural and human environment. Although it is difficult to summarize such a large and varied field, some general conclusions can be drawn. This background paper includes the main findings concerning the direct impacts of radiation on the flora and fauna; the general advances of knowledge in the cycling of radionuclides in natural, seminatural and agricultural environments; some evaluation of countermeasures that were used; and a summary of the human radiation doses resulting from the environmental contamination. although open questions still remain, it can be concluded that: (1) at high radiation levels, the natural environment has shown short term impacts but any significant long term impacts remain to be seen; (2) effective countermeasures can be taken to reduce the transfer of contamination from the environment to humans but these are highly site specific and must be evaluated in terms of practicality as well as population does reduction; (3) the majority of the doses have already been received by the human population. If agricultural countermeasures are appropriately taken, the main source of future doses will be the gathering of food and recreational activities in natural and seminatural ecosystems

  4. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, N.O.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Pavlyichenko, Yu.V.; Gorvan', A.Je.; Zakrut'ko, L.Yi.; Novgorods'ka, L.M.; Byilan, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  5. Contribution of internal exposures to the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balonov, M I; Anspaugh, L R; Bouville, A; Likhtarev, I A

    2007-01-01

    The main pathways leading to exposure of members of the general public due to the Chernobyl accident were external exposure from radionuclides deposited on the ground and ingestion of contaminated terrestrial food products. The collective dose to the thyroid was nearly 1.5 million man Gy in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine with nearly half received by children and adolescents. The collective effective dose received in 1986-2005 by approximately five million residents living in the affected areas of the three countries was approximately 50,000 man Sv with approximately 40% from ingestion. That contribution might have been larger if countermeasures had not been applied. The main radionuclide contributing to both external and internal effective dose is 137Cs with smaller contributions of 134Cs and 90Sr and negligible contribution of transuranic elements. The major demonstrated radiation-caused health effect of the Chernobyl accident has been an elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in children.

  6. Radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoer, G; Maul, F D; Buell, U; Kriegel, H; Manegold, K H

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH).

  7. The radiation hazard to children as a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoer, G.; Maul, F.D.; Buell, U.; Kriegel, H.; Manegold, K.H.

    1986-01-01

    A flight in a modern jet across the Atlantic Ocean brings about a whole-body radiation dose of 2-5 mrem (Hall, Niklas). The average exposure of the population in West Germany as a result of the Chernobyl accident corresponds therefore to 100 trans-Atlantic flights. The article in hand is not intended to minimize the hazards emanating from radiation accidents - or nuclear weapons tests - but rather as a means of reducing fear that results from not knowing the real facts. Doctors seeking unbiased information will find a number of references and citations that will help them to pass on this information to patients. (orig./HSCH) [de

  8. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor, WHO organized on 6 May 1986 in Copenhagen a one day consultation of experts with knowledge in the fields of meteorology, radiation protection, biological effects, reactor technology, emergency procedures, public health and psychology in order to analyse the development of events and their consequences and to provide guidance as to the needs for immediate public health action. The present report provides detailed information on the transportation and dispersion of the radioactive material in the atmosphere, especially volatile elements, during the release period 26 April - 5 May. Presented are the calculated directions and locations of the radioactive plume over Europe in the first 5 days after the accident, submitted by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The calculations have been made for two heights, 1500m and 750m and the plume directions are grouped into five periods, covering five European areas. The consequences of the accident inside the USSR and the radiological consequences outside the USSR are presented including the exposure routes and the biological effects, paying particular attention to iodine-131 effects. Summarized are the first reported measured exposure rates above background, iodine-131 deposition and concentrations in milk and the remedial actions taken in various European countries. Concerning the cesium-137 problem, based on the UNSCEAR assessment of the consequences of the nuclear fallout, one concludes that the cesium contamination outside the USSR is not likely to cause any serious problems. Finally, the conclusions and the recommendations of the meeting, taking into account both the short-term and longer term considerations are presented

  9. The radioecological consequences of the Kyshtym and Chernobyl radiation accidents for forest ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tikhomirov, F.A.; Shcheglov, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Following the Urals and Chernobyl accidents 60 to 90% of the radioactive fallout was retained by the above-ground part of forest stands. In the Urals the period for semi-removal of contamination from crowns ranged from 6 to 8 months, compared to around one month in the Chernobyl region - due to different seasonal conditions during the fallout period. The bulk of the dose burden in woody plants' critical organs built up over one to six months. The minimum lethal dose for pine tree needles in the Urals was around 50 Gy, and 25 Gy for the apical meristem; the corresponding figures for Chernobyl were 100 Gy and 25-30 Gy. At lower doses we observed morphological disturbances, reduced growth and suppressed reproductive capability in pines. The resistance to radioactive contamination of deciduous forest was 10-20 times greater than that of conifers. We studied the irradiation doses of the different groups of organisms living in the various forest storeys, and the effects of irradiation (changes in species composition, prevalence and productivity) in communities of herbaceous plants and soil invertebrates. Specific examples are given to highlight the secondary changes in these communities stemming from radiation damage in species sensitive to radioactive contamination. We studied the dynamics of dispersion and migration of the long-lived radionuclides 90 Sr and 137 Cs in the various components of the biogeocenoses and in the network of geochemically interconnected forest landscapes, and their content in forestry produce. Some six to ten years after the deposition of radioactive fallout in forest ecosystems the radionuclides were more or less evenly spread throughout the soil-woody plant system. Thus, overall 90 Sr content in the arboreal storey amounts to 1-2% in coniferous forests, and 5-10% in deciduous forests (Urals accident), while the corresponding figures for 137 Cs (Chernobyl accident) are 2 to 3 times higher. (author)

  10. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M.; Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph.

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  11. Role of sanitary and epidemiologic service of Gomel region aimed to minimization of consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyuchenovich, V. I.; Zinovich, V. N.

    2001-01-01

    Chernobyl accident leads to the organization and realization large-scale actions for liquidation of its consequences. In the structure of state public health service was created complete system of radiation protection. In the first days after Chernobyl accident sanitary and epidemiologic service of the Gomel region developed recommendations on working conditions in agriculture, mode of operation of all kinds of food enterprises, rest of children and adults, behavior of the population, the organization of the radiometric control of food stuffs and water. The division of a radiation control ware organized at the regional centers of hygiene and epidemiologic under the control external irradiation dozes as the basic part of the population lived in territories with high density of the radioactive contamination

  12. 10 years after the Chernobyl reactor accident. Thyroid cancer and consequences of public health in the CIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengfelder, E.; Demidschik, E.; Demidschik, J.; Becker, K.; Rabes, H.; Birukowa, L.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor, governmental and international organisations have identified considerable effects on the health of the various affected groups. A dramatic - over 100-fold - increase in thyroid cancers among children in Belarus has been caused by papillary thyroid carcinomas that are marked by aggressive growth with early metastatic spread. As early as 1995, the number of new cases of thyroid cancer among adults was four times the mean figure in the period before 1986. In Oblast Gomel, the number of children with diabetes mellitus doubled between 1986 and the end of 1995. The number of recorded cases of thyroid cancer, particularly among children, by far exceeds the prognoses made on the basis of established radiation risk estimates, and points to a considerable underestimation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. (orig.) [de

  13. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, ... >> The explosion on 26 April 1986 at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which is located 100 km from Kiev in Ukraine (at that time part of the USSR), and the consequent reactor fire, which lasted for 10 days, resulted in an unprecedented release of radioactive material from a nuclear reactor and adverse consequences for the public and the environment. The resulting contamination of the environment with radioactive material caused the evacuation of more than 100 000 people from the affected region during 1986 and the relocation, after 1986, of another 200 000 people from Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. Some five million people continue to live in areas contaminated by the accident. The national governments of the three affected countries, supported by international organizations, have undertaken costly efforts to remediate the areas affected by the contamination, provide medical services and restore the region's social and economic well-being. The accident's consequences were not limited to the territories of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, since other European

  14. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  15. Environmental consequences of the Chernobyl accident and their remediation: Twenty years of experience. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Environment' (EGE). Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide an up-to-date evaluation of the environmental effects of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Even though it is now nearly 20 years after the accident and substantial monies have been spent on such evaluations, there are still many conflicting reports and rumours. This joint report has been developed with the full cooperation of the United Nations (UN) family of relevant organisations and with political representatives from the three more affected countries: Ukraine, Belarus, and the Russian Federation. In addition, recognised scientific experts from the three countries and additional international experts provided the basis for the preparation of reports for review by the actual members of the Chernobyl Forum. The - Chernobyl Forum - is a high-level political forum whose suggestion for existence was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in cooperation with the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO), the United Nations Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), the World Health Organisation (WHO), and the World Bank, as well as the competent authorities of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. The organisational meeting of the Chernobyl Forum was held on 3-5 February 2003, at which time the decision was reached to establish the Forum as an ongoing entity of the above named organisations. Thus, the organisational meeting of the Forum decided to establish the Chernobyl Forum as a series of managerial, expert and public meetings in order to generate authoritative consensual statements on the health effects attributable to radiation exposure arising from the accident and the environmental consequences induced by the released radioactive materials, to provide advice on

  16. The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.O.; Christensen, G.; Lingjaerde, R.; Smidt Olsen, H.; Wethe, P.I.

    1986-10-01

    In connection with the Chernobyl accident the report gives a description of the technical features of importance to the accident, the course of events, and the estimated health hazards in the local environment. Dissimilarities in western and Sovjet reactor safety philosophy are dealt with, as well as conceivable concequences in relation to technology and research in western nuclear power programmes. Results of activity level measurements of air and foodstuff, made in Norway by Institute for Energy Technology, are given

  17. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The documentation abstracted contains a complete survey of the broadcasts transmitted by the Russian wire service of the Deutsche Welle radio station between April 28 and Mai 15, 1986 on the occasion of the Chernobyl reactor accident. Access is given to extracts of the remarkable eastern and western echoes on the broadcasts of the Deutsche Welle. (HP) [de

  18. Genetic consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Kaluga region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzeev, G.G.; Kalabushkin, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    The study concentrates on the genetic after-effects of the Chernobyl accident in some districts of Kaluga's region. The frequencies and range of congenital malformations, prematurely death-rate in the radionuclear polluted districts were compared with the control districts. Prematurely death-rate in compared regions is the same. The increase of the congenital malformation frequency is revealed in one the polluted districts (256/10000) as compared with the control one (27/10000). We assume that the observed effect is mainly connected with the professional activity of the population. 11 refs., 4 tabs

  19. Influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to the animal kingdom. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikulik, M.M.; Plenin, A.E.; Galkovskaya, G.A.; Zarubov, A.I.; Molotkov, D.V.; Khmeleva, N.N.; Golubev, A.P.; Moroz, M.D.; Petukhov, V.B.; Petrikov, A.M.; Kokhnenko, O.S.; Shevtsova, T.M.; Ermolaev, V.V.; Ermolaeva, I.A.; Maksimova, S.L.; Matveenko, A.A.; Blinov, V.V.; Shlyakhtenok, A.S.; Eliseeva, K.G.; Vojtovich, A.M.; Trusova, V.D.; Ogurtsova, S.Eh.; Drobenkov, S.M.; Nikiforov, M.E.; Tishechkin, A.K.; Samusenko, I.Eh.; Parejko, O.A.; Goncharova, R.I.; Ryabokon', N.I.; Rozhdestvenskaya, A.S.; Sidorovich, V.E.; Kozlo, P.G.; Dunin, V.F.; Kuchmel', S.V.; Deryabina, T.G.

    1995-01-01

    The total regularities of ionizing irradiation effect on the living systems, as well as molecular, cell and tissues radiation effects, radiation effects on organism, population and ecosystem are shown. The results of monitoring of zoo plankton systems, state of populations of mass species of benthos invertebrates and fishes in water reservoirs in the Chernobyl accident zone are given. Disorders in hemolymph and changes in complexes of soil invertebrates, as well as changes of population structures of amphibians and reptiles living in radioactive contaminated zone are described. The state of model groups and forming of population structure of insects, birds and mammals were investigated. 19 tabs., 16 figs

  20. Standby after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The report is an investigation concerning strandby and actions by SKI (Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate) and SSI (National Institute of Radiation Protection) due to the Chernobyl reactor accident. It consists of a final report and two appendices. The final report is divided into two parts: 'I: Facts' and 'II: Analyzes'. 'Facts': The Swedish model for information: radio, press. Basic knowledge about ionizing radiation in the society. Resources for information. Need for information. Message forms for information. Announcements from the authorities in TV, radio, press, meeting, advertisements. Statements concerning the reactor accident and its consequences in Swedish mass media. How did the public recieve the information? 'Analyzis': Information responsibilities and policies. SSI information activities concerning radiologic accidents, conditions, methods and resources. Ditto for SKI, Swedish National Food Administration and the National Board of Agriculture. Appendix I: Information from authorities in the press three weeks after the Chernobyl accident: The material and the methods. The acute phase, the adoptation phase, the extension of the persective. What is said about the authorities in connection with Chernobyl? Appendix II: The fallout from Chernobyl, the authorities and the media coverage: The nationwide, regional and local coverage from radio and television. Ditto from the press. Topic and problem areas in reporting. Instructions from the authorities in media. Contribution in the media from people representing the authorities. Fallout in a chronologic perspective. (L.F.)

  1. Radiological consequences of a hypothetical ''roof breakdown'' accident of the Chernobyl sarcophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretzsch, G.

    1997-01-01

    On behalf of the German Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety GRS performed investigations with the aim to improve the safety of the Chernobyl Unit 4 shelter in close connection with the Ministry for Environment and Nuclear Safety of the Ukraina from 1992 to 1995. One of the tasks of the working programme was concerned with the analysis of hypothetical accidents of the present shelter, which comprises the newly built Sarcophagus and the remaining ruins of Unit 4. In close collaboration with Ukrainian and Russian experts the maximum hypothetical accident was defined to be the breakdown of the roof of the Sarcophagus and subsequent release of the radioactive dust which is mainly located in the destroyed reactor hall and the neighboring rooms

  2. A preliminary assessment of the consequences for inhabitants of the UK of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baverstock, K.F.

    1986-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident resulted in the release of substantial quantities of radioactive material and subsequent increases in environmental radioactivity in many countries. This paper considers the U.K. situation, and from preliminary monitoring measurements, major routes of population exposure are identified and quantified. U.K. exposures are mostly within variations in natural background radiation levels to be found in Europe, except for the thyroid dose likely to have been received by young people in the north of the U.K. From reported measurements of 131 I in milk, it is predicted that thyroid doses up to 10-20 times the annual doses received from 'normal' natural background radiation might have affected young children drinking fresh cows' milk. Ways in which this exposure component could have been reduced and criteria governing decisions as to whether or not to implement counter-measures are discussed. The importance of 131 I in milk as a population exposure route is a common feature with Chernobyl and the 1957 Windscale accident and underlines the importance of milk-producing regions in relation to reactor-siting policy. (UK)

  3. Optimisation of information influences on problems of consequences of Chernobyl accident and quantitative criteria for estimation of information actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobaleu, A.

    2004-01-01

    Consequences of Chernobyl NPP accident still very important for Belarus. About 2 million Byelorussians live in the districts polluted by Chernobyl radionuclides. Modern approaches to the decision of after Chernobyl problems in Belarus assume more active use of information and educational actions to grow up a new radiological culture. It will allow to reduce internal doze of radiation without spending a lot of money and other resources. Experience of information work with the population affected by Chernobyl since 1986 till 2004 has shown, that information and educational influences not always reach the final aim - application of received knowledge on radiating safety in practice and changing the style of life. If we take into account limited funds and facilities, we should optimize information work. The optimization can be achieved on the basis of quantitative estimations of information actions effectiveness. It is possible to use two parameters for this quantitative estimations: 1) increase in knowledge of the population and experts on the radiating safety, calculated by new method based on applied theory of the information (Mathematical Theory of Communication) by Claude E. Shannon and 2) reduction of internal doze of radiation, calculated on the basis of measurements on human irradiation counter (HIC) before and after an information or educational influence. (author)

  4. Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinauskas, A.P.; Buchanan, J.R.; Lorenz, R.A.; Yamashita, T.

    1986-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, an explosion occurred at the newest of four operating nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl site in the USSR. The accident initiated an international technical exchange of almost unprecedented magnitude; this exchange was climaxed with a meeting at the International Atomic Energy Agency in Vienna during the week of August 25, 1986. The meeting was attended by more than 540 official representatives from 51 countries and 20 international organizations. Information gleaned from that technical exchange is presented in this report. A description of the Chernobyl reactor, which differs significantly from commercial US reactors, is presented, the accident scenario advanced by the Russian delegation is discussed, and observations that have been made concerning fission product release are described

  5. Economic consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Norway in the decade 1986-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.; Brynildsen, L.I.; Amundsen, I.; Bergan, T.D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Although the distance from Chernobyl to Norway is about 2000 km, it is estimated that 3-5% of the radiocesium released from Chernobyl was deposited upon Norwegian territory. This was caused by an unfortunate (for Norway) and unusual combination of large initial thermal lift of the plume (which kept the materials airborne), wind direction (which brought the plume across Scandinavia), and precipitation (which led to strong deposition in parts of Norway and Sweden). The areas in which deposition took place in Norway to a large extent comprise natural environments (mountain plains and forest) which are important in an agricultural context. In 1986, large amounts of mutton, reindeer meat and goat's cheese exceeded the limits for radiocesium content set by the authorities. Some non-destructive countermeasures were implemented, but much of the meat was condemned. By the following year the authorities had implemented a large programme of countermeasures, and thereby managed drastically to reduce the amount of discarded food. In the present report, the cost of these countermeasures, as well as the cost of discarded foodstuff, is summarized for each of the ten years since the accident. Although ten years have passed, all the countermeasures are still required, even though there has been some decline in the size of the areas and the number of animals involved. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Effect and consequences of the reactor-accident in Chernobyl on the fish population in Bavaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luensmann, Wulf [Bayerische Landesanstalt fuer Wasserforschung, Munich (Germany)

    1986-07-01

    After the reactor-accident in Chernobyl radioactive fission products reached during the night on April 30, 1986, the south Bavarian region. They were washed out by heavy rains in the early hours of the afternoon, causing a contamination of the total biosphere. It is known from radio-ecological studies, that radionuclides concentrate in fish meat. Ionising radiation may lead to an internal radiation exposition of human beings via food chains. It was for that reason necessary to follow up the temporal development in order to prevent injuries through ionising radiation. The Bavarian Institute for Water Research started on May 5, a project in connection with fish consumption and investigated fish meat for radioactivity, originated from 3 different biotopes: a) rivers b) fish-farms c) lakes in the prealpine region. Altogether approximately 700 fishes were examined until the end of October. Fish-meat contained until the middle of May besides Cs134 and Cs137 also the short-living radionuclides J131 and Te132 (20-30 Bq/kg fresh meat). After that date could only Cs134 and Cs137 be demonstrated. Since both cesium-isotopes in the Chernobyl-fallout occur in a 1:2 ratio, only the result of Cs137 are reported.

  7. Effect and consequences of the reactor-accident in Chernobyl on the fish population in Bavaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luensmann, Wulf

    1986-01-01

    After the reactor-accident in Chernobyl radioactive fission products reached during the night on April 30, 1986, the south Bavarian region. They were washed out by heavy rains in the early hours of the afternoon, causing a contamination of the total biosphere. It is known from radio-ecological studies, that radionuclides concentrate in fish meat. Ionising radiation may lead to an internal radiation exposition of human beings via food chains. It was for that reason necessary to follow up the temporal development in order to prevent injuries through ionising radiation. The Bavarian Institute for Water Research started on May 5, a project in connection with fish consumption and investigated fish meat for radioactivity, originated from 3 different biotopes: a) rivers b) fish-farms c) lakes in the prealpine region. Altogether approximately 700 fishes were examined until the end of October. Fish-meat contained until the middle of May besides Cs134 and Cs137 also the short-living radionuclides J131 and Te132 (20-30 Bq/kg fresh meat). After that date could only Cs134 and Cs137 be demonstrated. Since both cesium-isotopes in the Chernobyl-fallout occur in a 1:2 ratio, only the result of Cs137 are reported

  8. The Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassow, J.

    1986-01-01

    The documentation aims at giving a clearly arranged account of facts, interrelations and comparative evaluations of general interest. It deals with the course of events, atmospheric dispersion and fallout of the substances released and discusses the basic principles of the metering of radioactive radiation, the calculation of body doses and comparative evaluations with the radioactive exposure and risks involved by other sources. The author intends to contribute to an objective discussion about the Chernobyl reactor accident and nuclear energy as such. (DG) [de

  9. Legislation in Ukraine about the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasvit, O.

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes the status and consequences of the principal laws of Ukraine concerning the problem of the Chernobyl catastrophe. The Ukrainian authorities have been giving a series of the laws after February, 1991. The system of Chernobyl Laws in Ukraine reflects the rather good intention of the Ukrainian authorities to help the people who suffered from the Chernobyl catastrophe. The system of the Laws includes more than that justified by the scientific base, that is, the combined effect of radioactive exposure and factors of non-radioactive synergism. However, after the Soviet Union collapse, it was found that the Laws were overloaded with social payments and compensations. A number of changes and additions to the Laws caused political struggles. In this situation, the radiological aspect of the problems stepped aside. The radiological survey system in Ukraine provides necessary information on annual doses to the population in the contaminated areas. Despite of the clearly observed reduction of the doses, allocation on the categories of contaminated zones has not been reviewed since 1991. According to the monitoring data, the level of radiation doses of about 50 % of all settlements does not correspond to their present status. What is very important in the present situation is to stop compulsory resettlement. It is necessary to stop to pay compensations for contaminated food products, and introduce a system of benefit to those who produce pure products on contaminated areas. It is expected that on approval of the Ukrainian Parliament it will became a new basis for reviewing of the Chernobyl Laws. The Laws and regulations of Ukraine on radiation protection are on the way to meet international basic safety standards. But there is no experience in the world of dealing with the consequences of such a wide-scale radiation catastrophe. Taking into account the fact that a certain part of the Ukrainian population have to live permanently on the radioactively

  10. Estimation of health in Chernobyl NPP accident consequences cleaning-up participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bebeshko, V.G.; Kovalenko, A.N.; Chomazjuk, I.N.

    1997-01-01

    Over 11 years period of health observation of Chernobyl Accident's victims permits to make some conclusions. Quantitative changes of peripheral blood and bone marrow cells, changes in ultrastructural organization of hemopoietic cells, disturbance of proliferative activity of hemopoietic and stromal progenitor cells in clean-up workers testify to alterations of functional properties of hemopoiesis. There are high level of T- helpers, early appearance regenerated T-cells, which simultaneously express surface antigens of helpers and supressors, synchronization of proliferative cycle of immunocompetentive cells in these patients. Oppressing of antioxidant protection, stable changes of hormonal maintenance of adaptation and reproduction processes, disturbance of feedback mechanism between effector glands and hypophysis, significant rise of polyamines were determined. Cardiovascular diseases are the principal cause of health disruptions at victims. Neural and psychological diseases, suicidal cases, trauma, death in automobile accidents are rank second and third in structure of morbidity. In structure of chronic nonspecific pulmonary diseases dominated chronic obstructive bronchitis. The adrenergic tonus of vegetative nervous system was seen. The peculiarity of rehabilitation measures is complexness and continuity in-patients, out-patients service and providing facilities in health resorts. (author)

  11. The consequences of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Madero, Carlos.

    1988-01-01

    A description is given of the Chernobyl IV Reactor its operation and safety system. The following issues are analyzed; 1: the errors of the operators that produced the accident in april 26, 1986; 2: the fallout caused by the first explosions, that has mainly incorporated I and Cs in the food chain; 3: the path of the Chernobyl cloud, its passing across the north and south of Europe, and the middle east; 4: measures to stop the accident, fire control, plant stabilization and recovery of the place; 5: a sarcophagus, a technical novelty, had to be built due to the difficulties of monitoring; 6: the problematic decontamination of the forested places, caused interesting programs to be developed. Afterwords the effects produced by high and low doses in the population, were studied. A group of experts, reached the conclusion that no corrective or improvement measures for the occidental safety mechanisms, were required. (M.E.L.) [es

  12. A comparative evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident based on the internal dose of {sup 137}Cs to Japanese male adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchiyama, M; Ishikawa, T; Matsumoto, M; Kobayashi, S [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    The Chernobyl accident released a large quantity of radionuclides into the environment. Many measurements were carried out to assess the consequent radiation doses around the world. The measurements of subjects from different countries at a given institution can serve for the comparative evaluation of their internal doses when one apparatus is used consistently for the measurements. We have measured radiocesium body burdens of both Japanese and foreigners since the Chernobyl accident using a whole-body counter. In the occasion of 10th anniversary of the accident, we evaluated the body burdens in order to compare the internal doses among countries. 5 refs, 3 figs.

  13. A comparative evaluation of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident based on the internal dose of 137Cs to Japanese male adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, M.; Ishikawa, T.; Matsumoto, M.; Kobayashi, S.

    1997-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident released a large quantity of radionuclides into the environment. Many measurements were carried out to assess the consequent radiation doses around the world. The measurements of subjects from different countries at a given institution can serve for the comparative evaluation of their internal doses when one apparatus is used consistently for the measurements. We have measured radiocesium body burdens of both Japanese and foreigners since the Chernobyl accident using a whole-body counter. In the occasion of 10th anniversary of the accident, we evaluated the body burdens in order to compare the internal doses among countries. 5 refs, 3 figs

  14. Chernobyl - consequences and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    The Chernobyl accident has taught mankind very plainly that nuclear energy bears a deadly potential and thus is to be ranked as a key problem of future decisions in the sector of power engineering. Decisions to be taken in future have to be seen in the context of the ecological, economic, and social needs. The statements given reflect the FEST's opinion on nuclear energy and the biological, economic, political, and ethical implications. (DG) [de

  15. Environmental and health consequences in Japan due to the accident at Chernobyl nuclear reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchiyama, Masafumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Kankura, Takako; Iwasaki, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Sadayoshi.

    1988-03-01

    A comprehensive review was made on the results of national monitoring program for environmental radioactivity in Japan resulting from the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in USSR. Period of monitoring efforts covered by the present review is from 30th of April 1986 to 31st of May 1987. A radioactive cloud released from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor initially arrived in Japan on 30th of April 1986 as indicated by the elevated level of 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs activity in the total deposition on 30th of April and also by the increased 137 Cs body burden noted on 1st of May. Almost all the radioactive nuclides detected in the European countries were also identified in Japan. For example, the observed nuclides were: 95 Zr, 95 Nb, 99m Tc, 103 Ru, 106 Ru, 110m Ag, 111 Ag, 125 Sb, 127 Sb, 129m Te, 131 I, 132 Te, 132 I, 133 I, 134 Cs, 136 Cs, 137 Cs, 140 Ba, 140 La, 141 Ce and 144 Ce. Among the above radionuclides, the country average concentration was determined for 131 I, 137 Cs and 134 Cs in various environmental materials such as air, fresh water, soil, milk, leafy and root vegetables, cereals, marine products and other foodstuffs. In contrast to the sharp decline of 131 I which was negligible after a few months, 137 Cs showed a tendency to maintain its activity in foodstuffs at an appreciable level one year later. Collective effective dose equivalent and dose equivalent to thyroid in Japanese population due to 137 Cs, 134 Cs and 131 I were estimated to be around 590 man Sv and 4760 man Sv, respectively. Corresponding values for the per caput dose equivalent are 5 μSv for whole body and 40 μSv for thyroid, respectively. (author)

  16. Demographic situation in the Kaluga region for 1976-1992. Possible consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omel'chenko, V.N.; Kurochkina, O.I.; Kostina, M.A.; Sidenko, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The paper studies the demographic situation in different areas of the Kaluga region contaminated as a result of the Chernobyl accident, during 1976-1992. The following indices received the particular attention: the composition of population, size of population, birth rate, mortality, child mortality. It is shown that during the investigated period no variations of the size of population, of the mortality and of the increment of population resulted from the Chernobyl accident were detected

  17. Progress summary of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iddekinge, F.W. van

    1986-01-01

    Based on two IAEA documents (the report of the USSR State Committee on the Utilization of Atomic Energy named 'The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and its consequences' prepared for the IAEA Experts Meeting held in Vienna on 25-29 August, 1986 and the INSAG (International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group) summary report on the Post-accident review meeting on the Chernobyl accident, drawn up in Vienna from August 30 until September 5, 1986, this publication tries to present a logic relation between the special features of the RMBK-1000 LWGR, the cause of the accident, and the technical countermeasures. (Auth.)

  18. Primary disability and its structure at liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences in post-Chernobyl period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravchenko, L.I.; Pzheutskij, V.A.; Vojtik, A.A.; Suvorova, I.V.; Yakimovich, I.F.

    2002-01-01

    The primary disability in persons participated in Chernobyl catastrophe liquidation was studied for 1986-1987, for 1988 and for 1994-2000. The structure of the disease caused the primary disability of those persons was analyzed. The primary invalidity indices were determined to increase for certain nosologic forms such as for the blood circulation disease, malignant neoplasms, eye pathology (authors)

  19. Radiation risks and the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B

    1986-01-01

    A review is given of the basic of radiation protection, including nomenclature and units and principles for protection at accidents. The consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the Soviet Union and in Sweden is described, and the recommendations and protection measures applied in Sweden are presented. In particular, the radiation levels and restrictions concerning food are discussed. (L.E.).

  20. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented

  1. Chernobyl the health consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waight, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident

  2. Chernobyl the health consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waight, P J

    1996-10-01

    This paper focuses initially on selected aspects of the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, and then goes on to discuss some of the pitfalls involved in trying to assess the health detriment in isolation and without regard for the context in which it occurs. The accident on 26 April 1986 was unique. Two explosions, followed by a graphite fire in the destroyed reactor, not only dispersed radionuclides high into the atmosphere, but the fire was instrumental in ensuring the continued dispersion for about ten days. This prolonged discharge into the atmosphere combined with changes in wind direction ensured that radionuclides were widely distributed over Europe and were even detected throughout the Northern Hemisphere. The actual ground deposition was very variable, depending on may factors such as coincident rainfall during the passage of the plume, wind speed and direction, and the topography of the terrain. The mosaic distribution of the ground deposition became much more variable with distance from the site, and is responsible for the wide range of individual doses that characterises this accident. The paper details the health effects of the accident on those immediately involved, and also the delayed health effects, including increased incidence of thyroid cancer, among the populations of surrounding areas of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. It also discusses the widespread psychosocial detriment which resulted from the accident. Finally, the paper evaluated the efficacy of decontamination measures which were adopted in the affected areas in the years following the accident.

  3. [Aspects of aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in male liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skavysh, V A

    2009-01-01

    The author considered aetiology of neuro-psychic disorders in liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear power accident consequences, demonstrated scientific value of studying the liquidators cohort, as they were protected from internal radiation factors and reside on radiation "pure" territories. External radiation doses in those liquidators vary from 16 cGy to 18.7 +/- 10.8 cGy, according to the author. Catamnesis enabled to doubt radiation aetiology of psychic organic syndrome revealed in 1991-1994 by clinical and instrumental studies among 53.6% of 213 male examinees. According to the author, prolonged over 1-2 months external radiation of low dose could not cause health deterioration in adult males. Diagnosed psychic organic syndrome and vascular encephalopathy in some cases could have alcohol aetiology. This conclusion is not extrapolated to the whole liquidators cohort.

  4. Consequences of Chernobyl accident for Poland: Retrospective assessment after 10 years; Skutki katastrofy w Czarnobylu dla Polski: Ocena retrospektywna po 10 latach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaskowski, J. [Akademia Medyczna, Gdansk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    The regional contamination in Poland after Chernobyl accident has been presented. On this base the biological and medical consequences have been discussed. The neonatal mortality as well as cancer frequency for selected regional population in Poland have been analysed during the last decade. 10 figs, 20 tabs.

  5. One decade after Chernobyl: Summing up the consequences of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-07-01

    This summary is the results of the International Conference ''One decade after Chernobyl''. It includes topics on initial responses, radioactive releases, absorbed radiation doses and health effects, socio-economic impacts as well as safety of RBMK type reactors

  6. Consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Russia: search for effects of radiation exposure in utero using psychometric tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryabukhin, Yu.S.; Ryabukhin, V.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    Psychometric indicators for mental development of children in towns distinguished by radioactive contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident are studied. Using some radiological information obtained after the Chernobyl accident, values of expected intelligence quotient (IQ) reduction have been assessed as a result of brain exposure in utero due to various components of dose. Comparing the results of examinations in Novozybkov, Klintsy and Obninsk, no confident evidence has been obtained that radiation exposure of the developing brain exerts influence on indicators for mental development [ru

  7. Response of neutrophils in peripheral blood of participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences to an additional radiation exposure in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshevskij, A.A.; Grebenyuk, A.N.; Kalinina, N.A.

    2001-01-01

    Specific effect of radiation exposure in vitro on morphobiochemical characteristics of leukocytes in peripheral blood of the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences are investigated. Samples of peripheral blood taken from 49 participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences were irradiated in vitro in doses 0.25, 0.50 and 1.0 Gy. Cytochemical analysis of neutrophils was used for estimating the contents of lipids and cationic proteins, and also the activity of alkaline phosphatase and myeloperoxidase. The irradiation of samples of peripheral blood taken from the participants in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP consequences has the same effects on functional and metabolic somatic status but with no history of exposure to the complex of radiation accident factors [ru

  8. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J. [Research Clinical Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-12-31

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented 9 refs.

  9. The radiat ion-epidemiological and cytogenetic study in group of participants of planned working on liquidation consequences Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'omyina, E.A.

    2005-01-01

    Data of radiation anamnesis (beginning and duration of staying in zone of the Chernobyl radiation accident, kind of fulfilled works) as factors of risk are specific in relation to the basic classes of diseases. Works on burial of atomic pile, deactivation, evacuation and all dates of entrance into the one of radiation injury were recognized as hazardous factors for the development of malignant growth

  10. Genetic consequences of radioactive pollution of the environment caused by the chernobyl accident for plants populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.A.; Abramov, V.I.; Kal'chenko, V.A.; Fedotov, I.S.

    1996-01-01

    Populations of Arabidopsis thaliana Heynh, and Sylvestris L., growing within 30 km of Chernobyl and Bransk region have been analyzed for the frequency of embryonic lethal mutations on arabidopsis and frequency of chlorophill mutations and chromosome aberrations by pine. On pine also have been analyzed rate of mutations at enzyme loci in endosperms of seeds. Dose dependence of the value genetic damage on level of radioactive pollution was observed. Refs. 30, figs. 4, tabs. 6

  11. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 1. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  12. Chernobyl'-88. Reports of the 1. All-Union scientific and technical meeting on results of accident effect elimination at the Chernobyl' NPP. V. 7. Part 2. Localization of accident consequences at the 4th power unit, operating site of the Chernobyl' NPP and adjoining territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.

    1989-01-01

    The next data on the accident consequence elimination are presented: temperature monitoring results, gamma radiation exposure dose rates, neutron and gamma fields, aerosol disperse composition. The information system for scientific researches FINISH and automatic subsystems for radiation control and the Ukrytie object diagnostics are described. Decontamination of the Chernobyl' NPP territory, equipment and rooms is described too

  13. An experience of information support of the Russian federal programs of the overcoming of consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linge, I.I.; Ossipiants, I.A.; Ilushkin, I.I.; Melihova, E.I.; Blinov, B.K.; Marchenko, T.A.

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992, by a number of paragraphs of the federal programs on overcoming consequences of accident on Chernobyl NPP, the measures on informational-analytic support of the federal programs were provided. Within the framework of this activity for the solution of various aspects of Chernobyl's problem central bank of generalized data and numerous information systems were created. In the report the brief description of some of them is presented. In particular the databank on radioactive situation includes the information on 12 thousand settlements of Russia which have been exposed to radioactive contamination as a result of the accident.The medico-demographic section of a databank includes information on death rate for the reasons for all subjects of Russian Federation since 1982 till the present time. The developed information systems are available to all participants of work on overcoming of consequences of the accident. There are given the examples of integral estimates in short- and long-term forecasts of development of a situation in territories suffered by the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. (author)

  14. Some problems connected with the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar'yakhtar, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    The description of the eruption of radionuclides caused by the Chernobyl NPP Unit 4 Accident, including the effective time of the accident, quality and quantity of radio waste, is presented. A particular attention is given to the spotty structure of Chernobyl's contamination. The assumption that the spots distribution may be a consequence of the turbulent processes in the atmosphere is made

  15. Chernobyl: the actual facts and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    In a first part, a Power Point presentation explains the technical reasons of the Chernobyl accident and recalls the environmental and health consequences on a short, middle and long term. In a second part, the author analyses the treatment by the media in France and shows how the population has been manipulated by nuclear opponents with the active complicity of some media

  16. The Chernobyl and Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accidents and their tragic consequences

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    On April 26, 1986, the Unit 4 of the RBMK nuclear power plant of Chernobyl, in Ukraine, went out of control during a test at low-power, leading to an explosion and fire. The reactor building was totally demolished and very large amounts of radiation were released into the atmosphere for several hundred kilometres around the site including the nearby town of Pripyat. The explosion leaving tons of nuclear waste and spent fuel residues without any protection and control totally contaminating the entire area. Several hundred thousand people were affected by the radiation fall out. The radioactive cloud spread across Europe affecting most of the Northern, Central and Eastern European countries. Some areas of southern Switzerland, of northern Italy as well as western France were subject to radioactive contamination. The initiative of the G7 countries to launch and important programme for the closure of some Soviet built nuclear plants was accepted by several donor countries. A team of engineers was established wi...

  17. Lessons from Chernobyl post-accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, T.

    2012-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident has shown that the long-term management of its consequences is not straightforward. The management of the consequences has revealed the complexity of the situation to deal with. The long-term contamination of the environment has affected all the dimensions of the daily life of the inhabitants living in affected territories: health, environment, social life, education, work, distribution of foodstuffs and commodities... The experience from the Chernobyl accident shows 4 key issues that may be beneficial for the populations living in territories affected by the Fukushima accident: 1) the direct involvement of the inhabitants in their own protection, 2) the radiation monitoring system and health surveillance at the local level, 3) to develop a practical radiation protection culture among the population, and 4) the setting up of economic measures to favour the local development. (A.C.)

  18. Evaluation of release amount of radioactivity from Chernobyl accident and of resulting radiological consequence in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongxing

    1987-01-01

    Three kinds of methods are used to evaluate the release amount from Chernoby1 RBMK-1000 reactor accident, i.e. (1) estimation by comparison with Windscale accident; (2) estimation in terms of the stock in the core; and (3) estimation according to the available monitoring data form adjacent countries such as Poland and Finland. The results obtained are as follows: the release of I-131 was 0.1-1.5 EBq, which is approximately 4-50% of the stock in the core; the release amount of Ru-103 was comparable to that of Cs-137, both approximately 5-10% of that of I-131; the volatile nuclides such as Mo-99, Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-137 etc., were in the order of 0.4 EBq; involatile nuclides were 0.2 EBq; noble gases and other fission products 10 EBq; and the total amount released was about 20 EBq, which taken together 8% of the stock in the core. The radioactive cloud cluster passed through over the area of China in the beginning of May. It was estimated that the total amount of I-131 in air over China area was about 1.6 PB q , Cs-137 about 0.3 PB q , Ru-103 about 0.2 PB q ; the total fallout in the area of China was about 3 PB q for I-131, about 0.1 PB q for Cs-137, about 0.3 PB q for Ru-103. The resulting effective dose equavalent commitment to critical group individual was about 60 μSv, collective effective dose equavalent commitment received by the population of China was about 1 x 10 4 man.Sv

  19. The main results of fulfilment in 1996 of the scientific part of the State programme of the Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences (1996-2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1997-01-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1996 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; development of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological

  20. Consequences, countermeasures and observed or suspected effects in the USSR after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellerer, A.M.; Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg

    1991-01-01

    The accident led to substantial radioactive contamination, which was initially dominated by 131 I and later by 137 Cs. 90 Sr was substantially less important. More than 200000 people were evacuated. There are still 270000 inhabitans of areas with Cs contaminations of more than 5 x 10 5 Bq/m 2 . At least some of these will still have to be evacuated for radiological reasons. In large regions of smaller contamination normal life with few restrictions would be possible, if it were not for the poor information policy of the authorities which has caused a degree of suspicion, fear and insecurity that makes it now almost impossible to reach an objective perception of the exposures and the associated risks. The deficient health statistics have, up to now, not permitted any conclusions regarding increases of childhood leukemias which are expected in the regions with the highest contamination. For other cancers one expects lower relative increases but it is unlikely that they would be detected even in thorough statistical studies. Thyroid cancers are a possible exception. In contrast, significant increases of ilnesses such as anemia or diabetes which are not normally associated with radiation, have been noted. They are due to the grave constraints in living conditions, to the fears and to the increased attention to illnesses which were formally not registered in any health statistics. They are now seen by the population and also by most physicians as radiation-induced. (orig./MG) [de

  1. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge

  2. Health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. Results of the IPHECA pilot projects and related national programmes. Scientific report. International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Since the Chernobyl accident, massive efforts have been made by the governmental authorities to mitigate the effects, to provide diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation to those affected and to investigate the effects on health which had occurred. Vast amounts of resources have and continue to be expended in supporting these efforts. In 1991, WHO officially joined this effort through the establishment by the World Health Assembly of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The objectives of this Programme were: to contribute to the efforts to alleviate the health consequences of the accident by assisting health authorities in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine; to consolidate the experience gained from treatment of over-exposure and from various practical interventions and thereby improve medical preparedness for the future; and to acquire data in the fields of radiation epidemiology and medical response to disasters. IPHECA initially concentrated on five priority areas, and pilot projects were developed for implementation in Belarus, Russian Federation and Ukraine for each: thyroid, haematology, brain damage in-utero, epidemiological registry and oral health (only in Belarus). This publication is intended to fulfil a number of purposes. It provides an account of what was accomplished during the pilot phase of IPHECA. It discusses the protocols which were developed and used, summarizes the investigations which were carried out and reports on the instrumentation, supplies and training programmes which were provided. The publication also describes and discusses the results which have been obtained to date and identifies the still existing gaps in knowledge Refs, figs, tabs

  3. The Chernobyl accident - five years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueck, K.

    1991-06-01

    At the fifth anniversary of the Chernobyl accident the initial situation at that time, the control of the consequences to Austria in the present light, as well as the knowledge gained from the accident and its consequences are described. A final estimate and appraisal of the total population dose by the accident alloted according to the individual exposure pathways and the dose reductions due to countermeasures by the authorities are given. The dose reduction in the following years is described. Five years later the external exposure was reduced to about 6 % of the values of the first year, the ingestion dose to about 5 % of the first-year-values. Finally, the current radiation situation is described and the dose contribution by foodstuff with elevated activity concentration is estimated. Also the consequences from the experience and knowledge obtained by the accident are described. (author)

  4. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A; Labunska, I; Blokov, I; Santillo, D; Johnston, P; Stringer, R; Sadownichik, T [eds.; Antipkin, Yu G [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Arabskaya, L P [Institute of Paediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine); Bazyka, D A [Research Centre for Radiation Medicine, Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2006-04-15

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations.

  5. The Chernobyl catastrophe: Consequences on human health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I.; Santillo, D.; Johnston, P.; Stringer, R.; Sadownichik, T.; Arabskaya, L.P.; Bazyka, D.A.

    2006-04-01

    This new Greenpeace report estimates that the full consequences of the Chernobyl disaster could top a quarter of a million cancers cases and nearly 100,000 fatal cancers. It reports that the report involved 52 respected scientists and includes information never before published in English. It challenges the International Atomic Energy Agency Chernobyl Forum report, which predicted 4,000 additional deaths attributable to the accident as a gross simplification of the real breadth of human suffering. Their data, based on Belarus national cancer statistics, predicts approximately 270,000 cancers and 93,000 fatal cancer cases caused by Chernobyl. The report also concludes that on the basis of demographic data, during the last 15 years, 60,000 people have additionally died in Russia because of the Chernobyl accident, and estimates of the total death toll for the Ukraine and Belarus could reach another 140,000. The report also looks into the ongoing health impacts of Chernobyl and concludes that radiation from the disaster has had a devastating effect on survivors; damaging immune and endocrine systems, leading to accelerated ageing, cardiovascular and blood illnesses, psychological illnesses, chromosomal aberrations and an increase in foetal deformations

  6. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  7. Information-Analytic support of the programs of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident: gained experience and its future application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Linge, I.I.; Abalkina, I.L.; Simonov, A.V.; Pavlovsky, O.A.

    1996-01-01

    On the initial stage of eliminating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the role of system-analytic and information support in the decision making process for protection of the population and rehabilitation of territories was. to a certain extent, underestimated. Starting from 1991, activity in system-analytic support was the part of the USSR (later on, Russian) stage programs. This activity covered three direction: development of the Central bank of the generalized data on the radiation catastrophes; development, implementation, and maintenance of the control informational system for the Federal bodies; computer-system integration

  8. Long-term therapy for polymorphic mental disorders in liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Krasnov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the results of a long-term comparative therapeutic study of a large cohort of more than 500 liquidators of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in 1986. The patients were followed up (and periodically treated at hospital 5 years or more, usually 10—15 years. The study confirmed mainly the cerebrovascular nature of disorders following the pattern seen in moderate psychoorganic syndrome. Therapy with cerebroprotective agents having vascular vegetotropic properties could yield certain therapeutic results and, to some extent, preserve social functioning capacity in these patients.

  9. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) - like syndrome and other hormonal factors of promotion and progression of thyroid gland cancer in males-liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strukov, E.L.; Dryguina, L.B.; Nikiforova, I.D.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical and laboratory endocrinological screening performed in 1,000 males - liquidators of Chernobyl accident consequences revealed hormonal factors leading to node formation and having unfavourable influence on progression and promotion of thyroid gland cancer. The factors include syndrome of low thriiodothyronine, hyperprolactinemia, latent hypothyrosis and increased production of thyroglobulin. Peculiarities of hormonal status in liquidators allow us to suggest the presence of MEN-like syndrome among the liquidators population. Possible mechanisms of expression of RET oncogene in adults that may result in MEN- like syndrome have been discussed. (author)

  10. Chernobyl and the consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raestrup, R.; Kundke, J.

    1986-01-01

    The brochure contains the texts of a broadcasting series with the following subjects: 1) Brighter than a thousand suns - what happened at Chernobyl; 2) Radical assault on the genetic material - the effect of radiation; 3) It's the dose that counts - slight radiation and human health; 4) Nuclear fallout - contamination levels of water, soil and air; 5) Safety against bombing - how safe are German nuclear power plants; 6) Practical advice for consumers. (HP) [de

  11. The reactor accident of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, L.A.; Schuettelkopf, H.; Erat, S.; Fessler, H.; Hempelmann, S.; Maurer, K.; Pimpl, M.; Radziwill, A.

    1986-08-01

    The contamination, caused by the radioactivity released during the reactor accident of Chernobyl was measured in samples taken in the environment of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center. The radioactivity was determined in air, fodder, milk, vegetables, other plants, foodstuffs, soil, precipitations, drinking water, sludge and other samples. Results of measurements are reported which were received with considerably more than 1000 samples. The evaluation of the data will be presented in KfK 4140. (orig.) [de

  12. Chernobyl accident: Assessing the data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, B

    1986-01-01

    Data presented in the official Soviet report to the IAEA on the Chernobyl reactor accident are critically assessed. Special attention is given to the derivation of release fractions from fallout measurements, a procedure which is demonstrated to involve large elements of uncertainty. Further comments relate to estimates of plume rise and deposition velocity. A comparison is made with the predictions of previously published theoretical reactor safety studies.

  13. Stress in accident and post-accident management at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, P.; Dubreuil, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on the psychology of the affected population have been much discussed. The psychological dimension has been advanced as a factor explaining the emergence, from 1990 onwards, of a post-accident crisis in the main CIS countries affected. This article presents the conclusions of a series of European studies, which focused on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. These studies show that the psychological and social effects associated with the post-accident situation arise from the interdependency of a number of complex factors exerting a deleterious effect on the population. We shall first attempt to characterise the stress phenomena observed among the population affected by the accident. Secondly, we will be presenting an anlysis of the various factors that have contributed to the emerging psychological and social features of population reaction to the accident and in post-accident phases, while not neglecting the effects of the pre-accident situation on the target population. Thirdly, we shall devote some initial consideration to the conditions that might be conducive to better management of post-accident stress. In conclusion, we shall emphasise the need to restore confidence among the population generally. (Author)

  14. Evaluation of postpone Ch NPP accident consequences. Health state of children born in families of cleaners taking part in the Chernobyl accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koretskaya, L.S.; Kornesku, A.V.; Koretskaya, L.I.; Moldovanu, M.; Samotyya, E.E.; Etsko, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of the results of the medical investigation during 1996-2008 years of the health of the about 200 children (107 girls, 115 boys 5-17 years old), which parents took part in liquidation of C NPP accident have been performed. Clinical, immunological disturbance and increased chromosome mutagenesis intensity in somatic cells of the investigated children gave reason to classify them among those with the increased risk of probability of the pathology with genetic component. This may be considerate as a well founded conclusion for elaboration of separated registry of the children born in families of liquidators. The immunological disturbance of children probably reflects the disturbance of the differential processes and maturity of cells of thymus and can be the consequences of the factors influence related with the clinic pathologies. The results permitted to select the group for feature cytogenesis and clinic investigations (authors)

  15. Twenty years of the Chernobyl accident: Results and problems in eliminating its consequences in Russia 1986-2006. Russian national report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimova, N.V.; Marchenko, T.A.; Shoigu, S.K.; Bolshov, L.A.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident, above 1.5 million people in 14 subjects of the Russian Federation continue to live in the area of radioactive contamination. More than 180,000 of the Russians were affected by radiation, when participating in elimination of the accident and its consequences. Since the first days of the accident, the public health service faced a task to develop and implement the measures on minimization of medical effects of the accident and public provision with medical assistance, including the employees of the nuclear power plant and the participants in mitigation of the accident. The health of the liquidators and the public living in the contaminated areas is the most socially significant issue being solved in the process of elimination of the Chernobyl consequences. Radiological effects have been the focus of attention for the overall 20-year period. The radiation protection system was based on performance of the two conditions, namely: absolute prevention of acute (deterministic) effects and reduction in the risk of remote (stochastic) effects to acceptable (justified) levels. As early as in 1986, a decision was made to create the unified system of medical observation for the individuals affected by radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The Russian State Medical and Dosimetry Register (RSMDR) was established on the basis of the Medical Radiological Research Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. The two most suffered public groups were defined as a result of research activity of the Register. These are the children (at the moment of the accident) living in the highly contaminated areas and the liquidators who have obtained the exposure dose above 150 mGy. According to the Register's data, 122 cases (54%) out of 226 thyroid cancers revealed during the years 1991-2003 among the children (at the moment of the Chernobyl catastrophe) from the Bryansk region can be considered as radiation-stipulated. Hygienic

  16. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  17. Clinical observation of cerebrovascular diseases current in Chernobyl accident liquidators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovchenko, Yu.Yi.; Usatenko, O.G.; Romanenko, N.Yi.

    1999-01-01

    The results of the clinical follow up study (1993-1997) of cerebrovascular diseases development in the Chernobyl accident liquidators are presented. The syndrome of autonomous nervous system dysfunction following to an exposure to the Chernobyl accident consequences factors promotes to fast development of atherosclerosis and arterial hypertension. On the base of an analysis of the data obtained it was established that the primary diencephalic structures damage resulted in severe changes of different metabolic system, particularly in the cerebrovascular disorders development

  18. Reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokalski, A.; Kowalski, A.

    1990-11-01

    The bibliography contains 1568 descriptions of papers devoted to Chernobylsk accident and recorded in ''INIS Atomindex'' to 30 June 1990. The descriptions were taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and are presented in accordance with volumes of this journal (chronology of recording). Therefore all descriptions have numbers showing first the number of volume and then the number of record. The bibliography has at the end the detailed subject index consisting of 465 main headings and a lot of qualifiers. Some of them are descriptors taken from ''INIS Atomindex'' and some are key words taken from natural language. The index is in English as descriptions in the bibliography. (author)

  19. Accident at the Chernobyl AES and its consequences. Data prepared for the International Atomic Energy Agency Expert Conference (25-29 August 1986, Vienna)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This report on the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant describes the plant and associated RBMK-1000 reactors and gives a chronology of the development of the accident. The causes of the accident are discussed as well as an analysis of the process of development of the accident. Also discussed are measures adopted to increase power plant safety and prevent development of similar accidents

  20. Chernobyl accident: lessons learned for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenigsberg, Jacov

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The long-term nature of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, which was a major technological catastrophe in terms of its scope and complexity and created humanitarian, environmental, social, economic and health consequences. After more than twenty years we can conclude that Chernobyl accident was requested the big efforts of the national governments and international organisations for improvement new approaches to radiation safety, radiation protection, health care, emergency preparedness and response. During first years after accident some response actions did more harm than good because not based on international radiation protection principles, based on criteria developed during emergency and associated with mistrust, emotions, political pressure. As a result was inappropriate government reaction: unjustified relocation and decontamination - loss jobs, homes, billions of $ cost; unjustified compensation (high portion of annual national budgets). Non-radiological (e.g. detrimental economic, social and psychological) consequences was worse than direct radiological consequences. Psychological effects do not correlate with real exposure but with perception of risk. The affected people believe in threat to their health, doubt what has been reported about accident and resulted doses, got modification in life style, have somatic complains, got substance abuse (alcohol, tranquilizers, sleeping pills). The lack of accurate information and misperception of real radiation risk is believed also to have lead to change in behavior of some affected people. Possible long-term health effect due to the accidental exposure remains an issue. There is no doubt that excess thyroid cancer incidence results from exposure to radioactive iodines, mainly by iodine-131. Radiation induced thyroid cancer could easily be prevented by timely warning, effective thyroid blocking, timely restriction of consumption for contaminated food. The

  1. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF THE MEDICAL SECTION OF THE STATE PROGRAM OF THE BELARUS REPUBLIC FOR THE OVERCOMING OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Rozhko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A twenty-five year health follow-up of the affected population has shown that a properly structured State strategy on overcoming the consequences of disaster allow to maintain stable levels of morbidity and mortality. An important achievement in the system of medical help to the affected population is the organization of dynamic follow-up, as well as creating State Register of people exposed to radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident as a tool for solving scientific and practical problems. The results of scientific researches obtained in the SO “The Republican Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and Human Ecology” were the basis for one of the Council of Ministers Decree and two Decrees of the Ministry of Health. Significant changes have been made in the order of assigning the causation connection of disease (disability and the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and objective criteria for the formation of high radiation risk groups.In a whole, the rate of oncological morbidity in the affected population remains at the average republican level, but for certain categories of the affected population, referred to groups of enhanced radiation risk, there has been detected the presence of excess morbidity of some forms of malignant neoplasms.

  2. Chernobyl and the problem of international obligations regarding nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohl, P.

    1988-01-01

    This paper analyses the way nuclear law was put to the test by the Chernobyl accident - in particular international nuclear law - so as to propose a train of thought which might contribute to adopting and revising the legal system presently in force or even new orientations. It deals only with that part of nuclear law which concerns accidents and their consequences (NEA) [fr

  3. Chernobyl accident. Exposures and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Bouville, A.; Hall, P.; Savkin, M.; Storm, H.

    2000-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident that occurred in Ukraine in April 1986 happened during an experimental test of the electrical control system as the reactor was being shut down for routine maintenance. The operators, in violation of safety regulations, had switched off important control systems and allowed the reactor to reach unstable, low-power conditions. A sudden power surge caused a steam explosion that ruptured the reactor vessel and allowed further violent fuel-steam interactions that destroyed the reactor and the reactor building. The Chernobyl accident was the most serious to have ever occurred in the nuclear power industry. The accident caused the early death of 30 power plant employees and fire fighters and resulted in widespread radioactive contamination in areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine inhabited by several million people. Radionuclides released from the reactor that caused exposure of individuals were mainly iodine-131, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Iodine-131 has a short radioactive half-life (8 days), but it can be transferred relatively rapidly through milk and leafy vegetables to humans. Iodine becomes localized in the thyroid gland. For reasons of intake of these foods, size of thyroid gland and metabolism, the thyroid doses are usually greater to infants and children than to adults. The isotopes of caesium have relatively long half-lives (caesium-134: 2 years; caesium-137: 30 years). These radionuclides cause long-term exposures through the ingestion pathway and from external exposure to these radionuclides deposited on the ground. In addition to radiation exposure, the accident caused long-term changes in the lives of people living in the contaminated regions, since measures intended to limit radiation doses included resettlements, changes in food supplies, and restrictions in activities of individuals and families. These changes were accompanied by major economic, social and political changes in the affected countries resulting

  4. The causes of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frot, J.

    2001-01-01

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  5. Chernobyl accident: the crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  6. Chernobyl accident. The crisis of the international radiation community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malko, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    The information given in the present report about the Chernobyl accident and its radiological consequences indicates a serious crisis of the international radiation community. The following signs of this crises can be discerned: The international radiation community did not recognize the real reasons of the accident for a long time. It could not make a correct assessment of the damage to the thyroid of the affected populations of Belarus, Russia and the Ukraine. Up to present time it rejects the reliable data on hereditary malformations. It is not able to accept reliable data on the increase in the incidence in all categories of people affected by the Chernobyl accident. The international radiation community supported the Soviet authorities in their attempts to play down the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident for a long time. (author)

  7. Radioiodine dosimetry and prediction of consequences of thyroid exposure of the Russian population following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvonova, I.A.; Balonov, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    In the early period after the Chernobyl accident, analysis of patterns of 131 I exposure of the human thyroid showed that contaminated milk was the basic source of 131 I intake among the inhabitants of Russia. The equipment and techniques used for measurement of the 131 I content in the thyroids of these individuals are described in this work. A model of the 131 I intake, taking into account protective actions, and a method of thyroid dose calculation are discussed. The mean thyroid dose and frequency distributions of the thyroid doses to inhabitants of towns and villages of the Bryansk, Tula and Orel regions of Russia are presented. The mean dose to the thyroids of children living in the villages was 2 to 5 times higher than the dose to adult thyroids; for children living in the towns, the mean dose was 1.5 to 12 times higher. The mean thyroid mass in adult inhabitants of the Bryansk region was 27 g, which exceeded the value for a standard man (20 g) and was taken into account in the dosimetric calculations. The technique for reconstructing the mean and individual thyroid doses was based on the correlation between thyroid dose and several parameters: Surface 137 Cs activity in soil, dose rate in air in May of 1986, 131 I content in local milk, milk consumption rate, and 134 Cs + 137 Cs content in the body. The collective thyroid dose to inhabitants of the most contaminated regions of Russia is estimated and a thyroid cancer rate prognosis is derived. The need for intensified medical care for the critical group - children of preschool age during 1986 - is based on a significant increase in the number of projected thyroid cancers and adenomas. 32 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  8. The hypothalomo-pituitary-adrenal system in liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences: summing up the seven-year follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitryaeva, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    The function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system was studied over time (1986-1993) in 500 liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences with external exposure dose of 250 mSv. The concentrations of hydrocortisone, ACTH, and β-endorphine in the peripheral blood were radioimmunoassayed at rest and during functional loading. Glucocorticoids were measured in the urine by thin-layer chromatography. The number of glucocorticoid receptors in peripheral blood lymphocytes was assessed by the radioreceptor method. Stable hypercorticalism in the presence of reduced β-endorphine and increased ACTH levels was observed in the majority of examinees during the first years after the accident. Six years after the accident the above parameters were normal at rest, although during functional loading disorders in the reserve potential of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal system were observed, which deteriorated its adaptation to changes int he environment. It is advisable to single out high risk groups of subjects with disadaptation disorders for regular check-ups among the liquidators. 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Chernobyl reactor accident: medical management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, G.K.

    1996-01-01

    Chernobyl reactor accident on 26th April, 1986 is by far the worst radiation accident in the history of the nuclear industry. Nearly 500 plant personnel and rescue workers received doses varying from 1-16 Gy. Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) was seen only in the plant personnel. 499 individuals were screened for ARS symptoms like nausea, vomitting, diarrhoea and fever. Complete blood examination was done which showed initial granulocytosis followed by granulocytopenia and lymphocytopenia. Cytogenetic examinations were confirmatory in classifying the patients on the basis of the doses received. Two hundred and thirty seven cases of ARS were hospitalised in the first 24-36 hrs. No member of general public suffered from ARS. There were two immediate deaths and subsequently 28 died in hospital and one of the cases died due to myocardial infarction, making a total of 31 deaths. The majority of fatal cases had whole body doses of about 6 Gy, besides extensive skin burns. Two cases of radiation burns had thermal burns also. Treatment of ARS consisted of isolation, barrier nursing, replacement therapy with fluid electrolytes, platelets and RBC transfusions and antibiotic therapy for bacterial, fungal and viral infections. Bone marrow transplantations were given to 13 cases out of which 11 died due to various causes. Radiation burns due to beta, gamma radiations were seen in 56 cases and treated with dressings, surgical excision, skin grafting and amputation. Oropharangeal syndrome, producing extensive mucous in the oropharynx, was first seen in Chernobyl. The patients were treated with saline wash of the mouth. The patients who had radioactive contamination due to radioactive iodine were given stable iodine, following wash with soap, water and monitored. Fourteen survivors died subsequently due to other causes. Late health effects seen so far include excess of thyroid cancer in the children and psychological disorders due to stress. No excess leukemia has been reported so

  10. Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant remains a painful memory in the lives of the hundreds of thousands of people who were most affected by the accident. In addition to the emergency rescue workers who died, thousands of children contracted thyroid cancer, and thousands of other individuals will eventually die of other cancers caused by the release of radiation. Vast areas of cropland, forests, rivers and urban centres were contaminated by environmental fallout. Hundreds of thousands of people were evacuated from these affected areas - forced to leave behind their homes, possessions, and livelihoods - and resettled elsewhere, in a traumatic outcome that has had long-lasting psychological and social impacts. The commemoration of the Chernobyl tragedy is taking place in many forums this month - in Minsk, in Kiev and in other locations. At the IAEA, it might be said that we have been responding to the accident and its consequences for twenty years, in a number of ways: first, through a variety of programmes designed to help mitigate the environmental and health consequences of the accident; second, by analyzing the lessons of what went wrong to allow such an accident to occur at all; and third, by working to prevent any such accident from occurring in the future. Building a strong and effective global nuclear safety regime is a central objective of our work. This requires effective international cooperation. The explosions that destroyed the Unit 4 reactor core, and discharged its contents in a cloud of radionuclides, made painfully clear that the safety risks associated with nuclear and radiological activities extend beyond national borders. International cooperation on nuclear safety matters - sharing information, setting clear safety standards, assisting with safety upgrades, and reviewing operational performance - has therefore become a hallmark of IAEA activity, particularly at a time when we are witnessing an expansion of

  11. The Chernobyl accident 20 years on: an assessment of the health consequences and the international response O acidente de Chernobyl 20 anos depois: avaliação das conseqüências e resposta internacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Baverstock

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years after the Chernobyl accident the WHO and the International Atomic Energy Authority issued a reassuring statement about the consequences. Our objectives in this study were to evaluate the health impact of the Chernobyl accident, assess the international response to the accident, and consider how to improve responses to future accidents. So far, radiation to the thyroid from radioisotopes of iodine has caused several thousand cases of thyroid cancer but very few deaths; exposed children were most susceptible. The focus on thyroid cancer has diverted attention from possible nonthyroid effects. The international response to the accident was inadequate and uncoordinated, and has been unjustifiably reassuring. Accurate assessment in future health effects is not currently possible in the light of dose uncertainties, current debates over radiation actions, and the lessons from the late consequences of atomic bomb exposure. Because of the uncertainties from and the consequences of the accident, it is essential that investigations of its effects should be broadened and supported for the long term. The United Nations should initiate an independent review of the actions and assignments of the agencies concerned, with recommendations for dealing with future international-scale accidents. These should involve independent scientists and ensure cooperation rather than rivalry.Vinte anos após o acidente de Chernobyl ocorrido em 1986, a OMS e a Autoridade Internacional sobre Energia Atômica lançaram um relatório sobre as conseqüências desse desastre. Nosso objetivo neste estudo é avaliar o impacto de tal acidente sobre a saúde e a reação internacional sobre o ocorrido, além de considerar se é possível melhorar as respostas em futuros desastres. Observamos que a radiação sobre a tireóide, proveniente de radioisótopos de iodo, causou milhares de casos de câncer, mas poucas mortes; as crianças expostas foram as mais suscetíveis. O

  12. Ten years after: the legacy of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1996-01-01

    In order to take the emotional edge out of debates about the consequences of the Chernobyl reactor accident, it is opportune to confront the sometimes completely exaggerated figures published by the mass media with the mere facts available to date. Recent, reliable information and data have confirmed that, put into relation with the psychologic, social and economic problems arising in the wake of the breakup of the Soviet Union, the radiological consequences of the reactor accident appear relatively mild. (orig.) [de

  13. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system

  14. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, R.A.; Mahaffey, J.A.; Carr, F. Jr.

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit trademark) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report

  15. US Department of Energy Chernobyl accident bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R A; Mahaffey, J A; Carr, F Jr

    1992-04-01

    This bibliography has been prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research to provide bibliographic information in a usable format for research studies relating to the Chernobyl nuclear accident that occurred in the Ukrainian Republic, USSR in 1986. This report is a product of the Chernobyl Database Management project. The purpose of this project is to produce and maintain an information system that is the official United States repository for information related to the accident. Two related products prepared for this project are the Chernobyl Bibliographic Search System (ChernoLit{trademark}) and the Chernobyl Radiological Measurements Information System (ChernoDat). This report supersedes the original release of Chernobyl Bibliography (Carr and Mahaffey, 1989). The original report included about 2200 references. Over 4500 references and an index of authors and editors are included in this report.

  16. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  17. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-01-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  18. Mental health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2012-03-01

    The psychosocial consequences of disasters have been studied for more than 100 years. The most common mental health consequences are depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, medically unexplained somatic symptoms, and stigma. The excess morbidity rate of psychiatric disorders in the first year after a disaster is in the order of 20%. Disasters involving radiation are particularly pernicious because the exposure is invisible and universally dreaded, and can pose a long-term threat to health. After the Chernobyl disaster, studies of clean-up workers (liquidators) and adults from contaminated areas found a two-fold increase in post-traumatic stress and other mood and anxiety disorders and significantly poorer subjective ratings of health. Among liquidators, the most important risk factor was severity of exposure. In general population samples, the major risk factor was perceived exposure to harmful levels of radiation. These findings are consistent with results from A-bomb survivors and populations studied after the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant accident. With regard to children, apart from findings from ecological studies that lack direct data on radiation or other teratologic exposures and local studies in Kiev, the epidemiologic evidence suggests that neither radiation exposure nor the stress of growing up in the shadow of the accident was associated with emotional disorders, cognitive dysfunction, or impaired academic performance. Thus, based on the studies of adults, the Chernobyl Forum concluded that mental health was the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident. Since mental health is a leading cause of disability, physical morbidity, and mortality, health monitoring after radiation accidents like Fukushima should include standard measures of well-being. Moreover, given the comorbidity of mental and physical health, the findings support the value of training non-psychiatrist physicians in recognizing and treating common mental

  19. Response to the Chernobyl accident in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The worst nuclear accident in history happened at No.4 unit of the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station in USSR. Since the Chernobyl accident, a number of measures have been introduced in many countries, including the reconsideration of programs for construction and operation of nuclear power plants. In Japan, the press and television first reported the accident on April 29. The next day, all the relevant governmental agencies began to collect and analyze information in order to prepare possible countermeasures. The Nuclear Safety Commission issued a statement covering three points: 1) the radioactive substances released by the accident will have virtually no influence on the health of people in Japan, 2) a Special Committee on the Chernobyl Atomic Power Station Accident will be established, and 3) the Soviet government must provide all detailed information about the accident as soon as it is available. On April 30, the Committee on Radioactivity decided to increase radioactivity observations by the Science and Technology Agency, the Defence Agency, and the Meteorological Agency. On the same day, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry set up a survey committee for the Chernobyl accident with the responsibility of collecting and analyzing information about the accident. A review is also made in this article as to how the Japanese media reported the accident and how people reacted on reading the newspapers and watching TV on the accident. (Nogami, K.)

  20. THE ROLE OF BELARUS NATIONAL COMMISSION ON RADIATION PROTECTION IN THE MINIMIZATION OF CONSEQUENCES OF THE ACCIDENT AT THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Stozharov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Belarus National Commission on Radiation Protection was established in 1991, based on the former Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Supreme Council Resolution. The Commission works out recommendations on the radiation protection to submit to the state authorities, state institutions under the Republic of Belarus Government and state research institutions, reviews and assesses scientific data in the field of radiation protection and makes suggestions in regards of the implementation of the achieved developments. The Commission engages leading scientists and practitioners from Belarus, involved in the provision of the radiation protection and safety in the state. The methodological cornerstone for the Commission activities was chosen to be the committment to the worldwide accepted approach of the nature and magnitude of the undertaken protective measures justification in the field of radiation safety. The Commission adheres the ALARA optimization criteria as the core of the aforementioned approach. The Commission has also submited to the Government a number of developments which were crucial in the highest level managerial decisions elaboration. The latter impacted directly the state tactics and strategy in the environmental, health and social consequences of the Chernobyl disaster minimization. Following the recommendations of the international institutions (ICRP, IAEA, UNSCEAR, FAO/WHO, developments of the colleagues in the Russian Federation, Ukraine and the local regional experience, the Commission proceeds with the expert observation of the ongoing protective measures to reduce the radiation impact and population exposure resulted from the Chernobyl accident, is actively occupied in the radiation safety ensuring at the Belarussian nuclear power plant being under construction, much contributes to elaboration of the new version of the state Law “On Radiation Protection of Population” and other regulatory documents.

  1. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: A review of the environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinhauser, Georg, E-mail: georg.steinhauser@colostate.edu; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E.

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340–800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. - Highlights: • The environmental effects of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. • Releases of radionuclides from Chernobyl exceeded Fukushima by an order of magnitude. • Chernobyl caused more severe radiation-related health effects. • Overall, Chernobyl was a much more severe nuclear accident than Fukushima. • Psychological effects are neglected but important consequences of nuclear accidents.

  2. Incidence of legal abortion in Sweden after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odlind, V.; Ericson, A.

    1991-01-01

    The number of legal abortions in Sweden increased around the time of the Chernobyl accident, particularly in the summer and autumn of 1986. Although there was no recording of reasons for legal abortions, one might have suspected this increase to be a result of fear and anxiety after the accident. However, seen over a longer time perspective, the increase in the number of abortions started before and continued far beyond the time of the accident. There was also a simultaneous and pronounced increase in the number of births during the years subsequent to the accident. Therefore, it seems unlikely that fear of the consequences of radioactive fall-out after the Chernobyl accident resulted in any substantial increase of the number of legal abortions in Sweden

  3. The 1986 Chernobyl accident; Der Unfall von Tschernobyl 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Alexander; Stueck, Reinhard; Weiss, Frank-Peter [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Garching bei Muenchen, Koeln (Germany). Bereich Reaktorsicherheitsanalysen; Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH, Koeln (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    April 26, 2011 marks the 25th anniversary of the Chernobyl reactor accident, the worst incident in the history of the peaceful utilization of nuclear power. While investigations of the course of events and the causes of the accident largely present a uniform picture, descriptions still vary widely when it comes to the impact on the population and the environment. This treatment of the Chernobyl accident constitutes a summary of facts about the initiation of the accident and the sequence of events that followed. In addition, measures are described which were taken to exclude any repetition of a disaster of this kind. The health consequences and the socio-economic impact of the accident are not discussed in any detail. The first section contains an introduction and an overview of the Soviet RBMK (Chernobyl) reactor line. In section 2, fundamental characteristics of this special type of reactor, which was exclusively built in the former Soviet Union, are discussed. This information is necessary to understand the sequence of accident events and provides an answer to the frequent question whether that accident could be transferred to reactors in this country. The third section outlines the history of the accident caused ultimately by a commissioning test never performed before. The section is completed by a brief description of radiological releases and the state of the plant after the accident when entombed in the ''sarcophagus.'' The different causes are then summarized and the modifications afterwards made to RBMK reactors are outlined. (orig.)

  4. Population-genetic consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP for cattle self-reproducing in the alienated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glazko, T.T.; Glazko, V.I.

    2001-01-01

    We have performed the analysis of a genetic structure for generations of cattle-self-reproducing under conditions of enhanced radioactive contamination in the alienated zone near the Chernobyl NPP. Only in the second generation was revealed one animal mutated by the transferrin locus. The violation of the equiprobable transfer of allelic variants by certain loci from parents to off springs is observed. It is shown that heterozygosity does not decrease in generations in spite of inbreeding. The possible mechanisms of the phenomena observed are considered

  5. The Chernobyl reactor accident - a non-accidential accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zischka, A.

    1987-01-01

    Freedom and independence are reserved but for countries constantly succeeding in maintaining their energy supplies without the help of others. Due to the fact that the political decision makers of the Soviet Union, too, are aware of this truth there is more to the Chernobyl reactor accident than the mere effects of the fallout. The real consequences of the reactor accident had already been anticipated beforehand by the media of the Western world. With the voters already rattled the nuclear phaseout is constantly talked about in all political parties. Once again the law of action passes over to politicians instead of to technology and its responsible experts. Zischka proves this phenomenon in the behaviour towards Soviet reactions having been existed before and shows it to be going back to an old tradition: Already in the reign of the czar the Western neighbours were induced to react in an inadequate manner and thus excert a decisive influence on world politics. The emotional effect of Chernobyl dominates. Unless reason will gain the upper hand the dangers of this emotional effect may turn out to be uncontrollable. (orig./HP) [de

  6. Cytogenetic effects in children born to participants in the cleanup of the Chernobyl accident consequences - Acute radiation syndrome survivors and children evacuated from Pripyat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, E.I.; Misharina, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    The cytogenetic study of 87 children was held. Age of involved kids ranged from 5 to 14 years old. The I-st study group was presented with 17 kids born in 1987-1988 from the Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) who survived the Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) of I-II severity degree in 1986. The II-nd study group was consisted from the 45 children born in 1983-1985 resident in town Pripyat with thyroid exposure doses from 65 to 616 sZv and total irradiation doses from 0.2 to 13.2 sZv. The 25 children born in 1983-1988 and resident in radiation situation - favourable region of Ukraine constituted the Control (III-rd) group. The aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations amount mainly due to chromatide type ones confidential increase compared to that in control was revealed among the children born from CACCP - ARS survivors. In children exposed to ionizing radiation during infant and early childhood age the aberrant cells number and chromosomal aberrations quantity was elevated also but due to both chromosomal (dicentrics and rings) and chromatide types. (author)

  7. Chernobyl - system accident or human error?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stang, E.

    1996-01-01

    Did human error cause the Chernobyl disaster? The standard point of view is that operator error was the root cause of the disaster. This was also the view of the Soviet Accident Commission. The paper analyses the operator errors at Chernobyl in a system context. The reactor operators committed errors that depended upon a lot of other failures that made up a complex accident scenario. The analysis is based on Charles Perrow's analysis of technological disasters. Failure possibility is an inherent property of high-risk industrial installations. The Chernobyl accident consisted of a chain of events that were both extremely improbable and difficult to predict. It is not reasonable to put the blame for the disaster on the operators. (author)

  8. Clinical and encephalographic study of the dynamics of asthenic syndrome in persons involved in the liquidation of Chernobyl NPP accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukharskaya, Marta; Tsurkanu, Lukretsiya; Kirka, Luchiya; Boshnyaga, Emiliya; Godorozha, Mikhai; Toma, Viktoriya; Postovan, Alla; Andronik, Zinaida; Mornyala, Elena; Popovich, Lyudmila

    2011-01-01

    The article is devoted to the analysis of dynamics of asthenic syndrome and electro encephalography indicators during the 25 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Four stages of syndrome development were segregated. The clear correlation between the course of mental disorder and electro encephalography indicators was discovered. This made it possible to determine the intensity and weight of pathological processes and conduct the effective timely treatment. (authors)

  9. Comparison of the Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear accidents: a review of the environmental impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauser, Georg; Brandl, Alexander; Johnson, Thomas E

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima are compared. In almost every respect, the consequences of the Chernobyl accident clearly exceeded those of the Fukushima accident. In both accidents, most of the radioactivity released was due to volatile radionuclides (noble gases, iodine, cesium, tellurium). However, the amount of refractory elements (including actinides) emitted in the course of the Chernobyl accident was approximately four orders of magnitude higher than during the Fukushima accident. For Chernobyl, a total release of 5,300 PBq (excluding noble gases) has been established as the most cited source term. For Fukushima, we estimated a total source term of 520 (340-800) PBq. In the course of the Fukushima accident, the majority of the radionuclides (more than 80%) was transported offshore and deposited in the Pacific Ocean. Monitoring campaigns after both accidents reveal that the environmental impact of the Chernobyl accident was much greater than of the Fukushima accident. Both the highly contaminated areas and the evacuated areas are smaller around Fukushima and the projected health effects in Japan are significantly lower than after the Chernobyl accident. This is mainly due to the fact that food safety campaigns and evacuations worked quickly and efficiently after the Fukushima accident. In contrast to Chernobyl, no fatalities due to acute radiation effects occurred in Fukushima. © 2013.

  10. Reactor accidents. Chernobyl and Three Miles Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, G.

    1990-01-01

    A description of the facilities at Chernobyl and TMI, as well as of the course of the accidents is given. Supplementary information relates to the quantities and types of radionuclides released and to the size of the group of persons concerned. (DG) [de

  11. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  12. Sociological and medical aspects of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotlyarov, I.V.; Terebov, A.S.

    1993-01-01

    The sociological survey data, the results of the state of health service in some districts of Gomel and Mogilev regions as well as of the completeness of the fulfillment of state resolutions concerning the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident after effects are given

  13. Radioactive fallout in Norway from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident had considerable consequences for Norway. Except for the areas in the former USSR, around Chernobyl some areas in Norway received fallout which gave the highest contamination levels. The natural and semi natural ecosystems will produce food products with high activity levels of radiocesium for several decennium. Cost-effective countermeasures were implemented, and they reduced the doses considerable, especially for critical groups. Doses received over the next 50 years will probably cause cancer in 500 persons. 63 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  14. Chernobyl - 12 years after the accident. Assessment of the health consequences according to EC, WHO, UNSCEAR and IAEA analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilev, G.; Bajrakova, A.

    1998-01-01

    31 persons died in the course of the accident, or soon thereafter, and further 137 were treated for acute radiation syndrome. Extensive psychological effects are apparent in the affected regions of the former Soviet Union, manifested with anxiety and stress. Severe forms induce a feeling of apathy and despair often leading to alienation. In the rest of the world these individual effect are minimal. In the last decade a real and considerable increase in the incidence of thyroid carcinoma among children in contaminated regions of the former Soviet Union is observed. There has be no increase in the leukemia, congenital abnormalities, adverse pregnancy outcomes or any other radiation-induced disease in the general population, neither in the contaminated regions, nor in Europe, attribute to this exposure. It is unlikely that further surveillance of the general population will reveal any significant increase in the cancer incidence (author)

  15. Evaluation of sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France: epidemiological monitoring device, state of knowledge, evaluation of risks and perspectives; Evaluation des consequences sanitaires de l'accident de Tchernobyl en France: dispositif de surveillance epidemiologique, etat des connaissances, evaluation des risques et perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verger, P.; Champion, D.; Gourmelon, P.; Hubert, Ph.; Joly, J.; Renaud, Ph.; Tirmarche, M.; Vidal, M. [CEA/Fontenay-aux-Roses, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN, 92 (France); Cherie-Challine, L.; Boutou, O.; Isnard, H.; Jouan, M.; Pirard, Ph. [Institut National de Veille Sanitaire, 94 - Saint-Maurice (France)

    2000-12-01

    The objectives of this document are firstly, to present the situation of knowledge both on the sanitary consequences of the Chernobyl accident and on the risk factors of thyroid cancers, these ones constituting one of the most principal consequences observed in Belarus, in Ukraine and Russia; secondly, the give the principal system contributing to the epidemiological surveillance of effects coming from a exposure to ionizing radiations, in France and to give the knowledge on incidence and mortality of thyroid cancer in France; thirdly, to discuss the pertinence and the feasibility of epidemiological approaches that could be considered to answer questions that the public and authorities ask relatively to the sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident in France; fourthly to male a calculation of thyroid cancer risk in relation with Chernobyl fallout in France from works and studies made from 1986 on the consequences of this disaster in terms of radioecology and dosimetry at the national level. Besides, the improvement of thyroid cancer surveillance is also tackled. (N.C.)

  16. Socio-economic consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe. Social protection of the citizens, affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kholosha, V.; Kovalchuk, V.

    2003-01-01

    The accident on Chernobyl NPP has affected the destiny of 35 million people in Ukraine. The social protection of the population affected during Chernobyl catastrophe is founded on the Law of Ukraine 'About the status and social protection of citizens affected owing to Chernobyl catastrophe' (see further - 'Law'), and is the principal direction of activity and the subject of the special state attention to total complex of problems bound to Chernobyl catastrophe consequences elimination. The current legislation stipulates partial compensation of material losses connected with resettlement of the affected population. According to the current legislation in Ukraine about 50 kinds of aid, privileges and compensations are submitted to the affected citizens

  17. Root causes of the Chernobyl accident: hindsight through years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopchinskij, G.A.; Shtejnberg, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the article was not to evaluate the status of nuclear safety in this country. We wished to raise another question analysing the Chernobyl accident occurred in April 1986 is not the end in itself and the analysis must not be retrospective. The objective is to draw the normal for nuclear safety nowadays and in the future in order to prevent the very possibility of another accident entailing severe radiological consequences. In our opinion, discussions on any details of physical and thermohydraulic processes occurred in April 1986 can and even must be the matter of due consideration. There are all the reasons to state that no due conclusions were drawn in Ukraine further to the analysis of the Chernobyl accident causes

  18. Scientific decision of the Chernobyl accident problems (results of 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.

    1998-12-01

    In the publication are summarized the basic results of the researches executed in 1997 in the framework of the 'Scientific maintenance of the decision of problems of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences' of the State program of Republic of Belarus for minimization and overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences on 1996-2000 on the following directions: dose monitoring of the population, estimation and forecast of both collective irradiation dozes and risks of radiation induced diseases; development and ground of the measures for increase of radiation protection of the population of Belarus during of the reducing period after the Chernobyl accident; study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of people, development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases for various categories of the victims; optimisation of the system of measures for preservation of health of the victim population and development of ways for increase of it effectiveness; creation of the effective both prophylactic means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; development of complex system of an estimation and decision-making on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories; development and optimization of a complex of measures for effective land use and decrease of radioactive contamination of agricultural production in order to reduce irradiation dozes of the population; development of complex technologies and means of decontamination, treatment and burial of radioactive wastes; study of the radioisotopes behaviour dynamics in environment (air, water, ground), ecosystems and populated areas; optimization of the system of radiation ecological monitoring in the republic and scientific methodical ways of it fulfilling; study of effects of low doze irradiation and combined influences, search

  19. Material relating to the Chernobyl accident submitted by Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This material contains attachments provided by the Resident Representative of Belarus to the IAEA, who has requested that it be circulated to member states in connection with the First International Conference of the European Commission, Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine on the consequences of the Chernobyl Accident held in Minsk held from 18 to 22 March 1996. The paper discusses the environmental and health effect of the accident and efforts made to assess and rehabilitate the environmental consequences. One of the obvious effect presented is a significant increase in incidence of thyroid cancer in children and adolescents

  20. Structural aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.C.; Cummings, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    On April 26, 1986 the world's worst nuclear power plant accident occurred at the Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station in the USSR. This paper presents a discussion of the design of the Chernobyl Power Plant, the sequence of events that led to the accident and the damage caused by the resulting explosion. The structural design features that contributed to the accident and resulting damage will be highlighted. Photographs and sketches obtained from various worldwide news agencies will be shown to try and gain a perspective of the extent of the damage. The aftermath, clean-up, and current situation will be discussed and the important lessons learned for the structural engineer will be presented. 15 refs., 10 figs

  1. Lessons taught by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    On nuclear development, it is natural that safety is the most important condition. However, when occurring an accident in spite of earnest efforts on safety pursuit, it is essential for a technical developer to absorb some lessons from its contents as much as possible and show an attitude to use thereafter. The Chernobyl accident brought extraordinarily large damage in the history of nuclear technology development. Therefore, the edition group of the Japan Society of Atomic Energy introduced opinions of three groups of the Society (that is, groups on reactor physics, nuclear power generation, and human-machine system research) with some description on cause analysis of the accident and its result and effect. And, here was also shown four basic difference on design between RMBK type reactor in Chernobyl and LWR type reactor supplied in Japan. (G.K.)

  2. Generic implications of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sege, G.

    1989-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff's assessment of the generic implications of the Chernobyl accident led to the conclusion that no immediate changes in the NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors are needed. However, further consideration of certain issues was recommended. This paper discusses those issues and the studies being addressed to them. Although 24 tasks relating to light water reactor issues are identified in the Chernobyl follow-up research program, only four are new initiatives originating from Chernobyl implications. The remainder are limited modifications of ongoing programs designed to ensure that those programs duly reflect any lessons that may be drawn from the Chernobyl experience. The four new study tasks discussed include a study of reactivity transients, to reconfirm or bring into question the adequacy of potential reactivity accident sequences hitherto selected as a basis for design approvals; analysis of risk at low power and shutdown; a study of procedure violations; and a review of current NRC testing requirements for balance of benefits and risks. Also discussed, briefly, are adjustments to ongoing studies in the areas of operational controls, design, containment, emergency planning, and severe accident phenomena

  3. Reactor Physics Behind the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisch, F.

    1999-01-01

    There are some fourteen Chernobyl type of power reactors (1000 MWe) in operation at five different sites in Eastern Europe. In Russia; in St. Petersburg (4). in Smolensk (3). and in Kursk (4) in the Ukraine in Chernobyl (l) and in Lithuania in Ignalina (2). The oldest one is west of St. Petersburg and the most powerful one is in Ignalina. The reactors at St. Petersburg and in Lithuania are near to the Baltic sea. An intricate reactor construction was the most important cause of the accident. There were other reasons too: human error. politics and economics

  4. Biological and medical consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latarjet, R.

    1988-01-01

    The study of the medical and biological consequences of the nuclear accidents is a vast program. The Chernobyl accident has caused some thirty deceases: Some of them were rapid and the others occurred after a certain time. The particularity of these deaths was that the irradiation has been associated to burns and traumatisms. The lesson learnt from the Chernobyl accident is to treat the burn and the traumatism before treating the irradiation. Contrary to what the research workers believe, the first wave of deaths has passed between 15 and 35 days and it has not been followed by any others. But the therapeutic lesson drawn from the accident confirm the research workers results; for example: the radioactive doses band that determines where the therapy could be efficacious or not. the medical cares dispensed to the irradiated people in the hospital of Moscow has confirmed that the biochemical equilibrium of proteinic elements of blood has to be maintained, and the transfusion of the purified elements are very important to restore a patient to health, and the sterilization of the medium (room, food, bedding,etc...) of the patient is indispensable. Therefore, it is necessary to establish an international cooperation for providing enough sterilized rooms and specialists in the irradiation treatment. The genetic consequences and cancers from the Chernobyl accident have been discussed. It is impossible to detect these consequences because of their negligible percentages. (author)

  5. The nuclear accidents: Causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochd, M.

    1988-01-01

    The author discussed and compared the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents and cited their consequences. To better understand how these accidents occurred, a brief description of PWR type (reactor type of T.M.I.) and of RBMK type (reactor type of Chernobyl) has been presented. The author has also set out briefly the safety analysis objectives and the three barriers established to protect the public against the radiological consequences. To distinguish failures that cause severe accidents and to analyze them in details, it is necessary to classify the accidents. There are many ways to do it according to their initiator event, or to their frequency, or to their degree of gravity. The safety criteria adopted by nuclear industry have been explained. These criteria specify the limits of certain physical parameters that should not be exceeded in case of incidents or accidents. To compare the real causes of T.M.I. and Chernobyl accidents, the events that led to both have been presented. As observed the main common contributing factors in both cases are that the operators did not pay attention to warnings and signals that were available to them and that they were not trained to handle these accident sequences. The essential conclusions derived from these severe accidents are: -The improvement of operators competence contribute to reduce the accident risks; -The rapid and correct diagnosis of real conditions at each point of the accidents permits an appropriate behavior that would bring the plant to a stable state; -Competent technical teams have to intervene and to assist the operators in case of emergency; -Emergency plans and an international collaboration are necessary to limit the accident risks. 11 figs. (author)

  6. Health of the population having suffered after the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stozharov, A.N.; Zubovich, V.K.; Lazyuk, G.I.; Stel'makh, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of influence of radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident on health of the people; development of methods and means of diagnostics, treatment and preventive maintenance of diseases at various categories of victims; development and introduction in practice of effective methods of preventive maintenance and treatment of diseases of both mother and child in conditions of influence of the Chernobyl accident consequences; study of genetic consequences caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident and development of effectual measures of their prevention; creation of effective preventive means and food additives for treatment and rehabilitation of the persons having suffered after the Chernobyl accident; optimization of system of measures for health saving of the having suffered population and development of ways of increase of its efficiency

  7. Measured radioecological parameters after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonka, H.

    1989-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident the radioactivity in the environment in Aachen was measured in detail. The change of the different radionuclies in the eco-system made it possible to obtain radioecological parameters especially for iodine and caesium. The most important data obtained like deposition velocity, washout coefficient, retention factor, removal rate constant, and transfer factor food-milk, food-beef, and soil-grass are reported. (orig.)

  8. Legal aspects of the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuck, R.

    1986-01-01

    The brief article presents questions arising after the Chernobyl reactor accident, primarily those of compensation for damage and the relationship between citizens and the state. As existing laws do not offer suitable instruments for reacting to such a disaster, the author outlines ways and means that should be created on an international level in order to be able to react more efficiently in future. (HSCH) [de

  9. Safety regulation - twenty years after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksashin, P.P.; Bukrinskij, A.M.; Gordon, B.G.

    2006-01-01

    Main stages of development, successes, achievements and shortcomings of activity of supervision body after the Chernobyl NPP accident are analysed. The estimation of the realized variations of the functions of the state supervision department is carried out. Results of the twenty year period of improvement of the supervision body are summed up. The measures for increasing the efficiency of the supervision body operation are outlined [ru

  10. Chernobyl NPP accident: a year later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asmolov, V.G.; Borovoj, A.A.; Demin, V.F.

    1988-01-01

    Consideration is being given to measures on liquidation of Chernobyl accident aftereffects, conducted since August, 1986. One of the most important measures lay in construction of the ''shelter'', which must provide long-term conservation of accidental unit. Works on decontamination of reactor area and contaminated populated regions were continued. Measures on providing safety of population and its health protection were performed. An attention was paid to long-term investigations on studying delayed aftereffects of the accident, monitoring of invironment, development and introduction of measures on improving NPP safety. Prospects of further development of nuclear power engeneering and possibilities of improving its safety are considered

  11. Medical aspects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    From 11 to 13 May 1988, the All-Union Scientific Centre of Radiation Medicine convened a Conference on Medical Aspects of the Chernobyl Accident in Kiev. This was the first conference on this subject with international participation held in the Soviet Union. There were 310 specialists representing Soviet scientific establishments and over 60 experts from 23 other countries and international organizations participated in the Conference. Participants at the Conference discussed medical aspects of accident mitigation, including therapeutic, psychological, demographic, epidemiological and dosimetric problems. These proceedings include 29 reports presented by Soviet scientists during the four sessions as well as summaries of discussions and opening addresses. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. ARAC response to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerson, M.H.; Sullivan, T.J.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes the assessments provided by ARAC during the first two weeks after the Chernobyl reactor accident began. Results of this work and measurements made by European countries during that same period show that no major short-term acute health effects would be expected in Europe as a result of this accident. Statistical long-term health effects were not addressed in these studies. Both measured and calculated I-131 concentrations in milk in the US were over an order of magnitude below the USDA guideline of 15,000 pCi/l

  13. Chernobyl, 14 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) International cooperation, 7) More information about Chernobyl and 8) Glossary

  14. A description of nuclear reactor accidents and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, A.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear reactor accidents which have caused core damage, released a significant amount of radioactivity, or caused death or serious injury are described. The reactor accidents discussed in detail include Chernobyl, Three Mile Island, SL-1 and Windscale, although information on other less consequential accidents is also provided. The consequences of these accidents are examined in terms of the amounts of radioactivity released, the radiation doses received, and remedial actions and interventions taken following the accident. 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  15. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-12-01

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  16. Preliminary dose assessment of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    From the major accident at Unit 4 of the Chernobyl nuclear power station, a plume of airborne radioactive fission products was initially carried northwesterly toward Poland, thence toward Scandinavia and into Central Europe. Reports of the levels of radioactivity in a variety of media and of external radiation levels were collected in the Department of Energy's Emergency Operations Center and compiled into a data bank. Portions of these and other data which were obtained directly from published and official reports were utilized to make a preliminary assessment of the extent and magnitude of the external dose to individuals downwind from Chernobyl. Radioactive 131 I was the predominant fission product. The time of arrival of the plume and the maximum concentrations of 131 I in air, vegetation and milk and the maximum reported depositions and external radiation levels have been tabulated country by country. A large amount of the total activity in the release was apparently carried to a significant elevation. The data suggest that in areas where rainfall occurred, deposition levels were from ten to one-hundred times those observed in nearby ''dry'' locations. Sufficient spectral data were obtained to establish average release fractions and to establish a reference spectra of the other nuclides in the release. Preliminary calculations indicated that the collective dose equivalent to the population in Scandinavia and Central Europe during the first year after the Chernobyl accident would be about 8 x 10 6 person-rem. From the Soviet report, it appears that a first year population dose of about 2 x 10 7 person-rem (2 x 10 5 Sv) will be received by the population who were downwind of Chernobyl within the U.S.S.R. during the accident and its subsequent releases over the following week. 32 refs., 14 figs., 20 tabs

  17. Chernobyl and the consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzel, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    In an introducing chapter the meteorological situation over Austria in the days after the Chernobyl accident is outlined. The following chapters are on measurement of contamination of environment, foodstuffs and fodder; on measures taken to minimize the radiation burden; a comparison with the fallout from nuclear weapons tests; a dose estimation to the population and finally, a comparison with contamination in some other european countries. 26 tabs., 117 figs. (qui)

  18. Chernobyl. Review of consequences after years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeteles, Gy.J.

    1996-01-01

    Ten years after the nuclear power plant accident in Chernobyl the experts and the public turned again their attentions to the lesson leaned. Several international and national conferences were held to summarize data and to draw conclusions. The present review is based on this experience including that of the Hungarian scientists with special attention to the extent of contamination, early and late health effects and further problems. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  19. Medical consequences of Chernobyl disaster in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serduk, A.M.; Bobylyova, O.A.

    1997-01-01

    Some aspects of health deterioration in population of Ukraine affected after the Chernobyl accident are presented. The survived population division in groups, peculiarities of morbidity incidence and prevalence are described. The dynamics of some medical demography parameters are discussed concerning adults and paediatric population. The precise values of incidence and prevalence for the main classes of diseases are shown in comparison of 1995-1996 to 1987. (author)

  20. Ecological lessons from the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J N B; Shaw, G

    2005-08-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear accident in 1986 not only caused serious ecological problems in both the Ukraine and Belarus, which continue to the present day, but also contaminated a large part of the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere. In this paper an overview is given of the latter problems in upland UK, where ecological problems still remain some 17 years after initial contamination. Following deposition of radiocaesium and radioiodine in May 1986, measurements of radioactivity in grass and soil indicated a rapidly declining problem as the radioiodine decayed and the radiocaesium became immobilised by attachment to clay particles. However, these studies, as well as the advice received by the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, were based on lowland agricultural soils, with high clay and low organic matter contents. The behaviour of radiocaesium in upland UK turned out to be dominated by high and persistent levels of mobility and bioavailability. This resulted in the free passage of radiocaesium through the food chain and into sheep. Consequently the Ministry banned the sale and movement of sheep over large areas of upland Britain, with bans remaining on some farms to the present day. Present day predictions suggest that these bans will continue in some cases for some years to come. The causes of radiocaesium mobility in upland areas have subsequently been the subject of intense investigation centred around vegetation and, in particular, soil characteristics. Soil types were identified which were particularly vulnerable in this respect and, where these coincided with high levels of deposition, sheep bans tended to be imposed. While much of the earlier work suggested that a low clay content was the main reason for continuing mobility, a very high organic matter content is now also believed to play a major role, this being a characteristic of wet and acidic upland UK soils. The overall message from this affair is the importance of a fundamental

  1. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Fesenko, S.; Konoplev, A.; Skuterud, L.; Smith, J.T.; Voigt, G.

    2016-01-01

    April 2016 sees the 30 th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily 134+137 Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of ‘hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the “fixation” and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. - Highlights: • A review of 30 years of radioecological studies following the 1986 Chernobyl accident. • Key contributions to radioecology from post-Chernobyl research are discussed.

  2. Thyroid diseases after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, Shigenobu

    1993-01-01

    Radioactive iodine is released at every atomic-bomb testings and nuclear plants accidents and radioactive iodine is taken up by thyroid glands (internal radiation). In addition to the internal radiation, radioactive fallout causes the external radiation and thyroid glands are known to be sensitive to the external radiation. Furthermore, patients with radiation-induced thyroid disease can survive for a long time regardless of the treatment. The survey of thyroid diseases, therefore, is very sensitive and reliable ways to investigate the effects of radiation caused by atomic bomb explosion, testing and various types of nuclear plants' accidents. Our group from Nagasaki University was asked to investigate the thyroid diseases and jointed to the Sasakawa Project. In order to investigate the effects of radiation on thyroid disease, it is essential 1) to make a correct diagnosis in each subject, 2) to calculate a correct radiation dose in each subject and finally, 3) to find out the correlation between the radiation dose and thyroid diseases including age-, sex- and area-matched controls. We have established 5 centers (1 in Russia, 2 in Belarus, 2 in Ukraine) and supplied the most valuable ultrasonography instruments, commercial kits for the determination of serum free T 4 and TSH level and for the autoantibodies, instrument for urinary iodine measurements, syringers, tubes, refrigerators, etc. We visit each center often and asked people at centers to come to Japan for training. Protocol of investigation is essentially the same as that in Nagasaki, and we are planning to investigate more than 50,000 children within 5 years. We are hoping to show a definite conclusion in the near future. Recent articles are also discussed. (author)

  3. Abstracts of papers of international scientific conference 'Fundamental and applied aspects of radiobiology: Biological effects of low doses and radioactive contamination of environment (Radioecological and medical biological consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident)'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Astakhov, A.I.; Bogdevich, I.M.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Zubovich, V.K.; Knat'ko, V.A.; Lobanok, L.M.; Matsko, V.P.; Mrochek, A.G.

    1998-05-01

    The results of research works executed in Belarus, as well as in Ukraine and Russia, on various aspects of the Chernobyl problematic are given: radiation medicine and risks, radiobiological effects and their forecasting, radioecology and agricultural radiology, decontamination and radioactive wastes management, socio economic and psychological problems caused by the Chernobyl NPP accident

  4. The Chernobyl accident has changed our life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambaroff, M.; Mies, M.; Stopczyk, A.; Werlhof, C. v.

    1986-01-01

    The book presents news paper articles and other contribution written by female authors, showing openly their determination to fight for their conception of life, and to put up opposition against the arguments and attitudes of men who so far have dominated events and developments in science, technology, and politics. The fear and worries of the women and mothers after the Chernobyl accident are discussed in great detail, explaining their view in contrast to the male world believing in science and technology, and showing the reasons why women have started to take a new turn, fighting for recognition of their conception life. (DG) [de

  5. Learned from Chernobyl accident-intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    It is considered that health and social damage as seen in the Chernobyl accident could be avoided by establishing a clear framework for intervention against contamination. The framework must be easy to understand to be accepted by all the people concerned. This study presented a process of decision-making on countermeasures against a regional-scale soil contamination. This process put an emphasis on 1) Clarification of responsibility and intervention principles, 2) Application of probabilistic techniques into individual dose estimation, 3) Reduction of social burden. Examples of decision-making were also presented for a simulated ground surface contamination. (author)

  6. The Chernobyl accident — an epidemiological perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardis, E.; Hatch, M.

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-five years have passed since radioactive releases from the Chernobyl nuclear accident led to exposure of millions of people in Europe. Studies of affected populations have provided important new data on the links between radiation and cancer – particularly the risk of thyroid tumours from exposure to iodine isotopes - that are important not only for a fuller scientific understanding of radiation effects, but also for radiation protection. It is now well-documented that children and adolescents exposed to radioiodines from Chernobyl fallout have a sizeable dose-related increase in thyroid cancer, with risk greatest in those youngest at exposure and with a suggestion that deficiency in stable iodine may increase the risk. Data on thyroid cancer risks to other age groups are somewhat less definitive. In addition, there have been reported increases in incidence and mortality from non-thyroid cancers and non-cancer endpoints. Although some studies are difficult to interpret because of methodological limitations, recent investigations of Chernobyl clean-up workers (“liquidators”) have provided evidence of increased risks of leukaemia and other hematological malignancies and of cataracts, and suggestions of an increase in risk of cardiovascular diseases, following low doses and low dose rates of radiation. Further careful follow-up of these populations, including establishment and long-term support of life-span study cohorts, could provide additional important information for the quantification of radiation risks and the protection of persons exposed to low doses of radiation. PMID:21396807

  7. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.

    1990-07-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  8. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cigna, A [ENEA - Area Energia, Ambiente e Salute, Centro Ricerche Energia, Saluggia, Vercelli (Italy)

    1990-07-15

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accident is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the CEC for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized. (author)

  9. Lessons learned and evaluation of the impact from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cigna, A.A.

    1990-01-01

    The impact on society of the Chernobyl accidents is assessed. The situation prior to Chernobyl with respect to regulations of radiation protection against the consequences of a major accident is considered. The development of the recommendations and regulations issued by the Commission of the European Communities for the Maximum Permitted Levels of different groups of radionuclides in foodstuffs is reviewed. The different reactions to the accident are examined and some data on the average individual effective dose equivalents estimated in a number of countries are also reported. Finally some main problems concerning the information of the public and the preparedness for possible future accidents are also summarized

  10. The Chernobyl reactor accident source term: development of a consensus view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devell, L.; Guntay, S.; Powers, D.A.

    1995-11-01

    Ten years after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, a great deal more data is available concerning the events, phenomena, and processes that took place. The purpose of this document is to examine what is known about the radioactive materials released during the accident, a task that is substantially more difficult than it might first appear to be. The Chernobyl station, like other nuclear power plants, was not instrumented to characterize a disastrous accident. The accident was peculiar in the sense that radioactive materials were released, at least initially, in an exceptionally energetic plume and were transported far from the reactor site. Release of radioactivity from the plant continued for several days. Characterization of the contamination caused by the releases of radioactivity has had a much lower priority than remediation of the contamination. Consequently, an assessment of the Chernobyl accident source term must rely to a significant extent on inferential evidence. The assessment presented here begins with an examination of the core inventories of radioactive materials. In subsequent sections of the report, the magnitude and timing of the releases of radioactivity are described. Then, the composition, chemical forms, and physical forms of the releases are discussed. A number of more recent publications and results from scientists in Russia and elsewhere have significantly improved the understanding of the Chernobyl source term. Because of the special features of the reactor design and the peculiarities of the Chernobyl accident, the source term for the Chernobyl accident is of limited applicability to the safety analysis of other types of reactors

  11. Changes in the brain of subjects who participated in liquidation of the Chernobyl power plant accident consequences as shown by the data of radiodiagnosis (emission single-photon computer-aided scintigraphy, X-ray computer -aided and magnetic resonanse tomography)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.P.; Zubovskij, G.A.; Kholodova, N.B.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the data of X-ray examinations of the brain in liquidators of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. Findings of X-ray methods of diagnosis permit a conclusion on a complex organic involvement of the brain in subjects who participated in liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl power plant accident. The most typical are signs of the hypertensive hydricephalic syndrome with liquorodynamic disturbances and of the vascular encephalic syndrome with development of local postischemic malacia of the brain matter. 7 refs., 5 figs.,

  12. Observations on radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambray, R.S.; Cawse, P.A.; Garland, J.A.; Gibson, J.A.B.; Johnson, P.; Lewis, G.N.J.; Newton, D.; Salmon, L.; Wade, B.O.

    1987-02-01

    A preliminary study of radioactivity from the Chernobyl accident for the Department of the Environment was started in June 1986 which involved taking on an opportunistic basis, samples of air, rain, grass and soil in the UK. This study was integrated into a programme of other investigations funded by the Departments of Health and Social Security and of Energy including measurements on people, in air, deposition and soil overseas, on deposition to buildings and the derivation where possible of parameters of interest in accident assessment. This report is a comprehensive account of all these initial investigations and presented in fulfilment of the Preliminary Study under DoE contract PECD 7/9/359. (author)

  13. Main lessons based on the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident liquidation experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Nosovskij, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    The authors review the main lessons of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and the liquidation of its consequences in the area of the nuclear reactors safety operation, any major accident management, liquidation accident consequences criteria, emergency procedures, preventative measures and treatment irradiated victims, the monitoring methods etc. The special emphasis is put on the questions of the emergency response and the antiaccidental measures planning in frame of international cooperation program

  14. A first assessment of the psychic and social effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, G.

    1994-01-01

    A synthesis has been made of a series of surveys carried out in Ukraine in 1992 and 1993 on the psychic and social consequences of the Chernobyl accident, within the framework of the ''Evaluation programme of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident'' of the Commission of the European communities. The main results demonstrate the strength of the post-accident dynamics of the accident, more than 7 years later. Some 3 millions people were directly affected in their everyday life by the post-accident management which resulted in many perverse effects on the social and psychic levels. Economically, each year, financing of the post-accident management system requires nearly 1/6 of the Ukraine budget. Politically speaking, Chernobyl is still a major stake for the various actors of the institutional transition process underway since the disappearance of the soviet system. The article shows the systemic complexity of the local situation and the many explanatory factors (physical, sanitary, political, cultural, historical) at the origin of the post-accident dynamics. A systemic modelling of the interactions between these factors is presented. It makes it possible to better define the contributions of both accident and post-accident stages to the process that has led to the present situation. It shows out the close connections between the different accident stages and the need, from the very beginning of an accident, to take into account the mid-and long-term consequences arising from the accident management. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  15. Chernobyl and its consequences for Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenhofer, F.; Ecker, W.; Hojesky, H.; Junger, W.; Kienzl, K.; Nowak, H.; Riss, A.; Vychytil, P.; Zechner, J.

    1986-11-01

    First there is a short version of 16 pages. Then a detailed account is given mainly on the activities of the Federal Environment Office and the radiation burden to the population. The chapter headings are 1) The Chernobyl reactor accident 2) The meteorological situation 3) Monitoring of the radioactive contamination in Austria 4) Aims of the radiation measurement activities 5) Initial situation in Austria and first measurements 6) Environmental control 7) Food control 8) Fodder 9) Measures taken to minimise the radiation burden - a chronology 10) Comparison with nuclear tests fallout 11) Dose estimation 12) Radioactive contamination in other European countries. (G.Q.)

  16. 30 years life with Chernobyl, 5 years life with Fukushima. Health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima; 30 Jahre Leben mit Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre Leben mit Fukushima. Gesundheitliche Folgen der Atomkatastrophen von Tschernobyl und Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claussen, Angelika; Rosen, Alex

    2016-02-15

    The IPPNW report on health consequences of the nuclear catastrophes of Chernobyl and Fukushima covers the following issues: Part.: 30 years life with Chernobyl: Summarized consequences of Chernobyl, the accident progression, basic data of the catastrophe, estimation of health hazards as a consequence of the severe accident of Chernobyl, health consequences for the liquidators, health consequences for the contaminated population, mutagenic and teratogenic effects. Part B: 5 years life with Fukushima: The start of the nuclear catastrophe, emissions and contamination, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on human health, thyroid surveys in the prefecture Fukushima, consequences of the nuclear catastrophe on the ecosystem, outlook.

  17. The Republic of Belarus: 9 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of a situation in a 9 years after the Chernobyl NPP accident is given. In accordance with the republic programme of overcoming of the catastrophe consequences the main attention is given to a wide scales medical and preventive work, increase of a quality of the medical aid, creation of conditions for normal activity on the contaminated territory, maintenance of all groups of the population by an objective information about radioecological condition and radiation protection. Scientific researches in the field of radiation medicine and agricultural radiology are executed. Development of means and methods of decontamination, both social psychological and social economical rehabilitation are carried out. 1 fig

  18. The Chernobyl accident is the greatest social ecological and technological catastrophe in a human history. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babosov, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    The lessons of the Chernobyl tragedy for mankind are shown. Ecological consequences of the accident are described. It is given the analysis of social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl accident - change of a mode of life of the people on the contaminated territories, a development post-catastrophe processes, a migration moods of the population, an aggravation of a demographic situation. Problems of an administrative activity on the contaminated territories are discussed and measures for decrease of the Chernobyl accident consequences are offered. 51 refs., 7 tabs

  19. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of 137 Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of 137 Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch

  20. Dosimetric and biomedical studies conducted in Cuba of children from areas of the former USSR affected by the radiological consequences of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Children from ares affected by the Chernobyl accident have been receiving medical care in Cuba since 1990. The dosimetric and biomedical studies made include: measurement of {sup 137}Cs body content; internal, external, thyroid and total dose estimation; evaluation of the overall health condition and behaviour of hameatological, endocrinological, biochemical and cytogenetic indicators. Measurements of body activity and dose estimation have been performed on altogether 4506 children. Of this total, 69.3% of the children were from the Ukraine, 22.5% from Russia and 8.1% from Belarus. Assessments of overall health conditions, haematological and thyroid indicators have been made covering 3016 children from 421 Ukrainian townships, taking into account the body measurements of {sup 137}Cs and the surface contamination of the locations where the children come from. The biochemical indicator used (nucleic acid concentration in leucocytes) was assessed in five groups comprising some 445 children from areas where the level of surface contamination varied. Chromosome and micronuclei aberration rates were established in 28 children from Pripyat, 21 living in Kiev and 20 in Ovruch.

  1. Chernobyl, 12 years later

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 12 years after the disaster. It is made up of 7 chapters whose titles are: 1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, 2) The Chernobyl nuclear power plant, 3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, 4) The management of contaminated lands, 5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, 6) The Franco-German cooperation, and 7) Glossary

  2. Some aspects of thyroid system status in persons exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheban, A.K.; Afanasyev, D.E.; Boyarskaya, O.Y.

    1997-01-01

    The thyroid system status estimation held in post-accidental period dynamics among 7868 children evacuated from the 30-km Chernobyl zone and resident now in Slavutich city (Cs-137 contaminated area), among contaminated regions permanent residents, among native kievites and evacuated from 30-km zone. The thyroid pathology incidence dependence on residence place during Chernobyl Accident and after that was revealed. The immune-inflammatory thyroid disorders are characteristic for 30-km zone migrants, goitre different forms - for the radionuclides contaminated territories residents. No thyroid function abnormalities frequency confidential increase was registered during the research activities run. The total serum cholesterol level application unavailability is revealed in Chernobyl accident survivors thyroid hormones metabolic effects estimation. Data concerning Chernobyl accident consequences cleaning up participants (CACCP) presented additionally. (author)

  3. On the main causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteinberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The main causes are described of the Chernobyl accident, the discussion of which seems to be finished. It is shown that important actual parameters of the reactor differed adversely from the project; this fact had not been taken into account in operational instructions and therefore it could not be known to the operators. Further, the general causes of the Chernobyl accident are pointed out. A major cause is the still non-existing fundamental law and, consequently, lack of definition of responsibilities (it will, above all, be necessary to set out indivisible responsibility of the plant operator for nuclear safety). At present all participants in nuclear power engineering share responsibility. Another cause of the accident can be seen in insufficient quality assurance resulting from the fact that the Soviet regulatory body has not all the necessary powers and the independence. Closely connected with this is the fact that the role of the human factor is overemphasized and operational experience is not included in design modifications. In general, insufficient safety culture as defined by INSAG can be stated. 6 figs., 4 refs

  4. Public acceptance and assessment of countermeasures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarov, E.I.; Archangelskaya, G.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1997-01-01

    General Background. Previous studies confirmed that the main reason of the psychological stress after Chernobyl was a worry about radiation influence on personal health and health of children. This ''Chernobyl stress'' is typical ''information'' or emotional stress resulting from mass media information on radioactive contamination and exposure but not from direct personal visual or auditory and other impression for 5 million population. The population was not able to define the radiation danger by direct sensual perception without measuring equipment but was obliged to change their life-style and diet as a remedial action and to follow the radiation protection requirements and advices. Therefore the anxiety was related not only to information about the accident but also to implemental countermeasures, which changed the everyday life. The countermeasures became the first real sign of the accident. Methods. In 1988-1994 studies based on population interview of about 5 thousand residents and questionnaires were carried out on contaminated (15 - 40 Ci/km2) territories, adjacent and distant areas. The following information was used: population knowledge of protective measures; sources of information about radiation and level of trust; assessment of the effectiveness and reasons of non-satisfaction of the protection measures; compliance and involvement of population in countermeasures including effects of life-style changes and behavior; public opinion on priority for financial expenditure for mitigation of accident consequences

  5. The human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. A strategy for recovery. A report commissioned by UNDP and UNICEF with the support of UN-OCHA and WHO. Final - 25.01.02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This Report contains the findings of a study conducted into the human consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident fifteen years after the explosion. The Mission explored the health, socio-economic and environmental effects of the accident and the events that followed. The Report contains an analysis of the current situation and the prospects for the future, focusing on aspects that are significant for the well-being of the people and communities directly affected. The affected population - those exposed to radioactive fallout, remaining in the affected areas, or forced to relocate - continue to face disproportionate suffering in terms of health, social conditions, and economic opportunity. Hundreds of thousands of people have been evacuated from the most severely affected areas. Many have found it difficult to adapt and continue to face serious psychological, economic and social problems. The process of evacuation has now virtually ceased and only a small number of people continue to live in the most polluted areas. However, some tens of thousands remain in areas polluted to a level of between 15 and 40 curies per square kilometre. The accident has also had a continuing impact on the opportunities and well-being of a much wider circle of the inhabitants of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, through the negative image that it has created for large areas of these countries. It has imposed a heavy burden on the national budgets through the cost of clean-up, compensation and recovery. Ukraine, in addition, has had to carry much of the cost of closing and making safe the Chernobyl complex as well as the opportunity cost of the lost electrical output from the reactors concerned. These commitments have diverted resources away from other priorities, such as health, education and investment, at a time of profound economic crisis

  6. Scientific provision of the problems of overcoming the Chernobyl catastrophe consequences. Chapter 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.; Gurachevskij, V.L.; Poplyko, I.Ya.; Semeshko, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    At present in the Republic of Belarus the research works on the problems of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences are carried out in the following directions: radiation protection of the population; health of the population affected by the Chernobyl NPP accident; complex radiation-ecological estimation of the environment and conditions of the life activity of the population; rehabilitation of the contaminated territories; instrumental and methodical provision of the radiation control. The experience of the scientific approach to the decision of wide-scale and multiple-discipline tasks of overcoming of the Chernobyl accident consequences promotes for transformation of separate knowledge about radiation safety in holistic conception of safety and protection of the population in emergency caused by industrial accidents, catastrophes, natural disasters

  7. The impact of the Chernobyl accident on Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, G.C.

    1988-01-01

    As the fallout from the atmospheric nuclear weapons tests gradually decreased during the 1970s, the national preparedness and analytical capacity in Norway gradually disintegrated as well. The Chernobyl accident was therefore met without any overall contingency preparedness plan. The affected governmental bodies and other institutions had to improvise their first steps, including information to the public, until necessary coordination had been established. A complicating factor was the change of government during the first days of May 1986, the reasons for this had however nothing to do with the reactor accident. A great deal of uncertainty prevailed about the accident and its consequences especially during the first days after the accident. The Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Ministry of the Environment in May 1986 both appointed committees to report on the accident and its impacts and on a future preparedness system, although their terms of reference were not identical. A third committee was appointed in June by the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs to report on the information crises in connection with the accident

  8. Accident at Chernobyl and the medical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, H.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author was in the Soviet Union in early June 1986, leading a medical lecture tour under an exchange program sponsored by Physicians for Social Responsibility. This provided an opportunity for extensive discussions with the Soviet physicians in charge of the medical response to Chernobyl, for a visit to Moscow Hospital number 6, the center of care for those acutely injured for observation of seven acutely irradiated patients and reviews of their clinical courses, and for discussion with the medical teams providing the acute care and planning the necessary long term epidemiologic and environmental investigations. This report is based on information provided by these sources and on data released in Moscow by Robert P. Gale, MD, the American physician from UCLA who, with his associates, flew to the Soviet Union within days to join the team already caring for irradiated victims of the accident

  9. Health protection measures after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strand, P.; Reitan, J.B.; Harbitz, O.; Brynhildsen, L.

    1990-01-01

    The article describes the nutritional measures introduced to protect health after the Chernobyl accident, and the associated costs. The toal value of the reindeer meat, mutton, lamb and goat meat saved as a result of such measures in 1987 amounted to approx. NOK 250 million. The measures cost approx. NOK 60 million. The resulting reduction in the radiation dose level to which the population was exposed was 450 manSv. In 1988, mutton/lamb and goat meat valued at approx. NOK 310 million was saved from contamination by similar measures, which cost approx. NOK 50 million. The resulting dose level reduction was approx. 200 manSv. The relationship (cost/benefit ratio) between the overall cost of the measures taken to reduce radioactivity levels in food and the dose level reduction achieved was acceptable. 11 refs

  10. Radiant smiles everywhere - before the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The business reports presented by the Federal German electric utilities for 1985 are almost all simply brillant. Electricity consumption has been going up, some of the utilities even can boast about rates kept constant over the year. But before the printed business reports could be presented to the meetings of shareholders, a nasty cloud threw a dark shadow over all the brilliant results. The Chernobyl accident made some of the hymns over the nuclear electricity increases and nuclear power in general sound rather queer. Could we do without this energy source. Substituting nuclear power would yearly require: 28 million t of oil, or 41 million t of hard coal, or 142 million t of browncoal, or 38 thousand million cubic metres of natural gas. Extrapolating current conditions and assuming best achievements, renewable energy sources might be able to meet 6 p.c. of the primary energy demands by the year 2000. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Public relations and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, P.; Hille, R.; Paschke, M.; Schneider, K.; Uray, I.

    1998-01-01

    In 1991-1993, a large-scale measuring programme was carried out in Germany to assess the radiation burden of the population in regions polluted due to the Chernobyl accident. The primary goal was to objectively inform the population about their actual radiation exposure, to reduce unjustified fears, and to enable countermeasures to be taken where appropriate. A comprehensive overview of the radiation situation was thus also obtained in the regions examined. Channels were sought and found in order to communicate with the more than 250 000 individuals involved in the programme as well as with scientific institutions and the public. Direct communication of the results to the persons examined by means of a certificate including a short explanation proved to be essential to create an atmosphere of trust. (P.A.)

  12. Retrospective dosimetry of populations exposed to reactor accident: Chernobyl example, lesson for Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, Vadim V.

    2013-01-01

    Follow-up of the Chernobyl accident had included a good deal of retrospective dosimetry and dose reconstruction. Comparison of Chernobyl and Fukushima shows that despite some differences in course and scale of the two accidents, main elements are present in both situations and Chernobyl experience could be quite educative for better understanding and more optimal handling of Fukushima Dai-ichi accident consequences. This paper contains review of dose reconstruction efforts done to date and extensively published in scientific journals and reports. Specifically the following cases are considered: (i) evaluation of individual doses to evacuees; (ii) validation of ecological dosimetric models and ruling out unconfirmed dose rate measurements; dosimetric support of (iii) case–control study of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators), and (iv) cohort study of cataracts among liquidators. Due to limited size of this paper the given application cases are rather outlined while more detailed descriptions could be found in relevant publications. Each considered Chernobyl case is commented with respect to possible application to Fukushima Dai-ichi situation. The presented methodological findings and approaches could be used for retrospective assessment of human exposures in Fukushima. -- Highlights: ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for evaluation of individual doses to evacuees. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for validation of ecological dosimetric models, rejection dubious dose rate records. ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for risk assessment of leukemia among Chernobyl clean-up workers (liquidators). ► Retrospective dosimetry in Chernobyl was applied for study of cataracts among liquidators. ► Experience of dose reconstruction in Chernobyl could be used for retrospective assessment of exposures in Fukushima

  13. The international cooperation using the example of the reactor accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molitor, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    The explosion of the reactor unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl and the subsequent fire was up to now the most severe accident in the civil nuclear industry. The consequences of the accident far outside the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union demonstrated that nuclear safety is a trans-border challenge. The mitigation of the accident consequences and the recovery of safety for the public, the workers and the environment required outstanding efforts and the international cooperation was of significant importance. The contribution discusses experiences and practical aspects of the international cooperation and implications for future cooperation options for the long-term removal of accident consequences.

  14. Chernobyl, 17 after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-04-01

    This information document takes stock on the Chernobyl accident effects, 17 years after the reactor accident. The domains concerned are: the Chernobyl power plant, the sanitary consequences of the accident in the most exposed countries, the Chernobyl environment and the polluted regions management, the Chernobyl accident consequences in France; Some data and technical sheets on the RBMK reactors and the international cooperation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  15. Does man end up as a final disposal site for radioactive substances. Analyses, facts, background information. Life after the Chernobyl accident - and the consequences with regard to food. Endlagerstaette Mensch. Analysen, Tatsachen, Hintergruende. Nach Tschernobyl - Konsequenzen fuer unsere Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H

    1986-01-01

    The fire in the Russian reactor that spread sparks of fear and panic into millions of homes also is a challenge: We have to cope with the reality of life after the Chernobyl disaster, and what we first need is sound and proper information. What is to be learnt from the disaster. From the embarassing quarrel between our Government and Land governments about dose limits. Will politicians draw consequences. How good and efficient are current food quality controls. What do the consumers' associations say. What will anti-nuclear power groups do. The book in hand critically reviews the events and activities that followed the Chernobyl accident. It denounces the scandalous behaviour of authorities who created confusion rather than confidence, and the behaviour of those people who are playing a foul game with the people's fear. The author presents information in order to make the complex mechanisms of radioactivity and its effects comprehensible to the general public. He also discusses the problem of 'legally' irradiated food imported from other countries.

  16. The consequences of Chernobyl. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, I.

    1989-01-01

    The investigation on the consequences of Chernobyl in Hessen served to formulate hypotheses for a research programme concept 'social ecology'. Its cope was restricted to groups of women, mothers, and parents, in order to confront the crisis perception of women, respectively women's vehemently publicized experience of catastrophe, with prevailing crisis theories, and hence to develop a programme concept. Furthermore, the brochure contains a description of the ways in which the limiting value problem was dealt with at the administrative-political and scientific level, and an interpretation of its research-political relevance. (DG) [de

  17. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on public perceptions of nuclear plant accident risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, M.K.; Perry, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Assessments of public perceptions of the characteristics of a nuclear power plant accident and affective responses to its likelihood were conducted 5 months before and 1 month after the Chernobyl accident. Analyses of data from 69 residents of southwestern Washington showed significant test-retest correlations for only 10 of 18 variables--accident likelihood, three measures of impact characteristics, three measures of affective reactions, and hazard knowledge by governmental sources. Of these variables, only two had significant changes in mean ratings; frequency of thought and frequency of discussion about a nearby nuclear power plant both increased. While there were significant changes only for two personal consequences (expectations of cancer and genetic effects), both of these decreased. The results of this study indicate that more attention should be given to assessing the stability of risk perceptions over time. Moreover, the data demonstrate that experience with a major accident can actually decrease rather than increase perceptions of threat

  18. Dynamics of social-psychological consequences 10 years after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumyantseva, G.M.; Levina, T.M.; Archangelskaya, H.V.; Zykova, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    The study has been carried out according to the long-term JSP2 in comparison with the results of data acquired by the authors in previous years in other programs in 1988-95 for more then 5 thousand people. In working out the strategy of post-catastrophe situation it is necessary to have a joint effort of the population and authority. The studies have showed that cooperation has not been achieved in this case. Hence, the effect of protective measures have been seriously decreased. Countermeasures taken after the catastrophe have had not only a positive, but in some cases a negative impact. The results of many previous studies as will as JSP2 program have shown serious social and psychological consequences of Chernobyl Accident. There is a constant year-to-year comprehension among population anxiety concerning their health. The main result of the study is that social and psychological consequences of the Chernobyl Accident include nonradiological risks as seriously as the radiation risk.23

  19. Comparisons of the emissions in the Windscale and Chernobyl accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1987-02-01

    The contents are summarized under the following headings: 1) Windscale accident summary 2) Emission of 137 Cs from Windscale 3) Emission of other fission products from Windscale 4) Environmental effects - iodine 5) Environmental effects - caesium. A bibliography is attached and where figures are available, comparisons are made with the Chernobyl fallout, including thyroid iodine burdens for U.K. students who were in Russia at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and milk measurements of Caesium 137 in the U.K. (UK)

  20. Ten years after the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, E.; Moberg, L.; Brasch, A.; Bengtsson, Aa.; Johansson, J.Aa.; Holmgren, S.

    1996-01-01

    About 5 percent of the total amount of cesium released from the Chernobyl reactor accident deposited in Sweden. The middle part of Sweden received the highest fallout. During the first period after the accident, cows in these areas were not allowed to graze. Due to the time of the year there were very few problems with cultivated crops, even during the first summer. Game, reindeer, fresh water fish, wild berries and mushrooms, however, were contaminated to a great extent and still after 10 years high concentrations of 137 Cs can be found in these animals and in mushrooms, but to a lesser extent in wild berries. Intensive controls of the Cs content are still being carried out in reindeer at the time of slaughtering. During the last few years, hand instruments for estimation of the Cs content of live animals (reindeer mostly) has been available. This makes it possible to slaughter only animals estimated to have levels of Cs below the limit value. When offered for sale, the limit value for 137 Cs is 300 Bq/kg for the 'basic foodstuffs' and for meat from game, reindeer, fresh water fish, nuts, wild berries and mushrooms 1500 Bq/kg. High levels of 137 Cs will be found in reindeer and fresh water fish from some areas for many years in the future. 8 refs, 11 figs

  1. The Chernobyl reactor accident and its impact on Austrian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, O.

    1986-09-01

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl reactor accident the environmental radioactivity in Austria increased far above the level recorded before. Radionuclides can enter into the foodchains by the contamination of agricultural products. Determining for the contamination is the behaviour of radionuclides in plants and soils, the development of vegetative plant mass at the moment of the accident and regional differences in fallout intensity. Contamination of plants is caused mainly by cesium-137 and cesium-134. Cs is taken up easily by plant foliage. Its mobility in the plant is high, even to fruits and seeds growing after the accident. Higher contaminations are recorded generally in winter cercals, rape, and fruits, while spring cercals, sugar beets and maize are nearly free from Cs-activity. Heavy contaminations with Cs appear in grassland vegetation as a result of combined uptake via leaves, plant base, and roots. The entry of caesium into the milk is one of the most serious consequences of the reactor accident. Transfer coefficients derived from prevailing experiments can be used for estimating the activity concentration in milk. Accordingly the threshold value of 5 nCi 137 Cs per liter milk should be reached when the daily intake by feeding is about 700 nCi. During the grazing season the Cs-availability for cattle is distinctly lower. (Author)

  2. Prenatal diagnostics of congenital malformations, the most efficient way to decrease genetic consequences of Chernobyl accident; Perinatal'naya diagnostika vrozhdennykh porokov razvitiya - naibolee ehffektivnyj metod minimizatsii geneticheskikh posledstvij Chernobyl'skoj katastrofy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G I; Zatsepin, I O; Kravchuk, Zn P; Khmel, R D

    2003-04-01

    in the last 5 years about 500 pregnancies were terminated annually for genetic reasons. Over 100 pregnancies were terminated in Gomel region, which considerably reduced (by 1-3%) perinatal mortality, children's morbidity and disability. The number of children, born with the anomalies of the central nervous system, renal polycystosis and agenesis, omphalocele, reduction limb defects, is decreasing most considerably. The potentialities of prenatal diagnostics of CM are far from being used adequately in the Republic. With sufficient financing, present-day techniques allow prenatal diagnosing of 1000 cases instead of 600 diagnosed each year. The program will be productive, if prenatal biochemical screening and invasive prenatal procedures are financed regularly and interregional centres for prenatal diagnostics are created. These measures will not only reduce the proportion of children, born with congenital malformations, but increase the birth rate in Belarus, since the future mothers will not be scared to give birth to a malformed child, which is especially essential for the population exposed to radiation due to Chernobyl accident (authors)

  3. International Conference 'Twenty Years after Chernobyl Accident. Future Outlook'. Abstracts proceeding; Myizhnarodna konferentsyiya 'Dvadtsyat' rokyiv Chornobil's'koyi katastrofi. Poglyad u majbutnje'. Zbyirka tez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2006-07-01

    This conference concludes a series of events dedicated to the 20 anniversary of the Chernobyl accident and promote an effective implementation of the accumulated international experience in the following areas: Radiation protection of the population and emergency workers, and the environmental consequences of Chernobyl accident; Medical and public health response to radiation emergencies; Strengthening radiological emergency management of radiation accidents; Economic and legal aspects of radioactive waste management and nuclear power plants decommissioning; Radioactive waste management: Chernobyl experience; Nuclear power plant decommissioning: Chernobyl NPP; Transformation of the Chernobyl Sarcophagus into an ecologically safe system.

  4. 25 years since Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosila, Ion; Gheorghe, Raluca; Simion, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Environmental and food radioactivity surveillance in Romania, begun since the early 60's, with 47 laboratories from National Environment Radioactivity Surveillance Network (NERSN) in the framework of Ministry of Environmental and the network of 21 Radiation Hygiene Laboratories (RHL) from centers and institutes of the Ministry of Public Health. The surveillance was conducted by global beta and alpha measurements, necessary to make some quick decisions as well as gamma spectrometry to detect high and low resolution profile accident. Thus the two networks together and some departmental labs recorded from the first moments (since April 30, 1986) the presence of the contaminated radioactive cloud originated from Ukraine, after the nuclear accident on 26 April 1986 at Chernobyl NPP, on the Romanian territory. NERSN followed up the radioactive contamination of air (gamma dose rate, atmospheric aerosols and total deposition), surface water, uncultivated soil, and spontaneous vegetation while the RHL monitored the drinking water and food. Early notification of this event allowed local and central authorities to take protective measures like: administration of stable iodine, advertisements in media on avoiding consumption of heavily contaminated food, prohibition of certain events that took place outdoors, interdiction of drinking milk and eating milk products for one month long. Most radionuclides, fission and activation products (22 radionuclides), released during the accident, have been determined in the environmental factors. A special attention was paid to radionuclides like Sr-90, I-131, Cs-134 and Cs-137, especially in aerosol samples, where the maximum values were recorded on Toaca Peak (Ceahlau Mountain) on May, the first, 1986: 103 Bq/m 3 , I-131, 63 Bq/m 3 , Cs-137. The highest value of I-131 in drinking water, 21 Bq/l, was achieved on May, the third, 1986 in Bucharest and in cow milk exceeded the value of 3000 Bq/l. For sheep milk some sporadic values exceeding

  5. The comparative analysis of traumas and poisonings incidence and mortality rates from them at workers and men-employees, workers of the nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birukov A.P.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aims the estimation of incidence of traumas and poisonings, and mortality from them at workers of the Russian nuclear industry, participants in the rectification of the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station, in view of their social structure. Material and methods. Carrying out this research, we used the information base of the Register of the persons exposed by radiation after the Chernobyl accident. There had been registered as of January, 1, 1998: liquidators of 1986-1987 years — 12882 people (men — 84,3%, liquidators of 1988-1990 years —2313 people (men — 88,3%. There had been presented parameters of case rate and mortality of men, separately workers and employees of the given cohort. Results. Lower level of traumas and poisonings incidence at employees had been revealed (2-2,4 times lower, than at the workers, the mortality of traumas and poisonings at employees were also 1,1-2,9 times lower (on the average — in 2,0 times is revealed. The alcoholism essentially raises a traumatism at liquidators. The traumatism above at the liquidators, suffering a chronic alcoholism, in 1,9-3,3 times. The distinctions in coefficients of the mortality from traumas and poisonings and the incidence by them for age groups of the men-liquidators were revealed. Conclusion. The essential difference in parameters of men-liquidators' health, workers of the nuclear industry, and workers shows that a social factor renders significant influence on health of a studied contingent of persons. Age features in many respects define value of parameters of incidence of traumas and poisonings and death rates from them a studied contingent. In radiation epidemiological researches it is necessary to consider biological and social factors necessarily.

  6. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beebe, G.

    1996-01-01

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs

  7. Editorial: Thyroid cancer and the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.

    1996-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl power station nearly 10 years ago was unprecedented in the exposure of a very large population to high levels of fallout including high levels of isotopes of iodine, predominantly 131 I. An increase in incidence of childhood thyroid cancer was first observed in 1990 in Belarus and in the Ukraine, and the first reports in the Western literature were published in 1992. At a symposium in Nagasaki in June 1994, the numbers of cases that had occurred between 1990 and 1993 in Belarus, a country with a population of just over 10 million, was reported to be 233, and in the heavily contaminated northern parts of the Ukraine, with a population of about 7 million, 36 cases occurred in the same period. To put these figures into perspective, the number of childhood thyroid cancers registered in England and Wales over a 30-year period was 154, an average of 5 cases per yr in a population of 50 million people, with about 10 million children under 15 yr of age. The initial reports of such a great increase in childhood thyroid cancers in the areas exposed to fallout from Chernobyl were at first greeted in the West with some skepticism. The latent period between exposure and development of thyroid cancer was surprisingly short, based on experience with thyroid carcinomas developing after external radiation to the neck. The reliability of the figures based on the pathological diagnosis was questioned because the cases had not been confirmed by Western pathologists, and because the known high frequency of papillary microcarcinoms in adults raised the possibility that the reported incidence was resulted form increased ascertainment and not a true increase in incidence. 14 refs

  8. Nuclear catastrophes and their consequences. 30 years after Chernobyl, 5 years after Fukushima; Nukleare Katastrophen und ihre Folgen. 30 Jahre nach Tschernobyl, 5 Jahre nach Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebert, Wolfgang; Gepp, Christian; Reinberger, David (eds.)

    2016-07-01

    The book on nuclear catastrophes covers the following issues: A historical oversight on nuclear power; two catastrophic reactor accidents: Chernobyl and Fukushima; presentation of important experiences on the radiological consequences of the severe accidents; regulatory reactions in Europe as a consequence of Fukushima; beyond Chernobyl and Fukushima: fundamental problems with nuclear energy.

  9. Chromosome aberrations in Norwegian reindeer following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Røed, K.H.; Jacobsen, M.

    1995-01-01

    Chromosome analyses were carried out on peripheral blood lymphocytes of semi-domestic reindeer in Norway which had been exposed to varying amounts of radiocesium emanating from the Chernobyl accident. The sampling was done in the period 1987-1990. The material included 192 reindeer, originating from four herds in central Norway, an area considerably affected by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, and from three herds in northern Norway which was unaffected by fallout from the accident. Significant heterogeneity in the distribution of chromosome aberrations between herds was observed. The pattern of chromosome aberration frequencies between herds was not related to the variation in radiocesium exposure from the Chernobyl accident. Other factors than the Chernobyl accident appear therefore to be of importance for the distribution of aberration frequencies found among present herds. Within the most contaminated area the reindeer born in 1986 showed significantly more chromosome aberrations than those born both before and after 1986. This could suggest that the Chernobyl accident fallout created an effect particularly among calves, during the immediate post-accident period in the most exposed areas

  10. Radioactive release during nuclear accidents in Chernobyl and Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Ain Sulaiman, Siti; Mohamed, Faizal; Rahim, Ahmad Nabil Ab

    2018-01-01

    Nuclear accidents that occurred in Chernobyl and Fukushima have initiated many research interests to understand the cause and mechanism of radioactive release within reactor compound and to the environment. Common types of radionuclide release are the fission products from the irradiated fuel rod itself. In case of nuclear accident, the focus of monitoring will be mostly on the release of noble gases, I-131 and Cs-137. As these are the only accidents have been rated within International Nuclear Events Scale (INES) Level 7, the radioactive release to the environment was one of the critical insights to be monitored. It was estimated that the release of radioactive material to the atmosphere due to Fukushima accident was approximately 10% of the Chernobyl accident. By referring to the previous reports using computational code systems to model the release rate, the release activity of I-131 and Cs-137 in Chernobyl was significantly higher compare to Fukushima. The simulation code also showed that Chernobyl had higher release rate of both radionuclides on the day of accident. Other factors affecting the radioactive release for Fukushima and Chernobyl accidents such as the current reactor technology and safety measures are also compared for discussion.

  11. Thirty years after the Chernobyl accident: What lessons have we learnt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresford, N A; Fesenko, S; Konoplev, A; Skuterud, L; Smith, J T; Voigt, G

    2016-06-01

    April 2016 sees the 30(th) anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. As a consequence of the accident populations were relocated in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine and remedial measures were put in place to reduce the entry of contaminants (primarily (134+137)Cs) into the human food chain in a number of countries throughout Europe. Remedial measures are still today in place in a number of countries, and areas of the former Soviet Union remain abandoned. The Chernobyl accident led to a large resurgence in radioecological studies both to aid remediation and to be able to make future predictions on the post-accident situation, but, also in recognition that more knowledge was required to cope with future accidents. In this paper we discuss, what in the authors' opinions, were the advances made in radioecology as a consequence of the Chernobyl accident. The areas we identified as being significantly advanced following Chernobyl were: the importance of semi-natural ecosystems in human dose formation; the characterisation and environmental behaviour of 'hot particles'; the development and application of countermeasures; the "fixation" and long term bioavailability of radiocaesium and; the effects of radiation on plants and animals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This documentary report tries to give an answer, beyond the current reporting during the last months - including the VDI Nachrichten - how to judge somewhat surely the reasons of the accident and its procession according to the report of the USSR and the international discussion. Subjects: Sequence of events and causes leading to the accident in the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl; dimension and consequences of the radioactive precipitations in West-Germany; foundations of nuclear fission; structure and security systems of Sovjet reactor lines and comparisons with German nuclear power plants; licensing procedure and continual control of the German plants; moral responsibility of the peaceful use of nuclear energy; nuclear phase out and its consequences, and at last data and facts about the use of renewable sources of energy. (orig./GL) [de

  13. Chernobyl - what can natural scientists or physicians say to that accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The public discussion meeting was intended to offer to the general public a platform for discussion of questions evoked by the Chernobyl reactor accident, and scientific information on what has happened there. The brief lectures therefore deal with the accident scenario as far as assessable at the time, and with the consequences to be expected for the Federal Republic of Germany, with the fallout situation in the Mainz area, and the atmospheric dispersion and transfer of air masses from Chernobyl to the FRG. The medical experts presented information on the radiation exposure of the population and the possible genetic risk. (DG) [de

  14. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fesenko, S V [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Alexakhin, R M [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Balonov, M I [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Bogdevich, I M [Research Institute for Soil Science and Agrochemistry, Minsk (Belarus); Howard, B J [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LAI 4AP (United Kingdom); Kashparov, V A [Ukrainian Institute of Agricultural Radiology (UIAR), Mashinostroiteley Street 7, Chabany, Kiev Region 08162 (Ukraine); Sanzharova, N I [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Panov, A V [Russian Institute of Agricultural Radiology and Agroecology, 249020 Obninsk (Russian Federation); Voigt, G [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Zhuchenka, Yu M [Research Institute of Radiology, 246000 Gomel (Belarus)

    2006-12-15

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  15. Twenty years' application of agricultural countermeasures following the Chernobyl accident: lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S V; Alexakhin, R M; Balonov, M I; Bogdevich, I M; Howard, B J; Kashparov, V A; Sanzharova, N I; Panov, A V; Voigt, G; Zhuchenka, Yu M

    2006-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl NPP (nuclear power plant) was the most serious ever to have occurred in the history of nuclear energy. The consumption of contaminated foodstuffs in affected areas was a significant source of irradiation for the population. A wide range of different countermeasures have been used to reduce exposure of people and to mitigate the consequences of the Chernobyl accident for agriculture in affected regions in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. This paper for the first time summarises key data on countermeasure application over twenty years for all three countries and describes key lessons learnt from this experience. (review)

  16. Questions about the reactor accident with Chernobyl-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijboer, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    The author presents an inventory of existing information about the Chernobyl-4 accident. Several possible scenarios are described and a comparison is drawn with the Three Mile Island-2 accident. The author concludes that the event is connected to an inherent instability of the RBMK-1000 reactor type. (G.J.P.)

  17. Radioactive contamination from Chernobyl accident over Alexandria city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammar, E.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.; Wahba, A.G.; Elraey, M.

    1987-01-01

    The concentration of radioactive contamination in air resulting from the Chernobyl accident has been followed up. A sudden and sharp increase was detected seven days after the start of the accident. This increase amounted to about 650 times the normal air-borne activity. (author)

  18. Reasons for the RBMK reactor accident at the Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, I.I.; Kruzhilin, G.N.; Anan'ev, E.P.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis of the reasons for the Chernobyl Reactor accident in 1986 places the blame firmly with the reactor operators, who, it is argued, made a number of dramatic mistakes while controlling the reactor. The report also included an additional analysis of the causes of the accident. (UK)

  19. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    This report describes the detection of fallout in the United States from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. As part of its environmental surveillance program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory maintained detectors for gamma-emitting radionuclides. Following the reactor accident, additional air filters were set out. Several uncommon isotopes were detected at the time the plume passed into the US

  20. Health effects of the Chernobyl accident and special health care programmes. Report of the UN Chernobyl Forum Expert Group 'Health'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.; Repacholi, M.; Carr, Z.

    2006-01-01

    Twenty years have passed since the worst nuclear reactor accident in the world occurred at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine. The radioactive contamination which resulted from the explosion and fire in the first few days spread over large areas of neighbouring Belarus and the Russian Federation, with most of the fallout in Belarus. While national and local authorities did not immediately disclose the scale of the accident, the mitigation measures, such as distribution of potassium iodine pills, food restriction, and mass evacuation from areas where the radioactive contamination was greatest, undoubtedly reduced the health impact of the radiation exposure and saved many lives. The accident caused severe social and economic disruption and had significant environmental and health impact. This was aggravated by the political and economical changes in the three affected states related to the break-down of the Soviet Union. In the aftermath of the accident the international scientific and medical community collaborated closely with national experts dealing with health effects of the accident in the affected countries. There is a substantial body of international collaborative projects on the situation, which should lead to advancement in radiation sciences. However, considerable speculation and disinformation remains about the possible health impact of the accident for the millions of affected people. To address the health, environmental and socioeconomic consequences of the Chernobyl accident, the United Nations in 2003 launched an Inter-Agency initiative, the Chernobyl Forum. The Forum's Secretariat, led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and several other international organizations collaborated with the governments of the affected countries. The purpose of the Chernobyl Forum was to review the consequences of the accident, issue technical reports and, based

  1. Validity of thyroid cancer incidence data following the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargin, Sergei V

    2011-12-01

    The only clearly demonstrated cancer incidence increase that can be attributed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident is thyroid carcinoma in patients exposed during childhood or adolescence. Significant increases in thyroid disease were observed as soon as 4 y after the accident. The solid/follicular subtype of papillary carcinoma predominated in the early period after the accident. Morphological diagnosis of cancer in such cases, if no infiltrative growth is clearly visible, depends mainly on the nuclear criteria. Outdated equipment and insufficient quality of histological specimens impeded reliable evaluation of the nuclear criteria. Access to foreign professional literature has always been limited in the former Soviet Union. The great number of advanced tumors observed shortly after the accident can be explained by the screening effect (detection of previously neglected cancers) and by the fact that many patients were brought from non-contaminated areas and registered as Chernobyl victims. It is also worth noting that exaggeration of the Chernobyl cancer statistics facilitated the writing of dissertations, financing of research, and assistance from outside the former Soviet Union. "Chernobyl hysteria" impeded nuclear energy production in some countries, thus contributing to higher prices for fossil fuel. The concluding point is that since post-Chernobyl cancers tend on average to be in a later stage of tumor progression, some published data on molecular or immunohistochemical characteristics of Chernobyl-related cancers require reevaluation.

  2. The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant and the problem of estimating the consequences of radioactive contamination of natural and agricultural ecological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexakhin, R.M.; Geraskin, S.A.; Fesenko, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    Heavy radiation accidents cause long-term low-dose biota irradiation on large territories. In this situation of great importance is a correct estimation of danger of low-dose irradiation. Approaches now in use to assess the genetic consequences of irradiation are based on linear extrapolation of biological effects induced by high and medium doses to the region of low doses. However, models based on the linear non threshold hypothesis lack strong biological justification and come into conflict with the experimental data available. Our experiments with agricultural crops aimed at studying regularities in the induction cytogenetic damages using test-systems have demonstrated that the form of the dose-effect curve in the domain of low exposure values shows a pronounced linearity and the presence of a dose-independent region. A comparison of the experimentally revealed form of the empirical curve with results obtained for other objects (human lymphocytes, fibroblasts of Chinese hamster, seedlings of horse beans, etc.) allows a conclusion to be made that the relationship between the yield of radiation induced cytogenetic disturbances and dose is non-linear and universal in character, varying for different objects only in dose values at which changes in the relationship nature occur. So, the observed genetic effects in the region of low doses result from peculiarities in the cellular response to weak external action rather than damaging impact of ionising radiation or other factors of physical or chemical nature

  3. Chernobyl: myths and reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, A.

    1998-01-01

    Factual materials concerning the consequences of the Chernobyl accident presented by international organizations during post-Chernobyl period are discussed. Attention is paid to the clinical effects directly related to the accident, diseases, psychological consequences, long-term effect on health. Prospects for post-Chernobyl period are considered

  4. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the prostate of coalminers of Donbas--liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-12-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in prostate of Donbas's coalminer-non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a prostatic gland changes.

  5. [Morphological verification problems of Chernobyl factor influence on the testis of coal miners of Donbas-liquidators of Chernobyl accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danylov, Iu V; Motkov, K V; Shevchenko, T I

    2013-01-01

    Problem of a diagnostic of Chernobyl factor influences on different organs and systems of Chernobyl accident liquidators are remain actually until now. Though morbidly background which development at unfavorable work conditions in underground coalminers prevents from objective identification features of Chernobyl factor influences. The qualitative and quantitative histological and immunohistochemical law of morphogenesis changes in testis of Donbas's coalminer - non-liquidators Chernobyl accident in comparison with the group of Donbas's coalminers-liquidators Chernobyl accident, which we were stationed non determined problem. This reason stipulates to development and practical use of mathematical model of morphogenesis of a testis changes.

  6. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauck, D

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life. The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension.

  7. After the Chernobyl reactor accident: Just got away?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, D.

    1986-01-01

    The feeling of depression and insecurity experienced immediately after the Chernobyl reactor accident has gone by, and people go out for a walk again, and drink their milk. Are we happily aware we got away with it this time, or is it rather a feeling of resignation that makes us return to normal life? The Chernobyl disaster will only after some time be really assessed in its novel, global dimension. (orig.) [de

  8. Transuranium elements in macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition and transfer of transuranium elements (TU) to macroalgae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident has been studied. The deposition of TU was small compared to most fission products: 239+240 Pu and 241 Am could not be detected in water or algae, 242 Cm was the dominant α emitter detected in Chernobyl fallout. Concentration factors of TU for the macroalgae are estimated

  9. Chernobyl dose for population of areas radiocontaminated after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    The parameters and consequences of the Chernobyl accident that took place on 26 April 1986 are of special interest, because it was an extremely serious accident of an operating power nuclear reactor, one of over four hundred in the world. The basic specific feature of this accident determining the complex character of radiation impact on man was the explosive destruction and subsequent high-temperature burning of the reactor, which caused not only the release of inert radioactive gases and radioisotopes of volatile elements (iodine, cesium, tellurium, etc.), but also the evaporation of refractory fission products (barium, strontium, etc.), and the dispersion of fuel particles. Another important feature of the radioactive contamination of the area as compared with that of the global fallout from nuclear weapons testing is a single or short-term deposition which nevertheless leads to long-term exposure of man by long-lived radionuclides. The third specific feature is the combined and strong influence of natural soil and climate factors, on the one hand, and of anthropogenic factors, basically, of wide-scale countermeasures. on the other hand, on the level of exposure of man. 20 refs., 11 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Reconstruction of the Chernobyl emergency and accident management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinner, F.; Andreev, I.; Andreeva, I.; Fritsche, F.; Hofer, P.; Lettner, E.; Seidelberger, E.; Kromp-Kolb, H.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: on April 26, 1986 the most serious civil technological accident in the history of mankind occurred of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) in the former Soviet Union. As a direct result of the accident, the reactor was severely destroyed and large quantities of radionuclides were released. Some 800000 persons, also called 'liquidators' - including plant operators, fire-fighters, scientists, technicians, construction workers, emergency managers, volunteers, as well as medical and military personnel - were part of emergency measurements and accident management efforts. Activities included measures to prevent the escalation of the accident, mitigation actions, help for victims as well as activities in order to provide a basic infrastructure for this unprecedented and overwhelming task. The overall goal of the 'Project Chernobyl' of the Institute of Risk Research of the University of Vienna was to preserve for mankind the experience and knowledge of the experts among the 'liquidators' before it is lost forever. One method used to reconstruct the emergency measures of Chernobyl was the direct cooperation with liquidators. Simple questionnaires were distributed among liquidators and a database of leading accident managers, engineers, medical experts etc. was established. During an initial struggle with a number of difficulties, the response was sparse. However, after an official permit had been issued, the questionnaires delivered a wealth of data. Furthermore a documentary archive was established, which provided additional information. The multidimensional problem in connection with the severe accident of Chernobyl, the clarification of the causes of the accident, as well as failures and successes and lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl emergency measures and accident management are discussed. (authors)

  11. Accident consequence assessment code development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, T.; Togawa, O.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the new computer code system, OSCAAR developed for off-site consequence assessment of a potential nuclear accident. OSCAAR consists of several modules which have modeling capabilities in atmospheric transport, foodchain transport, dosimetry, emergency response and radiological health effects. The major modules of the consequence assessment code are described, highlighting the validation and verification of the models. (author)

  12. Cesium fallout in Norway after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backe, S.; Bjerke, H.; Rudjord, A.L.; Ugletveit, F.

    1986-01-01

    Results of country-wide measurements of 137 Cs and 134 Cs in soil samples in Norway after the Chernobyl accident are reported. The results clearly demonstrates that municipalities in the central part of southern Norway, Troendelag and the southern part of Nordland, have been rather heavily contaminated. The total fallout of 137 Cs and 134 Cs from the Chernobyl accident in Norway is estimated to 2300 TBq and 1200 TBq, respectively. This is approximately 6% of the cesium activity released from the reactor

  13. Radioactive waste management after NPP accident: Post-Chernobyl experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhalevich, A.; Grebenkov, A.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl NPP accident a very large amount of so-called 'Chernobyl waste' were generated in the territory of Belarus, which was contaminated much more than all other countries. These wastes relate mainly to two following categories: low-level waste (LLW) and new one 'Conventionally Radioactive Waste' (CRW). Neither regulations nor technology and equipment were sufficiently developed for such an amount and kind of waste before the accident. It required proper decisions in respect of regulations, treatment, transportation, disposal of waste, etc. (author)

  14. Three Mile Island, Bhopal and Chernobyl: causes and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovich, J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1970's worldwide criticisms of nuclear power have been so strong that in many countries nuclear power has been outlawed. At Kyoto, scientists and politicians working together have designed a Protocol where the role of nuclear power in reducing CO2 emissions was completely ignored. One of the reasons for this, probably the most important one, is the general perception that nuclear power is unacceptably dangerous and that world can live without it. Both perceptions are, of course, incorrect. Some twenty years ago, as a physicist, not being part of 'nuclear establishment', I became interested in these two issues. Since then, as explained in a number of my publications, I have come to a firm conclusion that (a) nuclear power on the world scale is an essential energy source, whether we like it or not, and (b) that nuclear power is a very safe technology, probably the safest of all technologies the modem industrialized world has. To illustrate this last statement, in this paper I compare causes and consequences of two largest nuclear accidents, TMI and Chernobyl, with Bhopal accident, probably the largest accident that chemical technology has ever produced. (author)

  15. Worst accident in the world. Chernobyl: the end of the nuclear dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N; Lean, G; Leigh, D; McKie, R; Pringle, P; Wilson, A

    1986-01-01

    This is the full story of Chernobyl, before, during and after the reactor accident in April 1986. The scene is set at Chernobyl in the Ukraine. The nature of radioactivity, the risks and the health hazards posed by radioactivity and the world-wide nuclear energy scene are then discussed, followed by the particular nuclear situation in Russia. This includes the background to the nuclear power industry in Russia - its history, personnel and management, and ultimately the building of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. The accident itself is then explained, minute by minute. The consequences, both short-term and long-term, on the immediate area and the rest of Europe are discussed. These are the medical effects on humans, the effects on the environment and the effect on the nuclear policies of the whole world.

  16. Consequences of severe nuclear accidents in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Petra; Arnold, Delia; Mraz, Gabriele; Arnold, Nikolaus; Gufler, Klaus; Kromp-Kolb, Helga; Kromp, Wolfgang; Sutter, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    A first part of the presentation is devoted to the consequences of the severe accident in the 1986 Chernobyl NPP. It lead to a substantial radioactive contaminated of large parts of Europe and thus raised the awareness for off-site nuclear accident consequences. Spatial patterns of the (transient) contamination of the air and (persistent) contamination of the ground were studied by both measurements and model simulations. For a variety of reasons, ground contamination measurements have variability at a range of spatial scales. Results will be reviewed and discussed. Model simulations, including inverse modelling, have shown that the standard source term as defined in the ATMES study (1990) needs to be updated. Sensitive measurements of airborne activities still reveal the presence of low levels of airborne radiocaesium over the northern hemisphere which stems from resuspension. Over time scales of months and years, the distribution of radionuclides in the Earth system is constantly changing, for example relocated within plants, between plants and soil, in the soil, and into water bodies. Motivated by the permanent risk of transboundary impacts from potential major nuclear accidents, the multidisciplinary project flexRISK (see http://flexRISK.boku.ac.at) has been carried out from 2009 to 2012 in Austria to quantify such risks and hazards. An overview of methods and results of flexRISK is given as a second part of the presentation. For each of the 228 NPPs, severe accidents were identified together with relevant inventories, release fractions, and release frequencies. Then, Europe-wide dispersion and dose calculations were performed for 2788 cases, using the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART. Maps of single-case results as well as various aggregated risk parameters were produced. It was found that substantial consequences (intervention measures) are possible for distances up to 500-1000 km, and occur more frequently for a distance range up to 100-300 km, which is in

  17. The bioavailability of Chernobyl accident products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lujaniene, G.; Lujans, V.

    1995-01-01

    Full text: Following the Chernobyl NPP accident a great quantity of radionuclides was emitted to the atmosphere. A diverse fallout of radioactive pollutants to the earth's surface was conditioned by various factors. And this is testified by the distinctions in radionuclide composition and physicochemical forms of their carriers were measured in different regions. The study of physicochemical properties of radionuclides is necessary for the evaluation of their biological availability and for understanding and predicting their behavior in the environment. The physicochemical forms of radioactive nuclide carriers collected on April 28-20 and May 9-10 were investigated. In those samples the water soluble fractions of 137 Cs and 90 Sr carriers were 9 and 30%, respectively. The main part of these nuclides was bound to the exchangeable fraction of the carriers. For 137 Cs marked concentrations were provided by the from bound to organic (13%) and acid-soluble (12%) substances and for 90 Sr a considerable amount consisted of the organic (14%) and the fixed in crystal lattice (13%) forms. The investigation of the state of water soluble 137 Cs and 90 Sr shows that nuclides completely were of the cationic form. The dialysable fractions of both nuclides were about 90%. The bioavailability of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was about 60-70%. The fraction of water-soluble increased after the breakdown reactor was covered by an inert material. The radionuclide carrier properties greatly depend on the type of source and under the influence of various factors the radionuclide physicochemical forms are able to change and at the same time their biological availability changes as well. The influence of the source nature is confirmed by the analysis of aerosol samples brought to Lithuania following dust storms in Ukraine, where 94% of 134,137 Cs was observed in the residue, i. e. nuclide was bound to particles with penetration into crystal lattice. And also, following forest and peat-bog fires in

  18. 20 years after the Chernobyl catastrophe: the consequences in the Republic of Belarus and their overcoming. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchuk, V.E.; Gurachevskij, V.L.

    2006-04-01

    In the report there were used the results of the scientific research carried out on demand of the Chernobyl committee, the data of the National academy of sciences of Belarus, of the Ministry of natural resources and environment protection, the Ministries of health, agriculture and food, forestry, education and other authorities of management control, participating in the measures aimed at getting over the consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe. It was written the Chernobyl NPP accident and radioactive contamination of territory of Belarus, radioecological consequences of the disaster, population exposure doses and health effect of the Chernobyl accident, economic and social damage. The State policy of the Republic of Belarus on overcoming of the accident consequences and outcomes of the countermeasures targeted at mitigation of the Chernobyl consequences were given. It was done analysis of the international cooperation in solving of the Chernobyl problems. The aim of the national report is to promote the distribution of the impartial information about the situation after the Chernobyl catastrophe in the Republic of Belarus

  19. Psychological and social impacts of post-accident situations: lessons from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the main features, from the psychological and social points of view, of the post-accident situation in the contaminated areas around Chernobyl. This is based on a series of surveys performed in the concerned territories of the CIS republics. The high level of stress affecting a large segment of the population is related to the perception of the situation by those living in a durably contaminated environment but also to the side-effects of some of the countermeasures adopted to mitigate the radiological consequences or to compensate the affected population. The distinction between the accident and the post-accident phase is enlarged to take into account the various phases characterizing the dynamics of the social response. Although the size of the catastrophe as well as the economic and political conditions that were prevailing at the time and after the accident have resulted in a maximal intensity of the reactions of the population, many lessons can be drawn for the management of potential post-accident situations. (author)

  20. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, R; Mellander, H; Moberg, L; Edvardson, K; Nyblom, L [Swedish Radiation Protection Inst., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-09-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of {sup 137}Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of {sup 137}Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs.

  1. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, R.; Mellander, H.; Moberg, L.; Edvardson, K.; Nyblom, L.

    1997-01-01

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137 Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137 Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  2. Radioactive waste management in the Chernobyl exclusion zone: 25 years since the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskolkov, Boris Y; Bondarkov, Mikhail D; Zinkevich, Lubov I; Proskura, Nikolai I; Farfán, Eduardo B; Jannik, G Timothy

    2011-10-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities in the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste-related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and, in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  3. About the causes and circumstances of the Chernobyl NPP accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shteynberg, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is the product of unsatisfactory solutions to scientific-technical, socio-economic and human problems. The documentarily recorded power excursion of the reactor and its rise velocity as well as the quick pressure rise in the separator drum admit the conclusion that the cause of the accident was the rapid power excursion of the reactor and not some external influence. (DG) [de

  4. Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.G.; Molloy, T.J.

    1996-04-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with by plant owners and the regulatory authority. (author)

  5. Lessons for PHWRs learned from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waddington, J.G.; Molloy, T.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada examined its criteria for licensing nuclear power plants following the accident to the Chernobyl reactor in 1986. The causes of the accident were studied to ascertain whether they revealed any deficiencies in the safety of CANDU PHWRs. A report published in 1987 contained nine recommendations, and this paper revisits these to indicate how they were dealt with the plant owners and the regulatory authority

  6. Interview-survey of farmers. Experiences after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlen, G.

    1994-01-01

    71 farm households in contaminated areas of Sweden were interviewed at visits to farms, where measurements of the contamination of pastures and fields had been made. The aim of the survey was to find out what remedial actions had been taken by the farmers, what their appreciation of the information from authorities was, how the Chernobyl accident had affected their situation, and if they were prepared to take similar actions in case of a new accident. 15 refs

  7. Twenty Two Years after Chernobyl Accident Medical Aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shabon, M.

    2009-01-01

    Chernobyl accident is the most serious nuclear catastrophe in the recent era. About 600.000 victims intervene in this disaster. The most fatality was about one month after the accident 31 victims. The main cause was Acute Radiation Syndrome. After few weeks 115.000 persons evacuated from the contaminated areas with exposure dose from 0.07 to 2 Gy. The main Isotope exposure was iodine 131 and Cesium 137 with average exposure dose 7 and 10 mGy respectively

  8. The post-accidents exploitation of Chernobyl NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    1996-01-01

    Problems facing the Chernobyl NPP personnel since its commissioning and during its post-accident operation are considered. The accomplished measures on improving the power units safety, normalization of the radiation situation as well as the impact of psychological factor at the safety culture level are discussed

  9. Brookhaven lecture series No. 227: The Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouts, H.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture discusses the events leading to, during, and following the Chernobyl Reactor number 4 accident. A description of the light water cooled, graphite moderated reactor, the reactor site conditions leading to meltdown is presented. The emission of radioactive effluents and the biological radiation effects is also discussed. (FI)

  10. The Chernobyl accident - did it affect pregnancy outcomes in Norway?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjeldestad, F.E.; Munch, J.S.; Madland, T.M.

    1992-01-01

    The outcome of pregnancies in the county of Soer-Troendelag in Norway, during the 27 months preceding and 21 months after the Chernobyl accident has been analysed on the basis of time of conception. The analysis showed a significant decrease in the number of conceptions during the three months immediately after the accident (April - June 1986). This finding can be interpreted to mean fewer ''planned'' conceptions. The Chernobyl accident did not seem to have had any impact on the proportion of conceptions ending as spontaneous abortions or ectopic pregnancies. There was a significant drop in the proportion of pregnancies ending as induced abortions during the year after the accident compared with the year before. However, due to some variation during this year, it is difficult to draw any definite conclusions concerning the impact of the accident on induced abortions in this county. The proportion of pregnancies ending as births increased significantly during the year after the Chernobyl accident compared with the year before. 22 refs., 1 tab

  11. Environmental and agricultural impacts of the Chernobyl NPP accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xuexian

    1990-12-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) on April 26, 1986 resulted in large quantities of radioactive materials being released into the atmosphere. The environmental contaminations and agricultural impacts of the accident on the countries of the northern hemisphere were reviewed. Radiological consequences of the accident were briefly assessed. The data were presented on the results of radioactivity monitoring for air, ground and water, average individual effective dose commitment for each county, and levels of contamination on plant cover, milk, meat in live animals, food, aquatic, and other agricultural products etc. The transfer coefficients of radionuclides in grass-(cow)-milk were listed. Finally, problems on radioecology were discussed

  12. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2011-10-01

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  13. The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident: ecotoxicological update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, R.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John

    2003-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl, Ukraine, nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986 released large amounts of radiocesium and other radionuclides into the environment, contaminating much of the northern hemisphere, especially Europe. In the vicinity of Chernobyl, at least 30 people died, more than 115,000 others were evacuated, and consumption of milk and other foods was banned because of radiocontamination. At least 14,000 human cancer deaths are expected in Russia, Belarus, and the Ukraine as a direct result of Chernobyl. The most sensitive local ecosystems, as judged by survival, were the soil fauna, pine forest communities, and certain populations of rodents. Elsewhere, fallout from Chernobyl significantly contaminated freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and flesh and milk of domestic livestock; in many cases, radionuclide concentrations in biological samples exceeded current radiation protection guidelines. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) in Scandinavia were among the most seriously afflicted by Chernobyl fallout, probably because their main food during winter (lichens) is an efficient absorber of airborne particles containing radiocesium. Some reindeer calves contaminated with 137Cs from Chernobyl showed 137Cs-dependent decreases in survival and increases in frequency of chromosomal aberrations. Although radiation levels in the biosphere are declining with time, latent effects of initial exposure--including an increased frequency of thyroid and other cancers--are now measurable. The full effect of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident on natural resources will probably not be known for at least several decades because of gaps in data on long-term genetic and reproductive effects and on radiocesium cycling and toxicokinetics.

  14. Risks of insufficient information communication during the post-accident period of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joukovskaia, Olga V.; Rolevich, Igor V.

    2000-01-01

    The modified psychological climate and increased social-psychological pressure in the population, affected as a result of the Chernobyl accident, emerged partially because of insufficient information provided to the population with respect to the radiation and ecological conditions. Such situation resulted in development of chronic psychological stress in the majority of the population residing on the affected areas. The post-accidental stress, which appeared in many people, is characterized by its extraordinary stability. Up to 74% of the affected population were subjected to stress. In 1986 the depressing condition of anxiety was observed in 50% of those examined. By 1998 this number increased up to 76%. Aggravation of health condition still remains in the center of anxiety reasons for the majority of those examined, when in the areas contaminated greater the number of those anxious is much higher than in others. Besides, the urban population is more concerned in unsatisfactory solution of the problem of liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, than village inhabitants (88,5 and 79,70/o accordingly). Noteworthy, that 43% of the urban population and only 25,20/6 of the village settlers is concerned in small efficiency of rehabilitation activities on the radioactive contaminated territories. Respondents-women 86,1%) are more anxious than men 84,2%). Besides, almost three quarters of the respondents 74,5%) for last three years became more anxious for their future and future of their children, which leads to greater worries. At the same time it is necessary to take into account, that 7 of the respondents expressed apathy and indifference to everything, and at 75% have the feeling of hopelessness. Another negative tendency exposed in the population, affected by the Chernobyl accident is the reduction of trust to the authorities and governmental bodies, reduction of satisfaction by the activity of local authorities. Only 60,6% of the interrogated

  15. Psychological consequences of exposure to ionizing radiation. Lessons of Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havenaar, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    From the results of a survey among the population in areas of the former Soviet Union (Gomel region) which were affected by the nuclear reactor accident of Chernobyl it appears that fear for radiation can have a negative impact on the public health. The results of the survey can help governments to deal with the psychological effects of disasters. 3 refs

  16. Validity aspects in Chernobyl at twenty years of the accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arredondo, C.

    2006-01-01

    For April 25, 1986 the annual stop of the unit 4 of the nuclear power plant of Chernobyl was programmed, in order to carry out maintenance tasks. This unit was equipped with a reactor of 1000 MW, type RBMK, developed in the former Soviet Union, this type of reactors uses graphite like moderator, the core is refrigerated with common water in boil, and the fuel is uranium enriched to 2%. Also it had been programmed to carry out, before stopping the operation of the power station, a test with one of the two turbogenerators, which would not affect to the reactor. However, the intrinsic characteristics of the design of the reactor and the fact that the operators disconnected intentionally several systems of security that had stopped the reactor automatically, caused a decontrolled increase of the power (a factor 1000 in 4 seconds), with the consequent fusion of the fuel and the generation of a shock wave, produced by the fast evaporation of the refrigeration water and caused by the interaction of the fuel fused with the same one. It broke the core in pieces and destroy the structure of the reactor building that was not resistant to the pressure. When being exposed to the air, the graphite of the moderator entered in combustion, while the radioactive material was dispersed in the environment. The radionuclides liberation was prolong during 10 days, and only it was stopped by means of the one poured from helicopters, of some 5000 tons of absorbent materials on the destroyed reactor, as long as tunnels were dug to carry out the cooling of the core with liquid nitrogen. Later on, the whole building of the damaged reactor was contained inside a concrete building. The immediate consequence of the accident was the death of 31 people, between operators of the nuclear power station and firemen. One of people died as consequence of the explosion and 30 died by cause of the irradiation, with dose of the order of 16 Gy. The liberated radioactive material was the entirety of the

  17. Major Factors Affecting Incidence of Childhood Thyroid Cancer in Belarus after the Chernobyl Accident: Do Nitrates in Drinking Water Play a Role?

    OpenAIRE

    Drozd, Valentina M.; Saenko, Vladimir A.; Brenner, Alina V.; Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Pashkevich, Vasilii I.; Kudelsky, Anatoliy V.; Demidchik, Yuri E.; Branovan, Igor; Shiglik, Nikolay; Rogounovitch, Tatiana I.; Yamashita, Shunichi; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    One of the major health consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in 1986 was a dramatic increase in incidence of thyroid cancer among those who were aged less than 18 years at the time of the accident. This increase has been directly linked in several analytic epidemiological studies to iodine-131 (131I) thyroid doses received from the accident. However, there remains limited understanding of factors that modify the 131I-related risk. Focusing on post-Chernobyl pediatric thy...

  18. The Chernobyl accident, a catastrophe or an eye-opener?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarli, J.

    1989-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident is reviewed as to its cause, the way it was handled locally and the consequenses from released radioactivity. It is emphasized that the exposure from the released radioactivity, as to the effective dose equivalent and the committed dose equivalent is small and comparable with the dose equivalent from natural ionizing radiation near the accident, and only a few per cent of this value at more remote distances. It is concluded that the accident probably has been one of the greatest psychological catastrophes that we so far has experienced, but not so when referring to early deaths or radiation damage directly to individuals

  19. The compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eich, W.

    2003-01-01

    In the framework of the workshop on the indemnification of damage in the event of a nuclear accident, this paper presents the proceeding of the the discussion on the compensation of damage in Germany following the Chernobyl accident. This paper presents also the national experiences and opinions, a documentation of the Federal Office of Administration on the topic, the example of Tokai-mura accident third party liability and compensation and the third party liability in the field of nuclear law in Ireland. (A.L.B.)

  20. Contribution of Chernobyl accident to human contamination with strontium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botezatu, Elena; Iacob, Olga

    1998-01-01

    The Romanian surveys performed after the Chernobyl accident pointed out the environmental and diet contamination with 90 Sr at levels of one-two orders of magnitude higher than prior to the accident. Given the 90 Sr osteo-tropism we have been interested in its accumulation in the human teeth and bone. The search on 90 Sr accumulation in human teeth evidenced concentrations of 10.8 - 330 mBq/g Ca in milk teeth of young children born during 1986 - 1987 subsequent to Chernobyl. These values were 10-600 times higher than those obtained for permanent or deciduous teeth of all the other age groups or of the same age group born before Chernobyl. There was more 90 Sr activity concentration in ribs than in femur. The highest values of 90 Sr content (mBq/g Ca) were of 75-122 in ribs and 74-120 in femur for 7-10 years old group. These individuals were 0-3 years old during the period of greatest deposition. This age is by far the most critical years due to the heaviest uptake. Smaller concentration values were recorded for the age group older than 55, respectively of 3-20 in ribs and 3.3-10.2 in femur. Our data suggest that the Chernobyl accident did not lead to the increase of 90 Sr accumulation in adults. From the collective equivalent doses of 1500 manSv for bone surfaces and 680 manSv for active red marrow, a potential number of 4 radiation-induced fatal cancers in the studied population (5,2 mil.inh) has been estimated as attributable to Chernobyl accident

  1. Implications of the Chernobyl accident for Protective Action Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Charles W.; Pepper, Andrea J.

    1989-01-01

    The accident that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on April 26, 1986, was the worst accident in the history of nuclear power. Thirty-one workers and emergency personnel died and more than 200 site personnel were hospitalized as a result of this event Approximately 135,000 persons within 30 km around the reactor were evacuated, and radioactive debris was spread throughout the Northern Hemisphere. There was much public concern generated around the world, and an increased risk of fatal cancel in the world's population is possible as a result of exposure to Chernobyl fallout (USNRC, 1987a). Since the time the Chernobyl accident occurred, many authoritative studies have been published, e.g. USNRC, 1987a. In these studies, differences in design between commercial U.S. reactors and the RBMK pressure-tube reactor at Chernobyl have been emphasized, e.g. USNRC, 1987b. While significant differences in design do exist between these reactors, we believe there are still significant lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident for U.S. reactors. The purpose of this paper is to summarize some of the major lessons to be learned related to protective action guidance. The Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS) has identified three areas related to protective action guidance for food and water where implications can be drawn from Chernobyl for the U.S.: (1) uniformity of Protective Action Guides (PAGs), (2) incompleteness of U.S. PAGs, and (3) international communications. Following the Chernobyl accident, a variety of protective actions were undertaken by various nations. Furthermore, these actions were initiated, modified, and terminated at different times in different places and, in some instances, were applied on a local or regional basis rather than a national basis (Goldman et al., 1987). One result of this differing application of PAGs was the generation of considerable confusion among decision

  2. Documents, used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-12-01

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Documents used for drawing up the CCRX-report 'Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the reactor accident at Chernobyl'. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    In these documents the results are summarized of a large number of measurements and calculations performed by various Dutch organizations in consequence of the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl. refs.; figs.; tabs

  4. The international cooperation using the example of the reactor accident in Chernobyl; Die internationale Zusammenarbeit am Beispiel des Tschernobylunfalls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molitor, Norbert [PLEJADES GmbH - Independent Experts, Griesheim (Germany)

    2017-10-01

    The explosion of the reactor unit 4 of the NPP Chernobyl and the subsequent fire was up to now the most severe accident in the civil nuclear industry. The consequences of the accident far outside the Ukraine and the former Soviet Union demonstrated that nuclear safety is a trans-border challenge. The mitigation of the accident consequences and the recovery of safety for the public, the workers and the environment required outstanding efforts and the international cooperation was of significant importance. The contribution discusses experiences and practical aspects of the international cooperation and implications for future cooperation options for the long-term removal of accident consequences.

  5. Chernobyl, 14 years later; Tchernobyl, 14 ans apres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report draws an account of the consequences of Chernobyl accident 14 years after the disaster. It is made up of 8 chapters whose titles are: (1) Some figures about Chernobyl accident, (2) Chernobyl nuclear power plant, (3)Sanitary consequences of Chernobyl accident, (4) The management of contaminated lands, (5) The impact in France of Chernobyl fallout, (6) International cooperation, (7) More information about Chernobyl and (8) Glossary.

  6. Medical experience: Chernobyl and other accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Densow, D.; Kindler, H.; Fliedner, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation accident can be defined as an involuntary relevant exposure of man to ionising radiation or radioactive material. Provided one of the ensuing criteria is met with at least one person involved in an excursion of ionising radiation and or radioactive material, the respective incident can be considered a radiation accident in accordance with ICRP, NCRP (US), and WHO: ≥0.25 Sv total body irradiation with lesions of the rapidly dividing tissues; ≥6 Sv cutaneous and local irradiation; ≥0.4 Sv local irradiation of other organ systems through external sources; incorporation equal to or in excess of more than half of the maximum permissible organ burden; and medical accidents meeting one of the above criteria. Several actions have been taken to categorise radiation accidents in order to learn from previous accidents in terms of both managerial and medical experience. For this presentation three approaches will be discussed concerning their relevance to the individual treatment and risk management. This will be obtained by applying three classification schemes to all known radiation accidents: 1. classification with respect to the accident mechanism, 2. classification concerning the radiation injury, and 3. classification concerning the extent of the accident. In a fourth chapter the efficacy of bone marrow transplantation will briefly be commented on based on the accumulated experience of about 400 radiation accidents world-wide. (author)

  7. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.G.; Davies, L.M.

    1986-09-01

    On April 26th 1986, the worst accident in the history of commercial nuclear power generation occurred at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station some 60 miles north of Kiev in the Ukraine. This article describes the sequence of events that occurred and the consequences of the accident. There was extensive damage to the Unit 4 reactor and the building which housed it. Some 31 people have died as a result of the accident either directly or as a result of receiving lethal radiation doses. A significant release of fission products occurred, contaminating land around the station and requiring the evacuation of around 135,000 people from their homes. The radioactive cloud generated over many days was carried by winds to all parts of Europe where there was a varying degree of public concern. The contamination resulted in restrictions on the consumption of meat and vegetables. The latent health effects may not be statistically significant when viewed against the normal mortality rate over the next 40 years. (author)

  8. Sexual and psychological aspects of health status of men who participated in the Chernobyl accident aftermath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchinskij, Valerij; Kirkeh, Luchiya; Andronik, Zinaida; Toma, Victoriya; Postovan, Alla

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with results of a ten years medical follow-up of 188 men aged 21 to 55 years who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences. Survey of patients included physical examination, echography of urogenital organs, semen and prostatic secretions analysis, bacterial inoculation of prostate secretion, hormone studies, sexological questionnaire. Sexual dysfunctions were diagnosed in 38 % of men. It was found that sexual dysfunction occur against the background of neurotic disorders that accompany vegetative dysfunctions.

  9. Cytogenetic study in children from zones affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Manzano, J.; Johnson, J.; Valdes, L.; Lamadrid, A.; Marquez, M.; Mendez, D.

    1993-01-01

    The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations and micronucleus in lymphocytes with blockade of the cytokines were established in 58 children from three Ukrainian localities that suffered to different extent the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. The frequencies of chromosomal aberrations have been established up to this moment in 2779 cells of 28 children from Ovruch, in 11 475 cells of 28 children from Pripiat and in 994 cells of 10 children from Kiev

  10. Down syndrome clusters in Germany after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkart, W.; Grosche, B.; Schoetzau, A.

    1997-01-01

    In two independent studies using different approaches and covering West Berlin and Bavaria, respectively, highly significant temporal clusters of Down syndrome were found. Both sharp increases occurred in areas receiving relatively low Chernobyl fallout and concomitant radiation exposures. Only for the Berlin cluster was fallout present at the time of the affected meiosis, whereas the Nuremberg cluster preceded the radioactive contamination by 1 month. Hypotheses on possible causal relationships are compared. Radiation from the Chernobyl accident is an unlikely factor, because the associated cumulative dose was so low in comparison with natural background. Microdosimetric considerations would indicate that fewer than 1 in 200 oocyte nuclei would have experienced an ionizing event from Chernobyl radioactivity. Given the lack of understanding of what causes Down syndrome, other than factors associated with increased maternal age, additional research into environmental and infectious risk factors is warranted. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryshev, I.I.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of radioactive contamination of aquatic ecosystems (1986-1990) is considered on the basis of observational data in the near and distant zones of the Chernobyl fallout (the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) cooling pond, the Pripyat River, the Dnieper reservoirs, and the Kopor inlet of the Gulf of Finland). Radionuclide accumulation in aquatic biota is analyzed. The results obtained indicate that the radioecological conditions in the water bodies under investigation were in a state of non-equilibrium over a long period of time following the Chernobyl accident. Reduction in the 137 Cs concentration proceeded slowly in most of the aquatic ecosystems. The effect of trophic levels which consisted of increased accumulation of radiocaesium by predatory fish was observed in various parts of the contaminated area. (author)

  12. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children's health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanova, E.M.; Antipkine, Y.G.; Omelchenko, L.I.; Chernyshov, V.P.; Apuhovskaya, L.I.; Ossinskaya, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children's population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ''Children of Chernobyl''. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ''clean'' regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  13. Clinical and paraclinical aspects of children`s health ten years after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukyanova, E M; Antipkine, Y G; Omelchenko, L I; Chernyshov, V P; Apuhovskaya, L I; Ossinskaya, L F [Institute of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-09-01

    These investigations are devoted to the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl catastrophe to the children`s population of Ukraine. Concerning different reports, Chernobyl accident negatively influenced to the children health indexes. Astonishing fact is that among children under radiation action only 2,1% have no functional deflexions (I group of health) and 28% have chronical diseases with frequent aggravation. Our previous investigation in children evacuated from 30 km zone showed unfavourable changes in immune system. We have shown the data of investigation carried out in the frames of National Program ``Children of Chernobyl``. We have studied the morbidity, some immune functional characteristics and metabolism indexes in 2700 children aged 0-15 years, continually living within radiation contaminated territories. The results were compared with the control indexes, obtained during examination of 980 children from relatively ``clean`` regions. 15 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab.

  14. Radiocaesium fallout in Ireland from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.; Moran, D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a radiocaesium deposition pattern over Ireland resulting from the Chernobyl accident. Contaminated grassland soils from over 110 sites were analysed using gamma ray spectrometry. 134 Cs, 137 Cs and 40 K were measured in all samples. The Chernobyl 137 Cs was identified using an initial Chernobyl fallout 137 Cs to 134 Cs ratio of 1.90. The results show a mean deposition level of 3.2 kBq m -2 of 137 Cs due to Chernobyl. The range of deposition was from 0.3 to 14.2 kBq m -2 . The distribution pattern is presented both on a National grid sub-zone basis and a higher resolution shaded map. A similarly shaded map shows the rainfall levels responsible for most of the washout. It is pointed out that some areas on both east and west coasts with maximum rainfall did not have maximum caesium deposition. In other areas a better correlation between rainfall and caesium deposition exists. A mean figure for the pre-Chernobyl 137 Cs in surface soil is provided. (author)

  15. Environmental consequences of releases from nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, U.

    1990-03-01

    The report presents the results of a four-year Nordic cooperation project (AKTU-200). The results have impact upon many facets of accident consequence assessment, ranging from new computational tools to recommendations concerning food preparation methods to be utilized in a fallout situation. Some of the subprojects have approached areas where little or no research has been performed previously, like the project on winter conditions, the project on the physico/chemical form of radionuclides in the Chernobyl fallout, and the project on resuspension. The conclusion from the first of these projects is that the impact of an accident or fallout situation occuring during winter may be considerable smaller than in a similar situation during summer conditions. The most important conclusion from the second of these projects is that bioavailability of radiocesium in soil is significantly lower than that of radiocesium in plant material taken up via the roots. In the third project is was found that the resuspension factor is several orders of magnitude lower than the values traditionally cited, and that resuspension is a local phenomenon in a majority of weather conditions. The development of large-scale testing of mitigating actions to prevent uptake of radiocesium in animals in a fallout situation is also one of the projects where new ground has been sucessfully broken. 189 refs., 89 figs., 55 tabs

  16. The post-accident protective measures in the region of the Chernobyl catastrophe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnikov, A.

    1993-01-01

    The strategy of protective measures and the system of intervention levels are considered. It makes it possible to limit the region where post-accident measures must be taken. The concept of 'safe living' for life and surface contamination concept are discussed. The measurement results of a surface contamination are pointed out in the maps for series settlements of the 30 km zone. The features of severe accidents to nuclear power plants are that damage is caused not only by destruction and downtime of power installations, but also by radioactive contamination of the environment. Therefore, the term 'severe accident' is accepted to mean an accident with an off-site impact, which requires to perform large-scale and expensive work on elimination of the consequences of the accident. The whole off-site damage due to the Chernobyl accident is caused exclusively by contamination, as no destruction was observed beyond the site. As a result of the Chernobyl accident the greatest short-term releases of radioactive materials to the atmosphere occurred from a single source. Four elements from all the materials released from the core have determined the short-term and long-term radiological situation in the affected areas. These are iodine, cesium, strontium and plutonium. Moreover, in the releases there were highly - radioactive fragments of fuel (hot particles). 7 figs

  17. The accident at Chernobyl and its implications for the safety of CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-05-01

    In August 1986, a delegation of Canadians, including two members of the staff of the AECB (Atomic Energy Control Board), attended a post-accident review meeting in Vienna, at which Soviet representatives described the accident and its causes and consequences. On the basis of the information presented at that meeting, AECB staff conducted a study of the accident to ascertain its implications for the safety of CANDU nuclear reactors and for the regulatory process in Canada. The conclusion of this review is that the accident at Chernobyl has not revealed any important new information which would have an effect on the safety requirements for CANDU reactors as presently applied by the AECB. All important aspects of the accident and its causes have been considered by the AECB in the licensing process for currently licensed reactors. However a number of recommendations are made with respect to aspects of reactor safety which should be re-examined in order to reinforce this conclusion

  18. Lessons learnt from clean-up of urban area after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlobenko, Borys

    2008-01-01

    The accident at Chernobyl NPP showed that huge territories including densely populated areas can be exposed to contamination as a result of unforeseen circumstances. The Chernobyl accident forced reconsidering of many regulations in the field of population protection and was a powerful incentive to development of many applied sciences. In 1992-1996, an international team of scientists carried out investigations on ECP-4 project 'Strategies of Decontamination'. Including of an independent sub-project 'Urban environment and countermeasures' into the project of French-German initiative on Chernobyl 'Radioecology' was the extension of work on study of urban environment contamination. The aim of the projects ware to synthesize the large body of experimental data received during elimination of the consequences of the Chernobyl accident and in the course of special studies carried out in former USSR and later in Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, and prediction on this basis of radionuclide behavior in the urban environment. In 2003 the EMRAS (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) project was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The Urban Remediation Working Group of the EMRAS has focused on the assessment of the effectiveness of countermeasures employed in urban settings after releases of radioactivity. This review considers results of principally Ukrainian, Russian, and Belarus researchers who worked on these projects. Over the 20-year period a number of publications have reviewed the effectiveness of countermeasures, particularly those used after the Chernobyl accident. The general principles of radiological protection are based on radiation doses, intervention levels and effective countermeasures. Decontamination of densely built-up cities constructed of various building materials with total surface area significantly exceeding the administrative city area is an extremely difficult task. In the Late-Phase Response, 'classical' radiological

  19. Comparative modeling analyses of Cs-137 fate in the rivers impacted by Chernobyl and Fukushima accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheleznyak, M.; Kivva, S. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The consequences of two largest nuclear accidents of the last decades - at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (ChNPP) (1986) and at Fukushima Daiichi NPP (FDNPP) (2011) clearly demonstrated that radioactive contamination of water bodies in vicinity of NPP and on the waterways from it, e.g., river- reservoir water after Chernobyl accident and rivers and coastal marine waters after Fukushima accident, in the both cases have been one of the main sources of the public concerns on the accident consequences. The higher weight of water contamination in public perception of the accidents consequences in comparison with the real fraction of doses via aquatic pathways in comparison with other dose components is a specificity of public perception of environmental contamination. This psychological phenomenon that was confirmed after these accidents provides supplementary arguments that the reliable simulation and prediction of the radionuclide dynamics in water and sediments is important part of the post-accidental radioecological research. The purpose of the research is to use the experience of the modeling activities f conducted for the past more than 25 years within the Chernobyl affected Pripyat River and Dnieper River watershed as also data of the new monitoring studies in Japan of Abukuma River (largest in the region - the watershed area is 5400 km{sup 2}), Kuchibuto River, Uta River, Niita River, Natsui River, Same River, as also of the studies on the specific of the 'water-sediment' {sup 137}Cs exchanges in this area to refine the 1-D model RIVTOX and 2-D model COASTOX for the increasing of the predictive power of the modeling technologies. The results of the modeling studies are applied for more accurate prediction of water/sediment radionuclide contamination of rivers and reservoirs in the Fukushima Prefecture and for the comparative analyses of the efficiency of the of the post -accidental measures to diminish the contamination of the water bodies. Document

  20. Medical features of the radiological accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.R. de

    1987-01-01

    The main medical features concerning the recent nuclear accident occurred in Chernobyl power station is summarized. The first measures taken by the Soviet medical authorities to minimize the effects of ionizing radiation on the victims are briefly commented on. The specialized laboratory analyses and therapeutic procedures adopted by the physicians during the course of the acute phase of the major syndromes are also discussed. (author) [pt

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This report examines the scientific, organizational and financial aspects of the programme and describes the action taken by the WHO for its development

  2. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  3. Experience from the nuclear accident in Chernobyl. [Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    On 27 May 1986, the Norwegian government appointed an inter-ministerial committee of senior officials to prepare a report on experiences in connection with the Chernobyl accident. The present first part of the committee's report describes how the discharges spread from the reactor to Scandinavia and the situation as regards contamination in different parts of Norway. The report also deals with the emergency response, the basis for decisions and countermeasures, and countermeasures and action levels used.

  4. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding between the WHO and the Ministry of Health of the USSR was signed in April 1990, calling for the development of a long-term international programme to monitor and mitigate the health effects of the Chernobyl accident. This document reports on progress made to date in terms of technical management and coordination and financial aspects of the programme. It also provides information on future activities and discusses related issues

  5. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korol, N.; Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-01-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  6. Psychosomatic health status of children exposed to the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korol, N. [Scientific Center for Radiation Medicine, Kiev (Ukraine); Shibata, Yoshisada; Nakane, Yoshibumi

    1998-12-01

    Childhood victims were investigated focussing on the psychosomatic disorders. The subjects were some of the 3834 children who evacuated from the Chernobyl zone to Kiev (evacuees) and 200 children who have been living in Kiev since prior to the accident (comparison group). A psychological test administered to 504 evacuees aged 12-14 years at the time of the accident and the comparison group indicated that the frequencies of neutroticism, high level of anxiety and conflicts were significantly higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group (p<0.001). Another psychological test administered at puberty to the 504 evacuees and 200 other evacuees exposed to the accident at 4-6 years of age indicated that the psycho-emotional portrait of evacuated teenagers significantly changed with time since the accident. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on the health of the vegetative dystonia observed in 1987-1990 and 1990-1995 were higher in the evacuees than in the comparison group, although they were not statistically significant. Furthermore, a significant (p<0.001) association of the vegetative dystonia with peptic and cardiovascular disorders was observed. The present study indicates that the vegetative dystonia is still highly prevalent among childhood victims and deems to support that the vegetative dystonia may be a precursor of several diseases such as cardiovascular and peptic disorders. It should be emphasized that a health promotion program to produce a change in psychological and social problems after the Chernobyl accident is necessary to decrease the health impact among Ukrainian people. (author)

  7. Aquatic environment impacts of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Washout of 137 Cs and 90 Sr in the contaminated area around the Chernobyl power plant occurs mainly during intense rainfalls and snow-melts when up to 900 km 2 of highly contaminated soils can be flooded, like in 1988 and 1991, contributing to the contamination of Pripyat river. Flood barriers were built on the left bank and their efficiency was proven during the 1993, 1994 and 1999 floods. Flood barriers were also built on the right bank between 1999 and 2002 but the works have never been completed so far. Downstream, the Dnieper river flow is regulated by a series of dams the management of which has been optimized to limit the transfer of radionuclides to the Black Sea

  8. Forest and Chernobyl: forest ecosystems after the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident: 1986-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipatyev, V.; Bulavik, I.; Baginsky, V.; Goncharenko, G.; Dvornik, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper reports basic features of radionuclide migration and the prediction of the radionuclide redistribution and accumulation by forest phytocoenoses after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) accident. The current ecological condition of forest ecosystems is evaluated and scientific aspects of forest management in the conditions of the large-scale radioactive contamination are discussed. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  9. Application of the SPEEDI system to the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chino, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Hirohiko; Yamazawa, Hiromi; Moriuchi, Shigeru

    1986-10-01

    The SPEEDI system is a computational code system to predict the radiological dose due to the plume released in a nuclear accident in Japan. This paper describes the SPEEDI's application to the Chernobyl reactor accident for the estimation of the movement of plume and the release rate of radioactive nuclides into the environment. The predicted results on the movement of plume agreed well with the monitoring data in Europe. The estimated results on the release rate showed that half of the noble gas inventory, about 5 % of the iodine inventory and about 3 % of the cesium inventory are released into the environment within 24 hours. (author)

  10. Soviet medical response to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnemann, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    The nuclear accident at Chernobyl was the worst in the history of nuclear power. It tested the organized medical response to mass radiation casualties. This article reviews the Soviet response as reported at the 1986 postaccident review meeting in Vienna and as determined from interviews. The Soviets used three levels of care: rescue and first aid at the plant site; emergency treatment at regional hospitals; and definitive evaluation and treatment in Moscow. Diagnosis, triage, patient disposition, attendant exposure, and preventive actions are detailed. The United States would be well advised to organize its resources definitively to cope with future nonmilitary nuclear accidents

  11. Hygienic training of population being victims of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terman, A.V.; Mozgovaya, A.V.; Polesskij, V.A.

    1995-01-01

    Study results on the role of social factors in formation of attitude to own health and its self-evaluation by the population of the regions, subjected to impact of the Chernobyl NPP accident. An extremely important component block is determined in the programs on hygienic training of the population being victims of the accident, namely, adequate information of the public on dose-effect dependencies, on radionuclide behaviour in the environmental objects, on possible measures for reduction of undesirable effects. Necessity is noted of transfer from universal programs of hygienic training to differential ones up to individual training

  12. Belorussian population health state following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Environmental radioactivity peculiarities at the Belarussian territory resulted from the Chernobyl accident are analysed. Main risk systems for human health and trends of potential pathology formation are determined. Growth in the disease incidence in adults and especially in children is marked. It covers thyroid cancer (due to 131 I intake in the early period of the accident), chronic neoplasms in hematopoietic and lymphatic systems, immune system, digestive system, cardiovascular and neuromental diseases. Attention is paid to the genetic radiation effects, pregnancy and delivery pathology. 2 tabs

  13. Oncological aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluzman, D.; Chekhun, V.; Guslitser, L.

    1998-01-01

    The data on cancer and leukemia incidence in adult and childhood population of Ukraine within 11 years after Chernobyl accident have been presented. A sharp increase in thyroid cancer incidence in children living in the areas contaminated by radionuclides has been notable. Nevertheless up to present there is no unequivocal evidence of significant increase of any other malignancies. Further long-term studies are required since the peak incidence of the majority of the forms of cancer may occur within more than 10-20 years after the accident

  14. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrasi, A [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary)

    1997-03-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  15. Internal dose assessment due to large area contamination: Main lessons drawn from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrasi, A.

    1997-01-01

    The reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986 beside its serious and tragic consequences provided also an excellent opportunity to check, test and validate all kind of environmental models and calculation tools which were available in the emergency preparedness systems of different countries. Assessment of internal and external doses due to the accident has been carried out for the population all over Europe using different methods. Dose predictions based on environmental model calculation considering various pathways have been compared with those obtained by more direct monitoring methods. One study from Hungary and one from the TAEA is presented shortly. (orig./DG)

  16. The level of 137Cs concentration in Greek soils one decade after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vosniakos, F.K.; Zoumakis, N.M.; Diomou, C.S.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most serious consequences of the Chernobyl accident was the greatest radioactive contamination of the biosphere including the soil cover. It is well known that a soil analysis is a principal systematic method to estimate the radioactivity level in the particular area since deposition pattern is determined by measuring activity in grass and soil. The aim of the present work is first to identify the level of the existing 137 Cs contamination over Greece ten years after the Chernobyl accident. Secondly, a comparison between the 1986 137 Cs - distribution and the present measured one in more - less the same areas of Greece, has been attempted. The 40 k (0.0118% of natural K) concentration in soils as ratio 137 Cs/ 40 k has been, examined, even this ratio is not as constant in biological systems as the ratio Sr/Ca

  17. Cooperative research at JAERI on the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. 3. Distribution and migration characteristics of long-lived radionuclides in the environment around the damaged Chernobyl reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amano, Hikaru

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the actual long-term migration characteristics of radionuclides released and accumulated on the earth surface environment after the reactor accident. The objective areas were mainly in 30 km distant areas from the reactor. The study concerned the distribution of radionuclides on the ground surface, their physical and chemical forms, their migration characteristics, their migration from the ground to aqueous system like river, their physical and chemical forms in that system, their migration into vegetables, and their re-floating and concentration in air. The study involved those methods such as a newly developed liquid scintillation counting of 241 Pu for assessing 241 Am accumulation and the alpha-track method for detection of hot particles. Findings were: Hot particles of small diameters around several microns were still present; Depth distribution of radionuclides was dependent on the soil sort; Chemical forms of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and transuranium elements were different; Depth distribution in the soil depended on chemical forms; Annual change of radionuclides was evident in air; Migration coefficients to vegetables were determined; High molecular weight organic colloid was important in the migration to water system; Amounts of 137 Cs and transuranium elements depended on those of suspended matters in the river water and >90% 90 Sr were in soluble forms; Apparent partition ratios (soluble/suspended) of radionuclides in the river and lake were determined; Soluble transuranium elements were bound to humus materials in the river. (K.H.)

  18. First days of the Chernobyl accident. Private experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpan, Nikolay

    2013-01-01

    Ex-deputy chief engineer of Chernobyl NPP described the time-series personal experience of the fourth unit accident on 26 April, 1986. He was informed the accident at home at 4 o'clock. He came to the plant at 7 o'clock. He and other newcomers were no informed about what happened at the plant and about details of the accident from top manager of the plant. He gathered important information about the accident from people that were eyewitness of the accident and recorded their evidences. He reported to head engineer and his deputy that solution of boron acid could be brought into reactor for suppression of the chain reaction. Director of NPP asked authorities to bring boron acid to the plant, but the boron acid was not received before the chain reaction. The critical state began approximately 20 in the evening. After 4 hours of the critical state exposition dose rate of gamma radiation was ten times from 20 R/h in the morning and middle of day to 200 R/h. He consider as the first fault of the Governmental Commission was the absence of efforts for bringing boron to gorges of fuel and to shaft of reactor. The second fault was that protective countermeasures for city population protection were not undertaken. The authorities of Chernobyl began to wait for decisions of higher authorities. This means that responsibility was moved to them. (N.T)

  19. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This leaflet has been prepared by the Central Electricity Generating Board. Following the accident at Chernobyl nuclear power station in the Soviet Union people are concerned about the safety of the UK's nuclear power stations. This leaflet explains that Chernobyl is unlike any nuclear station operating or planned in the UK and under the CEGB's stringent safety rules it could not have been built in the UK. The leaflet explains what happened at Chernobyl and compares the RBMK design and British reactors. The bodies concerned with reactor safety are noted. The containment of radioactivity and emergency procedures are explained. The PWR design for Sizewell-B is stated to be much safer than the RBMK Chernobyl design. (UK)

  20. Chernobyl accident consequences: the unborn children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serdjuk, A.M.; Timchenko, O.I.; Elagin, V.V.; Lynchak, O.V.

    2004-01-01

    The risk of spontaneous abortion in 1-12 week gestation term among Kiev region women with desired pregnancy is considered. If cumulative dose of total irradiation among Kiev region women was more than 5.0 mSv, spontaneous abortion risk increased. Mother's age more than 34, smoking, chronic infections and sterility treatment in anamnesis also increased spontaneous abortion risk. The material well being does not influence spontaneous abortion risk among women

  1. International programme on the health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Two years ago the World Health Assembly approved the establishment of the International Programme on the Health Effects of the Chernobyl Accident (IPHECA). The Programme, set up under the auspices of WHO, provides support to the health authorities in Belarus, the Russian Federation and the Ukraine in dealing with the aftermath of the accident, and is intended to serve as a unifying framework for all international health-related activities arising from the accident carried out in the three countries. This document outlines the Programme's objectives, structure, accomplishments and future plans. As a background, it also provides a brief overview of the accident and of its current and potential impact on health in the three countries. 5 figs, 1 tab

  2. Contaminants in food chains of arctic ungulates: what have we learned from the Chernobyl accident?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åhman, B.

    1998-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident of 1986 caused radioactive contamination of widespread areas of reindeer pasture in Scandinavia. Reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) are especially exposed to radioactive fallout due to their winter diet, of which lichens are an important part. Much knowledge about the transfer of radiocaesium to reindeer, and via reindeer meat to man, was accumulated by intense scientific investigations, undertaken during the 1960s and 1970s, following nuclear weapons testing. Various ways to reduce the transfer of radiocaesium to animals and humans were also developed during this time. Much of the older knowledge proved to be of great value in the attempts to determine potential consequences of the Chernobyl accident and to suggest possible ways to ameliorate the effects of contamination. After Chernobyl, not only did reindeer prove to be a problem; many other food products originating from natural and semi-natural ecosystems were found to accumulate significant amounts of radiocaesium. Intense scientific work has produced new knowledge about the role of ungulates in the transfer of nutrients and contaminants within these systems. Different measures, like providing uncontaminated feed, use of caesium binders, altering the time of slaughter have been used with good results to minimize the transfer of radiocaesium to animals grazing natural pastures. The high cost of countermeasures has enforced consideration of cost against risk, which may also be of general interest with respect to other forms of pollution. Information, introduction of countermeasures and so forth would be more efficient in case a similar accident were to happen again. The Chernobyl accident is an obvious example of how human failures when dealing with a modern technical system can have global consequences and also be a potential threat to what we like to think of as the unspoiled wilderness of the Arctic

  3. Mental health and alcohol problems among Estonian cleanup workers 24 years after the Chernobyl accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laidra, Kaia; Rahu, Kaja; Tekkel, Mare; Aluoja, Anu; Leinsalu, Mall

    2015-11-01

    To study the long-term mental health consequences of the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident among cleanup workers from Estonia. In 2010, 614 Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers and 706 geographically and age-matched population-based controls completed a mail survey that included self-rated health, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL), alcohol symptoms (AUDIT), and scales measuring depressive, anxiety, agoraphobia, fatigue, insomnia, and somatization symptoms. Respondents were dichotomized into high (top quartile) and low symptom groups on each measure. Logistic regression analysis detected significant differences between cleanup workers and controls on all measures even after adjustment for ethnicity, education, marital status, and employment status. The strongest difference was found for somatization, with cleanup workers being three times more likely than controls to score in the top quartile (OR = 3.28, 95% CI 2.39-4.52), whereas for alcohol problems the difference was half as large (OR = 1.52, 95% CI 1.16-1.99). Among cleanup workers, arrival at Chernobyl in 1986 (vs. later) was associated with sleep problems, somatization, and symptoms of agoraphobia. The toll of cleanup work was evident 24 years after the Chernobyl accident among Estonian cleanup workers indicating the need for focused mental health interventions.

  4. Markers for hepatitis B, C, D and G contamination in the population suffered of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhavoronok, S.V.; Kalinin, A.L.; Grimbaum, O.A.; Chernovetskij, M.A.; Babarykina, N.Eh.; Ospobat, Ya.M.

    1998-01-01

    The results received in the study of 2814 persons having taken part in the liquidation of the Chernobyl accident consequences, of people (adult and teenagers) migrated from the contaminated territories to Vitebsk region and of the control group consisted of 46773 donors are presented. Hepatitis B and C viruses have been revealed more frequently in people suffered of the Chernobyl accident. Hepatitis D and G viruses have defined. It allows to predict a larger number of death caused by hepato cirrhosis or primary carcinomas of the liver

  5. Aftermath of the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1992-01-01

    International Atomic Energy Agency organized the International Advisory Committee in April 1990 with the purpose of starting the international Chernobyl project. Twelve Japanese investigators participated in this project. This article introduces changes in hematopoietic findings in inhabitants as of August 1991. The subjects enrolled in the present project were 853 inhabitants living in 7 contaminated villages exposed to 15 Ci/km 2 or more (the contaminated group) and 803 inhabitants living in 6 villages exposed to 1 Ci/km 2 or less (the not contaminated group). According to age, the subjects were divided into 6 groups. Hematopoietic findings were analyzed on the international basis. Regarding hemoglobin levels, there was no significant difference between the contaminated and not contaminated groups. Nor was there significant difference in red blood cell counts, size and mean corpuscular volume between the groups. In none of the other hematopoietic findings, including whight blood cell counts, the ratio of neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and monocytes, lymphocyte counts, and blood platelet counts, was there significant difference between the two groups. (N.K.)

  6. Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding international research on the consequences of the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' scientific centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement between the Governments of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the International Atomic Energy Agency regarding International Research on the Consequences of the Accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant to be carried out at the ''Pripyat'' Scientific Centre which was approved by the IAEA's Board of Governors on 12 September 1990. It was signed on 21 September 1990 and entered into force on the same date

  7. Radiocaesium in Swedish reindeer after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aahman, B.

    1999-01-01

    Since the Chernobyl nuclear accident considerable efforts have been made in Sweden to reduce radiocaesium intake via food by the general population. Countermeasures have been used especially in reindeer husbandry. In this investigation intake of radiocaesium via reindeer meat was estimated, and the corresponding collective radiation dose to humans was calculated for the first 10 years following the Chernobyl fallout. The transfer of radiocaesium and the collective dose were compared with the potential transfer and corresponding human dose, that would have occurred in the absence of radioactivity limits and countermeasures. According to the estimates, the collective dose for the first year after the Chernobyl accident (May 1986 to April 1987) was reduced from 193 man Sv (potential dose) to below 3 man Sv (actual dose). The cost for this was 117 million SEK. Because of the relatively rapid reduction of radiocaesium in reindeer pasture, both the potential and the actual dose decreased with time. For the reindeer slaughter period from July 1995 to June 1996, the potential dose was estimated to 18 man Sv and the actual dose to 7 man Sv. The total expenditure on control and countermeasures for that year was 17 million SEK

  8. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyagu, A.I.; Sushkevitch, G.N.

    1998-01-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors

  9. Radioactivity in mushrooms in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G.A.; Degetto, S.; Gerbasi, R.; Sbrignadello, G.

    1989-01-01

    Radionuclide activities in common edible mushrooms, collected in northeast Italy following the Chernobyl accident, are reported. The highest levels were found in Clitocybe infundibuliformis, Cantharellus lutescens and Boletus cavipes. In addition, a large number of soil samples was collected in the same area. From the 137 Cs/ 134 Cs ratios, its was possible to differentiate the radiocesium contribution from pre-Chernobyl fallout in both fungi and soil. The contour maps for 137 Cs and 134 Cs distributions are reported. The radioactivity detected in the mushrooms is not related in a simple manner to the contamination level of the corresponding soil. Some species tend to concentrate cesium and silver nuclides, whilst others show little affinity for these and other nuclides. Explanations for the different behavioral characteristics of the species are suggested. (author)

  10. Acute effects of the Chernobyl nuclear accident on Irish mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allwright, S.; Daly, L.

    1989-01-01

    This report examines the claim that Irish mortality in the second quarter (April-June) of 1986 increased due to the cloud of radioactive material released by the damaged reactor in Chernobyl. Over the period 1971-1987, based on date of registration, the death rates in the second quarter showed marked year to year variation often exceeding that expected on the basis of chance alone. In 1986 the percentage of annual deaths occurring between April and June, and the death rate itself, were both significantly higher than in most other years between 1981 and 1987. The 1986 figures were not however, significantly higher than those observed in years prior to 1981. Since the distribution of mortality by cause was not consistent with the hypothesis relating low level radiation to immediate mortality, and since causality cannot be inferred from temporal association per se, the Chernobyl accident cannot be implicated in the excess mortality observed in the second quarter of 1986. (author)

  11. The atlas of cesium-137 contamination of Europe after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izrael, Yu.A.; Cort, M.De.; Jones, A.R.; Nazarov, I.M.; Fridman, Sh.D.; Kvasnikova, E.V.; Stukin, E.D.; Kelly, G.N.; Matveenko, I.I.; Pokumeiko, Yu.M.; Tabatchnyi, L.Ya.; Tsaturov, Yu.

    1996-01-01

    The Atlas, which was compiled under the Joint Study Project (JSP6) of the CEC/CIS Collaborative Program on the Consequences of the Chernobyl Accident, implemented into the European Commission's Radiation Protection Research Action, summarizes the results of numerous investigations undertaken throughout Europe to assess the ground contamination by cesium-137 following the Chernobyl accident. The Atlas incorporates about 100 color maps at a range of scales (1/200k - 1/10M) which characterize the contamination in Europe as a whole, within state boundaries and for zones where the contamination levels are above 40 kBq/m 2 (≅ 2.0% of the European territory) and above 1480 kBq/m 2 (≅ 0.03% of the European territory). Investigations have shown that around 6% of the European territory has been contaminated for more than 20 kBq/m 2 after the Chernobyl accident. The total amount of deposited cesium-137 in Europe is 8*10 16 Bq and distributed in the following manner: Belarus 33.5%, Russia 24%, Ukraine 20%, Sweden 4.4%, Finland 4.3%, Bulgaria 2.8%, Austria 2.7%, Norway 2.3%, Romania 2.0%, Germany 1.1%

  12. The Chernobyl catastrophe consequences in the Republic of Belarus. National report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.

    1996-03-01

    The estimation of radioecological, medico-biological, economic and social consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe has shown that unimaginable damage was incurred on Belarus and its territory became the zone of ecological calamity. The Chernobyl NPP catastrophe has led to the contamination of almost the fourth part of the territory of Belarus where there lived 2,2 million people. The damage caused to the republic by the catastrophe makes up 32 annual budgets of the republic of the pre-accident period in account for the 30-years period for its overcoming. Radioecological situation in Belarus is characterized by complexity and heterogeneous contamination of the territory by different radionuclides and their presence on all the components of the environment. It stipulates the plurality of ways of external and internal irradiation of the population and jeopardizes its health. There is registered the worsening of the population's health, of evacuated and inhabiting the contaminated areas as well, with increase of a number of somatic diseases, including oncological diseases, there are disorders in the metabolic processes and functions of the main systems of the organism. The demographic indices are decreasing. Particular concern causes the children's morbidity growth and genetic consequences of the accident. The contamination of agricultural lands has stipulated in the neighboring the Chernobyl NPP zone the impossibility of their use for food production. On the other lands it has been required to re-profile the farms and create new technologies of the agricultural production. There have been revealed the destructive tendencies in all spheres of the life activity of people who experienced radiation effects. The processes of social adaptation and socio-psychological support of the population require considerable optimization. In spite of that for ten years passed after the catastrophe the discrepancy of its estimations has not been overcome completely. At the same time

  13. Genital endometriosis rate dynamics before and after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shbul', I.; Suprun, L.Ya.

    2000-01-01

    The necessity of endometriosis dynamics evaluation is caused by worse ecological situation on the area of Belarus. Genital endometriosis frequency was studied considering the outcomes of surgeries fulfilled in hospitals of Gomel, Mogilev and Vitebsk in 1981-1995. At this time 1254 women underwent an operation and 19% of patients (235 persons) were operated before the Chernobyl accident. In the first 5 years after the accident endometriosis frequency increased nearly 2 times. The next 5 years (1991-1995) the number of operated patients was 565, i.e. 45% from the whole number. Uterus was extirpated or amputated in 898 patients, ovaries at both sides were removed in 36 ones. As the analysis showed the endometriosis frequency grew in 2,5 times for last 15 years, the most significant increase of this pathology was observed during the first five years after the accident

  14. The biotic sample bank of Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yu; Min Rui; Cai Jianming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)

  15. Evolution of regulation related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, L.I.; Belyaev, S.T.; Demin, V.F.; Kutkov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The 'classical' pattern of radiological protection considers mostly the radiation factor. The choice of protective measures is governed by effective doses, both received and projected, also established and adopted intervention levels, respectively. The effectiveness of the countermeasures is measured by the value of an averted dose. The lessons learned from Chernobyl show that the above single-factor pattern of radiological protection is appropriate only at an acute post-accident phase. In that period (days and weeks after an accident) the radiation factor prevails and bas countermeasures are proceeded from prearranged intervention levels. At the next long-term phase (months, years after the accident) there is enough time for a human factor to come fully into force. This factor implies the psychological and social acceptance, by the public, of the countermeasures to be implemented. It implies the response of the public to their implementation, the reflection of the situation by mass media, the reaction of Legislative and Administrative Bodies too

  16. Proceedings of the first part of a joint OECD(NEA)/CEC workshop on recent advances in reactor accident consequence assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-02-15

    The first part of the Joint Workshop, organised by the NEA, is focused on the progress achieved in the work of CSNI's GRECA (Group of Experts on Accident Consequences). The program is composed of the following papers. Session 1: characteristics of the Chernobyl release and fallout that affect transport and behaviour of radioactive substances in the environment; Chernobyl accident and hot particles in the fallout; radionuclides associated with colloids and particles in the Chernobyl fallout; source term in the Chernobyl accident; long range transport of radionuclides; parameters in consequence calculations for an urban area. Session 2: review of evaluations concerning radionuclide transfer to foodstuffs via plants in view of the data available after the Chernobyl accident; GRECA review of Chernobyl data on transfer to animal products; Chernobyl accident radiometric data (Cs-137 in fresh water fishes of north Italy lakes); distribution of Cs-137 in water sediment and fish in the Ijsselmeer (Netherlands); uptake in the human body resulting from the Chernobyl accident; radioactivity of people in the nordic countries following the Chernobyl accident; preparations for an international study to evaluate long-range transport models against the Chernobyl accident

  17. Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaare, E.; Jonsson, B.; Skogland, T.

    1991-04-01

    Due to southeasterly wind and rainfall during the critical days after the Chernobyl accident, Norway got a substantial part of the cesium isotopes released. The radioactive fallout followed closely the rainfall and was mainly concentrated to some thin populated areas in the central parts of the country. This report summerize the results from a post-Chernobyl research program on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems in contaminated areas. Pathways, processes and factors determining the Cs-137 concentration in soil, plant, water, fish and wild animal were investigated. 84 refs., 40 figs., 20 tabs

  18. Radionuclides contamination of fungi after accident on the Chernobyl NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarubina, Nataliia E.; Zarubin, Oleg L. [Institute for Nuclear Research of National Academy of Sciense, 03680, pr-t Nauki, 47, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2014-07-01

    Accumulation of radionuclides by the higher fungi (macromycetes) after the accident on the Chernobyl atomic power plant in 1986 has been studied. Researches were spent in territory of the Chernobyl alienation zone and the Kiev region. Our research has shown that macromycetes accumulate almost all types of radionuclides originating from the accident ({sup 131}I, {sup 140}Ba /{sup 140}La, {sup 103}Ru, {sup 106}Ru, {sup 141}Ce, {sup 144}Ce, {sup 95}Nb, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs). They accumulate the long-living {sup 90}Sr in much smaller (to 3 - 4 orders) quantities than {sup 137}Cs. We have established existence of two stages in accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by higher fungi after the accident on the Chernobyl NPP: the first stage resides in the growth of the concentration, the second - in gradual decrease of levels of specific activity of this radionuclide. Despite reduction of {sup 137}Cs specific activity level, the content of this radionuclide at testing areas of the 5-km zone around the Chernobyl NPP reaches 1,100,000 Bq/kg of fresh weight in 2013. We investigated dynamics of accumulation of Cs-137 in higher fungi of different ecological groups. One of the major factors that influence levels of accumulation of {sup 137}Cs by fungi is their nutritional type (ecological group). Fungi that belong to ecological groups of saprotrophes and xylotrophes accumulate this radionuclide in much smaller quantities than symbio-trophic fungi. As a result of the conducted research it has been established that symbio-trophic fungi store more {sup 137}Cs than any other biological objects in forest ecosystems. Among the symbio-trophic fungi species, species showing the highest level of {sup 137}Cs contamination vary in different periods of time after the deposition. It is connected with variability of quantities of these radio nuclides accessible for absorption at the depth of localization of the main part of mycelium of each species in a soil profile. Soil contamination

  19. External dose assessment in the Ukraine following the Chernobyl accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Remi Jordan Lesartre

    While the physiological effects of radiation exposure have been well characterized in general, it remains unclear what the relationship is between large-scale radiological events and psychosocial behavior outcomes in individuals or populations. To investigate this, the National Science Foundation funded a research project in 2008 at the University of Colorado in collaboration with Colorado State University to expand the knowledge of complex interactions between radiation exposure, perception of risk, and psychosocial behavior outcomes by modeling outcomes for a representative sample of the population of the Ukraine which had been exposed to radiocontaminant materials released by the reactor accident at Chernobyl on 26 April 1986. In service of this project, a methodology (based substantially on previously published models specific to the Chernobyl disaster and the Ukrainian population) was developed for daily cumulative effective external dose and dose rate assessment for individuals in the Ukraine for as a result of the Chernobyl disaster. A software platform was designed and produced to estimate effective external dose and dose rate for individuals based on their age, occupation, and location of residence on each day between 26 April 1986 and 31 December 2009. A methodology was developed to transform published 137Cs soil deposition contour maps from the Comprehensive Atlas of Caesium Deposition on Europe after the Chernobyl Accident into a geospatial database to access these data as a radiological source term. Cumulative effective external dose and dose rate were computed for each individual in a 703-member cohort of Ukrainians randomly selected to be representative of the population of the country as a whole. Error was estimated for the resulting individual dose and dose rate values with Monte Carlo simulations. Distributions of input parameters for the dose assessment methodology were compared to computed dose and dose rate estimates to determine which

  20. Some results of liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatenko, E.I.; Komarov, V.I.; Zverkov, V.V.; Proskuryakov, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The results of works dealing with liquidation of accident effects at the Chernobyl' NPP are generalized. Some measures realized are estimated. Suggestions directed to efficiency increase when eliminating such accident effects are formulated

  1. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  2. Radionuclides in macro algae at Monaco following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.; Ballestra, S.; Lopez, J.J.; Bulos, A.; Whitehead, N.E.; Barci-Funel, G.; Ardisson, G.

    1994-01-01

    Samples of macro algae, Codmium tomentosum (green), Corallina mediterranea (red), Sphaerococcus coronopifolius (red) and Dictyota dichotoma (brown), were collected off Monaco during 1984 and 1988 and analysed for gamma-emitting radionuclides and transuranium elements. Due to the Chernobyl accident, increased radioactivity in the atmosphere at Monaco was recorded on 30 April 1986 with maximal activity concentrations on 2-3 May. The maximal activity concentrations in sea water occurred on 5-6 May and in the algae on 11 May. The decrease of activity concentrations can be described after May 11 as a single exponential relationship, where elimination rates for different radionuclides and different species specific to the environment can be calculated. The elimination rates thus observed correspond to mean residence times between 70 and 370 days corrected for physical decay. The concentration factors were also estimated and the highest values were found for 131 I, 129 Te m , and 110 Ag m and lowest for radiocesium and 140 Ba. The red algae Sphaerococcus coronopifoius showed generally higher concentration factors than green and brown algae. Regarding transuranium elements, a theoretical contribution from the Chernobyl accident can be made but only 242 Cm was detected in the algae above previous levels before the accident, due to the relatively small fallout of transuranics. (author) 23 refs.; 9 figs.; 4 tabs

  3. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasek, M.; Rybacek, K.; Wilhemova, L.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the 137 Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for 137 Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab

  4. Study on the social economic estimation of Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagara, Aya; Fujimoto, Noboru; Morita, Koji; Fukuda, Kenji

    2000-01-01

    In order to estimate the external economic effect for the risk of the nuclear power plants, the document research has been carried out, which mainly deals with the economic influence of the Chernobyl accident that occurred on the 26th of April 1986. As a result, the direct and indirect total economic loss between 1986 and 1995 is about $ 80 billion in Belarus, $ 115 billion in Ukraine and 1.15 trillion in Russia. This value, however, is considered as an overestimation, since the environmental contamination with radioactive material and thyroid cancer in Russia is very much the same as in Belarus and Ukraine. Also, the total economic loss is about a billion dollars in west European countries. The total economic loss for the Chernobyl accident is estimated more than about $ 300 billion. On the other hand, the chance occurrence of this kind of major accident of the nuclear power plant is very small in terms of probabilities, and the product of economic loss and frequency is smaller than the cost benefit for the measure of global warming and the energy security in Japan. This kind of problem should be treated as a social problem and study on various external economic effect is necessary. (author)

  5. Monitoring of congenital malformations in Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.

    1993-01-01

    An investigation of over 21,000 embryos and fetuses from medically-induced abortions was conducted from 1980 through 1991 in the Republic of Belarus. More than half of the abortions studied were carried out after the Chernobyl nuclear accident, including 1176 from districts with 137 Cs soil contamination levels over 0.6 TBq/km 2 (15 Ci/km 2 ). Congenital malformations (CM's) in 7325 newborn children also were analyzed. The data on these children were obtained from a genetic monitoring program. It was shown that in the 5 years after the Chernobyl accident the frequency of abnormal developments in aborted fetuses from contaminated areas was significantly higher than in aborted fetuses from Minsk, which was relatively uncontaminated. Additionally, the CM incidence in newborn children increased in Belarus compared to the CM incidences before the accident; the increase was most significant in the heavily contaminated areas. The increases were attributed primarily to CMS characterized by dominant mutations. These increases could have been partially caused by factors unrelated to radiation dose, including defective nourishment, chemical contaminants, and psychological stresses. A correlation between CM increase and the parents' dose has not been established. 17 refs., 6 tabs

  6. Speciation of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomasek, M; Rybacek, K; Wilhemova, L [Academy Science of the Czech Republic, 18086 Prague (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst., Dept. of Radiation Dosimetry

    1996-12-31

    The aim of this analysis was to verify the hypothesis that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in the fallout after the accident could depend on the transport conditions, including the distance of a sampling location from Chernobyl. From the results it is obvious that the prevailing form in all samples taken in the period of direct contamination was water-soluble radiocesium. It can be concluded from the presented results that physico-chemical forms of radiocesium in atmospheric aerosol and fallout after the nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl as well as particulate size distribution can depend on the distance or the conditions of transport from a contamination source to a sampling location. The influence of the conditions of radiocesium transport could result in observed differences in the {sup 137}Cs penetration into soil profile in different locations and also in the found dependence on the resuspension factor for {sup 137}Cs on the level of its fallout in the period of NPP accident for different locations in Europe. (J.K.) 1 tab.

  7. Pathohistologic characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa in liquidators of Chernobyl accident with peptic duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degtyar'ova, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    Pathomorphological characteristics of gastric and duodenal mucosa associated with the dose of ionizing radiation at peptic duodenal ulcer in participants of the Chernobyl accident clean-up was determined. Our findings suggest that the doses of external irradiation exceeding 25 cGy (together with the other harmful effects of the Chernobyl accident) represent a danger of helicobacter infection development

  8. XENON-133 IN CALIFORNIA, NEVADA, AND UTAH FROM THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT (JOURNAL VERSION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The accident at the Chernobyl nuclear reactor in the USSR introduced numerous radioactive nuclides into the atmosphere, including the noble gas xenon-133. EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory, Las Vegas, NV, detected xenon-133 from the Chernobyl accident in air sampl...

  9. Determination of radioactive fallout after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, I.; Haabrekke, H.

    1986-09-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, a coarse-meshed all-over picture of the radioactive ground deposition on Norway's land area was obtained by radiometric scanning from car. The measurements were carried out by the Geological Survey of Norway in the period 5 May - 6 June, 1986. High-concentration areas in the central part of the country were in addition surveyed by aerial scanning. By combining the scanning results with in situ background measurements, it was possible to calculate the distribution of some dominant radionuclides on the ground. The measured data are presented on contamination maps

  10. Health hazards from radiocaesium following the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe has organized a series of meetings to assess the health impact of the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Considering the long-term importance of radiocaesium a decision was made to examine carefully the following aspects of this radionuclide in Europe: rate of deposition; environmental pathways through soil, flora and fauna to humans; absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in humans; estimated doses resulting from these exposures; and some consideration of the possible adverse health effects. This is a report from a working group studying the health implications of radiocaesium. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Radiological effects of the Chernobyl accident on West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    According to a preliminary estimate of the additional radiation exposure of West Germany's population due to the Chernobyl reactor accident, an effective dose of 150-200 mrem over the next 50 years is given as an average commitment throughout the country (accumulated natural radiation dose estimated for the same period of time is between 7 500 and 20 000 mrem). There are, however, strong regional variations. The Strahlenschutzkommission gives the calculated maximum dose to the adult population via the food chain to be 70 mrem in 1986, and 90 mrem to infants; the commission expects that real values will be about one fifth of the assessed values.

  12. Remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesenko, S.; Sanzharova, N.; Alexakhin, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Directorate General for Environment of the European Commission has supported two projects on the issue of remediation strategies for contaminated territories resulting from the Chernobyl accident. The first one aimed at identifying and costing a set of additional countermeasures that would enable the reduction of the annual exposure of the inhabitants down to 1 mSv. The second one (still running) is developing a new rehabilitation approach based on the involvement of the local population in the decision taking process concerning the type of countermeasures to be applied (the ETHOS approach). (author)

  13. Radioactive fallout from the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiriger, J.M.; Failor, R.A.; Marsh, K.V.; Shaw, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Following the accident at the nuclear reactor at Chernobyl, in the Soviet Union on April 26, 1986, we performed a variety of measurements to determine the level of the radioactive fallout on the western United States. We used gamma-spectroscopy to analyze air filters from the areas around Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), California, and Barrow and Fairbanks, Alaska. Milk from California and imported vegetables were also analyzed. The levels of the various fission products detected were far below the maximum permissible concentration levels

  14. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1986-06-01

    Measurements are reported of the concentrations at Berkeley in Gloucestershire of radioactivity in the air, rainwater, tap water, soil, herbage and fresh vegetables for the period 29 April 1986 to 15 May 1986, following the Chernobyl Power Station accident. Data for up to 18 gamma emitting isotopes are reported, together with some limited actinide-in-air measurements. Deposition velocities are calculated and an assessment is presented of the sensitivity of the techniques employed. Some data are also included on the gaseous composition of the cloud and the isotope dependent dose rate from deposition. (author)

  15. Chernobyl and the consequences. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieker, E.; Kollert, R.

    1987-02-01

    The information presented by various contributions in this second volume briefly summarizes the accident scenario and the report given by USSR officials, and analyses the causes of events. Further topics deal with reactor safety in general, but specifically the safety of nuclear power plants installed in the Federal Republic of Germany, and with the incidents reported from the Cattenom power station in France. The act concerning precautionary radiation protection and environmental monitoring is explained, and said to be an 'enabling act' for the Federal Minister of Environmental Affairs. Practical information refers to the problem of nutrition and presents recommendations for 'low-activity' meals, especially for avoiding ingestion of Cs-137. (HP) [de

  16. Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.; Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Rolevich, I.V.; Schneider, T.S.; Sobolev, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

  17. Economic and social aspects of the Chernobyl accident in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomqvist, L.; Mustonen, R.; Paakkola, O.

    1991-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident at no stage did the radiation situation in Finland require actual protective action, such as taking shelter indoors or in civil defence shelters. Civil defence plans for emergency situations include a warning level at 200 μSv/h (population has to stay indoors) and an alarm level at 2000 μSv/h (populaiton has to seek shelter immediately). Both levels are 'at the latest' levels, given as guidance in case regional or local authorities have to make the decision. The highest confirmed gamma radiation reading in Finland was 5 μSv/h. During the first days of the Chernobyl fail-out it also became evident that no large scale restrictions for use of foodstuffs were needed in the Nordic countries. Various mitigating actions were adopted in the days and weeks following Chernobyl, but mostly in the form of recommendations. The situation in Finland can serve to explain the various types of mitigating actions considered, how they were adopted, and to some extent give information on how efficient and how expensive the mitigating actions were

  18. Socioeconomic consequences of nuclear reactor accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawil, J.J.; Callaway, J.W.; Coles, B.L.; Cronin, F.J.; Currie, J.W.; Imhoff, K.L.; Lewis, P.M.; Nesse, R.J.; Strenge, D.L.

    1984-06-01

    This report identifies and characterizes the off-site socioeconomic consequences that would likely result from a severe radiological accident at a nuclear power plant. The types of impacts that are addressed include economic impacts, health impacts, social/psychological impacts and institutional impacts. These impacts are identified for each of several phases of a reactor accident - from the warning phase through the post-resettlement phase. The relative importance of the impact during each accident phase and the degree to which the impact can be predicted are indicated. The report also examines the methods that are currently used for assessing nuclear reactor accidents, including development of accident scenarios and the estimating of socioeconomic accident consequences with various models. Finally, a critical evaluation is made regarding the use of impact analyses in estimating the contribution of socioeconomic consequences to nuclear accident reactor accident risk. 116 references, 7 figures, 15 tables

  19. A study into the consequences of a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, D.G.

    1987-07-01

    The nuclear industry in Britain would like to believe, and would like the general public to believe, that major accidents such as that at Chernobyl in 1986, could no happen in Britain, because the design and operating procedure have been made as safe as possible. However, because the designers and operators are human, they can make mistakes. Some of these are mentioned; errors of design, errors of maintenance or inspection and errors of judgement. In spite of protestations to the contrary, a major accident could occur at Sizewell-B reactor. Given that this a real possibility, plans should be drawn up to prepare for the situation. The study considers the possible consequences of a nuclear accident under the headings, human error, how nuclear fission works, radioactivity, the truth about Chernobyl, what patterns of reactor accident are possible, what can be done (this includes meteorological information, the issuing of potassium iodate tables, radiation monitoring and evacuation). Practical issues which should concern the local authorities, especially Wrekin Council, are discussed and a recommendation made for an environmental protection officer to be appointed to keep the matter under continuing review. (U.K.)

  20. Frequency changes of inherited anomalies in the Republic of Belarus after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazjuk, G.I.; Kirillova, I.A.; Nikolaev, D.L.; Novikova, I.V.; Fomina, Z.N.; Khmel, R.D. [Belarus Institute for Hereditary Diseases, Minsk (Belarus)

    1995-12-31

    Complex cytogenetic, embryologic and clinical studies of possible genetic consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident for the population of Belarus have been carried out. They showed that groups of the population (pregnant women, fetuses, school children) had received biologically significant doses of radiation, as assessed by the registration of ring and dicentric chromosomes in blood lymphocytes. The study of more than 22,000 embryos and fetuses, and of 4090 neonates with compulsory registered congenital malformations, showed a considerable increase of anomalies of intrauterine origin since 1987. They correlated with the level of {sup 137}Cs contamination in the areas, but did not correlate with the preconception dose to the mother from the same radionuclide. Teratogenic effects of the Chernobyl pollution have not been conclusively idenitifed. The increase of embryonal anomalies was mainly due to the group of multifactorial defects, and to the anomalies with a large contribution from dominant mutations. The Down`s syndrome incidence showed to increase. (Author).

  1. Statistical evaluation of internal contamination data in the man following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Battisti, P.; Melandri, C.; Castellani, C.M.; Formignani, M.

    1989-01-01

    The main implications of the general interest derived from the statistical analysis of the internal human contamination data obtained by ENEA-PAS with Whole Body Counter mesurements performed in Bologna in consequence of the Chernobyl accident are presented. In particular the trend with time of the individual body activity of members of a homogeneous group, the variability of individual contamination in ralation to the mean contamination, the statistical distribution of the data, the significance of mean values concerning small, homogeneous groups of subjects, the difference between subjects of different sex and its trend with time, are examined. Finally, the substantial independence of the individual committed dose equivalent evaluation due to the Chernobyl contamination on the Whole from the hypothesized values of the metabolic parameters is pointed out when the evaluation is performed on the basis of direct measurements with a Whole Body Counter

  2. 137Cs uptake with cafeteria food after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Paretzke, H.G.

    1992-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the activity concentrations of radiocesium were measured in both the meals served at the cafeteria of a research center and in the employees eating there. The time-dependent means of monthly 137Cs activities in meals and people show a similar distribution pattern with highest values between March and July 1987, i.e., only 1 y after the accident. In meals, the highest activities were found when the menu consisted of pork, milk, or milk products. The 50-y cumulative effective dose calculated from the whole-body measurements is 0.21 mSv for male and 0.15 mSv for female employees. Cafeteria food contributed only a small share to this exposure

  3. Evironmental health policy in ukraine after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, G.W.; Bobyleva, O.A.; Naboka, M.V.

    1995-01-01

    The 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant in Ukraine produced severe environmental health problems. This paper reports on the environmental health conditions in Ukraine after the accident and the health policy approaches employed to respond to the environmental conditions and health problems. Crisis conditions and a period of rapid change in Ukraine contributed to the difficulties of developing and implementing policy to address serious environmental health problems. Despite these difficulties, Ukraine is taking effective action. The paper describes the primary environmental health problem areas and the efforts taken to solve them. The effect of intense public fear of radiation on policymaking is described. The paper discusses the ability of public fear to distort health policy towards certain problems, leaving problems of greater importance with fewer resources. 35 refs., 1 fig

  4. Post-Chernobyl accident radioactivity measurements in the Comunidad Autonoma de Valencia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, J; Ballesteros, L; Serradell, V

    1992-03-01

    Increased atmospheric radioactivity after the accident in Chernobyl was first detected on air filters. Measurements were begun in Valencia on May 2, 1986, with the maximum activity being observed around May 3-4, 1986. As a consequence of this accident, annual campaigns of measurements on migrating birds (several species of aquatic birds and song-thrushes) were started. The data corresponding to the campaign immediately after the accident (1986/87) show a generalized contamination (approximately 50% of the measured specimens). Significant levels of 134Cs, 137Cs and 110Agm were found. It is important to note that 110Agm is only present in Aythya ferina. In the successive campaigns in 1988/89 and 1989/91 few samples were found to be contaminated and only 137Cs was identified. Strontium-90 was measured and identified in some specimens, mainly in their bones.

  5. HYSPLIT's Capability for Radiological Aerial Monitoring in Nuclear Emergencies: Model Validation and Assessment on the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Gunhyo; Kim, Juyoul; Shin, Hyeongki

    2007-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident took place on 25 April 1986 in Ukraine. Consequently large amount of radionuclides were released into the atmosphere. The release was a widespread distribution of radioactivity throughout the northern hemisphere, mainly across Europe. A total of 31 persons died as a consequence of the accident, and about 140 persons suffered various degrees of radiation sickness and health impairment in the acute health impact. The possible increase of cancer incidence has been a real and significant increase of carcinomas of the thyroid among the children living in the contaminated regions as the late health effects. Recently, a variety of atmospheric dispersion models have been developed and used around the world. Among them, HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) model developed by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)/ARL (Air Resources Laboratory) is being widely used. To verify the HYSPLIT model for radiological aerial monitoring in nuclear emergencies, a case study on the Chernobyl accident is performed

  6. Estimated long term health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardis, E. [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France)

    1996-07-01

    Apart from the dramatic increase in thyroid cancer in those exposed as children, there is no evidence to date of a major public health impact as a result of radiation exposure due to the Chernobyl accident in the three most affected countries (Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine). Although some increases in the frequency of cancer in exposed populations have been reported ,these results are difficult to interpret, mainly because of differences in the intensity and method of follow-up between exposed populations and the general population with which they are compared. If the experience of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan and of other exposed populations is applicable, the major radiological impact of the accident will be cases of cancer. The total lifetime numbers of excess cancers will be greatest among the `liquidators` (emergency and recovery workers) and among the residents of `contaminated` territories, of the order of 2000 to 2500 among each group (the size of the exposed populations is 200,000 liquidators and 3,700,000 residents of `contaminated` areas). These increases would be difficult to detect epidemiologically against an expected background number of 41500 and 433000 cases of cancer respectively among the two groups. The exposures for populations due to the Chernobyl accident are different in type and pattern from those of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Japan. Thus predictions derived from studies of these populations are uncertain. The extent of the incidence of thyroid cancer was not envisaged. Since only ten years have lapsed since the accident, continued monitoring of the health of the population is essential to assess the public health impact.

  7. Psychometric testing of children prenatally irradiated during the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajrakova, A.; Vasilev, G.; Khristova, M. N.; Chobanova, N.; Tsenova, T.; Jordanova, M.; Lalova, J.; Vasileva, F.; Mikhajlova, Z.; Trifonova, S.

    1993-01-01

    The investigation involved 50 children aged median 6 years and 6 months. The group was selected in view of the critical period for occurrence of radiation-related deviations in mental development (8-15 gestation weeks) and the period of maximum irradiation during the Chernobyl accident. Assessment of the individual exposure and analysis of possible impacts from non-radiation risk factors were based on guided parental history reports. The dose of accidental irradiation was determined using the radiological data for the country. A Bulgarian standardization of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-R) was used. The procedure includes 5 verbal and 5 nonverbal subtests. Results were compared with those from a countrywide control group of children (including a large city, a small town, a village). The analysis indicated higher mean IQ scores in the investigated children. The children were additionally studied by original tests for attention and gnosis-praxis functions using tactile and visual modalities. The tests included intra- and transmodal versions, bilateral simultaneous presentation of stimuli with verbal and nonverbal characteristics in applying analytical and global strategies. Comparisons were made with results for children in the same age range, who had been studied prior to the Chernobyl accident. The evidence surprisingly varied, taking into account the small size of the investigation group. A longitudinal follow-up of this population thus appears to be appropriate. (author)

  8. Radioactive contamination characteristics in China following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zuoyuan

    1987-01-01

    In the aftermath of Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident, the Environmental Radiation Surveillance Network of Ministry of Public Health of China has done monitoring on environmental samples to determine the contamination levels of radioactivity. Radionuclides, such as I-131, I-132, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Te-132, were found on surface of airplanes, which flew in domestic airlines between May 1-3, that means the radionuclides from Chernobyl accident already reached high altitude atmosphere over China, but the concentration was much lower than that in Europe. During the period of May 2-15, in most stations, radionuclides were found in different environmental samples, such as air, milk, vegetables, rain water, river and lake water, and sheep thyroid. Radioactivity levels of samples were higher in north part of China than in south. The amounts of radionuclides in all samples were well below the derived air concentrations and derived intake concentrations specified in the National Basic Health Standards for Radiological Protection. Thus, the public need not to take any precautions for the purpose of radiation protection

  9. Chernobyl and its consequences - no reason left to worry anymore?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billen-Girmscheid, G.

    1986-01-01

    It is difficult to predict the evolution of radioactive contamination in food. Knowledge is scarce concerning the exposure levels in different regions, the behaviour of different plant species and the interactions with other pollutants. Hence, we need to continuously monitor by measurements, to ban the use of highly contaminated foods and feedstuffs and to identify radiation contents on all food commodities accurately. The author gives and demands recommendations for diets and political consequences after Chernobyl. (DG) [de

  10. Some aspects of the genetic consequences of the Chernobyl disaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of the genetic effects of ionizing radiations resulting from the Chernobyl disaster. It involves application of the laboratory radiosensitive test-objects for the biological dosimetry of the environment; evaluation of primary radiation-genetic effects resulting from the ionizing irradiation of plant and animal populations within the 30-km vicinity and outside this zone; and a study of distant genetic consequences of ionizing radiation exposure (in a number of generations) on the environmental objects

  11. Assessment of the impact of the Chernobyl accident made after 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanek, V.

    1996-01-01

    A number of studies dealing with the consequences of the Chernobyl accident have been published on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the event. The doses received from absorbed iodine are estimated at up to 70 mSv in adults and over 1000 mSv in children. The average whole-body dose received by the inhabitants prior to evacuation was about 15 mSv. The people who were engaged in the mitigation of the accident received whole-body doses as high as over 10 Sv. From among 432 000 such persons, 6000 died over the 1988-1994 period, the causes being other than the irradiation. Hence, the mortality in this group was the same as in the normal population. About 270 000 persons still live in regions contaminated with Cs-137 in quantities higher than 555 kBq/m 2 . The radiation doses for the population of Europe were roughly 1 to 2 mSv above the natural background. No abnormalities caused by the radiation were found during medical examinations. The accident, however, had serious psychological consequences. Currently, a staff of 6000 is working at the Chernobyl power plant, and the new town of Slavutich is inhabited by the youngest population, exhibiting the lowest mortality in the Ukraine. (M.D.) 1 tab., 12 refs

  12. The causes of the Chernobyl accident; Les causes de l'evenement Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frot, J. [Societe Francaise d' Energie Nucleaire (SFEN), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-06-01

    For the man in the street Chernobyl epitomizes the danger of nuclear energy but when we examine the causes of this accident we see that this drama is not intrinsically linked to the production of electricity from nuclear fission. The author sees 2 components in the Chernobyl event: the accident itself and its sanitary consequences. The author considers 3 main causes to the accident: -) a design that makes the reactor difficult to control, -) a series of 6 humane failures or breaking of operating rules, and -) political reasons: the largest possible budget was dedicated to plutonium production so any improvement for safety was considered as costly and secondary, moreover the religion of secrecy which was well spread in the ancient Soviet Union, prevented any scientific from knowing all the information concerning this type of reactor. As for the sanitary consequences, the author considers direct causes and underlying causes. The lack of information for the local population, the delay taken for iodine distribution or for the interdiction of farm products consumption are included in the direct causes. The slowness of Soviet bureaucracy, tight budgets and politico-scientific disputes are quoted among the underlying causes. (A.C.)

  13. Evaluation of special safety features of the SNR-300 in view of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.

    1987-03-01

    A comparison of those characteristics, which decisively influenced the accident in the RMBK-1000 reactor, with the safety features of SNR-300 has been performed. The conclusions of this comparison are presented in the present report. The SNR-300 is characterized by a stable reactivity behaviour and good controllability, whereas RBMK-1000 has an instable behaviour and complex spatial dependencies in the core. Among other points, design deficiencies in the protection and emergency shutdown systems were responsible for the Chernobyl accident. The protection and scram systems of the SNR-300 are unquestionably superior to those of the RBMK-1000 with regard to redundancy, diversity, degree of automation, separation of operational and safety-relevant tasks, protection against inadmissible interventions, effectiveness and safety reserves. Therefore, excursion accidents can be classified as hypothetical for SNR-300. Due to elementary physical properties, possible energy releases during hypothetical excursions are substantially lower for SNR-300 and would be controlled by the design of the primary system and containment systems. No damage limiting measures are provided in the RBMK-100 for excursion accidents. Finally, exothermal processes augmented the consequences of the accident in the RBMK-1000 and the long-lasting graphite fire intensified the release of radioactivity. In the SNR-300, however, inertisation of the containment, the steel plate lining and the floor troughs ensure that activity enclosure inside the containment after leakage or hypothetical excursion accident is not endangered by exothermal reactions. Further safety aspects are presented in the report, which can be linked with the accident in Chernobyl. In summary, it is obvious that the disadvantageous physical and technical features of the RBMK-1000 do either not exist in the SNR-300 or are covered by the safety design

  14. The international Chernobyl project: Assessment of radiological consequences and evaluation of protective measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-08-01

    This brochure gives a brief account of the findings of the International Chernobyl Project. Further details will be found in the report ''The International Chernobyl Project: An Overview'' (INI22:066284/5) and in the Technical Report (INI23:011339). Measurements and assessments carried out under the project provided general corroboration of the levels of surface cesium-137 contamination reported in the official maps. The project also concluded that the official procedures for estimating radiation doses to the population were scientifically sound, although they generally resulted in overestimates of two- to threefold. The project could find no marked increase in the incidence of leukemia or cancer, but reported absorbed thyroid doses in children might lead to a statistically detectable rise in the incidence of thyroid tumors. Significant non-radiation-related health disorders were found, and the accident had substantial psychological consequences in terms of anxiety and stress

  15. Results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutkov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    About 1500 people were involved in emergency operations on 26-27 April 1986 at the site of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. They worked in different working conditions and were exposed to aerosols of different characteristics. The Chernobyl accident was the first accident in which, when the reactor core was destroyed, aerosol of the dispersed spent nuclear fuel became a significant source of internal and external exposure for a large group of people. Detailed information on the properties of the Chernobyl aerosol for the first post-accident period is absent. Therefore, results of in vivo monitoring of the witnesses of the Chernobyl accident can be an important source of information for assessing the radiological properties of the Chernobyl aerosol. (author)

  16. Radioactive Waste Management In The Chernobyl Exclusion Zone - 25 Years Since The Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is an important component of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident mitigation and remediation activities of the so-called Chernobyl Exclusion Zone. This article describes the localization and characteristics of the radioactive waste present in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone and summarizes the pathways and strategy for handling the radioactive waste related problems in Ukraine and the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, and in particular, the pathways and strategies stipulated by the National Radioactive Waste Management Program. The brief overview of the radioactive waste issues in the ChEZ presented in this article demonstrates that management of radioactive waste resulting from a beyond-designbasis accident at a nuclear power plant becomes the most challenging and the costliest effort during the mitigation and remediation activities. The costs of these activities are so high that the provision of radioactive waste final disposal facilities compliant with existing radiation safety requirements becomes an intolerable burden for the current generation of a single country, Ukraine. The nuclear accident at the Fukushima-1 NPP strongly indicates that accidents at nuclear sites may occur in any, even in a most technologically advanced country, and the Chernobyl experience shows that the scope of the radioactive waste management activities associated with the mitigation of such accidents may exceed the capabilities of a single country. Development of a special international program for broad international cooperation in accident related radioactive waste management activities is required to handle these issues. It would also be reasonable to consider establishment of a dedicated international fund for mitigation of accidents at nuclear sites, specifically, for handling radioactive waste problems in the ChEZ. The experience of handling Chernobyl radioactive waste management issues, including large volumes of radioactive soils and complex structures

  17. Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia 8 years after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Girard, P.

    1997-01-01

    Living conditions in the contaminated territories of Bielorussia after the Chernobyl accident: evaluation of the situation in the district of Chetchersk in Bielorussia. This article presents an analysis of the social and economic aspects of radiological protection in the territories contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. It is based on the results of two surveys performed in 1994 on the living conditions of the inhabitants of a territorial community located in Bielorussia, 180 km north of Chernobyl. The first part presents the radiological post-accident situation of the district, together with an analysis of this situation's demographic impact since 1986. The second part presents a description of the modes of exposure of the inhabitants of the contaminated territories and an assessment of he various countermeasures programmes initiated by the authorities in the legislative framework of 1991. The last part addresses the economic aspects of the Chetchersk district and an evaluation of the consequences of the radiological situation on the economic, and above all agricultural, activities of the district.The conclusion highlights the difficulties that face the Byelorussian authorities today. The now definitive presence of inhabitants in a durably contaminated environment poses a new category of problems. The objectives of radiological protection have to be reshaped within a set of constraints of different types, notably social and economic. The development of radiological safety cannot be dissociated from a return to quality living in these territories. This necessarily entails re-establishing a climate of social confidence. The initial legislative plan for post-accident management must be adapted to give greater autonomy to local participants in the reconstruction of satisfactory living conditions. (authors)

  18. Sources of contradictions in the evaluation of population genetic consequences after the chernobyl disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazko, V I; Glazko, T T

    2013-01-01

    The review covers the analysis of our own and published data pertaining to population and genetic consequences in various mammalian species under conditions of high levels of ionizing radiation as a result of the Chernobyl accident. The findings indicate that these conditions have promoted the reproduction of heterozygotes in polyloci spectra of molecular genetic markers and animals with a relatively increased stability of the chromosomal apparatus. The prospects of using the reproductive "success" of the carriers of these characteristics as an integral indicator of the selective influence of environmental stress factors are discussed.

  19. Medical radiological consequences of the Chernobyl catastrophe in Russia. Estimation of radiation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.; Tsyb, A.; Ivanov, S.; Pokrovsky, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident, one of the worst radiation-related disasters ever, occurred about 18 year ago. A lot has been done over the past years to mitigate the consequences of this accident, especially in the worst affected territories of Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. The efforts to study health effects of the accident, however, need to be continued for many years to come, being an integral part of developing a general strategy for dealing with long-term effects. The question now arises: To what extent health consequences could be evaluated in 1986, given the existing scientific base of radiation epidemiology? The latest 20-30 years have seen a rapid development of radiation epidemiology, which was brought about, first of all, by the need to analyze long-term radiation effects of the 1945 atomic bombing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It may now be considered as proved that high and medium radiation doses (above 0.3 Sv) lead to an increase in cancer incidence rates. Based on the Japanese data, the ICRP proposed mathematical models to be used for predicting long-term effects of radiation exposure. This brings up a question: Are radiation risks derived for Hiroshima and Nagasaki applicable to low doses (0.2 Sv)? An answer is critically important, as the overwhelming majority of emergency workers and the population exposed as a result of the Chernobyl accident received doses within this range. Actually, understanding of these issues is crucial for dealing with long-term radiation effects of the Chernobyl accident. Deriving radiation risk factors for the Japanese cohort with medium and high doses was based on large-scale epidemiological studies of 86.5 thousand people during a prolonged period. As of now, no other approaches exist to estimating long-term radiation effects. Following the Chernobyl accident the All-Union Distributed Registry of persons exposed to radiation was established as soon as in the summer 1986. The Research Institute of Medical Radiology (Medical

  20. The effect of Chernobyl accident on the development of non malignant diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zonenberg, A.; Leoniak, M.; Zarzycki, W.

    2006-01-01

    The early medical complications of Chernobyl accident include post radiation disease, which were diagnosed in 134 subjects affected by ionizing radiation. 28 persons died during the first 100 days after the event. The increase occurrence of coronary heart disease, endocrine, haematological, dermatological and other diseases were observed after disaster in the contaminated territories. We also discussed the impact of ionizing radiation from Chernobyl accident on pregnancy and congenital defects occurrence. Changes following the Chernobyl accident, as the inhabitants migration from contaminated regions, political and economic conversions, led to depression, anxiety, and even to '' epidemic '' of mental diseases. Increased suicide rate, car accidents, alcohol and drug abuse have been observed in this population. Nowadays vegetative neurosis is more often diagnosed in Ukrainian children. Epidemiological studies were conducted on the ionising radiation effect on the health and on the dose of received radiation after Chernobyl accident face numerous problems as the absence of reliable data regarding diseases in the contaminated territories.(authors)

  1. Environmental radioactivity measurements at BNL during the year following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, R.; Woollam, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    The accident which destroyed Unit 4 of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station on 26 April 1986 provided the world's scientists with an opportunity, unique in recent years, to study many of the processes which follow the release of large quantities of radioactivity into the atmosphere. BNL undertook a wide ranging programme of environmental measurements after the accident, the immediate aim being to supply HM Government with data to help assess the radiological consequences to the UK population. As it became clear that the UK dose commitment was relatively low, the thrust of the measurements began to be concentrated on airborne radioactivity and the movement of nuclides in the grass-soil system. The aim of these studies was to assess dispersion and diffusion of radioactivity in these particular compartments of the environment. The measurements have continued over the twelve month period since the Chernobyl accident. This report aims to disseminate the year's data and to offer some initial interpretations of the trends. (U.K.)

  2. Proceeding of the 2-nd International Conference 'Long-term Health Consequences of the Chernobyl Disaster'; Materialy 2-j Mezhdunarodnoj konferentsii 'Otdalennye Meditsinskie posledstviya Chernobyl'skoj katastrofy'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyagu, A I; Sushkevitch, G N [eds.

    1998-07-01

    On the second International conference 'Long-term health consequences of the Chernobyl disaster' in 1-6 June 1998 Kiev (Ukraine) the following problems were discussed: 1.Epidemiological aspects of the Chernobyl disaster; 2.Clinical and biological effects of ionizing radiation; 3.Social and psychological aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster; 4.Rehabilitation of the Chernobyl disaster survivors.

  3. Airborne radioactivity in Finland after the Chernobyl accident in 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkko, K.; Aaltonen, H.; Mustonen, R.; Taipale, T.K.; Juutilainen, J.

    1987-06-01

    In the air surveillance programme of the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety concentrations of artificial radionuclides are monitored in the air close to the ground. Airborne dust is collected continuously on a class fibre filter by a high-volume air sampler at Nurmijaervi, 40 km north of Helsinki, and the concentrations of radionuclides are evaluated. Extensive studies on radionuclide composition in air and spatial distribution were performed in Finland after the Chernobyl accident. The fallout situation was followed by temporary air sampling in Helsinki and Rovaniemi, with short sampling periods and also with air dust samples from the upper atmosphere. In Nurmijaervi, air samples were also taken on an activated carbon bed. All samples were measured by gammaspectrometry, but some radiochemical analyses were also performed. Fallout from Chernobyl arrived in Finland on Sunday, April 27. The maximum concentrations in air were measured on Monday evening, April 28, and ranged from a few microbecquerels to two hundred becquerels per cubic metre. At an altitude of about 1500 m the concentrations of radionuclides were even two decades higher. The radionuclide concentrations in air decreased rapidly being under one hundredth part of their maximum values after few days

  4. Radiation protection research and studies after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madelmont, C.; Coulon, R.; Legrand, B.; Manesse, D.; Rzepka, J.P.

    1989-04-01

    The effects on the environment of the Chernobyl Power Plant accident, which happened in the reactors unit 4, are analyzed. The aim of the study is to show the main fields of research and development to be considered, in order to improve the knowledge on public or local radiation protection. The following aspects of the problem are discussed: the long range atmospheric transfer, the environment monitoring, the problems related to the food chain transfers, the environment recovery and the estimation of the sanitary effects. The Chernobyl disaster confirms: the priority of special plans of action to protect the surrounding population; that the special plans of action must be followed by after-disaster actions, which take into account methods for the environment recovery; that the conventional systematic approach can not be satisfactorily applied to manage such a critical situation, and a new one must be developed. Moreover, the identification of the most exposed (population) groups, far from the nearby affected area, are to be considered [fr

  5. Analysis of the source term in the Chernobyl-4 accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Lopez Montero, J.V.; Pinedo Garrido, P.

    1990-01-01

    The report presents the analysis of the Chernobyl accident and of the phenomena with major influence on the source term, including the chemical effects of materials dumped over the reactor, carried out by the Chair of Nuclear Technology at Madrid University under a contract with the CEC. It also includes the comparison of the ratio (Cs-137/Cs-134) between measurements performed by Soviet authorities and countries belonging to the Community and OECD area. Chapter II contains a summary of both isotope measurements (Cs-134 and Cs-137), and their ratios, in samples of air, water, soil and agricultural and animal products collected by the Soviets in their report presented in Vienna (1986). Chapter III reports on the inventories of cesium isotopes in the core, while Chapter IV analyses the transient, especially the fuel temperature reached, as a way to deduce the mechanisms which took place in the cesium escape. The cesium source term is analyzed in Chapter V. Normal conditions have been considered, as well as the transient and the post-accidental period, including the effects of deposited materials. The conclusion of this study is that Chernobyl accidental sequence is specific of the RBMK type of reactors, and that in the Western world, basic research on fuel behaviour for reactivity transients has already been carried out

  6. Character and consequence of nuclear criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xinhua; Liu Hua; Wu Deqiang; Li Bing

    2001-01-01

    The author describes some concepts, the process and magnitude of energy release and the destruction of the nuclear criticality accident and also describes the radiation consequence of criticality accidents from three aspects: prompt radiation, contamination in working place and release of fission products to the environment. It shows that the effects of radioactivity release from criticality accidents in the nuclear fuel processing plants on the environment and the public is minor, the main danger is from the external exposure of prompt rays. The paper make as have a correct understanding of the nuclear criticality accident and it would be helpful to take appropriate emergency response to potential criticality accident

  7. Cesium-134 and cesium-137 in honey bees and cheese samples collected in the U. S. after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, B C; Jester, W A; Griffith, S M; Morse, R A; Zall, R R; Lisk, D J; Burgett, D M; Bodyfelt, F W

    1988-01-01

    As a result of the Chernobyl accident on April 25, 1986, possible radioactive contamination of honey bees and cheese sampled in several areas of the United States were measured. Of bees collected in May and June of 1986 in both Oregon and New York, only those from Oregon showed detectable levels of cesium-134 (T1/2 = 2.05 years), a radionuclide which would have originated from the Chernobyl incident. Cheese produced in Oregon and New York before the accident showed only cesium-137 (T1/2 = 30.23 years) but cheese produced afterwards (May and September, 1986) in Oregon contained cesium-134. Cheese produced in Ohio and California at the time of the accident and thereafter contained only cesium-137. In general, the levels of radioactivity were higher in the West coast samples as compared to those taken in the East. The levels of radioactivity detected were considered to be toxicologically of no consequence.

  8. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established {sup S}afety Culture{sup ,} the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  9. The observed and predicted health effects of the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    Due to poor design, operator error and the absence of an established S afety Culture , the worst accident in the history of nuclear power involving the Unit 4 RMBK reactor occurred at Chernobyl in the Ukraine in the early morning of 26 April 1986. This accident led to the contamination of large tracts of forest and agricultural land (in the former Soviet Union) and the evacuation of a large number of people. Thirty-one people died at the time of the accident or shortly afterwards, and 203 people were treated for the Acute Radiation Syndrome. From about 1990 a significant increase in the number of childhood thyroid cancers has been noted in Belarus and Ukraine. Because of the social, political and economic situation in the Soviet Union soon after the accident, the anxiety and stress induced in the general population has been enhanced to the point where it may well be the single most important indirect health effect of the accident. Contamination outside the former Soviet Union was largely confined to Europe, where it was extremely patchy and variable. Contamination in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere was insignificant. The health effects in the General Population in the Contaminated Regions in the former USSR and Europe, are predicted to be low and not discernible. However, there may be subgroups within, for example, the Liquidators, which if they can be identified and followed, may show adverse health effects. Health effects in the rest of the Northern Hemisphere will be inconsequential. (author) 38 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  10. Retroactive epidemiological study of the consequences of the Chernobyl cloud for the populations of Corsica - Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremonesi, Paolo; Vignally, Pascal; Didero, Daniele; Sargentini, Lesia; Troilo, Bianca; Delmonte, Patrizia; Argusti, Alessandra; Zignaigo, Sara; Pitidis, Alessio; Sartini, Marina

    2013-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the knowledge on health consequences of the Chernobyl accident in Europe (quantities of iodine-131 deposited in different countries, evolution of thyroid cancers and evolution of cancer diagnosis programs), this report examines the relationship between the variations of thyroidal pathologies and the level of exposure to the Chernobyl cloud. The methodology and peculiarities of this study are discussed. The main results obtained for women and men in Europe are briefly presented in terms of occurrence of hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers. Then, the report addresses the specific case of Corsica: methodology and peculiarities (structural and circumstances-related limitations), discussion of the results obtained from endocrinology medical files, discussion with respect to pathologies (hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis and thyroid cancers). A distinction is made between mountain and seaside territories. The next part addresses the consequences the Chernobyl cloud fallouts for children in terms of thyroidal pathologies, of cohorts of children born in 1986 and in 1989, of acute leukaemia, and of prenatal mortality due to congenital malformations

  11. Antenatal exposure following the Chernobyl accident: neuropsychiatric aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igumnov, S.A.; Drozdovitch, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Ten years follow-up investigation of intellectual development of 250 persons from Belarus exposed in utero following the Chernobyl accident and a control group of 250 persons from non- and slightly contaminated regions has been conducted. Neuropsychiatry and psychological examinations were performed among persons of both groups at the age of 6-7, 0-12, and 15-16 years. Mean antenatal external dose among persons of exposed group is 10 ± 13 mGy, maximal dose - 91 mGy. No statistically significant correlation was found in exposed group between individual thyroid dose as well as individual antenatal external dose and IQ at the age of 6-7 years, 10-12 years, and 15-16 years

  12. Immunological status of different categories of population after Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumak, A.A.; Bazyka, D.A.; Minchenko, J.N.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation of immune status of the victims of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) accident irradiated in different doses was performed. Acute postradiation immunodeficiency in heavily exposed persons was changed in 6-24 months to the 5-7 year period of restitution and the latter was succeeded by normalization of CD3+, CD+, CD11+ cell count and serum IgG and IgA content in certain patients, while the others revealed immunologic deficiency of the mixed type. HLA-antigenic combinations connected to the increased radiosensitivity were found out. Elaboration of in vitro tests for surface antigens expression in response to thymic peptides allowed to make adequate immunocorrection if needed. (author)

  13. Dose estimates in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, Orihiko; Homma, Toshimitsu; Iijima, Toshinori; Midorikawa, Yuji.

    1988-02-01

    Estimates have been made of the maximum individual doses and the collective doses in Japan following the Chernobyl reactor accident. Based on the measured data of ground deposition and radionuclide concentrations in air, raw milk, milk on sale and leafy vegetables, the doses from some significant radionuclides were calculated for 5 typical exposure pathways; cloudshine, groundshine, inhalation, ingestion of milk and leafy vegetables. The maximum effective dose equivalents for hypothetical individuals were calculated to be 1.8 mrem for adults, 3.7 mrem for children and 6.0 mrem for infants. The collective effective dose equivalent in Japan was estimated to be 5.8 x 10 4 man · rem; 0.50 mrem of the average dose per capita. (author)

  14. Samplings of airborne particulates for granulometric determinations following Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroni, G.; Calamosca, M.; Zaiacomo, T. de; Gragnani, R.; Michetti, I.; Testa, L.

    1988-01-01

    Particle size distributions and concentrations of the radioactive aerosol that arose from the Chernobyl accident were determined in Bologna and Rome. The activity Median Aerodynamic Diameters (AMAD) of Ru-103, Te-132, Cs-134 and Cs-137, determined by means of impactors, were in the range 0.8 - 1.4 μm with Geometric Standard Deviations (Sg) in the range 1.6 - 3.7. Lower AMAD and higher Sg values were found for I-131 compared to those for the other radioisotopes. The gaseous fraction of I-131 was 60-70% of the total aerosuspended activity of this isotope. A comparison between direct measurement data concerning internal contamination on volunteers and values derived from air contamination data shows that in Bologna, during May 1986, almost all the contamination was due to inhalation. The data are unable to distinguish between different inhalation models

  15. The Chernobyl reactor accident and how it changed the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelt, K.

    1986-01-01

    After expressing his sympathy for the Chernobyl victims the author points out that in particular the Germans are tending to show emotions of a preponderantly negative character, that is emotions hampering a logical way of thinking and nourishing ideologies. He adds that the majority of the Western German population has not succeeded in seizing the real implications of radioactivity. Their ignorance results in a growing disbelief in the competent experts. Politicians therefore cannot but act as go-betweens between expert knowledge and the population. The reactor accident has made nuclear power a central topical subject of discussion in the election campaign. The author expresses his view on the need of giving a new direction to the safety debate by elucidating and illustrating the economic and ecological advantages as well as the safety of nuclear energy. (HSCH) [de

  16. Cancer effects of radiation exposure from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardis, E.

    2005-01-01

    The WHO Expert Groups on Health reviewed a UNSCEAR 2000 report, more recent peer-reviewed scientific literature and scientific meeting presentations, reports and statistics prepared by National authorities. The outcome of this study are scientific consensus on health impact from radiation to date and identification of research gaps. Recommendations for health care programmes 20 years after: No clearly demonstrated increase in the incidence of cancers (other than thyroid) that can be attributed to radiation from the accident. Increases in incidence of cancers have been reported, but no association with radiation dose much of the increase appears to be due to other factors, including improvements in diagnosis, reporting and registration. Recent findings indicate a possible doubling of leukaemia risk among Chernobyl liquidators above 100 mGy and an increase in the incidence of pre-menopausal breast cancer in the very most contaminated districts, which appear to be related to radiation dose. These need to be further investigated

  17. Lichens as biomonitors for radiocaesium following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloof, J.E.; Wolterbeek, B.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Caesium-137 resulting from the Chernobyl accident was monitored in lichens in The Netherlands. Caesium-137 activity in Parmelia sulcata ranged from 550 to 6100 (average 2500) Bq kg -1 dry weight. The similarity between the lichen data (geographical 137 Cs activity gradients and radioactivity values) and data of wet and dry deposition, indicate the validity of lichen monitoring of atmospheric 137 Cs. The ratio between the 137 Cs activity per unit lichen dry weight (kg) of Parmelia sulcata and the 137 Cs activity deposited per unit surface area (m 2 ) was approximately one. Measurements of 137 Cs accumulation in Xanthoria parietina show that the activity concentration could be expressed both on a dry weight and on a contour surface area basis. The determination of the biological half-life of 137 Cs in lichens was shown to be subject to sources of error such as growth and non-atmospheric/indirect 137 Cs influxes. (Author)

  18. Radioecological impact of the Chernobyl accident on continental aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foulquier, L.; Baudin-Jaulent, Y.

    1989-09-01

    The pooling of knowledge on water, sediments, aquatic plants and fish allowed an evaluation report to be drawn up on the impact of Chernobyl accident and to extract data on the mechanisms in the transfer of certain radionuclides in rivers and lakes. The radioactivity is related to the level of deposits, essentially, in wet form. Differences in radioactivity levels are noted owing to the distance from Chernobyl, the atmospheric streams and pluviometric conditions. The most commonly detected radionuclides are: 131 I, 132 Te, 134+137 Cs, 103+106 Ru, 110m Ag and, to a lesser degree, 89 Sr and 90 Sr. Very quickly, 137 Cs becomes dominant. The peak of radioactivity in rivers occurred very soon after the accident. It was of short duration and the decrease in radioactivity was very quick due to dilution. In lakes, this decay was much slower. In sediment, the radioactivity varied in time owing either to new deposits or to the migration of those deposits downstream in the river basins. The radionuclides present in fallout can be quickly detected using aquatic plant. In certain areas, the concentration of 137 Cs increased 200-fold in a few hours. In fish, the presence of 134+137 Cs, 103+106 Ru, 110m Ag and 90 Sr are noted. The only radionuclide of which fixing dynamics can be followed is 137 Cs. River fish was only subjected to water and food with a high radioactivity for a very short time and their 137 Cs concentration remained constantly low. The effective half-life of 137 Cs observed in situ for fish is from 100 to 200 days. For lacustrine fish, we observe differences in radiocontamination, according to the regions (from 48,000 Bq.kg -1 w.w., in Sweden, to 110 in the North of Corsica or the Netherlands), in lakes (in Northern Italy, 137 Cs concentrations in fish are higher in small lakes), and species

  19. Gestations and parturitions after the Chernobyl reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeltz, J.; Hoeltz, A.; Potthoff, P.; Brachner, A.; Grosche, B.; Hinz, G.; Kaul, A.; Martignoni, K.; Roedler, H.D.; Schwarz, E.; Tsavachidis, C.

    1991-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating courses of gestation and parturitions in the light of the Chernobyl reactor accident and at comparing the results obtained with those from a study carried out in 1981/82 on factors assumed to have a role in pre-term deliveries. In this connection, attempts were made to find out whether regional increases in radiation caused by the accident and the general uneasiness arising from this fact could be linked to higher rates of infants being born prematurely. A three-step procedure was followed for the survey, in which Step One hat the purpose of compiling basic data on the gestations and parturitions examined using information from patient records. In Step Two a biogramme was established on the basis of questionnaires filled in by pregnant women. Step Three was included for a post-partum ascertainment of material risk factors and data of paturition in women participating in the Step Two investigations. The information obtained from patient records pointed to no differences in the percentage shares of premature deliveries between the individual exposure regions examined, nor could any such discrepancies be revealed on the basis of the biogramme and post-partum survey. In areas showing elevated levels of radioactivity as a result of the Chernobyl fallout the proportion of women claiming to have fears about ecological afflictions invariably was 4 to 9% larger than that determined for areas, where radiation exposure remained within the range generally accepted as normal. Statistically significant increases in the percentage shares of premature deliveries could, however, be proven for groups of women showing additional risk factors other than radiation exposure. (orig./MG) [de

  20. The Chernobyl – Thirty Years After The Post – Accidental Radiological – Hygienic and Medical Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Onishchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the result of the Chernobyl NPP accident more than 200 thousand square kilometers of the European territories were contaminated by Cs-137 in the amount of above 37 kBq/m2 (1 Ci/km2 . Belorussia, Russia and Ukraine amount up to 70% of this entire affected area. More than 600 000 people were engaged in the accidental cleanup operations, 340000 were evacuated or relocated within 1986-1991. The early stage evacuation efficacy is confirmed by the absence of acute radiation syndrome among the population and by the prevented collective dose which amounts to no less than 10 000 man/Sv. The effective measure to reduce the internal radiation dose to the population at the early accidental stage was introduction of maximum tentative permissive levels of radionuclide content in the foodstuffs.Among the identified post -accident medical consequences of the Chernobyl is the radiation syndrome found in 134 emergency cleanup workers within the first 24 hours of the accident’s development. Out of that number, 28 people died within the first four months, 19 people died before 2006. The accident’s liquidators developed radiation -induced leukemia ( the attributive risk value is 45-60% . People exposed to high radiation doses display the statistically significant 18% morbidity increase of all types of solid cancers at the doses above 150 mSv. There is the statistically significant information indicating the increased amount of thyroid cancer morbidity among those who were just children and teenagers at the time of the accident. The adverse psychological consequences are accounted for not just the fear of overexposure but also for the disturbance of the habitual lifestyle especially mindful of the forced relocation.The longterm protection measures, radionuclide decay and selfcleaning of the contaminated areas resulted in the drastic reduction of the population dose in the radioactively contaminated territories. In 2015, only in some settlements of the Briansk

  1. 'Twenty-five years after Chernobyl accident: Safety for the future'. 2011 National report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Tetsuji; Shindo, Mahito

    2016-02-01

    This is the Japanese translation of the Ukrainian National Report 'Twenty-five Years after Chernobyl Accident: Safety for the Future', published by the Ministry of Ukraine of Emergencies in 2011 (in Ukrainian and English). This Japanese translation is published as an outcome of the KAKENHI research project on liquidations of Nuclear Disasters in the World (headed by Tetsuji Imanaka), in which Shindo participates, and as a KUR report of the Research Reactor Institute at Kyoto University. The objective of publishing this Japanese translation is to provide basic information on how to overcome the consequences of a large-scale Nuclear Disaster for the wide range of public, including decision-makers and administrative staff. By doing so, this publication aims at invigorating discussions over measures to be applied for overcoming the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster (started in 11th March 2011 at Fukushima), and at forming proper schemes to minimise the consequences on current and future generations. The original text of this translation tightly summarised the whole picture of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, which had been the only large-scale Nuclear Disaster until 11th March 2011. More importantly, it describes all sorts of measures and schemes taken in Ukraine from 1986 to 2011 in order to overcome the consequences of the Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster, in a quite well structured manner. In other words, from the contents of this text, Japanese readers are able to learn a lot about the very problems currently facing with. Therefore, I wish many Japanese readers will read this text, and utilise the knowledge written here effectively to overcome the consequences of the TEPCO Nuclear Disaster. (J.P.N.)

  2. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baloga, V I [ed.

    2006-07-01

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted.

  3. Short and medium effects on the environment of Valencia, Spain of the Chernobyl nuclear plant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.; Navarro, E.; Senent, F.; Baeza, A.; Miro, C.; Rio, M. del

    1991-01-01

    As a consequence of the 26 April 1986 accident at the Chernobyl nuclear plant, a large amount of radioactivity was released into the atmosphere. The radioactive plume formed could be detected in practically the whole of the Northern Hemisphere a few days later. The zone most affected by the radioactive cloud over Spain was that of the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic Islands. In this paper, the authors examine the level of the radioactive contamination reached in various receptive media in Valencia, such as air, dry-fallout, water, soil, grass and milk samples collected in Valencia immediately after the accident. The activity levels are compared with those found during 1964 and 1965 due to the Chinese nuclear atmospheric explosions. The levels of contamination presented by four species of migratory birds which spend the winter in this area is analyzed. Lastly, an estimate is made of the absorbed dose

  4. Radioactive contamination in the Netherlands caused by the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    In this report of the Dutch Coordination Commission for Measurements of Radioactivity and Xenobiotic matters (CCRX) a detailed survey is presented of the spread of radioactive material over Europe as a consequence of the reactor accident in Chernobyl and of measurements of the contamination of the physical environment, food and human people in the Netherlands. The radiation burden for the Dutch people and the effects upon public health are estimated and a measuring program is introduced for monitoring the effects of the reactor accident upon the Dutch people. Finally a number of requirements are discussed on the base of the acquired experiments, to which future watching programs should satisfy. 24 refs.; 32 figs.; 16 tabs

  5. 20 years after Chernobyl Accident. Future outlook. National Report of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloga, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    The scale of the Chernobyl catastrophe - the most severe man made nuclear accident in the history of mankind - is well known to both scientists and politicians worldwide. The basic causes of the catastrophe were as follows: Conduction an incompletely and incorrectly prepared electrical experiment; The low professional level of operators, and of the NPP management and the officials of the Ministry of Electrification as a whole in the area of NPP safety; Insufficient safety level of the graphite-uranium reactor RBMK-1000; Constructive faults RBMK-1000; Personnel mistakes. The report describes and reviews the actions of the governments of the USSR, Ukraine, and the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine; the activities of scientists in elimination of the accident consequences; and elimination of the additional experience gained over the past years. Mistakes made during these activities are highlighted

  6. Analyzing Cs-137 and Cs-134 concentration in mosses samples in Campania region. Italy after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, C.; Aebischer, M.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused an exceptional relapse of radioactive material. The consequent fallout it in several European countries, including Italy. Term and height of aeriform effluent radioactivity admitted into the atmosphere, the distance of place of origin and the variability of meteorologic qualifications existence (wind, rain, etc...), determined the level of contamination of radioactivity in the air with a consequent deposition of soil much variable depending on space and time. Following the Chernobyl accident the situation of artificial deposition in Italy is considerably changed. In order to obtain arrange a new map of contamination of radioactivity in the soil. All over Italian territory has been organized radioecological campaign to arrange a new zero point. (author)

  7. 17 years after the Chernobyl' accident: problems and decisions. Proceedings of the International scientific and practical conference; 17 let posle Chernobylya: problemy i resheniya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Mezhdunarodnoj nauchno-prakticheskoj konferentsii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevchuk, V E; Gurachevskij, V L; Kolbanov, V V

    2003-04-01

    The book contains proceedings of the scientific conference on difference medical and biological problems of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident, as well as on the problems of rehabilitation of the contaminated territories and ecosystems.

  8. Fifteen years of the cuban program, with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Omar; Medina, Julio

    2005-01-01

    The Cuban Chernobyl Program arrived to the 15th anniversary in March 2005. This program was designed to offers specialised medical attention and to develop a rehabilitation plan with children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident. More than 21 500 children and adults had been assisted in the program up to the moment, with a significant set of medical procedures done. Dosimetric and biomedic research had been also carried out as part of the program. The most significant medical attention activities include the treatment of children with haematological disorders, including 120 leukaemia, bone marrow transplants, and the treatment of endocrine and cancer diseases. The dosimetric studies allow made a data base with information on internal 137Cs contamination, internal, external and total doses, children living location, and its contamination by 137Cs, and other significant information for radiological impact evaluation in more than 8000 children. The behaviour of all the medical information of the program in relation to the contamination of the land and the internal contamination of the children was analysed using this database. The program has accumulated an experience of interest for physicians, psychologists and in general persons interested in Chernobyl consequences. This paper present a summary of the main results obtained in the program

  9. The Chernobyl accident, the male to female ratio at birth and birth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births - M/T) has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by ¹³⁷Cs) were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation). The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  10. THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT, THE MALE TO FEMALE RATIO AT BIRTH AND BIRTH RATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Grech

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The male:female ratio at birth (male births divided by total live births – M/T has been shown to increase in response to ionizing radiation due to gender-biased fetal loss, with excess female loss. M/T rose sharply in 1987 in central-eastern European countries following the Chernobyl accident in 1986. This study analyses M/T and births for the former Soviet Republics and for the countries most contaminated by the event. Methods: Annual birth data was obtained from the World Health Organisation. The countries with the highest exposure levels (by 137Cs were identified from an official publication of the International Atomic Energy Agency. All of the former Soviet states were also analysed and the periods before and after 1986 were compared. Results: Except for the Baltic States, all regions in the former USSR showed a significant rise in M/T from 1986. There were significant rises in M/T in the three most exposed (Belarus, Ukraine and the Russian Federation. The birth deficit in the post-Soviet states for the ten years following Chernobyl was estimated at 2,072,666, of which 1,087,924 are accounted by Belarus and Ukraine alone. Discussion: Chernobyl has resulted in the loss of millions of births, a process that has involved female even more than male fetuses. This is another and oft neglected consequence of widespread population radiation contamination.

  11. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Rumyantseva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among mentioned group.

  12. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ORGANIC MENTAL DISORDERS OF VASCULAR ORIGIN WITH PARTICIPANTS OF THE LIQUIDATION OF THE CHERNOBYL ACCIDENT

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Rumyantseva; T. M. Levina; O. V. Chinkina

    2011-01-01

    The result of the carried investigation of participants of liquidation of Chernobyl accident consequences, suffering from organic disease of a brain of a vascular origin with mental infringements, and patients with the similar pathology, not exposed with radiating influence, revealed a number of the сlinico- psychopathological and paraclinical peculiarities testifying heavier current of disease among liquidators, forming a chronic ischemic condition of a brain, and the atrophy phenomena among...

  13. The experience gives the Cuban program with children gives territories affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, O.; Llanes, R.

    1998-01-01

    From 1990 it works in Cuba a program destined to offer medical attention you specialize and to develop a plan sanatoria gives rehabilitation with children provided the different areas affected by the contamination radioactive resultant to the Chernobyl accident

  14. Distribution of Thyroid Cancer in the Eastern Part of Turkey 27 Years After the Chernobyl Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Serap Baydur; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Gucer, Hasan; Pergel, Ahmet; Bedir, Recep; Aydin, Ibrahim; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Sahin, Osman Zikrullah

    2013-12-01

    The Chernobyl accident caused widespread effects across Europe and huge areas where radiocontaminated. The effects of the Chernobyl accident on thyroid cancer have been investigated in most European countries. According to the data of the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, the eastern part of the Black Sea region was the most radiocontaminated area in Turkey at the time of Chernobyl accident. We therefore aimed to examine the data of thyroid cancers at our center, Rize city which is located in the eastern Black Sea region. This retrospective study included the patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer at our center between January 2008 and May 2012. Pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy materials were reviewed. We evaluated patients' age, gender, size of the primary tumor (all sizes, Chernobyl accident.

  15. A compendium of the measurements related to the Chernobyl nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deworm, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of radiation measurements performed in Belgium after the Chernobyl accident are presented. Contamination of air, soil, milk, grass, fruit, vegetables and water is studied. The committed effective dose equivalents for the population are estimated. (MCB)

  16. Economic damage and state policy on the overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP catastrophe consequences. Chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoplya, E.F.; Rolevich, I.V.

    1998-01-01

    The economic consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident for the Republic of Belarus are given. The damage, taking into account the 30-years period needed for its overcoming, is estimated to be 235 billion US$ that is equal to 32 annual budgets of the republic of 1985. The losses connected with the deterioration of population health, damage incurred in industry and social sphere, agriculture, building complex, transport and communication, housing, with contamination of raw, mineral, land, water, forest and other resources are shown. The main directions of the state and legislative bodies activity on overcoming of the Chernobyl NPP accident consequences are directed on realization of complex of measures on maximum decreasing the radiation exposure dose; providing safety of people's health at the expense of medical preventive measures, improvement of their health, social insurance and resettlement from the zones where the safe living criteria are not observed; providing safe living conditions in regions subjected to radioactive contamination; rise of population life quality in these regions; scientific research of the problems connected with radiation influence on ecosystem, etc. The medical care and social protection systems of the affected population are describe

  17. Chernobyl ten years after

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The accident in the fourth reactor plant in Chernobyl in Ukraine occurred ten years years ago, caused the death of 31 people while the health consequences have turned out to be difficult to assess. This review describes the accident, its consequences and effects to health, studies carried out at the present state as well as the comparison with the other accidents and disaster. (author)

  18. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 2. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effect in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of acitivities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  19. Chernobyl'-90. Reports of the 1. International conference on biological and radioecological aspects of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects. V. 2, part 1. Radiation sanitary. Radiobiology. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senin, E.V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of works done in 1988-1990 within the ecology part of the complex program dealing with elimination of the Chernobyl' NPP accident effects in regions of Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, as well as the data of foreign specialists on the Chernobyl' radioactive fallout effects in many countries are analyzed. Comparative analysis of the methods, means and results of activities dealing with accident effect eliminations on South Urals and at the Chernobyl' NPP is given

  20. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    This project reviewed the literature on the economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system before closure; determined needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system; and gathered data that might be useful for the needed revisions. 8 refs., 1 tab