WorldWideScience

Sample records for consequence analysis modifications

  1. Consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: Provide a realistic assessment of consequences; Account for plant and site-specific characteristics; Adjust accident release characteristics to account for results of plant-containment analysis; Produce conditional risk curves for each of five health effects; and Estimate uncertainties

  2. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Modification of models resulting from addition of effects of exposure to alpha-emitting radionuclides: Revision 1, Part 2, Scientific bases for health effects models, Addendum 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.; Gilbert, E.S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysis{close_quotes}, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled {open_quotes}Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,{close_quotes} was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model.

  3. Consequences of Modification of Photosystem Stoichiometry and Amount in Cyanobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermaas, Willem [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2016-12-13

    The proposed research seeks to address two interconnected, important questions that impact photosynthetic processes and that reflect key differences between the photosynthetic systems of cyanobacteria and plants or algae. The first question is what are the reasons and consequences of the high photosystem I / photosystem II (PS I/PS II) ratio in many cyanobacteria, vs. a ratio that is close to unity in many plants and algae. The corresponding hypothesis is that most of PS I functions in cyclic electron transport, and that reduction in PS I will result primarily in a shortage of ATP rather than reducing power. This hypothesis will be tested by reducing the amount of PS I by changing the promoter region of the psaAB operon in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and generating a range of mutants with different PS I content and thereby different PS I/PS II ratios, with some of the mutants having a PS II/PS I ratio closer to that in plants. The resulting mutants will be probed in terms of their growth rates, electron transfer rates, and P700 redox kinetics. A second question relates to a Mehler-type reaction catalyzed by two flavoproteins, Flv1 and Flv3, that accept electrons from PS I and that potentially function as an electron safety valve leading to no useful purpose of the photosynthesis-generated electrons. The hypothesis to be tested is that Flv1 and Flv3 use the electrons for useful purposes such as cyclic electron flow around PS I. This hypothesis will be tested by analysis of a mutant strain lacking flv3, the gene for one of the flavoproteins. This research is important for a more detailed understanding of the consequences of photosystem stoichiometry and amounts in a living system. Such an understanding is critical for not only insights in the regulatory systems of the organism but also to guide the development of biological or bio-hybrid systems for solar energy conversion into fuels.

  4. Greenhouse effect: analysis, incertitudes, consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrier, A.

    1991-01-01

    A general presentation of climatic changes due to greenhouse effect with their consequences is analysed. After a schematic description of this effect a simplified atmospheric model (box model) is proposed. This model integrates the main feedback effects and quantifies them. The effects of astronomic and atmospheric factors on climatic changes are analyzed and compared with classical paleoclimatic results. This study shows the need of good global modelization to evaluate long term quantification of climatic greenhouse effects according to the main time lag of the several biospheric boxes. An overview of biologic and agronomic consequences is given to promote new research subjects and to orientate protecting and conservative biospheric actions [fr

  5. Proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Matthias; Jensen, Ole N

    2003-01-01

    Post-translational modifications modulate the activity of most eukaryote proteins. Analysis of these modifications presents formidable challenges but their determination generates indispensable insight into biological function. Strategies developed to characterize individual proteins are now...... systematically applied to protein populations. The combination of function- or structure-based purification of modified 'subproteomes', such as phosphorylated proteins or modified membrane proteins, with mass spectrometry is proving particularly successful. To map modification sites in molecular detail, novel...

  6. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HEY, B.E.

    2000-01-01

    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  7. Consequence Analysis of the MHTGR and PBMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Yang, Joon Eon; Lee, Won Jae

    2006-01-01

    The probabilistic safety assessment of the VHTR design provides a systematic analysis to identify and quantify all risks that the plant imposes to the operators, general public, and the environment and thus demonstrates compliance to regulatory risk criteria. During the preliminary conceptual design of VHTR in Korea, both block- and pebble type-fuel are considered. Therefore, the consequence analysis of VHTR using both types of fuel were made in order to obtain the basic insights for the classification of events and the formation of the PSA framework of the VHTR

  8. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO₂ and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Meenakshi; George, Linda A; Shandas, Vivek; Rosenstiel, Todd N

    2017-07-10

    Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC) shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants-and thus human health-is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO₂ is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO₂ observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA), and the spatial variation of NO₂ with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO 2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO₂ and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO₂, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO₂ associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4-12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and -1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  9. Assessing the Potential of Land Use Modification to Mitigate Ambient NO2 and Its Consequences for Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Rao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how local land use and land cover (LULC shapes intra-urban concentrations of atmospheric pollutants—and thus human health—is a key component in designing healthier cities. Here, NO2 is modeled based on spatially dense summer and winter NO2 observations in Portland-Hillsboro-Vancouver (USA, and the spatial variation of NO2 with LULC investigated using random forest, an ensemble data learning technique. The NO2 random forest model, together with BenMAP, is further used to develop a better understanding of the relationship among LULC, ambient NO2 and respiratory health. The impact of land use modifications on ambient NO2, and consequently on respiratory health, is also investigated using a sensitivity analysis. We find that NO2 associated with roadways and tree-canopied areas may be affecting annual incidence rates of asthma exacerbation in 4–12 year olds by +3000 per 100,000 and −1400 per 100,000, respectively. Our model shows that increasing local tree canopy by 5% may reduce local incidences rates of asthma exacerbation by 6%, indicating that targeted local tree-planting efforts may have a substantial impact on reducing city-wide incidence of respiratory distress. Our findings demonstrate the utility of random forest modeling in evaluating LULC modifications for enhanced respiratory health.

  10. Consequence analysis for nuclear reactors, Yongbyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Taewook; Jae, Moosung

    2017-01-01

    Since the Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents in 2011, there have been an increased public anxiety about the safety of nuclear power plants in Korea. The lack of safeguards and facility aging issues at the Yongbyon nuclear facilities have increased doubts. In this study, the consequence analysis for the 5-MWe graphite-moderated reactor in North Korea was performed. Various accident scenarios including accidents at the interim spent fuel pool in the 5-MWe reactor have been developed and evaluated quantitatively. Since data on the design and safety system of nuclear facilities are currently insufficient, the release fractions were set by applying the alternative source terms made for utilization in the analysis of a severe accident by integrating the results of studies of severe accidents occurred before. The calculation results show the early fatality zero deaths and latent cancer fatality about only 13 deaths in Seoul. Thus, actual impacts of a radiological release will be psychological in terms of downwind perceptions and anxiety on the part of potentially exposed populations. Even considering the simultaneous accident occurrence in both 5-MWe graphite-moderated reactor and 100-MWt light water reactor, the consequence analysis using the MACCS2 code shows no significant damage to people in South Korea. (author)

  11. 40 CFR 68.22 - Offsite consequence analysis parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.22 Offsite consequence analysis parameters. (a) Endpoints. For analyses of offsite consequences, the following endpoints shall be...

  12. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1993-05-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify, through the use of models, the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The Reactor Safety Study provided the basis for most of the earlier estimates related to these health effects. Subsequent efforts by NRC-supported groups resulted in improved health effects models that were published in the report entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Consequence Analysisclose quotes, NUREG/CR-4214, 1985 and revised further in the 1989 report NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2. The health effects models presented in the 1989 NUREG/CR-4214 report were developed for exposure to low-linear energy transfer (LET) (beta and gamma) radiation based on the best scientific information available at that time. Since the 1989 report was published, two addenda to that report have been prepared to (1) incorporate other scientific information related to low-LET health effects models and (2) extend the models to consider the possible health consequences of the addition of alpha-emitting radionuclides to the exposure source term. The first addendum report, entitled open-quotes Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis, Modifications of Models Resulting from Recent Reports on Health Effects of Ionizing Radiation, Low LET Radiation, Part 2: Scientific Bases for Health Effects Models,close quotes was published in 1991 as NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 2, Addendum 1. This second addendum addresses the possibility that some fraction of the accident source term from an operating nuclear power plant comprises alpha-emitting radionuclides. Consideration of chronic high-LET exposure from alpha radiation as well as acute and chronic exposure to low-LET beta and gamma radiations is a reasonable extension of the health effects model

  13. Consequences for central nervous system functional state of exposure to ionizing radiation modification with antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukalenko, Je.V.; Varets'kij, V.V.; Rakochyi, O.G.; Dmyitryijeva, Yi.R.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: to estimate the pattern of ionizing radiation effects modification by antioxidants using central nervous system functional state indices. The studies were carried out using 84 rats. Beta-carotene and alpha-tocopherol were found to significantly improve conditioned activity indices level of the animals exposed to ionizing radiation and emotional-pain stress

  14. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O.; Camacho, Esteban F.; Bruno, Hernan R.; Boero, Norma L.

    1999-01-01

    The mixture of Al-U 3 O 8 is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor

  15. A generalizable platform for interrogating target- and signal-specific consequences of electrophilic modifications in redox-dependent cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Yu; Haegele, Joseph A; Disare, Michael T; Lin, Qishan; Aye, Yimon

    2015-05-20

    Despite the known propensity of small-molecule electrophiles to react with numerous cysteine-active proteins, biological actions of individual signal inducers have emerged to be chemotype-specific. To pinpoint and quantify the impacts of modifying one target out of the whole proteome, we develop a target-protein-personalized "electrophile toolbox" with which specific intracellular targets can be selectively modified at a precise time by specific reactive signals. This general methodology, T-REX (targetable reactive electrophiles and oxidants), is established by (1) constructing a platform that can deliver a range of electronic and sterically different bioactive lipid-derived signaling electrophiles to specific proteins in cells; (2) probing the kinetics of targeted delivery concept, which revealed that targeting efficiency in cells is largely driven by initial on-rate of alkylation; and (3) evaluating the consequences of protein-target- and small-molecule-signal-specific modifications on the strength of downstream signaling. These data show that T-REX allows quantitative interrogations into the extent to which the Nrf2 transcription factor-dependent antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is activated by selective electrophilic modifications on Keap1 protein, one of several redox-sensitive regulators of the Nrf2-ARE axis. The results document Keap1 as a promiscuous electrophile-responsive sensor able to respond with similar efficiencies to discrete electrophilic signals, promoting comparable strength of Nrf2-ARE induction. T-REX is also able to elicit cell activation in cases in which whole-cell electrophile flooding fails to stimulate ARE induction prior to causing cytotoxicity. The platform presents a previously unavailable opportunity to elucidate the functional consequences of small-molecule-signal- and protein-target-specific electrophilic modifications in an otherwise unaffected cellular background.

  16. Apply Functional Modelling to Consequence Analysis in Supervision Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xinxin; Lind, Morten; Gola, Giulio

    2013-01-01

    This paper will first present the purpose and goals of applying functional modelling approach to consequence analysis by adopting Multilevel Flow Modelling (MFM). MFM Models describe a complex system in multiple abstraction levels in both means-end dimension and whole-part dimension. It contains...... consequence analysis to practical or online applications in supervision systems. It will also suggest a multiagent solution as the integration architecture for developing tools to facilitate the utilization results of functional consequence analysis. Finally a prototype of the multiagent reasoning system...... causal relations between functions and goals. A rule base system can be developed to trace the causal relations and perform consequence propagations. This paper will illustrate how to use MFM for consequence reasoning by using rule base technology and describe the challenges for integrating functional...

  17. 40 CFR 68.165 - Offsite consequence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Offsite consequence analysis. 68.165 Section 68.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.165 Offsite consequence...

  18. Use of probabilistic studies in the analysis of modifications of French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gros, G.; Milhem, J.M.

    1985-11-01

    The 900 MWe water pressurized reactors have been designed on deterministic basis. It appeared that some safety systems had a probability of failure non negligible and that their total failure could involve, in a short-term, severe consequences. This situation led Electricite de France to propose complementary measures (control-procedures, and associated modifications). To judge the efficiency of such measures, the safety authorities thought it was advisable to rest on probabilistic studies which have been developed by the Department of Safety Analysis of the C.E.A. The contribution of such studies, in the choice of modifications by information on the weak points and in the judgement on the efficiency of these modifications by probabilistic estimation of meltdown, is illustrated with the example of electric power supplies [fr

  19. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barends, D.M.; Oldenhof, M.T.; Vredenbregt, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection...... and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring...... of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence...

  20. Hanford Waste Tank Bump Accident and Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BRATZEL, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    This report provides a new evaluation of the Hanford tank bump accident analysis and consequences for incorporation into the Authorization Basis. The analysis scope is for the safe storage of waste in its current configuration in single-shell and double-shell tanks

  1. Modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factor of HFETR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuechun; Deng Caiyu; Li Haitao; Xu Taozhong; Mo Zhengyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the modification and analysis of engineering hot spot factors of HFETR. The new factors are applied in the fuel temperature analysis and the estimated value of the safety allowable operating power of HFETR. The result shows the maximum cladding temperature of the fuel is lower when the new factor are in utilization, and the safety allowable operating power of HFETR if higher, thus providing the economical efficiency of HFETR. (authors)

  2. Genetic analysis of the heparan modification network in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert A; Bülow, Hannes E

    2011-05-13

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are highly modified sugar polymers in multicellular organisms that function in cell adhesion and cellular responses to protein signaling. Functionally distinct, cell type-dependent HS modification patterns arise as the result of a conserved network of enzymes that catalyze deacetylations, sulfations, and epimerizations in specific positions of the sugar residues. To understand the genetic interactions of the enzymes during the HS modification process, we have measured the composition of HS purified from mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. From these measurements we have developed a genetic network model of HS modification. We find the interactions to be highly recursive positive feed-forward and negative feedback loops. Our genetic analyses show that the HS C-5 epimerase hse-5, the HS 2-O-sulfotransferase hst-2, or the HS 6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6 inhibit N-sulfation. In contrast, hse-5 stimulates both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation and, hst-2 and hst-6 inhibit 6-O- and 2-O-sulfation, respectively. The effects of hst-2 and hst-6 on N-sulfation, 6-O-sulfation, and 2-O-sulfation appear largely dependent on hse-5 function. This core of regulatory interactions is further modulated by 6-O-endosulfatase activity (sul-1). 47% of all 6-O-sulfates get removed from HS and this editing process is dependent on hst-2, thereby providing additional negative feedback between 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. These findings suggest that the modification patterns are highly sensitive to the relative composition of the HS modification enzymes. Our comprehensive genetic analysis forms the basis of understanding the HS modification network in metazoans.

  3. Genetic Analysis of the Heparan Modification Network in Caenorhabditis elegans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Robert A.; Bülow, Hannes E.

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfates (HS) are highly modified sugar polymers in multicellular organisms that function in cell adhesion and cellular responses to protein signaling. Functionally distinct, cell type-dependent HS modification patterns arise as the result of a conserved network of enzymes that catalyze deacetylations, sulfations, and epimerizations in specific positions of the sugar residues. To understand the genetic interactions of the enzymes during the HS modification process, we have measured the composition of HS purified from mutant strains of Caenorhabditis elegans. From these measurements we have developed a genetic network model of HS modification. We find the interactions to be highly recursive positive feed-forward and negative feedback loops. Our genetic analyses show that the HS C-5 epimerase hse-5, the HS 2-O-sulfotransferase hst-2, or the HS 6-O-sulfotransferase hst-6 inhibit N-sulfation. In contrast, hse-5 stimulates both 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation and, hst-2 and hst-6 inhibit 6-O- and 2-O-sulfation, respectively. The effects of hst-2 and hst-6 on N-sulfation, 6-O-sulfation, and 2-O-sulfation appear largely dependent on hse-5 function. This core of regulatory interactions is further modulated by 6-O-endosulfatase activity (sul-1). 47% of all 6-O-sulfates get removed from HS and this editing process is dependent on hst-2, thereby providing additional negative feedback between 2-O- and 6-O-sulfation. These findings suggest that the modification patterns are highly sensitive to the relative composition of the HS modification enzymes. Our comprehensive genetic analysis forms the basis of understanding the HS modification network in metazoans. PMID:21454666

  4. Economic Consequence Analysis of Disasters: The ECAT Software Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Adam; Prager, Fynn; Chen, Zhenhua; Chatterjee, Samrat; Wei, Dan; Heatwole, Nathaniel; Warren, Eric

    2017-04-15

    This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.

  5. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis in nuclear accident consequence assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlberg, Olof.

    1989-01-01

    This report contains the results of a four year project in research contracts with the Nordic Cooperation in Nuclear Safety and the National Institute for Radiation Protection. An uncertainty/sensitivity analysis methodology consisting of Latin Hypercube sampling and regression analysis was applied to an accident consequence model. A number of input parameters were selected and the uncertainties related to these parameter were estimated within a Nordic group of experts. Individual doses, collective dose, health effects and their related uncertainties were then calculated for three release scenarios and for a representative sample of meteorological situations. From two of the scenarios the acute phase after an accident were simulated and from one the long time consequences. The most significant parameters were identified. The outer limits of the calculated uncertainty distributions are large and will grow to several order of magnitudes for the low probability consequences. The uncertainty in the expectation values are typical a factor 2-5 (1 Sigma). The variation in the model responses due to the variation of the weather parameters is fairly equal to the parameter uncertainty induced variation. The most important parameters showed out to be different for each pathway of exposure, which could be expected. However, the overall most important parameters are the wet deposition coefficient and the shielding factors. A general discussion of the usefulness of uncertainty analysis in consequence analysis is also given. (au)

  6. Risk analysis of analytical validations by probabilistic modification of FMEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barends, D M; Oldenhof, M T; Vredenbregt, M J; Nauta, M J

    2012-05-01

    Risk analysis is a valuable addition to validation of an analytical chemistry process, enabling not only detecting technical risks, but also risks related to human failures. Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) can be applied, using a categorical risk scoring of the occurrence, detection and severity of failure modes, and calculating the Risk Priority Number (RPN) to select failure modes for correction. We propose a probabilistic modification of FMEA, replacing the categorical scoring of occurrence and detection by their estimated relative frequency and maintaining the categorical scoring of severity. In an example, the results of traditional FMEA of a Near Infrared (NIR) analytical procedure used for the screening of suspected counterfeited tablets are re-interpretated by this probabilistic modification of FMEA. Using this probabilistic modification of FMEA, the frequency of occurrence of undetected failure mode(s) can be estimated quantitatively, for each individual failure mode, for a set of failure modes, and the full analytical procedure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation system for the analysis of the radiological consequences (RASCAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel Martinez, M. J. de

    2011-01-01

    The code currently employed by the Spanish Nuclear power is the IRDAM (Interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model). This code will now be replaced by the RASCAL (Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis) version 4.0. This is a significant improvement in dose calculation for escapes to the atmosphere for radioactive emergencies. The main objective is to highlight the most significant changes introduced in the RASCAL when performing these dose estimates.

  8. Consequence analysis and probabilistic safety analysis of Angra-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, A.C.F.

    1987-07-01

    A methodology for determining the environmental consequences in the site of nuclear power plants, is presented. The methodology obtains as final result the 'S' site matrix, which represents the probabilities of health damage. Two types of healt damages were analysed: the early fatalities and injury. The damages are calculated from the determination of radiation doses which the population in surrounding of the site could be submitted, in the case of severe accident with the core meltdown. The accidents are defined from an initial event, leading to the failure of reactor containment. The results presented the same magnitude order when they were compared with ones obtained in studies of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant. The Angra-1 was adopted as reference reactor and the CRAC-2 computer code was used. (M.C.K.) [pt

  9. The radiological assessment system for consequence analysis - RASCAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Athey, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis, Version 2.1 (RASCAL 2.1) has been developed for use during a response to radiological emergencies. The model estimates doses for comparison with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Protective Action Guides (PAGs) and thresholds for acute health effects. RASCAL was designed to be used by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) personnel who report to the site of a nuclear accident to conduct an independent evaluation of dose and consequence projections and personnel who conduct training and drills on emergency responses. It allows consideration of the dominant aspects of the source term, transport, dose, and consequences. RASCAL consists of three computational tools: ST-DOSE, FM-DOSE, and DECAY. ST-DOSE computes source term, atmospheric transport, and dose to man from accidental airborne releases of radionuclides. The source-term calculations are appropriate for accidents at U.S. power reactors. FM-DOSE computes doses from environmental concentrations of radionuclides in the air and on the ground. DECAY computes radiological decay and daughter in-growth. RASCAL 2.1 is a DOS application that can be run under Windows 3.1 and 95. RASCAL has been the starting point for other accident consequence models, notably INTERRAS, an international version of RASCAL, and HASCAL, an expansion of RASCAL that will model radiological, biological, and chemical accidents

  10. Radiological consequence analysis of a repository for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, J.; Buchheim, B.; Hoop, F.J.

    1982-01-01

    One of the methods under consideration for the disposal of radioactive wastes is emplacement in a repository within deep, continental formations. This paper presents the experience gained in developing a methodology to make an assessment of the radiological consequences both for normal operation and for possible accident situations for a specific repository design in a salt dome at Gorleben in Germany , designed to accommodate all categories of radioactive waste. Radionuclide release scenarios were derived from a systematic analysis of the facility design and proposed operational procedure. Where necessary simple numerical models for such topics as direct radiation exposure from waste containers, release and transport of radionuclides, radiolysis, heat transfer, creep and impact were developed to give a first estimate of the radiological consequences due to radionuclide releases. (author)

  11. [Genotoxic modification of nucleic acid bases and biological consequences of it. Review and prospects of experimental and computational investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltev, V. I.; Bruskov, V. I.; Shuliupina, N. V.; Rein, R.; Shibata, M.; Ornstein, R.; Miller, J.

    1993-01-01

    The review is presented of experimental and computational data on the influence of genotoxic modification of bases (deamination, alkylation, oxidation) on the structure and biological functioning of nucleic acids. Pathways are discussed for the influence of modification on coding properties of bases, on possible errors of nucleic acid biosynthesis, and on configurations of nucleotide mispairs. The atomic structure of nucleic acid fragments with modified bases and the role of base damages in mutagenesis and carcinogenesis are considered.

  12. Civilizing the 'Barbarian': a critical analysis of behaviour modification programmes in forensic psychiatry settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Dave; Murray, Stuart J

    2011-04-01

    Drawing on the works of Erving Goffman and Michel Foucault, this article presents part of the results of a qualitative study conducted in a forensic psychiatry setting. For many years, behaviour modification programmes (BMPs) have been subjected to scrutiny and harsh criticism on the part of researchers, clinicians and professional organizations. Nevertheless, BMPs continue to be in vogue in some 'total' institutions, such as psychiatric hospitals and prisons. Discourse analysis of mute evidence available in situ was used to critically look at behaviour modification programmes. Compelling examples of behaviour modification care plans are used to illustrate our critical analysis and to support our claim that BMPs violate both scientific and ethical norms in the name of doing 'what is best' for the patients. We argue that the continued use of BMPs is not only flawed from a scientific perspective, but constitutes an unethical approach to the management of nursing care for mentally ill offenders. Nurse managers need to be aware that BMPs violate ethical standards in nursing. As a consequence, they should overtly question the use of these approaches in psychiatric nursing. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. An uncertainty analysis using the NRPB accident consequence code Marc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.A.; Crick, M.J.; Simmonds, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes an uncertainty analysis of MARC calculations of the consequences of accidental releases of radioactive materials to atmosphere. A total of 98 parameters describing the transfer of material through the environment to man, the doses received, and the health effects resulting from these doses, was considered. The uncertainties in the numbers of early and late health effects, numbers of people affected by countermeasures, the amounts of food restricted and the economic costs of the accident were estimated. This paper concentrates on the results for early death and fatal cancer for a large hypothetical release from a PWR

  14. Accident consequence calculations for project W-058 safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    This document describes the calculations performed to determine the accident consequences for the W-058 safety analysis. Project W-058 is the replacement cross site transfer system (RCSTS), which is designed to transort liquid waste between the 200 W and 200 E areas. Calculations for RCSTS safety analyses used the same methods as the calculations for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and its supporting calculation notes. Revised analyses were performed for the spray and pool leak accidents since the RCSTS flows and pressures differ from those assumed in the TWRS BIO. Revision 1 of the document incorporates review comments

  15. Uncertainty Analysis of Consequence Management (CM) Data Products.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckert-Gallup, Aubrey Celia [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Cochran, Lainy Dromgoole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kraus, Terrence D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fournier, Sean Donovan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Mark B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schetnan, Richard Reed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Simpson, Matthew D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Okada, Colin E. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Bingham, Avery A. [Remote Sensing Lab. (RSL), Nellis AFB, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and execute methods for characterizing uncertainty in data products that are deve loped and distributed by the DOE Consequence Management (CM) Program. A global approach to this problem is necessary because multiple sources of error and uncertainty from across the CM skill sets contribute to the ultimate p roduction of CM data products. This report presents the methods used to develop a probabilistic framework to characterize this uncertainty and provides results for an uncertainty analysis for a study scenario analyzed using this framework.

  16. Finite element analysis for structural modification and control resonance of a vertical pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia M. El-Gazzar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to evaluate and enhance dynamic performance for a vertical pumping unit. The original electric motor of the pump unit had been replaced by another one different in design and weights. Vibration has been increased greatly after installing the new motor. Consequently, it is necessary to estimate the change in the vibration characteristics owing to the difference in the boundary conditions of the new motor. Measured vibration levels and frequency analysis were dangerous at 1× due to resonance problem. Finite Element Analysis was used to model the motor structure in order to find its natural frequencies and mode shapes. The results confirm that the third natural frequency is very close to 1× operating speed with deviation about 1%. To solve the resonance problem, it was recommended to increase the structure stiffness. The results after modifications confirmed that the overall vibration level decreases by 89%. Keywords: Vibration, Vertical pump, Modal analysis

  17. PERSPECTIVES ON A DOE CONSEQUENCE INPUTS FOR ACCIDENT ANALYSIS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Thoman, D.C.; Lowrie, J.; Keller, A.

    2008-01-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) accident analysis for establishing the required control sets for nuclear facility safety applies a series of simplifying, reasonably conservative assumptions regarding inputs and methodologies for quantifying dose consequences. Most of the analytical practices are conservative, have a technical basis, and are based on regulatory precedent. However, others are judgmental and based on older understanding of phenomenology. The latter type of practices can be found in modeling hypothetical releases into the atmosphere and the subsequent exposure. Often the judgments applied are not based on current technical understanding but on work that has been superseded. The objective of this paper is to review the technical basis for the major inputs and assumptions in the quantification of consequence estimates supporting DOE accident analysis, and to identify those that could be reassessed in light of current understanding of atmospheric dispersion and radiological exposure. Inputs and assumptions of interest include: Meteorological data basis; Breathing rate; and Inhalation dose conversion factor. A simple dose calculation is provided to show the relative difference achieved by improving the technical bases

  18. DYNAMIC HYBRIDS UNDER SOLVENCY II: RISK ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION POSSIBILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Maier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the new and standardized European system of supervisory called Solvency II. In essence, asymmetric distribution of information between policyholder and insurer triggered this new regulation which aims at better protecting policyholders. Its three-pillar model is about to challenge both, insurers as well as policyholders. The first pillar includes quantitative aspects, the second pillar contains qualitative aspects and the third pillar comprises market transparency and reporting obligations. Underwriting risks, the default risk of a bank and market risks can be identified for the dynamic hybrid. Solvency II covers all these risks in the first pillar and insurers shall deposit sufficient risk-bearing capital. In our analysis, we first identify the dynamic hybrid specific risks under the Solvency II regime und then develop product modifications to reduce this risk.

  19. The concept of validation of numerical models for consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Audun; Paulsen Husted, Bjarne; Njå, Ove

    2014-01-01

    Numerical models such as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are increasingly used in life safety studies and other types of analyses to calculate the effects of fire and explosions. The validity of these models is usually established by benchmark testing. This is done to quantitatively measure the agreement between the predictions provided by the model and the real world represented by observations in experiments. This approach assumes that all variables in the real world relevant for the specific study are adequately measured in the experiments and in the predictions made by the model. In this paper the various definitions of validation for CFD models used for hazard prediction are investigated to assess their implication for consequence analysis in a design phase. In other words, how is uncertainty in the prediction of future events reflected in the validation process? The sources of uncertainty are viewed from the perspective of the safety engineer. An example of the use of a CFD model is included to illustrate the assumptions the analyst must make and how these affect the prediction made by the model. The assessments presented in this paper are based on a review of standards and best practice guides for CFD modeling and the documentation from two existing CFD programs. Our main thrust has been to assess how validation work is performed and communicated in practice. We conclude that the concept of validation adopted for numerical models is adequate in terms of model performance. However, it does not address the main sources of uncertainty from the perspective of the safety engineer. Uncertainty in the input quantities describing future events, which are determined by the model user, outweighs the inaccuracies in the model as reported in validation studies. - Highlights: • Examine the basic concept of validation applied to models for consequence analysis. • Review standards and guides for validation of numerical models. • Comparison of the validation

  20. Accident consequence calculations for project W-058 safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Keuren, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Accident consequence analyses have been performed for Project W-058, the Replacement Cross Site Transfer System. using the assumption and analysis techniques developed for the Tank Remediation Waste system Basis for Interim Operation. most potential accident involving the FISTS are bounded by the TWRS BIO analysis. However, the spray leak and pool leak scenarios require revised analyses since the RCSTS design utilizes larger diameter pipe and higher pressures than those analyzed in the TWRS BIO. Also the volume of diversion box and vent station are larger than that assumed for the valve pits in the TWRS BIO, which effects results of sprays or spills into the pits. the revised analysis for the spray leak is presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the presented in Section 2, for the above ground spill in Section 3, for the subsurface spill forming a pool in Section 4, and for the subsurface pool remaining subsurface in Section 5. The conclusion from these sections are summarized below

  1. Offsite radiological consequence analysis for the bounding aircraft crash accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    OBERG, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to quantitatively analyze a bounding aircraft crash accident for comparison to the DOE-STD-3009-94, ''Preparation Guide for U.S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Documented Safety Analyses'', Appendix A, Evaluation Guideline of 25 rem. The potential of aircraft impacting a facility was evaluated using the approach given in DOE-STD-3014-96, ''Accident Analysis for Aircraft Crash into Hazardous Facilities''. The following aircraft crash FR-equencies were determined for the Tank Farms in RPP-11736, ''Assessment Of Aircraft Crash FR-equency For The Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms'': (1) The total aircraft crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (2) The general aviation crash FR-equency is ''extremely unlikely.'' (3) The helicopter crash FR-equency is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' (4) For the Hanford Site 200 Areas, other aircraft type, commercial or military, each above ground facility, and any other type of underground facility is ''beyond extremely unlikely.'' As the potential of aircraft crash into the 200 Area tank farms is more FR-equent than ''beyond extremely unlikely,'' consequence analysis of the aircraft crash is required

  2. Modification of leaf morphology and anatomy as a consequence of columnar architecture in domestic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talwara, Susheela; Grout, Brian William Wilson; Toldam-Andersen, Torben Bo

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars. Signifi......A quantitative study has been made of the modifications to leaf morphology and anatomy evident in columnar apples trees when compared to standard ones, using the original cultivar and the first columnar mutant derived from it, as well as other closely and more distantly related cultivars....... Significant increases in leaf number, area, weight per unit area, thickness and midrib angle, together with altered shape, have been recorded consistently for the leaves subtending the developing fruits of the columnar cultivars. Additionally, significant increases in leaf rolling, epicuticular wax, stomatal...... of leaf characteristics is considered in terms of the very open architectural phenotype of columnar trees and the impact this may have on the canopy microclimate that influences leaf development....

  3. Proteomic analysis of post translational modifications in cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qian; Chen, Zhuo; Ge, Feng

    2016-02-16

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria and the only prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. Recently, cyanobacteria have attracted great interest due to their crucial roles in global carbon and nitrogen cycles and their ability to produce clean and renewable biofuels. To survive in various environmental conditions, cyanobacteria have developed a complex signal transduction network to sense environmental signals and implement adaptive changes. The post-translational modifications (PTMs) systems play important regulatory roles in the signaling networks of cyanobacteria. The systematic investigation of PTMs could contribute to the comprehensive description of protein species and to elucidate potential biological roles of each protein species in cyanobacteria. Although the proteomic studies of PTMs carried out in cyanobacteria were limited, these data have provided clues to elucidate their sophisticated sensing mechanisms that contribute to their evolutionary and ecological success. This review aims to summarize the current status of PTM studies and recent publications regarding PTM proteomics in cyanobacteria, and discuss the novel developments and applications for the analysis of PTMs in cyanobacteria. Challenges, opportunities and future perspectives in the proteomics studies of PTMs in cyanobacteria are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 40 CFR 1400.5 - Internet access to certain off-site consequence analysis data elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consequence analysis data elements. 1400.5 Section 1400.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.5 Internet access to certain off...

  5. A joint analysis of determinants and performance consequences of ambidexterity

    OpenAIRE

    Eva M. Pertusa-Ortega; José F. Molina-Azorín

    2018-01-01

    Summary: This paper simultaneously analyzes antecedents and consequences of organizational ambidexterity. Regarding antecedents, the paper examines the influence of internal antecedents (organizational structure) and external antecedents (environmental dynamism). With regard to consequences, the paper analyzes the impact of ambidexterity on firm performance. Moreover, we use two different approaches to ambidexterity (structural and contextual perspectives). The findings show that a hybrid org...

  6. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Abrahmson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.; Gilbert, E.S.

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ''other''. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk

  7. Structural consequences of carbon taxes: An input-output analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Yuhu.

    1992-01-01

    A model system is provided for examining for examining the structural consequences of carbon taxes on economic, energy, and environmental issues. The key component is the Iterative Multi-Optimization (IMO) Process model which describes, using an Input-Output (I-O) framework, the feedback between price changes and substitution. The IMO process is designed to assure this feedback process when the input coefficients in an I-O table can be changed while holding the I-O price model. The theoretical problems of convergence to a limit in the iterative process and uniqueness (which requires all IMO processes starting from different initial prices to converge to a unique point for a given level of carbon taxes) are addressed. The empirical analysis also examines the effects of carbon taxes on the US economy as described by a 78 sector I-O model. Findings are compared with those of other models that assess the effects of carbon taxes, and the similarities and differences with them are interpreted in terms of differences in the scope, sectoral detail, time frame, and policy assumptions among the models

  8. Energy sector from 1990 to 2005 - analysis and consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granic, G.

    2005-01-01

    The paper analyzes the energy sector in the period from 1990 to 2005. What is shown here through an analysis of political, economic, energy, technological and institutional processes, and based on actual developments and non-developments, the consequences on energy situation to be evolved in the next 15 years, are analyzed. A crucial characteristic of this period is the fact that consumption growth is more distant from the trends in the developed countries and is increasingly approaching ones occurring in developing and undeveloped countries. The other such characteristic is lack of technological progress, which could generate desirable structural changes in energy production and demand. Taking in consideration what has been accomplished so far and what has not been accomplished, we cannot expect in the coming period the changes that could significantly modify the relations in the structure of energy production and demand. Keeping the balance between production and demand will be increasingly difficult, as well as keeping the influence on energy prices which will be growing. In this, it is more than ever indispensable that the state takes up its role.(author)

  9. Health effects estimation code development for accident consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togawa, O.; Homma, T.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a computer code system for nuclear reactor accident consequence analysis, two computer codes have been developed for estimating health effects expected to occur following an accident. Health effects models used in the codes are based on the models of NUREG/CR-4214 and are revised for the Japanese population on the basis of the data from the reassessment of the radiation dosimetry and information derived from epidemiological studies on atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The health effects models include early and continuing effects, late somatic effects and genetic effects. The values of some model parameters are revised for early mortality. The models are modified for predicting late somatic effects such as leukemia and various kinds of cancers. The models for genetic effects are the same as those of NUREG. In order to test the performance of one of these codes, it is applied to the U.S. and Japanese populations. This paper provides descriptions of health effects models used in the two codes and gives comparisons of the mortality risks from each type of cancer for the two populations. (author)

  10. Evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/consequence models supporting safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Lazaro, M.A.; Woodard, K.

    1996-01-01

    Two DOE Working Groups have completed evaluation of accident phenomenology and consequence methodologies used to support DOE facility safety documentation. The independent evaluations each concluded that no one computer model adequately addresses all accident and atmospheric release conditions. MACCS2, MATHEW/ADPIC, TRAC RA/HA, and COSYMA are adequate for most radiological dispersion and consequence needs. ALOHA, DEGADIS, HGSYSTEM, TSCREEN, and SLAB are recommended for chemical dispersion and consequence applications. Additional work is suggested, principally in evaluation of new models, targeting certain models for continued development, training, and establishing a Web page for guidance to safety analysts

  11. Theoretical analysis of epigenetic cell memory by nucleosome modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dodd, Ian B; Micheelsen, Mille A; Sneppen, Kim

    2007-01-01

    to involve positive feedback where modified nucleosomes recruit enzymes that similarly modify nearby nucleosomes. We developed a simplified stochastic model for dynamic nucleosome modification based on the silent mating-type region of the yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We show that the mechanism can give...

  12. Analysis of epigenetic modifications of DNA in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lasse Sommer; Treppendahl, Marianne Bach; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetics, the study of somatically heritable changes in gene expression not related to changes in the DNA sequence, is a rapidly expanding research field that plays important roles in healthy as well as in diseased cells. DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation are epigenetic modifications found...

  13. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables.

  14. Radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and non-site specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. 10 references, 3 figures, 7 tables

  15. A joint analysis of determinants and performance consequences of ambidexterity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva M. Pertusa-Ortega

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This paper simultaneously analyzes antecedents and consequences of organizational ambidexterity. Regarding antecedents, the paper examines the influence of internal antecedents (organizational structure and external antecedents (environmental dynamism. With regard to consequences, the paper analyzes the impact of ambidexterity on firm performance. Moreover, we use two different approaches to ambidexterity (structural and contextual perspectives. The findings show that a hybrid organizational structure, with organic (decentralization and mechanistic characteristics (differentiation and formalization, and environmental dynamism, influence ambidexterity, and there is a positive impact of ambidexterity on firm performance. Keywords: Organizational ambidexterity, Structural approach, Contextual approach, Organizational structure, Environmental dynamism, Firm performance

  16. A radiological consequence analysis with HEU and LEU fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, W.L.; Warinner, D.K.; Matos, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A model for estimating the radiological consequences from a hypothetical accident in HEU and LEU fueled research and test reactors is presented. Simple hand calculations based on fission product yield table inventories and nonsite specific dispersion data may be adequate in many cases. However, more detailed inventories and site specific data on meteorological conditions and release rates and heights can result in substantial reductions in the dose estimates. LEU fuel gives essentially the same doses as HEU fuel. The plutonium buildup in the LEU fuel does not significantly increase the radiological consequences. The dose to the thyroid is the limiting dose. (author)

  17. Nuclear dynamics consequence analysis of SNF disposed in volcanic tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, L.C.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.; Taylor, L.L.

    1998-05-01

    This paper describes criticality analyses for spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository. The analyses investigated criticality potential, criticality excursion consequences, and the probability frequency for nuclear criticality. Key findings include: expected number of fissions per excursion range from 10 17 to 10 20 , repeated rate of criticalities range from 3 to 30 per year, and the probability frequency for criticality initiators (based on rough-order-of-magnitude calculations) is 7x10 -7 . Overall results indicate that criticality consequences are a minor contribution to the biological hazards caused by the disposal of spent nuclear material

  18. Biochemical systems approaches for the analysis of histone modification readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldi, Monica; Bremang, Michael; Bonaldi, Tiziana

    2014-08-01

    Chromatin is the macromolecular nucleoprotein complex that governs the organization of genetic material in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. In chromatin, DNA is packed with histone proteins into nucleosomes. Core histones are prototypes of hyper-modified proteins, being decorated by a large number of site-specific reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs), which contribute to the maintenance and modulation of chromatin plasticity, gene activation, and a variety of other biological processes and disease states. The observations of the variety, frequency and co-occurrence of histone modifications in distinct patterns at specific genomic loci have led to the idea that hPTMs can create a molecular barcode, read by effector proteins that translate it into a specific transcriptional state, or process, on the underlying DNA. However, despite the fact that this histone-code hypothesis was proposed more than 10 years ago, the molecular details of its working mechanisms are only partially characterized. In particular, two questions deserve specific investigation: how the different modifications associate and synergize into patterns and how these PTM configurations are read and translated by multi-protein complexes into a specific functional outcome on the genome. Mass spectrometry (MS) has emerged as a versatile tool to investigate chromatin biology, useful for both identifying and validating hPTMs, and to dissect the molecular determinants of histone modification readout systems. We review here the MS techniques and the proteomics methods that have been developed to address these fundamental questions in epigenetics research, emphasizing approaches based on the proteomic dissection of distinct native chromatin regions, with a critical evaluation of their present challenges and future potential. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Molecular mechanisms of histone modification function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxygenates in automotive fuels. Consequence analysis - preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandberg, Aa.; Saevbark, B.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenates is used in gasoline due to several reasons. They are added as high-octane components in unleaded gasoline and as agents to reduce the emission of harmful substances. Oxygenates produced from biomass might constitute a coming market for alternative fuels. This preliminary study describes the prerequisites and consequences of such an oxygenate utilization. 39 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  20. An Analysis of the Causes and Consequences of Kidnapping in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the objectives of the study are: to examine the nexus between terrorism and kidnapping; to investigate the mutual reinforcement between corruption and kidnapping; to find out if kidnapping and poverty are correlated; and to examine the consequences of the problem. Using secondary qualitative data, the study found ...

  1. A probabilistic generative model for quantification of DNA modifications enables analysis of demethylation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Äijö, Tarmo; Huang, Yun; Mannerström, Henrik; Chavez, Lukas; Tsagaratou, Ageliki; Rao, Anjana; Lähdesmäki, Harri

    2016-03-14

    We present a generative model, Lux, to quantify DNA methylation modifications from any combination of bisulfite sequencing approaches, including reduced, oxidative, TET-assisted, chemical-modification assisted, and methylase-assisted bisulfite sequencing data. Lux models all cytosine modifications (C, 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC, and 5caC) simultaneously together with experimental parameters, including bisulfite conversion and oxidation efficiencies, as well as various chemical labeling and protection steps. We show that Lux improves the quantification and comparison of cytosine modification levels and that Lux can process any oxidized methylcytosine sequencing data sets to quantify all cytosine modifications. Analysis of targeted data from Tet2-knockdown embryonic stem cells and T cells during development demonstrates DNA modification quantification at unprecedented detail, quantifies active demethylation pathways and reveals 5hmC localization in putative regulatory regions.

  2. 40 CFR 1400.9 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by State and local government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis Information by Government Officials. § 1400.9 Access to off-site consequence analysis...

  3. Virtual Instruments for the Circuit Analysis with Interactive Parameter Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Stefan Brenner

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract—The contribution presents the possibilities of LabVIEW in the special application as formula interpreter by using of the formula node. The main advantage is the immediate presentation of results in case of a parameter modification. The presentation of the time behaviour, the calculation of characteristic values and curves for typical examples of power electronics and control engineering are shown. Index Terms—Education; Formula Interpretation; LabVIEW; Power Electronics; Virtual Instruments

  4. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene modification in transgenic animals: functional consequences of selected exon and regulatory region deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Shelley; Zhang, Limin; Marquez, Michael; de la Torre, Brian; Long, Jeffery M; Bucht, Goran; Taylor, Palmer

    2005-12-15

    AChE is an alternatively spliced gene. Exons 2, 3 and 4 are invariantly spliced, and this sequence is responsible for catalytic function. The 3' alternatively spliced exons, 5 and 6, are responsible for AChE disposition in tissue [J. Massoulie, The origin of the molecular diversity and functional anchoring of cholinesterases. Neurosignals 11 (3) (2002) 130-143; Y. Li, S. Camp, P. Taylor, Tissue-specific expression and alternative mRNA processing of the mammalian acetylcholinesterase gene. J. Biol. Chem. 268 (8) (1993) 5790-5797]. The splice to exon 5 produces the GPI anchored form of AChE found in the hematopoietic system, whereas the splice to exon 6 produces a sequence that binds to the structural subunits PRiMA and ColQ, producing AChE expression in brain and muscle. A third alternative RNA species is present that is not spliced at the 3' end; the intron 3' of exon 4 is used as coding sequence and produces the read-through, unanchored form of AChE. In order to further understand the role of alternative splicing in the expression of the AChE gene, we have used homologous recombination in stem cells to produce gene specific deletions in mice. Alternatively and together exon 5 and exon 6 were deleted. A cassette containing the neomycin gene flanked by loxP sites was used to replace the exon(s) of interest. Tissue analysis of mice with exon 5 deleted and the neomycin cassette retained showed very low levels of AChE expression, far less than would have been anticipated. Only the read-through species of the enzyme was produced; clearly the inclusion of the selection cassette disrupted splicing of exon 4 to exon 6. The selection cassette was then deleted in exon 5, exon 6 and exons 5 + 6 deleted mice by breeding to Ella-cre transgenic mice. AChE expression in serum, brain and muscle has been analyzed. Another AChE gene targeted mouse strain involving a region in the first intron, found to be critical for AChE expression in muscle cells [S. Camp, L. Zhang, M. Marquez, B

  5. Quantitative Analysis and Efficient Surface Modification of Silica Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak-Sung Jung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminofunctional trialkoxysilanes such as aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS and (3-trimethoxysilylpropyldiethylenetriamine (DETAS were employed as a surface modification molecule for generating monolayer modification on the surface of silica (SiO2 nanoparticles. We were able to quantitatively analyze the number of amine functional groups on the modified SiO2 nanoparticles by acid-base back titration method and determine the effective number of amine functional groups for the successive chemical reaction by absorption measurements after treating with fluorescent rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RITC molecules. The numbers of amine sites measured by back titration were 2.7 and 7.7 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS and SiO2-DETAS, respectively, while the numbers of effective amine sites measured by absorption calibration were about one fifth of the total amine sites, namely, 0.44 and 1.3 ea/nm2 for SiO2-APTMS(RITC and SiO2-DETAS(RITC, respectively. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the reactivity of amino groups on the surface-modified silica nanoparticles could be maintained in ethanol for more than 1.5 months without showing any significant differences in the reactivity.

  6. Research on Browsing Behavior in the Libraries: An Empirical Analysis of Consequences, Success and Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Ju L. Chang

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Browsing as an important part of human information behavior has been observed and investigated in the context of information seeking in the library in general and has assumed greater importance in human-machine interaction in particular. However, the nature and consequences of browsing are not well understood, and little is known of the success rate of such behavior.In this research, exploratory empirical case studies from three types of libraries were conducted, using questionnaires, observation logs, interviews, and computer search logs, to derive the empirical evidence to understand, from the user point of view, what are the consequences of browsing, what constitutes successful browsing, and what factors influence the extent of browsing. Content analysis and statistical analysis were conducted to analyze and synthesize the data. The research results show: (1 There are nine categories of the consequence of browsing, including accidental findings, modification of information need, found the desirable information, learning, feeling relaxation/recreational, information gathering, keeping updated, satisfying curiosity, and not finding what is needed. (2 Four factors that produce successful browsing: intention, the amount or quality of information, the utility of what is found, and help for solving problem or making judgment. (3 Three types of reasons for unsuccessful experience in browsing: not finding what one wanted, inadequate volume or quality of information, and not finding some things useful or interesting. (4 Three types of reasons for partial success: found the intended object but not happy with the quality or amount of information in it, not finding what one wanted but discovering new or potential useful information, not accomplish one purpose but achieve another one given multiple purposes. (5 The influential factors that affect the extent one engages in browsing include browser’s time, scheme of information organization, proximity to

  7. The hidden radiation chemistry in plasma modification and XPS analysis of polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, G.A.; Le, T.T.; Elms, F.M.; Wood, B.J.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: The surface modification of polymers using plasma treatments is being widely researched to achieve changes in the surface energetics and consequent wetting and reactivity for a range of applications. These include i) adhesion for polymer bonding and composite material fabrication and ii) biocompatibility of polymers when used as orthopedic implants, catheters and prosthetics. A low pressure rf plasma produces a variety of species from the introduced gas which may react with the surface of a hydrocarbon polymer, such as polyethylene. In the case of 0 2 and H 2 0, these species include oxygen atoms, singlet molecular oxygen and hydroxyl radicals, all of which may oxidise and, depending on their energy, ablate the polymer surface. In order to better understand the reactive species formed both in and downstream from a plasma and the relative contributions of oxidation and ablation, self-assembled monolayers of n-alkane thiols on gold are being used as well characterised substrates for quantitative X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The identification and quantification of oxidised carbon species on plasma treated polymers from broad, asymmetric XPS signals is difficult, so derivatisation is often used to enhance sensitivity and specificity. For example, trifluoroacetic anhydride (TFAA) selectively labels hydroxyl functionality. The surface analysis of a modified polymer surface may be confounded by high energy radiation chemistry which may occur during XPS analysis. Examples include scission of carbon-halogen bonds (as in TFM adducts), decarboxylation and main-chain polyene formation. The extent of free-radical chemistry occurring in polyethylene while undergoing XPS analysis may be seen by both ESR and FT-IR analysis

  8. High-consequence analysis, evaluation, and application of select criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmanis, I.; Jaksch, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    A number of characteristics distinguish environmental risk from pollution problems. The characteristics make environmental risk problems harder to manage through existing regulatory, legal, and economic institutions. Hence, technologies involving environmental risk impose on society extremely difficult collective decisions. This paper is concerned with the process of reaching social decisions that involve low-probability, high-consequence outcomes. It is divided into five major parts. Part I contains the introduction. Part II reviews the two main classes of criteria that have been proposed for social decisions: approaches based on market mechanisms and their extension, and approaches associated with Rawls and Buchanan, which not only focus on outcomes, but also impose a set of minimal constraints on the process for reaching decisions and social consensus. Part III proposes a set of eight criteria for evaluating social decision processes. In Parts IV and V we investigate applying the criteria to two case studies -- one on nuclear waste disposal and the other on transportation of liquefied natural gas

  9. EDPUFF- a Gaussian dispersion code for consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oza, R.B.; Bapat, V.N.; Nair, R.N.; Hukkoo, R.K.; Krishnamoorthy, T.M.

    1995-01-01

    EDPUFF- Equi Distance Puff is a Gaussian dispersion code in FORTRAN language to model atmospheric dispersion of instantaneous or continuous point source releases. It is designed to incorporate the effect of changing meteorological conditions and source release rates on the spatial distribution profiles and its consequences. Effects of variation of parameters like puff spacing, puff packing, averaging schemes are discussed and the choice of the best values for minimum errors and minimum computer CPU time are identified. The code calculates the doses to individual receptors as well as average doses for population zones from internal and external routes over the area of interest. Internal dose computations are made for inhalation and ingestion pathways while the doses from external route consists of cloud doses and doses from surface deposited activity. It computes inhalation and ingestion dose (milk route only) for critical group (1 yr old child). In case of population zones it finds out maximum possible doses in a given area along with the average doses discussed above. Report gives the doses from various pathways for unit release of fixed duration. (author). 7 refs., figs., 7 appendixes

  10. Chimira: analysis of small RNA sequencing data and microRNA modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitsios, Dimitrios M; Enright, Anton J

    2015-10-15

    Chimira is a web-based system for microRNA (miRNA) analysis from small RNA-Seq data. Sequences are automatically cleaned, trimmed, size selected and mapped directly to miRNA hairpin sequences. This generates count-based miRNA expression data for subsequent statistical analysis. Moreover, it is capable of identifying epi-transcriptomic modifications in the input sequences. Supported modification types include multiple types of 3'-modifications (e.g. uridylation, adenylation), 5'-modifications and also internal modifications or variation (ADAR editing or single nucleotide polymorphisms). Besides cleaning and mapping of input sequences to miRNAs, Chimira provides a simple and intuitive set of tools for the analysis and interpretation of the results (see also Supplementary Material). These allow the visual study of the differential expression between two specific samples or sets of samples, the identification of the most highly expressed miRNAs within sample pairs (or sets of samples) and also the projection of the modification profile for specific miRNAs across all samples. Other tools have already been published in the past for various types of small RNA-Seq analysis, such as UEA workbench, seqBuster, MAGI, OASIS and CAP-miRSeq, CPSS for modifications identification. A comprehensive comparison of Chimira with each of these tools is provided in the Supplementary Material. Chimira outperforms all of these tools in total execution speed and aims to facilitate simple, fast and reliable analysis of small RNA-Seq data allowing also, for the first time, identification of global microRNA modification profiles in a simple intuitive interface. Chimira has been developed as a web application and it is accessible here: http://www.ebi.ac.uk/research/enright/software/chimira. aje@ebi.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  11. Analysis of Myc-induced histone modifications on target chromatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Martinato

    Full Text Available The c-myc proto-oncogene is induced by mitogens and is a central regulator of cell growth and differentiation. The c-myc product, Myc, is a transcription factor that binds a multitude of genomic sites, estimated to be over 10-15% of all promoter regions. Target promoters generally pre-exist in an active or poised chromatin state that is further modified by Myc, contributing to fine transcriptional regulation (activation or repression of the afferent gene. Among other mechanisms, Myc recruits histone acetyl-transferases to target chromatin and locally promotes hyper-acetylation of multiple lysines on histones H3 and H4, although the identity and combination of the modified lysines is unknown. Whether Myc dynamically regulates other histone modifications (or marks at its binding sites also remains to be addressed. Here, we used quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (qChIP to profile a total of 24 lysine-acetylation and -methylation marks modulated by Myc at target promoters in a human B-cell line with a regulatable c-myc transgene. Myc binding promoted acetylation of multiple lysines, primarily of H3K9, H3K14, H3K18, H4K5 and H4K12, but significantly also of H4K8, H4K91 and H2AK5. Dimethylation of H3K79 was also selectively induced at target promoters. A majority of target promoters showed co-induction of multiple marks - in various combinations - correlating with recruitment of the two HATs tested (Tip60 and HBO1, incorporation of the histone variant H2A.Z and transcriptional activation. Based on this and previous findings, we surmise that Myc recruits the Tip60/p400 complex to achieve a coordinated histone acetylation/exchange reaction at activated promoters. Our data are also consistent with the additive and redundant role of multiple acetylation events in transcriptional activation.

  12. Aspects of uncertainty analysis in accident consequence modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, C.C.; Hoffman, F.O.

    1981-01-01

    Mathematical models are frequently used to determine probable dose to man from an accidental release of radionuclides by a nuclear facility. With increased emphasis on the accuracy of these models, the incorporation of uncertainty analysis has become one of the most crucial and sensitive components in evaluating the significance of model predictions. In the present paper, we address three aspects of uncertainty in models used to assess the radiological impact to humans: uncertainties resulting from the natural variability in human biological parameters; the propagation of parameter variability by mathematical models; and comparison of model predictions to observational data

  13. Uncertainty analysis in calculations of a road accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefous, S.; Brenot, J.; Hubert, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper develops a concrete situation witch is the search for an evacuation distance in case of a road accident implying a chlorine tank. The methodological aspect is how implementing uncertainty analysis in deterministic models with random parameters. The study demonstrates a great dispersion in the results. It allows to establish satisfactory decision rules and a hierarchy on parameters witch is useful to define priorities in the search for information and to improve the treatment of these parameters. (authors). 8 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  14. 40 CFR 1400.8 - Access to off-site consequence analysis information by Federal government officials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Access to off-site consequence... MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Access to Off-Site Consequence Analysis...

  15. Modification of the SAS4A Safety Analysis Code for Integration with the ADAPT Discrete Dynamic Event Tree Framework.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovsky, Zachary Kyle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Denman, Matthew R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    It is difficult to assess the consequences of a transient in a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) using traditional probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methods, as numerous safety-related sys- tems have passive characteristics. Often there is significant dependence on the value of con- tinuous stochastic parameters rather than binary success/failure determinations. One form of dynamic PRA uses a system simulator to represent the progression of a transient, tracking events through time in a discrete dynamic event tree (DDET). In order to function in a DDET environment, a simulator must have characteristics that make it amenable to changing physical parameters midway through the analysis. The SAS4A SFR system analysis code did not have these characteristics as received. This report describes the code modifications made to allow dynamic operation as well as the linking to a Sandia DDET driver code. A test case is briefly described to demonstrate the utility of the changes.

  16. Analysis of posttranslational modifications of proteins by tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Røssel; Trelle, Morten B; Thingholm, Tine E

    2006-01-01

    -temporal distribution in cells and tissues. Most PTMs can be detected by protein and peptide analysis by mass spectrometry (MS), either as a mass increment or a mass deficit relative to the nascent unmodified protein. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides a series of analytical features that are highly useful...

  17. Materials science education: ion beam modification and analysis of materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Robert; Muntele, Claudiu; Ila, Daryush

    2012-08-01

    The Center for Irradiation of Materials (CIM) at Alabama A&M University (http://cim.aamu.edu) was established in 1990 to serve the University in its research, education and services to the need of the local community and industry. CIM irradiation capabilities are oriented around two tandem-type ion accelerators with seven beam lines providing high-resolution Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, MeV focus ion beam, high-energy ion implantation and irradiation damage studies, particle-induced X-ray emission, particle-induced gamma emission and ion-induced nuclear reaction analysis in addition to fully automated ion channeling. One of the two tandem ion accelerators is designed to produce high-flux ion beam for MeV ion implantation and ion irradiation damage studies. The facility is well equipped with a variety of surface analysis systems, such as SEM, ESCA, as well as scanning micro-Raman analysis, UV-VIS Spectrometry, luminescence spectroscopy, thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, IV/CV systems, mechanical test systems, AFM, FTIR, voltammetry analysis as well as low-energy implanters, ion beam-assisted deposition and MBE systems. In this presentation, we will demonstrate how the facility is used in material science education, as well as providing services to university, government and industry researches.

  18. College Alcohol Beliefs and Drinking Consequences: A Multiple Mediation Analysis of Norms, Expectancies, and Willingness to Experience Drinking Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, Timothy M.; Boyer, Amber

    2018-01-01

    Objective: We explored the potential mediating role of willingness to experience drinking consequences and other traditional alcohol outcome predictors (descriptive norms, injunctive norms, positive alcohol expectancies) in explaining the association between college alcohol beliefs1 (CABs) and the actual experience of drinking consequences among…

  19. Environmental decision support system on base of geoinformational technologies for the analysis of nuclear accident consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, T.C.; Maigan, M.; Arutyunyan, R.V.; Bolshov, L.A.; Demianov, V.V.

    1996-01-01

    The report deals with description of the concept and prototype of environmental decision support system (EDSS) for the analysis of late off-site consequences of severe nuclear accidents and analysis, processing and presentation of spatially distributed radioecological data. General description of the available software, use of modem achievements of geostatistics and stochastic simulations for the analysis of spatial data are presented and discussed

  20. Radiological Consequences Analysis for Abnormal Condition on NPPs 1000 MWe by Using Radcon Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pande Mande Udiyani; Sri Kuntjoro

    2009-01-01

    The operation of NPPs (Nuclear Power Plants) in Indonesia to anticipates rare of energy will generate various challenges, especially about NPPs safety. So installation organizer of nuclear must provide scientific argument to safety NPPs, one of them is by providing document of safety analysis. Calculation of radiological consequences after abnormal condition applies on generic PWR-1000 power reactor. Calculation is done by using program package RadCon (Radiological Consequences Model), with postulate condition is based on DBA (Design Basis Accident). Calculation of dispersion of radionuclide concentration is using PC-COSYMA as input data for RadCon. Simulation for radiological consequences analysis uses by site data sample. Analysis result shows that maximum receiving of internal - externals radiological consequence for short term and long-term below 1 km radius area is below the limit acceptably effective dose for a member of the public as a result of an accident which should not exceed 5 mSv (ICRP 1990). (author)

  1. Some modifications to the process of discontinuous deformation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modified method of discontinuous deformation analysis (DDA. In the presented method, open-close iteration may not be needed, small penetration is permitted among blocks, and springs are added between contacting block pairs only when a penetration takes place. The three contact patterns (i.e. sliding, locking and opening in original DDA method are not involved, and the recognition of these contact patterns and treatment of transformation among patterns are not required either, significantly saving the computing time. In a convex to concave contact, there are two candidate entrance edges which may cause uncertainty. In this case, we propose the angle bisector criterion to determine the entrance edge. The spring stiffness is much larger than Young's modulus in the original DDA, however we find that the correct results can still be obtained when it is much smaller than Young's modulus. Finally, the penetrations by using penalty method and augmented Lagrangian method are compared. Penetration of the latter is 1/4 of the former. The range of spring stiffness for the latter is wider than the former, being 0.01–1 of the former. Both methods can lead to correct contact forces.

  2. Modifications in the Teach-C computer code for convection analysis-two-dimensional transient diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampaio, P.A.B. de.

    1987-08-01

    Some modifications in Teach-C computer program to analyse the heat conduction with convective heat transport are presented. The utilization of the program to solve a convective - diffusion problem is studied and the results are compared with an analysis of the same problem, in steady - state conditions, by finite element method [pt

  3. Coal handling system structural analysis for modifications or plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufault, A.; Weider, F.; Doyle, P.

    1989-01-01

    One neglected aspect of plant modification or life extension is the extent to which previous projects may have affected the integrity of existing structures. During the course of a project to backfit fire protection facilities to existing coal handling systems, it was found that past modifications had added loads to existing coal handling structures which exceeded the available design margin. This paper describes the studies that discovered the original problem areas, as well as the detailed analysis and design considerations used to repair these structures

  4. Status of large-scale analysis of post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Cellular function can be controlled through the gene expression program but often protein post translations modifications (PTMs) provide a more precisely and elegant mechanism. Key functional roles of specific modification events for instance during the cell cycle have been known for decades...... of protein modifications. For many PTMs, including phosphorylation, ubiquitination, glycosylation and acetylation, tens of thousands of sites can now be confidently identified and localized in the sequence of the protein. Quantitation of PTM levels between different cellular states is likewise established......, with label-free methods showing particular promise. It is also becoming possible to determine the absolute occupancy or stoichiometry of PTMS sites on a large scale. Powerful software for the bioinformatic analysis of thousands of PTM sites has been developed. However, a complete inventory of sites has...

  5. Evaluation of Proteomic Search Engines for the Analysis of Histone Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Identification of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is challenging for proteomics search engines. Including many histone PTMs in one search increases the number of candidate peptides dramatically, leading to low search speed and fewer identified spectra. To evaluate database search engines on identifying histone PTMs, we present a method in which one kind of modification is searched each time, for example, unmodified, individually modified, and multimodified, each search result is filtered with false discovery rate less than 1%, and the identifications of multiple search engines are combined to obtain confident results. We apply this method for eight search engines on histone data sets. We find that two search engines, pFind and Mascot, identify most of the confident results at a reasonable speed, so we recommend using them to identify histone modifications. During the evaluation, we also find some important aspects for the analysis of histone modifications. Our evaluation of different search engines on identifying histone modifications will hopefully help those who are hoping to enter the histone proteomics field. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001118. PMID:25167464

  6. Evaluation of proteomic search engines for the analysis of histone modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Lin, Shu; Molden, Rosalynn C; Garcia, Benjamin A

    2014-10-03

    Identification of histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) is challenging for proteomics search engines. Including many histone PTMs in one search increases the number of candidate peptides dramatically, leading to low search speed and fewer identified spectra. To evaluate database search engines on identifying histone PTMs, we present a method in which one kind of modification is searched each time, for example, unmodified, individually modified, and multimodified, each search result is filtered with false discovery rate less than 1%, and the identifications of multiple search engines are combined to obtain confident results. We apply this method for eight search engines on histone data sets. We find that two search engines, pFind and Mascot, identify most of the confident results at a reasonable speed, so we recommend using them to identify histone modifications. During the evaluation, we also find some important aspects for the analysis of histone modifications. Our evaluation of different search engines on identifying histone modifications will hopefully help those who are hoping to enter the histone proteomics field. The mass spectrometry proteomics data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange Consortium with the data set identifier PXD001118.

  7. 40 CFR 1400.3 - Public access to paper copies of off-site consequence analysis information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-site consequence analysis information. 1400.3 Section 1400.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... PROGRAMS UNDER THE CLEAN AIR ACT SECTION 112(r)(7); DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION DISTRIBUTION OF OFF-SITE CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS INFORMATION Public Access § 1400.3 Public access to...

  8. Computational and statistical methods for high-throughput analysis of post-translational modifications of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Braga, Thiago Verano; Roepstorff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of post-translational modifications (PTMs) represents one of the main research focuses for the study of protein function and cell signaling. Mass spectrometry instrumentation with increasing sensitivity improved protocols for PTM enrichment and recently established pipelines...... for high-throughput experiments allow large-scale identification and quantification of several PTM types. This review addresses the concurrently emerging challenges for the computational analysis of the resulting data and presents PTM-centered approaches for spectra identification, statistical analysis...

  9. Toxic release consequence analysis tool (TORCAT) for inherently safer design plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariff, Azmi Mohd; Zaini, Dzulkarnain

    2010-01-01

    Many major accidents due to toxic release in the past have caused many fatalities such as the tragedy of MIC release in Bhopal, India (1984). One of the approaches is to use inherently safer design technique that utilizes inherent safety principle to eliminate or minimize accidents rather than to control the hazard. This technique is best implemented in preliminary design stage where the consequence of toxic release can be evaluated and necessary design improvements can be implemented to eliminate or minimize the accidents to as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) without resorting to costly protective system. However, currently there is no commercial tool available that has such capability. This paper reports on the preliminary findings on the development of a prototype tool for consequence analysis and design improvement via inherent safety principle by utilizing an integrated process design simulator with toxic release consequence analysis model. The consequence analysis based on the worst-case scenarios during process flowsheeting stage were conducted as case studies. The preliminary finding shows that toxic release consequences analysis tool (TORCAT) has capability to eliminate or minimize the potential toxic release accidents by adopting the inherent safety principle early in preliminary design stage.

  10. Niagara pumping generation station inundation mapping and consequence analysis with ArcGIS and Mike 21

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grover, Patrick; Khayer, Yasmin; Naumov, Aleksey [4DM Inc., Toronto, (Canada); Zhang, Yibing [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Inundation mapping is a key factor of Ontario Power Generation's dam safety program. It is the basis for determining the hazard potential classification of the dam by modelling the consequences of a hypothetical dam failure. This paper presented the project for updating the inundation mapping and consequence analysis study at the Niagara Pump generating station (PGS) reservoir. A complete hydrotechnical assessment of the Niagara PGS reservoir was conducted. The modelling of various breach scenarios was carried out using the 2-D hydrodynamic software MIKE 21 in order to provide the hydraulic data necessary for producing the inundation maps. Updated EPRP maps were produced and a consequence analysis was performed which confirmed the existing hazard classification. The ArcGIS system was used as the underlying framework for all major components of the project. It was found that the use of GIS technologies improve the efficiency of both modelling and analysis.

  11. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes a demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis performed on the reactor accident consequence model CRAC2. The study was performed with uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques compiled as part of the MELCOR program. The principal objectives of the study were: 1) to demonstrate the use of the uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques on a health and economic consequence model, 2) to test the computer models which implement the techniques, 3) to identify possible difficulties in performing such an analysis, and 4) to explore alternative means of analyzing, displaying, and describing the results. Demonstration of the applicability of the techniques was the motivation for performing this study; thus, the results should not be taken as a definitive uncertainty analysis of health and economic consequences. Nevertheless, significant insights on health and economic consequence analysis can be drawn from the results of this type of study. Latin hypercube sampling (LHS), a modified Monte Carlo technique, was used in this study. LHS generates a multivariate input structure in which all the variables of interest are varied simultaneously and desired correlations between variables are preserved. LHS has been shown to produce estimates of output distribution functions that are comparable with results of larger random samples

  12. The BsaHI restriction-modification system: Cloning, sequencing and analysis of conserved motifs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Richard J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction and modification enzymes typically recognise short DNA sequences of between two and eight bases in length. Understanding the mechanism of this recognition represents a significant challenge that we begin to address for the BsaHI restriction-modification system, which recognises the six base sequence GRCGYC. Results The DNA sequences of the genes for the BsaHI methyltransferase, bsaHIM, and restriction endonuclease, bsaHIR, have been determined (GenBank accession #EU386360, cloned and expressed in E. coli. Both the restriction endonuclease and methyltransferase enzymes share significant similarity with a group of 6 other enzymes comprising the restriction-modification systems HgiDI and HgiGI and the putative HindVP, NlaCORFDP, NpuORFC228P and SplZORFNP restriction-modification systems. A sequence alignment of these homologues shows that their amino acid sequences are largely conserved and highlights several motifs of interest. We target one such conserved motif, reading SPERRFD, at the C-terminal end of the bsaHIR gene. A mutational analysis of these amino acids indicates that the motif is crucial for enzymatic activity. Sequence alignment of the methyltransferase gene reveals a short motif within the target recognition domain that is conserved among enzymes recognising the same sequences. Thus, this motif may be used as a diagnostic tool to define the recognition sequences of the cytosine C5 methyltransferases. Conclusion We have cloned and sequenced the BsaHI restriction and modification enzymes. We have identified a region of the R. BsaHI enzyme that is crucial for its activity. Analysis of the amino acid sequence of the BsaHI methyltransferase enzyme led us to propose two new motifs that can be used in the diagnosis of the recognition sequence of the cytosine C5-methyltransferases.

  13. histoneHMM: Differential analysis of histone modifications with broad genomic footprints

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinig, M.; Colomé-Tatché, M.; Taudt, A.; Rintisch, C.; Schafer, S.; Pravenec, Michal; Hubner, N.; Vingron, M.; Johannes, F.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, Feb 22 (2015), s. 60 ISSN 1471-2105 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7E10067; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-04420S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : ChIP - seq * histone modifications * Hidden Markov model * computational biology * differential analysis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2015

  14. Tank waste compositions and atmospheric dispersion coefficients for use in accelerated safety analysis consequence assessments. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savino, A.V.

    1995-11-01

    This topical report contains technical support information used to determine accident consequences for the Tank Farms Accelerated Safety Analysis (ASA) Interim Chapter 3, Hazard and Accident Analysis: Potential for Releases and Required Mitigation and Prevention and the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) environmental impact statement (EIS) accident consequence report. It does not determine accident consequences or describe specific accident scenarios, but instead provides generic information used to calculate radiological and toxic chemical consequences for postulated tank farms accident releases

  15. Consequence analysis of IWTS metal water reactions (Fauske and Associates report 99-35)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DUNCAN, D.R.

    1999-01-01

    The report describes the consequences of postulated thermally unstable conditions in the IWTS knock out pot. The consequence analysis shows that both the knock out pot and particulate bed will stay intact, and that releases will be minor. Reaction rate limitations prevent knock out pot pressure and/or temperature from even approaching values that would threaten structural integrity. Source term calculations based on a particle bed with a homogeneous mixture of metal and oxide particles yield a release above the K Basin pool of about 12 grams

  16. Analysis of radiological consequences in a typical BWR with a mark-II containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funayama, Kyoko; Kajimoto, Mitsuhiro

    2003-01-01

    INS/NUPEC in Japan has been carrying out the Level 3 PSA program. In the program, the MACCS2 code has been extensively applied to analyze radiological consequences for typical BWR and PWR plants in Japan. The present study deals with analysis of effects of the AMs, which were implemented by industries, on radiological consequence for a typical BWR with a Mark-II containment. In the present study, source terms and their frequencies of source terms were used based on results of Level 2 PSA taking into account AM countermeasures. Radiological consequences were presented with dose risks (Sv/ry), which were multiplied doses (Sv) by containment damage frequencies (/ry), and timing of radionuclides release to the environment. The results of the present study indicated that the dose risks became negligible in most cases taking AM countermeasures and evacuations. (author)

  17. Strong Cation Exchange Chromatography in Analysis of Posttranslational Modifications: Innovations and Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelmann, Mariola J.

    2011-01-01

    Strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography has been utilized as an excellent separation technique that can be combined with reversed-phase (RP) chromatography, which is frequently used in peptide mass spectrometry. Although SCX is valuable as the second component of such two-dimensional separation methods, its application goes far beyond efficient fractionation of complex peptide mixtures. Here I describe how SCX facilitates mapping of the protein posttranslational modifications (PTMs), specifically phosphorylation and N-terminal acetylation. The SCX chromatography has been mainly used for enrichment of these two PTMs, but it might also be beneficial for high-throughput analysis of other modifications that alter the net charge of a peptide. PMID:22174558

  18. Use of fire hazard analysis to cost effectively manage facility modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, K., E-mail: kkruger@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Fredericton, NB (Canada); Cronk, R., E-mail: rcronk@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    In Canada, licenced Nuclear power facilities, or facilities that process, handle or store nuclear material are required by the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission to have a change control process in place. These processes are in place to avoid facility modifications that could result in an increase in fire hazards, or degradation of fire protection systems. Change control processes can have a significant impact on budgets associated with plant modifications. A Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is also a regulatory requirement for licenced facilities in Canada. An FHA is an extensive evaluation of a facility's construction, nuclear safety systems, fire hazards, and fire protection features. This paper is being presented to outline how computer based data management software can help organize facilities' fire safety information, manage this information, and reduce the costs associated with preparation of FHAs as well as facilities' change control processes. (author)

  19. Materials analysis by ion backscattering and channeling. Materials modification by ion irradiation and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.

    1984-08-01

    A description will be given of the basic processes occuring during ion implantation and ion beam analyses. The usefulness of the backscattering and channeling technique is demonstrated by a discussion of the applications to thin film analysis, studies of diffusion and reactions in thin films, lattice location investigations, disorder analysis and surface studies. Ion implantation is a valuable research tool in metallurgy. The process operates very far from equilibrium conditions and thus will influence near surface properties in a unique way. The observed modifications are related to special microscopic structures which will be considered in detail. (orig.) [de

  20. A study on the weather sampling method for probabilistic consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Hae Cheol

    1996-02-01

    The main task of probabilistic accident consequence analysis model is to predict the radiological situation and to provide a reliable quantitative data base for making decisions on countermeasures. The magnitude of accident consequence is depended on the characteristic of the accident and the weather coincident. In probabilistic accident consequence analysis, it is necessary to repeat the atmospheric dispersion calculation with several hundreds of weather sequences to predict the full distribution of consequences which may occur following a postulated accident release. It is desirable to select a representative sample of weather sequences from a meteorological record which is typical of the area over which the released radionuclides will disperse and which spans a sufficiently long period. The selection process is done by means of sampling techniques from a full year of hourly weather data characteristic of the plant site. In this study, the proposed Weighted importance sampling method selects proportional to the each bin size to closely approximate the true frequency distribution of weather condition at the site. The Weighted importance sampling method results in substantially less sampling uncertainty than the previous technique. The proposed technique can result in improve confidence in risk estimates

  1. Exploratory Factor Analysis of NRG Oncology's University of Washington Quality of Life Questionnaire – RTOG Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Stephanie L.; Wyatt, Gwen; Wong, Raimond K. W.; Sagar, Stephen M.; Yueh, Bevan; Singh, Anurag K.; Yao, Min; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix; Yom, Sue S.; Cardinale, Francis S.; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, D. Ian; Krempl, Greg A.; Chavez, Ariel; Yeh, Alexander M.; Bruner, Deborah W.

    2016-01-01

    Context The 15-item University of Washington Quality of Life questionnaire – Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) modification (UW-QOL-RTOG modification) has been used in several trials of head and neck cancer conducted by NRG Oncology such as RTOG 9709, RTOG 9901, RTOG 0244, and RTOG 0537. Objectives This study is an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) to establish validity and reliability of the instrument subscales. Methods EFA on the UW-QOL - RTOG modification was conducted using baseline data from NRG Oncology's RTOG 0537, a trial of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in treating radiation-induced xerostomia. Cronbach's α coefficient was calculated to measure reliability; correlation with the University of Michigan Xerostomia Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) was used to evaluate concurrent validity; and correlations between consecutive time points were used to assess test-retest reliability. Results The 15-item EFA of the modified tool resulted in 11 items split into 4 factors: mucus, eating, pain, and activities. Cronbach's α ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 for the factors and total score, consisting of all 11 items. There were strong correlations (ρ≥0.60) between consecutive time points and between total score and the XeQOLS total score (ρ>0.65). Conclusion The UW-QOL-RTOG modification is a valid tool that can be used to assess symptom burden of head and neck cancer patients receiving radiation therapy or those who have recently completed radiation. The modified tool has acceptable reliability, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability in this patient population, as well as the advantage of having being shortened from 15 to 11 items. PMID:27899312

  2. Theory Creation, Modification, and Testing: An Information-Processing Model and Theory of the Anticipated and Unanticipated Consequences of Research and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2011-01-01

    Background: Extending Merton's (1936) work on the consequences of purposive social action, the model, theory and taxonomy outlined here incorporates and formalizes both anticipated and unanticipated research findings in a unified theoretical framework. The model of anticipated research findings was developed initially by Carifio (1975, 1977) and…

  3. Axisym finite element code: modifications for pellet-cladding mechanical interaction analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelman, G.P.

    1978-10-01

    Local strain concentrations in nuclear fuel rods are known to be potential sites for failure initiation. Assessment of such strain concentrations requires a two-dimensional analysis of stress and strain in both the fuel and the cladding during pellet-cladding mechanical interaction. To provide such a capability in the FRAP (Fuel Rod Analysis Program) codes, the AXISYM code (a small finite element program developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory) was modified to perform a detailed fuel rod deformation analysis. This report describes the modifications which were made to the AXISYM code to adapt it for fuel rod analysis and presents comparisons made between the two-dimensional AXISYM code and the FRACAS-II code. FRACAS-II is the one-dimensional (generalized plane strain) fuel rod mechanical deformation subcode used in the FRAP codes. Predictions of these two codes should be comparable away from the fuel pellet free ends if the state of deformation at the pellet midplane is near that of generalized plane strain. The excellent agreement obtained in these comparisons checks both the correctness of the AXISYM code modifications as well as the validity of the assumption of generalized plane strain upon which the FRACAS-II subcode is based

  4. Cost-effectiveness analysis of countermeasures using accident consequence assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, A.; Gallego, E.

    1987-01-01

    In the event of a large release of radionuclides from a nuclear power plant, protective actions for the population potentially affected must be implemented. Cost-effectiveness analysis will be useful to define the countermeasures and the criteria needed to implement them. This paper shows the application of Accident Consequence Assessment (ACA) models to cost-effectiveness analysis of emergency and long-term countermeasures, making use of the different relationships between dose, contamination levels, affected areas and population distribution, included in such a model. The procedure is illustrated with the new Melcor Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS 1.3), developed at Sandia National Laboratories (USA), for a fixed accident scenario. Different alternative actions are evaluated with regard to their radiological and economical impact, searching for an 'optimum' strategy. (author)

  5. Radiological consequence analysis for upgradation of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 from 9 to 10 MW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Raza, S.S.

    1993-12-01

    Radiological consequence analysis has been carried out for upgradation of PARR-I from 9 to 10 MW. A hypothetical loss of coolant accident resulting in core meltdown and release of fission products to the atmosphere has been analyzed. Whole body and thyroid doses have been calculated as a function of time and distance from the containment building. Based on these dose estimates, boundaries of exclusion and low population zones are assessed. (author)

  6. Meta-analysis of the antecedent and consequent constructs of materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini; Wagner Júnior Ladeira; Cláudio Hoffmann Sampaio; Clécio Falcão Araújo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose – Materialism has been gaining ground in the academic field, especially from the 1980s on, given the relevance of understanding sentiments connected to possessing and acquiring goods. Thus, this meta-analysis was carried out to assess the antecedents and consequents of materialism. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a systematic review, we gathered a total 77 articles that examined those aspects, generating 99 effects-sizes and a cumulative sample of 40,288 studied individuals...

  7. Aspects of risk analysis application to estimation of nuclear accidents and tests consequences and intervention management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demin, V.F.; Hedemann-Jensen, P.; Rolevich, I.V.; Schneider, T.S.; Sobolev, B.G.

    1996-01-01

    For assessment of accident consequences and a post-accident management a risk analysis methodology and data bank (BARD) with allowance for radiation and non-radiation risk causes should be developed and used. Aspects of these needs and developments are considered. Some illustrative results of health risk estimation made with BARD for the Bryansk region territory with relatively high radioactive contamination from the Chernobyl accident are presented

  8. Consequence Analysis of Release from KN-18 Cask during a Severe Transportation Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Bhang, Giin; Na, Janghwan; Ban, Jaeha; Kim, Myungsu

    2015-01-01

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) has launched a project entitled 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design' and conducting a new conceptual physical protection system(PPS) design. One of mayor contents is consequence analysis for spent nuclear fuel cask. Proper design of physical protection system for facilities and storage and transformation involving nuclear and radioactive material requires the quantification of potential consequence from prescribed sabotage and theft scenarios in order to properly understand the level of PPS needed for specific facilities and materials. An important aspect of the regulation of the nuclear industry is assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or intentional scenarios. This paper describes the consequence analysis methodology, structural analysis for KN-18 cask and results of release from the cask during a severe transportation accident. Accident during spent fuel cask transportation was numerically calculated for KN-18, and showed the integrity of the fuel assemblies and cask itself was unharmed on a scenario that is comparable to state of art NRC research. Even assumption of leakage as a size of 1 x 10''2 mm''2 does not exceed for a certain criteria at any distance

  9. Consequence Analysis of Release from KN-18 Cask during a Severe Transportation Accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Heoksoon; Bhang, Giin; Na, Janghwan; Ban, Jaeha; Kim, Myungsu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP) has launched a project entitled 'Development of APR1400 Physical Protection System Design' and conducting a new conceptual physical protection system(PPS) design. One of mayor contents is consequence analysis for spent nuclear fuel cask. Proper design of physical protection system for facilities and storage and transformation involving nuclear and radioactive material requires the quantification of potential consequence from prescribed sabotage and theft scenarios in order to properly understand the level of PPS needed for specific facilities and materials. An important aspect of the regulation of the nuclear industry is assessing the risk to the public and the environment from a release of radioactive material produced by accidental or intentional scenarios. This paper describes the consequence analysis methodology, structural analysis for KN-18 cask and results of release from the cask during a severe transportation accident. Accident during spent fuel cask transportation was numerically calculated for KN-18, and showed the integrity of the fuel assemblies and cask itself was unharmed on a scenario that is comparable to state of art NRC research. Even assumption of leakage as a size of 1 x 10''2 mm''2 does not exceed for a certain criteria at any distance.

  10. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Early health effects uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haskin, F.E. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA early health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on early health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  11. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Late health effects uncertain assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA late health effects models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the expert panel on late health effects, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  12. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for deposited material and external doses. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Boardman, J. [AEA Technology (United Kingdom); Jones, J.A. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA deposited material and external dose models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on deposited material and external doses, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  13. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis -- Uncertainty assessment for internal dosimetry. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Harrison, J.D. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Harper, F.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States)

    1998-04-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequence from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of the European Communities began cosponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables. A formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for these consequence parameters. This report focuses on the results of the study to develop distribution for variables related to the MACCS and COSYMA internal dosimetry models. This volume contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures, (3) the rationales and results for the panel on internal dosimetry, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  14. Ion beam modification and analysis of thin YBa2Cu3O7 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, O.

    1989-04-01

    The application of ion beams for the analysis and modification of high Tc superconductors is reviewed. Ion backscattering and channeling spectroscopy is used to optimize the film composition and the epitaxial growth performance on various single crystalline substrates. The influence of radiation damage on the transport properties and on the structure of polycrystalline as well as of single crystalline thin films is presented. The irradiation induced metal to insulator phase transition is discussed in detail. Some applications including the use of ion implantation for structuring are summarized. (orig.) [de

  15. Analysis of uncertainties caused by the atmospheric dispersion model in accident consequence assessments with UFOMOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, F.; Ehrhardt, J.

    1988-06-01

    Various techniques available for uncertainty analysis of large computer models are applied, described and selected as most appropriate for analyzing the uncertainty in the predictions of accident consequence assessments. The investigation refers to the atmospheric dispersion and deposition submodel (straight-line Gaussian plume model) of UFOMOD, whose most important input variables and parameters are linked with probability distributions derived from expert judgement. Uncertainty bands show how much variability exists, sensitivity measures determine what causes this variability in consequences. Results are presented as confidence bounds of complementary cumulative frequency distributions (CCFDs) of activity concentrations, organ doses and health effects, partially as a function of distance from the site. In addition the ranked influence of the uncertain parameters on the different consequence types is shown. For the estimation of confidence bounds it was sufficient to choose a model parameter sample size of n (n=59) equal to 1.5 times the number of uncertain model parameters. Different samples or an increase of sample size did not change the 5%-95% - confidence bands. To get statistically stable results of the sensitivity analysis, larger sample sizes are needed (n=100, 200). Random or Latin-hypercube sampling schemes as tools for uncertainty and sensitivity analyses led to comparable results. (orig.) [de

  16. COMPARISON OF CONSEQUENCE ANALYSIS RESULTS FROM TWO METHODS OF PROCESSING SITE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , D

    2007-01-01

    Consequence analysis to support documented safety analysis requires the use of one or more years of representative meteorological data for atmospheric transport and dispersion calculations. At minimum, the needed meteorological data for most atmospheric transport and dispersion models consist of hourly samples of wind speed and atmospheric stability class. Atmospheric stability is inferred from measured and/or observed meteorological data. Several methods exist to convert measured and observed meteorological data into atmospheric stability class data. In this paper, one year of meteorological data from a western Department of Energy (DOE) site is processed to determine atmospheric stability class using two methods. The method that is prescribed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for supporting licensing of nuclear power plants makes use of measurements of vertical temperature difference to determine atmospheric stability. Another method that is preferred by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) relies upon measurements of incoming solar radiation, vertical temperature gradient, and wind speed. Consequences are calculated and compared using the two sets of processed meteorological data from these two methods as input data into the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System 2 (MACCS2) code

  17. A Consequence Analysis of the Explosion of Spherical Tanks Containing Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Zareei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A consequence analysis was performed in one of the gas refineries in Iran to investigate the risks andpotential losses resulted from accidents. Specifically, the consequences of an explosion in LPGspherical tanks were modeled using PHAST and MATLAB software. In this paper, three methods ofcalculation of PHAST software TNT, multi-energy, and BST were used. The results showed thatmulti energy method is the best method to evaluate overpressure. It was 0.150 bar and 0.159 bar in adistance of 1000 m far from the blast using PHAST and MATLAB respectively. This overpressurecan damage a wall with 30 cm thickness. It also affects the human threshold (1% ruptured eardrum.Finally, it was found that 100% lethality in a minute happened at 285.5 m and 37.5 kW/m2 when theexplosion happened.

  18. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project

  19. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.; Hora, S.C.; Lui, C.H.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M.; Paesler-Sauer, J.; Helton, J.C.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of the joint effort was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. Experts developed their distributions independently. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. To validate the distributions generated for the dispersion code input variables, samples from the distributions and propagated through the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the first of a three-volume document describing the project

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment, appendices A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hora, S.C. [Univ. of Hawaii, Hilo, HI (United States); Lui, C.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Goossens, L.H.J.; Cooke, R.M. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands); Paesler-Sauer, J. [Research Center, Karlsruhe (Germany); Helton, J.C. [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the second of a three-volume document describing the project and contains two appendices describing the rationales for the dispersion and deposition data along with short biographies of the 16 experts who participated in the project.

  1. Sensitive analysis and modifications to reflood-related constitutive models of RELAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dong; Liu Xiaojing; Yang Yanhua

    2014-01-01

    Previous system code calculation reveals that the cladding temperature is underestimated and quench front appears too early during reflood process. To find out the parameters shows important effect on the results, sensitive analysis is performed on parameters of constitutive physical models. Based on the phenomenological and theoretical analysis, four parameters are selected: wall to vapor film boiling heat transfer coefficient, wall to liquid film boiling heat transfer coefficient, dry wall interfacial friction coefficient and minimum droplet diameter. In order to improve the reflood simulation ability of RELAP5 code, the film boiling heat transfer model and dry wall interfacial friction model which are corresponding models of those influential parameters are studied. Modifications have been made and installed into RELAP5 code. Six tests of FEBA are simulated by RELAP5 to study the predictability of reflood-related physical models. A dispersed flow film boiling heat transfer (DFFB) model is applied when void fraction is above 0.9. And a factor is multiplied to the post-CHF drag coefficient to fit the experiment better. Finally, the six FEBA tests are calculated again so as to assess the modifications. Better results are obtained which prove the advantage of the modified models. (author)

  2. Risk-oriented analysis of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300: off-site accident consequence model and results of the study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayer, A.; Ehrhardt, J.

    1984-01-01

    Accident off-site consequence calculations and risk assessments performed for the ''risk oriented analysis'' of the German prototype fast breeder reactor SNR-300 were performed with a modified version of the off-site accident consequence model UFOMOD. The modifications mainly relate to the deposition and resuspension processes, the ingestion model, and the dose factors. Consequence calculations at the site of Kalkar on the Rhine River were performed for 115 weather sequences in 36 wind directions. They were based on seven release categories evaluated for the SNR-300 with two different fueling strategies: plutonium from Magnox reactors only and plutonium from light water reactors and Magnox reactors. In parallel, the corresponding frequencies of occurrence are determined. The following results are generated: 1. complementary cumulative frequency distribution functions for collective fatalities and collective doses 2. expected values of the collective fatalities and collective doses as well as distance-dependent expected values of individual fatality 3. contributions of the different exposure pathways to fatalities with respect to the various organs. For comparison with the risk of a PWR-1300, calculations for the PWR-1300 of the ''German Risk Study'' were repeated with the same modified consequence model. Comparison shows that smaller risks result for the SNR-300. However, the confidence interval bandwidths obtained for the frequencies of the release categories for the SNR-300 are larger than those of the PWR-1300

  3. An integrative analysis of post-translational histone modifications in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    KAUST Repository

    Veluchamy, Alaguraj

    2015-05-20

    Background: Nucleosomes are the building blocks of chromatin where gene regulation takes place. Chromatin landscapes have been profiled for several species, providing insights into the fundamental mechanisms of chromatin-mediated transcriptional regulation of gene expression. However, knowledge is missing for several major and deep-branching eukaryotic groups, such as the Stramenopiles, which include the diatoms. Diatoms are highly diverse and ubiquitous species of phytoplankton that play a key role in global biogeochemical cycles. Dissecting chromatin-mediated regulation of genes in diatoms will help understand the ecological success of these organisms in contemporary oceans. Results: Here, we use high resolution mass spectrometry to identify a full repertoire of post-translational modifications on histones of the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum, including eight novel modifications. We map five histone marks coupled with expression data and show that P. tricornutum displays both unique and broadly conserved chromatin features, reflecting the chimeric nature of its genome. Combinatorial analysis of histone marks and DNA methylation demonstrates the presence of an epigenetic code defining activating or repressive chromatin states. We further profile three specific histone marks under conditions of nitrate depletion and show that the histone code is dynamic and targets specific sets of genes. Conclusions: This study is the first genome-wide characterization of the histone code from a stramenopile and a marine phytoplankton. The work represents an important initial step for understanding the evolutionary history of chromatin and how epigenetic modifications affect gene expression in response to environmental cues in marine environments. © 2015 Veluchamy et al.

  4. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 34 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: number of early fatalities, number of cases of prodromal vomiting, population dose within 10 mi of the reactor, population dose within 1000 mi of the reactor, individual early fatality probability within 1 mi of the reactor, and maximum early fatality distance. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: scaling factor for horizontal dispersion, dry deposition velocity, inhalation protection factor for nonevacuees, groundshine shielding factor for nonevacuees, early fatality hazard function alpha value for bone marrow exposure, and scaling factor for vertical dispersion

  5. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bootkul, D.; Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U.; Wanthanachaisaeng, B.; Intarasiri, S.

    2015-12-01

    Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al2O3) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV-Vis-NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  6. Potential Indoor Worker Exposure From Handling Area Leakage: Dose Calculation Methodology and Example Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nes, Razvan; Benke, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently considering design options for preclosure facilities in a license application for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) developed the PCSA Tool Version 3.0.0 software for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to aid in the regulatory review of a potential DOE license application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate PCSA Tool modeling capabilities (i.e., a generic two-compartment, mass-balance model) for estimating radionuclide concentrations in air and radiological dose consequences to indoor workers in a control room from potential leakage of radioactively contaminated air from an adjacent handling area. The presented model computes internal and external worker doses from inhalation and submersion in a finite cloud of contaminated air in the control room and augments previous capabilities for assessing indoor worker dose. As a complement to the example event sequence frequency analysis in the companion paper, example consequence calculations are presented in this paper for the postulated event sequence. In conclusion: this paper presents a model for estimating radiological doses to indoor workers for the leakage of airborne radioactive material from handling areas. Sensitivity of model results to changes in various input parameters was investigated via illustrative example calculations. Indoor worker dose estimates were strongly dependent on the duration of worker exposure and the handling-area leakage flow rate. In contrast, doses were not very sensitive to handling-area exhaust ventilation flow rates. For the presented example, inhalation was the dominant radiological dose pathway. The two companion papers demonstrate independent analysis capabilities of the regulator for performing confirmatory calculations of frequency and consequence, which assist the assessment of worker

  7. FEATUREOUS: AN INTEGRATED ENVIRONMENT FOR FEATURE-CENTRIC ANALYSIS AND MODIFICATION OF OBJECT-ORIENTED SOFTWARE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    The decentralized nature of collaborations between objects in object-oriented software makes it difficult to understand the implementations of user-observable program features and their respective interdependencies. As feature-centric program understanding and modification are essential during...... software maintenance and evolution, this situation needs to change. In this paper, we present Featureous, an integrated development environment built on top of the NetBeans IDE that facilitates feature-centric analysis of object-oriented software. Our integrated development environment encompasses...... a lightweight feature location mechanism, a number of reusable analytical views, and necessary APIs for supporting future extensions. The base of the integrated development environment is a conceptual framework comprising of three complementary dimensions of comprehension: perspective, abstraction...

  8. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification Interventions for Substance Addictions: A Meta-Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristea, Ioana; Kok, Robin; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM for substance addiction outcomes. Methods Studies...... were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. We included RCTs of CBM interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, for any type of addiction. We examined trial risk of bias, publication bias and possible moderators. Effects sizes were computed for post......-test and follow-up, using a random-effects model. We grouped outcome measures and reported results for addiction (all related measures), craving and cognitive bias. Results We identified 25 trials, 18 for alcohol problems, and 7 for smoking. At post-test, there was no significant effect of CBM for addiction, g...

  9. Sensitivity Analysis of Weather Variables on Offsite Consequence Analysis Tools in South Korea and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Uk; Moon, Kyong Whan; Sohn, Jong-Ryeul; Byeon, Sang-Hoon

    2018-05-18

    We studied sensitive weather variables for consequence analysis, in the case of chemical leaks on the user side of offsite consequence analysis (OCA) tools. We used OCA tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA) and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA) in South Korea and the United States, respectively. The chemicals used for this analysis were 28% ammonia (NH₃), 35% hydrogen chloride (HCl), 50% hydrofluoric acid (HF), and 69% nitric acid (HNO₃). The accident scenarios were based on leakage accidents in storage tanks. The weather variables were air temperature, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric stability. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) program for dummy regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis showed that impact distance was not sensitive to humidity. Impact distance was most sensitive to atmospheric stability, and was also more sensitive to air temperature than wind speed, according to both the KORA and ALOHA tools. Moreover, the weather variables were more sensitive in rural conditions than in urban conditions, with the ALOHA tool being more influenced by weather variables than the KORA tool. Therefore, if using the ALOHA tool instead of the KORA tool in rural conditions, users should be careful not to cause any differences in impact distance due to input errors of weather variables, with the most sensitive one being atmospheric stability.

  10. Sensitivity Analysis of Weather Variables on Offsite Consequence Analysis Tools in South Korea and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Uk Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied sensitive weather variables for consequence analysis, in the case of chemical leaks on the user side of offsite consequence analysis (OCA tools. We used OCA tools Korea Offsite Risk Assessment (KORA and Areal Location of Hazardous Atmospheres (ALOHA in South Korea and the United States, respectively. The chemicals used for this analysis were 28% ammonia (NH3, 35% hydrogen chloride (HCl, 50% hydrofluoric acid (HF, and 69% nitric acid (HNO3. The accident scenarios were based on leakage accidents in storage tanks. The weather variables were air temperature, wind speed, humidity, and atmospheric stability. Sensitivity analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS program for dummy regression analysis. Sensitivity analysis showed that impact distance was not sensitive to humidity. Impact distance was most sensitive to atmospheric stability, and was also more sensitive to air temperature than wind speed, according to both the KORA and ALOHA tools. Moreover, the weather variables were more sensitive in rural conditions than in urban conditions, with the ALOHA tool being more influenced by weather variables than the KORA tool. Therefore, if using the ALOHA tool instead of the KORA tool in rural conditions, users should be careful not to cause any differences in impact distance due to input errors of weather variables, with the most sensitive one being atmospheric stability.

  11. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bootkul, D., E-mail: mo_duangkhae@hotmail.com [Department of General Science - Gems & Jewelry, Faculty of Science, Srinakharinwirot University, Bangkok 10110 (Thailand); Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U. [Plasma and Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wanthanachaisaeng, B. [Gems Enhancement Research Unit, Faculty of Gems, Burapha University, Chanthaburi Campus, Chanthaburi 22170 (Thailand); Intarasiri, S., E-mail: saweat@gmail.com [Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Ion beam analysis is an effective method for detecting trace elements. • Ion beam treatment is able to improve optical and color appearances of the blue sapphire from Rwanda. • These alternative methods can be extended to jewelry industry for large scale application. - Abstract: Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV–Vis–NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  12. Analysis and modification of blue sapphires from Rwanda by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bootkul, D.; Chaiwai, C.; Tippawan, U.; Wanthanachaisaeng, B.; Intarasiri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ion beam analysis is an effective method for detecting trace elements. • Ion beam treatment is able to improve optical and color appearances of the blue sapphire from Rwanda. • These alternative methods can be extended to jewelry industry for large scale application. - Abstract: Blue sapphire is categorised in a corundum (Al_2O_3) group. The gems of this group are always amazed by their beauties and thus having high value. In this study, blue sapphires from Rwanda, recently came to Thai gemstone industry, are chosen for investigations. On one hand, we have applied Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE), which is a highly sensitive and precise analytical technique that can be used to identify and quantify trace elements, for chemical analysis of the sapphires. Here we have found that the major element of blue sapphires from Rwanda is Al with trace elements such as Fe, Ti, Cr, Ga and Mg as are commonly found in normal blue sapphire. On the other hand, we have applied low and medium ion implantations for color improvement of the sapphire. It seems that a high amount of energy transferring during cascade collisions have altered the gems properties. We have clearly seen that the blue color of the sapphires have been intensified after nitrogen ion bombardment. In addition, the gems were also having more transparent and luster. The UV–Vis–NIR measurement detected the modification of their absorption properties, implying of the blue color increasing. Here the mechanism of these modifications is postulated and reported. In any point of view, the bombardment by using nitrogen ion beam is a promising technique for quality improvement of the blue sapphire from Rwanda.

  13. Cassini Spacecraft Uncertainty Analysis Data and Methodology Review and Update/Volume 1: Updated Parameter Uncertainty Models for the Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WHEELER, TIMOTHY A.; WYSS, GREGORY D.; HARPER, FREDERICK T.

    2000-11-01

    Uncertainty distributions for specific parameters of the Cassini General Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) Final Safety Analysis Report consequence risk analysis were revised and updated. The revisions and updates were done for all consequence parameters for which relevant information exists from the joint project on Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Commission of European Communities.

  14. Modification of MELCOR for severe accident analysis of candidate accident tolerant cladding materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrill, Brad J., E-mail: brad.merrill@inl.gov; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M., E-mail: shannon.bragg-sitton@inl.gov; Humrickhouse, Paul W., E-mail: paul.humrickhouse@inl.gov

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Accident tolerant fuels (ATF) systems are currently under development for LWRs. • Many performance analysis tools are specifically developed for UO{sub 2}–Zr alloy fuel. • Modifications were made to the MELCOR code for candidate ATF cladding. • Preliminary analysis results for SiC and FeCrAl cladding concepts are presented. - Abstract: A number of materials are currently under development as candidate accident tolerant fuel and cladding for application in the current fleet of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the nuclear industry. Continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to the industry’s success. Enhancing the accident tolerance of light water reactors became a topic of serious discussion following the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex. The overall goal for the development of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) systems for LWRs is to identify alternative fuel system technologies to further enhance the safety, competitiveness, and economics of commercial nuclear power. Designed for use in the current fleet of commercial LWRs, or in reactor concepts with design certifications (GEN-III+), to achieve their goal enhanced ATF must endure loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer period of time than the current fuel system, while maintaining or improving performance during normal operation. Many available nuclear fuel performance analysis tools are specifically developed for the current UO{sub 2}–Zirconium alloy fuel system. The MELCOR severe-accident analysis code, under development at the Sandia National Laboratory in New Mexico (SNL-NM) for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), is one of these tools. This paper describes modifications

  15. Cost-consequence analysis of different active flowable hemostatic matrices in cardiac surgical procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhija, D; Rock, M; Xiong, Y; Epstein, J D; Arnold, M R; Lattouf, O M; Calcaterra, D

    2017-06-01

    A recent retrospective comparative effectiveness study found that use of the FLOSEAL Hemostatic Matrix in cardiac surgery was associated with significantly lower risks of complications, blood transfusions, surgical revisions, and shorter length of surgery than use of SURGIFLO Hemostatic Matrix. These outcome improvements in cardiac surgery procedures may translate to economic savings for hospitals and payers. The objective of this study was to estimate the cost-consequence of two flowable hemostatic matrices (FLOSEAL or SURGIFLO) in cardiac surgeries for US hospitals. A cost-consequence model was constructed using clinical outcomes from a previously published retrospective comparative effectiveness study of FLOSEAL vs SURGIFLO in adult cardiac surgeries. The model accounted for the reported differences between these products in length of surgery, rates of major and minor complications, surgical revisions, and blood product transfusions. Costs were derived from Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's National Inpatient Sample (NIS) 2012 database and converted to 2015 US dollars. Savings were modeled for a hospital performing 245 cardiac surgeries annually, as identified as the average for hospitals in the NIS dataset. One-way sensitivity analysis and probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed to test model robustness. The results suggest that if FLOSEAL is utilized in a hospital that performs 245 mixed cardiac surgery procedures annually, 11 major complications, 31 minor complications, nine surgical revisions, 79 blood product transfusions, and 260.3 h of cumulative operating time could be avoided. These improved outcomes correspond to a net annualized saving of $1,532,896. Cost savings remained consistent between $1.3m and $1.8m and between $911k and $2.4m, even after accounting for the uncertainty around clinical and cost inputs, in a one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analysis, respectively. Outcome differences associated with FLOSEAL vs SURGIFLO

  16. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of 1-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season

  17. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS Reactor Accident Consequence Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  18. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of food pathway results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; Rollstin, J.A.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the food pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 87 imprecisely-known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, milk growing-season dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, area dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, condemnation area, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: fraction of cesium deposition on grain fields that is retained on plant surfaces and transferred directly to grain, maximum allowable ground concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 for production of crops, ground concentrations of Cs-134, Cs-137 and I-131 at which the disposal of milk will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, ground concentrations of Cs-134, I-131 and Sr-90 at which the disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season, rate of depletion of Cs-137 and Sr-90 from the root zone, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, transfer of Cs-137 from soil to pasture, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meat, and the transfer of cesium, iodine and strontium from animal feed to milk

  19. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of chronic exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C; Johnson, J.D; Rollstin, J.A; Shiver, A.W; Sprung, J.L

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis are used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the chronic exposure pathways associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The primary purpose of this study is to provide guidance on the variables to be considered in future review work to reduce the uncertainty in the important variables used in the calculation of reactor accident consequences. The effects of 75 imprecisely known input variables on the following reactor accident consequences are studied: crop growing-season dose, crop long-term dose, water ingestion dose, milk growing-season dose, long-term groundshine dose, long-term inhalation dose, total food pathways dose, total ingestion pathways dose, total long-term pathways dose, total latent cancer fatalities, area-dependent cost, crop disposal cost, milk disposal cost, population-dependent cost, total economic cost, condemnation area, condemnation population, crop disposal area and milk disposal area. When the predicted variables are considered collectively, the following input variables were found to be the dominant contributors to uncertainty: dry deposition velocity, transfer of cesium from animal feed to milk, transfer of cesium from animal feed to meet, ground concentration of Cs-134 at which the disposal of milk products will be initiated, transfer of Sr-90 from soil to legumes, maximum allowable ground concentration of Sr-90 for production of crops, fraction of cesium entering surface water that is consumed in drinking water, groundshine shielding factor, scale factor defining resuspension, dose reduction associated with decontamination, and ground concentration of I-131 at which disposal of crops will be initiated due to accidents that occur during the growing season. Reducing the uncertainty in the preceding variables was found to substantially reduce the uncertainty in the

  20. Evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on Consequence Estimation through Sensitivity Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyanapu, A. J.; Thames, B. A.

    2013-12-01

    Dam breach modeling often includes application of models that are sophisticated, yet computationally intensive to compute flood propagation at high temporal and spatial resolutions. This results in a significant need for computational capacity that requires development of newer flood models using multi-processor and graphics processing techniques. Recently, a comprehensive benchmark exercise titled the 12th Benchmark Workshop on Numerical Analysis of Dams, is organized by the International Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) to evaluate the performance of these various tools used for dam break risk assessment. The ICOLD workshop is focused on estimating the consequences of failure of a hypothetical dam near a hypothetical populated area with complex demographics, and economic activity. The current study uses this hypothetical case study and focuses on evaluating the effects of dam breach methodologies on consequence estimation and analysis. The current study uses ICOLD hypothetical data including the topography, dam geometric and construction information, land use/land cover data along with socio-economic and demographic data. The objective of this study is to evaluate impacts of using four different dam breach methods on the consequence estimates used in the risk assessments. The four methodologies used are: i) Froehlich (1995), ii) MacDonald and Langridge-Monopolis 1984 (MLM), iii) Von Thun and Gillete 1990 (VTG), and iv) Froehlich (2008). To achieve this objective, three different modeling components were used. First, using the HEC-RAS v.4.1, dam breach discharge hydrographs are developed. These hydrographs are then provided as flow inputs into a two dimensional flood model named Flood2D-GPU, which leverages the computer's graphics card for much improved computational capabilities of the model input. Lastly, outputs from Flood2D-GPU, including inundated areas, depth grids, velocity grids, and flood wave arrival time grids, are input into HEC-FIA, which provides the

  1. Accident Damage Analysis Module (ADAM) – Technical Guidance, Software tool for Consequence Analysis calculations

    OpenAIRE

    FABBRI LUCIANO; BINDA MASSIMO; BRUINEN DE BRUIN YURI

    2017-01-01

    This report provides a technical description of the modelling and assumptions of the Accident Damage Analysis Module (ADAM) software application, which has been recently developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission (EC) to assess physical effects of an industrial accident resulting from an unintended release of a dangerous substance

  2. Hypervelocity Impact Test Fragment Modeling: Modifications to the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouge, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests on test satellites are performed by members of the orbital debris scientific community in order to understand and typify the on-orbit collision breakup process. By analysis of these test satellite fragments, the fragment size and mass distributions are derived and incorporated into various orbital debris models. These same fragments are currently being put to new use using emerging technologies. Digital models of these fragments are created using a laser scanner. A group of computer programs referred to as the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve code uses these digital representations in a multitude of ways that describe, measure, and model on-orbit fragments and fragment behavior. The Dynamic Rotation subroutine generates all of the possible reflected intensities from a scanned fragment as if it were observed to rotate dynamically while in orbit about the Earth. This calls an additional subroutine that graphically displays the intensities and the resulting frequency of those intensities as a range of solar phase angles in a Probability Density Function plot. This document reports the additions and modifications to the subset of the Fragment Rotation Analysis and Lightcurve concerned with the Dynamic Rotation and Probability Density Function plotting subroutines.

  3. Modifications Of Discrete Ordinate Method For Computations With High Scattering Anisotropy: Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkin, Sergey V.; Lyapustin, Alexei I.; Rozanov, Vladimir V.

    2012-01-01

    A numerical accuracy analysis of the radiative transfer equation (RTE) solution based on separation of the diffuse light field into anisotropic and smooth parts is presented. The analysis uses three different algorithms based on the discrete ordinate method (DOM). Two methods, DOMAS and DOM2+, that do not use the truncation of the phase function, are compared against the TMS-method. DOMAS and DOM2+ use the Small-Angle Modification of RTE and the single scattering term, respectively, as an anisotropic part. The TMS method uses Delta-M method for truncation of the phase function along with the single scattering correction. For reference, a standard discrete ordinate method, DOM, is also included in analysis. The obtained results for cases with high scattering anisotropy show that at low number of streams (16, 32) only DOMAS provides an accurate solution in the aureole area. Outside of the aureole, the convergence and accuracy of DOMAS, and TMS is found to be approximately similar: DOMAS was found more accurate in cases with coarse aerosol and liquid water cloud models, except low optical depth, while the TMS showed better results in case of ice cloud.

  4. Labor Migration from Ukraine to the EU: an Analysis of Characteristics and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezrukova Nataliya V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing characteristics of labor migration from Ukraine to the European Union and evaluating the possible consequences of this process, as well as determining the future development trends in terms of emigration from Ukraine. The main directions of labor migration from Ukraine have been examined. An estimation of the volume of labor migration has been provided. Data about the socio-demographic characteristics of migrants have been presented. It is specified that the process of emigration has both positive and negative consequences for our country. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of employment settings of migrants in the Member States of the European Union. The main causes of emigration from Ukraine, among which both unemployment and low wages, have been allocated. The authors prove that the average monthly salary of Ukrainian migrants in the EU Member States is much higher than in Ukraine. On the basis of the carried out study has been concluded that labor migration from Ukraine to the EU has important socio-economic importance to our State. At the same time, signing of the Association agreement between Ukraine, on the one hand, and the European Union, the European Atomic Energy Community and their Member States, on the other hand, as well as introduction of a visa-free regime, will contribute to an increase in the number of labor migrants.

  5. Meta-analysis of the antecedent and consequent constructs of materialism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Oliveira Santini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Materialism has been gaining ground in the academic field, especially from the 1980s on, given the relevance of understanding sentiments connected to possessing and acquiring goods. Thus, this meta-analysis was carried out to assess the antecedents and consequents of materialism. Design/methodology/approach – Based on a systematic review, we gathered a total 77 articles that examined those aspects, generating 99 effects-sizes and a cumulative sample of 40,288 studied individuals. Findings – The antecedents of materialism that showed a significant relationship with this construct were: perceived hedonic value, interpersonal influence, life satisfaction, and income. As for the consequents, we observed significance for purchase intention, impulsive buying, compulsive buying, conspicuous consumption, status consumption, and consumer involvement. Regarding the moderating effect, we observed that small samples produce greater effects. Furthermore, for the relationship between materialism and purchase intention, there are stronger effects for surveys conducted in Western countries. Originality/value – Based on the methodology applied in this study, we expected a solid and generalizable contribution regarding construct materialism.

  6. Modification of computational auditory scene analysis (CASA) for noise-robust acoustic feature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Minseok

    While there have been many attempts to mitigate interferences of background noise, the performance of automatic speech recognition (ASR) still can be deteriorated by various factors with ease. However, normal hearing listeners can accurately perceive sounds of their interests, which is believed to be a result of Auditory Scene Analysis (ASA). As a first attempt, the simulation of the human auditory processing, called computational auditory scene analysis (CASA), was fulfilled through physiological and psychological investigations of ASA. CASA comprised of Zilany-Bruce auditory model, followed by tracking fundamental frequency for voice segmentation and detecting pairs of onset/offset at each characteristic frequency (CF) for unvoiced segmentation. The resulting Time-Frequency (T-F) representation of acoustic stimulation was converted into acoustic feature, gammachirp-tone frequency cepstral coefficients (GFCC). 11 keywords with various environmental conditions are used and the robustness of GFCC was evaluated by spectral distance (SD) and dynamic time warping distance (DTW). In "clean" and "noisy" conditions, the application of CASA generally improved noise robustness of the acoustic feature compared to a conventional method with or without noise suppression using MMSE estimator. The intial study, however, not only showed the noise-type dependency at low SNR, but also called the evaluation methods in question. Some modifications were made to capture better spectral continuity from an acoustic feature matrix, to obtain faster processing speed, and to describe the human auditory system more precisely. The proposed framework includes: 1) multi-scale integration to capture more accurate continuity in feature extraction, 2) contrast enhancement (CE) of each CF by competition with neighboring frequency bands, and 3) auditory model modifications. The model modifications contain the introduction of higher Q factor, middle ear filter more analogous to human auditory system

  7. Metformin and lifestyle modification in polycystic ovary syndrome: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderpoor, Negar; Shorakae, Soulmaz; de Courten, Barbora; Misso, Marie L; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder with diverse reproductive and metabolic features. It is underpinned by insulin resistance that is exacerbated by obesity. Lifestyle modification is the first line treatment in PCOS, but it is associated with low adherence and sustainability. In small studies, metformin improves outcomes such as hyperinsulinaemia, ovulation and menstrual cyclicity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the effect of lifestyle modification + metformin with lifestyle modification ± placebo, and of metformin alone with lifestyle modification ± placebo in PCOS on anthropometric, metabolic, reproductive and psychological outcomes. Databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Clinical Trials registry and ANZCTR were searched for RCTs conducted on humans and published in English up to August 2014. Inclusion criteria were diagnosis of PCOS based on Rotterdam criteria (inclusive of National Institutes of Health criteria) at any age and with any BMI. Interventions of interest included lifestyle + metformin (with any dose and any duration) or metformin alone compared with lifestyle ± placebo. Of 2372 identified studies, 12 RCTs were included for analysis comprising 608 women with PCOS. Lifestyle + metformin were associated with lower BMI (mean difference (MD) -0.73 kg/m(2), 95% confidence intervals (CI) -1.14, -0.32, P = 0.0005) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (MD -92.49 cm(2), 95% CI -164.14, -20.84, P = 0.01) and increased number of menstrual cycles (MD 1.06, 95% CI 0.30, 1.82, P = 0.006) after 6 months compared with lifestyle ± placebo. There were no differences in other anthropometric, metabolic (surrogate markers of insulin resistance, fasting and area under the curve glucose, lipids and blood pressure), reproductive (clinical and biochemical hyperandrogenism), and psychological (quality of life) outcomes after 6 months between lifestyle + metformin compared with

  8. RASCAL 4.l: evaluation system for the analysis of the radiological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miguel, I. de; Gomez-Arguello, B.

    2012-01-01

    Recently the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) has promoted the replacement of the code used in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants to estimate potential and actual doses due to atmospheric releases. IRDAM Code (interactive Rapid Dose Assessment Model, 1983) by RASCAL Code version 4.1 (Radiological Assessment System for consequence Analysis). This code was developed by the NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) to evaluate releases from nuclear power plants, spent fuel storage pools and casks, fuel cycle facilities and radioactive material handling facilities. RASCAL was officially requested to the Spanish nuclear power plants in February 1st, 2012, and it can be used for external dose assessment and to evaluate the recommended protective action for the public in a specific situation (sheltering, prophylaxis, evacuation, etc.). (Author)

  9. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homma, Toshimitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Takahashi, Tomoyuki [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Yonehara, Hidenori [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)] [eds.

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  10. Health effects models for off-site radiological consequence analysis on nuclear reactor accidents (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Toshimitsu

    2000-12-01

    This report is a revision of JAERI-M 91-005, 'Health Effects Models for Off-Site Radiological Consequence Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Accidents'. This revision provides a review of two revisions of NUREG/CR-4214 reports by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission which is the basis of the JAERI health effects models and other several recent reports that may impact the health effects models by international organizations. The major changes to the first version of the JAERI health effects models and the recommended parameters in this report are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. This report also provides suggestions about future revisions of computational aspects on health effects models. (author)

  11. Accident consequence analysis models applied to licensing process of nuclear installations, radioactive and conventional industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senne Junior, Murillo; Vasconcelos, Vanderley de; Jordao, Elizabete

    2002-01-01

    The industrial accidents happened in the last years, particularly in the eighty's decade, had contributed in a significant way to call the attention to government authorities, industry and society as a whole, demanding mechanisms for preventing episodes that could affect people's safety and environment quality. Techniques and methods already thoroughly used in the nuclear, aeronautic and war industries were then adapted for performing analysis and evaluation of the risks associated to other industrial activities, especially in the petroleum, chemistry and petrochemical areas. Some models for analyzing the consequences of accidents involving fire and explosion, used in the licensing processes of nuclear and radioactive facilities, are presented in this paper. These models have also application in the licensing of conventional industrial facilities. (author)

  12. A cost-consequences analysis of a primary care librarian question and answering service.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie McGowan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cost consequences analysis was completed from randomized controlled trial (RCT data for the Just-in-time (JIT librarian consultation service in primary care that ran from October 2005 to April 2006. The service was aimed at providing answers to clinical questions arising during the clinical encounter while the patient waits. Cost saving and cost avoidance were also analyzed. The data comes from eighty-eight primary care providers in the Ottawa area working in Family Health Networks (FHNs and Family Health Groups (FHGs. METHODS: We conducted a cost consequences analysis based on data from the JIT project. We also estimated the potential economic benefit of JIT librarian consultation service to the health care system. RESULTS: The results show that the cost per question for the JIT service was $38.20. The cost could be as low as $5.70 per question for a regular service. Nationally, if this service was implemented and if family physicians saw additional patients when the JIT service saved them time, up to 61,100 extra patients could be seen annually. A conservative estimate of the cost savings and cost avoidance per question for JIT was $11.55. CONCLUSIONS: The cost per question, if the librarian service was used at full capacity, is quite low. Financial savings to the health care system might exceed the cost of the service. Saving physician's time during their day could potentially lead to better access to family physicians by patients. Implementing a librarian consultation service can happen quickly as the time required to train professional librarians to do this service is short.

  13. Demonstration uncertainty/sensitivity analysis using the health and economic consequence model CRAC2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, D.J.; Iman, R.L.; Johnson, J.D.; Helton, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    The techniques for performing uncertainty/sensitivity analyses compiled as part of the MELCOR program appear to be well suited for use with a health and economic consequence model. Two replicate samples of size 50 gave essentially identical results, indicating that for this case, a Latin hypercube sample of size 50 seems adequate to represent the distribution of results. Though the intent of this study was a demonstration of uncertainty/sensitivity analysis techniques, a number of insights relevant to health and economic consequence modeling can be gleaned: uncertainties in early deaths are significantly greater than uncertainties in latent cancer deaths; though the magnitude of the source term is the largest source of variation in estimated distributions of early deaths, a number of additional parameters are also important; even with the release fractions for a full SST1, one quarter of the CRAC2 runs gave no early deaths; and comparison of the estimates of mean early deaths for a full SST1 release in this study with those of recent point estimates for similar conditions indicates that the recent estimates may be significant overestimations of early deaths. Estimates of latent cancer deaths, however, are roughly comparable. An analysis of the type described here can provide insights in a number of areas. First, the variability in the results gives an indication of the potential uncertainty associated with the calculations. Second, the sensitivity of the results to assumptions about the input variables can be determined. Research efforts can then be concentrated on reducing the uncertainty in the variables which are the largest contributors to uncertainty in results

  14. Risk-based input-output analysis of influenza epidemic consequences on interdependent workforce sectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Joost R; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-09-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This article investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the national capital region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Quantitative Analysis of MicroRNAs in Vaccinia virus Infection Reveals Diversity in Their Susceptibility to Modification and Suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy H Buck

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV is a large cytoplasmic DNA virus that causes dramatic alterations to many cellular pathways including microRNA biogenesis. The virus encodes a poly(A polymerase which was previously shown to add poly(A tails to the 3' end of cellular miRNAs, resulting in their degradation by 24 hours post infection (hpi. Here we used small RNA sequencing to quantify the impact of VACV infection on cellular miRNAs in human cells at both early (6 h and late (24 h times post infection. A detailed quantitative analysis of individual miRNAs revealed marked diversity in the extent of their modification and relative change in abundance during infection. Some miRNAs became highly modified (e.g. miR-29a-3p, miR-27b-3p whereas others appeared resistant (e.g. miR-16-5p. Furthermore, miRNAs that were highly tailed at 6 hpi were not necessarily among the most reduced at 24 hpi. These results suggest that intrinsic features of human cellular miRNAs cause them to be differentially polyadenylated and altered in abundance during VACV infection. We also demonstrate that intermediate and late VACV gene expression are required for optimal repression of some miRNAs including miR-27-3p. Overall this work reveals complex and varied consequences of VACV infection on host miRNAs and identifies miRNAs which are largely resistant to VACV-induced polyadenylation and are therefore present at functional levels during the initial stages of infection and replication.

  16. Motivation and Consequences of Lying. A Qualitative Analysis of Everyday Lying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Arcimowicz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents findings of qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews with a group of "frequent liars" and another of "rare liars" who provided their subjective perspectives on the phenomenon of lying. Participants in this study previously had maintained a diary of their social interactions and lies over the course of one week, which allowed to assign them to one of the two groups: frequent or rare liars. Thematic analysis of the material followed by elements of theory formulation resulted in an extended lying typology that includes not only the target of the lie (the liar vs. other but also the motivation (protection vs. bringing benefits. We offer an analysis of what prevents from telling the truth, i.e. penalties, relationship losses, distress of the lied-to, and anticipated lack of criticism for telling the truth. We also focus on understanding moderatorsof consequences of lying (significance of the area of life, the type of lie and capacity to understand the liar that can be useful in future studies. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1503318

  17. Cognitive emotional consequences of male infertility in their female partners: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Fatemeh Zahra; Taghipour, Ali; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Mazlom, Seyed Reza; Amirian, Maliheh

    2015-11-01

    Infertility, as a global phenomenon and one of the most important issues of reproductive health, affects women more often than men, even when the infertility is due to a male factor. The purpose of this study was to explore the cognitive emotional experiences of women faced with male infertility. This qualitative study was conducted in 2014-2015 in Mashhad, Iran. The perceptions and experiences of healthy women whose husbands were diagnosed with primary male factor infertility were investigated using a qualitative content analysis approach. Participants were selected through purposeful sampling, and data collection was conducted using in-depth semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis with MAXqda software. Study rigor was verified via criteria proposed by Lincoln and Guba. One main theme emerged through analysis entitled "cognitive emotional reactions confronting infertility diagnosis" with sub-themes of cognitive emotional reactions when confronted with male infertility diagnosis with subthemes of disbelief and denial, fear and apprehension, suffering and emotional distress, disappointment, frustration, confusion, and joy. The diagnosis of male infertility was associated with important emotional cognitive consequences for their female partners. Emotional support, providing new insights into how to treat the issue, and trying to shorten the process of diagnosis are necessary for these women. This kind of support could reduce the psychological effects of confrontation with the diagnosis of male infertility, including social insecurity for women.

  18. An investigation of the relations between fault tree analysis and cause consequence analysis with special reference to a photometry and conductimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1980-02-01

    For an automated photometry and conductimetry system, the relations between cause consequence analysis and fault tree analysis have been investigated. It has been shown how failure combinations of a cause consequence diagram and minimal cuts of a fault tree can be identified. This procedure allows a mutual control of fault tree analysis and cause consequence analysis. From a representation of all failure combinations of the system by means of a matrix we obtain a control of our analysis. Moreover, heuristic rules improving and simplifying the cause consequence analysis can be found. Necessary assumptions for the validity of these rules are discussed. Methodologically, the relation of a fault tree and a cause consequence diagram can be represented (under certain conditions) as a relation of a Boolean function and a binary decision tree. (orig.) 891 HP/orig. 892 MKO [de

  19. Unrestricted Mass Spectrometric Data Analysis for Identification, Localization, and Quantification of Oxidative Protein Modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rykær, Martin; Svensson, Birte; Davies, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    modifications based on so-called "dependent peptides". The strategy involves unrestricted database searches with rigorous filtering focusing on oxidative modifications. The approach was applied to bovine serum albumin and human serum proteins subjected to metal ion-catalyzed oxidation, resulting...

  20. Examination of Conservatism in Ground-level Source Release Assumption when Performing Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-yeop; Lim, Ho-Gon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    One of these assumptions frequently assumed is the assumption of ground-level source release. The user manual of a consequence analysis software HotSpot is mentioning like below: 'If you cannot estimate or calculate the effective release height, the actual physical release height (height of the stack) or zero for ground-level release should be used. This will usually yield a conservative estimate, (i.e., larger radiation doses for all downwind receptors, etc).' This recommendation could be agreed in aspect of conservatism but quantitative examination of the effect of this assumption to the result of consequence analysis is necessary. The source terms of Fukushima Dai-ichi NPP accident have been estimated by several studies using inverse modeling and one of the biggest sources of the difference between the results of these studies was different effective source release height assumed by each studies. It supports the importance of the quantitative examination of the influence by release height. Sensitivity analysis of the effective release height of radioactive sources was performed and the influence to the total effective dose was quantitatively examined in this study. Above 20% difference is maintained even at longer distances, when we compare the dose between the result assuming ground-level release and the results assuming other effective plume height. It means that we cannot ignore the influence of ground-level source assumption to the latent cancer fatality estimations. In addition, the assumption of ground-level release fundamentally prevents detailed analysis including diffusion of plume from effective plume height to the ground even though the influence of it is relatively lower in longer distance. When we additionally consider the influence of surface roughness, situations could be more serious. The ground level dose could be highly over-estimated in short downwind distance at the NPP sites which have low surface roughness such as Barakah site in

  1. Hazard and consequence analysis for waste emplacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerstner, D.M.; Clayton, S.G.; Farrell, R.F.; McCormick, J.A.; Ortiz, C.; Standiford, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    The Carlsbad Area Office established and analyzed the safety bases for the design and operations as documented in the WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR). Additional independent efforts are currently underway to assess the hazards associated with the long-term (10,000 year) isolation period as required by 40 CFR 191. The structure of the WIPP SAR is unique due to the hazards involved, and the agreement between the State of New Mexico and the DOE regarding SAR content and format. However, the hazards and accident analysis philosophy as contained in DOE-STD-3009-94 was followed as closely as possible, while adhering to state agreements. Hazards associated with WIPP waste receipt, emplacement, and disposal operations were systematically identified using a modified Hazard and Operability Study (HAZOP) technique. The WIPP HAZOP assessed the potential internal, external, and natural phenomena events that can cause the identified hazards to develop into accidents. The hazard assessment identified deviations from the intended design and operation of the waste handling system, analyzed potential accident consequences to the public and workers, estimated likelihood of occurrence, and evaluated associated preventative and mitigative features. It was concluded from the assessment that the proposed WIPP waste emplacement operations and design are sufficient to ensure safety of the public, workers, and environment, over the 35 year disposal phase

  2. Social phenotype extended to communities: expanded multilevel social selection analysis reveals fitness consequences of interspecific interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campobello, Daniela; Hare, James F; Sarà, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    In social species, fitness consequences are associated with both individual and social phenotypes. Social selection analysis has quantified the contribution of conspecific social traits to individual fitness. There has been no attempt, however, to apply a social selection approach to quantify the fitness implications of heterospecific social phenotypes. Here, we propose a novel social selection based approach integrating the role of all social interactions at the community level. We extended multilevel selection analysis by including a term accounting for the group phenotype of heterospecifics. We analyzed nest activity as a model social trait common to two species, the lesser kestrel (Falco naumanni) and jackdaw (Corvus monedula), nesting in either single- or mixed-species colonies. By recording reproductive outcome as a measure of relative fitness, our results reveal an asymmetric system wherein only jackdaw breeding performance was affected by the activity phenotypes of both conspecific and heterospecific neighbors. Our model incorporating heterospecific social phenotypes is applicable to animal communities where interacting species share a common social trait, thus allowing an assessment of the selection pressure imposed by interspecific interactions in nature. Finally, we discuss the potential role of ecological limitations accounting for random or preferential assortments among interspecific social phenotypes, and the implications of such processes to community evolution. © 2015 The Author(s).

  3. Consequences of bullying victimization in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sophie E; Norman, Rosana E; Suetani, Shuichi; Thomas, Hannah J; Sly, Peter D; Scott, James G

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify health and psychosocial problems associated with bullying victimization and conduct a meta-analysis summarizing the causal evidence. METHODS A systematic review was conducted using PubMed, EMBASE, ERIC and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 28 February 2015. The study included published longitudinal and cross-sectional articles that examined health and psychosocial consequences of bullying victimization. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria and the grading system developed by the World Cancer Research Fund. RESULTS Out of 317 articles assessed for eligibility, 165 satisfied the predetermined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between bullying victimization and a wide range of adverse health and psychosocial problems. The evidence was strongest for causal associations between bullying victimization and mental health problems such as depression, anxiety, poor general health and suicidal ideation and behaviours. Probable causal associations existed between bullying victimization and tobacco and illicit drug use. CONCLUSION Strong evidence exists for a causal relationship between bullying victimization, mental health problems and substance use. Evidence also exists for associations between bullying victimization and other adverse health and psychosocial problems, however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude causality. The strong evidence that bullying victimization is causative of mental illness highlights the need for schools to implement effective interventions to address bullying behaviours. PMID:28401049

  4. Analysis of Changes in SUMO-2/3 Modification during Breast Cancer Progression and Metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Subramonian, Divya; Raghunayakula, Sarita; Olsen, Jesper V

    2014-01-01

    SUMOylation is an essential posttranslational modification and regulates many cellular processes. Dysregulation of SUMOylation plays a critical role in metastasis, yet how its perturbation affects this lethal process of cancer is not well understood. We found that SUMO-2/3 modification is greatly...... in metastatic cells. Targets with altered SUMOylation are involved in cell cycle, migration, inflammation, glycolysis, gene expression, and SUMO/ubiquitin pathways, suggesting that perturbations of SUMO-2/3 modification might contribute to metastasis by affecting these processes. Consistent with this, up...... progression and metastasis....

  5. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Kurotani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  6. In Silico Analysis of Correlations between Protein Disorder and Post-Translational Modifications in Algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurotani, Atsushi; Sakurai, Tetsuya

    2015-08-20

    Recent proteome analyses have reported that intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) of proteins play important roles in biological processes. In higher plants whose genomes have been sequenced, the correlation between IDRs and post-translational modifications (PTMs) has been reported. The genomes of various eukaryotic algae as common ancestors of plants have also been sequenced. However, no analysis of the relationship to protein properties such as structure and PTMs in algae has been reported. Here, we describe correlations between IDR content and the number of PTM sites for phosphorylation, glycosylation, and ubiquitination, and between IDR content and regions rich in proline, glutamic acid, serine, and threonine (PEST) and transmembrane helices in the sequences of 20 algae proteomes. Phosphorylation, O-glycosylation, ubiquitination, and PEST preferentially occurred in disordered regions. In contrast, transmembrane helices were favored in ordered regions. N-glycosylation tended to occur in ordered regions in most of the studied algae; however, it correlated positively with disordered protein content in diatoms. Additionally, we observed that disordered protein content and the number of PTM sites were significantly increased in the species-specific protein clusters compared to common protein clusters among the algae. Moreover, there were specific relationships between IDRs and PTMs among the algae from different groups.

  7. Dynamic analysis of the photoenhancement process of colloidal quantum dots with different surface modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valledor Llopis, Marta; Campo Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Ferrero Martin, Francisco J [Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica, C y S Universidad de Oviedo, Campus de Gijon s/n, 33204 Gijon, Asturias, (Spain); Coto, Ana Maria; Fernandez-Argueelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, J M; Sanz-Medel, A [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Analitica, Universidad de Oviedo, Campus del Cristo, 33006 Oviedo, Asturias (Spain)

    2011-09-23

    Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is a hot topic addressed in many studies due to its great influence on the bioanalytical performance of such nanoparticles. However, understanding of this process is not a simple task, and it cannot be explained by a general mechanism as it greatly depends on the QDs' nature, solubilization strategies, surrounding environment, etc. In this vein, we have critically compared the behavior of CdSe QDs (widely used in bioanalytical applications) with different surface modifications (ligand exchange and polymer coating), in different controlled experimental conditions, in the presence-absence of the ZnS layer and in different media when exposed for long times to intense UV irradiation. Thus six different types of colloidal QDs were finally studied. This research was carried out from a novel perspective, based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the photoactivation process (of great interest for further applications of QDs as labels in biomedical applications). The results showed a different behavior of the studied colloidal QDs after UV irradiation in terms of their photoluminescence characteristics, potential toxicity due to metal release to the environment, nanoparticle stability and surface coating degradation.

  8. Nonlinear 3-D dynamic time history analysis in the reracking modifications for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    An independent seismic response evaluation of spent fuel storage racks was performed on the reracking modifications for a typical operating pressurized water reactor type nuclear power plant using nonlinear dynamic time history analysis methods per the U. S. nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) criteria. The submerged free standing rack system and surrounding water are coupled due to fluid-structure-interaction effects using potential theory. Three dimensional (3-D) single rack and whole pool multiple rack finite element models were developed with features that allow the consideration of geometrically and materially nonlinearities including (1) the impact of a fuel bundle to a rack cell, a rack to adjacent racks or pool walls, and rack support legs to a pool floor; (2) the hydrodynamic coupling of a fuel assembly with a rack and of a rack with adjacent racks or pool walls; and (3) the tilting and frictional sliding of the rack supports. The methodologies and typical results using a 3-D single rack model as well as a 3-D whole pool multiple rack model developed herein are presented. (orig.)

  9. Dynamic analysis of the photoenhancement process of colloidal quantum dots with different surface modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valledor Llopis, Marta; Campo Rodriguez, Juan Carlos; Ferrero Martin, Francisco J; Coto, Ana Maria; Fernandez-Argueelles, Maria T; Costa-Fernandez, J M; Sanz-Medel, A

    2011-01-01

    Photoinduced fluorescence enhancement of colloidal quantum dots (QDs) is a hot topic addressed in many studies due to its great influence on the bioanalytical performance of such nanoparticles. However, understanding of this process is not a simple task, and it cannot be explained by a general mechanism as it greatly depends on the QDs' nature, solubilization strategies, surrounding environment, etc. In this vein, we have critically compared the behavior of CdSe QDs (widely used in bioanalytical applications) with different surface modifications (ligand exchange and polymer coating), in different controlled experimental conditions, in the presence-absence of the ZnS layer and in different media when exposed for long times to intense UV irradiation. Thus six different types of colloidal QDs were finally studied. This research was carried out from a novel perspective, based on the analysis of the dynamic behavior of the photoactivation process (of great interest for further applications of QDs as labels in biomedical applications). The results showed a different behavior of the studied colloidal QDs after UV irradiation in terms of their photoluminescence characteristics, potential toxicity due to metal release to the environment, nanoparticle stability and surface coating degradation.

  10. Prediction of protein modification sites of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid using mRMR feature selection and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Lu Zheng

    Full Text Available Pyrrolidone carboxylic acid (PCA is formed during a common post-translational modification (PTM of extracellular and multi-pass membrane proteins. In this study, we developed a new predictor to predict the modification sites of PCA based on maximum relevance minimum redundancy (mRMR and incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated 727 features that belonged to 7 kinds of protein properties to predict the modification sites, including sequence conservation, residual disorder, amino acid factor, secondary structure and solvent accessibility, gain/loss of amino acid during evolution, propensity of amino acid to be conserved at protein-protein interface and protein surface, and deviation of side chain carbon atom number. Among these 727 features, 244 features were selected by mRMR and IFS as the optimized features for the prediction, with which the prediction model achieved a maximum of MCC of 0.7812. Feature analysis showed that all feature types contributed to the modification process. Further site-specific feature analysis showed that the features derived from PCA's surrounding sites contributed more to the determination of PCA sites than other sites. The detailed feature analysis in this paper might provide important clues for understanding the mechanism of the PCA formation and guide relevant experimental validations.

  11. A tandem regression-outlier analysis of a ligand cellular system for key structural modifications around ligand binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Ting

    2013-04-30

    A tandem technique of hard equipment is often used for the chemical analysis of a single cell to first isolate and then detect the wanted identities. The first part is the separation of wanted chemicals from the bulk of a cell; the second part is the actual detection of the important identities. To identify the key structural modifications around ligand binding, the present study aims to develop a counterpart of tandem technique for cheminformatics. A statistical regression and its outliers act as a computational technique for separation. A PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma) agonist cellular system was subjected to such an investigation. Results show that this tandem regression-outlier analysis, or the prioritization of the context equations tagged with features of the outliers, is an effective regression technique of cheminformatics to detect key structural modifications, as well as their tendency of impact to ligand binding. The key structural modifications around ligand binding are effectively extracted or characterized out of cellular reactions. This is because molecular binding is the paramount factor in such ligand cellular system and key structural modifications around ligand binding are expected to create outliers. Therefore, such outliers can be captured by this tandem regression-outlier analysis.

  12. Attitudes Toward Genetic Modification Research: An Analysis of the Views of the Sputnik Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jon D.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing data from the 1977 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) survey of young adults, summarizes attitudes toward genetic modification research and the demographic, educational, and occupational correlates of these attitudes. (Author/SK)

  13. Stress analysis on passenger deck due to modification from passenger ship to vehicle-carrying ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaydi, A.; Sujiatanti, S. H.; Hariyanto, T. R.

    2018-03-01

    Stress is a basic concept in learning about material mechanism. The main focus that needs to be brought to attention in analyzing stress is strength, which is the structural capacity to carry or distribute loads. The structural capacity not only measured by comparing the maximum stress with the material’s yield strength but also with the permissible stress required by the Indonesian Classification Bureau (BKI), which certainly makes it much safer. This final project analyzes stress in passenger deck that experiences modification due to load changes, from passenger load to vehicle one, carrying: 6-wheels truck with maximum weight of 14 tons, a passenger car with maximum weight of 3.5 tons, and a motorcycle with maximum weight of 0.4 tons. The deck structure is modelled using finite element software. The boundary conditions given to the structural model are fix and simple constraint. The load that works on this deck is the deck load which comes from the vehicles on deck with three vehicles’ arrangement plans. After that, software modelling is conducted for analysis purpose. Analysis result shows a variation of maximum stress that occurs i.e. 135 N/mm2, 133 N/mm2, and 152 N/mm2. Those maximum stresses will not affect the structure of passenger deck’s because the maximum stress that occurs indicates smaller value compared to the Indonesian Classification Bureau’s permissible stress (175 N/mm2) as well as the material’s yield strength (235 N/mm2). Thus, the structural strength of passenger deck is shown to be capable of carrying the weight of vehicles in accordance with the three vehicles’ arrangement plans.

  14. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 7. Environmental transport and consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Kaiser, G.D.; Runkle, G.E.; Woodard, K.

    1985-08-01

    Consequence models have been designed to assess health and economic risks from potential accidents at nuclear power plants. These models have been applied to an ever increasing variety of problems with ever increasing demands to improve modeling capabilities and provide greater realism. This course discusses the environmental transport of postulated radiological releases and the elements and purpose of accident consequence evaluation

  15. Quantifying the predictive consequences of model error with linear subspace analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Jeremy T.; Doherty, John E.; Hughes, Joseph D.

    2014-01-01

    All computer models are simplified and imperfect simulators of complex natural systems. The discrepancy arising from simplification induces bias in model predictions, which may be amplified by the process of model calibration. This paper presents a new method to identify and quantify the predictive consequences of calibrating a simplified computer model. The method is based on linear theory, and it scales efficiently to the large numbers of parameters and observations characteristic of groundwater and petroleum reservoir models. The method is applied to a range of predictions made with a synthetic integrated surface-water/groundwater model with thousands of parameters. Several different observation processing strategies and parameterization/regularization approaches are examined in detail, including use of the Karhunen-Loève parameter transformation. Predictive bias arising from model error is shown to be prediction specific and often invisible to the modeler. The amount of calibration-induced bias is influenced by several factors, including how expert knowledge is applied in the design of parameterization schemes, the number of parameters adjusted during calibration, how observations and model-generated counterparts are processed, and the level of fit with observations achieved through calibration. Failure to properly implement any of these factors in a prediction-specific manner may increase the potential for predictive bias in ways that are not visible to the calibration and uncertainty analysis process.

  16. The shift to rapid job placement for people living with mental illness: an analysis of consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewurtz, Rebecca E; Cott, Cheryl; Rush, Brian; Kirsh, Bonnie

    2012-12-01

    This article reports on the consequences of the revised policy for employment supports within the Ontario Disability Support Program, a disability benefit program administered by the provincial government in Ontario, Canada. The revised policy involves a change from a fee-for-service model to an outcome-based funding model. This revision has encouraged a shift from preemployment to job placement services, with a particular focus on rapid placement into available jobs. Using a qualitative case study approach, 25 key informant interviews were conducted with individuals involved in developing or implementing the policy, or delivering employment services for individuals living with mental illness under the policy. Policy documents were also reviewed in order to explore the intent of the policy. Analysis focused on exploring how the policy has been implemented in practice, and its impact on employment services for individuals living with mental illness. The findings highlight how employment support practices have evolved under the new policy. Although there is now an increased focus on employment rather than preemployment supports, the financial imperative to place individuals into jobs as quickly as possible has decreased attention to career development. Jobs are reported to be concentrated at the entry-level with low pay and little security or benefits. These findings raise questions about the quality of employment being achieved under the new policy, highlight problems with adopting selected components of evidence-based approaches, and begin to explicate the influence that funding structures can have on practice.

  17. Analysis the Human and Environmental Consequences of Power Pplants Using Combined Delphi and AHP Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jozi, S. A.; Saffarian, Sh.; Shafiee, M.; Akbari, A.

    2016-01-01

    Power plants, due to the nature of their processes and activities and also by producing the effluents, emitting the air pollutants and hazardous wastes, have the potential to cause negative human and environmental consequences. Given the importance of the issue, for determining the most important consequences of Abadan Gas Power Plant and also their impact on the human and natural environment, as a case study, a questionnaire was developed with Delphi method. This questionnaire was distributed within the environmentalists and experts of power plant. The human and environmental consequences of Power Plant were analyzed by Multiple Criteria Decision-Making methods including AHP and eigenvector technique. For this purpose, with applying of AHP method, the hierarchical structure of the human and environmental consequences of Abadan Gas Power Plant was constructed and then the decision making matrix was formed. The pair wise matrices were formed separately for criteria pair wise comparisons with respect to severity and occurrence probability of indoor and outdoor environment of power plant .With entering the data in EXPERT CHOICE software, criteria weights were computed with applying the eigenvector method. Then the final weights of consequences in terms of severity and occurrence probability of risk were computed. The results from the compution of Abadan Gas Power Plant consequences indicate that in human consequences, shallow wounds with a .105 weight and in environmental consequences, air pollution by weighing 0.66 are the most important consequences of power plant. Finally, the most important executable strategies and actions for mitigation of negative human and environmental consequences were presented.

  18. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository - Volume 3: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  19. The good, the bad, and the unknown about telecommuting: meta-analysis of psychological mediators and individual consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendran, Ravi S; Harrison, David A

    2007-11-01

    What are the positive and negative consequences of telecommuting? How do these consequences come about? When are these consequences more or less potent? The authors answer these questions through construction of a theoretical framework and meta-analysis of 46 studies in natural settings involving 12,883 employees. Telecommuting had small but mainly beneficial effects on proximal outcomes, such as perceived autonomy and (lower) work-family conflict. Importantly, telecommuting had no generally detrimental effects on the quality of workplace relationships. Telecommuting also had beneficial effects on more distal outcomes, such as job satisfaction, performance, turnover intent, and role stress. These beneficial consequences appeared to be at least partially mediated by perceived autonomy. Also, high-intensity telecommuting (more than 2.5 days a week) accentuated telecommuting's beneficial effects on work-family conflict but harmed relationships with coworkers. Results provide building blocks for a more complete theoretical and practical treatment of telecommuting. (c) 2007 APA

  20. PARTITION: A program for defining the source term/consequence analysis interface in the NUREG--1150 probabilistic risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iman, R.L.; Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.

    1990-05-01

    The individual plant analyses in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's reassessment of the risk from commercial nuclear power plants (NUREG-1150) consist of four parts: systems analysis, accident progression analysis, source term analysis, and consequence analysis. Careful definition of the interfaces between these parts is necessary for both information flow and computational efficiency. This document has been designed for users of the PARTITION computer program developed by the authors at Sandia National Laboratories for defining the interface between the source term analysis (performed with the XXSOR programs) and the consequence analysis (performed with the MACCS program). This report provides a tutorial that details how the interactive partitioning is performed, along with detailed information on the partitioning process. The PARTITION program was written in ANSI standard FORTRAN 77 to make the code as machine-independent (i.e., portable) as possible. 9 refs., 4 figs

  1. Some issues on radiological consequences analysis in site selection for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu; Yue Huiguo

    2006-01-01

    The three considerations, Site safety and environmental protection and emergency preparedness, are the focus of attention in the evaluation of the suitability of a site for nuclear power station. This paper summarized the basic regulatory requirements for the siting of nuclear power station, described the existing problems on radiological consequences analyses during the siting stage and discussed the is- sues that need to concern in the reviewing of the radiological consequences analyses in the siting appraisal stage. (authors)

  2. Error perspective and consequences evaluation of the professional intervention in physical education: a content analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane Barcelos Soriano

    2007-12-01

    and generate an increasing search for better professional education and responsibility for tasks specifi c to the area, as well as a concern with the ethical factors of professional intervention in physical education. The purpose of this study was to understand how physical education professionals describe and interpret the consequences of their professional intervention, based on the error perspective. Information was obtained by means of a semi-structure interview, conducted with 11 professionals who were not part of the school system, and who had 7 – 25 years of professional education. The data treatment followed the characteristics of the content analysis, establishing later the analysis categories, namely: 1 Academic Education and Professional Identity, which includes the characteristics and circumstances of professional education, identity and culture and 2 Professional intervention and Accreditation, which includes aspects connected to professional legitimacy and the accreditation process. This study allowed us to consider that, while Physical Education professionals are concerned with the quality of the services offered in the area, they do not clearly defi ne what constitutes a professional error in the area, and neither do they evaluate the consequences of their professional intervention based on this perspective.

  3. Analysis of various modifications in spectra analysis on accuracy of dose reconstructions in EPR dosimetry in tooth enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciesielski, B., E-mail: bciesiel@gumed.edu.pl [Department of Physics and Biophysics, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki 1, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Kaminska, J. [Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Medical University of Gdansk, Debinki 7, 80-211 Gdansk (Poland); Emerich, K. [Department of Paediatric Dentistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Orzeszkowej 18, 80-208 Gdansk (Poland)

    2011-09-15

    The results of EPR measurements performed due to our participation in the 4th International Comparison of EPR Dosimetry using tooth enamel were used to analyze the effects of modifications in numerical analysis of the measured spectra on precision and accuracy of reconstructed doses. The studied modifications included effects of: (1) a use of Mn{sup 2+} standard, (2) variations in experimental native background signals of tooth enamel used for dose reconstructions, (3) signal filtration, (4) subtraction of empty tube spectra, and (5) variations in the spectra ranges used for calculations (fitting windows). It was shown, that the use of a Mn standard, for normalization of intensities of the recorded signals in the spectra processing, strongly increased the dosimetric accuracy. The regression lines of the doses reconstructed using different background spectra against nominal doses, obtained without Mn standard, had slopes about 30% higher and their scatter range was about 2 times higher than the same parameters obtained when Mn standard was applied in the spectra processing. Accuracy of the measured doses characterized by root mean square deviations from the nominal doses was 71 mGy for calculations with Mn standard and 241 mGy without normalization to Mn lines. Despite the large beneficial effect of the use of Mn standard on accuracy (root mean square deviations of the data, slope of the regression lines), it did not significantly improve the dosimetry performance characterized by the critical dose and detection limit. The smoothing of the spectra by 9 point filtration resulted in 1.6% increase of the reconstructed doses. The subtraction of empty tube spectrum had no effect on precision and accuracy of the dose reconstruction. The performance parameters were also practically insensitive to a choice of a width of the spectral window used for the analysis, provided it encompassed the {approx}1.6 mT range covering the main peaks of the radiation induced signal in

  4. The application of the health effects models to the severe accident consequence analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Ling; Yeung, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Health Effect Model (HEM) is an important model used in the analysis of severe accidents consequence of the Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The accuracy of HEM affects the reliability of the assessment for the accidents consequences, and furthermore, the effectiveness of the emergency countermeasures taken for the health protection of the public around the NPPs. Based on the NUREG/CR4214 series reports, the paper sets appropriate parameters for HEM by studying both early and late HEMs used for domestic NPP accident consequence analysis. In the study, the Guangdong Daya Bay NPP is chosen as an example study to calculate the health risk of the Hong Kong population caused by Daya Bay NPP

  5. 76 FR 65769 - Airport Improvement Program: Modifications to Benefit Cost Analysis (BCA) Threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... have risen faster than the general rate of inflation. Since we were unable to locate construction cost... enables us to best respond. B. Modifications to Policy The previous AIP grant policy, issued June 24, 1997... established a docket and invited airport sponsors and other interested parties to comment on the BCA...

  6. Statistics and analysis of the inspection report´s modification rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing HE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Accordingto the statistics and regulatory inspection reports modification rate, incorporated in the hospital quality control target,together withthe strictly control and management makethe inspection results change rate up to the hospital quality management requirements. Methods: Counted upevery kind of biochemical items which were monitored by machine 7180 in the biochemical laboratory from April to October 2013, and strengthen the inspector´s sense of responsibility by the modification rate of timely rectification. Results: Every kind of biochemical items which were monitored by the machine 7180 including 62022 persons in the biochemical laboratory from April to October 2013, 896 persons´ inspection results were altered before printing ,which was 1.45 percent ;75 persons´ inspection results were altered by upper administrator after printing, which was 0.12 percent of the total and 8.37 percent of the altered people. Conclusion: Our inspection report modification rate decreased from 27.77 percent in April to 1.88 percent in October ,the percentage decreased obviously. It proved that the PDCA model was successful in inspection report modification rate of Lis in our hospital, which achieved our quality management target.

  7. A comprehensive platform for the analysis of ubiquitin-like protein modifications using in vivo biotinylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirone, Lucia; Xolalpa, Wendy; Sigurdsson, Jón Otti

    2017-01-01

    L conjugates from interactors, and low quantities of modified substrates. Here we describe bioUbLs, a comprehensive set of tools for studying modifications in Drosophila and mammals, based on multicistronic expression and in vivo biotinylation using the E. coli biotin protein ligase BirA. While the bio...

  8. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses.

  9. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 1: Main report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the first of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This document reports on an ongoing project to assess uncertainty in the MACCS and COSYMA calculations for the offsite consequences of radionuclide releases by hypothetical nuclear power plant accidents. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain variables that affect calculations of offsite consequences. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. Other panels were formed to consider uncertainty in other aspects of the codes. Their results are described in companion reports. Volume 1 contains background information and a complete description of the joint consequence uncertainty study. Volume 2 contains appendices that include (1) a summary of the MACCS and COSYMA consequence codes, (2) the elicitation questionnaires and case structures for both panels, (3) the rationales and results for the panels on soil and plant transfer and animal transfer, (4) short biographies of the experts, and (5) the aggregated results of their responses

  10. An Interdisciplinary Meta-Analysis of the Potential Antecedents, Correlates, and Consequences of Protege Perceptions of Mentoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, Lillian Turner de Tormes; Allen, Tammy D.; Hoffman, Brian J.; Baranik, Lisa E.; Sauer, Julia B.; Baldwin, Sean; Morrison, M. Ashley; Kinkade, Katie M.; Maher, Charleen P.; Curtis, Sara; Evans, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarized youth, academic, and workplace research on the potential antecedents (demographics, human capital, and relationship attributes), correlates (interaction frequency, relationship length, performance, motivation, and social capital), and consequences (attitudinal, behavioral, career-related, and health-related outcomes)…

  11. Antecedents and Consequences of Individual Performance Analysis of Turnover Intention Model (Empirical Study of Public Accountants in Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Hendra; Maksum, Azhar; Erlina; Lumban Raja, Prihatin

    2014-01-01

    Azhar Maksum This study aims to examine empirically the antecedents of individual performance on its consequences of turnover intention in public accounting firms. There are eight variables measured which consists of auditors' empowerment, innovation professionalism, role ambiguity, role conflict, organizational commitment, individual performance and turnover intention. Data analysis is based on 163 public accountant using the Structural Equation Modeling assisted with an appli...

  12. Major update of Safety Analysis Report for Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayakul, Chanatip [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) was converted from a Material Testing Reactor in 1975 and it had been operated by Office of Atom for Peace (OAP) since 1977 until 2007. During the period, Office of Atom for Peace had two duties for the reactor, that is, to operate and to regulate the reactor. However, in 2007, there was governmental office reformation which resulted in the separation of the reactor operating organization from the regulatory body in order to comply with international standard. The new organization is called Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) which has the mission to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear technology while OAP remains essentially the regulatory body. After the separation, a new ministerial regulation was enforced reflecting a new licensing scheme in which TINT has to apply for a license to operate the reactor. The safety analysis report (SAR) shall be submitted as part of the license application. The ministerial regulation stipulates the outlines of the SAR almost equivalent to IAEA standard 35-G1. Comparing to the IAEA 35-G1 standard, there were several incomplete and missing chapters in the original SAR of TRR1/M1. The major update of the SAR was therefore conducted and took approximately one year. The update work included detail safety evaluation of core configuration which used two fuel element types, the classification of systems, structures and components (SSC), the compilation of detail descriptions of all SSCs and the review and evaluation of radiation protection program, emergency plan and emergency procedure. Additionally, the code of conduct and operating limits and conditions were revised and finalized in this work. A lot of new information was added to the SAR as well, for example, the description of commissioning program, information on environmental impact assessment, decommissioning program, quality assurance program and etc. Due to the complexity of this work, extensive knowledge was

  13. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification Interventions for Substance Addictions: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana A Cristea

    Full Text Available Cognitive bias modification (CBM interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs of CBM for substance addiction outcomes.Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. We included RCTs of CBM interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, for any type of addiction. We examined trial risk of bias, publication bias and possible moderators. Effects sizes were computed for post-test and follow-up, using a random-effects model. We grouped outcome measures and reported results for addiction (all related measures, craving and cognitive bias.We identified 25 trials, 18 for alcohol problems, and 7 for smoking. At post-test, there was no significant effect of CBM for addiction, g = 0.08 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.18 or craving, g = 0.05 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.16, but there was a significant, moderate effect on cognitive bias, g = 0.60 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.79. Results were similar for alcohol and smoking outcomes taken separately. Follow-up addiction outcomes were reported in 7 trials, resulting in a small but significant effect of CBM, g = 0.18 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.32. Results for addiction and craving did not differ by substance type, sample type, delivery setting, bias targeted or number of sessions. Risk of bias was high or uncertain in most trials, for most criteria considered. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant inverse relationships between risk of bias and effect sizes for addiction outcomes and craving. The relationship between cognitive bias and respectively addiction ESs was not significant. There was consistent evidence of publication bias in the form of funnel plot asymmetry.Our results cast serious doubts on the clinical utility of CBM interventions for addiction problems, but sounder methodological trials are necessary before this issue can be settled. We found no

  14. Degraded core accidents for the Sizewell PWR A sensitivity analysis of the radiological consequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, G N; Clarke, R H; Ferguson, L; Haywood, S M; Hemming, C R; Jones, J A

    1982-01-01

    The radiological impact of degraded core accidents postulated for the Sizewell PWR was assessed in an earlier study. In this report the sensitivity of the predicted consequences to variation in the values of a number of important parameters is investigated for one of the postulated accidental releases. The parameters subjected to sensitivity analyses are the dose-mortality relationship for bone marrow irradiation, the energy content of the release, the warning time before the release to the environment, and the dry deposition velocity for airborne material. These parameters were identified as among the more important in determining the uncertainty in the results obtained in the initial study. With a few exceptions the predicted consequences were found to be not very sensitive to the parameter values investigated, the range of variation in the consequences for the limiting values of each parameter rarely exceeded a factor of a few and in many cases was considerably less. The conclusions reached are, however, p...

  15. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2006-01-01

    In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions. PMID:16800884

  16. A structural modification of the two dimensional fuel behaviour analysis code FEMAXI-III with high-speed vectorized operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Ishiguro, Misako; Yamazaki, Takashi; Tokunaga, Yasuo.

    1985-02-01

    Though the two-dimensional fuel behaviour analysis code FEMAXI-III has been developed by JAERI in form of optimized scalar computer code, the call for more efficient code usage generally arized from the recent trends like high burn-up and load follow operation asks the code into further modification stage. A principal aim of the modification is to transform the already implemented scalar type subroutines into vectorized forms to make the programme structure efficiently run on high-speed vector computers. The effort of such structural modification has been finished on a fair way to success. The benchmarking two tests subsequently performed to examine the effect of the modification led us the following concluding remarks: (1) In the first benchmark test, comparatively high-burned three fuel rods that have been irradiated in HBWR, BWR, and PWR condition are prepared. With respect to all cases, a net computing time consumed in the vectorized FEMAXI is approximately 50 % less than that consumed in the original one. (2) In the second benchmark test, a total of 26 PWR fuel rods that have been irradiated in the burn-up ranges of 13-30 MWd/kgU and subsequently power ramped in R2 reactor, Sweden is prepared. In this case the code is purposed to be used for making an envelop of PCI-failure threshold through 26 times code runs. Before coming to the same conclusion, the vectorized FEMAXI-III consumed a net computing time 18 min., while the original FEMAXI-III consumed a computing time 36 min. respectively. (3) The effects obtained from such structural modification are found to be significantly attributed to saving a net computing time in a mechanical calculation in the vectorized FEMAXI-III code. (author)

  17. Prevention of postpartum haemorrhage: cost consequences analysis of misoprostol in low-resource settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Danielle L; Zhao, Fei-Li; Robertson, Jane

    2015-11-23

    While inferior to oxytocin injection in both efficacy and safety, orally administered misoprostol has been included in the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines for use in the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in low-resource settings. This study evaluates the costs and health outcomes of use of oral misoprostol to prevent PPH in settings where injectable uterotonics are not available. A cost-consequences analysis was conducted from the international health system perspective, using data from a recent Cochrane systematic review and WHO's Mother-Baby Package Costing Spreadsheet in a hypothetical cohort of 1000 births in a mixed hospital (40% births)/community setting (60% births). Costs were estimated based on 2012 US dollars. Using oxytocin in the hospital setting and misoprostol in the community setting in a cohort of 1000 births, instead of oxytocin (hospital setting) and no treatment (community setting), 22 cases of PPH could be prevented. Six fewer women would require additional uterotonics and four fewer women a blood transfusion. An additional 130 women would experience shivering and an extra 42 women fever. Oxytocin/misoprostol was found to be cost saving (US$320) compared to oxytocin/no treatment. If misoprostol is used in both the hospital and community setting compared with no treatment (i.e. oxytocin not available in the hospital setting), 37 cases of PPH could be prevented; ten fewer women would require additional uterotonics; and six fewer women a blood transfusion. An additional 217 women would experience shivering and 70 fever. The cost savings would be US$533. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the results are sensitive to the incidence of PPH-related outcomes, drug costs and the proportion of hospital births. Our findings confirm that, even though misoprostol is not the optimum choice in the prevention of PPH, misoprostol could be an effective and cost-saving choice where oxytocin is not or cannot be used due to a

  18. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    to support hypothesis generation, hypothesis testing, and decision making. In addition to sensors in buildings, infrastructure, or the environment, we also propose the instrumentation of user interfaces to help measure performance in decision making applications. We show the benefits of applying principles...... between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  19. The effect of market orientation and its components on innovation consequences : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grinstein, A.

    While there is a rich body of research on market orientation's effect on business performance, much little attention has been given to its effect on innovation consequences. This is the first meta-analytic effort to study the independent effects of market orientation components (customer

  20. Thoracoabdominal computed tomography in trauma patients: a cost-consequences analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, R. van; Kool, D.R.; Brink, M.; Dekker, H.M.; Deunk, J.; Edwards, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CT is increasingly used during the initial evaluation of blunt trauma patients. In this era of increasing cost-awareness, the pros and cons of CT have to be assessed. OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to evaluate cost-consequences of different diagnostic algorithms that use

  1. Economics: An Analysis of Unintended Consequences. Volume 1: Introduction to Microeconomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Robert E.

    This curriculum guide introduces high school students to the basic principles of microeconomics. Chapter 1 provides a basic definition of economics, while chapter 2 introduces a number of important economic concepts and ideas and examines reasons for unintended or unexpected consequences of decision-making. Chapter 3 considers how individual…

  2. Local consequences of national policies - a spatial analysis of preferences for forest access reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Sofie Elberg; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2016-01-01

    Stated preference studies eliciting welfare economic consequence of national policies, are often not considering the spatial variation in supply and demand. This spatial variation may however cause large distributional heterogeneity of policy changes. In this study, we use a choice experiment to ...

  3. Macroeconomic Consequences of Outsourcing. An Analysis of Growth, Welfare and Product Variety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Outsourcing of non-core activities by firms is nowadays a common business strategy. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analyzing a firms’ incentive to follow such a strategy and its consequences for macroeconomic variables like growth and product variety. We divide production activities

  4. PSA effect analysis of a design modification of the auxiliary feedwater system for a Westinghouse type plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Yeon Kyoung; Lee, Eun Chan

    2012-01-01

    The auxiliary feedwater system is an important system used to mitigate most accidents considered in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). The reference plant has produced electric power for about thirty years. Due to age related deterioration and lack of parts, a turbine driven auxiliary feedwater pump (TD AFWP), some valves, and piping of the auxiliary feedwater system should be replaced. This change includes relocation of some valves, installation of valves for maintenance of the steam generator, and a new cross tie line. According to the design change, the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) has been revised. Therefore, this design modification affects the PSA. It is thus necessary to assess the improvement of plant safety. In this paper, the impact of the design change of the auxiliary feedwater system on the PSA is assessed. The results demonstrate that this modification considering the plant safety decreased the total CDF

  5. Modification of Duval Triangle for Diagnostic Transformer Fault through a Procedure of Dissolved Gases Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobhy Serry Dessouky

    2016-08-01

        The evaluation is carried out on DGA data obtained from three different groups of transformers. A Matlab program was developed to automate the evaluation of  Duval Triangle graph to numerical modification, Also the fault gases can be generated due to oil decomposing effected by transformer over excitation which increasing thetransformer exciting current lead to rising the temperature inside transformer core beside the other causes.

  6. Analysis of Modifications on a Spark Ignition Engine for Operation with Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramasamy D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation is one of the key contributors to petroleum usage and emissions to the atmosphere. According to researchers, there are many ways to use transport by using renewable energy sources. Of these solutions, the immediate solution which requires less modification to current engine technology is by using gaseous fuels. Natural gas is the fuel of choice for minor modification to current engines. As it can be derived from anaerobic digestion process, the potential as a renewable energy source is tremendous, especially for an agricultural country such a Malaysia. The aim in the future will be operating an engine with natural gas only with pipelines straight to houses for easy filling. The fuel is light and can be easily carried in vehicles when in compressed form. As such, Compressed Natural Gas (CNG is currently used in bi-fuel engines, but is mostly not optimized in term of their performance. The focus of the paper is to optimize a model of natural gas engine by one dimensional flow modeling for operation with natural gas. The model is analyzed for performance and emission characteristics produced by a gasoline engine and later compared with natural gas. The average performance drop is about 15% from its gasoline counterpart. The 4% benchmark indicates that the modification to ignition timing and compression ratio does improve engine performance using natural gas as fuel.

  7. Accommodating for plant modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, P.H.

    1977-01-01

    Modification to a nuclear power plant may have different causes: 1) new instructions by the authorities; 2) changes of the marginal conditions on the construction site; 3) progress in the technological development. - Examples from different plants are supposed to demonstrate how such changes influence the planning or the construction and how they are integrated in the process of preparation. A distinction can be made between modifications before the completion of the submission of the order, during the phase of preparatory planning and during the construction phase. Of great importance are especially modifications made after the beginning of the construction works, since, in general, there is little scope for technical modifications and since consequences for the time schedule are to be expected. (orig.) [de

  8. Development of web-based Off-Site Consequence Analysis Program (OSCAP) for extending ILRT intervals and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ho-Jun; Hwang, Seok-Won; Oh, Ji-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We develop web-based offsite consequence analysis program based on MACCS II code. ► The program has an automatic processing module to make the main input data. ► It is effective in conducting risk assessments according to extending ILRT intervals. ► Even a beginner can perform offsite consequence analysis with the program. - Abstract: For an offsite consequence analysis, MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS) II code is widely used as a tool. In this study, the algorithm of web-based Off-Site Consequence Analysis Program (OSCAP) using the MACCS II code was developed for an integrated leak rate test (ILRT) interval extension and Level 3 probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), and verification and validation (V and V) of the program was performed. The main input data of the MACCS II code are meteorological data, population distribution data and source term data. However, it requires lots of time and efforts to generate the main input data for an offsite consequence analysis using the MACCS II code. For example, the meteorological data are collected from each nuclear power site in real time, but the formats of the raw data collected are different from each other as a site. To reduce efforts and time for risk assessments, the web-based OSCAP has an automatic processing module which converts the format of the raw data collected from each site in Korea to the input data format of the MACCS II code. The program also provides an automatic function of converting the latest population data from Statistics Korea, the National Statistical Office, to the population distribution input data format of the MACCS II code. In case of the source term data, the program includes the release fraction of each source term category resulting from Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP) code analysis and the core inventory data from ORIGEN code analysis. These analysis results of each plant in Korea are stored in a database module of the web-based OSCAP, so a

  9. Environmental Consequences of the Failure of the New Orleans Levee System During Hurricane Katrina; Microbiological Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    composi- tion in the sediment of three Brazilian coastal lagoons – District of Macaé, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Annals of the Brazilian Academy of... Coastal Ecology Branch, Ecosystem Evaluation and Engi- neering Division, EL, was the ERDC point of contact for the environmental consequences work of...1986 recommendations. The amendment to the Clean Water Act known as the Beaches Environ- ment Assessment and Coastal Health (BEACH) Act required

  10. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    OpenAIRE

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W., Feldman

    2011-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female chil...

  11. Macroeconomic Consequences of Outsourcing. An Analysis of Growth, Welfare and Product Variety

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    Outsourcing of non-core activities by firms is nowadays a common business strategy. This paper provides a theoretical framework for analyzing a firms’ incentive to follow such a strategy and its consequences for macroeconomic variables like growth and product variety. We divide production activities into core and non-core activities. Non-core activities can be performed within the firm or can be mediated by the market. We will derive conditions under which outsourcing will occur, and under wh...

  12. [Mobbing: a meta-analysis and integrative model of its antecedents and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topa Cantisano, Gabriela; Depolo, Marco; Morales Domínguez, J Francisco

    2007-02-01

    Although mobbing has been extensively studied, empirical research has not led to firm conclusions regarding its antecedents and consequences, both at personal and organizational levels. An extensive literature search yielded 86 empirical studies with 93 samples. The matrix correlation obtained through meta-analytic techniques was used to test a structural equation model. Results supported hypotheses regarding organizational environmental factors as main predictors of mobbing.

  13. Mission Analysis for Using Preventive Radiological/Nuclear Detection Equipment for Consequence Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddemeier, Brooke R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wood-Zika, Annmarie R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Haynes, Daniel [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Klemic, Gladys A. [US Dept. of Homeland Security National Urban Security Technology Lab., Manhattan, NY (United States); Musolino, Stephen V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The overall objective of this project is to research, evaluate, and test first responder preventive radiological/nuclear detection (PRND) equipment to provide state and local agencies with scientific guidance on how to effectively use this equipment for response after a radiological/nuclear release or detonation. While the equipment being tested in this effort has been specifically designed by technology manufacturers and purchased by responders for preventive detection and source interdiction operations, the fleet of PRND equipment can help fill critical needs for radiological instrumentation should a consequence management (CM) response take place, as it is currently the most widely available and fielded radiological instrumentation by state and local agencies. This effort will provide scientific guidance on the most effective way to utilize this class of equipment for consequence management missions. Gaining a better understanding of how PRND equipment can operate and perform for these missions will allow for recommendations on the tactical approach responders can use for consequence management operations. PRND equipment has been placed into service by federal, state, and local agencies throughout the nation. If the equipment capability and limitations are taken into account, this large inventory can be leveraged to support the emergency response in the aftermath of a radiological or nuclear event. With several hundred makes and models of PRND equipment, often with significantly different detection capabilities that do not align with their nominal PRND equipment type, development of a streamlined categorization scheme with respect to consequence management missions was the first step to identifying safe and effective uses of PRND equipment for radiological/nuclear incident response.

  14. LHC beam dump system : analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, T.

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. lt is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. lt is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missing MKD elements. Therefore a sophisticated simulation environment was developed based on the use of the MAD-X tracking code. A system of tracking jobs was set up to study failure cases and losses for various dump events. Those jobs can be distributed to available CPU power and be calculated in parallel. Studies into the consequences of abnormal beam dump actions have been performed. Different error scenarios have been evaluated including an asynchronous dump action, prefire cases, and the impact of different orbit and collimator settings. Losses at locations in the ring and the beam dump transfer lines have been quantified as a function of different settings of the dump system protection elements. The implications for the setup and operation of these protection elements are discussed. Particle distributions can be created according to the used orbit. Simulations with different orbit parameters (including magnet field errors, beam position read out errors

  15. Analysis for mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident in Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.; Lal, H.; Sethi, V.S.

    2003-01-01

    The mechanical consequences of a core disruptive accident (CDA) in a fast breeder reactor are described. The consequences are development of deformations and strains in the vessels, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and decay heat exchangers (DHX), impact of sodium slug on the bottom surface of the top shield, sodium release to reactor containment building through top shield penetrations, sodium fire and consequent temperature and pressure rise in reactor containment building (RCB). These are quantified for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) for a CDA with 100 MJ work potential. The results are validated by conducting a series of experiments on 1/30 and 1/13 scaled down models with increasing complexities. Mechanical energy release due to nuclear excursion is simulated by chemical explosion of specially developed low density explosive charge. Based on these studies, structural integrity of primary containment, IHX and DHX is demonstrated. The sodium release to RCB is 350 kg which causes pressure rise of 12 kPa in RCB. (author)

  16. Comparative proteome analysis between C . briggsae embryos and larvae reveals a role of chromatin modification proteins in embryonic cell division

    KAUST Repository

    An, Xiaomeng

    2017-06-21

    Caenorhabditis briggsae has emerged as a model for comparative biology against model organism C. elegans. Most of its cell fate specifications are completed during embryogenesis whereas its cell growth is achieved mainly in larval stages. The molecular mechanism underlying the drastic developmental changes is poorly understood. To gain insights into the molecular changes between the two stages, we compared the proteomes between the two stages using iTRAQ. We identified a total of 2,791 proteins in the C. briggsae embryos and larvae, 247 of which undergo up- or down-regulation between the two stages. The proteins that are upregulated in the larval stages are enriched in the Gene Ontology categories of energy production, protein translation, and cytoskeleton; whereas those upregulated in the embryonic stage are enriched in the categories of chromatin dynamics and posttranslational modification, suggesting a more active chromatin modification in the embryos than in the larva. Perturbation of a subset of chromatin modifiers followed by cell lineage analysis suggests their roles in controlling cell division pace. Taken together, we demonstrate a general molecular switch from chromatin modification to metabolism during the transition from C. briggsae embryonic to its larval stages using iTRAQ approach. The switch might be conserved across metazoans.

  17. Comparative proteomic analysis of histone post-translational modifications upon ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Xiaolu; Sidoli, Simone; Wang, Leilei

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed quantitative map of single and coexisting histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) in rat retinas affected by ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. Retinal I/R injury contributes to serious ocular diseases, which can lead to vision loss and blindness. We applied linear...... ion trap-orbitrap hybrid tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to quantify 131 single histone marks and 143 combinations of multiple histone marks in noninjured and injured retinas. We observed 34 histone PTMs that exhibited significantly (p

  18. Use of principal components analysis and three-dimensional atmospheric-transport models for reactor-consequence evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudiksen, P.H.; Walton, J.J.; Alpert, D.J.; Johnson, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    This work explores the use of principal components analysis coupled to three-dimensional atmospheric transport and dispersion models for evaluating the environmental consequences of reactor accidents. This permits the inclusion of meteorological data from multiple sites and the effects of topography in the consequence evaluation; features not normally included in such analyses. The technique identifies prevailing regional wind patterns and their frequencies for use in the transport and dispersion calculations. Analysis of a hypothetical accident scenario involving a release of radioactivity from a reactor situated in a river valley indicated the technique is quite useful whenever recurring wind patterns exist, as is often the case in complex terrain situations. Considerable differences were revealed in a comparison with results obtained from a more conventional Gaussian plume model using only the reactor site meteorology and no topographic effects

  19. An Analysis of the Causes and Consequences of Unemployment in District Peshawar

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Zaheer Ahmad; Khan, Jangraiz

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper concentrates on exploring the causes and consequences of unemployment in district Peshawar. Primary data was collected for this purpose. The results show that out of 120 respondents, 32.5% were unemployed due to low education, 15.8% due to having no skills &55were unemployed due to no approach to the concerned authorities. Out of the total respondents65% were unskilled. 73.3% of the respondents had never joined a job and 18.3% left the job due to low sala...

  20. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes.

  1. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Dispersion and deposition uncertainty assessment. Volume 3, Appendices C, D, E, F, and G

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, F.T.; Young, M.L.; Miller, L.A.

    1995-01-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, completed in 1990, estimate the risks presented by nuclear installations based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. In 1991, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) began a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The objective was to develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the input variables of the codes. Expert elicitation, developed independently, was identified as the best technology available for developing a library of uncertainty distributions for the selected consequence parameters. The study was formulated jointly and was limited to the current code models and to physical quantities that could be measured in experiments. To validate the distributions generated for the wet deposition input variables, samples were taken from these distributions and propagated through the wet deposition code model along with the Gaussian plume model (GPM) implemented in the MACCS and COSYMA codes. Resulting distributions closely replicated the aggregated elicited wet deposition distributions. Project teams from the NRC and CEC cooperated successfully to develop and implement a unified process for the elaboration of uncertainty distributions on consequence code input parameters. Formal expert judgment elicitation proved valuable for synthesizing the best available information. Distributions on measurable atmospheric dispersion and deposition parameters were successfully elicited from experts involved in the many phenomenological areas of consequence analysis. This volume is the third of a three-volume document describing the project and contains descriptions of the probability assessment principles; the expert identification and selection process; the weighting methods used; the inverse modeling methods; case structures; and summaries of the consequence codes

  2. Proteomic analysis of the cyanobacterium of the Azolla symbiosis: identity, adaptation, and NifH modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Martin; Tollbäck, Petter; Bergman, Birgitta

    2008-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are able to form stable nitrogen-fixing symbioses with diverse eukaryotes. To extend our understanding of adaptations imposed by plant hosts, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for comparative protein expression profiling of a cyanobacterium (cyanobiont) dwelling in leaf cavities of the water-fern Azolla filiculoides. Homology-based protein identification using peptide mass fingerprinting [matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF-MS)], tandem MS analyses, and sequence homology searches resulted in an identification success rate of 79% of proteins analysed in the unsequenced cyanobiont. Compared with a free-living strain, processes related to energy production, nitrogen and carbon metabolism, and stress-related functions were up-regulated in the cyanobiont while photosynthesis and metabolic turnover rates were down-regulated, stressing a slow heterotrophic mode of growth, as well as high heterocyst frequencies and nitrogen-fixing capacities. The first molecular data set on the nature of the NifH post-translational modification in cyanobacteria was also obtained: peptide mass spectra of the protein demonstrated the presence of a 300-400 Da protein modification localized to a specific 13 amino acid sequence, within the part of the protein that is ADP-ribosylated in other bacteria and close to the active site of nitrogenase. Furthermore, the distribution of the highest scoring database hits for the identified proteins points to the possibility of using proteomic data in taxonomy.

  3. Multiple Posttranslational Modifications of Leptospira biflexa Proteins as Revealed by Proteomic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Philip E; Carroll, James A; Olano, L Rennee; Sturdevant, Daniel E; Rosa, Patricia A

    2016-02-15

    The saprophyte Leptospira biflexa is an excellent model for studying the physiology of the medically important Leptospira genus, the pathogenic members of which are more recalcitrant to genetic manipulation and have significantly slower in vitro growth. However, relatively little is known regarding the proteome of L. biflexa, limiting its utility as a model for some studies. Therefore, we have generated a proteomic map of both soluble and membrane-associated proteins of L. biflexa during exponential growth and in stationary phase. Using these data, we identified abundantly produced proteins in each cellular fraction and quantified the transcript levels from a subset of these genes using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). These proteins should prove useful as cellular markers and as controls for gene expression studies. We also observed a significant number of L. biflexa membrane-associated proteins with multiple isoforms, each having unique isoelectric focusing points. L. biflexa cell lysates were examined for several posttranslational modifications suggested by the protein patterns. Methylation and acetylation of lysine residues were predominately observed in the proteins of the membrane-associated fraction, while phosphorylation was detected mainly among soluble proteins. These three posttranslational modification systems appear to be conserved between the free-living species L. biflexa and the pathogenic species Leptospira interrogans, suggesting an important physiological advantage despite the varied life cycles of the different species. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  4. Modification of the mesoscopic structure in neutron irradiated EPDM viewed through positron annihilation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambri, O.A.; Plazaola, F.; Axpe, E.; Mocellini, R.R.; Zelada-Lambri, G.I.; Garcia, J.A.; Matteo, C.L.; Sorichetti, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the study of the mesoscopic structure in neutron irradiated EPDM both from experimental and theoretical points of view. In this work we reveal completely the modification of the mesostructure of the EPDM due to neutron irradiation, resolving volume fraction, size and distribution of the crystalline zones as a function of the irradiation dose. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis techniques are applied and the results are discussed by means of new theoretical results for describing the interaction process between the crystals and amorphous zones in EPDM.

  5. HVAC modifications and computerized energy analysis for the Operations Support Building at the Mars Deep Space Station at Goldstone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, A.; Stelzmuller, P.

    1986-01-01

    The key heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) modifications implemented at the Mars Deep Space Station's Operation Support Building at Jet Propulsion Laboratories (JPL) in order to reduce energy consumption and decrease operating costs are described. An energy analysis comparison between the computer simulated model for the building and the actual meter data was presented. The measurement performance data showed that the cumulative energy savings was about 21% for the period 1979 to 1981. The deviation from simulated data to measurement performance data was only about 3%.

  6. [Antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying: a longitudinal analysis with a structural equation model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero Domínguez, Noelia; Gil-Monte, Pedro Rafael; Luciano Devis, Juan Vicente

    2011-11-01

    Most studies focusing on the antecedents and consequences of workplace bullying have used a cross-sectional design, which impedes determining the causality of the relationships. In the present work, we analyzed, by means of structural equation models, the relationship between workplace bullying and some variables that are considered antecedents (interpersonal conflicts, role ambiguity, role conflict, and workplace social support) or consequences (health complaints and inclination to absenteeism from work) of this phenomenon. Multicenter study with two phases. The sample consisted of 696 employees from 66 centers. Workplace bullying was assessed by means of the "Mobbing-UNIPSICO" questionnaire, and the other variables with frequency scales. The cross-sectional models indicated a significant association between role conflict, workplace social support, and workplace bullying in both study periods. Concerning the longitudinal relationships, only workplace social support was a significant predictor of workplace bullying, which, in turn, was a cross-sectional and longitudinal predictor of workers' health complaints. Our results show the mediating effect of workplace bullying between certain work conditions and health complaints, and it is recommendable to replicate these findings in a multi-occupational sample.

  7. On an efficient modification of singular value decomposition using independent component analysis for improved MRS denoising and quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamatopoulos, V G; Karras, D A; Mertzios, B G

    2009-01-01

    An efficient modification of singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed in this paper aiming at denoising and more importantly at quantifying more accurately the statistically independent spectra of metabolite sources in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Although SVD is known in MRS applications and several efficient algorithms exist for estimating SVD summation terms in which the raw MRS data are analyzed, however, it would be more beneficial for such an analysis if techniques with the ability to estimate statistically independent spectra could be employed. SVD is known to separate signal and noise subspaces but it assumes orthogonal properties for the components comprising signal subspace, which is not always the case, and might impose heavy constraints for the MRS case. A much more relaxing constraint would be to assume statistically independent components. Therefore, a modification of the main methodology incorporating techniques for calculating the assumed statistically independent spectra is proposed by applying SVD on the MRS spectrogram through application of the short time Fourier transform (STFT). This approach is based on combining SVD on STFT spectrogram followed by an iterative application of independent component analysis (ICA). Moreover, it is shown that the proposed methodology combined with a regression analysis would lead to improved quantification of the MRS signals. An experimental study based on synthetic MRS signals has been conducted to evaluate the herein proposed methodologies. The results obtained have been discussed and it is shown to be quite promising

  8. Probabilistic Accident Consequence Uncertainty Analysis of the Food Chain Module in the COSYMA Package (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Jones, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA and the uncertainty distributions on the input parameter values for the food chain model provided by the expert panels that were used for the analysis. Two expert panels were convened, covering the areas of soil and plant transfer processes and transfer to and through animals. The aggregated uncertainty distributions from the experts for the elicited variables were used in an uncertainty analysis of the food chain module of COSYMA. The main aim of the module analysis was to identify those parameters whose uncertainty makes large contributions to the overall uncertainty and so should be included in the overall analysis. (author)

  9. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein post-translational modifications: a comparative two dimensional electrophoresis based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Roncada

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP is an immunomodulatory protein expressed by hepatocytes in response to the systemic reaction that follows tissue damage caused by inflammation, infection or trauma. A proteomic approach based on two dimensional electrophoresis, immunoblotting and staining of 2DE gels with dyes specific for post-translational modifications (PTMs such as glycosylation and phosphorylation has been used to evaluate the differential interspecific protein expression of AGP purified from human, bovine and ovine sera. By means of these techniques, several isoforms have been identified in the investigated species: they have been found to change both with regard to the number of isoforms expressed under physiological condition and with regard to the quality of PTMs (i.e. different oligosaccharidic chains, presence/absence of phosphorilations. In particular, it is suggested that bovine serum AGP may have one of the most complex pattern of PTMs among serum proteins of mammals studied so far.

  10. Applications of Probabilistic Consequence Assessment Uncertainty Analysis for Plant Management (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boardman, J.; Pearce, K.I.; Ponting, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic Consequence Assessment (PCA) models describe the dispersion of released radioactive materials and predict the resulting interaction with and influence on the environment and man. Increasing use is being made of PCA tools as an input to the evaluation and improvement of safety for nuclear installations. The nature and extent of the assessment performed varies considerably according to its intended purpose. Nevertheless with the increasing use of such techniques, greater attention has been given to the reliability of the methods used and the inherent uncertainty associated with their predictions. Uncertainty analyses can provide the decision-maker with information to quantify how uncertain the answer is and what drives that uncertainty. They often force a review of the baseline assumptions for any PCA methodology and provide a benchmark against which the impact of further changes in models and recommendations can be compared. This process provides valuable management information to help prioritise further actions or research. (author)

  11. Uncertainty analysis with a view towards applications in accident consequence assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, F.; Erhardt, J.

    1985-09-01

    Since the publication of the US-Reactor Safety Study WASH-1400 there has been an increasing interest to develop and apply methods which allow to quantify the uncertainty inherent in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) and accident consequence assessments (ACAs) for installations of the nuclear fuel cycle. Research and development in this area is forced by the fact that PRA and ACA are more and more used for comparative, decisive and fact finding studies initiated by industry and regulatory commissions. This report summarizes and reviews some of the main methods and gives some hints to do sensitivity and uncertainty analyses. Some first investigations aiming at the application of the method mentioned above to a submodel of the ACA-code UFOMOD (KfK) are presented. Sensitivity analyses and some uncertainty studies an important submodel of UFOMOD are carried out to identify the relevant parameters for subsequent uncertainty calculations. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Marcus W., Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination. PMID:24363477

  13. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in hard rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-12-01

    This report makes an evaluation of the long-term behaviour of the wastes placed in a hard rock repository. Impacts were analyzed for the seven reference fuel cycles of WG 7. The reference repository for this study is for granitic rock or gneiss as the host rock. The descriptions of waste packages and repository facilities used in this study represent only one of many possible designs based on the multiple barriers concept. The repository's size is based on a nuclear economy producing 100 gigawatts of electricity per year for 1 year. The objective of the modeling efforts presented in this study is to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere and thus determine an estimate of the potential dose to humans so that the release consequence impacts of the various fuel cycles can be compared. Currently available hydrologic, leach, transport, and dose models were used in this study

  14. Demographic Consequences of Gender Discrimination in China: Simulation Analysis of Policy Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanbao, Jiang; Shuzhuo, Li; Marcus W, Feldman

    2011-08-01

    The large number of missing females in China, a consequence of gender discrimination, is having and will continue to have a profound effect on the country's population development. In this paper, we analyze the causes of this gender discrimination in terms of institutions, culture and, economy, and suggest public policies that might help eliminate gender discrimination. Using a population simulation model, we study the effect of public policies on the sex ratio at birth and excess female child mortality, and the effect of gender discrimination on China's population development. We find that gender discrimination will decrease China's population size, number of births, and working age population, accelerate population aging and exacerbate the male marriage squeeze. These results provide theoretical support for suggesting that the government enact and implement public policies aimed at eliminating gender discrimination.

  15. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J. [National Radiological Protection Board (United Kingdom); Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G.

  16. Probabilistic accident consequence uncertainty analysis: Food chain uncertainty assessment. Volume 2: Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Goossens, L.H.J.; Kraan, B.C.P.

    1997-06-01

    This volume is the second of a two-volume document that summarizes a joint project by the US Nuclear Regulatory and the Commission of European Communities to assess uncertainties in the MACCS and COSYMA probabilistic accident consequence codes. These codes were developed primarily for estimating the risks presented by nuclear reactors based on postulated frequencies and magnitudes of potential accidents. This two-volume report, which examines mechanisms and uncertainties of transfer through the food chain, is the first in a series of five such reports. A panel of sixteen experts was formed to compile credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for food chain transfer that affect calculations of offsite radiological consequences. Seven of the experts reported on transfer into the food chain through soil and plants, nine reported on transfer via food products from animals, and two reported on both. The expert judgment elicitation procedure and its outcomes are described in these volumes. This volume contains seven appendices. Appendix A presents a brief discussion of the MAACS and COSYMA model codes. Appendix B is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on soils and plants. Appendix C presents the rationales and responses of each of the members of the soils and plants expert panel. Appendix D is the structure document and elicitation questionnaire for the expert panel on animal transfer. The rationales and responses of each of the experts on animal transfer are given in Appendix E. Brief biographies of the food chain expert panel members are provided in Appendix F. Aggregated results of expert responses are presented in graph format in Appendix G

  17. Mass-spectrometry analysis of histone post-translational modifications in pathology tissue using the PAT-H-MS approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Noberini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aberrant histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs have been implicated with various pathologies, including cancer, and may represent useful epigenetic biomarkers. The data described here provide a mass spectrometry-based quantitative analysis of hPTMs from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissues, from which histones were extracted through the recently developed PAT-H-MS method. First, we analyzed FFPE samples from mouse spleen and liver or human breast cancer up to six years old, together with their corresponding fresh frozen tissue. We then combined the PAT-H-MS approach with a histone-focused version of the super-SILAC strategy-using a mix of histones from four breast cancer cell lines as a spike-in standard- to accurately quantify hPTMs from breast cancer specimens belonging to different subtypes. The data, which are associated with a recent publication (Pathology tissue-quantitative mass spectrometry analysis to profile histone post-translational modification patterns in patient samples (Noberini, 2015 [1], are deposited at the ProteomeXchange Consortium via the PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier http://www.ebi.ac.uk/pride/archive/projects/PXD002669.

  18. RASCAL [Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis]: A screening model for estimating doses from radiological accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoreen, A.L.; Athey, G.F.; Sakenas, C.A.; McKenna, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Radiological Assessment System for Consequence AnaLysis (RASCAL) is a new MS-DOS-based dose assessment model which has been written for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use during response to radiological emergencies. RASCAL is designed to provide crude estimates of the effects of an accident while the accident is in progress and only limited information is available. It has been designed to be very simple to use and to run quickly. RASCAL is unique in that it estimates the source term based on fundamental plant conditions and does not rely solely on release rate estimation (e.g., Ci/sec of I-131). Therefore, it can estimate consequences of accidents involving unmonitored pathways or projected failures. RASCAL will replace the older model, IRDAM. 6 refs

  19. Window design : visual and thermal consequences : analysis of the thermal and daylighting performance of windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergem-Jansen, P.M. van; Soeleman, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Selected results of an analysis for the thermal and lighting requirements associated with windows in utility buildings are presented. This analysis concerns the effects of r¡indow size and shape, orientation and of different ways of supplementing the daylight by artifieial light for a typical office

  20. Consequence and impact of electric utility industry restructuring on transient stability and small-signal stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittal, V.

    2000-01-01

    The electric utility industry is undergoing unprecedented changes in its structure worldwide. With the advent of an open market environment and competition in the industry, and restructuring of the industry into separate generation, transmission, and distribution entities, new issues in power system operation and planning are inevitable. One of the major consequences of this new electric utility environment is the greater emphasis on reliability and secure operation of the power system. This paper examines the impact of restructuring on power system dynamic analysis. It specifically addresses issues related to transient stability analysis and small-signal stability analysis. Four major topics to examine the effect on the nature of studies conducted are considered. These topics are (1) system adequacy and security, (2) system modeling data requirements, (3) system protection and control, and (4) system restoration. The consequences and impact of each of these topics on the nature of the studies conducted are examined and discussed. The emphasis on greater reliability has led to a clearer enunciation of standards, measurements, and guides in some countries. These requirements will result in: (1) more measurements on existing systems, (2) rigorous analysis of transient stability and small-signal stability to determine operating limits and plan systems, (3) greater emphasis on studies to verify coordination and proper performance of protection and controls, and (4) development of a detailed plan for system restoration in the case of wide-spread outages

  1. Energetic Consequences of nitrite stress in Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough, inferred from global transcriptional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Qiang; Huang, Katherine H.; He, Zhili; Alm, Eric J.; Fields,Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2005-11-03

    Many of the proteins that are candidates for bioenergetic pathways involved with sulfate respiration in Desulfovibrio spp. have been studied, but complete pathways and overall cell physiology remain to be resolved for many environmentally relevant conditions. In order to understand the metabolism of these microorganisms under adverse environmental conditions for improved bioremediation efforts, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was used as a model organism to study stress response to nitrite, an important intermediate in the nitrogen cycle. Previous physiological studies demonstrated that growth was inhibited by nitrite and that nitrite reduction was observed to be the primary mechanism of detoxification. Global transcriptional profiling with whole-genome microarrays revealed coordinated cascades of responses to nitrite in pathways of energy metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, oxidative stress response, and iron homeostasis. In agreement with previous observations, nitrite-stressed cells showed a decrease in the expression of genes encoding sulfate reduction functions in addition to respiratory oxidative phosphorylation and ATP synthase activity. Consequently, the stressed cells had decreased expression of the genes encoding ATP-dependent amino acid transporters and proteins involved in translation. Other genes up-regulated in response to nitrite include the genes in the Fur regulon, which is suggested to be involved in iron homeostasis, and genes in the Per regulon, which is predicted to be responsible for oxidative stress response.

  2. Consequences of a nuclear phase-out. A critical analysis of available phase-out studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voss, A; Friedrich, R; Kaltschmitt, M

    1986-12-01

    The Chernobyl reactor accident has stirred again the public discussion about the necessity and justifyability of the utilization of nuclear energy in the Federal Republic of Germany. The basic consensus which due to the efforts of the Nuclear Energy Enquete Commission of the Federal Diet had been reigning over energy policy is lost now. Although the problems of peaceful nuclear energy uses were already discussed in detail in the late 70s and early 80s and in spite of the fact that the factual situation does not seem to have changed very much it is only natural and, what is more, indispensable to answer the Chernobyl reactor accident by starting another intense discussion about all the problems connected with the utilization of nuclear energy and by revising the very position of the Federal Republic of Germany. There is indeed no other way of taking the public concern and fears seriously or of relieving it in such a way that energy policy will be able to realize energy conservation and answer any long-term requirements. A responsible discussion complying with the relevance and importance of the utilization-or-not problem must evaluate the pros and cons, that is the benefits and risks and has to consider the long-term and global consequences.

  3. An analysis of social consequences of rapid fertility decline in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Liu, L

    1988-12-01

    Rapid fertility decline in China has brought about 2 direct effects: 1) the natural increase of the population has slowed down, and 2) the age structure has changed from the young to the adult type. These 2 effects have caused a series of economic and social consequences. Rapid fertility decline increases the gross national product per capita and accelerates the improvement of people's lives. Rapid fertility decline slows population growth and speeds up the accumulation of capital and the development of the economy. Since 1981, accumulation growth has exceeded consumption growth. Fertility decline alleviates the enrollment pressure on primary and secondary schools, raises the efficiency of education funds, and promotes the popularization of education. The family planning program strengthens the maternal and child health care and the medical care systems. As the result of economic development, the people's nutritional levels are improving. The physical quality of teenagers has improved steadily. The change in the age structure will alleviate the tension of rapid population growth and benefit population control in the next century. Fertility decline forces the traditional attitude toward childbearing from "more children, more happiness" to improved quality of children. The rapid fertility decline has caused a great deal of concern both inside and outside China about the aging of the population. The labor force, however, will continue to grow for the next 60 years. At present, China's population problems are still those of population growth.

  4. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers.

  5. MICROBIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF BILE IN PATIENTS WITH BENIGN AND MALIGNANT BILIOPANCREATIC DISEASES AND ITS CONSEQUENCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, José Roberto; Silva, Rodrigo do Carmo; Guerra, Sâmea Costa Pinheiro; Freitas, Tiago Tavares de; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Amico, Enio Campos

    2016-01-01

    Bactibilia has several consequences to human health. Assessing the bile microbiology of patients with biliopancreatic diseases in order to identify bacteria and their possible infectious complications. Retrospective study of 30 bile culture samples from patients with benign and malignant biliopancreatic diseases. The samples were assessed to set the bile microbiological flora and to search for its possible link with comorbidity, carcinogenesis and postoperative infectious complications. Thirty bile samples from patients at mean age ≈57.7 years, mostly female (n=18), were assessed. Bactibilia was found in 12 cases, mostly in patients with benign diseases (n=8), older than 50 years (n=23) and female (n=10). Adenocarcinoma of the duodenal papilla (n=9) and cholelithiasis (n=8) were the most common diseases. Escherichia coli (n=5) and Klebsiella sp (n=3) were predominantly found in patients with benign diseases; and Klebsiella sp (n=2) and Streptococcus sp (n=2) were prevalent in cancer patients. There were postoperative infectious complications in seven cases, five of them in bactibilia-associated patients (P=0.084). Bactibilia was found in 12 samples and Escherichia coli and Klebsiella sp were most often identified in patients with benign diseases, as well as Streptococcus sp and Klebsiella sp in cancer patients. There was a trend of higher postoperative infectious complication incidence in patients with bactibilia.

  6. Analysis of the consequences of 'thermite' reaction; Analisis sobre las consecuencias de la reaccion 'termita'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yorio, Daniel; Cincotta, Daniel O; Camacho, Esteban F; Bruno, Hernan R; Boero, Norma L [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, General San Martin (Argentina). Centro Atomico Constituyentes

    1999-07-01

    The mixture of Al-U{sub 3}O{sub 8} is not in a state of chemical equilibrium, and at temperatures of between 850 degree C and 1000 degree C, it reacts exo thermally. This is known, in corresponding bibliography, as a 'Thermite reaction'. This mixture is used in the manufacturing of the plate-type fuel used in research reactors. It has been pointed out that the release of energy caused by this type of reactions might represent a risk in case of accidents in this type of reactor. Conclusions, in general, tend to indicate that no such risk exists, although no concrete assurance is given that this is the case, and this fact, therefore, leaves room for doubt. The objective of this paper is to provide an in-depth study of what happens to a fuel plate when it is subjected to thermite reaction. We will, furthermore, analyze the consequences of the release of energy generated by this type of reaction within the core of the reactor, clearly defining the problem for this type of fuel and this kind of reactor.

  7. Individual- and organizational-level consequences of organizational citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podsakoff, Nathan P; Whiting, Steven W; Podsakoff, Philip M; Blume, Brian D

    2009-01-01

    Although one of the main reasons for the interest in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) is the potential consequences of these behaviors, no study has been reported that summarizes the research regarding the relationships between OCBs and their outcomes. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to provide a meta-analytic examination of the relationships between OCBs and a variety of individual- and organizational-level outcomes. Results, based on 168 independent samples (N = 51,235 individuals), indicated that OCBs are related to a number of individual-level outcomes, including managerial ratings of employee performance, reward allocation decisions, and a variety of withdrawal-related criteria (e.g., employee turnover intentions, actual turnover, and absenteeism). In addition, OCBs were found to be related (k = 38; N = 3,611 units) to a number of organizational-level outcomes (e.g., productivity, efficiency, reduced costs, customer satisfaction, and unit-level turnover). Of interest, somewhat stronger relationships were observed between OCBs and unit-level performance measures in longitudinal studies than in cross-sectional studies, providing some evidence that OCBs are causally related to these criteria. The implications of these findings for both researchers and practitioners are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Analysis of consequences of postulated solvent fires in Hanford site waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    This document contains the calculations that support the accident analyses for accidents involving organic solvents. This work was performed to support the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and the Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) for Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS).

  9. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1997-04-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector

  10. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer installation modifications in a radioactive contaminated laboratory for the analysis of DOE radioactive waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaquinto, J.M.; Keller, J.M.; Meeks, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of a complex analytical instrument such as an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in a radioactive contaminated environment presents unique problems and challenges that have to be considered in the purchasing and installation process. Considerations such as vendor experience, typical radiation levels, sample matrices encountered during sample analysis, instrument accessibility for maintenance, and upkeep must be incorporated into the decision process. The Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory (RMAL) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) recently purchased and installed an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer for the analysis of Department of Energy (DOE) radioactive waste streams. This presentation will outline the purchasing decision, installation of the instrument, and how the modifications needed to operate in a radioactive contaminated laboratory do not significantly impact the daily operation and maintenance requirements of the instrument. Also, a contamination survey of the system will be presented which demonstrates the contamination levels in the instrument from the sample introduction system to the detector. (author)

  11. Structural analysis of DNA–protein complexes regulating the restriction–modification system Esp1396I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Richard N. A.; McGeehan, John E.; Ball, Neil J.; Streeter, Simon D.; Thresh, Sarah-Jane; Kneale, G. G.

    2013-01-01

    Comparison of bound and unbound DNA in protein–DNA co-crystal complexes reveals insights into controller-protein binding and DNA distortion in transcriptional regulation. The controller protein of the type II restriction–modification (RM) system Esp1396I binds to three distinct DNA operator sequences upstream of the methyltransferase and endonuclease genes in order to regulate their expression. Previous biophysical and crystallographic studies have shown molecular details of how the controller protein binds to the operator sites with very different affinities. Here, two protein–DNA co-crystal structures containing portions of unbound DNA from native operator sites are reported. The DNA in both complexes shows significant distortion in the region between the conserved symmetric sequences, similar to that of a DNA duplex when bound by the controller protein (C-protein), indicating that the naked DNA has an intrinsic tendency to bend when not bound to the C-protein. Moreover, the width of the major groove of the DNA adjacent to a bound C-protein dimer is observed to be significantly increased, supporting the idea that this DNA distortion contributes to the substantial cooperativity found when a second C-protein dimer binds to the operator to form the tetrameric repression complex

  12. Release consequence analysis for a hypothetical geologic radioactive waste repository in salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    One subtask conducted under the INFCE program is to evaluate and compare the health and safety impacts of different fuel cycles in which all radioactive wastes (except those from mining and milling) are placed in a geologic repository in salt. To achieve this objective, INFCE Working Group 7 examined the radiologic dose to humans from geologic repositories containing waste arisings as defined for seven reference fuel cycles. This report examines the release consequences for a generic waste repository in bedded salt. The top of the salt formation and the top of the repository are assumed to be 250 and 600 m, respectively, below the surface. The hydrogeologic structure above the salt consists of two aquifers and two aquitards. The aquifers connect to a river 6.2 km from the repository. The regional gradient to the river is 1 m/km in all aquifers. Hydrologic, transport, and dose models were used to model two release scenarios for each fuel cycle, one without a major disturbance and one in which a major geologic perturbation breached the repository immediately after it was sealed. The purpose of the modeling was to predict the rate of transport of radioactive contaminants from the repository through the geosphere to the biosphere, and to determine the potential dose to humans. Of the many radionuclides in the waste, only 129 I and 226 Ra arrived at the river in sufficient concentrations for a measurable dose calculation. Radionuclide concentrations in the ground water pose no threat to man because the ground water is a concentrated brine and it is diluted by a factor of 10 6 to 10 7 upon entering the river

  13. A neighborhood analysis of the consequences of Quercus suber decline for regeneration dynamics in Mediterranean forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In forests, the vulnerable seedling stage is largely influenced by the canopy, which modifies the surrounding environment. Consequently, any alteration in the characteristics of the canopy, such as those promoted by forest dieback, might impact regeneration dynamics. Our work analyzes the interaction between canopy neighbors and seedlings in Mediterranean forests affected by the decline of their dominant species (Quercus suber. Our objective was to understand how the impacts of neighbor trees and shrubs on recruitment could affect future dynamics of these declining forests. Seeds of the three dominant tree species (Quercus suber, Olea europaea and Quercus canariensis were sown in six sites during two consecutive years. Using a spatially-explicit, neighborhood approach we developed models that explained the observed spatial variation in seedling emergence, survival, growth and photochemical efficiency as a function of the size, identity, health, abundance and distribution of adult trees and shrubs in the neighborhood. We found strong neighborhood effects for all the performance estimators, particularly seedling emergence and survival. Tree neighbors positively affected emergence, independently of species identity or health. Alternatively, seedling survival was much lower in neighborhoods dominated by defoliated and dead Q. suber trees than in neighborhoods dominated by healthy trees. For the two oak species, these negative effects were consistent over the three years of the experimental seedlings. These results indicate that ongoing changes in species' relative abundance and canopy trees' health might alter the successional trajectories of Mediterranean oak-forests through neighbor-specific impacts on seedlings. The recruitment failure of dominant late-successional oaks in the gaps opened after Q. suber death would indirectly favor the establishment of other coexisting woody species, such as drought-tolerant shrubs. This could lead current

  14. Population Causes and Consequences of Leading Chronic Diseases: A Comparative Analysis of Prevailing Explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David

    2008-01-01

    Context The mortality numbers and rates of chronic disease are rising faster in developing than in developed countries. This article compares prevailing explanations of population chronic disease trends with theoretical and empirical models of population chronic disease epidemiology and assesses some economic consequences of the growth of chronic diseases in developing countries based on the experiences of developed countries. Methods Four decades of male mortality rates of cardiovascular and chronic noncommunicable diseases were regressed on changes in and levels of country income per capita, market integration, foreign direct investment, urbanization rates, and population aging in fifty-six countries for which comparative data were available. Neoclassical economic growth models were used to estimate the effect of the mortality rates of chronic noncommunicable diseases on economic growth in high-income OECD countries. Findings Processes of economic growth, market integration, foreign direct investment, and urbanization were significant determinants of long-term changes in mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, and the observed relationships with these social and economic factors were roughly three times stronger than the relationships with the population's aging. In low-income countries, higher levels of country income per capita, population urbanization, foreign direct investment, and market integration were associated with greater mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, less increased or sometimes reduced rates in middle-income countries, and decreased rates in high-income countries. Each 10 percent increase in the working-age mortality rates of chronic noncommunicable disease decreased economic growth rates by close to a half percent. Conclusions Macrosocial and macroeconomic forces are major determinants of population rises in chronic disease mortality, and some prevailing demographic explanations

  15. Population causes and consequences of leading chronic diseases: a comparative analysis of prevailing explanations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckler, David

    2008-06-01

    The mortality numbers and rates of chronic disease are rising faster in developing than in developed countries. This article compares prevailing explanations of population chronic disease trends with theoretical and empirical models of population chronic disease epidemiology and assesses some economic consequences of the growth of chronic diseases in developing countries based on the experiences of developed countries. Four decades of male mortality rates of cardiovascular and chronic noncommunicable diseases were regressed on changes in and levels of country income per capita, market integration, foreign direct investment, urbanization rates, and population aging in fifty-six countries for which comparative data were available. Neoclassical economic growth models were used to estimate the effect of the mortality rates of chronic noncommunicable diseases on economic growth in high-income OECD countries. Processes of economic growth, market integration, foreign direct investment, and urbanization were significant determinants of long-term changes in mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, and the observed relationships with these social and economic factors were roughly three times stronger than the relationships with the population's aging. In low-income countries, higher levels of country income per capita, population urbanization, foreign direct investment, and market integration were associated with greater mortality rates of heart disease and chronic noncommunicable disease, less increased or sometimes reduced rates in middle-income countries, and decreased rates in high-income countries. Each 10 percent increase in the working-age mortality rates of chronic noncommunicable disease decreased economic growth rates by close to a half percent. Macrosocial and macroeconomic forces are major determinants of population rises in chronic disease mortality, and some prevailing demographic explanations, such as population aging, are

  16. Identifying controlling variables for math computation fluency through experimental analysis: the interaction of stimulus control and reinforcing consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstadter-Duke, Kristi L; Daly, Edward J

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated a method for conducting experimental analyses of academic responding. In the experimental analyses, academic responding (math computation), rather than problem behavior, was reinforced across conditions. Two separate experimental analyses (one with fluent math computation problems and one with non-fluent math computation problems) were conducted with three elementary school children using identical contingencies while math computation rate was measured. Results indicate that the experimental analysis with non-fluent problems produced undifferentiated responding across participants; however, differentiated responding was achieved for all participants in the experimental analysis with fluent problems. A subsequent comparison of the single-most effective condition from the experimental analyses replicated the findings with novel computation problems. Results are discussed in terms of the critical role of stimulus control in identifying controlling consequences for academic deficits, and recommendations for future research refining and extending experimental analysis to academic responding are made. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Safety of modifications at nuclear power plants - the role of minor modifications and human and organisational factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    in the present report. The ultimate responsibility for plant safety lies with the licensee. Consequently, modification processes at the utilities are controlled by written procedures. The modification processes vary depending on the type and scope of the modification. Large modifications generally lead to fewer problems, because these projects are given a great deal of attention and resources together with flexibility in milestones and timing of activities. In contrast, minor modifications seem to, according to recent experience, represent a generic challenge because they are less likely to be recognised as safety significant. Similar kinds of challenges may arise during plant maintenance, when changes in the design or materials may be made without anyone recognising that the maintenance work has actually led to functional modification of plant equipment. A modification process, in which possible safety influences are assessed early, may improve nuclear safety to a significant extent and, at the same time, reduce overall modification cost. Screening of intended changes can be used to estimate design and analysis effort required in the modification process. In the screening, it should be observed that system complexity sometimes may have unexpected impacts. Screening criteria should address the safety significance of the systems and components modified. Also, the impact of the changes on tasks performed by operators and maintainers should be assessed. Major modification projects should always include an analysis of both technical and human contributions to plant operability and maintainability as a part of their comprehensive review process. It is important to create awareness and understanding of the potential safety impacts of modifications at NPPs. This awareness may be improved by collecting and disseminating information about modification-related events. Good results may only be achieved by integrating technical and human factors considerations in the safety

  18. Sensitivity Analysis of an Agent-Based Model of Culture's Consequences for Trade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Jonker, C.M.; Hofstede, G.J.; Verwaart, D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the analysis of an agent-based model’s sensitivity to changes in parameters that describe the agents’ cultural background, relational parameters, and parameters of the decision functions. As agent-based models may be very sensitive to small changes in parameter values, it is of

  19. Some consequences of the Fourier analysis on the Lorentz group for relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrodiev, S.Ch.

    1974-01-01

    On the basis of the analogy between the nonrelativistic and relativistic Fourier analysis the uncertainty relation for rapidity and relativistic relative coordinate is formaly derived. A geometricla interpretation of the behaviour of the elastic scattering differential cross section is given too

  20. Proteins from Erwinia asparaginase Erwinase ® and E. coli asparaginase 2 MEDAC ® for treatment of human leukemia, show a multitude of modifications for which the consequences are completely unclear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Narkhyun; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2011-07-01

    L-Asparaginase from Erwinia chrysanthemi (ASPG_ERWCH; UniProtKB accession number P06608 (Erwinase(®))) and L-asparaginase 2 from Escherichia coli (ASPG2_ECOLI; UniProtKB accession number P00805 (Medac(®))), both L-asparagine amidohydrolases, are widely used for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A series of serious side effects have been reported and this warrants studies into the protein chemistry of the medical products sold. Mass spectrometry (MS) data on ASPG_ERWCH and ASPG2_ECOLI have not been published so far and herein a gel-based proteomics study was performed to provide information about sequence and modifications of the commercially available medical products. ASPG_ERWCH and ASPG2_ECOLI were applied onto two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, spots were in-gel digested with several proteases and resulting peptides and protein modifications were analysed by nano-ESI-LC-MS/MS. Four spots were observed for ASPG_ERWCH, six spots were observed for ASPG2_ECOLI and the identified proteins showed high sequence coverage without sequence conflicts. Several protein modifications including technical and posttranslational modifications were demonstrated. Protein modifications are known to change physicochemical, immunochemical, biological and pharmacological properties and results from this work may challenge re-designing of the product including possible removal of the modifications by the manufacturer because it is not known whether they are contributing to the serious adverse effects of the protein drug. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. How to freak a Black & Mild: a multi-study analysis of YouTube videos illustrating cigar product modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Blank, Melissa D; Cobb, Caroline O; Berry, Brittany M; Kennedy, May G; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    Cigar smoking is increasingly common among adolescents who perceive cigars as less harmful than cigarettes. This perception of reduced harm is especially true for cigars that are user-modified by removing the tobacco binder through a process called 'freaking'. Little is known about 'freaking' and this multi-study, mixed-methods analysis sought to understand better the rationale and prevailing beliefs about this smoking practice using YouTube videos. In Study 1, we conducted a descriptive content analysis on the characteristics of 26 randomly sampled cigar product modification (CPM) videos posted during 2006-10. In Study 2, a thematic analysis was performed on the transcripts of commentary associated with each video to characterize viewers' comments about video content. Study 1 results revealed that 90% of videos illustrated a four-step CPM technique: 'Loosening the tobacco'; 'Dumping the tobacco'; 'Removing the cigar binder' and 'Repacking the tobacco'. Four themes related to the purpose of CPM were also derived from video content: 'Easier to smoke' (54%), 'Beliefs in reduction of health risks' (31%), 'Changing the burn rate' (15%) and 'Taste enhancement' (12%). Study 2 results concerning the content characteristics of video comments were categorized into three themes: 'Disseminating information/answering questions' (81%), 'Seeking advice/asking questions' (69%) and 'Learning cigar modification techniques' (35%). Favorable comments were more common (81%) compared to unfavorable (58%) and comment content suggested low-risk perceptions and poor understanding of smoking harms. These findings highlight a novel means for youth to access information concerning CPM that may have important implications for tobacco control policy and prevention.

  2. The consequences of recovery for the analysis of creep in steel structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolton, J., E-mail: john.bolton@uwclub.ne [Rugby, Warks CV22 5HW (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    Creep strain and recovery data for ferritic steels are used to construct a simple model that separates permanent strain from visco-elastic, recoverable strain. The model is shown to be consistent with data from tests under gradually varying stress. The implications of this model are examined for the design analysis of representative structures. It is shown that the modelling of recovery is important in some circumstances and not in others.

  3. A new modification of summary-based analysis method for large software system testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sidorin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The automated testing tools becoming a frequent practice require thorough computer-aided testing of large software systems, including system inter-component interfaces. To achieve a good coverage, one should overcome scalability problems of different methods of analysis. These problems arise from impossibility to analyze all the execution paths. The objective of this research is to build a method for inter-procedural analysis, which efficiency enables us to analyse large software systems (such as Android OS codebase as a whole for a reasonable time (no more than 4 hours. This article reviews existing methods of software analysis to detect their potential defects. It focuses on the symbolic execution method since it is widely used both in static analysis of source code and in hybrid analysis of object files and intermediate representation (concolic testing. The method of symbolic execution involves separation of a set of input data values into equivalence classes while choosing an execution path. The paper also considers advantages of this method and its shortcomings. One of the main scalability problems is related to inter-procedural analysis. Analysis time grows rapidly if an inlining method is used for inter-procedural analysis. So this work proposes a summary-based analysis method to solve scalability problems. Clang Static Analyzer, an open source static analyzer (a part of the LLVM project, has been chosen as a target system. It allows us to compare performance of inlining and summary-based inter-procedural analysis. A mathematical model for preliminary estimations is described in order to identify possible factors of performance improvement.

  4. Quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational modifications of human histones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Hans Christian; Nielsen, Eva C; Matthiesen, Rune

    2006-01-01

    , and H4 in a site-specific and dose-dependent manner. This unbiased analysis revealed that a relative increase in acetylated peptide from the histone variants H2A, H2B, and H4 was accompanied by a relative decrease of dimethylated Lys(57) from histone H2B. The dose-response results obtained...... by quantitative proteomics of histones from HDACi-treated cells were consistent with Western blot analysis of histone acetylation, cytotoxicity, and dose-dependent expression profiles of p21 and cyclin A2. This demonstrates that mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomic analysis of post-translational...

  5. Radiological consequence analysis. Report on the work package 10. Preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben; Radiologische Konsequenzanalyse. Bericht zum Arbeitspaket 10. Vorlaeufige Sicherheitsanalyse fuer den Standort Gorleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larue, Juergen; Baltes, Bruno; Fischer, Heidemarie; Frieling, Gerd; Kock, Ingo; Navarro, Martin; Seher, Holger

    2013-02-15

    Work package 10 of the preliminary safety analysis for the site Gorleben concerns the analysis of release scenarios and the radiological consequences. The report includes the description of the applied methodology, the concept for the mathematical description of scenarios, the variety of scenarios for the radiological consequence analysis with the definition of the reference scenario. The database for the calculation covers geology and hydrology, the final repository concept and the process of the final disposal system. The used models were the one-phase transport model MARINE and the two-phase transport model TOUGH2. The report summarizes the results including an evaluation of the realization of the demonstration concept with respect to solution transport, fluid transport, robustness of the modeling results and analogy discussion to other disposal variants (i.e. borehole disposal and storage of transport or storage casks).

  6. Chernobyl and its consequences. Analysis of radiation damage. Tschernobyl und die Folgen. Begutachtung von Strahlenschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niklas, K. (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung m.b.H. Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz); Boerner, W. (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin); Holeczke, F.; Messerschmidt, O. (eds.)

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of the conference offer the interested public the opportunity of informing themselves on the circumstances of the Chernobyl accident, the spread of the released radioactive substances in Austria and the Federal Republic of Germany, the measurements of radioactivity in foodstuffs and human beings, and on the medical care for the victims of the accident in the USSR. The second major issue consisted in the assessment of radiation damage from the point of view of forensic medicine. Questions pertaining to the connection between radiation exposure and occupational diseases are discussed. The significance of biological dosimetry including chromosomal analysis is assessed with regard to judicial decisions. (HP) With 35 figs., 48 tabs.

  7. Analysis of the Effect of Surface Modification on Polyimide Composites Coated with Erosion Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndalama, Tchinga; Hirschfeld, Deidre; Sutter, James K. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this research is to enhance performance of composite coatings through modification of graphite-reinforced polyimide composite surfaces prior to metal bond coat/ hard topcoat application for use in the erosive and/or oxidative environments of advanced engines. Graphite reinforced polyimide composites, PMR-15 and PMR-II-50, formed by sheet molding and pre-pregging will be surface treated, overlaid with a bond coat and then coated with WC-Co. The surface treatment will include cleaning, RF plasma or ultraviolet light- ozone etching, and deposition of SiO(x) groups. These surface treatments will be studied in order to investigate and improve adhesion and oxidation resistance. The following panels were provided by NASA-Glenn Research Center(NASA-GRC): Eight compression molded PMR-II-50; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. Two vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. Eight compression molded PMR-15; 6 x 6 x 0.125 in. One vacuum-bagged PMR-15; 12 x 12 x 0.125 in. All panels were made using a 12 x 12 in. T650-35 8HS (3K-tow) graphite fabric. A diamond-wafering blade, with deionized water as a cutting fluid, was used to cut PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 panels into 1 x 1 in. pieces for surface tests. The panel edges exhibiting delamination were used for the preliminary surface preparation tests as these would be unsuitable for strength and erosion testing. PMR-15 neat resin samples were also provided by NASA GRC. Surface profiles of the as-received samples were determined using a Dektak III Surface profile measuring system. Two samples of compression molded PMR-II-50 and PMR-15, vacuum-bagged PMR-II-50 and PMR-15 were randomly chosen for surface profile measurement according to ANSI/ASME B46.1. Prior to each measurement, the samples were blasted with compressed air to remove any artifacts. Five 10 mm-long scans were made on each sample. The short and long wavelength cutoff filter values were set at 100 and 1000 m, diamond stylus radius was 12.5 microns. Table 1 is a summary of the

  8. Folsom Dam Outlet Works Modification Project; Simplified Three-Dimensional Stress Analysis of Monolith 12

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matheu, Enrique E; Garner, Sharon B

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a finite-element stress analysis of monolith 12 conducted to assess any potential adverse effects caused by the proposed dimensions of the air vent near the base of the spillway pier wall...

  9. Modification of the bubble rise model used in RELAP4/Mod5 computer code for transients analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfmann, E.

    1981-01-01

    To improve the separation phase and heat transfer models in RELAP4/MOD5 computer code, in order to make more realistic estimates of the thermohydraulic behavior of the core submitted to a loss-of-coolant accident, is the objective of this work. This research is directed to the accident analysis caused by small breaks in the primary circuit of PWR plants, where two-phase flow occurs most of the time. Calculation have been performed with the help of the original version of RELAP code, and the version containing the proposed modifications on this work. Comparing one results with the original ones, we arrive at the conclusion that our results show more conservative values of core pressure and coolant temperature, while the peak values of fuel temperature are not exceeded. (Author) [pt

  10. Core melt progression and consequence analysis methodology development in support of the Savannah River Reactor PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Kula, K.R.; Sharp, D.A.; Amos, C.N.; Wagner, K.C.; Bradley, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    A three-level Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of production reactor operation has been underway since 1985 at the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS). The goals of this analysis are to: Analyze existing margins of safety provided by the heavy-water reactor (HWR) design challenged by postulated severe accidents; Compare measures of risk to the general public and onsite workers to guideline values, as well as to those posed by commercial reactor operation; and Develop the methodology and database necessary to prioritize improvements to engineering safety systems and components, operator training, and engineering projects that contribute significantly to improving plant safety. PSA technical staff from the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) have performed the assessment despite two obstacles: A variable baseline plant configuration and power level; and a lack of technically applicable code methodology to model the SRS reactor conditions. This paper discusses the detailed effort necessary to modify the requisite codes before accident analysis insights for the risk assessment were obtained

  11. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis.

  12. A Development of Domestic Food Chain Model Data for Chronic Effect Estimation of Off-site Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok-Jung; KEUM, Dong-Kwon; Jang, Seung-Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The FCM includes complex transport phenomena of radiation materials on a biokinetic system of contaminated environments. An estimation of chronic health effects is a key part of the level 3 PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment), which depends on the FCM estimation from contaminated foods ingestion. A cultural ingestion habit of a local region and agricultural productions are different to the general features over worldwide scale or case by case. This is a reason to develop a domestic FCM data for the level 3 PSA. However, a generation of the specific FCM data is a complex process and under a large degree of uncertainty due to inherent biokinetic models. As a preliminary study, the present study focuses on an infrastructure development to generation of a specific FCM data. During this process, the features of FCM data to generate a domestic FCM data were investigated. Based on the insights obtained from this process, a specific domestic FCM data was developed. The present study was developed a domestic FCM data to estimate the chronic health effects of off-site consequence analysis. From this study, an insight was obtained, that a domestic FCM data is roughly 20 times higher than the MACCS2 defaults data. Based on this observation, it is clear that the specific chronic health effects of a domestic plant site should be considered in the off-site consequence analysis

  13. How the causes, consequences and solutions for problem gambling are reported in Australian newspapers: a qualitative content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Helen E; Thomas, Samantha L; Robinson, Priscilla; Daube, Mike

    2014-12-01

    To inform public health approaches to problem gambling by examining how the news media covers problem gambling, with a particular focus on the causes, consequences and solutions to problem gambling, and the 'actors' and sources who influence media coverage. A qualitative content analysis guided by framing theory analysed coverage of problem gambling in Australian newspapers in the period 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012. Solutions to problem gambling were more frequently discussed than causes and consequences. A focus on the responsibility of individuals was preferred to reporting that focused on broader social, ecological, and industry determinants of problem gambling. Reporting was highly politicised, with politicians frequently quoted and political issues frequently discussed. In contrast, the community sector, health professionals and problem gamblers were rarely quoted. This analysis has revealed the need for a more proactive, coordinated approach to the media by both public health researchers and health groups. The establishment of a gambling-specific coalition to push for evidence-based reform is recommended. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  14. Changes in Classes of Injury-Related Risks and Consequences of Risk-Level Drinking: a Latent Transition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Gerald; Field, Craig; Caetano, Raul

    2015-07-01

    Risk-level drinking, drinking and driving, and alcohol-related violence are risk factors that result in injuries. The current study sought to identify which subgroups of patients experience the most behavioral change following a brief intervention. A secondary analysis of data from a brief alcohol intervention study was conducted. The sample (N = 664) includes at-risk drinkers who experienced an injury and were admitted for care to a Level 1 trauma center. Injury-related items from the Short Inventory of Problems+6 were used to perform a latent transition analysis to describe class transitions participants experienced following discharge. Four classes emerged for the year before and after the current injury. Most individuals transitioned from higher-risk classes into those with lower risk. Some participants maintained risky profiles, and others increased risks and consequences. Drinking and driving remained a persistent problem among the study participants. Although a large portion of intervention recipients improved risks and consequences of alcohol use following discharge, more intensive intervention services may be needed for a subset of patients who showed little or no improvement.

  15. A probabilistic analysis of the dynamic response of monopile foundations: Soil variability and its consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, M.; Andersen, L.V.; Ibsen, L.B.

    2015-01-01

    The reliability of offshore wind turbines is highly influenced by the uncertainties related to the subsoil conditions. Traditionally, the evaluation of the dynamic structural behaviour is based on a computational model with deterministic soil properties. Using this approach, however, provides...... on a Monte Carlo method facilitating the derivation of the probability densities of the modal properties and the fatigue loading. The main conclusion of the presented work is that the dynamic structural behaviour of the wind turbine and its support structure is strongly affected by the stochastic soil......-analytical impedance functions of a monopile embedded in a stochastic linear viscoelastic soil layer, fully coupled aero-hydro-elastic simulations are conducted in the nonlinear multi-body code Hawc2. The probabilistic analysis accounts for the uncertainty of soil properties (e.g. damping and stiffness) and relies...

  16. A System for Fault Management and Fault Consequences Analysis for NASA's Deep Space Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombano, Silvano; Spirkovska, Liljana; Baskaran, Vijaykumar; Aaseng, Gordon; McCann, Robert S.; Ossenfort, John; Smith, Irene; Iverson, David L.; Schwabacher, Mark

    2013-01-01

    NASA's exploration program envisions the utilization of a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for human exploration of the space environment in the vicinity of Mars and/or asteroids. Communication latencies with ground control of as long as 20+ minutes make it imperative that DSH operations be highly autonomous, as any telemetry-based detection of a systems problem on Earth could well occur too late to assist the crew with the problem. A DSH-based development program has been initiated to develop and test the automation technologies necessary to support highly autonomous DSH operations. One such technology is a fault management tool to support performance monitoring of vehicle systems operations and to assist with real-time decision making in connection with operational anomalies and failures. Toward that end, we are developing Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS), a tool that combines dynamic and interactive graphical representations of spacecraft systems, systems modeling, automated diagnostic analysis and root cause identification, system and mission impact assessment, and mitigation procedure identification to help spacecraft operators (both flight controllers and crew) understand and respond to anomalies more effectively. In this paper, we describe four major architecture elements of ACAWS: Anomaly Detection, Fault Isolation, System Effects Analysis, and Graphic User Interface (GUI), and how these elements work in concert with each other and with other tools to provide fault management support to both the controllers and crew. We then describe recent evaluations and tests of ACAWS on the DSH testbed. The results of these tests support the feasibility and strength of our approach to failure management automation and enhanced operational autonomy

  17. Structured self monitoring of blood glucose in Iranian people with type 2 diabetes; A cost consequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghili Rokhsareh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-Monitoring of Blood Glucose (SMBG is considered as a key factor in management of people with diabetes which is a growing and cost demanding health problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of comprehensive patient management using structured SMBG on metabolic control as well as its cost consequence analysis. Methods Sixty subjects were recruited in an observational study for a period of 6 months. They were provided with the ACCU-CHEK 360° View tool to fill in the values of the 7-point blood glucose profiles in three consecutive days during the study on a monthly basis. Changes in metabolic control were assessed by HbA1c and lipid profile measurement at the beginning and at the end of the study. In addition, cost consequence analysis was done considering different level of health care professionals with or without insurance coverage. The Average Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ACER as well as Cost saving analysis were calculated and compared. Results The analysis showed significant reduction in HbA1c during the 6-month period in all subjects (P = 0.000. Furthermore, a positive effect was observed on lipid profile. The cost of endocrinologist’s visit in private sector was estimated to be 265.76 USD while this figure was149.15 USD for general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Total complications and mortality cost saving was 154.8 USD. The lowest ACER was calculated for intervention with general practitioner in public sector with insurance coverage. Conclusion Structured SMBG results in significant improvement of glycemic status. Moreover, it is more cost saving in public sector with insurance coverage. It seems that general practitioner visits with insurance coverage is the most affordable option for people with type 2 diabetes.

  18. Risk-based consequences of extreme natural hazard processes in mountain regions - Multi-hazard analysis in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huttenlau, Matthias; Stötter, Johann

    2010-05-01

    weighting within the risk concept, this has sufficient implications on the results of risk analyses. Thus, an equal and scale appropriated balance of those risk components is a fundamental key factor for effective natural hazard risk analyses. The results of such analyses inform especially decision makers in the insurance industry, the administration, and politicians on potential consequences and are the basis for appropriate risk management strategies. Thereby, results (i) on an annual or probabilistic risk comprehension have to be distinguished from (ii) scenario-based analyses. The first analyses are based on statistics of periodically or episodically occurring events whereas the latter approach is especially applied for extreme, non-linear, stochastic events. Focusing on the needs especially of insurance companies, the first approaches are appropriate for premium pricing and reinsurance strategies with an annual perspective, whereas the latter is focusing on events with extreme loss burdens under worst-case criteria to guarantee accordant reinsurance coverage. Moreover, the demand of adequate loss model approaches and methods is strengthened by the risk-based requirements of the upcoming capital requirement directive Solvency II. The present study estimates the potential elements at risk, their corresponding damage potentials and the Probable Maximum Losses (PMLs) of extreme natural hazards events in Tyrol (Austria) and considers adequatly the scale dependency and balanced application of the introduced risk components. Beside the introduced analysis an additionally portfolio analysis of a regional insurance company was executed. The geocoded insurance contracts of this portfolio analysis were the basis to estimate spatial, socio-economical and functional differentiated mean insurance values for the different risk categories of (i) buildings, (ii) contents or inventory, (iii) vehicles, and (iv) persons in the study area. The estimated mean insurance values were

  19. Modification of hydrogen determinator for total hydrogen analysis in irradiated zircaloy cladding tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soon Dal; Choi, Kwnag Soon; Kim, Jong Goo; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    1999-01-01

    A hydrogen determinator was modified and installed in the glove box to analyse total hydrogen content in irradiated zircaloy tube. The analysis method of hydrogen is Inert Gas Fusion(IGF)-Thermal Conductivity Detection(TCD). The hydrogen recoveries of no tin method using Ti and Zr matrix standards, respectively, were available within 3 μg of hydrogen. Also the smaller size of sample showed the better hydrogen recovery. It was found that the hydrogen standard of Ti matrix is available to hydrogen analysis in zircaloy sample. The mean radioactivity of irradiated zircaloy sample was 10 mR/hr and hydrogen concentration was 130 ppm

  20. Italian Young People Coping with the Consequences of Economic Crisis: an Intersectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Colombo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate how the current economic crisis is affecting the daily lives and social positions of young people in Italy. On the one hand, starting from analysis of more general statistical evidence on the worsening situation in the labour market, we conduct an intersectional analysis – both intercategorical and intracategorical – of some indicators in order to shed light on educational and gender differences. On the other hand, we present the results of qualitative research conducted on the experiences and representations of the economic crisis among young people with low or high cultural capital in the city of Milan. The central hypothesis of our work is that ‘the crisis’ is not just a temporary economic conjuncture; it is also a social phenomenon reshaping the social positions of individuals in both structural and subjective terms. Showing how the crisis is affecting different young people in very different ways, the article investigates both structural evidence and subjective interpretations of the crisis. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar cómo está afectando la crisis económica actual a la vida cotidiana y posición social de los jóvenes en Italia. Por un lado, a partir del análisis de evidencias estadísticas de carácter general sobre el empeoramiento de la situación del mercado de trabajo, se realiza un análisis interseccional – tanto intercategórico como intracategórico – de algunos indicadores, con el fin de arrojar luz sobre las diferencias educativas y de género. Por otro lado, se presentan los resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre las experiencias y representaciones de la crisis económica entre los jóvenes con un capital cultural bajo o alto en la ciudad de Milán. La hipótesis central de este trabajo es que “la crisis” no es únicamente una coyuntura económica temporal; también es un fenómeno social que está rediseñando las posiciones sociales de

  1. Some Consequences of an Analysis of the Kelvin-Clausius Entropy Formulation Based on Traditional Axiomatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesudason, Christopher G.

    2003-09-01

    Recently, there have appeared interesting correctives or challenges [Entropy 1999, 1, 111-147] to the Second law formulations, especially in the interpretation of the Clausius equivalent transformations, closely related in area to extensions of the Clausius principle to irreversible processes [Chem. Phys. Lett. 1988, 143(1), 65-70]. Since the traditional formulations are central to science, a brief analysis of some of these newer theories along traditional lines is attempted, based on well-attested axioms which have formed the basis of equilibrium thermodynamics. It is deduced that the Clausius analysis leading to the law of increasing entropy does not follow from the given axioms but it can be proved that for irreversible transitions, the total entropy change of the system and thermal reservoirs (the "Universe") is not negative, even for the case when the reservoirs are not at the same temperature as the system during heat transfer. On the basis of two new simple theorems and three corollaries derived for the correlation between irreversible and reversible pathways and the traditional axiomatics, it is shown that a sequence of reversible states can never be used to describe a corresponding sequence of irreversible states for at least closed systems, thereby restricting the principle of local equilibrium. It is further shown that some of the newer irreversible entropy forms given exhibit some paradoxical properties relative to the standard axiomatics. It is deduced that any reconciliation between the traditional approach and novel theories lie in creating a well defined set of axioms to which all theoretical developments should attempt to be based on unless proven not be useful, in which case there should be consensus in removing such axioms from theory. Clausius' theory of equivalent transformations do not contradict the traditional understanding of heat- work efficiency. It is concluded that the intuitively derived assumptions over the last two centuries seem to

  2. Consequence analysis of core meltdown accidents in liquid metal fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, S.D.; Hahn, D.

    2001-01-01

    Core disruptive accidents have been investigated at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute(KAERI) as part of work to demonstrate the inherent and ultimate safety of the conceptual design of the Korea Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor(KALIMER), a 150 Mw pool-type sodium cooled prototype fast reactor that uses U-Pu-Zr metallic fuel. In this study, a simple method was developed using a modified Bethe-Tait method to simulate the kinetics and hydraulic behavior of a homogeneous spherical core over the period of the super-prompt critical power excursion induced by the ramp reactivity insertion. Calculations of energy release during excursions in the sodium-voided core of the KALIMER were subsequently performed using the method for various reactivity insertion rates up to 100 $/s, which has been widely considered to be the upper limit of ramp rates due to fuel compaction. Benchmark calculations were made to compare with the results of more detailed analysis for core meltdown energetics of the oxide fuelled fast reactor. A set of parametric studies was also performed to investigate the sensitivity of the results on the various thermodynamics and reactor parameters. (author)

  3. LHC Beam Dump System: Analysis of beam commissioning, performance and the consequences of abnormal operation

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The LHC accelerates proton beams to a momentum of up to 7 TeV/c. At this energy level and with nominal beam intensity the stored energy of 360 MJ per beam is sufficient to melt 500 kg of copper. In addition up to 10 GJ are stored within the LHC magnet system at top energy. It is obvious that such a machine needs well designed safety and protection systems. The LHC Beam Dump System (LBDS) is such a system and one of the most critical once concerning machine protection and safe operation. It is used to dispose of high intensity beams between 450 GeV and 7 TeV and is thus designed to fast extract beam in a loss free way and to transfer it to an external absorber. For each ring systems of 15 horizontal fast kicker magnets (MKD), 15 vertically deflecting magnetic septa (MSD) and 10 diluter kicker magnets (MKB) are installed. This thesis is concerned with the analysis of the LBDS performance under normal operating parameters as well as under abnormal conditions like in the event of asynchronous beam abort or missin...

  4. Main Consequences of IFRS Adoption: Analysis of Existing Literature and Suggestions for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Maria Estima Costa Lourenço

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study characterizes the results of scientific research on the effect of adopting the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS that have been published in the most prestigious scientific journals in the field of accounting at the international level and it identifies avenues for further research. Based on the analysis of a set of 67 articles published by the accounting journals that make up the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI, published between 2000 and 2013, it is concluded that, as a general rule, IFRS adoption has a positive effect on information quality, the capital market, analysts' ability to predict, comparability, and information use. Nevertheless, this effect depends on some factors, such as country's characteristics (namely, the enforcement level and companies' characteristics. Sharing rules is not, by itself, enough to create a common business language, and management incentives and institutional factors play a major role in framing the characteristics of financial reporting. Finally, some gaps are identified in the literature and avenues for further research are introduced.

  5. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes, S. E-mail: reyessuarezl@llnl.gov; Latkowski, J.F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J

    2001-05-21

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  6. Accident consequences analysis of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, S.; Latkowski, J. F.; Gomez del Rio, J.; Sanz, J.

    2001-05-01

    Previous studies of the safety and environmental aspects of the HYLIFE-II inertial fusion energy power plant design have used simplistic assumptions in order to estimate radioactivity releases under accident conditions. Conservatisms associated with these traditional analyses can mask the actual behavior of the plant and have revealed the need for more accurate modeling and analysis of accident conditions and radioactivity mobilization mechanisms. In the present work, computer codes traditionally used for magnetic fusion safety analyses (CHEMCON, MELCOR) have been applied for simulating accident conditions in a simple model of the HYLIFE-II IFE design. Here we consider a severe loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in conjunction with simultaneous failures of the beam tubes (providing a pathway for radioactivity release from the vacuum vessel towards the confinement) and of the two barriers surrounding the chamber (inner shielding and confinement building itself). Even though confinement failure would be a very unlikely event it would be needed in order to produce significant off-site doses. CHEMCON code allows calculation of long-term temperature transients in fusion reactor first wall, blanket, and shield structures resulting from decay heating. MELCOR is used to simulate a wide range of physical phenomena including thermal-hydraulics, heat transfer, aerosol physics and fusion product transport and release. The results of these calculations show that the estimated off-site dose is less than 5 mSv (0.5 rem), which is well below the value of 10 mSv (1 rem) given by the DOE Fusion Safety Standards for protection of the public from exposure to radiation during off-normal conditions.

  7. Consequences of sludge composition on combustion performance derived from thermogravimetry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Meiyan; Xiao, Benyi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Volatiles, particularly proteins, play a key role in sludge combustion. • Sludge combustion performance varies with different sludge organic concentrations. • Carbohydrates significantly affect the combustion rate in the second stage. • Combustion performance of digested sludge is more negative compared with others. - Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants produce millions of tons of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge is recognized as a promising feedstock for power generation via combustion and can be used for energy crisis adaption. We aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of various sludge characteristics on the overall sludge combustion process performance. Different types of sewage sludge were derived from numerous wastewater treatment plants in Beijing for further thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric–differential thermogravimetric curves were used to compare the performance of the studied samples. Proximate analytical data, organic compositions, elementary composition, and calorific value of the samples were determined. The relationship between combustion performance and sludge composition was also investigated. Results showed that the performance of sludge combustion was significantly affected by the concentration of protein, which is the main component of volatiles. Carbohydrates and lipids were not correlated with combustion performance, unlike protein. Overall, combustion performance varied with different sludge organic composition. The combustion rate of carbohydrates was higher than those of protein and lipid, and carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175–300 °C). Carbohydrates have a substantial effect on the rate of system combustion during the second stage considering the specific combustion feature. Additionally, the combustion performance of digested sewage sludge is more negative than the others

  8. Consequences of sludge composition on combustion performance derived from thermogravimetry analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Meiyan; Xiao, Benyi; Wang, Xu; Liu, Junxin, E-mail: jxliu@rcees.ac.cn

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Volatiles, particularly proteins, play a key role in sludge combustion. • Sludge combustion performance varies with different sludge organic concentrations. • Carbohydrates significantly affect the combustion rate in the second stage. • Combustion performance of digested sludge is more negative compared with others. - Abstract: Wastewater treatment plants produce millions of tons of sewage sludge. Sewage sludge is recognized as a promising feedstock for power generation via combustion and can be used for energy crisis adaption. We aimed to investigate the quantitative effects of various sludge characteristics on the overall sludge combustion process performance. Different types of sewage sludge were derived from numerous wastewater treatment plants in Beijing for further thermogravimetric analysis. Thermogravimetric–differential thermogravimetric curves were used to compare the performance of the studied samples. Proximate analytical data, organic compositions, elementary composition, and calorific value of the samples were determined. The relationship between combustion performance and sludge composition was also investigated. Results showed that the performance of sludge combustion was significantly affected by the concentration of protein, which is the main component of volatiles. Carbohydrates and lipids were not correlated with combustion performance, unlike protein. Overall, combustion performance varied with different sludge organic composition. The combustion rate of carbohydrates was higher than those of protein and lipid, and carbohydrate weight loss mainly occurred during the second stage (175–300 °C). Carbohydrates have a substantial effect on the rate of system combustion during the second stage considering the specific combustion feature. Additionally, the combustion performance of digested sewage sludge is more negative than the others.

  9. Analysis and modeling of a hail event consequences on a building portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolet, Pierrick; Voumard, Jérémie; Choffet, Marc; Demierre, Jonathan; Imhof, Markus; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2014-05-01

    North-West Switzerland has been affected by a severe Hail Storm in July 2011, which was especially intense in the Canton of Aargau. The damage cost of this event is around EUR 105 Million only for the Canton of Aargau, which corresponds to half of the mean annual consolidated damage cost of the last 20 years for the 19 Cantons (over 26) with a public insurance. The aim of this project is to benefit from the collected insurance data to better understand and estimate the risk of such event. In a first step, a simple hail event simulator, which has been developed for a previous hail episode, is modified. The geometric properties of the storm is derived from the maximum intensity radar image by means of a set of 2D Gaussians instead of using 1D Gaussians on profiles, as it was the case in the previous version. The tool is then tested on this new event in order to establish its ability to give a fast damage estimation based on the radar image and buildings value and location. The geometrical properties are used in a further step to generate random outcomes with similar characteristics, which are combined with a vulnerability curve and an event frequency to estimate the risk. The vulnerability curve comes from a 2009 event and is improved with data from this event, whereas the frequency for the Canton is estimated from insurance records. In addition to this regional risk analysis, this contribution aims at studying the relation of the buildings orientation with the damage rate. Indeed, it is expected that the orientation of the roof influences the aging of the material by controlling the frequency and amplitude of thaw-freeze cycles, changing then the vulnerability over time. This part is established by calculating the hours of sunshine, which are used to derive the material temperatures. This information is then compared with insurance claims. A last part proposes a model to study the hail impact on a building, by modeling the different equipment on each facade of the

  10. Supplement analysis 2 of environmental impacts resulting from modifications in the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The West Valley Demonstration Project, located in western New York, has approximately 600,000 gallons of liquid high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in storage in underground tanks. While corrosion analysis has revealed that only limited tank degradation has taken place, the failure of these tanks could release HLW to the environment. Congress requires DOE to demonstrate the technology for removal and solidification of HLW. DOE issued the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) in 1982. The purpose of this second supplement analysis is to re-assess the 1982 Final Environmental Impact Statement's continued adequacy. This report provides the necessary and appropriate data for DOE to determine whether the environmental impacts presented by the ongoing refinements in the design, process, and operations of the Project are considered sufficiently bounded within the envelope of impacts presented in the FEIS and supporting documentation

  11. Treatment by gliding arc of epoxy resin: preliminary analysis of surface modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faubert, F.; Wartel, M.; Pellerin, N.; Pellerin, S.; Cochet, V.; Regnier, E.; Hnatiuc, B.

    2016-12-01

    Treatments with atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma are easy to implement and inexpensive. Among them gliding arc (GlidArc) remains rarely used in surface treatment of polymers. However, it offers economic and flexible way to treat quickly large areas. In addition the choice of carrier gas makes it possible to bring the active species and other radicals allowing different types of grafting and functionalization of the treated surfaces, for example in order to apply for anti-biofouling prevention. This preliminary work includes analysis of the surface of epoxy resins by infrared spectroscopy: the different affected chemical bonds were studied depending on the duration of treatment. The degree of oxidation (the C/O ratio) is obtained by X-ray microanalysis and contact angle analysis have been performed to determinate the wettability properties of the treated surface. A spectroscopic study of the plasma allows to determine the possible active species in the different zones of the discharge.

  12. Comparative genome and methylome analysis reveals restriction/modification system diversity in the gut commensal Bifidobacterium breve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottacini, Francesca; Morrissey, Ruth; Roberts, Richard John; James, Kieran; van Breen, Justin; Egan, Muireann; Lambert, Jolanda; van Limpt, Kees; Knol, Jan; Motherway, Mary O’Connell; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Bifidobacterium breve represents one of the most abundant bifidobacterial species in the gastro-intestinal tract of breast-fed infants, where their presence is believed to exert beneficial effects. In the present study whole genome sequencing, employing the PacBio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing platform, combined with comparative genome analysis allowed the most extensive genetic investigation of this taxon. Our findings demonstrate that genes encoding Restriction/Modification (R/M) systems constitute a substantial part of the B. breve variable gene content (or variome). Using the methylome data generated by SMRT sequencing, combined with targeted Illumina bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq) and comparative genome analysis, we were able to detect methylation recognition motifs and assign these to identified B. breve R/M systems, where in several cases such assignments were confirmed by restriction analysis. Furthermore, we show that R/M systems typically impose a very significant barrier to genetic accessibility of B. breve strains, and that cloning of a methyltransferase-encoding gene may overcome such a barrier, thus allowing future functional investigations of members of this species. PMID:29294107

  13. Modification of Nursing Education for Upgrading Nurses’ Participation: A Thematic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarabi, Akram; Cheraghi, Mohammad Ali; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: The product of the educational nursing programs in Iran is training nurses who less have professional apprehension and commitment for participating in professional decisions. Whereas nurses especially those in high academic levels are expected to more involve in professional issues. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore Iranian nurse leaders’ experiences of making educational nursing policy with emphasizes on enhancement of nurses’ participation in professional decisions. Methods: We used a qualitative design with thematic analysis approach for data gathering and data analysis. Using purposive sampling we selected 17 experienced nurses in education and making educational nursing policies. Data gathered by open deep semi-structured face to face interviews. We followed six steps of Braun and Clarke for data analysis. Results: In order to enhance nurses’ participation in professional decisions they need to be well educated and trained to participate in community and meet community needs. The three main themes that evolved from analysis included opportunities available for training undergraduate students, challenges for PhD nurses and general deficiencies in nursing education. The second theme includes three sub-themes; namely, the PhD curriculum, PhD nurses’ attitudes and PhD nurses’ performance. Conclusions: We need for revising and directing nursing education toward service learning, community based need programs such as diabetes and driving accidents and also totally application of present educational opportunities. The specialization of nursing and the establishment of specialized nursing associations, the emphasis on teaching the science of care and reinforcing the sense of appreciation of pioneers of nursing in Iran are among the directions offered in the present study PMID:25946943

  14. In situ ion-beam analysis and modification of sol-gel zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, T.E.; Mayer, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    We report the investigation of ion-beam-induced densification of sol-gel zirconia thin films via in situ ion backscattering spectrometry. We have irradiated three regions of a sample with neon, argon, and krypton ions. For each ion species, a series of irradiation and analysis steps were performed using an interconnected 3 MV tandem accelerator. The technique offers the advantages of minimizing the variation of experimental parameters and sequentially monitoring the densification phenomenon with increasing ion dose

  15. and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Athanasopoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available (a Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify the types of CSR initiatives employed by sports organisations; their antecedents, and their consequences for the company and society. (b Design/methodology/approach: This study is exploratory in nature. Two detailed case studies were conducted involving the football team and the basketball team of one professional, premier league club in Greece and their CSR initiatives. Both teams have the same name, they belong to one of the most popular teams in Greece with a large fan population; have both competed in International Competitions (UEFA’s Champion League; Final Four of the European Tournament and have realised many CSR initiatives in the past. The case studies involved in depth, personal interviews of managers responsible for CSR in each team. Case study data was triangulated with documentation and search of published material concerning CSR actions. Data was analysed with content analysis. (c Findings: Both teams investigated have undertaken various CSR activities the last 5 years, the football team significantly more than the basketball team. Major factors that affect CSR activity include pressure from leagues; sponsors; local community, and global organisations; orientation towards fulfilling their duty to society, and team CSR strategy. Major benefits from CSR include relief of vulnerable groups and philanthropy as well as a better reputation for the firm; increase in fan base; and finding sponsors more easily due to the social profile of the team. However, those benefits are not measured in any way although both teams observe increase in tickets sold; web site traffic and TV viewing statistics after CSR activities. Finally, promotion of CSR is mainly done through web sites; press releases; newspapers, and word-of-mouth communications. (d Research limitations/implications: This study involves only two case studies and has limited generalisability. Future research can extend the

  16. Modification of the ANC Nodal Code for analysis of PWR assembly bow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franceschini, Fausto; Fetterman, Robert J.; Little, David C.

    2008-01-01

    Refueling operations at certain PWR cores have revealed fuel assemblies with assembly bow that was higher than expected. As the fuel assemblies bow, the gaps between assemblies change from the uniform nominal configuration. This causes a change in the water volume which affects neutron moderation and thereby power distribution, fuel depletion history, rod internal pressure, etc., with non-trivial impacts on the safety analysis. Westinghouse has developed a new methodology for incorporation of assembly bow in its reload safety analysis package. As part of the new process, the standard Westinghouse reactor physics tool for core analysis, the Advanced Nodal Code ANC, has been modified. The modified ANC, ANCGAP, enables explicit treatment of three-dimensional gap distributions in its neutronic calculations; its accuracy is similar to that of the standard ANC, as demonstrated through an extensive benchmark campaign conducted over a variety of fuel compositions and challenging gap configurations. These features make ANCGAP a crucial tool in the Westinghouse assembly bow package. (authors)

  17. Modification of the ANC Nodal Code for analysis of PWR assembly bow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franceschini, Fausto; Fetterman, Robert J.; Little, David C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Pittsburgh PA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Refueling operations at certain PWR cores have revealed fuel assemblies with assembly bow that was higher than expected. As the fuel assemblies bow, the gaps between assemblies change from the uniform nominal configuration. This causes a change in the water volume which affects neutron moderation and thereby power distribution, fuel depletion history, rod internal pressure, etc., with non-trivial impacts on the safety analysis. Westinghouse has developed a new methodology for incorporation of assembly bow in its reload safety analysis package. As part of the new process, the standard Westinghouse reactor physics tool for core analysis, the Advanced Nodal Code ANC, has been modified. The modified ANC, ANCGAP, enables explicit treatment of three-dimensional gap distributions in its neutronic calculations; its accuracy is similar to that of the standard ANC, as demonstrated through an extensive benchmark campaign conducted over a variety of fuel compositions and challenging gap configurations. These features make ANCGAP a crucial tool in the Westinghouse assembly bow package. (authors)

  18. Modification of the Ladder Rung Walking Task—New Options for Analysis of Skilled Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwa Antonow-Schlorke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Method sensitivity is critical for evaluation of poststroke motor function. Skilled walking was assessed in horizontal, upward, and downward rung ladder walking to compare the demands of the tasks and test sensitivity. The complete step sequence of a walk was subjected to analysis aimed at demonstrating the walking pattern, step sequence, step cycle, limb coordination, and limb interaction to complement the foot fault scoring system. Rats (males, n=10 underwent unilateral photothrombotic lesion of the motor cortex of the forelimb and hind limb areas. Locomotion was video recorded before the insult and at postischemic days 7 and 28. Analysis of walking was performed frame-by-frame. Walking along the rung ladder revealed different results that were dependent on ladder inclination. Horizontal walking was found to discriminate lesion-related motor deficits in forelimb, whereas downward walking demonstrates hind limb use most sensitively. A more frequent use of the impaired forelimb that possibly supported poststroke motor learning in rats was shown. The present study provides a novel system for a detailed analysis of the complete walking sequence and will help to provide a better understanding of how rats deal with motor impairments.

  19. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gürpinar, Aybars, E-mail: aybarsgurpinar2007@yahoo.com [Nuclear & Risk Consultancy, Anisgasse 4, 1221 Vienna (Austria); Serva, Leonello, E-mail: lserva@alice.it [Independent Consultant, Via dei Dauni 1, 00185 Rome (Italy); Livio, Franz, E-mail: franz.livio@uninsubria.it [Dipartimento di Scienza ed Alta Tecnologia, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, Via Velleggio, 11, 22100 Como (Italy); Rizzo, Paul C., E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoasoc.com [RIZZO Associates, 500 Penn Center Blvd., Suite 100, Pittsburgh, PA 15235 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  20. Earthquake-induced crustal deformation and consequences for fault displacement hazard analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürpinar, Aybars; Serva, Leonello; Livio, Franz; Rizzo, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A three-step procedure to incorporate coseismic deformation into PFDHA. • Increased scrutiny for faults in the area permanently deformed by future strong earthquakes. • These faults share with the primary structure the same time window for fault capability. • VGM variation may occur due to tectonism that has caused co-seismic deformation. - Abstract: Readily available interferometric data (InSAR) of the coseismic deformation field caused by recent seismic events clearly show that major earthquakes produce crustal deformation over wide areas, possibly resulting in significant stress loading/unloading of the crust. Such stress must be considered in the evaluation of seismic hazards of nuclear power plants (NPP) and, in particular, for the potential of surface slip (i.e., probabilistic fault displacement hazard analysis - PFDHA) on both primary and distributed faults. In this study, based on the assumption that slip on pre-existing structures can represent the elastic response of compliant fault zones to the permanent co-seismic stress changes induced by other major seismogenic structures, we propose a three-step procedure to address fault displacement issues and consider possible influence of surface faulting/deformation on vibratory ground motion (VGM). This approach includes: (a) data on the presence and characteristics of capable faults, (b) data on recognized and/or modeled co-seismic deformation fields and, where possible, (c) static stress transfer between source and receiving faults of unknown capability. The initial step involves the recognition of the major seismogenic structures nearest to the site and their characterization in terms of maximum expected earthquake and the time frame to be considered for determining their “capability” (as defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA Specific Safety Guide SSG-9). Then a GIS-based buffer approach is applied to identify all the faults near the NPP, possibly influenced by

  1. Safety Analysis in Large Volume Vacuum Systems Like Tokamak: Experiments and Numerical Simulation to Analyze Vacuum Ruptures Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Malizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The large volume vacuum systems are used in many industrial operations and research laboratories. Accidents in these systems should have a relevant economical and safety impact. A loss of vacuum accident (LOVA due to a failure of the main vacuum vessel can result in a fast pressurization of the vessel and consequent mobilization dispersion of hazardous internal material through the braches. It is clear that the influence of flow fields, consequence of accidents like LOVA, on dust resuspension is a key safety issue. In order to develop this analysis an experimental facility is been developed: STARDUST. This last facility has been used to improve the knowledge about LOVA to replicate a condition more similar to appropriate operative condition like to kamaks. By the experimental data the boundary conditions have been extrapolated to give the proper input for the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical simulations, developed by the commercial CFD numerical code. The benchmark of numerical simulation results with the experimental ones has been used to validate and tune the 2D thermofluid-dynamics numerical model that has been developed by the authors to replicate the LOVA conditions inside STARDUST. In present work, the facility, materials, numerical model, and relevant results will be presented.

  2. Relationship Analysis of Corporate Governance, Corporate Social Responsibility Disclosure and Economic Consequences: Empirical Study of Indonesia Capital Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dody Hapsoro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure, and economic consequences. Broadly speaking, the CG variables consist of ownership structure and management/control structure. The CSR disclosure variables consist of economic, environmental, social, human rights, societal, and product responsibility dimensions. The economic consequences variables consist of bid-ask spreads, trading volume, and share price volatility. The hypotheses are tested using a structural equation modeling analysis with 210 samples of listed firms on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2014. The result of this study is as follows: (1 the effect of the proportion of board of directors from the board of commissioners and the audit committee on the CSR disclosure is positive and significant; (2 the effect of the proportion of independent commissioners and the audit committee from the board of commissioners, the audit committee, and the board of directors on CSR disclosure is positive and significant; and (3 the effect of CSR disclosure on trading volume is positive and significant. The main implication of this study is that CSR disclosure activities have a very important role in meeting stakeholders' interests and ensuring the sustainability of the company long-term. In addition, CSR disclosure is considered to be an assertion of a company’s brand differentiation, which means obtaining operating licenses both from the government and society, and the company’s risk management strategy.

  3. Microbeam line of MeV heavy ions for materials modification and in-situ analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horino, Yuji; Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Kiuchi, Masato; Fujii, Kanenaga; Satoh, Mamoru; Takai, Mikio.

    1990-01-01

    A microbeam line for MeV heavy ions of almost any element has been developed for microion-beam processing such as maskless MeV ion implantation and its in-situ analysis. Beam spot sizes of 4.0 μm x 4.0 μm for 3 MeV C 2+ and 9.6 μm x 4.8 μm for 1.8 MeV Au 2+ beams were obtained. Maskless MeV gold ion implantation to a silicon substrate and in-situ microanalysis before and after ion implantation were demonstrated. (author)

  4. Genetic modification and genetic determinism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vorhaus Daniel B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article we examine four objections to the genetic modification of human beings: the freedom argument, the giftedness argument, the authenticity argument, and the uniqueness argument. We then demonstrate that each of these arguments against genetic modification assumes a strong version of genetic determinism. Since these strong deterministic assumptions are false, the arguments against genetic modification, which assume and depend upon these assumptions, are therefore unsound. Serious discussion of the morality of genetic modification, and the development of sound science policy, should be driven by arguments that address the actual consequences of genetic modification for individuals and society, not by ones propped up by false or misleading biological assumptions.

  5. Effect modification of FADS2 polymorphisms on the association between breastfeeding and intelligence: protocol for a collaborative meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Fernando Pires; Davies, Neil Martin; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Victora, Cesar Gomes; Davey Smith, George

    2016-06-15

    Evidence from observational studies and randomised controlled trials suggests that breastfeeding is positively associated with IQ, possibly because breast milk is a source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Different studies have detected gene-breastfeeding interactions involving FADS2 variants and intelligence. However, findings are inconsistent regarding the direction of such effect modification. To clarify how FADS2 and breastfeeding interact in their association with IQ, we are conducting a consortium-based meta-analysis of independent studies. Results produced by each individual study using standardised analysis scripts and harmonised data will be used. breastfeeding, IQ and either rs174575 or rs1535 polymorphisms available; and being of European ancestry. twin studies; only poorly imputed genetic data available; or unavailability of proper ethics approval. Studies will be invited based on being known to have at least some of the required data, or suggested by participating studies as potentially eligible. This inclusive approach will favour achieving a larger sample size and be less prone to publication bias. Improving current understanding of FADS2-breastfeeding interaction may provide important biological insights regarding the importance of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for the breastfeeding-IQ association. This meta-analysis will help to improve such knowledge by replicating earlier studies, conducting additional analysis and evaluating different sources of heterogeneity. Publishing this protocol will minimise the possibility of bias due to post hoc changes to the analysis protocol. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. Effect of chemical modification on behavior of various organic vanadium forms during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalewska, Zofia

    2007-01-01

    The behavior of various organic V forms dissolved in xylene during analysis by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was compared. The investigated analyte forms included compounds with vanadium at the oxidation state III, IV or V, as well as N, O or S atoms in molecules. Another group consisted of petroleum products containing naturally-occurring V species. Although the characteristic mass determined under different analytical conditions was in the very wide range from 11 up to 55 pg, some rules of V behavior were found. In the case of porphyrins and petroleum products, the application of Pd as a chemical modifier (xylene solution of Pd(II) acetylacetonate) seemed to be crucial. It was shown that Pd must be introduced to a furnace together with a sample. Pd injected and thermally pretreated before the sample injection was less effective for porphyrins and the petroleum products, but it increased signals of V compounds containing O as donor atom. The iodine pretreatment followed by the methyltrioctylammonium chloride (MTOACl) pretreatment was advantageous for these V forms. The air ashing in a graphite tube appeared to be important to improve decomposition of the petroleum products. No significant influence of the V oxidation state on the analytical signal was observed. The behavior of V contained in two Conostan oil standards, the single-element and the S21 multielement standard, was different in many situations. Probably, the joint action of other elements is responsible for this effect. In general, chemical modification was applied in the work for two reasons: to reduce the V volatility (in some cases losses at about 300 deg. C were observed) and to enhance the atomization efficiency. For routine analysis air ashing, modification by Pd introduced into the furnace together with the sample solution and petroleum products with known V content as standard is recommended. Using this procedure the characteristic mass varied from 16 to 19 pg for

  7. Heat Transfer Analysis and Modification of Thermal Probe for Gas-Solid Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presented work aims to measure the gas-solid two-phase mass flow-rate in pneumatic conveyor, and a novel modified thermal probe is applied. A new analysis of the local heat transfer coefficients of thermal probe is presented, while traditional investigations focus on global coefficients. Thermal simulations are performed in Fluent 6.2 and temperature distributions of the probe are presented. The results indicate that the probe has obviously stable and unstable heat transfer areas. Based on understanding of probe characteristics, a modified probe structure is designed, which makes the probe output signal more stable and widens the measuring range. The experiments are carried out in a special designed laboratory scale pneumatic conveyor, and the modified probe shows an unambiguous improvement of the performance compared with the traditional one.

  8. Comparative Analysis and Modification of Imaging Techniques in the Parametric Studies of Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Romanova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bauman Moscow State Technical University, MoscowКалининградский государственный технический университет, КалининградThe article considers practical application aspects of various imaging techniques for parametric analysis of control systems. It is interpreted as a multivariate analysis aimed at studying the influence of external and internal parameters of the system on the quality of its functioning determined by direct and indirect quality criteria. The ultimate goal is to identify regions in the parameter space to provide an appropriate quality of the system. It is noted that visualization is a very important task-supporting aid for a designer to make decision. Stressed that the problem of parametric studies, in most cases, intersects with the major problem of inconsistency of separate partial criteria, i.e., the problem of multi-criteria optimization (MCO. Therefore, the aim of the article was to solve a joint task of visualization and multi-criteria optimization.The article considers traditional types of visualization in deterministic tasks (a 3-D graphics, plotting contour lines, gradient fields, Andrews curves, parallel coordinates, as well as methods used in statistics (graph matrices, etc.. Testing these methods as applied to the practical task of studying a double-circuit stabilization system allowed formulation of requirements for imaging techniques with multiple criteria.Provides a new perspective on using the traditional means to significantly enhance information capacity of imaging. A generic method of visualization is represented as a three-phase study agreed with the task of finding the compromise solutions. The first phase of the research involved identifying the monotony and contra-monotony domains. The second phase was aimed at identifying a region of compromise, or a weak Pareto optimum. The third phase involved the search for a consistent optimum (strong Pareto

  9. Analysis and modification of traditional games and sports towards their correct use in educational contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Méndez-Giménez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article supports the idea of modifying traditional games and sports in order to provide students with significant educational experiences. First, a structural-functional analysis of traditional games is presented. Second, a teaching strategy to enhance their potential in physical education classes is introduced. Third, an approach to make traditional games more vivid for students is offered. The structure of each of the traditional games’ categories is revised, and a few changes are introduced bearing in mind the children’s characteristics and the school context’s limitations. Finally, homemade materials are presented as a perfect tool for these changes, and to foster children’s participation and motivation on traditional games

  10. Kinetic analysis and chemical modification studies of nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase from yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hess, S.L.

    1988-01-01

    Nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NaPRTase) from Baker's yeast catalyzes the formation of nicotinate mononucleotide (NaMN) and pyrophosphate from phosphoribosyl α-1-pyrophosphate and nicotinate, concomitant with ATP hydrolysis. Using purified NaPRTase, initial velocity measurements were performed varying one substrate concentration at different fixed levels of the second substrate and maintaining the third substrate constant. Subsequently, an exchange of label was observed between ATP and [ 14 C]-ADP. This rate of exchange was inhibited by PRibPP and pyrophosphate. Incubations of NaPRTase with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate followed by sodium borohydride reduction led to inactivation of the enzyme. Pyridoxal was a less effective inhibitor than pyridoxal 5'-phosphate. The inactivation of the enzyme by pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was reversible upon flow dialysis, whereas reduction of the enzyme-pyridoxal complex with sodium borohydride rendered the inhibition irreversible. The presence of ATP or PRibPP, with or with Mg 2+ , provided protection against this inactivation, while a kinetic analysis revealed the inhibition to be competitive, and noncompetitive, respectively. One mole of [ 3 H]-pyridoxal phosphate was required to completely inactivate the enzyme, which was reduced in the presence of MgATP and MgPRibPP to 0.2 and 0.6, respectively. No incorporation of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate was observed in the combination of both of the two substrates

  11. Analysis of Protein-Phenolic Compound Modifications Using Electrochemistry Coupled to Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallinich, Constanze; Schefer, Simone; Rohn, Sascha

    2018-01-29

    In the last decade, electrochemical oxidation coupled with mass spectrometry has been successfully used for the analysis of metabolic studies. The application focused in this study was to investigate the redox potential of different phenolic compounds such as the very prominent chlorogenic acid. Further, EC/ESI-MS was used as preparation technique for analyzing adduct formation between electrochemically oxidized phenolic compounds and food proteins, e.g., alpha-lactalbumin or peptides derived from a tryptic digestion. In the first step of this approach, two reactant solutions are combined and mixed: one contains the solution of the digested protein, and the other contains the phenolic compound of interest, which was, prior to the mixing process, electrochemically transformed to several oxidation products using a boron-doped diamond working electrode. As a result, a Michael-type addition led to covalent binding of the activated phenolic compounds to reactive protein/peptide side chains. In a follow-up approach, the reaction mix was further separated chromatographically and finally detected using ESI-HRMS. Compound-specific, electrochemical oxidation of phenolic acids was performed successfully, and various oxidation and reaction products with proteins/peptides were observed. Further optimization of the reaction (conditions) is required, as well as structural elucidation concerning the final adducts, which can be phenolic compound oligomers, but even more interestingly, quite complex mixtures of proteins and oxidation products.

  12. Changes and Clinical Consequences of Smoking Cessation in Patients With COPD: A Prospective Analysis From the CHAIN Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Cristina; Casanova, Ciro; de-Torres, Juan P; Marín, José M; de Lucas, Pilar; Fuster, Antonia; Cosío, Borja G; Calle, Myriam; Peces-Barba, Germán; Solanes, Ingrid; Agüero, Ramón; Feu-Collado, Nuria; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Romero Plaza, Amparo; Balcells, Eva; de Diego, Alfredo; Marín Royo, Margarita; Moreno, Amalia; Llunell Casanovas, Antonia; Galdiz, Juan B; Golpe, Rafael; Lacárcel Bautista, Celia; Cabrera, Carlos; Marin, Alicia; Soriano, Joan B; Lopez-Campos, Jose Luis

    2018-02-22

    Despite the existing evidence-based smoking cessation interventions, chances of achieving that goal in real life are still low among patients with COPD. We sought to evaluate the clinical consequences of changes in smoking habits in a large cohort of patients with COPD. CHAIN (COPD History Assessment in Spain) is a Spanish multicenter study carried out at pulmonary clinics including active and former smokers with COPD. Smoking status was certified by clinical history and co-oximetry. Clinical presentation and disease impact were recorded via validated questionnaires, including the London Chest Activity of Daily Living (LCADL) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). No specific smoking cessation intervention was carried out. Factors associated with and clinical consequences of smoking cessation were analyzed by multivariate regression and decision tree analyses. One thousand and eighty-one patients with COPD were included (male, 80.8%; age, 65.2 [SD 8.9] years; FEV 1 , 60.2 [20.5]%). During the 2-year follow-up time (visit 2, 906 patients; visit 3, 791 patients), the majority of patients maintained the same smoking habit. Decision tree analysis detected chronic expectoration as the most relevant variable to identify persistent quitters in the future, followed by an LCADL questionnaire (cutoff 9 points). Total anxiety HADS score was the most relevant clinical impact associated with giving up tobacco, followed by the LCADL questionnaire with a cutoff value of 10 points. In this real-life prospective COPD cohort with no specific antismoking intervention, the majority of patients did not change their smoking status. Our study also identifies baseline expectoration, anxiety, and dyspnea with daily activities as the major determinants of smoking status in COPD. ClinicalTrials.gov; No. NCT01122758; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov. Copyright © 2018 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Histones H3 and H4 Reveals Novel and Conserved Post-Translational Modifications in Sugarcane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Izabel; Yuan, Zuo-Fei; Liu, Shichong; Souza, Glaucia Mendes; Garcia, Benjamin A; Casas-Mollano, J Armando

    2015-01-01

    Histones are the main structural components of the nucleosome, hence targets of many regulatory proteins that mediate processes involving changes in chromatin. The functional outcome of many pathways is "written" in the histones in the form of post-translational modifications that determine the final gene expression readout. As a result, modifications, alone or in combination, are important determinants of chromatin states. Histone modifications are accomplished by the addition of different chemical groups such as methyl, acetyl and phosphate. Thus, identifying and characterizing these modifications and the proteins related to them is the initial step to understanding the mechanisms of gene regulation and in the future may even provide tools for breeding programs. Several studies over the past years have contributed to increase our knowledge of epigenetic gene regulation in model organisms like Arabidopsis, yet this field remains relatively unexplored in crops. In this study we identified and initially characterized histones H3 and H4 in the monocot crop sugarcane. We discovered a number of histone genes by searching the sugarcane ESTs database. The proteins encoded correspond to canonical histones, and their variants. We also purified bulk histones and used them to map post-translational modifications in the histones H3 and H4 using mass spectrometry. Several modifications conserved in other plants, and also novel modified residues, were identified. In particular, we report O-acetylation of serine, threonine and tyrosine, a recently identified modification conserved in several eukaryotes. Additionally, the sub-nuclear localization of some well-studied modifications (i.e., H3K4me3, H3K9me2, H3K27me3, H3K9ac, H3T3ph) is described and compared to other plant species. To our knowledge, this is the first report of histones H3 and H4 as well as their post-translational modifications in sugarcane, and will provide a starting point for the study of chromatin regulation in

  14. In silico analysis of consequences of non-synonymous SNPs of Slc11a2 gene in Indian bovines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreya M. Patel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to analyze the consequences of non-synonymous SNPs in Slc11a2 gene using bioinformatic tools. There is a current need of efficient bioinformatic tools for in-depth analysis of data generated by the next generation sequencing technologies. SNPs are known to play an imperative role in understanding the genetic basis of many genetic diseases. Slc11a2 is one of the major metal transporter families in mammals and plays a critical role in host defenses. In this study, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the impact of all non-synonymous SNPs in this gene using multiple tools like SIFT, PROVEAN, I-Mutant and PANTHER. Among the total 124 SNPs obtained from amplicon sequencing of Slc11a2 gene by Ion Torrent PGM involving 10 individuals of Gir cattle and Murrah buffalo each, we found 22 non-synonymous. Comparing the prediction of these 4 methods, 5 nsSNPs (G369R, Y374C, A377V, Q385H and N492S were identified as deleterious. In addition, while tested out for polar interactions with other amino acids in the protein, from above 5, Y374C, Q385H and N492S showed a change in interaction pattern and further confirmed by an increase in total energy after energy minimizations in case of mutant protein compared to the native.

  15. The SocioEconomic Analysis of Repository Siting (SEARS): Supplement to the SEARS technical documentation for the SEARS modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parpia, B.; Fannin, D.; Murdock, S.; Hamm, R.; Ransom-Nelson, W.; Leistritz, F.L.

    1985-09-01

    This supplement follows a format similar to that used in the SEARS Technical Documentation. Chapter 1 consists of a brief description of each of the modifications and then describes the alterations and additions to the relevant model components, subroutines and/or data files. Chapter 2 provides a partial model run showing the user- alterable procedures involved in the implementation of each of these modifications, and chapter 3 contains the schematic flowcharts and supplemental listings of the APL computer code altered as a result of these modifications. This report is part of the overall model documentation. 5 figs

  16. Cloning and analysis of the genes encoding the type IIS restriction-modification system HphI from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubys, A; Lubienè, J; Kulakauskas, S; Stankevicius, K; Timinskas, A; Janulaitis, A

    1996-07-15

    The genomic region encoding the type IIS restriction-modification (R-M) system HphI (enzymes recognizing the asymmetric sequence 5'-GGTGA-3'/5'-TCACC-3') from Haemophilus parahaemolyticus were cloned into Escherichia coli and sequenced. Sequence analysis of the R-M HphI system revealed three adjacent genes aligned in the same orientation: a cytosine 5 methyltransferase (gene hphIMC), an adenine N6 methyltransferase (hphIMA) and the HphI restriction endonuclease (gene hphIR). Either methyltransferase is capable of protecting plasmid DNA in vivo against the action of the cognate restriction endonuclease. hphIMA methylation renders plasmid DNA resistant to R.Hindill at overlapping sites, suggesting that the adenine methyltransferase modifies the 3'-terminal A residue on the GGTGA strand. Strong homology was found between the N-terminal part of the m6A methyltransferasease and an unidentified reading frame interrupted by an incomplete gaIE gene of Neisseria meningitidis. The HphI R-M genes are flanked by a copy of a 56 bp direct nucleotide repeat on each side. Similar sequences have also been identified in the non-coding regions of H.influenzae Rd DNA. Possible involvement of the repeat sequences in the mobility of the HphI R-M system is discussed.

  17. Constrained consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available their basic properties and relationship. In Section 3 we present a modal instance of these constructions which also illustrates with an example how to reason abductively with constrained entailment in a causal or action oriented context. In Section 4 we... of models with the former approach, whereas in Section 3.3 we give an example illustrating ways in which C can be de ned with both. Here we employ the following versions of local consequence: De nition 3.4. Given a model M = hW;R;Vi and formulas...

  18. Use of HGSYSTEM/UF6 and MACCS2 for the Building 9204-2E safety analysis report consequence analysis: General overview and comparison of models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, D.A.; Brock, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    Building 9204-2E is used for assembly, disassembly, and storage of weapons components, and quality operations. The building, built in 1971, is a three story structure approximately 101 m long, 51 m wide, and 21 m high located in the western exclusion area of the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. For these activities, several types of hazardous and radioactive materials are used and stored in Building 9204-2E. During a fire, criticality event, or other accident, the potential exists for the release of uranium and other hazardous materials from the building to the atmosphere. A Safety Analysis Report (SAR) is being prepared for Building 9204-2E, in which the consequences of such releases to on-site workers and the off-site public are being analyzed. Consequence estimates from accidental airborne releases are generally calculated using computer models that simulate dispersion and transport of the plume as it travels downwind. For the Building 9204-2E SAR, two candidate atmospheric dispersion candidate models have bene identified for use: (1) the Heavy Gas System-Uranium Hexafluoride (HGSYSTEM/UF 6 ) Model Suite, and (2) the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System-2 (MACCS2). The purpose of this paper is to provide a general description of the two model suites and compared model results for generic release cases, representative of those that will be analyzed in the Building 9204-2E SAR. Recommendations for use of the model suites in the SAR are also discussed

  19. Lifestyle modification programmes for patients with coronary heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, V.; Gucht, V. de; Dusseldorp, E.; Maes, S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle modification programmes for coronary heart disease patients have been shown to effectively improve risk factors and related health behaviours, quality of life, reincidence, and mortality. However, improvements in routine cardiac care over the recent years may offset the

  20. Modification and verification of the program COBRA-RERTR for the application in the thermohydraulic analysis of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Ghazi, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the frame work of testing, evaluation and application of computer codes in the design and safety analysis of research reactors, the thermal hydraulic code COBRA-RERTR (Reduced Enriched Research and Test Reactor) has been tested and partially validated. COBRA-RERTR has been selected due to the available options, which are suitable for the analysis of research reactors which are operated at low temperatures, and which may use plate-type fuel elements and heavy water as the coolant. In addition to that, the code enables the consideration of cross-flow that is important in case of parallel and open coolant channel. The test of the code shows an overestimation of the wall temperature with an addition to some fluctuation from node to node. This results from the solution scheme that uses an explicit, non-iterative solution for heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. The code evaluation regarding the basic thermal hydraulic phenomena indicates the necessity to modify and extent the physical models deals with the estimation of slip ratio and simulation of void content in the sub-cooled boiling. The code has been validated by recalculation of special experiments on axial void distribution and thermal hydraulic instability in the subcooled boiling regime. The validation indicates significant improvement of the code in prediction the axial void distribution in subcooled boiling. The discrepancy between calculation and experiments was about 20% after the modification comparing to 100% in the original models. On the other hand the validation shows the capability of the modified code to stimulate thermal hydraulic flow instability characterized by the critical inlet flow velocity at which the flow just become unstable. This point is identical to the minimum in the integral pressure drop curve. The code results show, from the view point of reactor safety, conservative estimation since the predicted values of critical inlet velocity are higher than the experimental

  1. Modification and verification of the program COBRA-RERTR for the application in the thermohydraulic analysis of research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hainoun, A.; Ghazi, N.

    2004-02-01

    In the frame work of testing, evaluation and application of computer codes in the design and safety analysis of research reactors, the thermal hydraulic code COBRA-RERTR (Reduced Enriched Research and Test Reactor) has been tested and partially validated. COBRA-RERTR has been selected due to the available options, which are suitable for the analysis of research reactors which are operated at low temperatures, and which may use plate-type fuel elements and heavy water as the coolant. In addition to that, the code enables the consideration of cross-flow that is important in case of parallel and open coolant channel. The test of the code shows an overestimation of the wall temperature with an addition to some fluctuation from node to node. This results from the solution scheme that uses an explicit, non-iterative solution for heat conduction and heat transfer to the coolant. The code evaluation regarding the basic thermal hydraulic phenomena indicates the necessity to modify and extent the physical models deals with the estimation of slip ratio and simulation of void content in the sub-cooled boiling. The code has been validated by recalculation of special experiments on axial void distribution and thermal hydraulic instability in the subcooled boiling regime. The validation indicates significant improvement of the code in prediction the axial void distribution in subcooled boiling. The discrepancy between calculation and experiments was about 20% after the modification comparing to 100% in the original models. On the other hand the validation shows the capability of the modified code to stimulate thermal hydraulic flow instability characterized by the critical inlet flow velocity at which the flow just become unstable. This point is identical to the minimum in the integral pressure drop curve. The code results show, from the view point of reactor safety, conservative estimation since the predicted values of critical inlet velocity are higher than the experimental

  2. Quantitative analysis of histone modifications: formaldehyde is a source of pathological n(6-formyllysine that is refractory to histone deacetylases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Edrissi

    Full Text Available Aberrant protein modifications play an important role in the pathophysiology of many human diseases, in terms of both dysfunction of physiological modifications and the formation of pathological modifications by reaction of proteins with endogenous electrophiles. Recent studies have identified a chemical homolog of lysine acetylation, N(6-formyllysine, as an abundant modification of histone and chromatin proteins, one possible source of which is the reaction of lysine with 3'-formylphosphate residues from DNA oxidation. Using a new liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify all N(6-methyl-, -acetyl- and -formyl-lysine modifications, we now report that endogenous formaldehyde is a major source of N(6-formyllysine and that this adduct is widespread among cellular proteins in all compartments. N(6-formyllysine was evenly distributed among different classes of histone proteins from human TK6 cells at 1-4 modifications per 10(4 lysines, which contrasted strongly with lysine acetylation and mono-, di-, and tri-methylation levels of 1.5-380, 5-870, 0-1400, and 0-390 per 10(4 lysines, respectively. While isotope labeling studies revealed that lysine demethylation is not a source of N(6-formyllysine in histones, formaldehyde exposure was observed to cause a dose-dependent increase in N(6-formyllysine, with use of [(13C,(2H2]-formaldehyde revealing unchanged levels of adducts derived from endogenous sources. Inhibitors of class I and class II histone deacetylases did not affect the levels of N(6-formyllysine in TK6 cells, and the class III histone deacetylase, SIRT1, had minimal activity (<10% with a peptide substrate containing the formyl adduct. These data suggest that N(6-formyllysine is refractory to removal by histone deacetylases, which supports the idea that this abundant protein modification could interfere with normal regulation of gene expression if it arises at conserved sites of physiological protein secondary

  3. An Analysis of the Financial and Political Consequences Experienced by School Corporations when Closing a School or Consolidating Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morikis, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the common consequences experienced by school corporations when closing or consolidating schools. The primary focus of the study was to identify the financial and political consequences experienced by school corporations when closing a school closing or consolidating schools. Specific questions regarding…

  4. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part 1, Introduction, integration, and summary: Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S. [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Abrahmson, S. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States); Bender, M.A. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. [Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilbert, E.S. [Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a revision of NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990), Health Effects Models for Nuclear Power Plant Accident Consequence Analysis. This revision has been made to incorporate changes to the Health Effects Models recommended in two addenda to the NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 11, 1989 report. The first of these addenda provided recommended changes to the health effects models for low-LET radiations based on recent reports from UNSCEAR, ICRP and NAS/NRC (BEIR V). The second addendum presented changes needed to incorporate alpha-emitting radionuclides into the accident exposure source term. As in the earlier version of this report, models are provided for early and continuing effects, cancers and thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Weibull dose-response functions are recommended for evaluating the risks of early and continuing health effects. Three potentially lethal early effects -- the hematopoietic, pulmonary, and gastrointestinal syndromes are considered. Linear and linear-quadratic models are recommended for estimating the risks of seven types of cancer in adults - leukemia, bone, lung, breast, gastrointestinal, thyroid, and ``other``. For most cancers, both incidence and mortality are addressed. Five classes of genetic diseases -- dominant, x-linked, aneuploidy, unbalanced translocations, and multifactorial diseases are also considered. Data are provided that should enable analysts to consider the timing and severity of each type of health risk.

  5. PROBCON-HDW: A probability and consequence system of codes for long-term analysis of Hanford defense wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepho, M.G.; Nguyen, T.H.

    1988-12-01

    The PROBCON-HDW (PROBability and CONsequence analysis for Hanford defense waste) computer code system calculates the long-term cumulative releases of radionuclides from the Hanford defense wastes (HDW) to the accessible environment and compares the releases to environmental release limits as defined in 40 CFR 191. PROBCON-HDW takes into account the variability of input parameter values used in models to calculate HDW release and transport in the vadose zone to the accessible environment (taken here as groundwater). A human intrusion scenario, which consists of drilling boreholes into the waste beneath the waste sites and bringing waste to the surface, is also included in PROBCON-HDW. PROBCON-HDW also includes the capability to combine the cumulative releases according to various long-term (10,000 year) scenarios into a composite risk curve or complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF). The system structure of the PROBCON-HDW codes, the mathematical models in PROBCON-HDW, the input files, the input formats, the command files, and the graphical output results of several HDW release scenarios are described in the report. 3 refs., 7 figs., 9 tabs

  6. Correlates and consequences of internalized stigma for people living with mental illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, James D; Boyd, Jennifer E

    2010-12-01

    An expansive body of research has investigated the experiences and adverse consequences of internalized stigma for people with mental illness. This article provides a systematic review and meta-analysis of the extant research regarding the empirical relationship between internalized stigma and a range of sociodemographic, psychosocial, and psychiatric variables for people who live with mental illness. An exhaustive review of the research literature was performed on all articles published in English that assessed a statistical relationship between internalized stigma and at least one other variable for adults who live with mental illness. In total, 127 articles met the inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which, data from 45 articles were extracted for meta-analyses. None of the sociodemographic variables that were included in the study were consistently or strongly correlated with levels of internalized stigma. The review uncovered a striking and robust negative relationship between internalized stigma and a range of psychosocial variables (e.g., hope, self-esteem, and empowerment). Regarding psychiatric variables, internalized stigma was positively associated with psychiatric symptom severity and negatively associated with treatment adherence. The review draws attention to the lack of longitudinal research in this area of study which has inhibited the clinical relevance of findings related to internalized stigma. The study also highlights the need for greater attention on disentangling the true nature of the relationship between internalized stigma and other psychosocial variables. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the effect of mobile phone base station antenna loading on localized SAR and its consequences for measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Björn; Thors, Björn; Törnevik, Christer

    2011-12-01

    In this work, the effect of antenna element loading on the localized specific absorption rate (SAR) has been analyzed for base station antennas. The analysis was conducted in order to determine whether localized SAR measurements of large multi-element base station antennas can be conducted using standardized procedures and commercially available equipment. More specifically, it was investigated if the antenna shifting measurement procedure, specified in the European base station exposure assessment standard EN 50383, will produce accurate localized SAR results for base station antennas larger than the specified measurement phantom. The obtained results show that SAR accuracy is affected by the presence of lossy material within distances of one wavelength from the tested antennas as a consequence of coupling and redistribution of transmitted power among the antenna elements. It was also found that the existing standardized phantom is not optimal for SAR measurements of large base station antennas. A new methodology is instead proposed based on a larger, box-shaped, whole-body phantom. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Compared with Raw Bovine Meat, Boiling but Not Grilling, Barbecuing, or Roasting Decreases Protein Digestibility without Any Major Consequences for Intestinal Mucosa in Rats, although the Daily Ingestion of Bovine Meat Induces Histologic Modifications in the Colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberli, Marion; Lan, Annaïg; Khodorova, Nadezda; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Walker, Francine; Piedcoq, Julien; Davila, Anne-Marie; Blachier, François; Tomé, Daniel; Fromentin, Gilles; Gaudichon, Claire

    2016-08-01

    Cooking may impair meat protein digestibility. When undigested proteins are fermented by the colon microbiota, they can generate compounds that potentially are harmful to the mucosa. This study addressed the effects of typical cooking processes and the amount of bovine meat intake on the quantity of undigested proteins entering the colon, as well as their effects on the intestinal mucosa. Male Wistar rats (n = 88) aged 8 wk were fed 11 different diets containing protein as 20% of energy. In 10 diets, bovine meat proteins represented 5% [low-meat diet (LMD)] or 15% [high-meat diet (HMD)] of energy, with the rest as total milk proteins. Meat was raw or cooked according to 4 processes (boiled, barbecued, grilled, or roasted). A meat-free diet contained only milk proteins. After 3 wk, rats ingested a (15)N-labeled meat meal and were killed 6 h later after receiving a (13)C-valine injection. Meat protein digestibility was determined from (15)N enrichments in intestinal contents. Cecal short- and branched-chain fatty acids and hydrogen sulfide were measured. Intestinal tissues were used for the assessment of protein synthesis rates, inflammation, and histopathology. Meat protein digestibility was lower in rats fed boiled meat (94.5% ± 0.281%) than in the other 4 groups (97.5% ± 0.0581%, P HMD) and on myeloperoxidase activity in the proximal colon (HMD > LMD), but not on other outcomes. The ingestion of bovine meat, whatever the cooking process and the intake amount, resulted in discrete histologic modifications of the colon (epithelium abrasion, excessive mucus secretion, and inflammation). Boiling bovine meat at a high temperature (100°C) for a long time (3 h) moderately lowered protein digestibility compared with raw meat and other cooking processes, but did not affect cecal bacterial metabolites related to protein fermentation. The daily ingestion of raw or cooked bovine meat had no marked effect on intestinal tissues, despite some slight histologic modifications

  9. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Raboisson

    Full Text Available Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig. FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13, 1.75 (1.50-2.03, 1.51 (1.05-2.17 and 1.91 (1.63-2.24, respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109 and €80 (€20-139 for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention.

  10. Landscape changes as a factor affecting the course and consequences of extreme floods in the Otava river basin, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Jakub; Vilímek, Vít

    2008-09-01

    The paper presents the analysis of anthropogenical modifications of the landscape in relation to the course and consequences of floods. The research was conducted in the Otava river basin which represents the core zone of the extreme flood in August 2002 in Central Europe. The analysis was focused on the key indicators of landscape modification potentially affecting the runoff process - the long-term changes of land-use, changes of land cover structure, land drainage, historical shortening of the river network and the modifications of streams and floodplains. The information on intensity and spatial distribution of modifications was derived from different data sources--historical maps, available GIS data, remote sensing and field mapping. The results revealed a high level of spatial diversity of anthropogenical modifications in different parts of the river basin. The intensive modifications in most of indicators were concentrated in the lowland region of the river basin due to its agricultural use; however important changes were also recorded in the headwater region of the basin. The high spatial diversity of the modifications may result in their varying effect on the course and consequences of floods in different parts of the river basin. This effect is demonstrated by the cluster analysis based on the matrix of indicators of stream and floodplain modification, physiogeographical characteristics and geomorphological evidences of the flood in August 2002, derived from the individual thematic layers using GIS.

  11. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrahamson, S. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)); Bender, M.A. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R. (Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Inhalation Toxicology Research Inst.); Gilbert, E.S. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis: Modifications of models resulting from recent reports on health effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamson, S.; Bender, M.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Scott, B.R.

    1991-08-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored several studies to identify and quantify the potential health effects of accidental releases of radionuclides from nuclear power plants. The most recent health effects models resulting from these efforts were published in two reports, NUREG/CR-4214, Rev. 1, Part 1 (1990) and Part 2 (1989). Several major health effects reports have been published recently that may impact the health effects models presented in these reports. This addendum to the Part 2 (1989) report, provides a review of the 1986 and 1988 reports by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation, the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council BEAR 5 Committee report and Publication 60 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection as they relate to this report. The three main sections of this addendum discuss early occurring and continuing effects, late somatic effects, and genetic effects. The major changes to the NUREG/CR-4214 health effects models recommended in this addendum are for late somatic effects. These changes reflect recent changes in cancer risk factors that have come from longer followup and revised dosimetry in major studies like that on the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The results presented in this addendum should be used with the basic NUREG/CR-4214 reports listed above to obtain the most recent views on the potential health effects of radionuclides released accidentally from nuclear power plants. 48 refs., 4 figs., 24 tabs

  13. Behaviour modification interventions to optimise red blood cell transfusion practices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soril, Lesley J J; Noseworthy, Thomas W; Dowsett, Laura E; Memedovich, Katherine; Holitzki, Hannah M; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Zygun, David A; Clement, Fiona M

    2018-05-18

    To assess the impact of behaviour modification interventions to promote restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2018. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised studies examining an intervention to modify healthcare providers' RBC transfusion practice in any healthcare setting were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients transfused. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of inappropriate transfusions, RBC units transfused per patient, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), pretransfusion haemoglobin and healthcare costs. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and meta-regression was performed in cases of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plot. Eighty-four low to moderate quality studies were included: 3 were RCTs and 81 were non-randomised studies. Thirty-one studies evaluated a single intervention, 44 examined a multimodal intervention. The comparator in all studies was standard of care or historical control. In 33 non-randomised studies, use of an intervention was associated with reduced odds of transfusion (OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.71)), odds of inappropriate transfusion (OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.59)), RBC units/patient weighted mean difference (WMD: -0.50 units (95% CI -0.85 to -0.16)), LOS (WMD: -1.14 days (95% CI -2.12 to -0.16)) and pretransfusion haemoglobin (-0.28 g/dL (95% CI -0.48 to -0.08)). There was no difference in odds of mortality (OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.02)). Protocol/algorithm and multimodal interventions were associated with the greatest decreases in the primary outcome. There was high heterogeneity among estimates and evidence for publication bias. The literature examining the impact of interventions on RBC transfusions is extensive, although most studies are non-randomised. Despite this, pooled analysis of 33 studies revealed

  14. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  15. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 2: Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.C.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-10-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3).

  16. Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) for the Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel in an Underground Geologic Repository--Volume 1: Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.L.; Wilson, J.R.; Sanchez, L.Z.; Aguilar, R.; Trellue, H.R.; Cochrane, K.; Rath, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management's (DOE/EM's) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), through a collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), is conducting a systematic Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) of the disposal of SNFs in an underground geologic repository sited in unsaturated tuff. This analysis is intended to provide interim guidance to the DOE for the management of the SNF while they prepare for final compliance evaluation. This report presents results from a Nuclear Dynamics Consequence Analysis (NDCA) that examined the potential consequences and risks of criticality during the long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel owned by DOE-EM. This analysis investigated the potential of post-closure criticality, the consequences of a criticality excursion, and the probability frequency for post-closure criticality. The results of the NDCA are intended to provide the DOE-EM with a technical basis for measuring risk which can be used for screening arguments to eliminate post-closure criticality FEPs (features, events and processes) from consideration in the compliance assessment because of either low probability or low consequences. This report is composed of an executive summary (Volume 1), the methodology and results of the NDCA (Volume 2), and the applicable appendices (Volume 3)

  17. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Froholdt, Lisa Loloma

    2009-01-01

      In this article, it is claimed that research on cross-cultural crews is dominated by one specific understanding of the concept of culture, which is static, evenly distributed and context-independent. Such a conception of culture may bring some basic order while facing an unknown culture...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  18. Genome-wide identification of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) histone modification gene families and their expression analysis during the fruit development and fruit-blue mold infection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jidi; Xu, Haidan; Liu, Yuanlong; Wang, Xia; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiuxin

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotes, histone acetylation and methylation have been known to be involved in regulating diverse developmental processes and plant defense. These histone modification events are controlled by a series of histone modification gene families. To date, there is no study regarding genome-wide characterization of histone modification related genes in citrus species. Based on the two recent sequenced sweet orange genome databases, a total of 136 CsHMs (Citrus sinensis histone modification genes), including 47 CsHMTs (histone methyltransferase genes), 23 CsHDMs (histone demethylase genes), 50 CsHATs (histone acetyltransferase genes), and 16 CsHDACs (histone deacetylase genes) were identified. These genes were categorized to 11 gene families. A comprehensive analysis of these 11 gene families was performed with chromosome locations, phylogenetic comparison, gene structures, and conserved domain compositions of proteins. In order to gain an insight into the potential roles of these genes in citrus fruit development, 42 CsHMs with high mRNA abundance in fruit tissues were selected to further analyze their expression profiles at six stages of fruit development. Interestingly, a numbers of genes were expressed highly in flesh of ripening fruit and some of them showed the increasing expression levels along with the fruit development. Furthermore, we analyzed the expression patterns of all 136 CsHMs response to the infection of blue mold (Penicillium digitatum), which is the most devastating pathogen in citrus post-harvest process. The results indicated that 20 of them showed the strong alterations of their expression levels during the fruit-pathogen infection. In conclusion, this study presents a comprehensive analysis of the histone modification gene families in sweet orange and further elucidates their behaviors during the fruit development and the blue mold infection responses.

  19. Analysis of antecedent and consequence of employee engagement in small and medium-sized enterprises in central Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Handayani, Sri; Anggraeni, Ade Irma; Suharnomo, Andriyansah; Rahardja, Edy

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays, employee is considered essential in an organization. The active role of the employee should be concerned by practitioners and academicians. This study aimed to investigate the antecedent and consequent variables of employee engagement. Distributive justice, absorptive capacity, and job design were believed as the antecedent factors influencing work engagement. Meanwhile, organizational citizenship behavior was believed as the consequent or output factor of employee engagement. Th...

  20. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Lifestyle Modification on Metabolic Control in Overweight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Shin-Yu Lien

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to determine the effects of lifestyle modification programs on fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels in overweight children. We queried six relevant electronic databases and manually searched for studies published before December 2016. Overweight/obese children who underwent a lifestyle modification for more than 6 months were included. A total of 3923 children from eight randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. Compared with the control group, the lifestyle modification group had significantly lower FPG levels by 1.3 mg/dL. The mean differences were significantly decreased for both secondary outcomes; BMI z-score decreased by 0.16 units and insulin levels decreased by 2.4 mU/L. The metaregression showed that the follow-up duration was associated with FPG levels and BMI and insulin levels and half year is a suitable follow-up duration for this population. This study showed that lifestyle modification programs may be effective in reducing the FPG levels of overweight/obese children. Further high-quality RCTs with longer follow-up periods are needed to evaluate the long-term effect of this complementary approach for diabetes mellitus prevention on overweight/obese children.

  1. DNA modification by alkylating compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruglyakova, E.E.

    1985-09-01

    Results are given for research on the physico-chemical properties of alkylating compounds - nitroso alkyl ureas (NAU) which possess a broad spectrum of biological activity, such as mutagenic, carcinogenic, and anti-tumor action that is due to the alkylation and carbamoylation of DNA as well as other cellular components. Identified chemical products of NAU interaction with DNA and its components are cited. Structural conversions of a DNA macromolecule resulting from its chemical modification are examined. NAU are used to discuss possible biological consequences of DNA modification. 148 references.

  2. A comparative analysis of the modification of sexual desire of users of oral hormonal contraceptives and intrauterine contraceptive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Loeches, M; Ortí, R M; Monfort, M; Ortega, E; Rius, J

    2003-09-01

    To compare the influence of oral hormonal contraceptives (OCs) and the use of intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUDs) on the modification of sexual desire. A prospective observational study of 1073 women using OCs or an IUD at the Family Planning Center 'Marina Alta' in Alicante, Spain. In order to evaluate the relative risk regarding the decrease in libido attributed to each contraceptive method, a logistic regression analysis was undertaken which considered the factors of age adjustment, level of studies, family planning information, relationship with partner, age when sexual relationships were initiated, parity, contraceptive method previously used and the duration of use of the contraceptive method. No differences in the decrease of sexual desire were observed between the use of the OC and IUD (odds ratio (OR) 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.70-2.49), yet differences were noted, however, in relation to age (OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.01-1.10). Although these differences were not statistically significant, a high level of awareness regarding family planning was shown to increase sexual desire when compared to a lower level of information on this subject (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.41-1.01). Sexual desire was seen to decrease if the quality of the relationship with the partner was average (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.36-3.69) or poor (OR 4.69; 95% CI 1.93-11.4). Nulliparous women showed a greater decrease in sexual desire in relation to women who had already given birth (OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.00-2.47). Sexual desire was greater if the contraceptive method had already been in use for 6-12 months (OR 0.41; 95% CI 0.17-0.98). Sexual desire does not vary in relation to the use of OCs or IUDs, yet it does decrease with age, in nulliparous women and in those with an average or poor relationship with their partner. Furthermore, sexual desire shows an increase between the first 6 and 12 months of contraceptive treatment.

  3. Specialized rheumatology nurse substitutes for rheumatologists in the diagnostic process of fibromyalgia: a cost-consequence analysis and a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroese, Mariëlle E.; Severens, Johan L.; Schulpen, Guy J.; Bessems, Monique C.; Nijhuis, Frans J.; Landewé, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    To perform a cost-consequence analysis of the substitution of specialized rheumatology nurses (SRN) for rheumatologists (RMT) in the diagnostic process of fibromyalgia (FM), using both a healthcare and societal perspective and a 9-month period. Alongside a randomized controlled trial, we measured

  4. Evaluation of an IPCC climate report. An analysis of conclusions on the possible regional consequences of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report contains the results of a study of the reliability of the regional chapters (H9-16) of the contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Climate Report of the IPCC (the sub report on consequences, adaptation and vulnerability). Moreover an assessment was made of the possible consequences of errors for the conclusions in the high level summaries of that report. The Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency did not detect any errors that may undermine the main conclusions of the scientific UN Climate Panel IPCC of 2007 on the possible future consequences of climate change. However, some of the substantiations of the conclusions lack clarity. To prevent lack of clarity and inaccuracies the IPCC needs to invest more in quality checks. [nl

  5. Peritonitis before Peritoneal Dialysis Training: Analysis of Causative Organisms, Clinical Outcomes, Risk Factors, and Long-Term Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Terry King-Wing; Chow, Kai Ming; Kwan, Bonnie Ching-Ha; Pang, Wing Fai; Leung, Chi Bon; Li, Philip Kam-Tao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Peritonitis before peritoneal dialysis (PD) training (pretraining peritonitis [PTP]) is an uncommon event. The study aim was to examine the causative organisms, clinical outcomes, risk factors, and long-term consequences of PTP. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single–center, retrospective, observational study involving all incident patients on PD who developed PTP between 1998 and 2012, we examined the causative organisms, primary response rate, complete cure rate, risk factors, and associations of PTP with peritoneal equilibration test (PET) and patient survival. For each patient in the PTP group, the patients who underwent catheter insertion immediately before and after the index case were identified as controls. Results Among 1252 incident patients on PD, 52 (4.2%) patients developed PTP, and 104 patients were identified as controls. The two groups were similar in age, sex distribution, comorbidities, and residual renal function, but the PTP group had significantly lower hemoglobin and serum albumin. Patients were followed up for a median of 37.5 months (interquartile range [IQR], 16.3–62.2 months). The most common causative organisms of PTP were Staphylococcus aureus (30.8%) and polymicrobial (21.2%); 25% had negative growth. The primary response and complete cure rates were 82.7% and 78.8%, respectively. In the PTP group, 7.7% of patients died, 9.6% of patients required catheter removal, and PD training was significantly delayed (median =42.0; IQR, 26.0–65.8 days versus 27.5; IQR, 23.0–35.0 days; P=0.01). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum albumin was the only predictor of PTP (adjusted odds ratio, 0.89 per 1-g/dl increase; 95% confidence interval, 0.82 to 0.97). There were no differences in PET results and dialysis adequacy (measured around 1 month after PD training). The PTP group had significantly worse patient survival (median =41.2; IQR, 21.8–60.5 months versus 55.8; IQR

  6. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany : a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P.; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J.

    Objective: To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Methods:

  7. Modifications of the bubble rise model and heat transfer model used in RELAP 4/Mod 5 computer code for transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharfmann, E.; Silva, D.E. da

    1981-01-01

    The modifications on the phase separation model and heat tranfer model in Relap4/Mod 5 computer code, in order to make more realistic estimates of the core thermohydraulic behavior submitted to a loss of coolant accident. This research is directed to the accident analysis caused by small breaks in the primary circuits of PWR plants, where two-phase flow occurs most of the time. Calculation have been performed with the help of the original version of Relap code, as well as the version containing the proposed modifications on this work. Comparing one results with the original ones, we arrive at the conclusion that our results show more conservative values of core pressure and coolant temperature, while the peak values of fuel temperature are not exceeded. (Author) [pt

  8. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (4). Investigation of safety evaluation method for fire and explosion incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A special committee on 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objective of this research is to obtain the useful information related to the establishment of quantitative performance objectives and to risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the analysis method of consequences for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution, and fire (including rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radio active materials into the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this technical report, the research results about basic experimental data and the method for safety evaluation of fire and explosion incidents were summarized. (author)

  9. Drug Addiction and DNA Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Amber N; Feng, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder which can be influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Research has shown that epigenetic modifications can translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression, suggesting that epigenetic changes may underlie the causes and possibly treatment of substance use disorders. This chapter will focus on epigenetic modifications to DNA, which include DNA methylation and several recently defined additional DNA epigenetic changes. We will discuss the functions of DNA modifications and methods for detecting them, followed by a description of the research investigating the function and consequences of drug-induced changes in DNA methylation patterns. Understanding these epigenetic changes may provide us translational tools for the diagnosis and treatment of addiction in the future.

  10. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  11. Physical activity and exercise training in multiple sclerosis: a review and content analysis of qualitative research identifying perceived determinants and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Motl, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review was conducted to provide rich and deep evidence of the perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise based on qualitative research in multiple sclerosis (MS). Electronic databases and article reference lists were searched to identify qualitative studies of physical activity and exercise in MS. Studies were included if they were written in English and examined consequences/determinants of physical activity in persons with MS. Content analysis of perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise was undertaken using an inductive analysis guided by the Physical Activity for people with Disabilities framework and Social Cognitive Theory, respectively. Nineteen articles were reviewed. The most commonly identified perceived barriers of physical activity and exercise were related to the environmental (i.e. minimal or no disabled facilities, and minimal or conflicting advice from healthcare professionals) and related to personal barriers (i.e. fatigue, and fear and apprehension). The most commonly identified perceived facilitators of physical activity were related to the environment (i.e. the type of exercise modality and peer support) and related to personal facilitators (i.e. appropriate exercise and feelings of accomplishment). The most commonly identified perceived beneficial consequences of physical activity and exercise were maintaining physical functions, increased social participation and feelings of self-management and control. The most commonly identified perceived adverse consequences were increased fatigue and feelings of frustration and lost control. Results will inform future research on the perceived determinants and consequences of physical activity and exercise in those with MS and can be adopted for developing professional education and interventions for physical activity and exercise in MS. Physical activity and exercise behaviour in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) is subject

  12. Probabilistic Criticality Consequence Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Gottlieb; J.W. Davis; J.R. Massari

    1996-01-01

    This analysis is prepared by the Mined Geologic Disposal System (MGDS) Waste Package Development (WPD) department with the objective of providing a comprehensive, conservative estimate of the consequences of the criticality which could possibly occur as the result of commercial spent nuclear fuel emplaced in the underground repository at Yucca Mountain. The consequences of criticality are measured principally in terms of the resulting changes in radionuclide inventory as a function of the power level and duration of the criticality. The purpose of this analysis is to extend the prior estimates of increased radionuclide inventory (Refs. 5.52 and 5.54), for both internal and external criticality. This analysis, and similar estimates and refinements to be completed before the end of fiscal year 1997, will be provided as input to Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) to demonstrate compliance with the repository performance objectives

  13. Scientometric analysis of the means of scientific communication of the problem of medical consequences of Chernobyl Nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artamonova, N.O.; Kulyinyich, G.V.; Pavlyichenko, Yu.V.; Gorvan', A.Je.; Zakrut'ko, L.Yi.; Novgorods'ka, L.M.; Byilan, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper evaluation of the structure and trends in the development of the Ukrainian scientific communication tools on the medical consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear accident using bibliometric methods has been given. The main developers of methodical documents are allocated, the dynamics of the distribution of methodical references, information letters and innovations is estimated. The importance of scientific communications tools in dissemination and use of new medical knowledge is demonstrated

  14. Analysis of design strategies for mitigating the consequences of lithium fire within containment of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dube, D A; Kazimi, M S

    1978-07-01

    A lithium combustion model (LITFIRE) was developed to describe the physical and chemical processes which occur during a hypothetical lithium spill and fire. The model was used to study the effectiveness of various design strategies for mitigating the consequences of lithium fire, using the UWMAK-III features as a reference design. Calculations show that without any special fire protection measures, the containment may reach pressures of up to 32 psig when one coolant loop is spilled inside the reactor building. Temperatures as high as 2000/sup 0/F would also be experienced by some of the containment structures. These consequences were found to diminish greatly by the incorporation of a number of design strategies including initially subatmospheric containment pressures, enhanced structural surface heat removal capability, initially low oxygen concentrations, and active post-accident cooling of the containment gas. The EBTR modular design was found to limit the consequences of a lithium spill, and hence offers a potential safety advantage. Calculations of the maximum flame temperature resulting from lithium fire indicate that none of the radioactive first wall materials under consideration would vaporize, and only a few could possibly melt.

  15. Analysis of design strategies for mitigating the consequences of lithium fire within containment of controlled thermonuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dube, D.A.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1978-07-01

    A lithium combustion model (LITFIRE) was developed to describe the physical and chemical processes which occur during a hypothetical lithium spill and fire. The model was used to study the effectiveness of various design strategies for mitigating the consequences of lithium fire, using the UWMAK-III features as a reference design. Calculations show that without any special fire protection measures, the containment may reach pressures of up to 32 psig when one coolant loop is spilled inside the reactor building. Temperatures as high as 2000 0 F would also be experienced by some of the containment structures. These consequences were found to diminish greatly by the incorporation of a number of design strategies including initially subatmospheric containment pressures, enhanced structural surface heat removal capability, initially low oxygen concentrations, and active post-accident cooling of the containment gas. The EBTR modular design was found to limit the consequences of a lithium spill, and hence offers a potential safety advantage. Calculations of the maximum flame temperature resulting from lithium fire indicate that none of the radioactive first wall materials under consideration would vaporize, and only a few could possibly melt

  16. Large structural modification with conserved conformation: analysis of delta(3)-fused aryl prolines in model beta-turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeannotte, Guillaume; Lubell, William D

    2004-11-10

    For the first time, the influence of a fused Delta3-arylproline on peptide conformation has been studied by the synthesis and comparison of the conformations of peptides containing proline and pyrrolo-proline, 3 (PyPro). Pyrrolo-proline was demonstrated to be a conservative replacement for Pro in model beta-turns, 4 and 5, as shown by their similar DMSO titration curves, cis/trans-isomer populations, and NOESY spectral data. Pyrrolo-proline may thus be used for studying the structure activity relationships of Pro-containing peptides with minimal modification of secondary structures.

  17. Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Galloway, J.; Seitzinger, S.; Bleeker, A.; Dise, N.B.; Roxana Petrescu, A.M.; Leach, A.M.; Vries, de W.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution,

  18. Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erisman, J.W.; Galloway, J.N.; Seitzinger, S.; Bleeker, A.; Dise, N.B.; Petrescu, R.; Leach, A.M.; de Vries, W.

    2013-01-01

    The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution,

  19. Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Galloway, James N; Seitzinger, Sybil; Bleeker, Albert; Dise, Nancy B; Petrescu, A M Roxana; Leach, Allison M; de Vries, Wim

    2013-07-05

    The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution, including those for drinking water (nitrates), air quality (smog, particulate matter, ground-level ozone), freshwater eutrophication, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and coastal ecosystems (dead zones). Each of these environmental effects can be magnified by the 'nitrogen cascade': a single atom of Nr can trigger a cascade of negative environmental impacts in sequence. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of Nr on the environment and human health, including an assessment of the magnitude of different environmental problems, and the relative importance of Nr as a contributor to each problem. In some cases, Nr loss to the environment is the key driver of effects (e.g. terrestrial and coastal eutrophication, nitrous oxide emissions), whereas in some other situations nitrogen represents a key contributor exacerbating a wider problem (e.g. freshwater pollution, biodiversity loss). In this way, the central role of nitrogen can remain hidden, even though it actually underpins many trans-boundary pollution problems.

  20. Consequences of human modification of the global nitrogen cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, J.N.; Leach, A.M. [Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4123 (United States); Bleeker, A. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands, 1755 ZG, Petten (Netherlands); Erisman, J.W. [VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Seitzinger, S. [4International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) Secretariat, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, PO Box 50005, 104 05 Stockholm (Sweden); Dise, N.B. [Department of Environmental and Geographical Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, John Dalton East Building, Chester Street, Manchester M15GD (United Kingdom); Petrescu, A.M.R. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Environment and Sustainability (IES) Air and Climate Unit, TP290 Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, Varese (Italy); De Vries, W. [Alterra Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    The demand for more food is increasing fertilizer and land use, and the demand for more energy is increasing fossil fuel combustion, leading to enhanced losses of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment. Many thresholds for human and ecosystem health have been exceeded owing to Nr pollution, including those for drinking water (nitrates), air quality (smog, particulate matter, ground-level ozone), freshwater eutrophication, biodiversity loss, stratospheric ozone depletion, climate change and coastal ecosystems (dead zones). Each of these environmental effects can be magnified by the 'nitrogen cascade': a single atom of Nr can trigger a cascade of negative environmental impacts in sequence. Here, we provide an overview of the impact of Nr on the environment and human health, including an assessment of the magnitude of different environmental problems, and the relative importance of Nr as a contributor to each problem. In some cases, Nr loss to the environment is the key driver of effects (e.g. terrestrial and coastal eutrophication, nitrous oxide emissions), whereas in some other situations nitrogen represents a key contributor exacerbating a wider problem (e.g. freshwater pollution, biodiversity loss). In this way, the central role of nitrogen can remain hidden, even though it actually underpins many transboundary pollution problems.

  1. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (5). Evaluation method and trial evaluation of criticality accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamane, Yuichi; Abe, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Ken; Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Arisawa, Jun; Hayami, Satoru

    2010-01-01

    A special committee of 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objectives of this research are to obtain information useful for establishing quantitative performance objectives and to demonstrate risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the consequence analysis method for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution and fire (including the rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this report, the evaluation methods of criticality accident, such as simplified methods, one-point reactor kinetics codes and quasi-static method, were investigated and their features were summarized to provide information useful for the safety evaluation of NFFs. In addition, several trial evaluations were performed for a hypothetical scenario of criticality accident using the investigated methods, and their results were compared. The release fraction of volatile fission products in a criticality accident was also investigated. (author)

  2. Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, W.

    1985-12-01

    Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.) [de

  3. Re-assessment of road accident data-analysis policy : applying theory from involuntary, high-consequence, low-probability events like nuclear power plant meltdowns to voluntary, low-consequence, high-probability events like traffic accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This report examines the literature on involuntary, high-consequence, low-probability (IHL) events like nuclear power plant meltdowns to determine what can be applied to the problem of voluntary, low-consequence high-probability (VLH) events like tra...

  4. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godec, M.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985

  5. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Strom ohne Atom' and 'Moratorium Plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Strom ohne Atom' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratorium Plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  6. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Strom ohne Atom' and 'Moratorium Plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Strom ohne Atom' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratorium Plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  7. Surgical Treatment of Pressure Ulcers with a Fibrin Sealant in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury: A Cost-Consequence Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Jose Manuel Arévalo; Lozano, Virginia; Oyagüez, Itziar; Casado, Miguel Angel

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness and costs of a fibrin sealant (Tissucol Duo [known as Tisseel in the United States], Baxter International, Deerfield, Illinois) to improve postoperative outcomes in patients with spinal cord injury undergoing surgical treatment for pressure ulcers (PrUs). Between January and June 2011, 27 patients underwent surgical treatment for PrUs with the direct application of Tissucol Duo sprayed before closure. The costs and outcomes obtained in this cohort were compared with those obtained in a previous retrospective study where 71 patients underwent conventional surgery. Lower rates of hematoma-seroma were observed in the study group (3.7% vs 33.8%; P costs. The application of Tissucol Duo during surgical treatment of PrUs in patients with spinal cord injury has been shown to be effective in reducing postoperative complications and in shortening the duration of the hospital stay with a consequent savings in costs.

  8. Economic consequences of the Swiss 'Sortir du nucleaire' and 'Moratoire-plus' popular initiatives - Analysis using a balanced model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.; Wickart, M.; Van Nieuwkoop, R.

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210359. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to assess the economic consequences of two models for the opting out of nuclear energy in Switzerland, as proposed in two popular initiatives. The 'Sortir du nucleaire' (electricity without atomic power) initiative calls for the shutting down of the existing nuclear power stations and the 'Moratoire-plus' initiative calls for a stop on the building of new atomic power stations for 10 years. The method used for assessing the costs and benefits resulting if the initiatives were accepted in a public vote is described. Basic assumptions made on further factors concerning the electricity and energy markets are discussed. Results of analyses made for various scenarios with respect to CO 2 emissions are presented and include discussions on risk costs, effects on employment and welfare aspects

  9. Toward a political analysis of the consequences of a world climate change produced by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schware, R.

    1980-01-01

    It was Hegel's extraordinarily deep and perceptive insight that mankind is caught up in a drama that cannot be fully understood until it has been played out. The owl of Minewa spreads its wings only with the falling of the dusk. On the more hopeful side is the fact that, although we cannot know the consequences of future interactions between climate and society, we can begin to work toward political solutions and gird ourselves for ominous trends that are now coming into view. The purpose of this paper is to identify one such trend, namely the increase of atmospheric temperatures due to increased carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/) and lay some initial groundwork for political research related to climate-societal interactions.

  10. Analysis of the causes and consequences of falls from scaffolding using the Polish construction industry as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoła, A.; Hoła, B.; Szóstak, M.

    2017-10-01

    The results of research published in many publications indicate that the scale of the problem of accidents at work in the construction industry is significant. Fatal and serious accidents, which in the construction industry are often a result of a fall from a height and associated with working on scaffolding, have a particularly strong impact on society. Systematic controls carried out on Polish construction sites indicate irregularities in the area of ensuring safety on scaffolding. As a result of conducted own studies, dozens of accidents caused by falls from scaffolding were selected from the total number of accidents at work in the construction industry and then analysed. The aim of the research was to identify the causes of these accidents and their consequences. The results of studies conducted in this area will be the content of the article.

  11. An analysis of gender differences in patients with hand eczema - everyday exposures, severity, and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, Annette; Veien, Niels Kren; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2014-01-01

    , aggravating factors, hand eczema-related consequences and quality of life were obtained from a questionnaire. RESULTS: Men and women had equal clinical severities of disease, with an overall median HECSI of 43. Self-reported medication adherence was equal between the genders, but, among patients aged > 40...... years, more reported higher adherence. The impact of disease was larger in women than in men. Women reported significantly more aggravating factors and sick leave. Also, women had a more impaired quality of life than men at equal levels of disease severity, and this could be associated with the higher......BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is often related to high-risk occupations and aggravating exposures in everyday life. The disease is twice as frequent in women as in men, partly because of diverse exposure patterns. Other gender differences may be relevant for treatment and prevention. OBJECTIVES: To gain...

  12. Antecedents and consequences of cannabis use among racially diverse cannabis users: an analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Crosby, Ross D; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Ecker, Anthony H; Richter, Ashley

    2015-02-01

    Cannabis remains the most commonly used illicit substance and use rates are rising. Notably, the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) nearly equals that of other illicit substance use disorders combined. Thus, the present study aimed to identify cognitive, affective, and situational predictors and consequences of ad-lib cannabis use in a racially diverse sample. The sample consisted of 93 current cannabis users (34.4% female; 57.1% non-Hispanic Caucasian), 87.1% of whom evinced a current CUD. Ecological Momentary Assessment was used to collect frequent ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving, affect, cannabis use motives, and peer cannabis use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models examined within- and between-day correlates and consequences of cannabis use. Withdrawal and craving were higher on cannabis use days than non-use days. Withdrawal, craving, and positive and negative affect were higher immediately prior to cannabis use compared to non-use episodes. Withdrawal and craving were higher among those who subsequently used cannabis than those who did not. Cannabis use resulted in less subsequent withdrawal, craving, and negative affect. Enhancement and coping motives were the most common reasons cited for use. Withdrawal and negative affect were related to using cannabis for coping motives and social motives. Participants were most likely to use cannabis if others were using, and withdrawal and craving were greater in social situations when others were using. Data support the contention that cannabis withdrawal and craving and affect and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of cannabis use. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Robustness of an uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of early exposure results with the MACCS reactor accident consequence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.; Johnson, J.D.; McKay, M.D.; Shiver, A.W.; Sprung, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques based on Latin hypercube sampling, partial correlation analysis and stepwise regression analysis were used in an investigation with the MACCS model of the early health effects associated with a severe accident at a nuclear power station. The following results were obtained in tests to check the robustness of the analysis techniques: two independent Latin hypercube samples produced similar uncertainty and sensitivity analysis results; setting important variables to best-estimate values produced substantial reductions in uncertainty, while setting the less important variables to best-estimate values had little effect on uncertainty; similar sensitivity analysis results were obtained when the original uniform and loguniform distributions assigned to the 34 imprecisely known input variables were changed to left-triangular distributions and then to right-triangular distributions; and analyses with rank-transformed and logarithmically-transformed data produced similar results and substantially outperformed analyses with raw (i.e., untransformed) data

  14. Distinct Classes of Negative Alcohol-Related Consequences in a National Sample of Incoming First-Year College Students: A Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Dipali Venkataraman; Diamond, Pamela M; Walters, Scott T; Wyatt, Todd M; DeJong, William

    2016-09-01

    : First-year college students are at particular risk for experiencing negative alcohol-related consequences that may set the stage for experiencing such consequences in later life. Latent class analysis is a person-centered approach that, based on observable indicator variables, divides a population into mutually exclusive and exhaustive groups ('classes'). To date, no studies have examined the latent class structure of negative alcohol-related consequences experienced by first-year college students just before entering college. The aims of this study were to (a) identify classes of first-year college students based on the patterns of negative alcohol-related consequences they experienced just before entering college, and (b) determine whether specific covariates were associated with class membership. Incoming freshmen from 148 colleges and universities (N = 54,435) completed a baseline questionnaire as part of an alcohol education program they completed just prior to their first year of college. Participants answered questions regarding demographics and other personal characteristics, their alcohol use in the past 2 weeks, and the negative alcohol-related consequences they had experienced during that time. Four distinct classes of students emerged: (a) No Problems, (b) Academic Problems, (c) Injured Self and (d) Severe Problems. Average number of drinks per drinking day, total number of drinking days, age of drinking initiation, intention to join a fraternity or sorority and family history of alcohol problems were associated with membership in all of the problem classes relative to the No Problems class. These results can inform future campus-based prevention efforts. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly Sensitive and High-Throughput Analysis of Plant Hormones Using MS-Probe Modification and Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry: An Application for Hormone Profiling in Oryza sativa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Mikiko; Kamada-Nobusada, Tomoe; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Takei, Kentaro; Kuroha, Takeshi; Mizutani, Masaharu; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako; Matsuoka, Makoto; Suzuki, Koji; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2009-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive and high-throughput method for the simultaneous analysis of 43 molecular species of cytokinins, auxins, ABA and gibberellins. This method consists of an automatic liquid handling system for solid phase extraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a tandem quadrupole mass spectrometer (qMS/MS) equipped with an electrospray interface (ESI; UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS). In order to improve the detection limit of negatively charged compounds, such as gibberellins, we chemically derivatized fractions containing auxin, ABA and gibberellins with bromocholine that has a quaternary ammonium functional group. This modification, that we call ‘MS-probe’, makes these hormone derivatives have a positive ion charge and permits all compounds to be measured in the positive ion mode with UPLC-ESI-qMS/MS in a single run. Consequently, quantification limits of gibberellins increased up to 50-fold. Our current method needs 180 plant samples simultaneously. Application of this method to plant hormone profiling enabled us to draw organ distribution maps of hormone species in rice and also to identify interactions among the four major hormones in the rice gibberellin signaling mutants, gid1-3, gid2-1 and slr1. Combining the results of hormone profiling data with transcriptome data in the gibberellin signaling mutants allows us to analyze relationships between changes in gene expression and hormone metabolism. PMID:19369275

  16. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Faraz Vahid; De Moortel, Deborah; Muntaner, Carles; Davis, Owen; Siddiqi, Arjumand

    2016-12-01

    Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach.

  17. Do flexicurity policies protect workers from the adverse health consequences of temporary employment? A cross-national comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faraz Vahid Shahidi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexicurity policies comprise a relatively novel approach to the regulation of work and welfare that aims to combine labour market flexibility with social security. Advocates of this approach argue that, by striking the right balance between flexibility and security, flexicurity policies allow firms to take advantage of loose contractual arrangements in an increasingly competitive economic environment while simultaneously protecting workers from the adverse health and social consequences of flexible forms of employment. In this study, we use multilevel Poisson regression models to test the theoretical claim of the flexicurity approach using data for 23 countries across three waves of the European Social Survey. We construct an institutional typology of labour market regulation and social security to evaluate whether inequalities in self-reported health and limiting longstanding illness between temporary workers and their permanent counterparts are smaller in countries that most closely approximate the ideal type described by advocates of the flexicurity approach. Our results indicate that, while the association between temporary employment and health varies across countries, institutional configurations of labour market regulation and social security do not provide a meaningful explanation for this cross-national variation. Contrary to the expectations of the flexicurity hypothesis, our data do not indicate that employment-related inequalities are smaller in countries that approximate the flexicurity approach. We discuss potential explanations for these findings and conclude that there remains a relative lack of evidence in support of the theoretical claims of the flexicurity approach. Keywords: Health inequalities, Cross-national, Temporary, Employment, Flexicurity, Multilevel

  18. The fiscal consequences of ADHD in Germany: a quantitative analysis based on differences in educational attainment and lifetime earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Connolly, Mark P; Sobanski, Esther; Postma, Maarten J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the long-term fiscal consequences of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the German government and social insurance system based on differences in educational attainment and the resulting differences in lifetime earnings compared with non-ADHD cohorts. Differences in educational attainment between ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts were linked to education-specific earnings data. Direct and indirect tax rates and social insurance contributions were linked to differences in lifetime, education-specific earnings to derive lost tax revenue in Germany associated with ADHD. For ADHD and non-ADHD cohorts we derived the age-specific discounted net taxes paid by deducting lifetime transfers from lifetime gross taxes paid. The lifetime net tax revenue for a non-ADHD individual was approximately EUR 80,000 higher compared to an untreated ADHD individual. The fiscal burden of untreated ADHD, based on a cohort of n=31,844 born in 2010, was estimated at EUR 2.5 billion in net tax revenue losses compared with an equally-sized non-ADHD cohort. ADHD interventions providing a small improvement in educational attainment resulted in fiscal benefits from increases in lifetime tax gains. ADHD results in long-term financial loss due to lower education attainment and lifetime reduced earnings and resulting lifetime taxes and social contributions paid. Investments in ADHD interventions allowing more children to achieve their educational potential may offer fiscal benefits generating a positive rate of return.

  19. Analysis of the special consequences of the Barij essence industrial complex of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shaterian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the late decades, the development of industrial activities in the rural areas of Iran have caused some changes in different aspects of these areas which influence the special patterns of rural areas. This article aims to identify the changes that have been the results of industrial development and it’s reflection in the development of rural residential areas. The main intention of this study is to analyze the special consequences (economic, social and anatomical of the industrial center of Kashan in the development of neighboring rural areas. The industrial center consists of three factories that are for making essence, making equipment for gardeners and distillers and the Barij Company. All of the above companies are called the Industrial Center of Barij Essence. It has employed 1050 workers from amongst whom 120 people were identified and the questionnaires were randomly distributed among these workers. To analyze the data based on the measurement variables, descriptive and analytic methods (T were used. The results showed that economically, having rural industries has led to an increase in the people’s intake of  calories, seeing more consumption in long lasting goods and more satisfaction in the native people of the area. In addition, there is more social involvement,  improvements in not wasting the residents’ free time, decreasing of  natives immigration out of the rural areas and finally anatomically, quantity and quality improvement in the rural houses.

  20. Microarray-based analysis of plasma cirDNA epigenetic modification profiling in xenografted mice exposed to intermittent hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Cortese

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep is one of the major abnormalities occurring in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, a highly prevalent disorder affecting 6–15% of the general population, particularly among obese people. IH has been proposed as a major determinant of oncogenetically-related processes such as tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. During the growth and expansion of tumors, fragmented DNA is released into the bloodstream and enters the circulation. Circulating tumor DNA (cirDNA conserves the genetic and epigenetic profiles from the tumor of origin and can be isolated from the plasma fraction. Here we report a microarray-based epigenetic profiling of cirDNA isolated from blood samples of mice engrafted with TC1 epithelial lung cancer cells and controls, which were exposed to IH during sleep (XenoIH group, n = 3 or control conditions, (i.e., room air (RA; XenoRA group, n = 3 conditions. To prepare the targets for microarray hybridization, we applied a previously developed method that enriches the modified fraction of the cirDNA without amplification of genomic DNA. Regions of differential cirDNA modification between the two groups were identified by hybridizing the enriched fractions for each sample to Affymetrix GeneChip Human Promoter Arrays 1.0R. Microarray raw and processed data were deposited in NCBI's Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO database (accession number: GSE61070.

  1. Analysis of the apparent nuclear modification in peripheral Pb-Pb collisions at 5.02 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Acharya, Shreyasi; The ALICE collaboration; Adamova, Dagmar; Adolfsson, Jonatan; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Al-turany, Mohammad; Alam, Sk Noor; Silva De Albuquerque, Danilo; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Ali, Yasir; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altenkamper, Lucas; Altsybeev, Igor; Anaam, Mustafa Naji; Andrei, Cristian; Andreou, Dimitra; Andrews, Harry Arthur; Andronic, Anton; Angeletti, Massimo; Anguelov, Venelin; Anson, Christopher Daniel; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Anwar, Rafay; Apadula, Nicole; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Ball, Markus; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barioglio, Luca; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Ramillien Barret, Valerie; Bartalini, Paolo; Barth, Klaus; Bartsch, Esther; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Batzing, Paul Christoph; Bazo Alba, Jose Luis; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Bedda, Cristina; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bello Martinez, Hector; Bellwied, Rene; Espinoza Beltran, Lucina Gabriela; Belyaev, Vladimir; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bertens, Redmer Alexander; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhaduri, Partha Pratim; Bhasin, Anju; Bhat, Inayat Rasool; Bhatt, Himani; Bhattacharjee, Buddhadeb; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Antonio; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Biro, Gabor; Biswas, Rathijit; Biswas, Saikat; Blair, Justin Thomas; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Boca, Gianluigi; Bock, Friederike; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Bonomi, Germano; Bonora, Matthias; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Botta, Elena; Bourjau, Christian; Bratrud, Lars; Braun-munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Broker, Theo Alexander; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buhler, Paul; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Cabala, Jan; Caffarri, Davide; Caines, Helen Louise; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Soto Camacho, Rabi; Camerini, Paolo; Capon, Aaron Allan; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Chandra, Sinjini; Chang, Beomsu; Chang, Wan; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chauvin, Alex; Cheshkov, Cvetan Valeriev; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Dobrigkeit Chinellato, David; Cho, Soyeon; Chochula, Peter; Chowdhury, Tasnuva; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Colamaria, Fabio Filippo; Colella, Domenico; Collu, Alberto; Colocci, Manuel; Concas, Matteo; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa Del Valle, Zaida; Contreras Nuno, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Costanza, Susanna; Crkovska, Jana; Crochet, Philippe; Cuautle Flores, Eleazar; Cunqueiro Mendez, Leticia; Dahms, Torsten; Dainese, Andrea; Dani, Sanskruti; Danisch, Meike Charlotte; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Supriya; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; De Caro, Annalisa; De Cataldo, Giacinto; De Conti, Camila; De Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; Derradi De Souza, Rafael; Franz Degenhardt, Hermann; Deisting, Alexander; Deloff, Andrzej; Delsanto, Silvia; Deplano, Caterina; Dhankher, Preeti; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Ruzza, Benedetto; Arteche Diaz, Raul; Dietel, Thomas; Dillenseger, Pascal; Ding, Yanchun; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Domenicis Gimenez, Diogenes; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Van Doremalen, Lennart Vincent; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dudi, Sandeep; Duggal, Ashpreet Kaur; Dukhishyam, Mallick; Dupieux, Pascal; Ehlers Iii, Raymond James; Elia, Domenico; Endress, Eric; Engel, Heiko; Epple, Eliane; Erazmus, Barbara Ewa; Erhardt, Filip; Ersdal, Magnus Rentsch; Espagnon, Bruno; Eulisse, Giulio; Eum, Jongsik; Evans, David; Evdokimov, Sergey; Fabbietti, Laura; Faggin, Mattia; Faivre, Julien; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Feldkamp, Linus; Feliciello, Alessandro; Feofilov, Grigorii; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiorenza, Gabriele; Flor, Fernando; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Francisco, Audrey; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fronze, Gabriele Gaetano; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gajdosova, Katarina; Gallio, Mauro; Duarte Galvan, Carlos; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-solis, Edmundo Javier; Garg, Kunal; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; De Leone Gay, Maria Beatriz; Germain, Marie; Ghosh, Jhuma; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Gorlich, Lidia Maria; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Graham, Katie Leanne; Greiner, Leo Clifford; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoryev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Gronefeld, Julius Maximilian; Grosa, Fabrizio; Grosse-oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grosso, Raffaele; Guernane, Rachid; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guittiere, Manuel; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Bautista Guzman, Irais; Haake, Rudiger; Habib, Michael Karim; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hamid, Mohammed; Hamon, Julien Charles; Hannigan, Ryan; Haque, Md Rihan; Harlenderova, Alena; Harris, John William; Harton, Austin Vincent; Hassan, Hadi; Hatzifotiadou, Despina; Hayashi, Shinichi; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Hellbar, Ernst; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Gonzalez Hernandez, Emma; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Florian; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hilden, Timo Eero; Hillemanns, Hartmut; Hills, Christopher; Hippolyte, Boris; Hohlweger, Bernhard; Horak, David; Hornung, Sebastian; Hosokawa, Ritsuya; Hota, Jyotishree; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Huang, Chun-lu; Hughes, Charles; Huhn, Patrick; Humanic, Thomas; Hushnud, Hushnud; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Iddon, James Philip; Iga Buitron, Sergio Arturo; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Islam, Md Samsul; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacak, Barbara; Jacazio, Nicolo; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jaelani, Syaefudin; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Jena, Chitrasen; Jercic, Marko; Jevons, Oliver; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jin, Muqing; Jones, Peter Graham; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karczmarczyk, Przemyslaw; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard Franz; Khabanova, Zhanna; Khan, Ahsan Mehmood; Khan, Shaista; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Khatun, Anisa; Khuntia, Arvind; Kielbowicz, Miroslaw Marek; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Byungchul; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Eun Joo; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Minjung; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Taejun; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Carsten; Klein, Jochen; Klein-boesing, Christian; Klewin, Sebastian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Kobdaj, Chinorat; Varga-kofarago, Monika; Kohler, Markus Konrad; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Kondratyuk, Evgeny; Konevskikh, Artem; Konopka, Piotr Jan; Konyushikhin, Maxim; Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Kovalenko, Vladimir; Kowalski, Marek; Kralik, Ivan; Kravcakova, Adela; Kreis, Lukas; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Kruger, Mario; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kubera, Andrew Michael; Kucera, Vit; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paulus Gerardus; Kumar, Jitendra; Kumar, Lokesh; Kumar, Shyam; Kundu, Sourav; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, Alexander; Kurepin, Alexey; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kvapil, Jakub; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Lai, Yue Shi; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lapidus, Kirill; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Larionov, Pavel; Laudi, Elisa; Lavicka, Roman; Lea, Ramona; Leardini, Lucia; Lee, Seongjoo; Lehas, Fatiha; Lehner, Sebastian; Lehrbach, Johannes; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Levai, Peter; Li, Xiaomei; Li, Xing Long; Lien, Jorgen Andre; Lietava, Roman; Lim, Bong-hwi; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lindsay, Scott William; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Litichevskyi, Vladyslav; Liu, Alwina; Ljunggren, Hans Martin; Llope, William; Lodato, Davide Francesco; Loginov, Vitaly; Loizides, Constantinos; Loncar, Petra; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lowe, Andrew John; Luettig, Philipp Johannes; Luhder, Jens Robert; Lunardon, Marcello; Luparello, Grazia; Lupi, Matteo; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahmood, Sohail Musa; Maire, Antonin; Majka, Richard Daniel; Malaev, Mikhail; Malik, Qasim Waheed; Malinina, Liudmila; Mal'kevich, Dmitry; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Margutti, Jacopo; Marin, Ana Maria; Markert, Christina; Marquard, Marco; Martin, Nicole Alice; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Jacobb Lee; Martinez Hernandez, Mario Ivan; Martinez-garcia, Gines; Martinez Pedreira, Miguel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Masson, Erwann; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Mathis, Andreas Michael; Toledo Matuoka, Paula Fernanda; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; 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Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Narayan, Amrendra; Naru, Muhammad Umair; Nassirpour, Adrian Fereydon; Ferreira Natal Da Luz, Pedro Hugo; Nattrass, Christine; Rosado Navarro, Sebastian; Nayak, Kishora; Nayak, Ranjit; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Negrao De Oliveira, Renato Aparecido; Nellen, Lukas; Nesbo, Simon Voigt; Neskovic, Gvozden; Ng, Fabian; Nicassio, Maria; Niedziela, Jeremi; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Cabanillas Noris, Juan Carlos; Norman, Jaime; Nyanin, Alexander; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oh, Hoonjung; Ohlson, Alice Elisabeth; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oliveira Da Silva, Antonio Carlos; Oliver, Michael Henry; Onderwaater, Jacobus; Oppedisano, Chiara; Orava, Risto; Oravec, Matej; Ortiz Velasquez, Antonio; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pacik, Vojtech; Pagano, Davide; Paic, Guy; Palni, Prabhakar; Pan, Jinjin; Pandey, Ashutosh Kumar; Panebianco, Stefano; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pareek, Pooja; Park, Jonghan; Parkkila, Jasper Elias; Parmar, Sonia; Passfeld, Annika; Pathak, Surya Prakash; Patra, Rajendra Nath; Paul, Biswarup; Pei, Hua; Peitzmann, Thomas; Peng, Xinye; Pereira, Luis Gustavo; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Peresunko, Dmitry Yurevich; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Peretti Pezzi, Rafael; Piano, Stefano; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Ozelin De Lima Pimentel, Lais; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pisano, Silvia; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Planinic, Mirko; Pliquett, Fabian; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Poppenborg, Hendrik; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Pozdniakov, Valeriy; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Ratza, Viktor; Ravasenga, Ivan; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-lucian; Rode, Sudhir Pandurang; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Roeed, Ketil; Rogalev, Roman; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Rokita, Przemyslaw Stefan; Ronchetti, Federico; Dominguez Rosas, Edgar; Roslon, Krystian; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Rotondi, Alberto; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Vazquez Rueda, Omar; Rui, Rinaldo; 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Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Suzuki, Ken; Swain, Sagarika; Szabo, Alexander; Szarka, Imrich; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thakur, Dhananjaya; Thakur, Sanchari; Thomas, Deepa; Thoresen, Freja; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Tikhonov, Anatoly; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Topilskaya, Nataliya; Toppi, Marco; Rojas Torres, Solangel; Tripathy, Sushanta; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Tropp, Lukas; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Trzcinski, Tomasz Piotr; Trzeciak, Barbara Antonina; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Umaka, Ejiro Naomi; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vala, Martin; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; 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Williams, Crispin; Willsher, Emily; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Witt, William Edward; Xu, Ran; Yalcin, Serpil; Yamakawa, Kosei; Yano, Satoshi; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correa Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zherebchevskii, Vladimir; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Ya; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zmeskal, Johann; Zou, Shuguang

    2018-01-01

    Charged-particle spectra at midrapidity are measured in Pb-Pb collisions at the centre-of-mass energy per nucleon-nucleon pair $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV and presented in centrality classes ranging from most central (0-5%) to most peripheral (95-100%) collisions. Possible medium effects are quantified using the nuclear modification factor ($R_{AA}$) by comparing the measured spectra with those from proton-proton collisions, scaled by the number of independent nucleon-nucleon collisions obtained from a Glauber model. At large transverse momenta (8 < $p_{T}$ < 20 GeV/$c$), the average $R_{AA}$ is found to increase from about 0.15 in 0-5% central to a maximum value of about 0.8 in 75-85% peripheral collisions, beyond which it falls off strongly to below 0.2 for the most peripheral collisions. Furthermore, $R_{AA}$ initially exhibits a positive slope as a function of $p_{T}$ in the 8–20 GeV/$c$ interval, while for collisions beyond the 80% class the slope is negative. To reduce uncertainties rela...

  2. Proteomic analysis reveals APC-dependent post-translational modifications and identifies a novel regulator of β-catenin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundon, Malachi A; Schlesinger, Danielle R; Parthasarathy, Amritha; Smith, Samantha L; Kolev, Hannah M; Vinson, David A; Kunttas-Tatli, Ezgi; McCartney, Brooke M; Minden, Jonathan S

    2016-07-15

    Wnt signaling generates patterns in all embryos, from flies to humans, and controls cell fate, proliferation and metabolic homeostasis. Inappropriate Wnt pathway activation results in diseases, including colorectal cancer. The adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) tumor suppressor gene encodes a multifunctional protein that is an essential regulator of Wnt signaling and cytoskeletal organization. Although progress has been made in defining the role of APC in a normal cellular context, there are still significant gaps in our understanding of APC-dependent cellular function and dysfunction. We expanded the APC-associated protein network using a combination of genetics and a proteomic technique called two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We show that loss of Drosophila Apc2 causes protein isoform changes reflecting misregulation of post-translational modifications (PTMs), which are not dependent on β-catenin transcriptional activity. Mass spectrometry revealed that proteins involved in metabolic and biosynthetic pathways, protein synthesis and degradation, and cell signaling are affected by Apc2 loss. We demonstrate that changes in phosphorylation partially account for the altered PTMs in APC mutants, suggesting that APC mutants affect other types of PTM. Finally, through this approach Aminopeptidase P was identified as a new regulator of β-catenin abundance in Drosophila embryos. This study provides new perspectives on the cellular effects of APC that might lead to a deeper understanding of its role in development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Surface charging, discharging and chemical modification at a sliding contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shailendra Vikram; Kusano, Yukihiro; Morgen, Per

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic charging, discharging, and consequent surface modification induced by sliding dissimilar surfaces have been studied. The surface-charge related phenomena were monitored by using a home-built capacitive, non-contact electrical probe, and the surface chemistry was studied by X...... are also able to comment on the behavior and the charge decay time in the ambient air-like condition, once the sliding contact is discontinued. XPS analysis showed a marginal deoxidation effect on the polyester disks due to the charging and discharging of the surfaces. Moreover, these XPS results clearly...

  4. Identification of IL-28B Genotype Modification in Hepatocytes after Living Donor Liver Transplantation by Laser Capture Microdissection and Pyrosequencing Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King-Wah Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to elucidate the biogenetic modification of donor and recipient interleukin-28B (IL-28B genotypes in liver graft biopsies after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT for chronic hepatitis C virus- (HCV- related, end-stage liver disease. Fifty liver graft biopsies were collected from recipients during LDLT treatment for HCV-related, end-stage liver disease. DNA was extracted from all 50 liver tissues, and the IL-28B single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs rs8099917 and rs12979860 were studied for allelic discrimination by real-time PCR analysis. Blood samples were obtained from donors and recipients on postoperative day 0 (POD0, POD7, and POD30. We randomly selected five liver biopsies and isolated the hepatocytes by laser capture microdissection (LCM to evaluate genotype modifications resulting from LDLT. After LDLT, the IL-28B SNP rs8099917 was identified not only in the liver graft biopsies and donors’ sera (TT = 41 : 43; GT = 9 : 5; GG = 0 : 2, but also in liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD0 (TT = 41 : 44; GT = 9 : 4; GG = 0 : 2, POD7 (TT = 41 : 30; GT = 9 : 18; GG = 0 : 2, and POD30 (TT = 41 : 29; GT = 9 : 19; GG = 0 : 2. A significant difference was observed between the rs8099917 allele frequencies of liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD30 (p=0.039. In addition, a significant difference was also noted between the rs12979860 allele frequencies of liver graft biopsies and donors’ sera (CT = 49 : 39; TT = 1 : 10 (p=0.012 and of liver graft biopsies and recipients’ sera on POD0 (CT = 49 : 39; TT = 1 : 11 (p=0.002, POD7 (CT = 49 : 42; TT = 1 : 8 (p=0.016, and POD30 (CT = 49 : 41; TT = 1 : 9 (p=0.008. This phenomenon was confirmed by pyrosequencing of hepatocytes isolated by LCM. Following LDLT, the TT-to-GT IL-28B genotype modification predominated in rs8099917, and the CC-to-CT modification predominated

  5. Consequences of severe habitat fragmentation on density, genetics, and spatial capture-recapture analysis of a small bear population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Murphy

    Full Text Available Loss and fragmentation of natural habitats caused by human land uses have subdivided several formerly contiguous large carnivore populations into multiple small and often isolated subpopulations, which can reduce genetic variation and lead to precipitous population declines. Substantial habitat loss and fragmentation from urban development and agriculture expansion relegated the Highlands-Glades subpopulation (HGS of Florida, USA, black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus to prolonged isolation; increasing human land development is projected to cause ≥ 50% loss of remaining natural habitats occupied by the HGS in coming decades. We conducted a noninvasive genetic spatial capture-recapture study to quantitatively describe the degree of contemporary habitat fragmentation and investigate the consequences of habitat fragmentation on population density and genetics of the HGS. Remaining natural habitats sustaining the HGS were significantly more fragmented and patchier than those supporting Florida's largest black bear subpopulation. Genetic diversity was low (AR = 3.57; HE = 0.49 and effective population size was small (NE = 25 bears, both of which remained unchanged over a period spanning one bear generation despite evidence of some immigration. Subpopulation density (0.054 bear/km2 was among the lowest reported for black bears, was significantly female-biased, and corresponded to a subpopulation size of 98 bears in available habitat. Conserving remaining natural habitats in the area occupied by the small, genetically depauperate HGS, possibly through conservation easements and government land acquisition, is likely the most important immediate step to ensuring continued persistence of bears in this area. Our study also provides evidence that preferentially placing detectors (e.g., hair traps or cameras primarily in quality habitat across fragmented landscapes poses a challenge to estimating density-habitat covariate relationships using spatial

  6. Comprehensive Analysis of the Therapeutic IgG4 Antibody Pembrolizumab: Hinge Modification Blocks Half Molecule Exchange In Vitro and In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Wang, Fengqiang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Larry; Antonenko, Svetlana; Zhang, Shuli; Zhang, Yi Wei; Tabrizifard, Mohammad; Ermakov, Grigori; Wiswell, Derek; Beaumont, Maribel; Liu, Liming; Richardson, Daisy; Shameem, Mohammed; Ambrogelly, Alexandre

    2015-12-01

    IgG4 antibodies are evolving as an important class of cancer immunotherapies. However, human IgG4 can undergo Fab arm (half molecule) exchange with other IgG4 molecules in vivo. The hinge modification by a point mutation (S228P) prevents half molecule exchange of IgG4. However, the experimental confirmation is still expected by regulatory agencies. Here, we report for the first time the extensive analysis of half molecule exchange for a hinge-modified therapeutic IgG4 molecule, pembrolizumab (Keytruda) targeting programmed death 1 (PD1) receptor that was approved for advanced melanoma. Studies were performed in buffer or human serum using multiple exchange partners including natalizumab (Tysabri) and human IgG4 pool. Formation of bispecific antibodies was monitored by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, exchange with Fc fragments, mixed mode chromatography, immunoassays, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The half molecule exchange was also examined in vivo in SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice. Both in vitro and in vivo results indicate that the hinge modification in pembrolizumab prevented half molecule exchange, whereas the unmodified counterpart anti-PD1 wt showed active exchange activity with other IgG4 antibodies or self-exchange activity with its own molecules. Our work, as an example expected for meeting regulatory requirements, contributes to establish without ambiguity that hinge-modified IgG4 antibodies are suitable for biotherapeutic applications. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Ion Beam Materials Analysis and Modifications at keV to MeV Energies at the University of North Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Manuel, Jack E.; Bohara, Gyanendra; Szilasi, Szabolcs Z.; Glass, Gary A.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2014-02-01

    The University of North Texas (UNT) Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) has four particle accelerators including a National Electrostatics Corporation (NEC) 9SDH-2 3 MV tandem Pelletron, a NEC 9SH 3 MV single-ended Pelletron, and a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton. A fourth HVEC AK 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator is presently being refurbished as an educational training facility. These accelerators can produce and accelerate almost any ion in the periodic table at energies from a few keV to tens of MeV. They are used to modify materials by ion implantation and to analyze materials by numerous atomic and nuclear physics techniques. The NEC 9SH accelerator was recently installed in the IBMAL and subsequently upgraded with the addition of a capacitive-liner and terminal potential stabilization system to reduce ion energy spread and therefore improve spatial resolution of the probing ion beam to hundreds of nanometers. Research involves materials modification and synthesis by ion implantation for photonic, electronic, and magnetic applications, micro-fabrication by high energy (MeV) ion beam lithography, microanalysis of biomedical and semiconductor materials, development of highenergy ion nanoprobe focusing systems, and educational and outreach activities. An overview of the IBMAL facilities and some of the current research projects are discussed.

  8. Computer and Statistical Analysis of Transcription Factor Binding and Chromatin Modifications by ChIP-seq data in Embryonic Stem Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Yuriy

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Advances in high throughput sequencing technology have enabled the identification of transcription factor (TF binding sites in genome scale. TF binding studies are important for medical applications and stem cell research. Somatic cells can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent state by the combined introduction of factors such as Oct4, Sox2, c-Myc, Klf4. These reprogrammed cells share many characteristics with embryonic stem cells (ESCs and are known as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs. The signaling requirements for maintenance of human and murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs differ considerably. Genome wide ChIP-seq TF binding maps in mouse stem cells include Oct4, Sox2, Nanog, Tbx3, Smad2 as well as group of other factors. ChIP-seq allows study of new candidate transcription factors for reprogramming. It was shown that Nr5a2 could replace Oct4 for reprogramming. Epigenetic modifications play important role in regulation of gene expression adding additional complexity to transcription network functioning. We have studied associations between different histone modification using published data together with RNA Pol II sites. We found strong associations between activation marks and TF binding sites and present it qualitatively. To meet issues of statistical analysis of genome ChIP-sequencing maps we developed computer program to filter out noise signals and find significant association between binding site affinity and number of sequence reads. The data provide new insights into the function of chromatin organization and regulation in stem cells.

  9. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific.

  10. Postulated weather modification effects of large energy releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Scott, B.C.; Orgill, M.M.; Renne, D.S.; Hubbard, J.E.; McGinnis, K.A.

    1977-02-01

    Postulated impacts of large energy releases were examined in the light of existing technical information. The magnitudes of direct atmospheric modifications were estimated, and the ecological and economic implications of the modifications were explored. Energy releases from energy centers (10 to 40 power plants at a single site) and individual power plant clusters (1 to 4 power plants) were considered. In the atmosphere the energy will exist initially as increased temperature (sensible heat), moisture (latent heat), and air motion (kinetic energy). Addition of energy could result in increased cloudiness and fog, and changed precipitation patterns. A framework for economic analysis of the impacts of the postulated atmospheric modifications was established on the basis of costs and benefits. Willingness-to-pay was selected as the appropriate measure for valuing each impact. The primary and secondary atmospheric modifications may affect recreation, transportation, and aesthetics as well as agriculture and forestry. Economic values can be placed on some of the effects. However, the willingness of people to pay to gain benefits and avoid damages in many cases can only be determined through extensive surveys. The economic consequences of a given energy release would be highly site specific

  11. Ion bombardment modification of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auciello, O.

    1984-01-01

    An historical overview of the main advances in the understanding of bombardment-induced surface topography is presented. The implantation and sputtering mechanisms which are relevant to ion bombardment modification of surfaces and consequent structural, electronic and compositional changes are described. Descriptions of plasma and ion-beam sputtering-induced film formation, primary ion-beam deposition, dual beam techniques, cluster of molecule ion-beam deposition, and modification of thin film properties by ion bombardment during deposition are presented. A detailed account is given of the analytical and computational modelling of topography from the viewpoint of first erosion theory. Finally, an account of the possible application and/or importance of textured surfaces in technologies and/or experimental techniques not considered in previous chapters is presented. refs.; figs.; tabs

  12. Exploring oxidative modifications of tyrosine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houée-Lévin, C; Bobrowski, K; Horakova, L

    2015-01-01

    residues are oxidised in vivo with impact on cellular homeostasis and redox signalling pathways. A notable example is tyrosine, which can undergo a number of oxidative post-translational modifications to form 3-hydroxy-tyrosine, tyrosine crosslinks, 3-nitrotyrosine and halogenated tyrosine, with different...... effects on cellular functions. Tyrosine oxidation has been studied extensively in vitro, and this has generated detailed information about the molecular mechanisms that may occur in vivo. An important aspect of studying tyrosine oxidation both in vitro and in biological systems is the ability to monitor...... residues modified and the nature of the modification. These approaches have helped understanding of the consequences of tyrosine oxidation in biological systems, especially its effects on cell signalling and cell dysfunction, linking to roles in disease. There is mounting evidence that tyrosine oxidation...

  13. Behavior Modification in Coaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Annette Rutt; Stillman, Stephen M.

    1979-01-01

    An example of behavior modification used in athletic coaching is presented. The case study involves a member of a women's basketball team and details the use of behavior modification for both weight reduction and skill improvement. (JMF)

  14. Modification of morphological traits of common beans through gamma-ray irradiation: analysis of three consecutive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Gismar S.; Goulart, Luiz R.; Viglioni Pena, Julio C.; Fernandes, Jonas J.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this investigation were to study the effects of different levels of gamma-rays on some morphological characteristics of a nearly-white seed coat color bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar, and to determine the radiation level which would generate the greatest genetic variability. Breeder seeds of EMGOPA 201 - Ouro cv, a beige seed coat color cultivar, were submitted to gamma-ray irradiation ( 60 Co). Treatments consisted of eight levels of radiation: 0,10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40 Krad. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. In the field, plots consisted of 100 seeds. The following data were collected: percent germination, plant height, final stand, plant yield and yield components, number of chlorotic and albino mutants, leaf mutants, growth habit alterations, earliness, seed coat brightness, halo color, seed size and format. Among traits greatest variations were observed seed morphology. Seed coat color varied from completely white to a dark-brownish color. Halo color was also modified from yellow (normal) to pink. Brightness of seeds varied from opaque to bright. Seed varied from squared to rounded, and from very small to large. treatments with 20 and 25 Krad generated the greatest variability for several morphological traits from the M 1 to M 3 generations, a dosage equivalent to the LD 50 observed in the M 1 generation. Traits such as percent germination, plant height and some yield components were highly and negatively affected by increasing levels of radiation. Modification of yield components as well as many unusual characteristics with late onset were observed in advanced generations, suggesting that late selection would also be useful. (author)

  15. Metabolic syndrome X as a clinical outcome of hormonal changes on the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences (the problem analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of hormonal changes in the liquidators of the Chernobyl accident consequences, which promote the metabolic syndrome X development, was carried out on the base of clinical and experimental data. The system insulin-glucose, the mechanisms of insulinresistance and gyperinslinemia forming, the pathogenetical role of hyperinsulinemia interaction with others hormomes, some aspects of hormone - receptor interaction, an interconnection of hyperinsulinemia and vascular pathology, peculiarities of radiobiological stress as a non-classic adaptive reaction, which frequently resulting with a pathology, were discussed in the article

  16. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J.

    1997-01-01

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented

  17. Are There Adverse Consequences to Being a Sibling of a Person with a Disability? A Propensity Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely-Barnes, Susan L.; Graff, J. Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This study examined whether siblings of children with disabilities have increased mental health problems, behavioral difficulties, or greater mental health service use as compared to siblings of children without disabilities. Data come from the 2006 National Health Interview Survey. Propensity score matching was used to complete the analysis.…

  18. Evaluation of Current Computer Models Applied in the DOE Complex for SAR Analysis of Radiological Dispersion & Consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Kula, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); East, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Weber, A. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Savino, A. V. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Mazzola, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The evaluation of atmospheric dispersion/ radiological dose analysis codes included fifteen models identified in authorization basis safety analysis at DOE facilities, or from regulatory and research agencies where past or current work warranted inclusion of a computer model. All computer codes examined were reviewed using general and specific evaluation criteria developed by the Working Group. The criteria were based on DOE Orders and other regulatory standards and guidance for performing bounding and conservative dose calculations. Included were three categories of criteria: (1) Software Quality/User Interface; (2) Technical Model Adequacy; and (3) Application/Source Term Environment. A consensus-based limited quantitative ranking process was used to base an order of model preference as both an overall conclusion, and under specific conditions.

  19. Analysis of emergency response after the Chernobyl accident in Belarus: observed and prevented medical consequences, lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buglova, E.; Kenigsberg, J. [Research Clinical Inst. of Radiation Medicine and Endocrinology, Minsk (Belarus)

    1997-12-31

    Belarus is one of the most contaminated Republic due to the Chernobyl accident. 23% of the entire area of Belarus was contaminated with radionuclides. To protect the population after the accident different types of protective actions were performed during all phases, based on various temporary dose limits. An analysis of conducted protective actions and lessons obtained during the emergency response is briefly presented 9 refs.

  20. Metabolic phenotype-microRNA data fusion analysis of the systemic consequences of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Q; Li, JV; Seyfried, F; le Roux, CW; Ashrafian, H; Athanasiou, T; Fenske, W; Darzi, A; Nicholson, JK; Holmes, E; Gooderham, NJ

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Bariatric surgery offers sustained marked weight loss and often remission of type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms of establishment of these health benefits are not clear. Subjects/Methods: We mapped the coordinated systemic responses of gut hormones, the circulating miRNAome and the metabolome in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. Results: The response of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) to RYGB was striking and selective. Analysis of 14 significantly ...

  1. Cataloging, analysis and communication of urban modifications. The glimpse of the washhouse of Borgo Solestà in Ascoli Piceno from the art collection of Giulio Gabrielli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Meschini

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The detection of forms of growth in the use of the Cultural Heritage by the a large community, has established, in its valorisation process, the need of characterising the intent of popularising the knowledge, with methods able to set involving communication channels and more comprehensible contents. As regard to this picture and in occasion of a collaboration with the Pinacoteca Civica of Ascoli Piceno, the contribution intends to relate to the results of some studies oriented to investigate the opportunity of reading the transformation happened in the ‘800s of some urban glimpses of Ascoli Piceno, through the artistic production of the painter Giulio Gabrielli from Ascoli. Starting from a traditional work of analysis, cataloging and comparison of iconography and historic cartography, aimed at verifying the reliability of the urban modifications depicted by the artist, the process ended up investigating the opportunities offered by the technological methods of 3D animation, directed to the communication of such documentary value.

  2. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D.

    2013-07-01

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from ˜20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  3. An overview of the facilities, activities, and developments at the University of North Texas Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rout, Bibhudutta; Dhoubhadel, Mangal S.; Poudel, Prakash R.; Kummari, Venkata C.; Pandey, Bimal; Deoli, Naresh T.; Lakshantha, Wickramaarachchige J.; Mulware, Stephen J.; Baxley, Jacob; Manuel, Jack E.; Pacheco, Jose L.; Szilasi, Szabolcs; Weathers, Duncan L.; Reinert, Tilo; Glass, Gary A.; Duggan, Jerry L.; McDaniel, Floyd D. [Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory, University of North Texas, Department of Physics, 1155 Union Circle 311427, Denton, Texas 76203 (United States)

    2013-07-03

    The Ion Beam Modification and Analysis Laboratory (IBMAL) at the University of North Texas includes several accelerator facilities with capabilities of producing a variety of ion beams from tens of keV to several MeV in energy. The four accelerators are used for research, graduate and undergraduate education, and industrial applications. The NEC 3MV Pelletron tandem accelerator has three ion sources for negative ions: He Alphatross and two different SNICS-type sputter ion sources. Presently, the tandem accelerator has four high-energy beam transport lines and one low-energy beam transport line directly taken from the negative ion sources for different research experiments. For the low-energy beam line, the ion energy can be varied from {approx}20 to 80 keV for ion implantation/modification of materials. The four post-acceleration beam lines include a heavy-ion nuclear microprobe; multi-purpose PIXE, RBS, ERD, NRA, and broad-beam single-event upset; high-energy ion implantation line; and trace-element accelerator mass spectrometry. The NEC 3MV single-ended Pelletron accelerator has an RF ion source mainly for hydrogen, helium and heavier inert gases. We recently installed a capacitive liner to the terminal potential stabilization system for high terminal voltage stability and high-resolution microprobe analysis. The accelerator serves a beam line for standard RBS and RBS/C. Another beamline for high energy focused ion beam application using a magnetic quadrupole lens system is currently under construction. This beam line will also serve for developmental work on an electrostatic lens system. The third accelerator is a 200 kV Cockcroft-Walton accelerator with an RF ion source. The fourth accelerator is a 2.5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator, which was in operation for last several decades is currently planned to be used mainly for educational purpose. Research projects that will be briefly discussed include materials synthesis/modification for photonic, electronic, and

  4. Analysis of Consequences in the Loss-of-Coolant Accident in Wendelstein 7-X Experimental Nuclear Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uspuras, E., E-mail: algis@mail.lei.lt [Laboratory of Nuclear Installations Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Fusion is the energy production technology, which could potentially solve problems with growing energy demand of population in the future. Starting 2007, Lithuanian energy institute (LEI) is a member of European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) organization. LEI is cooperating with Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP, Germany) in the frames of EFDA project by performing safety analysis of fusion device W7-X. Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is an experimental stellarator facility currently being built in Greifswald, Germany, which shall demonstrate that in the future energy could be produced in such type of fusion reactors. The W7-X facility divertor cooling system consists of two coolant circuits: the main cooling circuit and the so-called 'baking' circuit. Before plasma operation, the divertor and other invessel components must be heated up in order to 'clean' the surfaces by thermal desorption and the subsequent pumping out of the released volatile molecules. The rupture of pipe, providing water for the divertor targets during the 'baking' regime is one of the critical failure events, since primary and secondary steam production leads to a rapid increase of the inner pressure in the plasma (vacuum) vessel. Such initiating event could lead to the loss of vacuum condition up to overpressure of the plasma vessel, damage of in-vessel components and bellows of the ports. In this paper the safety analysis of 40 mm inner diameter coolant pipe rupture in cooling circuit and discharge of steam-water mixture through the leak into plasma vessel during the W7-X no-plasma 'baking' operation mode is presented. For the analysis the model of W7-X cooling system (pumps, valves, pipes, hydro-accumulators, and heat exchangers) and plasma vessel was developed by employing system thermal-hydraulic state-of-the-art RELAP5 Mod 3.3 code. This paper demonstrated, that the developed RELAP5 model allows to analyze the processes in divertor cooling system and plasma vessel

  5. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs.

  6. Health effects model for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis. Part I. Introduction, integration, and summary. Part II. Scientific basis for health effects models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.S.; Moeller, D.W.; Cooper, D.W.

    1985-07-01

    Analysis of the radiological health effects of nuclear power plant accidents requires models for predicting early health effects, cancers and benign thyroid nodules, and genetic effects. Since the publication of the Reactor Safety Study, additional information on radiological health effects has become available. This report summarizes the efforts of a program designed to provide revised health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence modeling. The new models for early effects address four causes of mortality and nine categories of morbidity. The models for early effects are based upon two parameter Weibull functions. They permit evaluation of the influence of dose protraction and address the issue of variation in radiosensitivity among the population. The piecewise-linear dose-response models used in the Reactor Safety Study to predict cancers and thyroid nodules have been replaced by linear and linear-quadratic models. The new models reflect the most recently reported results of the follow-up of the survivors of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and permit analysis of both morbidity and mortality. The new models for genetic effects allow prediction of genetic risks in each of the first five generations after an accident and include information on the relative severity of various classes of genetic effects. The uncertainty in modeloling radiological health risks is addressed by providing central, upper, and lower estimates of risks. An approach is outlined for summarizing the health consequences of nuclear power plant accidents. 298 refs., 9 figs., 49 tabs

  7. Critical analysis of accident scenario and consequences modelling applied to light-water reactor power plants for accident categories beyond the design basis accident (DBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brofferio, C.; Cagnetti, P.; Ferrara, V.; Manilia, E.; Pietrangeli, G.; Sennis, C.

    1985-01-01

    A critical analysis and sensitivity study of the modelling of accident scenarios and environmental consequences are presented, for light-water reactor accident categories beyond the standard design-basis-accident category. The first chapter, on ''source term'' deals with the release of fission products from a damaged core inventory and their migration within the primary circuit and the reactor containment. Particular attention is given to the influence of engineering safeguards intervention and of the chemical forms of the released fission products. The second chapter deals with their release to the atmosphere, transport and wet or dry deposition, outlining relevant partial effects and confronting short-duration or prolonged releases. The third chapter presents a variability analysis, for environmental contamination levels, for two extreme hypothetical scenarios, evidencing the importance of plume rise. A numerical plume rise model is outlined

  8. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. Test case release consequence analysis for a spent fuel repository in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J.R.; Bond, F.W.; Cole, C.R.; Nelson, R.W.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Washburn, J.F.; Norman, N.A.; Mote, P.A.; Segol, G.

    1980-01-01

    Geologic and geohydrologic data for the Paradox Basin have been used to simulate movement of ground water and radioacrtive contaminants from a hypothetical nuclear reactor spent fuel repository after an assumed accidental release. The pathlines, travel times and velocity of the ground water from the repository to the discharge locale (river) were determined after the disruptive event by use of a two-dimensional finite difference hydrologic model. The concentration of radioactive contaminants in the ground water was calculated along a series of flow tubes by use of a one-dimensional mass transport model which takes into account convection, dispersion, contaminant/media interactions and radioactive decay. For the hypothetical site location and specific parameters used in this demonstration, it is found that Iodine-129 (I-129) is tthe only isotope reaching the Colorado River in significant concentration. This concentration occurs about 8.0 x 10 5 years after the repository has been breached. This I-129 ground-water concentration is about 0.3 of the drinking water standard for uncontrolled use. The groundwater concentration would then be diluted by the Colorado River. None of the actinide elements reach more than half the distance from the repository to the Colorado River in the two-million year model run time. This exercise demonstrates that the WISAP model system is applicable for analysis of contaminant transport. The results presented in this report, however, are valid only for one particular set of parameters. A complete sensitivity analysis must be performed to evaluate the range of effects from the release of contaminants from a breached repository

  9. Debye screening modifications in ponderomotive effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Subbarao, D.

    1979-01-01

    The effective Debye screening length is shown to be increased in the presence of a high-power electromagnetic wave. The consequent modifications in ponderomotive redistributive effects and strong violations of charge neutrality have been shown to be in agreement with recent laser-plasma experiments

  10. Consequences of poly(vinyl chloride) presence on the thermochemical process of lignocellulosic biomass in CO₂ by thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yao; Ma, Xiaoqian; Zeng, Guangbo

    2015-02-01

    The thermochemical processes of lignocellulosic biomass and its mixtures with poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) fractions were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis in CO2 atmosphere. Superposition property was assumed to examine whether and/or to what extent interactions occurred during the mixture decomposition. Results showed that interactions existed, of which the intensities changed with reaction stage, heating rate and PVC quantity, and they actively behaved toward the decomposition in most cases. With PVC presence, lignocellulosic biomass turned from three-stage to four-stage decomposition process where the reactions occurred at lower temperatures with heightened intensity, especially in the first stage. The measured activation energies calculated by Ozawa-Flynn-Wall and Vyazovkin methods were of minor difference <5 kJ/mol, and comparing them between materials in each stage confirmed the results of interaction impact. This work provides a theoretical basis bringing about the possibilities of recycling CO2 into a reaction medium of thermo-treatment of lignocellulosic material with PVC contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The surface modification of polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tremlett, C.

    2000-03-01

    Polymers have ideal bulk properties for many applications. However, adhesion to many polymers is poor without surface pretreatment. This can result, for example, in peeling paint and printing, adhesive joint failure and bio-incompatibility. In applications such as painting, printing, adhesive bonding and biocompatibility, various cleaning or surface chemical modifications may be employed. A commodity polymer where pretreatment is sometimes needed is polystyrene. This project investigated, in detail, the effects of a novel method of modification namely mediated electrochemical oxidation (MEO), as a mode of surface modification on polystyrene and a comparison was made with other polymers. The resulting modification was investigated using a range of surface analysis techniques to obtain complementary information. These included, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact angles, static secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy, chemical derivatization, scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and composite lap shear joint testing. It has been shown that MEO modifies the surface of polystyrene introduced oxygen mainly as hydroxyl groups, and a small number of carbonyl groups, that are positioned only on the backbone hydrocarbon chain. This modification improved adhesion, was stable and samples could be stored in aqueous media. The resulting hydroxylation was further derivatized using an amino acid to provide a specialised surface. This was very different from the multiple oxygen functionalities introduced in the comparison studies by UV/ozone and plasma treatments. (author)

  12. Determinants and consequences of insulin initiation for type 2 diabetes in France: analysis of the National Health and Wellness Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reach G

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gérard Reach,1 Véronique Le Pautremat,2 Shaloo Gupta31Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolic Diseases, Avicenne Hospital APHP, and EA 3412, CRNH-IdF, Paris 13 University, Sorbonnne Paris Cité, Bobigny, France; 2Kantar Health, Paris, France; 3Kantar Health, Princeton, NJ, USABackground: The aim of the study was to identify the intrinsic patient characteristics and extrinsic environmental factors predicting prescription and use and, more specifically, early initiation (up to 5 years of disease duration of insulin for type 2 diabetes in France. A secondary objective was to evaluate the impact of insulin therapy on mental and physical quality of life and patient adherence.Methods: The data used in this study were derived from the 2008, 2010, and 2011 France National Health and Wellness Survey. This survey is an annual, cross-sectional, self-administered, Internet-based questionnaire among a nationwide representative sample of adults (aged 18 years or older. Of the total of 45,958 persons recruited in France, 1,933 respondents (deduped were identified as diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. All unique respondents from the three waves, currently using insulin or oral bitherapy or tritherapy at the time of assessment, were included in this analysis.Results: Early (versus late initiation of insulin therapy was 9.9 times more likely to be prescribed by an endocrinologist or diabetologist than by a primary care physician (P < 0.0001. Younger age at diagnosis and current smoking habits were significant predictors of early (versus late insulin initiation (odds ratio [OR] 1.031, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.005–1.059, P = 0.0196, and OR 2.537, 95% CI 1.165–5.524, P = 0.0191, respectively. Patients with a yearly income ≥€50,000 were less likely to be put on insulin early (P = 0.0399. A link between insulin prescription and complications was shown only in univariate analysis. Mental quality of life was lower in patients on early (versus

  13. Cost-consequence analysis of multimodal interventions with environmental components for pediatric asthma in the state of Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jassal, Mandeep S; Diette, Gregory B; Dowdy, David W

    2013-08-01

    Applied environmental strategies for asthma control are often expensive, but may save longer-term healthcare costs. Whether these savings outweigh additional costs of implementing these strategies is uncertain. We conducted a systematic review to estimate the expenditures and savings of environmental interventions for asthma in the state of Maryland. Direct costs included hospitalizations, emergency room, and clinic visits. Indirect expenditures included costs of lost work productivity and travel incurred during the usage of healthcare services. We used decision analysis, assuming a hypothetical cohort of the approximated 49,290 pediatric individuals in Maryland with persistent asthma, to compare costs and benefits of environmental asthma interventions against the standard of care (no intervention) from the societal perspective. Three interventions among nine articles met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review: 1) environmental education using medical professionals; 2) education using non-medical personnel; and 3) multi-component strategy involving education with non-medical personnel, allergen-impermeable covers, and pest management. All interventions were found to be cost-saving relative to the standard of care. Home environmental education using non-medical professionals yielded the highest net savings of $14.1 million (95% simulation interval (SI): $-.283 million, $19.4 million), while the multi-component intervention resulted in the lowest net savings of $8.1 million (95% SI: $-4.9 million, $15.9 million). All strategies were most sensitive to the baseline number of hospitalizations in those not receiving targeted interventions for asthma. Limited environmental reduction strategies for asthma are likely to be cost-saving to the healthcare system in Maryland and should be considered for broader scale-up in other economically similar settings.

  14. Metabolic phenotype-microRNA data fusion analysis of the systemic consequences of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Q; Li, J V; Seyfried, F; le Roux, C W; Ashrafian, H; Athanasiou, T; Fenske, W; Darzi, A; Nicholson, J K; Holmes, E; Gooderham, N J

    2015-07-01

    Bariatric surgery offers sustained marked weight loss and often remission of type 2 diabetes, yet the mechanisms of establishment of these health benefits are not clear. We mapped the coordinated systemic responses of gut hormones, the circulating miRNAome and the metabolome in a rat model of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery. The response of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) to RYGB was striking and selective. Analysis of 14 significantly altered circulating miRNAs within a pathway context was suggestive of modulation of signaling pathways including G protein signaling, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and growth and apoptosis responses. Concomitant alterations in the metabolome indicated increased glucose transport, accelerated glycolysis and inhibited gluconeogenesis in the liver. Of particular significance, we show significantly decreased circulating miRNA-122 levels and a more modest decline in hepatic levels, following surgery. In mechanistic studies, manipulation of miRNA-122 levels in a cell model induced changes in the activity of key enzymes involved in hepatic energy metabolism, glucose transport, glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, pentose phosphate shunt, fatty-acid oxidation and gluconeogenesis, consistent with the findings of the in vivo surgery-mediated responses, indicating the powerful homeostatic activity of the miRNAs. The close association between energy metabolism, neuronal signaling and gut microbial metabolites derived from the circulating miRNA, plasma, urine and liver metabolite and gut hormone correlations further supports an enhanced gut-brain signaling, which we suggest is hormonally mediated by both traditional gut hormones and miRNAs. This transomic approach to map the crosstalk between the circulating miRNAome and metabolome offers opportunities to understand complex systems biology within a disease and interventional treatment setting.

  15. Is Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT) a cost-effective alternative to routine patient referral partner notification in the UK? Preliminary cost-consequence analysis of an exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Tracy E; Tsourapas, Angelos; Sutcliffe, Lorna; Cassell, Jackie; Estcourt, Claudia

    2012-02-01

    To undertake a cost-consequence analysis to assess two new models of partner notification (PN), known as Accelerated Partner Therapy (APT Hotline and APT Pharmacy), as compared with routine patient referral PN, for sex partners of people with chlamydia, gonorrhoea and non-gonococcal urethritis. Comparison of costs and outcomes alongside an exploratory trial involving two genitourinary medicine clinics and six community pharmacies. Index patients selected the PN method (APT Hotline, APT Pharmacy or routine PN) for their partners. Clinics and pharmacies recorded cost and resource use data including duration of consultation and uptake of treatment pack. Cost data were collected prospectively for two out of three interventions, and data were synthesised and compared in terms of effectiveness and costs. Routine PN had the lowest average cost per partner treated (approximately £46) compared with either APT Hotline (approximately £54) or APT Pharmacy (approximately £53) strategies. The cost-consequence analysis revealed that APT strategies were more costly but also more effective at treating partners compared to routine PN. The hotline strategy costs more than both the alternative PN strategies. If we accept that strategies which identify and treat partners the fastest are likely to be the most effective in reducing reinfection and onward transmission, then APT Hotline appears an effective PN strategy by treating the highest number of partners in the shortest duration. Whether the additional benefit is worth the additional cost cannot be determined in this preliminary analysis. These data will be useful for informing development of future randomised controlled trials of APT.

  16. Possible antecedents and consequences of self-esteem in persons with multiple sclerosis: preliminary evidence from a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Motl, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) have consistently reported lower levels of self-esteem compared with the general population. Despite this, very little is known about the antecedents and consequences of self-esteem in persons with MS. To examine (1) physical activity and social support as potentially modifiable correlates (i.e., antecedents) of self-esteem and (2) physical and psychological health-related quality of life as possible consequences of self-esteem in persons with MS. Participants (N = 46) wore an Actigraph accelerometer for 7 days and then completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale (MSIS-29), and Social Provisions Scale (SPS). The data were analyzed using PASW Statistics 18. Bivariate correlation analysis indicated that average daily step counts (r = .298, p = .026) and social support (r = .366, p = .007) were significantly correlated with self-esteem. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that only social support was a significant predictor of self-esteem scores (β = .411, p = .004); pedometer steps approached significance as a predictor of self-esteem (β = .178, p = .112). Bivariate correlation analysis further indicated significant negative associations between self-esteem and physical (r = -.391, p = .004) and psychological (r = -.540, p = .0001) domains of health-related quality of life (HRQOL), indicating that higher self-esteem was associated with more positive HRQOL. Social support is a potentially modifiable variable that may be important to target when designing interventions to improve self-esteem and this might have implications for improving physical and psychological HRQOL in persons with MS.

  17. A recent source modification for noble gases at the Los Alamos on-line mass analysis facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balestrini, S.J.; Forman, L.

    1976-01-01

    The Los Alamos on-line mass analysis experiment at the Godiva-IV burst reactor facility has been modified to determine independent fission yields of noble gases. The gases are released from a stearate target and ionization by electron bombardment. The distance traveled by the gases from the target to the ionization chamber is 20 cm. The efficiency of the electron bombardment source is lower than that of the surface ionization source that was employed to measure the yields of Rb and Cs. But this effect is compensated by the larger quantity of target metal that is possible when using a stearate target. (Auth.)

  18. Thermal Analysis Of Cover Plate Of Galvanizing Bath Tub At Bridge amp Roof Co. I Ltd. By Shape Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Jana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This project is aimed for thermally analyzing stress and strain on cover plate of galvanizing bath tub at Bridge amp Roof co. I Ltd in order to maintain 450C in bath tub. Along with analysis part cover plate shape was modified due to its continuous use amp prevailing conditions at the workshop. The cover plate consist of insulating materials compacted to retain the heat in the bath tub. The thermal convection of air is less than thermal resistance of insulating materials used thus heat loss is negligible. Thermal convection air 0.0579 w m k Thermal Resistance Insulator 7.046 w m k. Thermal analysis report show at 450C. Deformation is effecting end portion 2-3 mm. Stress amp Strain at that portion is also low 0.1-0.3 Mpa. Heat transfer of air is more than insulating materials. Thus Heat transfer rate of Insulating materials being low they dont conduct heat from the bath tub to the atmosphere. So temperature of the bath tub is maintained. QA 1806.25 W Heat transfer rate of Air by convection QI 270.43 W Heat transfer rate of Insulation materials

  19. Cost analysis of an electricity supply chain using modification of price based dynamic economic dispatch in wheeling transaction scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuda; Santosa, Budi; Rusdiansyah, Ahmad

    2018-04-01

    Deregulation of the electricity market requires coordination between parties to synchronize the optimization on the production side (power station) and the transport side (transmission). Electricity supply chain presented in this article is designed to facilitate the coordination between the parties. Generally, the production side is optimized with price based dynamic economic dispatch (PBDED) model, while the transmission side is optimized with Multi-echelon distribution model. Both sides optimization are done separately. This article proposes a joint model of PBDED and multi-echelon distribution for the combined optimization of production and transmission. This combined optimization is important because changes in electricity demand on the customer side will cause changes to the production side that automatically also alter the transmission path. The transmission will cause two cost components. First, the cost of losses. Second, the cost of using the transmission network (wheeling transaction). Costs due to losses are calculated based on ohmic losses, while the cost of using transmission lines using the MW - mile method. As a result, this method is able to provide best allocation analysis for electrical transactions, as well as emission levels in power generation and cost analysis. As for the calculation of transmission costs, the Reverse MW-mile method produces a cheaper cost than the Absolute MW-mile method

  20. Systems Level Analysis of Histone H3 Post-translational Modifications (PTMs) Reveals Features of PTM Crosstalk in Chromatin Regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Sidoli, Simone; Ruminowicz, Chrystian

    2016-01-01

    molecules contain multiple coexisting PTMs, some of which exhibit crosstalk, i.e. coordinated or mutually exclusive activities. Here, we present an integrated experimental and computational systems level molecular characterization of histone PTMs and PTM crosstalk. Using wild type and engineered mouse....... We characterized combinatorial PTM features across the four mESC lines and then applied statistical data analysis to predict crosstalk between histone H3 PTMs. We detected an overrepresentation of positive crosstalk (codependent marks) between adjacent mono-methylated and acetylated marks......, and negative crosstalk (mutually exclusive marks) among most of the seven characterized di- and tri-methylated lysine residues in the H3 tails. We report novel features of PTM interplay involving hitherto poorly characterized arginine methylation and lysine methylation sites, including H3R2me, H3R8me and H3K37...

  1. Andromede project: Surface analysis and modification with probes from hydrogen to nano-particles in the MeV energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eller, Michael J.; Cottereau, Evelyne; Rasser, Bernard; Verzeroli, Elodie; Agnus, Benoit; Gaubert, Gabriel; Donzel, Xavier; Delobbe, Anne; Della-Negra, Serge

    2015-01-01

    The Andromede project is the center of a multi-disciplinary team which will build a new instrument for surface modification and analysis using the impact of probes from hydrogen to nano-particles (Au 400 +4 ) in the MeV range. For this new instrument a series of atomic, polyatomic, molecular and nano-particle ion beams will be delivered using two ion sources in tandem, a liquid metal ion source and an electron cyclotron resonance source. The delivered ion beams will be accelerated to high energy with a 4 MeV van de Graaff type accelerator. By using a suite of probes in the MeV energy range, ion beam analysis techniques, MeV atomic and cluster secondary ion mass spectrometry can all be performed in one location. A key feature of the instrument is its ability to produce an intense beam for injection into the accelerator. The commissioning of the two sources shows that intense beams from atomic ions to nano-particles can be delivered for subsequent acceleration. The calculations and measurements for the two sources are presented.

  2. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  3. Integration of social dimension in an index oriented methodology for consequence analysis of natural hazards: application to the Upper Guil Catchment (Southern French Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlier, Benoit; Puissant, Anne; Dujarric, Constance

    2017-04-01

    Vulnerability assessment together with hazard exposure is generally accepted as the two main steps of risk analysis. If quantitative methods to estimate hazard exposure are now well-defined, it is not the case regarding vulnerability assessment. Vulnerability is a complex concept involving a variety of disciplines from physical and socio-economic sciences (i.e. engineering, economics, social and health sciences etc.). Currently, two opposite trends exist: the 'physical' approach in which vulnerability is analysed as potential impacts (i.e. structural and functional) on the elements at risk (building, network, land cover); and the 'social' approach in which vulnerability is a combination of socio-economic variables determining people's ability to anticipate before a catastrophic event, to react during it, and to recover after it. For a complete analysis of vulnerability it is essential to combine these two approaches but in reality few works exists. The objective of this research is to improve the Potential Damage Index (PDI), detailed in Puissant el al. (2013), originally developed to assess physical injury, structural and functional consequences of landslide hazard, by including socio-economic characteristics of population information. Data from the French Census data (INSEE, 2012) and a survey on risk perception (100 questionnaires obtained between 2014 and 2015/16) were used to propose an overall index taking into account the three main phases of risk management: preparedness, crisis management and recovery. This new index called Global Potential Damage Index (GPDI) is applied on the Upper Guil Catchment to assess potential torrential floods hazard in the context of the French funded project SAMCO (Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change Context). Results of the PDI are compared with the GPDI and show significant differences. GPDI scores mapping are lower than PDI scores indicating that resilient population may qualify results

  4. Synthesis, Crystal Structure, and Topology-Symmetry Analysis of a New Modification of NaIn[IO3]4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belokoneva, E. L.; Karamysheva, A. S.; Dimitrova, O. V.; Volkov, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Crystals of new iodate NaIn[IO3]4 were prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis. The unit cell parameters are a = 7.2672(2) Å, b = 15.2572(6) Å, c = 15.0208(6) Å, β = 101.517(3)°, sp. gr. P21/ c. The formula was determined during the structure determination and refinement of a twinned crystal based on a set of reflections from the atomic planes of the major individual. The refinement with anisotropic displacement parameters was performed for both twin components to the final R factor of 0.050. The In and Na atoms are in octahedral coordination formed by oxygen atoms. The oxygen octahedra are arranged into columns by sharing edges, and the columns are connected by isolated umbrella-like [IO3]- groups to form layers. The new structure is most similar to the isoformular iodate NaIn[IO3]4, which crystallizes in the same sp. gr. P21/ c and is structurally similar, but has a twice smaller unit cell and is characterized by another direction of the monoclinic axis. The structural similarity and difference between the two phases were studied by topologysymmetry analysis. The formation of these phases is related to different combinations of identical one-dimensional infinite chains of octahedra.

  5. Shielding Effectiveness Analysis and Modification of the Coupling Effect Transmission Line Method on Cavities with Multi-Sided Apertures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the traditional transmission line method treats electromagnetic waves as excitation sources and the cavity as a rectangular waveguide whose terminal is shorted, the transmission line method can only calculate shielding effectiveness in the center line of the cavity with apertures on one side. In this paper, the aperture coupling effect of different sides was analyzed based on vector analysis. According to the field intensity distribution of different transport modes in the rectangular waveguide, the calculation model of cavity shielding effectiveness in any position is proposed, which can solve the question of the calculation model of shielding effectiveness in any position in the traditional method of equivalent transmission methods. Further expansion of the equivalent transmission lines model is adopted to study the shielding effectiveness of different aperture cavities, and the coupling effect rule of the incident angle, the number of apertures, and the size of the cavity is obtained, which can provide the technical support for the design of electromagnetic shielding cavities for electronic equipment.

  6. Trends in lignin modification: a comprehensive analysis of the effects of genetic manipulations/mutations on lignification and vascular integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anterola, Aldwin M.; Lewis, Norman G.

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive assessment of lignin configuration in transgenic and mutant plants is long overdue. This review thus undertook the systematic analysis of trends manifested through genetic and mutational manipulations of the various steps associated with monolignol biosynthesis; this included consideration of the downstream effects on organized lignin assembly in the various cell types, on vascular function/integrity, and on plant growth and development. As previously noted for dirigent protein (homologs), distinct and sophisticated monolignol forming metabolic networks were operative in various cell types, tissues and organs, and form the cell-specific guaiacyl (G) and guaiacyl-syringyl (G-S) enriched lignin biopolymers, respectively. Regardless of cell type undergoing lignification, carbon allocation to the different monolignol pools is apparently determined by a combination of phenylalanine availability and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase/"p-coumarate-3-hydroxylase" (C4H/C3H) activities, as revealed by transcriptional and metabolic profiling. Downregulation of either phenylalanine ammonia lyase or cinnamate-4-hydroxylase thus predictably results in reduced lignin levels and impaired vascular integrity, as well as affecting related (phenylpropanoid-dependent) metabolism. Depletion of C3H activity also results in reduced lignin deposition, albeit with the latter being derived only from hydroxyphenyl (H) units, due to both the guaiacyl (G) and syringyl (S) pathways being blocked. Apparently the cells affected are unable to compensate for reduced G/S levels by increasing the amounts of H-components. The downstream metabolic networks for G-lignin enriched formation in both angiosperms and gymnosperms utilize specific cinnamoyl CoA O-methyltransferase (CCOMT), 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL), cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) isoforms: however, these steps neither affect carbon allocation nor H/G designations, this being determined by C4H/C3H

  7. Modification in the assembly technique of histological sections for analysis of spatial distribution of boron by autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portu, A; Carpano, M; Dagrosa, A; Pozzi, E; Thorp, S; Curotto, P; Cabrini, R L; Saint Martin, G

    2012-01-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is a modality for the treatment of cancer, based on the capture reaction 10 B(n,α) 7 Li. The emitted particles are highly transferred linear of energy and have a short range in tissue (10 μ). Therefore, if the boron is selectively accumulates in tumor cellulo, the damage will be limited to preserving normal cellulo. Thus, the knowledge of the location of 10 B in the different structures of biological tissues as tumor and surrounding tissue, is essential when considering BNCT treatment (Barth et al., 2005). Neutron autoradiography is one of the few methods that allow studying the distribution spatial of elements emitters in a material containing such. As part of BNCT, the first step in performing autoradiography involves placing a freeze tissue section on a nuclear track detector (SSNTD) (Wittig et al., 2008). For this purpose, tissue samples are fixed in N 2 (liq) when they are resected after infusion boronated compound. The sample-detector arrangement is irradiated with thermal neutrons and elements cast in the capture reaction zones produce latent damage SSNTD. Chemically attacking the detector, this latent trace level can be amplified by optical microscopy. Thus, the distribution of 10 B in biological samples can be evaluated, so that this technique is suitable for studying the uptake of boron compounds for the different histological structures. In our laboratory, we have developed neutron autoradiography and has been applied to the study of different biological models (Portu et al., 2011a). In particular, the study conducted by the micro-distribution 10 B in tumors from nude mice model of cutaneous melanomas injected with boronophenylalanine (BPA) (Carpano et al, 2010;. Portu et al, 2011b.). Still using means of support for the sample to be cut, as OCTTM, the lack of structure of necrotic areas of tumors such causes tearing of these regions in the cutting process, which prevents achieving adequate for analysis sections

  8. Fukushima, two years later, modification requirements in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez J, J.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Salmeron V, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The occurred events in the nuclear power plant of Fukushima Daiichi as consequence of the strong earthquake of 9 grades in the Richter scale and the later tsunami with waves estimated in more than 14 meters high began a series of important questions about the safety of the nuclear power plants in operation and of the new designs. Firstly, have allowed to be questioned on the magnitudes and consequences of the extreme external natural events; that can put in risk the integrity of the safety barriers of a nuclear power plant when being presented in a multiple way. As consequence of the events of the Fukushima Daiichi NPP, the countries with NPPs in operation and /or construction carried out evaluations about their safety operation. They have also realized evaluations about accidents and their impact in the safety, analysis and studies too that have forced to the regulatory bodies to continue a systematic and methodical revision of their procedures and regulations, to identify the possible improvements to the safety in response to the events happened in Japan; everything has taken it to determine the necessity to incorporate additional requirements to the nuclear power plants to mitigate events Beyond the Design Base. Due to Mexico has the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, with two units of BWR-5 type with contention Mark III, some the modifications can be applicable to these units to administrate and/or to mitigate the consequences of the possible occurrence of an accident Beyond the Design Base and that could generate a severe accident. In this work an exposition is presented on the modification requirements to confront external natural events Beyond the Design Base, and its application in our country. (Author)

  9. Permit application modifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils.

  10. The management of modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, C.

    1992-01-01

    Description of the management methods of modifications at EDF. To maintain safety standards of the nuclear power station the 'Direction de l'Equipment' and the 'Direction du Parc en Exploitation' have jointly fixed the modalities of management for all modifications and recorded them in a 'Practical Guide'

  11. Permit application modifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This document contains the Permit Application Modifications for the Y-12 Industrial Landfill V site on the Oak Ridge Reservation. These modifications include the assessment of stability of the proposed Landfill V under static and loading conditions. Analyses performed include the general slope stability, veneer stability of the bottom liner and cover system, and a liquefaction potential assessment of the foundation soils

  12. Application of Sigma Metrics Analysis for the Assessment and Modification of Quality Control Program in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory of a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sahar; Mustansar, Tazeen

    2017-03-01

    Sigma is a metric that quantifies the performance of a process as a rate of Defects-Per-Million opportunities. In clinical laboratories, sigma metric analysis is used to assess the performance of laboratory process system. Sigma metric is also used as a quality management strategy for a laboratory process to improve the quality by addressing the errors after identification. The aim of this study is to evaluate the errors in quality control of analytical phase of laboratory system by sigma metric. For this purpose sigma metric analysis was done for analytes using the internal and external quality control as quality indicators. Results of sigma metric analysis were used to identify the gaps and need for modification in the strategy of laboratory quality control procedure. Sigma metric was calculated for quality control program of ten clinical chemistry analytes including glucose, chloride, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, albumin, direct bilirubin, total bilirubin, protein and creatinine, at two control levels. To calculate the sigma metric imprecision and bias was calculated with internal and external quality control data, respectively. The minimum acceptable performance was considered as 3 sigma. Westgard sigma rules were applied to customize the quality control procedure. Sigma level was found acceptable (≥3) for glucose (L2), cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, direct bilirubin and creatinine at both levels of control. For rest of the analytes sigma metric was found control levels (8.8 and 8.0 at L2 and L3, respectively). We conclude that analytes with the sigma value quality control procedure. In this study application of sigma rules provided us the practical solution for improved and focused design of QC procedure.

  13. Postural habits of young adults and possibilities of modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny-Czupryna, Olga; Czupryna, Krzysztof; Bąk, Krzysztof; Wróblewska, Ewa; Rottermund, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess postural habits in young, healthy people, identify correlations between postural errors and pain and attempt to modify bad habits. 144 people, aged 18-23 were enrolled. The intervention consisted of 4 stages: Stage 1 - identification of postural habits, description of responses to stress, back pain frequency and intensity (Jackson & Moskowitz); Stage 2 - correction of habitual position with the help of a physiotherapist, briefing about ergonomic everyday behaviours and consequences of continued non-ergonomic behaviours, Stage 3 - follow-up examination: self-assessment of changes, evaluation of the effects of modifications, determination of causes for discontinuing the behaviour modification programme, where applicable; and Stage 4 - final examination, assessment of results. Correlations were sought between inappropriate postural behaviour in various positions and between non-ergonomic postural behaviour and pain location and response to stress. Statistical analysis was carried out with Excel and Statistica v. 7.1. A non-parametric χ(2) test was used at phabit. 3. An attempt to modify non-ergonomic postural behaviours usually results in pain, which may act as a demotivating factor. 4. Discomfort associated with the modification of habitual postural behaviours is reduced after 3-4 months of regular training.

  14. Overexpression, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MnmE, a GTPase involved in tRNA modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Ho; Suh, Se Won

    2010-01-01

    MnmE from P. aeruginosa was crystallized and X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.69 Å resolution. MnmE, an evolutionarily conserved GTPase, is involved in modification of the uridine base (U34) at the wobble position of certain tRNAs. Previous crystal structures of MnmE suggest that it is a dimer with considerable conformational flexibility. To facilitate structural comparisons among MnmE proteins, structural analysis of MnmE from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encoded by the PA5567 gene was initiated. It was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 297 K using a reservoir solution consisting of 100 mM sodium ADA pH 6.5, 12%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 4000, 100 mM lithium sulfate, 2%(v/v) 2-propanol and 2.5 mM dithiothreitol. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 2.69 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the orthorhombic space group C222 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 96.74, b = 204.66, c = 120.90 Å. Two monomers were present in the asymmetric unit, resulting in a crystal volume per protein mass (V M ) of 2.99 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 58.8%

  15. Laser activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) of 1-alkenes on silicon: A ToF-SIMS, chemometrics, and AFM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Lei; Jiang Guilin; Davis, Robert C.; Shaver, Jeremy M.; Smentkowski, Vincent S.; Asplund, Matthew C.; Linford, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    Laser-activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) was carried out on silicon with a series of 1-alkenes. These laser spots were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The resulting spectra were analyzed using the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method within the Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) toolkit, and also by MCR and cluster analysis using commercially available toolboxes for Matlab: the PLS T oolbox and the MIA T oolbox, respectively. AXSIA based MCR generally finds three components for the spectral images: one for the background and two for the laser-activated spots, for both the positive and negative ion images. The negative ion component spectra from the spots show increased carbon and hydrogen signals compared to oxygen. They also show reduced chlorine and fluorine (contamination) peaks. In order to compare AXSIA-MCR results from different images, the AXSIA component spectra of different spots were further analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). PCA of all of the negative ion components shows that component 1 is chemically distinct from components 2 and 3. PCA of all of the positive ion components yields the same result. The loadings plots of this PCA analysis confirm that component 1 generally contains fragments expected from the substrate, while components 2 and 3 contain fragments expected from an overlayer composed of alkyl chains in the spots. A comparison of the two MCR analyses suggests that roughly the same information can be obtained from AXSIA, which is not commercially available, and the PLS T oolbox. Cluster analysis of the data also clearly separates the spots from the backgrounds. A key finding from these analyses is that the degree of surface functionalization in a LAMSS spot appears to decrease radially from the center of the spot. Finally, a comparison of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the spots versus the AXSIA analysis of the ToF-SIMS data produced another

  16. Laser activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) of 1-alkenes on silicon: A ToF-SIMS, chemometrics, and AFM analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei Lei [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Jiang Guilin [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Davis, Robert C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Shaver, Jeremy M. [Eigenvector Research Inc., Wenatchee, WA 98801 (United States); Smentkowski, Vincent S. [GE Global Research, 1 Research Circle, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Asplund, Matthew C. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Linford, Matthew R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States)]. E-mail: mrlinford@chem.byu.edu

    2007-04-15

    Laser-activation-modification of semiconductor surfaces (LAMSS) was carried out on silicon with a series of 1-alkenes. These laser spots were studied by time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). The resulting spectra were analyzed using the multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method within the Automated eXpert Spectral Image Analysis (AXSIA) toolkit, and also by MCR and cluster analysis using commercially available toolboxes for Matlab: the PLS{sub T}oolbox and the MIA{sub T}oolbox, respectively. AXSIA based MCR generally finds three components for the spectral images: one for the background and two for the laser-activated spots, for both the positive and negative ion images. The negative ion component spectra from the spots show increased carbon and hydrogen signals compared to oxygen. They also show reduced chlorine and fluorine (contamination) peaks. In order to compare AXSIA-MCR results from different images, the AXSIA component spectra of different spots were further analyzed by principal components analysis (PCA). PCA of all of the negative ion components shows that component 1 is chemically distinct from components 2 and 3. PCA of all of the positive ion components yields the same result. The loadings plots of this PCA analysis confirm that component 1 generally contains fragments expected from the substrate, while components 2 and 3 contain fragments expected from an overlayer composed of alkyl chains in the spots. A comparison of the two MCR analyses suggests that roughly the same information can be obtained from AXSIA, which is not commercially available, and the PLS{sub T}oolbox. Cluster analysis of the data also clearly separates the spots from the backgrounds. A key finding from these analyses is that the degree of surface functionalization in a LAMSS spot appears to decrease radially from the center of the spot. Finally, a comparison of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the spots versus the AXSIA analysis of the ToF-SIMS data produced

  17. Sleep modifications in acute transient global amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Marca, Giacomo; Mazza, Marianna; Losurdo, Anna; Testani, Elisa; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Frisullo, Giovanni; Marano, Giuseppe; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Vollono, Catello; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2013-09-15

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a temporary memory loss characterized by an abrupt onset of antero-grade and retrograde amnesia, totally reversible. Since sleep plays a major role in memory consolidation, and in the storage of memory-related traces into the brain cortex, the aims of the present study were: (1) to evaluate changes in sleep macro-structure in TGA; (2) to assess modifications in sleep micro-structure in TGA, with particular reference to the arousal EEG and to cyclic alternating pattern (CAP); (3) to compare sleep parameters in TGA patients with a control group of patients with acute ischemic events ("minor stroke" or transient ischemic attack [TIA]) clinically and neuroradiologically "similar" to the TGA. TGA GROUP: 17 patients, (8 men and 9 women, 60.2 ± 12.5 years). Stroke or TIA (SoT) group: 17 patients hospitalized in the Stroke Unit for recent onset of minor stroke or TIA with hemispheric localization; healthy controls (HC) group: 17 healthy volunteers, matched for age and sex. Patients and controls underwent full-night polysomnography. In the multivariate analysis (conditions TGA, SoT, and HC) a significant effect of the condition was observed for sleep efficiency index, number of awakenings longer 1 min, REM latency, CAP time, and CAP rate. TGA and SoT differed only for CAP time and CAP rate, which were lower in the TGA group. Microstructural modification associated with tga could be consequent to: (1) hippocampal dysfunction and memory impairment; (2) impairment of arousal-related structures (in particular, cholinergic pathways); (3) emotional distress.

  18. Analysis of the effect of variations in parameter values on the predicted radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.D.

    1979-06-01

    A preliminary assessment of the radiological consequences of geologic disposal of high-level waste (Hill and Grimwood. NRPB-R69 (1978)) identified several areas where further research is required before this disposal option can be fully evaluated. This report is an analysis of the sensitivity of the results of the preliminary assessment to the assumptions made and the values of the parameters used. The parameters considered include the leach rate of the waste, the ground-water velocity, the length of the flow path from the repository to a source of drinking water and the sorption constants of the principle radionuclides. The results obtained by varying these parameters are used to examine the effects of assumptions such as the time at which leaching of the waste begins. The sensitivity analysis shows the relative importance of the waste canisters, the waste form and the geologic barrier to radionuclide migration in determining potential doses. These results are used to identify research priorities, establish preliminary design criteria and indicate developments needed in the mathematical modelling of the movement of radionuclides from a repository to the biosphere. (author)

  19. Has the Reform of the Japanese Healthcare Provision System Improved the Value in Healthcare? A Cost-Consequence Analysis of Organized Care for Hip Fracture Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Haruhisa; Shimizu, Sayuri; Ishizaki, Tatsuro

    2015-01-01

    To assess the value of organized care by comparing the clinical outcomes and healthcare expenditure between the conventional Japanese "integrated care across specialties within one hospital" mode of providing healthcare and the prospective approach of "organized care across separate facilities within a community". Retrospective cohort study. Two groups of hospitals were categorized according to healthcare delivery approach: the first group included 3 hospitals autonomously providing integrated care across specialties, and the second group included 4 acute care hospitals and 7 rehabilitative care hospitals providing organized care across separate facilities. Patients aged 65 years and above who had undergone hip fracture surgery. Regression models adjusting for patient characteristics and clinical variables were used to investigate the impact of organized care on the improvements to the mobility capability of patients before and after hospitalization and the differences in healthcare resource utilization. The sample for analysis included 837 hip fracture surgery cases. The proportion of patients with either unchanged or improved mobility capability was not statistically associated with the healthcare delivery approaches. Total adjusted mean healthcare expenditure for integrated care and organized care were US$28,360 (95% confidence interval: 27,787-28,972) and US$21,951 (21,511-22,420), respectively, indicating an average increase of US$6,409 in organized care. Our cost-consequence analysis underscores the need to further investigate the actual contribution of organized care to the provision of efficient and high-quality healthcare.

  20. Plasmid-based genetic modification of human bone marrow-derived stromal cells: analysis of cell survival and transgene expression after transplantation in rat spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronsyn, Mark W; Daans, Jasmijn; Spaepen, Gie; Chatterjee, Shyama; Vermeulen, Katrien; D'Haese, Patrick; Van Tendeloo, Viggo Fi; Van Marck, Eric; Ysebaert, Dirk; Berneman, Zwi N; Jorens, Philippe G; Ponsaerts, Peter

    2007-12-14

    Bone marrow-derived stromal cells (MSC) are attractive targets for ex vivo cell and gene therapy. In this context, we investigated the feasibility of a plasmid-based strategy for genetic modification of human (h)MSC with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and neurotrophin (NT)3. Three genetically modified hMSC lines (EGFP, NT3, NT3-EGFP) were established and used to study cell survival and transgene expression following transplantation in rat spinal cord. First, we demonstrate long-term survival of transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells in rat spinal cord under, but not without, appropriate immune suppression. Next, we examined the stability of EGFP or NT3 transgene expression following transplantation of hMSC-EGFP, hMSC-NT3 and hMSC-NT3-EGFP in rat spinal cord. While in vivo EGFP mRNA and protein expression by transplanted hMSC-EGFP cells was readily detectable at different time points post-transplantation, in vivo NT3 mRNA expression by hMSC-NT3 cells and in vivo EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells was, respectively, undetectable or declined rapidly between day 1 and 7 post-transplantation. Further investigation revealed that the observed in vivo decline of EGFP protein expression by hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells: (i) was associated with a decrease in transgenic NT3-EGFP mRNA expression as suggested following laser capture micro-dissection analysis of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell transplants at day 1 and day 7 post-transplantation, (ii) did not occur when hMSC-NT3-EGFP cells were transplanted subcutaneously, and (iii) was reversed upon re-establishment of hMSC-NT3-EGFP cell cultures at 2 weeks post-transplantation. Finally, because we observed a slowly progressing tumour growth following transplantation of all our hMSC cell transplants, we here demonstrate that omitting immune suppressive therapy is sufficient to prevent further tumour growth and to eradicate malignant xenogeneic cell transplants. In this study, we demonstrate that genetically modified hMSC lines can survive

  1. Cost-consequence analysis of sitagliptin versus sulfonylureas as add-on therapy for the treatment of diabetic patients in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzoni V

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Valentina Lorenzoni,1 Fabio Baccetti,2 Stefano Genovese,3 Enrico Torre,4 Giuseppe Turchetti1 1Institute of Management, Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa, Italy; 2SD Diabetology, ASL Toscana Nordovest, Massa Carrara, Italy; 3Cardiovascular and Metabolic Department, IRCCS Multimedica Sesto San Giovanni, Milan, Italy; 4SSD Endocrinologia, Diabetologia e Malattie metaboliche, ASL 3 Genovese, Genoa, Italy Objective: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease related to a significant impact in both epidemiologic and economic terms. In Italy, around 3.6 million people are affected by diabetes and this number is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. As recommended by current national and international guidelines, metformin (Met is prescribed as first-line pharmacological treatment, and many pharmacological alternatives are available for patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy. Despite the availability of many innovative oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs, such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i and its first-in-class sitagliptin (SITA, which entered the Italian market in the last 10 years, their usage is consistently lower than traditional drugs such as sulfonylureas (SUs. In fact, due to higher acquisition costs, the prescription of innovative OADs in Italy is restricted to specialist, resulting in a prominent usage of traditional OAD that can be prescribed also by general practitioners (GPs. A cost consequence analysis (CCA was performed in order to compare SITA with SU, as second-line therapy in add-on to Met, in terms of costs and related clinical events over 36 months.Methods: A CCA was conducted on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy, from both the Italian National Health Service (INHS and societal perspective. Therefore, both direct (drugs, self-monitoring, hypoglycemia, major cardiovascular events [MACEs], and switch to insulin and indirect costs

  2. Cradle modification for hydraulic ram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koons, B.M.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis of the cradle hydraulic system considers stress, weld strength, and hydraulic forces required to lift and support the cradle/pump assembly. The stress and weld strength of the cradle modifications is evaluated to ensure that they meet the requirements of the American Institute for Steel Construction (AISC 1989). The hydraulic forces are evaluated to ensure that the hydraulic system is capable of rotating the cradle and pump assembly to the vertical position (between 70 degrees and 90 degrees)

  3. Biotechnological modification of lignin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    A literature search of organisms capable of degrading lignin was conducted. Four fungi were selected for study and these were Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Chrysosporium pruinosum, Phlebia tremellosus and Trametes versicolor. Other organisms, Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus florida and Lentinus edodes were also tested in preliminary experiments. All cultures were screened for their ability to degrade the lignin component of aspen sawdust and also lignin extracted from steam-exploded wood. This type of screen was followed by analysis of culture filtrates for the presence of ligninase, the marker enzyme for lignin degradation. Phanerochaete chrysosporium and consequently chosen for further studies in fermentors. Considerable efforts were directed to production of ligninase in fermentors. Only when Chrysosporium pruinosum was pre-cultured in a shake flask for 4 days and then transferred to a fermentor could ligninase activity be detected. The enzyme from shake flasks has been concentrated ready for use in bench-scale studies on cell-free depolymerization of lignin. 13 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes methodological guidelines for developing accident modification functions. An accident modification function is a mathematical function describing systematic variation in the effects of road safety measures. The paper describes ten guidelines. An example is given of how to use...... limitations in developing accident modification functions are the small number of good evaluation studies and the often huge variation in estimates of effect. It is therefore still not possible to develop accident modification functions for very many road safety measures. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights...... the guidelines. The importance of exploratory analysis and an iterative approach in developing accident modification functions is stressed. The example shows that strict compliance with all the guidelines may be difficult, but represents a level of stringency that should be strived for. Currently the main...

  5. Modifications to POISSON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwood, L.H.

    1981-01-01

    At MSU we have used the POISSON family of programs extensively for magnetic field calculations. In the presently super-saturated computer situation, reducing the run time for the program is imperative. Thus, a series of modifications have been made to POISSON to speed up convergence. Two of the modifications aim at having the first guess solution as close as possible to the final solution. The other two aim at increasing the convergence rate. In this discussion, a working knowledge of POISSON is assumed. The amount of new code and expected time saving for each modification is discussed

  6. MICROSTRUCTURE MODIFICATIONS INDUCED IN SPRUCE WOOD BY FREEZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bernadett SZMUTKU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM is amodern, non-invasive method for objective andspecialized image analysis of anatomical materialfeatures at microscopic level. Referring to wood, itoffers the possibility to view in 3D a bunch ofneighboring cells, in all three grain directions.This allows the imaging of modifications thatmight appear in the structure of the wood cellmembrane (e.g. micro-fissures caused by differentfactors, including temperature variations. This paperpresents the results of the SEM analysis performedon European spruce (Picea abies samples, cut fromboards which were subjected to freezing and thawingunder different conditions of temperature variationand time of exposure.The main aim of this research was to reveal theconditions which determine the occurrence of microfissuresin the cell wall and consequently lead tostrength losses in wood.

  7. Surface modification of polyethylene by plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colin O, E.

    2003-01-01

    The products made of polyethylene (PE) go from construction materials, electric insulating until packing material. The films for bags and pack occupy 83.6% of the distribution of the market of PE approximately. The enormous quantity of PE that is generated by its indiscriminate use brings as consequence a deterioration to the atmosphere, due to the long life that they present as waste. This work is a study on the modification of low density polyethylene films. In this type of thin materials, the changes in the surface meet with largely on the conformation of the rest of the material. To induce changes that modify the surface of PE, plasmas were used with reactive atmospheres of air, oxygen and nitrogen. The experimentation that was carries out went to introduce the PE to a cylindrical reactor where it was generated the plasma of air, oxygen and nitrogen to different times of exposure. After having carried out the exposure to the plasma, it was found that in the polyethylene it modifies their morphology, crystallinity, hydrophobicity, composition and electric conductivity. The analytical techniques that were used to characterize later to the polyethylene of being in contact with the plasma were: X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Infrared spectroscopy, Electric conductivity, Angle of contact and finally Thermal Gravimetric Analysis. The content of this work it is presented in five chapters: In the chapter 1 there are presented some general concepts of plasma and of the one polymer in study PE. In the chapter 2 it is made a general revision on modification of surfaces, as well as the properties that were modified in polymeric materials that were exposed to plasma in previous works. In the chapter 3 the experimental part and the conditions used are described in the modification of the PE. Also in this chapter a brief description it is made of the used characterization techniques. The results and discussion are presented in the chapter 4. These results

  8. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and stiffness matrices) andaor modal parameters, in order to acquire some ... For the above reasons, another modification approach is presented here ... The data necessary to solve the direct problem are dynamic behaviour of the original.

  9. Pragmatic Graph Rewriting Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Rodgers, Peter; Vidal, Natalia

    1999-01-01

    We present new pragmatic constructs for easing programming in visual graph rewriting programming languages. The first is a modification to the rewriting process for nodes the host graph, where nodes specified as 'Once Only' in the LHS of a rewrite match at most once with a corresponding node in the host graph. This reduces the previously common use of tags to indicate the progress of matching in the graph. The second modification controls the application of LHS graphs, where those specified a...

  10. Modification of JRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyasaka, Yasuhiko

    1978-01-01

    This report gives an outline of some of the main modifications carried out around the Reactor Core on the Research Reactor JRR-2, at the Tokai Research Establishment of JAERI. The JRR-2 was shut down in December 1973, to improve it in heavy water leakage from the metal packing between core tank and support ring, corrosion of the lower shielding plug, and fault in the control-rod mechanism. Main modifications were a standing seal weld at the support ring to stop heavy water leakage, replacement of the reactor top shield and improvement of the helium system. The control-rod assemblies and the refueling devices were replaced by the newly designed ones also. In addition to the modification plan, the irradiated air exhaust system was improved to reduce radioactive argon gas release through the stack. Works were completed successfully in September 1975. But a light water leakage occurred at the stand pipe below the light water tank on November 11, 1975, which was repaired in about 4 months. When considering the operation of above 5,000 hours after the modification, however, the quality of the modification work may be said to be quite satisfactory. The present report in which works to the completion are described may be valuable as a record of reactor modification which is a new experience at JAERI. (auth.)

  11. Identification of cofactor and herbicide binding domains in acetolactate synthase by bromopyruvate modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dyk, D.E.; Schloss, J.V.

    1987-01-01

    Bromopyruvate is an affinity label for acetolactate synthase isozyme II from Salmonella typhimurium (ALSII). The concentration of bromopyruvate giving half-maximal inactivation is 0.1 mM, and the maximal rate of inactivation is 0.56 hr -1 . Inactivation with [ 14 C]bromopyruvate is associated with the incorporation of 4 molecules of reagent per active site lost. Two cysteinyl residues are modified extremely rapidly, with no loss of enzymatic activity, as judged by quenching the reaction with thiol after its initial phase. Inactivation is a consequence of the additional two moles of reagent incorporated per mole of protomer. The additional incorporation is divided between one major and two minor sites of modification. Substantial protection against inactivation is afforded by FAD, with virtually complete protection provided by a mixture of FAD and thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP). The major site of modification, protected by FAD, is cysteinyl residue number67, based upon amino acid sequence analysis of the purified tryptic peptide that encompasses this site. The remaining site of modification, protected by TPP, is associated with cysteinyl residue number44. Both sites of modification are afforded protection by the sulfonylurea herbicide sulfometuron methyl (SM). Although inactivation by bromopyruvate exhibits rate saturation, indicating binding as a prerequisite to inactivation, neither pyruvate nor α-ketobutyrate prevent modification of the enzyme by bromopyruvate. Thus, it would appear that the bromopyruvate binding site is not the site normally occupied by substrate

  12. Human Rights and Behavior Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Philip

    1974-01-01

    Criticisms of behavior modification, which charge that it violates ethical and legal principles, are discussed and reasons are presented to explain behavior modification's susceptibility to attack. (GW)

  13. Comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification by affinity zirconium oxide-silica composite monolithic column online solid-phase microextraction - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Han-Peng; Chu, Jie-Mei; Lan, Meng-Dan; Liu, Ping; Yang, Na; Zheng, Fang; Yuan, Bi-Feng; Feng, Yu-Qi

    2016-09-02

    More than 140 modified ribonucleosides have been identified in RNA. Determination of endogenous modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids may serve as non-invasive disease diagnostic strategy. However, detection of the modified ribonucleosides in biological fluids is challenging, especially for the low abundant modified ribonucleosides due to the serious matrix interferences of biological fluids. Here, we developed a facile preparation strategy and successfully synthesized zirconium oxide-silica (ZrO2/SiO2) composite capillary monolithic column that exhibited excellent performance for the selective enrichment of cis-diol-containing compounds. Compared with the boronate-based affinity monolith, the ZrO2/SiO2 monolith showed ∼2 orders of magnitude higher extraction capacity and can be used under physiological pH (pH 6.5-7.5). Using the prepared ZrO2/SiO2 composite monolith as the trapping column and reversed-phase C18 column as the analytical column, we further established an online solid-phase microextraction (SPME) in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (online SPME-LC-MS/MS) analysis for the comprehensive profiling of ribonucleosides modification in human urine. Our results showed that 68 cis-diol-containing ribosylated compounds were identified in human urine, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest numbers of cis-diol-containing compounds were determined in a single analysis. It is worth noting that four modified ribonucleosides were discovered in the human urine for the first time. In addition, the quantification results from the pooled urine samples showed that compared to healthy controls, the contents of sixteen ribose conjugates in the urine of gastric cancer, eleven in esophagus cancer and seven in lymphoma increased more than two folds. Among these ribose conjugates, four ribose conjugates increased more than two folds in both gastric cancer and esophagus cancer; three ribose conjugates increased more than two

  14. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conde, J.C., E-mail: jconde@uvigo.es [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Martin, E. [Dpto. Mecanica, Maquinas, Motores Termicos y Fluidos, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Stefanov, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain); Alpuim, P. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade do Minho, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Chiussi, S. [Dpto. Fisica Aplicada, Universidade de Vigo, Rua Maxwell s/n, Campus Universitario Lagoas Marcosende, Vigo (Spain)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H{sub 2} desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25

  15. FEM numerical analysis of excimer laser induced modification in alternating multi-layers of amorphous and nano-crystalline silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.C.; Martín, E.; Stefanov, S.; Alpuim, P.; Chiussi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► nc-Si:H is a material with growing importance for a large-area of nano-electronic, photovoltaic or biomedical devices. ► UV-ELA technique causes a rapid heating that provokes the H 2 desorption from the Si surface and bulk material. ► Next, diffusion of P doped nc-Si films and eventually, for high energy densities would be possible to reach the melting point. ► These multilayer structures consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) films deposited on SiO 2 . ► To optimize parameters involved in this processing, FEM numerical analysis of multilayer structures have been performed. ► The numerical results are compared with exhaustive characterization of the experimental results. - Abstract: UV excimer laser annealing (UV-ELA) is an alternative annealing process that, during the last few years, has gained enormous importance for the CMOS nano-electronic technologies, with the ability to provide films and alloys with electrical and optical properties to fit the desired device performance. The UV-ELA of amorphous (a-) and/or doped nano-crystalline (nc-) silicon films is based on the rapid (nanoseconds) formation of temperature profiles caused by laser radiation that is absorbed in the material and lead to crystallisation, diffusion in solid or even in liquid phase. To achieve the desired temperature profiles and to optimize the parameters involved in the processing of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) films with the UV-ELA, a numerical analysis by finite element method (FEM) of a multilayer structure has been performed. The multilayer structures, consisting of thin alternating a-Si:H(10 nm) and n-doped nc-Si:H(60 nm) layers, deposited on a glass substrate, has also been experimentally analyzed. Temperature profiles caused by 193 nm radiation with 25 ns pulse length and energy densities ranging from 50 mJ/cm 2 to 400 mJ/cm 2 have been calculated. Numerical results allowed us to estimate the dehydrogenation

  16. Box-Counting Method of 2D Neuronal Image: Method Modification and Quantitative Analysis Demonstrated on Images from the Monkey and Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemanja Rajković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study calls attention to the difference between traditional box-counting method and its modification. The appropriate scaling factor, influence on image size and resolution, and image rotation, as well as different image presentation, are showed on the sample of asymmetrical neurons from the monkey dentate nucleus. The standard BC method and its modification were evaluated on the sample of 2D neuronal images from the human neostriatum. In addition, three box dimensions (which estimate the space-filling property, the shape, complexity, and the irregularity of dendritic tree were used to evaluate differences in the morphology of type III aspiny neurons between two parts of the neostriatum.

  17. Box-Counting Method of 2D Neuronal Image: Method Modification and Quantitative Analysis Demonstrated on Images from the Monkey and Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajković, Nemanja; Krstonošić, Bojana; Milošević, Nebojša

    2017-01-01

    This study calls attention to the difference between traditional box-counting method and its modification. The appropriate scaling factor, influence on image size and resolution, and image rotation, as well as different image presentation, are showed on the sample of asymmetrical neurons from the monkey dentate nucleus. The standard BC method and its modification were evaluated on the sample of 2D neuronal images from the human neostriatum. In addition, three box dimensions (which estimate the space-filling property, the shape, complexity, and the irregularity of dendritic tree) were used to evaluate differences in the morphology of type III aspiny neurons between two parts of the neostriatum.

  18. Covalent Surface Modifications of Carbon Nanotubes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavia Sanders, Adriana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); O' Bryan, Greg [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    A report meant to document the chemistries investigated by the author for covalent surface modification of CNTs. Oxidation, cycloaddition, and radical reactions were explored to determine their success at covalently altering the CNT surface. Characterization through infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermo gravimetric analysis was performed in order to determine the success of the chemistries employed. This report is not exhaustive and was performed for CNT surface modification exploration as it pertains to the "Next Gen" project.

  19. Cost-consequence analysis of sitagliptin versus sulfonylureas as add-on therapy for the treatment of diabetic patients in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Valentina; Baccetti, Fabio; Genovese, Stefano; Torre, Enrico; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease related to a significant impact in both epidemiologic and economic terms. In Italy, around 3.6 million people are affected by diabetes and this number is expected to increase significantly in the next few years. As recommended by current national and international guidelines, metformin (Met) is prescribed as first-line pharmacological treatment, and many pharmacological alternatives are available for patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy. Despite the availability of many innovative oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs), such as dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors (DPP4-i) and its first-in-class sitagliptin (SITA), which entered the Italian market in the last 10 years, their usage is consistently lower than traditional drugs such as sulfonylureas (SUs). In fact, due to higher acquisition costs, the prescription of innovative OADs in Italy is restricted to specialist, resulting in a prominent usage of traditional OAD that can be prescribed also by general practitioners (GPs). A cost consequence analysis (CCA) was performed in order to compare SITA with SU, as second-line therapy in add-on to Met, in terms of costs and related clinical events over 36 months. A CCA was conducted on a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients uncontrolled with Met monotherapy, from both the Italian National Health Service (INHS) and societal perspective. Therefore, both direct (drugs, self-monitoring, hypoglycemia, major cardiovascular events [MACEs], and switch to insulin) and indirect costs (expressed in terms of productivity losses) were evaluated. Clinical and economic data were collected through Italian national tariffs, literature, and experts' opinions. Three expert clinicians finally validated data inputs. To assess robustness of base case results, a one-way sensitivity analysis (OWSA) and a conservative scenario analysis - excluding MACEs - were carried out. In the base case analysis, the higher drug costs related

  20. Development of the object-oriented analysis code for the estimation of material balance in pyrochemical reprocessing process (2). Modification of the code for the analysis of holdup of nuclear materials in the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Nobuo; Tanaka, Hiroshi

    2001-04-01

    Pyrochemical reprocessing is thought to be promising process for FBR fuel cycle mainly from the economical viewpoint. However, the material behavior in the process is not clarified enough because of the lack of experimental data. The authors have been developed the object-oriented analysis code for the estimation of material balance in the process, which has the flexible applicability for the change of process flow sheet. The objective of this study is to modify the code so as to analyze the holdup of nuclear materials in the pyrochemical process from the viewpoint of safeguard, because of the possibility of larger amount of the holdup in the process compared with aqueous process. As a result of the modification, the relationship between the production of nuclear materials and its holdup in the process can be evaluated by the code. (author)

  1. Consequences, control and appraisal: cues and barriers to engaging in self-management among people affected by colorectal cancer - a secondary analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Lisa A

    2014-08-01

    Little is known about peoples' self-management experiences and their desires or expectations to engage in self-management. As such, there is little understanding about individuals' perceived cues and barriers to engagement in self-management, particularly in people affected by cancer. To understand cues and barriers to people's engagement in self-management during chemotherapy treatment for colorectal cancer. Secondary analysis of qualitative data from mixed methods, longitudinal study. Eleven participants undergoing treatment for colorectal cancer. Semi-structured interviews were conducted twice with each participant, at the start and end of a 6-month course of chemotherapy treatment in a Scottish cancer centre. Cues and barriers to engagement in self-management appeared to stem from perceptions of the impact and associated severity of side effects experiences as well as the perceptions about the efficacy of chosen self-management activities and perceptions of control in minimizing the consequences of cancer treatment. Severe, episodic or unexpected side effects coupled with perceptions of uncertainty, lack of control and lack of adequate preparation to engage in self-management were identified as key barriers to engagement. Participants' reflection on, or appraisal of, their treatment-related experiences and personal abilities, confidence and preferences to manage the impact of these shaped their subsequent engagement in self-management. The findings highlight the importance of understanding individual's self-management experiences, perceptions, preferences, priorities and needs to help support, prepare and enable them to feel capable and confident to engage actively and effectively in self-management. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The long-term health consequences of child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana E Norman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Child sexual abuse is considered a modifiable risk factor for mental disorders across the life course. However the long-term consequences of other forms of child maltreatment have not yet been systematically examined. The aim of this study was to summarise the evidence relating to the possible relationship between child physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect, and subsequent mental and physical health outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A systematic review was conducted using the Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO electronic databases up to 26 June 2012. Published cohort, cross-sectional, and case-control studies that examined non-sexual child maltreatment as a risk factor for loss of health were included. All meta-analyses were based on quality-effects models. Out of 285 articles assessed for eligibility, 124 studies satisfied the pre-determined inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. Statistically significant associations were observed between physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect and depressive disorders (physical abuse [odds ratio (OR = 1.54; 95% CI 1.16-2.04], emotional abuse [OR = 3.06; 95% CI 2.43-3.85], and neglect [OR = 2.11; 95% CI 1.61-2.77]; drug use (physical abuse [OR = 1.92; 95% CI 1.67-2.20], emotional abuse [OR = 1.41; 95% CI 1.11-1.79], and neglect [OR = 1.36; 95% CI 1.21-1.54]; suicide attempts (physical abuse [OR = 3.40; 95% CI 2.17-5.32], emotional abuse [OR = 3.37; 95% CI 2.44-4.67], and neglect [OR = 1.95; 95% CI 1.13-3.37]; and sexually transmitted infections and risky sexual behaviour (physical abuse [OR = 1.78; 95% CI 1.50-2.10], emotional abuse [OR = 1.75; 95% CI 1.49-2.04], and neglect [OR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.39-1.78]. Evidence for causality was assessed using Bradford Hill criteria. While suggestive evidence exists for a relationship between maltreatment and chronic diseases and lifestyle risk factors, more research is required to confirm these relationships. CONCLUSIONS: This overview of the evidence

  3. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn: A Tool for Inspection of Modification Signatures in RNA Sequencing Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hauenschild

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Combination of reverse transcription (RT and deep sequencing has emerged as a powerful instrument for the detection of RNA modifications, a field that has seen a recent surge in activity because of its importance in gene regulation. Recent studies yielded high-resolution RT signatures of modified ribonucleotides relying on both sequence-dependent mismatch patterns and reverse transcription arrests. Common alignment viewers lack specialized functionality, such as filtering, tailored visualization, image export and differential analysis. Consequently, the community will profit from a platform seamlessly connecting detailed visual inspection of RT signatures and automated screening for modification candidates. CoverageAnalyzer (CAn was developed in response to the demand for a powerful inspection tool. It is freely available for all three main operating systems. With SAM file format as standard input, CAn is an intuitive and user-friendly tool that is generally applicable to the large community of biomedical users, starting from simple visualization of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq data, up to sophisticated modification analysis with significance-based modification candidate calling.

  4. Modifications of the Weibull distribution: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almalki, Saad J.; Nadarajah, Saralees

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the Weibull distribution is the most popular and the most widely used distribution in reliability and in analysis of lifetime data. Unfortunately, its hazard function cannot exhibit non-monotonic shapes like the bathtub shape or the unimodal shape. Since 1958, the Weibull distribution has been modified by many researchers to allow for non-monotonic hazard functions. This paper gives an extensive review of some discrete and continuous versions of the modifications of the Weibull distribution. - Highlights: • A comprehensive review of known discrete modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • A comprehensive review of known continuous modifications and generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • Over 110 references on modifications/generalizations of the Weibull distribution. • More than 55% of the cited references appeared in the last 5 years

  5. Mass spectrometry analysis of the variants of histone H3 and H4 of soybean and their post-translational modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Hon-Ming

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone modifications and histone variants are of importance in many biological processes. To understand the biological functions of the global dynamics of histone modifications and histone variants in higher plants, we elucidated the variants and post-translational modifications of histones in soybean, a legume plant with a much bigger genome than that of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results In soybean leaves, mono-, di- and tri-methylation at Lysine 4, Lysine 27 and Lysine 36, and acetylation at Lysine 14, 18 and 23 were detected in HISTONE H3. Lysine 27 was prone to being mono-methylated, while tri-methylation was predominant at Lysine 36. We also observed that Lysine 27 methylation and Lysine 36 methylation usually excluded each other in HISTONE H3. Although methylation at HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 was not reported in A. thaliana, mono- and di-methylated HISTONE H3 Lysine 79 were detected in soybean. Besides, acetylation at Lysine 8 and 12 of HISTONE H4 in soybean were identified. Using a combination of mass spectrometry and nano-liquid chromatography, two variants of HISTONE H3 were detected and their modifications were determined. They were different at positions of A31F41S87S90 (HISTONE variant H3.1 and T31Y41H87L90 (HISTONE variant H3.2, respectively. The methylation patterns in these two HISTONE H3 variants also exhibited differences. Lysine 4 and Lysine 36 methylation were only detected in HISTONE H3.2, suggesting that HISTONE variant H3.2 might be associated with actively transcribing genes. In addition, two variants of histone H4 (H4.1 and H4.2 were also detected, which were missing in other organisms. In the histone variant H4.1 and H4.2, the amino acid 60 was isoleucine and valine, respectively. Conclusion This work revealed several distinct variants of soybean histone and their modifications that were different from A. thaliana, thus providing important biological information toward further understanding of the histone

  6. High-Resolution Analysis of the Efficiency, Heritability, and Editing Outcomes of CRISPR/Cas9-Induced Modifications of NCED4 in Lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertier, Lien D; Ron, Mily; Huo, Heqiang; Bradford, Kent J; Britt, Anne B; Michelmore, Richard W

    2018-05-04

    CRISPR/Cas9 is a transformative tool for making targeted genetic alterations. In plants, high mutation efficiencies have been reported in primary transformants. However, many of the mutations analyzed were somatic and therefore not heritable. To provide more insights into the efficiency of creating stable homozygous mutants using CRISPR/Cas9, we targeted LsNCED4 ( 9-cis-EPOXYCAROTENOID DIOXYGENASE4) , a gene conditioning thermoinhibition of seed germination in lettuce. Three constructs, each capable of expressing Cas9 and a single gRNA targeting different sites in LsNCED4 , were stably transformed into lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cvs. Salinas and Cobham Green. Analysis of 47 primary transformants (T 1 ) and 368 T 2 plants by deep amplicon sequencing revealed that 57% of T 1 plants contained events at the target site: 28% of plants had germline mutations in one allele indicative of an early editing event (mono-allelic), 8% of plants had germline mutations in both alleles indicative of two early editing events (bi-allelic), and the remaining 21% of plants had multiple low frequency mutations indicative of late events (chimeric plants). Editing efficiency was similar in both genotypes, while the different gRNAs varied in efficiency. Amplicon sequencing of 20 T 1 and more than 100 T 2 plants for each of the three gRNAs showed that repair outcomes were not random, but reproducible and characteristic for each gRNA. Knockouts of NCED4 resulted in large increases in the maximum temperature for seed germination, with seeds of both cultivars capable of germinating >70% at 37°. Knockouts of NCED4 provide a whole-plant selectable phenotype that has minimal pleiotropic consequences. Targeting NCED4 in a co-editing strategy could therefore be used to enrich for germline-edited events simply by germinating seeds at high temperature. Copyright © 2018 Bertier et al.

  7. Analysis of causes of the eventual increment in climatic episodies in the period 2004-2014 and the consequences on the coast of Galicia (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Lopez, Fernando; Diez, Javier; Veiga, Efren

    2015-04-01

    In recent years has observed an increase in atmospheric and marine events on the coast of Galicia (Spain) which have caused economic losses and human lives; and also an alarm in the population. This work analyse the consequences in order temporal and geographical; and the possible causes and influences which can motivate the presence of these events and their consequences. This work also proposes a strategy to prevent such events and to limit their effects. The generating criteria proposed is a rating system of security, in such way that the society by itself generates the trends for improvement. Keywords: Security, Civil engineering, Marine constructions, Realibility, Insurance, Prevention forensic engineering

  8. Large scale analysis of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone tails reveals global fine structure of cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Aspalter, Claudia-Maria; Sidoli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone...... sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone post-translational modifications. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types...... sites but negative cross-talk for distant ones, and for discrete methylation states at Lys-9, Lys-27, and Lys-36 of histone H3, suggesting a more differentiated functional role of methylation beyond the general expectation of enhanced activity at higher methylation states....

  9. Health consequences of nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masse, Roland

    2011-10-01

    The author first outlines that no exposure of mankind to environmental risks has been as exhaustively and continuously studied as that resulting from ionizing radiations. Apart from lethal effects, he describes non lethal cell lesions which are induced in tissues: mutations and modifications of gene expressions, either directly under the effect of radiation, or by water hydrolysis, or indirectly through a biochemical response to these initial events. Then, the author evokes the controversy about Chernobyl: according to scientists, there is no relationship between the health degradation (human morbidity and mortality) and fallouts whereas activist groups state that there is. The author then evokes that the WHO and the IAEA were accused to lie about the issue of victims and health consequences. He outlines that UNSCEAR reports are a reference for radio-biologists, and that the 2011 report confirmed the conclusions of the 2006 report. He comments some published data, notably those on the acute irradiation syndrome (ARS), on carcinogenic effects (essentially thyroid cancers for children, as there is no clear nor admitted relationship for other forms of cancer), on other pathologies. Finally, the author briefly discusses the issue of crisis management, the information about Fukushima, and the issue of Chernobyl fallouts in France

  10. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. The paper represents the work of a subgroup at the meeting. The authors are concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/K-bar/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed

  11. Modelling the consequences of crop-wild relative gene flow: A sensitivity analysis of the effects of outcrossing rates and hybrid vigour breakdown in Lactuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooftman, D.A.P.; Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; Marquard, E.; den Nijs, J.C.M.

    2008-01-01

    1. Hybridization between crops and their wild relatives may enhance invasiveness and change their niche dynamics. This is regarded as a major biosafety problem in terms of the development of noxious, invasive weeds and the loss of the genetic identity of native species. Modelling the consequences of

  12. From Animal House to Old School: a multiple mediation analysis of the association between college drinking movie exposure and freshman drinking and its consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osberg, Timothy M; Billingsley, Katherine; Eggert, Meredith; Insana, Maribeth

    2012-08-01

    Does exposure to college drinking movies impact upon subsequent college student drinking? If so, what mechanisms mediate such an effect? In the first study to address these questions, we assessed college drinking movie exposure in a sample of 479 college freshmen early in their first semester and examined its relation to subsequent drinking and drinking consequences one month later. Hypothesized mediators of this effect included college alcohol beliefs (beliefs that drinking is central to college life), positive and negative alcohol expectancies, and descriptive and injunctive norms. Using bootstrapping procedures, results indicated that movie exposure exerted direct effects on both drinking and drinking consequences. Movie exposure also had significant indirect effects on drinking through all of the hypothesized mediators, with the exception of negative alcohol expectancies. All mediated movie exposure's effects on drinking consequences, with the exception of injunctive norms. Contrast analyses revealed that college alcohol beliefs had the strongest mediational effects in the relationship between movie exposure and both drinking and consequences. The implications of these findings for precollege alcohol education programs are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessing economic consequences of radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, M.D.; Lee, J.C.; Grimshaw, C.A.; Kalb, P.D.

    1987-01-01

    A recent review of existing models and methods for assessing potential consequences of accidents in the high-level radioactive waste (HLW) disposal system identifies economic consequence assessment methods as a weak point. Existing methods have mostly been designed to assess economic consequences of reactor accidents, the possible scale of which can be several orders of magnitude greater than anything possible in the HLW disposal system. There is therefore some question about the applicability of these methods, their assumptions, and their level of detail to assessments of smaller accidents. The US Dept. of Energy funded this study to determine needs for code modifications or model development for assessing economic costs of accidents in the HLW disposal system. The objectives of the study were as follows: (1) review the literature on economic consequences of accidents to determine the availability of assessment methods and data and their applicability to the HLW disposal system before closure. (2) Determine needs for expansion, revision, or adaptation of methods and data for modeling economic consequences of accidents of the scale projected for the disposal system. (3) Gather data that might be useful for the needed revisions for modeling economic impacts on this scale

  14. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  15. Is multiset consequence trivial?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Paoli, F.

    First Online: 08 September 2016 (2018) ISSN 0039-7857 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14654S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : contraction-free logics * multiset consequence * substructural logics * multiple conclusions Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.855, year: 2016

  16. Choices and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Carmany

    1995-01-01

    Describes student use of Hyperstudio computer software to create history adventure games. History came alive while students learned efficient writing skills; learned to understand and manipulate cause, effect choice and consequence; and learned to incorporate succinct locational, climatic, and historical detail. (ET)

  17. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  18. Consequences of biome depletion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvucci, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    The human microbiome is an integral part of the superorganism together with their host and they have co-evolved since the early days of the existence of the human species. The modification of the microbiome as a result changes in food and social habits of human beings throughout their life history has led to the emergence of many diseases. In contrast with the Darwinian view of nature of selfishness and competence, new holistic approaches are rising. Under these views, the reconstitution of the microbiome comes out as a fundamental therapy for emerging diseases related to biome depletion.

  19. Enzymatic modification of starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    In the food industry approaches for using bioengineering are investigated as alternatives to conventional chemical and physical starch modification techniques in development of starches with specific properties. Enzyme-assisted post-harvest modification is an interesting approach to this, since...... it is considered a clean and energy saving technology. This thesis aimed to investigate the effect of using reaction conditions, simulating an industrial process, for enzymatic treatment of starch with branching enzyme (BE) from Rhodothermus obamensis. Thus treatements were conducted at 70°C using very high...... substrate concentration (30-40% dry matter (DM)) and high enzyme activity (750-2250 BE units (BEU)/g sample). Starches from various botanical sources, representing a broad range of properties, were used as substrates. The effects of the used conditions on the BE-reaction were evaluated by characterization...

  20. Greenhouse effect increase and its consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, J.F.; Mahfouf, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Observations on the evolution of the atmospheric composition concerning trace gases (CO 2 , CH 4 , NO 2 , CFC) are first described. Then the fundamental role played by these gases in the radiative equilibrium of the earth through the greenhouse effect is examined. Numerical models have been developed to forecast the consequences of an increase of the greenhouse effect. The importance of the feedback mechanism, where the oceans and the clouds have the central part, but not well estimated by the models, is explained. Climatic changes generally accepted are reviewed. In conclusion the need to improve our knowledge of the global climatic system to forecast future modifications is underlined

  1. Geometrically Consistent Mesh Modification

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, A.

    2010-01-01

    A new paradigm of adaptivity is to execute refinement, coarsening, and smoothing of meshes on manifolds with incomplete information about their geometry and yet preserve position and curvature accuracy. We refer to this collectively as geometrically consistent (GC) mesh modification. We discuss the concept of discrete GC, show the failure of naive approaches, and propose and analyze a simple algorithm that is GC and accuracy preserving. © 2010 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  2. Radiation modification of materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pikaev, A.K.

    1987-01-01

    Industrial and radiation chemical processes of material modification based on cross-linking of polymers as a result of radiation are considered. Among them are production of cables and rods with irradiated modified insulation, production of hardened and thermo-shrinkaging polymer products (films, tubes, fashioned products), production of radiation cross-linked polyethylene foam, technology of radiation vulcanization of elastomers. Attention is paid to radiation plants on the basis of γ-sources and electron acceleratos as well as to radiation conditions

  3. Modeling the Severity of Drinking Consequences in First-Year College Women: An Item Response Theory Analysis of the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy M.; Hagman, Brett T.; Graff, Fiona S.; Noel, Nora E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the latent continuum of alcohol-related negative consequences among first-year college women using methods from item response theory and classical test theory. Method: Participants (N = 315) were college women in their freshman year who reported consuming any alcohol in the past 90 days and who completed assessments of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related negative consequences using the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Results: Item response theory analyses showed poor model fit for five items identified in the Rutgers Alcohol Problem Index. Two-parameter item response theory logistic models were applied to the remaining 18 items to examine estimates of item difficulty (i.e., severity) and discrimination parameters. The item difficulty parameters ranged from 0.591 to 2.031, and the discrimination parameters ranged from 0.321 to 2.371. Classical test theory analyses indicated that the omission of the five misfit items did not significantly alter the psychometric properties of the construct. Conclusions: Findings suggest that those consequences that had greater severity and discrimination parameters may be used as screening items to identify female problem drinkers at risk for an alcohol use disorder. PMID:22051212

  4. Behavior Modification in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Mryon; Whitman, Joan

    1971-01-01

    This article presents the theoretical rationale for behavior modification, principally through its comparison with traditional psychotherapies, and suggests some behavior modification techniques for the classroom management of maladaptive behavior. (Author)

  5. Analysis of the post-translational modifications of the individual amino acids in lens proteins which were induced by aging and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Noriko; Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Takata, Takumi

    2017-01-01

    The eye lens is a transparent organ that functions to focus light and images on the retina. The transparency and high refraction of the lens are maintained by the function of α-, β- and γ-crystallins. These long-lived proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, which occur gradually during the aging process. Such modifications, which are generated by UV light and oxidative stress, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of age-related cataracts. Here, we irradiated young rat lenses with γ-rays (5-500 Gy) and extracted the water-soluble (WS) and insoluble (WI) protein fractions. The WS and WI lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by one-shot LC-MS/MS to determine the specific sites of oxidation of methionine and tryptophan, deamidation of asparagine and glutamine, and isomerization of aspartyl in rat α- and β-crystallins in the WS and WI fractions. Oxidation and deamidation occurred in several crystallins after irradiation at more than, respectively, 50 Gy and 5 Gy; however, isomerization did not occur in any crystallin even after exposure to 500 Gy of irradiation. The number of oxidation and deamidation sites was much higher in the WI than in the WS fraction. Furthermore, the oxidation and deamidation sites in rat crystallins resemble those reported in crystallins from human age-related cataracts. Thus, this study on post-translational modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to the formation of human age-related cataracts. (author)

  6. Top-down and Middle-down Protein Analysis Reveals that Intact and Clipped Human Histones Differ in Post-translational Modification Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvardovskiy, Andrey; Wrzesinski, Krzysztof; Sidoli, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of histone proteins play a fundamental role in regulation of DNA-templated processes. There is also growing evidence that proteolytic cleavage of histone N-terminal tails, known as histone clipping, influences nucleosome dynamics and functional properties...... hepatocytes and the hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2/C3A when grown in spheroid (3D) culture, but not in a flat (2D) culture. Using tandem mass spectrometry we localized four different clipping sites in H3 and one clipping site in H2B. We show that in spheroid culture clipped H3 proteoforms are mainly...

  7. Functional consequences of piceatannol binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszon, Joanna; Serafin, Eligiusz; Buczkowski, Adam; Michlewska, Sylwia; Bielnicki, Jakub Antoni; Rodacka, Aleksandra

    2018-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is one of the key redox-sensitive proteins whose activity is largely affected by oxidative modifications at its highly reactive cysteine residue in the enzyme's active site (Cys149). Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress may cause, inter alia, the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds leading to accumulation of GAPDH aggregates and ultimately to cell death. Recently these anomalies have been linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel evidences indicate that low molecular compounds may be effective inhibitors potentially preventing the GAPDH translocation to the nucleus, and inhibiting or slowing down its aggregation and oligomerization. Therefore, we decided to establish the ability of naturally occurring compound, piceatannol, to interact with GAPDH and to reveal its effect on functional properties and selected parameters of the dehydrogenase structure. The obtained data revealed that piceatannol binds to GAPDH. The ITC analysis indicated that one molecule of the tetrameric enzyme may bind up to 8 molecules of polyphenol (7.3 ± 0.9). Potential binding sites of piceatannol to the GAPDH molecule were analyzed using the Ligand Fit algorithm. Conducted analysis detected 11 ligand binding positions. We indicated that piceatannol decreases GAPDH activity. Detailed analysis allowed us to presume that this effect is due to piceatannol ability to assemble a covalent binding with nucleophilic cysteine residue (Cys149) which is directly involved in the catalytic reaction. Consequently, our studies strongly indicate that piceatannol would be an exceptional inhibitor thanks to its ability to break the aforementioned pathologic disulfide linkage, and therefore to inhibit GAPDH aggregation. We demonstrated that by binding with GAPDH piceatannol blocks cysteine residue and counteracts its oxidative modifications, that induce oligomerization and GAPDH aggregation.

  8. Functional consequences of piceatannol binding to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Gerszon

    Full Text Available Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH is one of the key redox-sensitive proteins whose activity is largely affected by oxidative modifications at its highly reactive cysteine residue in the enzyme's active site (Cys149. Prolonged exposure to oxidative stress may cause, inter alia, the formation of intermolecular disulfide bonds leading to accumulation of GAPDH aggregates and ultimately to cell death. Recently these anomalies have been linked with the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Novel evidences indicate that low molecular compounds may be effective inhibitors potentially preventing the GAPDH translocation to the nucleus, and inhibiting or slowing down its aggregation and oligomerization. Therefore, we decided to establish the ability of naturally occurring compound, piceatannol, to interact with GAPDH and to reveal its effect on functional properties and selected parameters of the dehydrogenase structure. The obtained data revealed that piceatannol binds to GAPDH. The ITC analysis indicated that one molecule of the tetrameric enzyme may bind up to 8 molecules of polyphenol (7.