WorldWideScience

Sample records for consensus taxonomy based

  1. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Martini, C.; Boumans, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce "rational consensus", that is, "mathematical aggregation", by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  2. Development of a consensus taxonomy of sedentary behaviors (SIT: report of Delphi Round 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Francois Martin Chastin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, sedentary behaviors have emerged as a distinctive behavioral paradigm with deleterious effects on health independent of physical activity. The next phase of research is to establish dose response between sedentary behaviors and health outcomes and improve understanding of context and determinants of these behaviors. Establishing a common taxonomy of these behaviors is a necessary step in this process. AIM: The Sedentary behavior International Taxonomy project was developed to establish a classification of sedentary behaviors by use of a formal consensus process. METHODS: The study follows a Delphi process in three Rounds. A preparatory stage informed the development of terms of reference documents. In Round 1, experts were asked to make statements about the taxonomy; 1 its purpose and use ; 2 the domains, categories or facets that should be consider and include; 3 the structure/architecture to arrange and link these domains and facets. In Round 2 experts will be presented with a draft taxonomy emerging from Round 1 and invited to comment and propose alterations. The taxonomy will then be finalised at the outset of this stage. RESULTS: Results of Round 1 are reported here. There is a general consensus that a taxonomy will help advances in research by facilitating systematic and standardised: 1 investigation and analysis; 2 reporting and communication; 3 data pooling, comparison and meta-analysis; 4 development of measurement tools; 4 data descriptions, leading to higher quality in data querying and facilitate discoveries. There is also a consensus that such a taxonomy should be flexible to accommodate diverse purposes of use, and future advances in the field and yet provide a cross-disciplinary common language. A consensual taxonomy structure emerged with nine primary facets (Purpose, Environment, Posture, Social, Measurement, Associated behavior, Status, Time, Type and the draft structure presented here for

  3. Model-based consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the rational-consensus method is to produce “rational consensus”, that is, “mathematical aggregation”, by weighing the performance of each expert on the basis of his or her knowledge and ability to judge relevant uncertainties. The measurement of the performance of the experts is based on

  4. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIXDORF, D. R.; DRANGSHOLT, M. T.; ETTLIN, D. A.; GAUL, C.; DE LEEUW, R.; SVENSSON, P.; ZAKRZEWSKA, J. M.; DE LAAT, A.; CEUSTERS, W.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. PMID:21848527

  5. Classifying orofacial pains: a new proposal of taxonomy based on ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, D R; Drangsholt, M T; Ettlin, D A; Gaul, C; De Leeuw, R; Svensson, P; Zakrzewska, J M; De Laat, A; Ceusters, W

    2012-03-01

    We propose a new taxonomy model based on ontological principles for disorders that manifest themselves through the symptom of persistent orofacial pain and are commonly seen in clinical practice and difficult to manage. Consensus meeting of eight experts from various geographic areas representing different perspectives (orofacial pain, headache, oral medicine and ontology) as an initial step towards improving the taxonomy. Ontological principles were introduced, reviewed and applied during the consensus building process. Diagnostic criteria for persistent dento-alveolar pain disorder (PDAP) were formulated as an example to be used to model the taxonomical structure of all orofacial pain conditions. These criteria have the advantage of being (i) anatomically defined, (ii) in accordance with other classification systems for the provision of clinical care, (iii) descriptive and succinct, (iv) easy to adapt for applications in varying settings, (v) scalable and (vi) transferable for the description of pain disorders in other orofacial regions of interest. Limitations are that the criteria introduce new terminology, do not have widespread acceptance and have yet to be tested. These results were presented to the greater conference membership and were unanimously accepted. Consensus for the diagnostic criteria of PDAP was established within this working group. This is an initial first step towards developing a coherent taxonomy for orofacial pain disorders, which is needed to improve clinical research and care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. A value-based taxonomy of improvement approaches in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colldén, Christian; Gremyr, Ida; Hellström, Andreas; Sporraeus, Daniella

    2017-06-19

    Purpose The concept of value is becoming increasingly fashionable in healthcare and various improvement approaches (IAs) have been introduced with the aim of increasing value. The purpose of this paper is to construct a taxonomy that supports the management of parallel IAs in healthcare. Design/methodology/approach Based on previous research, this paper proposes a taxonomy that includes the dimensions of view on value and organizational focus; three contemporary IAs - lean, value-based healthcare, and patient-centered care - are related to the taxonomy. An illustrative qualitative case study in the context of psychiatric (psychosis) care is then presented that contains data from 23 interviews and focuses on the value concept, IAs, and the proposed taxonomy. Findings Respondents recognized the dimensions of the proposed taxonomy and indicated its usefulness as support for choosing and combining different IAs into a coherent management model, and for facilitating dialog about IAs. The findings also suggested that the view of value as "health outcomes" is widespread, but healthcare professionals are less likely than managers to also view value as a process. Originality/value The conceptual contribution of this paper is to delineate some important characteristics of IAs in relation to the emerging "value era". It also highlights the coexistence of different IAs in healthcare management practice. A taxonomy is proposed that can help managers choose, adapt, and combine IAs in local management models.

  7. Taxonomy for competency-based dental curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Neira, Roberto J; Beltrán-Aguilar, Eugenio D

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a classification of dental competencies. Interest in dental competencies has grown consistently during the last three decades. However, the dental education literature suggests that the term "competency" is understood and used differently by dental schools around the world. The taxonomic classification of dental competencies we propose follows a systematic approach starting at the highest level of complexity, i.e., the professional profile the teaching institution envisions for its graduates, and following in a decreasing degree of complexity to competency function, task, step, movement, and moment. This taxonomy has proved to be useful for more than thirty years in the Dental School of the Peruvian University Cayetano Heredia. Graduates of this school are successful practitioners, teachers, and researchers in Peru and other countries. The classification proposed here should clarify terms, facilitate curriculum design and learning assessment, stimulate further discussion on the matter, and facilitate communication among the dental education establishment.

  8. Democracy-based consensus in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Massimiliano; Zangrillo, Alberto; Mucchetti, Marta; Nobile, Leda; Landoni, Paolo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Landoni, Giovanni

    2015-04-01

    High-quality evidence and derived guidelines, as typically published in major academic journals, are a major process that shapes physician decision-making worldwide. However, for many aspects of medical practice, there is a lack of High-quality evidence or an overload of somewhat contradictory low-quality information, which makes decision-making a difficult, uncertain, and unpredictable process. When the issues in question are important and evidence limited or controversial, the medical community seeks to establish common ground for "best practice" through consensus conferences and consensus statements or guidelines. Such consensus statements are seen as a useful tool to establish expert agreement, define the boundaries of acceptable practice, provide priorities for the research agenda, and obtain opinions from different countries and healthcare systems. This standard approach, however, can be criticized for being elitist, noninclusive, and poorly representative of the community of clinicians who will have to make decisions about the implementation of such recommendations. Accordingly, the authors propose a new model based on a combination of a local core meeting (detailed review and expert input) followed by a worldwide web-based network assessment (democracy-based consensus). The authors already have applied this approach to develop consensus on all nonsurgical interventions that increase or reduce perioperative mortality in critically ill patients and in those with acute kidney injury. The methodology was based on 5 sequential local and web-based steps. Both a panel of experts and a large number of professionals from all over the world were involved, giving birth to a new type of "democracy-based consensus." This new type of "democracy-based consensus" has the potential to increase grass-root clinician involvement, expand the reach to less-developed countries, provide a more global perspective on proposed interventions, and perhaps more importantly, increase

  9. 43 CFR 46.110 - Incorporating consensus-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incorporating consensus-based management... § 46.110 Incorporating consensus-based management. (a) Consensus-based management incorporates direct... carry out those plans and activities. For the purposes of this Part, consensus-based management involves...

  10. Unpacking the Revised Bloom's Taxonomy: Developing Case-Based Learning Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Mathews Zanda; Lam, Tri Khai; Sriratanaviriyakul, Narumon; Richardson, Joan; Kam, Booi; Lau, Kwok Hung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose the use of case studies in teaching an undergraduate course of Internet for Business in class, based on the revised Bloom's taxonomy. The study provides the empirical evidence about the effect of case-based teaching method integrated the revised Bloom's taxonomy on students' incremental learning,…

  11. Interpersonal lexicon : Structural evidence from two independently constructed verb-based taxonomies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B.

    1999-01-01

    In this study the structure of interpersonal behavior is investigated according to the principles of the so-called psycholexical approach. As bases for this study, we used the data from a taxonomy of interpersonal behavior verbs and a subset of data from a taxonomy of interpersonal tl-nir verbs. The

  12. The ACTTION-American Pain Society Pain Taxonomy (AAPT): an evidence-based and multidimensional approach to classifying chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, Roger B; Bruehl, Stephen; Dworkin, Robert H; Dworkin, Samuel F; Loeser, John D; Turk, Dennis C; Widerstrom-Noga, Eva; Arnold, Lesley; Bennett, Robert; Edwards, Robert R; Freeman, Roy; Gewandter, Jennifer; Hertz, Sharon; Hochberg, Marc; Krane, Elliot; Mantyh, Patrick W; Markman, John; Neogi, Tuhina; Ohrbach, Richard; Paice, Judith A; Porreca, Frank; Rappaport, Bob A; Smith, Shannon M; Smith, Thomas J; Sullivan, Mark D; Verne, G Nicholas; Wasan, Ajay D; Wesselmann, Ursula

    2014-03-01

    Current approaches to classification of chronic pain conditions suffer from the absence of a systematically implemented and evidence-based taxonomy. Moreover, existing diagnostic approaches typically fail to incorporate available knowledge regarding the biopsychosocial mechanisms contributing to pain conditions. To address these gaps, the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) public-private partnership with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the American Pain Society (APS) have joined together to develop an evidence-based chronic pain classification system called the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy. This paper describes the outcome of an ACTTION-APS consensus meeting, at which experts agreed on a structure for this new taxonomy of chronic pain conditions. Several major issues around which discussion revolved are presented and summarized, and the structure of the taxonomy is presented. ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial, and functional consequences; and 5) putative neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms, risk factors, and protective factors. In coming months, expert working groups will apply this taxonomy to clusters of chronic pain conditions, thereby developing a set of diagnostic criteria that have been consistently and systematically implemented across nearly all common chronic pain conditions. It is anticipated that the availability of this evidence-based and mechanistic approach to pain classification will be of substantial benefit to chronic pain research and treatment. The ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy is an evidence-based chronic pain classification system designed to classify chronic pain along the following dimensions: 1) core diagnostic criteria; 2) common features; 3) common medical comorbidities; 4) neurobiological, psychosocial

  13. Toward genetics-based virus taxonomy: comparative analysis of a genetics-based classification and the taxonomy of picornaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Chris; Gorbalenya, Alexander E

    2012-04-01

    Virus taxonomy has received little attention from the research community despite its broad relevance. In an accompanying paper (C. Lauber and A. E. Gorbalenya, J. Virol. 86:3890-3904, 2012), we have introduced a quantitative approach to hierarchically classify viruses of a family using pairwise evolutionary distances (PEDs) as a measure of genetic divergence. When applied to the six most conserved proteins of the Picornaviridae, it clustered 1,234 genome sequences in groups at three hierarchical levels (to which we refer as the "GENETIC classification"). In this study, we compare the GENETIC classification with the expert-based picornavirus taxonomy and outline differences in the underlying frameworks regarding the relation of virus groups and genetic diversity that represent, respectively, the structure and content of a classification. To facilitate the analysis, we introduce two novel diagrams. The first connects the genetic diversity of taxa to both the PED distribution and the phylogeny of picornaviruses. The second depicts a classification and the accommodated genetic diversity in a standardized manner. Generally, we found striking agreement between the two classifications on species and genus taxa. A few disagreements concern the species Human rhinovirus A and Human rhinovirus C and the genus Aphthovirus, which were split in the GENETIC classification. Furthermore, we propose a new supergenus level and universal, level-specific PED thresholds, not reached yet by many taxa. Since the species threshold is approached mostly by taxa with large sampling sizes and those infecting multiple hosts, it may represent an upper limit on divergence, beyond which homologous recombination in the six most conserved genes between two picornaviruses might not give viable progeny.

  14. Microstructure taxonomy based on spatial correlations: Application to microstructure coarsening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast, Tony; Wodo, Olga; Ganapathysubramanian, Baskar; Kalidindi, Surya R.

    2016-01-01

    To build materials knowledge, rigorous description of the material structure and associated tools to explore and exploit information encoded in the structure are needed. These enable recognition, categorization and identification of different classes of microstructure and ultimately enable to link structure with properties of materials. Particular interest lies in the protocols capable of mining the essential information in large microstructure datasets and building robust knowledge systems that can be easily accessed, searched, and shared by the broader materials community. In this paper, we develop a protocol based on automated tools to classify microstructure taxonomies in the context of coarsening behavior which is important for long term stability of materials. Our new concepts for enhanced description of the local microstructure state provide flexibility of description. The mathematical description of microstructure that capture crucial attributes of the material, although central to building materials knowledge, is still elusive. The new description captures important higher order spatial information, but at the same time, allows down sampling if less information is needed. We showcase the classification protocol by studying coarsening of binary polymer blends and classifying steady state structures. We study several microstructure descriptions by changing the microstructure local state order and discretization and critically evaluate their efficacy. Our analysis revealed the superior properties of microstructure representation is based on the first order-gradient of the atomic fraction.

  15. Molecular Phylogenetic: Organism Taxonomy Method Based on Evolution History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.L.P Indi Dharmayanti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic is described as taxonomy classification of an organism based on its evolution history namely its phylogeny and as a part of systematic science that has objective to determine phylogeny of organism according to its characteristic. Phylogenetic analysis from amino acid and protein usually became important area in sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis can be used to follow the rapid change of a species such as virus. The phylogenetic evolution tree is a two dimensional of a species graphic that shows relationship among organisms or particularly among their gene sequences. The sequence separation are referred as taxa (singular taxon that is defined as phylogenetically distinct units on the tree. The tree consists of outer branches or leaves that represents taxa and nodes and branch represent correlation among taxa. When the nucleotide sequence from two different organism are similar, they were inferred to be descended from common ancestor. There were three methods which were used in phylogenetic, namely (1 Maximum parsimony, (2 Distance, and (3 Maximum likehoood. Those methods generally are applied to construct the evolutionary tree or the best tree for determine sequence variation in group. Every method is usually used for different analysis and data.

  16. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Najib M.; Khan, Haris A.; Then, Amy Y-Hui; Ving Ching, Chong; Gaur, Manas

    2017-01-01

    Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO), an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users. PMID:28929028

  17. Fish Ontology framework for taxonomy-based fish recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najib M. Ali

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Life science ontologies play an important role in Semantic Web. Given the diversity in fish species and the associated wealth of information, it is imperative to develop an ontology capable of linking and integrating this information in an automated fashion. As such, we introduce the Fish Ontology (FO, an automated classification architecture of existing fish taxa which provides taxonomic information on unknown fish based on metadata restrictions. It is designed to support knowledge discovery, provide semantic annotation of fish and fisheries resources, data integration, and information retrieval. Automated classification for unknown specimens is a unique feature that currently does not appear to exist in other known ontologies. Examples of automated classification for major groups of fish are demonstrated, showing the inferred information by introducing several restrictions at the species or specimen level. The current version of FO has 1,830 classes, includes widely used fisheries terminology, and models major aspects of fish taxonomy, grouping, and character. With more than 30,000 known fish species globally, the FO will be an indispensable tool for fish scientists and other interested users.

  18. A cyber kill chain based taxonomy of banking Trojans for evolutionary computational intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Kiwia, D; Dehghantanha, A; Choo, K-KR; Slaughter, J

    2017-01-01

    Malware such as banking Trojans are popular with financially-motivated cybercriminals. Detection of banking Trojans remains a challenging task, due to the constant evolution of techniques used to obfuscate and circumvent existing detection and security solutions. Having a malware taxonomy can facilitate the design of mitigation strategies such as those based on evolutionary computational intelligence. Specifically, in this paper, we propose a cyber kill chain based taxonomy of banking Trojans...

  19. Genome-Based Microbial Taxonomy Coming of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, Philip; Skarshewski, Adam; Parks, Donovan H

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing the complete evolutionary history of extant life on our planet will be one of the most fundamental accomplishments of scientific endeavor, akin to the completion of the periodic table, which revolutionized chemistry. The road to this goal is via comparative genomics because genomes are our most comprehensive and objective evolutionary documents. The genomes of plant and animal species have been systematically targeted over the past decade to provide coverage of the tree of life. However, multicellular organisms only emerged in the last 550 million years of more than three billion years of biological evolution and thus comprise a small fraction of total biological diversity. The bulk of biodiversity, both past and present, is microbial. We have only scratched the surface in our understanding of the microbial world, as most microorganisms cannot be readily grown in the laboratory and remain unknown to science. Ground-breaking, culture-independent molecular techniques developed over the past 30 years have opened the door to this so-called microbial dark matter with an accelerating momentum driven by exponential increases in sequencing capacity. We are on the verge of obtaining representative genomes across all life for the first time. However, historical use of morphology, biochemical properties, behavioral traits, and single-marker genes to infer organismal relationships mean that the existing highly incomplete tree is riddled with taxonomic errors. Concerted efforts are now needed to synthesize and integrate the burgeoning genomic data resources into a coherent universal tree of life and genome-based taxonomy. Copyright © 2016 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. An Evidence-based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Dating Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-21

    Advances in technologies including development of smartphone features have contributed to the growth of mobile applications, including dating apps. However, online dating services can be misused. To support law enforcement investigations, a forensic taxonomy that provides a systematic classification of forensic artifacts from Windows Phone 8 (WP8) dating apps is presented in this study. The taxonomy has three categories, namely: Apps Categories, Artifacts Categories, and Data Partition Categories. This taxonomy is built based on the findings from a case study of 28 mobile dating apps, using mobile forensic tools. The dating app taxonomy can be used to inform future studies of dating and related apps, such as those from Android and iOS platforms. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Dynamic taxonomies applied to a web-based relational database for geo-hydrological risk mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, G. M.; Nigrelli, G.; Bosio, A.; Chiarle, M.; Luino, F.

    2012-02-01

    In its 40 years of activity, the Research Institute for Geo-hydrological Protection of the Italian National Research Council has amassed a vast and varied collection of historical documentation on landslides, muddy-debris flows, and floods in northern Italy from 1600 to the present. Since 2008, the archive resources have been maintained through a relational database management system. The database is used for routine study and research purposes as well as for providing support during geo-hydrological emergencies, when data need to be quickly and accurately retrieved. Retrieval speed and accuracy are the main objectives of an implementation based on a dynamic taxonomies model. Dynamic taxonomies are a general knowledge management model for configuring complex, heterogeneous information bases that support exploratory searching. At each stage of the process, the user can explore or browse the database in a guided yet unconstrained way by selecting the alternatives suggested for further refining the search. Dynamic taxonomies have been successfully applied to such diverse and apparently unrelated domains as e-commerce and medical diagnosis. Here, we describe the application of dynamic taxonomies to our database and compare it to traditional relational database query methods. The dynamic taxonomy interface, essentially a point-and-click interface, is considerably faster and less error-prone than traditional form-based query interfaces that require the user to remember and type in the "right" search keywords. Finally, dynamic taxonomy users have confirmed that one of the principal benefits of this approach is the confidence of having considered all the relevant information. Dynamic taxonomies and relational databases work in synergy to provide fast and precise searching: one of the most important factors in timely response to emergencies.

  2. Weighted voting-based consensus clustering for chemical structure databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Faisal; Ahmed, Ali; Shamsir, Mohd Shahir; Salim, Naomie

    2014-06-01

    The cluster-based compound selection is used in the lead identification process of drug discovery and design. Many clustering methods have been used for chemical databases, but there is no clustering method that can obtain the best results under all circumstances. However, little attention has been focused on the use of combination methods for chemical structure clustering, which is known as consensus clustering. Recently, consensus clustering has been used in many areas including bioinformatics, machine learning and information theory. This process can improve the robustness, stability, consistency and novelty of clustering. For chemical databases, different consensus clustering methods have been used including the co-association matrix-based, graph-based, hypergraph-based and voting-based methods. In this paper, a weighted cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (W-CVAA) was developed. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR) benchmark chemical dataset was used in the experiments and represented by the AlogP and ECPF_4 descriptors. The results from the clustering methods were evaluated by the ability of the clustering to separate biologically active molecules in each cluster from inactive ones using different criteria, and the effectiveness of the consensus clustering was compared to that of Ward's method, which is the current standard clustering method in chemoinformatics. This study indicated that weighted voting-based consensus clustering can overcome the limitations of the existing voting-based methods and improve the effectiveness of combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures.

  3. Capacity for DNA-barcode based taxonomy in support of Great Lakes biological monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enumerating organisms collected via nets and sediment grabs is a mainstay of aquatic ecology. Since morphological taxonomy can require considerable resources and expertise, DNA barcode-based identification of mixed-organism samples offers a valuable tool in support of biological...

  4. Towards a Model of School-Based Curriculum Development and Assessment Using the SOLO Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, John

    1989-01-01

    One factor preventing the wider acceptance of school-based curriculum development and assessment is the problem of comparing performances of different students, in different schools. The SOLO taxonomy is used to describe the complexity of learning outcomes in a language that is generally applicable across the curriculum. (Author/MLW)

  5. Psychological Benefits of Leisure Participation: A Taxonomy of Leisure Activities Based on Their Need-Gratifying Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, Howard E. A.; Eldredge, Barbara D.

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a needs-based taxonomy of leisure activities. Study participants (n=3,771) indicated the extent to which leisure activities met different psychological needs. Results support theories that leisure experiences affect individuals' physical and mental health. Provides a taxonomy of 12 leisure activity clusters so as to allow greater…

  6. Failure mode taxonomy for assessing the reliability of Field Programmable Gate Array based Instrumentation and Control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNelles, Phillip; Zeng, Zhao Chang; Renganathan, Guna; Chirila, Marius; Lu, Lixuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The use FPGAs in I&C systems in Nuclear Power Plants is an important issue (IAEA). • OECD-NEA published a failure mode taxonomy for software-based digital I&C systems. • This paper extends the OECD-NEA taxonomy to model FPGA-based systems. • FPGA failure modes, failure effects, uncovering methods are categorized/described. • Provides an example of modelling an FPGA-Based RTS/ESFAS using the FPGA taxonomy. - Abstract: Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are a form of programmable digital hardware configured to perform digital logic functions. This configuration (programming) is performed using Hardware Description Language (HDL), making FPGAs a form of HDL Programmed Device (HPD). In the nuclear field, FPGAs have seen use in upgrades and replacements of obsolete Instrumentation and Control (I&C) systems. This paper expands upon previous work that resulted in extensive FPGA failure mode data, to allow for the application of the OECD-NEA failure modes taxonomy. The OECD-NEA taxonomy presented a method to model digital (software-based) I&C systems, based on the hardware and software failure modes, failure uncovering effects and levels of abstraction, using a Reactor Trip System/Engineering Safety Feature Actuation System (RTS/ESFAS) as an example system. To create the FPGA taxonomy, this paper presents an additional “sub-component” level of abstraction, to demonstrate the effect of the FPGA failure modes and failure categories on an FPGA-based system. The proposed FPGA taxonomy is based on the FPGA failure modes, failure categories, failure effects and uncovering situations. The FPGA taxonomy is applied to the RTS/ESFAS test system, to demonstrate the effects of the anticipated FPGA failure modes on a digital I&C system, and to provide a modelling example for this proposed taxonomy.

  7. TEACHERS PERCEPTIONS OF CLASSROOM PRACTICES BASED ON SOLO TAXONOMY IN SECONDARY SCHOOL SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    P. H. Kusumawathie; Norhisham Mohamad; Ferdous Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual awareness of accounting teachers in their teaching learning process based on SOLO Taxonomy curriculum approach in secondary level schools. Further, the study explored the relationship between the curriculum development inputs and the SOLO based curriculum development process. The curriculum development inputs are teacher effectiveness, school community, school environment and technology availability. Method: Data was collected th...

  8. Consensus Based Nuclear Public-Hearing System Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young Wook Lee; Suk Hoon Kim; Young Ho Cho; Hyun Seok Ko; Dong Hoon Shin; Chang Sun Kang; Joo Hyun Moon

    2006-01-01

    Although the government admit the benefit of construction of a nuclear facility for national electric source, related policy could be developed and carried out only if the public, especially who have some stake on it, recognize the benefit and accept the policy. For public participation, Korea has a system of public-hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean public-hearing system is only a conceptual model. Therefore, some specific system for Korean Public-Hearing should be developed and applied. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, decision making components and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. The criteria weight for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making components, which should be based on the social consensus. On these foundations, a system for aggregation and reflection of the public opinion was proposed. The system named 'CPDM' (Consensus based Participatory Decision Making) has three authority groups for decision making. At first, 'advisory experts group' play a role for the technical assessment and the serve utility value on the criteria for each alternatives. Next, 'participatory deliberation group' play a role for consensus building on the relative-importance (weight) between the criteria by feedback to promote degree of consensus. Lastly including gentlemen of the long robe, 'expert group for decision making' play a role to reflect the utility and weight and make a decision with agreement for performance of it. Also, in this study, a mathematical model for the quantification of the degree of consensus was conceptualized using Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA) aggregation operator and fuzzy similarity theory, which is a comparison concept. Since this model enables influence of each

  9. An Evidence-Based Forensic Taxonomy of Windows Phone Communication Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyani, Niken Dwi Wahyu; Martini, Ben; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Ab Rahman, Nurul Hidayah; Ashman, Helen

    2018-05-01

    Communication apps can be an important source of evidence in a forensic investigation (e.g., in the investigation of a drug trafficking or terrorism case where the communications apps were used by the accused persons during the transactions or planning activities). This study presents the first evidence-based forensic taxonomy of Windows Phone communication apps, using an existing two-dimensional Android forensic taxonomy as a baseline. Specifically, 30 Windows Phone communication apps, including Instant Messaging (IM) and Voice over IP (VoIP) apps, are examined. Artifacts extracted using physical acquisition are analyzed, and seven digital evidence objects of forensic interest are identified, namely: Call Log, Chats, Contacts, Locations, Installed Applications, SMSs and User Accounts. Findings from this study would help to facilitate timely and effective forensic investigations involving Windows Phone communication apps. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. Secondary Coordinated Control of Islanded Microgrids Based on Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2014-01-01

    systems. Nevertheless, the conventional decentralized secondary control, although does not need to be implemented in a microgrid central controller (MGCC), it has the limitation that all decentralized controllers must be mutually synchronized. In a clear cut contrast, the proposed secondary control......This paper proposes a decentralized secondary control for islanded microgrids based on consensus algorithms. In a microgrid, the secondary control is implemented in order to eliminate the frequency changes caused by the primary control when coordinating renewable energy sources and energy storage...... requires only a more simplified communication protocol and a sparse communication network. Moreover, the proposed approach based on dynamic consensus algorithms is able to achieve the coordinated secondary performance even when all units are initially out-of-synchronism. The control algorithm implemented...

  11. Engineering large-scale agent-based systems with consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokma, A.; Slade, A.; Kerridge, S.; Johnson, K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the consensus method for the development of large-scale agent-based systems. Systems can be developed as networks of knowledge based agents (KBA) which engage in a collaborative problem solving effort. The method provides a comprehensive and integrated approach to the development of this type of system. This includes a systematic analysis of user requirements as well as a structured approach to generating a system design which exhibits the desired functionality. There is a direct correspondence between system requirements and design components. The benefits of this approach are that requirements are traceable into design components and code thus facilitating verification. The use of the consensus method with two major test applications showed it to be successful and also provided valuable insight into problems typically associated with the development of large systems.

  12. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another chal- lenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin...

  13. Solida: A Blockchain Protocol Based on Reconfigurable Byzantine Consensus

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Ittai; Malkhi, Dahlia; Nayak, Kartik; Ren, Ling; Spiegelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The decentralized cryptocurrency Bitcoin has experienced great success but also encountered many challenges. One of the challenges has been the long confirmation time. Another challenge is the lack of incentives at certain steps of the protocol, raising concerns for transaction withholding, selfish mining, etc. To address these challenges, we propose Solida, a decentralized blockchain protocol based on reconfigurable Byzantine consensus augmented by proof-of-work. Solida improves on Bitcoin i...

  14. Consensus-based training and assessment model for general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, P; Louridas, M; de Montbrun, S; Harris, K A; Grantcharov, T P

    2016-05-01

    Surgical education is becoming competency-based with the implementation of in-training milestones. Training guidelines should reflect these changes and determine the specific procedures for such milestone assessments. This study aimed to develop a consensus view regarding operative procedures and tasks considered appropriate for junior and senior trainees, and the procedures that can be used as technical milestone assessments for trainee progression in general surgery. A Delphi process was followed where questionnaires were distributed to all 17 Canadian general surgery programme directors. Items were ranked on a 5-point Likert scale, with consensus defined as Cronbach's α of at least 0·70. Items rated 4 or above on the 5-point Likert scale by 80 per cent of the programme directors were included in the models. Two Delphi rounds were completed, with 14 programme directors taking part in round one and 11 in round two. The overall consensus was high (Cronbach's α = 0·98). The training model included 101 unique procedures and tasks, 24 specific to junior trainees, 68 specific to senior trainees, and nine appropriate to all. The assessment model included four procedures. A system of operative procedures and tasks for junior- and senior-level trainees has been developed along with an assessment model for trainee progression. These can be used as milestones in competency-based assessments. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  16. Automated knowledge acquisition for second generation knowledge base systems: A conceptual analysis and taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.E.; Kotnour, T.

    1991-12-31

    In this paper, we present a conceptual analysis of knowledge-base development methodologies. The purpose of this research is to help overcome the high cost and lack of efficiency in developing knowledge base representations for artificial intelligence applications. To accomplish this purpose, we analyzed the available methodologies and developed a knowledge-base development methodology taxonomy. We review manual, machine-aided, and machine-learning methodologies. A set of developed characteristics allows description and comparison among the methodologies. We present the results of this conceptual analysis of methodologies and recommendations for development of more efficient and effective tools.

  17. Evolution of IT Architecture: based on Taxonomy perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suh, Hanjun; van Hillegersberg, Jos

    2013-01-01

    This research aims to explore how latest IT architecture is evolving in real world. We reviewed historical IT structure and classified five IT architecture typology based on various dimensions of IT architectures such as processing decentralization, network connectivity, data and program

  18. Taxonomy-Based Approaches to Quality Assurance of Ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Halper

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ontologies are important components of health information management systems. As such, the quality of their content is of paramount importance. It has been proven to be practical to develop quality assurance (QA methodologies based on automated identification of sets of concepts expected to have higher likelihood of errors. Four kinds of such sets (called QA-sets organized around the themes of complex and uncommonly modeled concepts are introduced. A survey of different methodologies based on these QA-sets and the results of applying them to various ontologies are presented. Overall, following these approaches leads to higher QA yields and better utilization of QA personnel. The formulation of additional QA-set methodologies will further enhance the suite of available ontology QA tools.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Phaeodactylum tricornutum Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_L.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum..._NL.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_S.png Phaeodactylum_tricornutum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricorn...utum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Phaeodactylum+tricornutum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=213 ...

  20. Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Judith K.

    2015-04-18

    Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) are emergent pathogens of crops throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. By virtue of having a small DNA genome that is easily cloned, and due to the recent innovations in cloning and low-cost sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of available begomovirus genome sequences. Even so, most of the available sequences have been obtained from cultivated plants and are likely a small and phylogenetically unrepresentative sample of begomovirus diversity, a factor constraining taxonomic decisions such as the establishment of operationally useful species demarcation criteria. In addition, problems in assigning new viruses to established species have highlighted shortcomings in the previously recommended mechanism of species demarcation. Based on the analysis of 3,123 full-length begomovirus genome (or DNA-A component) sequences available in public databases as of December 2012, a set of revised guidelines for the classification and nomenclature of begomoviruses are proposed. The guidelines primarily consider a) genus-level biological characteristics and b) results obtained using a standardized classification tool, Sequence Demarcation Tool, which performs pairwise sequence alignments and identity calculations. These guidelines are consistent with the recently published recommendations for the genera Mastrevirus and Curtovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Genome-wide pairwise identities of 91 % and 94 % are proposed as the demarcation threshold for begomoviruses belonging to different species and strains, respectively. Procedures and guidelines are outlined for resolving conflicts that may arise when assigning species and strains to categories wherever the pairwise identity falls on or very near the demarcation threshold value.

  1. Revision of Begomovirus taxonomy based on pairwise sequence comparisons

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, Judith K.; Zerbini, F. Murilo; Navas-Castillo, Jesú s; Moriones, Enrique; Ramos-Sobrinho, Roberto; Silva, José C. F.; Fiallo-Olivé , Elvira; Briddon, Rob W.; Herná ndez-Zepeda, Cecilia; Idris, Ali; Malathi, V. G.; Martin, Darren P.; Rivera-Bustamante, Rafael; Ueda, Shigenori; Varsani, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Viruses of the genus Begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) are emergent pathogens of crops throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. By virtue of having a small DNA genome that is easily cloned, and due to the recent innovations in cloning and low-cost sequencing, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of available begomovirus genome sequences. Even so, most of the available sequences have been obtained from cultivated plants and are likely a small and phylogenetically unrepresentative sample of begomovirus diversity, a factor constraining taxonomic decisions such as the establishment of operationally useful species demarcation criteria. In addition, problems in assigning new viruses to established species have highlighted shortcomings in the previously recommended mechanism of species demarcation. Based on the analysis of 3,123 full-length begomovirus genome (or DNA-A component) sequences available in public databases as of December 2012, a set of revised guidelines for the classification and nomenclature of begomoviruses are proposed. The guidelines primarily consider a) genus-level biological characteristics and b) results obtained using a standardized classification tool, Sequence Demarcation Tool, which performs pairwise sequence alignments and identity calculations. These guidelines are consistent with the recently published recommendations for the genera Mastrevirus and Curtovirus of the family Geminiviridae. Genome-wide pairwise identities of 91 % and 94 % are proposed as the demarcation threshold for begomoviruses belonging to different species and strains, respectively. Procedures and guidelines are outlined for resolving conflicts that may arise when assigning species and strains to categories wherever the pairwise identity falls on or very near the demarcation threshold value.

  2. Consensus based Nuclear Public-Hearing system Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Wook; Cho, Young Ho; Shin, Dong Hoon; Ko, Hyun Seok; Kim, Suk Hoon; Kang, Chang Sun

    2006-01-01

    For public participation, Korea has a system of Public-Hearing in accordance with the law. Because of the absence of the detailed way for public opinion aggregation and for the reflection of the aggregated opinion, Korean Public-Hearing system is only a concept model. In this study, to share the right of decision making, which is an ultimate concept for public participation, components of decision making and the characteristics of each phase are analyzed. It could be said that the relative weight of attributes for assessment and comparison with alternatives are founded as a valuation factor of the decision making, which should be based on the social consensus

  3. Consensus based scheduling of storage capacities in a virtual microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We present a distributed, decentralized method for coordinated scheduling of charge/discharge intervals of storage capacities in a utility grid integrated microgrid. The decentralized algorithm is based on a consensus scheme and solves an optimisation problem with the objective of minimising......, by use of storage capacities, the power flow over a transformer substation from/to the utility grid integrated microgrid. It is shown that when using this coordinated scheduling algorithm, load profile flattening (peak-shaving) for the utility grid is achieved. Additionally, mutual charge...

  4. Consensus-based perspectives of pediatric inpatient eating disorder services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Amy; McCormack, Julie; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Watson, Hunna J; Anderson, Rebecca A; Hay, Phillipa; Egan, Sarah J

    2018-03-14

    There are few evidence-based guidelines for inpatient pediatric eating disorders. The aim was to gain perspectives from those providing and receiving inpatient pediatric eating disorder care on the essential components treatment. A modified Delphi technique was used to develop consensus-based opinions. Participants (N = 74) were recruited for three panels: clinicians (n = 24), carers (n = 31), and patients (n = 19), who endorsed three rounds of statements online. A total of 167 statements were rated, 79 were accepted and reached a consensus level of at least 75% across all panels, and 87 were rejected. All agreed that families should be involved in treatment, and thatpsychological therapy be offered in specialist inpatient units. Areas of disagreement included that patients expressed a desire for autonomy in sessions being available without carers, and that weight gain should be gradual and admissions longer, in contrast to carers and clinicians. Carers endorsed that legal frameworks should be used to retain patients if required, and that inpatients are supervised at all times, in contrast to patients and clinicians. Clinicians endorsed that food access should be restricted outside meal times, in contrast to patients and carers. The findings indicate areas of consensus in admission criteria, and that families should be involved in treatment, family involvement in treatment, while there was disagreement across groups on topics including weight goals and nutrition management. Perspectives from patients, carers, and clinicians may be useful to consider during future revisions of best practice guidelines. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Operationalizing value-based pricing of medicines : a taxonomy of approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussex, Jon; Towse, Adrian; Devlin, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    The UK Government is proposing a novel form of price regulation for branded medicines, which it has dubbed 'value-based pricing' (VBP). The specifics of how VBP will work are unclear. We provide an account of the possible means by which VBP of medicines might be operationalized, and a taxonomy to describe and categorize the various approaches. We begin with a brief discussion of the UK Government's proposal for VBP and proceed to define a taxonomy of approaches to VBP. The taxonomy has five main dimensions: (1) what is identified as being of value, (2) how each element is measured, (3) how it is valued, (4) how the different elements of value are aggregated, and (5) how the result is then used to determine the price of a medicine. We take as our starting point that VBP will include a measure of health gain and that, as proposed by the UK Government, this will be built on the QALY. Our principal interest is in the way criteria other than QALYs are taken into account, including severity of illness, the extent of unmet need, and wider societal considerations such as impacts on carers. We set out to: (1) identify and describe the full range of alternative means by which 'value' might be measured and valued, (2) identify and describe the options available for aggregating the different components of value to establish a maximum price, and (3) note the challenges and relative advantages associated with these approaches. We review the means by which aspects of VBP are currently operationalized in a selection of countries and place these, and proposals for the UK, in the context of our taxonomy. Finally, we give an initial assessment of the challenges, pros and cons of each approach. We conclude that identifying where VBP should lie on each of the five dimensions entails value judgements: there are no simple 'right or wrong' solutions. If a wider definition of value than incremental QALYs gained is adopted, as is desirable, then a pragmatic way to aggregate the different

  6. Taxonomies for Reasoning About Cyber-physical Attacks in IoT-based Manufacturing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT has transformed many aspects of modern manufacturing, from design to production to quality control. In particular, IoT and digital manufacturing technologies have substantially accelerated product development- cycles and manufacturers can now create products of a complexity and precision not heretofore possible. New threats to supply chain security have arisen from connecting machines to the Internet and introducing complex IoT-based systems controlling manufacturing processes. By attacking these IoT-based manufacturing systems and tampering with digital files, attackers can manipulate physical characteristics of parts and change the dimensions, shapes, or mechanical properties of the parts, which can result in parts that fail in the field. These defects increase manufacturing costs and allow silent problems to occur only under certain loads that can threaten safety and/or lives. To understand potential dangers and protect manufacturing system safety, this paper presents two taxonomies: one for classifying cyber-physical attacks against manufacturing processes and another for quality control measures for counteracting these attacks. We systematically identify and classify possible cyber-physical attacks and connect the attacks with variations in manufacturing processes and quality control measures. Our taxonomies also provide a scheme for linking emerging IoT-based manufacturing system vulnerabilities to possible attacks and quality control measures.

  7. Consensus-based methodology for detection communities in multilayered networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Majd, Amir-Mohsen; Fathian, Mohammad; Makrehchi, Masoud

    2018-03-01

    Finding groups of network users who are densely related with each other has emerged as an interesting problem in the area of social network analysis. These groups or so-called communities would be hidden behind the behavior of users. Most studies assume that such behavior could be understood by focusing on user interfaces, their behavioral attributes or a combination of these network layers (i.e., interfaces with their attributes). They also assume that all network layers refer to the same behavior. However, in real-life networks, users' behavior in one layer may differ from their behavior in another one. In order to cope with these issues, this article proposes a consensus-based community detection approach (CBC). CBC finds communities among nodes at each layer, in parallel. Then, the results of layers should be aggregated using a consensus clustering method. This means that different behavior could be detected and used in the analysis. As for other significant advantages, the methodology would be able to handle missing values. Three experiments on real-life and computer-generated datasets have been conducted in order to evaluate the performance of CBC. The results indicate superiority and stability of CBC in comparison to other approaches.

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Amborella trichopoda Amborella_trichopoda_L.png Amborella_trichopoda_NL.png Amborella..._trichopoda_S.png Amborella_trichopoda_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+t...richopoda&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/ta...xonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Amborella+trichopoda&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=13 ...

  9. Comparison of case-based and lecture-based learning in dental education using the SOLO taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgüy, Mehmet; Ilgüy, Dilhan; Fişekçioğlu, Erdoğan; Oktay, Inci

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the impact of case-based learning (CBL) and lecture-based learning (LBL) on fourth-year dental students' clinical decision making by using the Structure of Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy. Participants in the study were fourth-year dental students (n=55) in academic year 2012-13 taught in a large-group LBL context and fourth-year dental students (n=54) in academic year 2013-14 taught with the CBL methodology; both took place in the oral diseases course at Yeditepe University Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. All eligible students participated, for a 100 percent response rate. A real case was presented to the students in both groups to assess their clinical decision making on the topic of oral diseases. Their performance was evaluated with the SOLO taxonomy. Student t-test was used for statistical evaluation, and significance was set at the pSOLO taxonomy than students taught with LBL. These findings suggest that an integrated case-based curriculum may be effective in promoting students' deep learning and it holds promise for better integration of clinical cases likely to be encountered during independent practice.

  10. Taxonomy and phylogeny of the genus citrus based on the nuclear ribosomal dna its region sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Y.L.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Citrus (Aurantioideae, Rutaceae) is the sole source of the citrus fruits of commerce showing high economic values. In this study, the taxonomy and phylogeny of Citrus species is evaluated using sequence analysis of the ITS region of nrDNA. This study is based on 26 plants materials belonging to 22 Citrus species having wild, domesticated, and cultivated species. Through DNA alignment of the ITS sequence, ITS1 and ITS2 regions showed relatively high variations of sequence length and nucleotide among these Citrus species. According to previous six-tribe discrimination theory by Swingle and Reece, the grouping in our ITS phylogenetic tree reconstructed by ITS sequences was not related to tribe discrimination but species discrimination. However, the molecular analysis could provide more information on citrus taxonomy. Combined with ITS sequences of other subgenera in then true citrus fruit tree group, the ITS phylogenetic tree indicated subgenera Citrus was monophyletic and nearer to Fortunella, Poncirus, and Clymenia compared to Microcitrus and Eremocitrus. Abundant sequence variations of the ITS region shown in this study would help species identification and tribe differentiation of the genus Citrus. (author)

  11. Selective mutism: a consensus based care pathway of good practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, D V; Fonseca, S; Wintgens, A

    2008-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) now acknowledged as an anxiety condition, tends to be a poorly understood, highly complex and vastly under-recognised clinical entity. Children with SM are a vulnerable group as the condition is not the remit of any one professional group. This inevitably leads to delay in formal diagnosis and management. There is a lack of systematic research on which to base guidelines for management. To develop, agree and validate key principles underlying the management of SM through a consensus process involving international experts, in order to create a local care pathway. A local multi-agency consultation process developed 11 statements, which were felt to be the key principles underpinning a potential care pathway for managing SM. Thirteen recognised experts from North America, Europe and Australia participated in a modified Delphi process involving two rounds using a Likert-scale and free commentary. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were used in the validation or revision of the statements at each stage. Response rates were 100% for Round 1 and 84.6% for Round 2. Despite the differing professional backgrounds and service contexts, by successive revision and/or revalidation of statements, it was possible to arrive at a consensus about key principles relating to early recognition, assessment and intervention. The agreed key principles are presented together with the resulting local care pathway. Through a Delphi process, agreement was reached by a multidisciplinary group of professionals, on key principles that underpin the timely identification, assessment and management of children with SM. These include the potential for staff in school/preschool settings to identify SM and that intervention programmes should generally be based in these settings. Children with SM should receive assessment for possible coexisting disorders, whether developmental, emotional or behavioural and additional specific intervention given for these. Agreement was

  12. Taxonomy of multi-focal nematode image stacks by a CNN based image fusion approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Wang, Xueping; Zhang, Hongzhong

    2018-03-01

    In the biomedical field, digital multi-focal images are very important for documentation and communication of specimen data, because the morphological information for a transparent specimen can be captured in form of a stack of high-quality images. Given biomedical image stacks containing multi-focal images, how to efficiently extract effective features from all layers to classify the image stacks is still an open question. We present to use a deep convolutional neural network (CNN) image fusion based multilinear approach for the taxonomy of multi-focal image stacks. A deep CNN based image fusion technique is used to combine relevant information of multi-focal images within a given image stack into a single image, which is more informative and complete than any single image in the given stack. Besides, multi-focal images within a stack are fused along 3 orthogonal directions, and multiple features extracted from the fused images along different directions are combined by canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Because multi-focal image stacks represent the effect of different factors - texture, shape, different instances within the same class and different classes of objects, we embed the deep CNN based image fusion method within a multilinear framework to propose an image fusion based multilinear classifier. The experimental results on nematode multi-focal image stacks demonstrated that the deep CNN image fusion based multilinear classifier can reach a higher classification rate (95.7%) than that by the previous multilinear based approach (88.7%), even we only use the texture feature instead of the combination of texture and shape features as in the previous work. The proposed deep CNN image fusion based multilinear approach shows great potential in building an automated nematode taxonomy system for nematologists. It is effective to classify multi-focal image stacks. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Guiding Development Based Approach Practicum Vertebrates Taxonomy Scientific Study Program for Students of Biology Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arieska, M.; Syamsurizal, S.; Sumarmin, R.

    2018-04-01

    Students having difficulty in identifying and describing the vertebrate animals as well as less skilled in science process as practical. Increased expertise in scientific skills, one of which is through practical activities using practical guidance based on scientific approach. This study aims to produce practical guidance vertebrate taxonomy for biology education students PGRI STKIP West Sumatra valid. This study uses a model of Plomp development consisting of three phases: the initial investigation, floating or prototype stage, and the stage of assessment. Data collection instruments used in this study is a validation sheet guiding practicum. Data were analyzed descriptively based on data obtained from the field. The result of the development of practical guidance vertebrate taxonomic validity value of 3.22 is obtained with very valid category. Research and development has produced a practical guide based vertebrate taxonomic scientific approach very valid.

  14. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, Abinaya; Caldas, Carlos; van Luenen, Henri; Saghatchian, Mahasti; van Harten, Wim H

    2013-10-29

    It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in translational cancer research; improving the quality and efficiency of the translational cancer research process. This can help build networks of excellent Centres by aiding focused partnerships. In this paper we report on a consensus building exercise that was undertaken to construct an excellence assessment framework for translational cancer research in Europe. We used mixed methods to reach consensus: a systematic review of existing translational research models critically appraised for suitability in performance assessment of Cancer Centres; a survey among European stakeholders (researchers, clinicians, patient representatives and managers) to score a list of potential excellence criteria, a focus group with selected representatives of survey participants to review and rescore the excellence criteria; an expert group meeting to refine the list; an open validation round with stakeholders and a critical review of the emerging framework by an independent body: a committee formed by the European Academy of Cancer Sciences. The resulting excellence assessment framework has 18 criteria categorized in 6 themes. Each criterion has a number of questions/sub-criteria. Stakeholders favoured using qualitative excellence criteria to evaluate the translational research "process" rather than quantitative criteria or judging only the outputs. Examples of criteria include checking if the Centre has mechanisms that can be rated as excellent for: involvement of basic researchers and clinicians in translational research (quality of supervision and incentives provided to clinicians to do a PhD in translational research) and well designed clinical trials based on ground-breaking concepts (innovative

  15. The Evaluation of the Cognitive Learning Process of the Renewed Bloom Taxonomy Using a Web Based Expert System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goksu, Idris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop the Web Based Expert System (WBES) which provides analyses and reports based on the cognitive processes of Renewed Bloom Taxonomy (RBT), and to put forward the impact of the supportive education provided in line with these reports, on the academic achievement and mastery learning state of the students. The study…

  16. Frequency and Nature of Infectious Risk Moments During Acute Care Based on the INFORM Structured Classification Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clack, Lauren; Passerini, Simone; Wolfensberger, Aline; Sax, Hugo; Manser, Tanja

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE In this study, we sought to establish a comprehensive inventory of infectious risk moments (IRMs), defined as seemingly innocuous yet frequently occurring care manipulations potentially resulting in transfer of pathogens to patients. We also aimed to develop and employ an observational taxonomy to quantify the frequency and nature of IRMs in acute-care settings. DESIGN Prospective observational study and establishment of observational taxonomy. SETTING Intensive care unit, general medical ward, and emergency ward of a university-affiliated hospital. PARTICIPANTS Healthcare workers (HCWs) METHODS Exploratory observations were conducted to identify IRMs, which were coded based on the surfaces involved in the transmission pathway to establish a structured taxonomy. Structured observations were performed using this taxonomy to quantify IRMs in all 3 settings. RESULTS Following 129.17 hours of exploratory observations, identified IRMs involved HCW hands, gloves, care devices, mobile objects, and HCW clothing and accessories. A structured taxonomy called INFORM (INFectiOus Risk Moment) was established to classify each IRM according to the source, vector, and endpoint of potential pathogen transfer. We observed 1,138 IRMs during 53.77 hours of structured observations (31.25 active care hours) for an average foundation of 42.8 IRMs per active care hour overall, and average densities of 34.9, 36.8, and 56.3 IRMs in the intensive care, medical, and emergency wards, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Hands and gloves remain among the most important contributors to the transfer of pathogens within the healthcare setting, but medical devices, mobile objects, invasive devices, and HCW clothing and accessories may also contribute to patient colonization and/or infection. The INFORM observational taxonomy and IRM inventory presented may benefit clinical risk assessment, training and education, and future research. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;39:272-279.

  17. Developing syndrome definitions based on consensus and current use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, John N; Baer, Atar; Buckeridge, David L; Cochrane, Dennis; Conway, Michael A; Elkin, Peter; Espino, Jeremy; Gunn, Julia E; Hales, Craig M; Hutwagner, Lori; Keller, Mikaela; Larson, Catherine; Noe, Rebecca; Okhmatovskaia, Anya; Olson, Karen; Paladini, Marc; Scholer, Matthew; Sniegoski, Carol; Thompson, David; Lober, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Standardized surveillance syndromes do not exist but would facilitate sharing data among surveillance systems and comparing the accuracy of existing systems. The objective of this study was to create reference syndrome definitions from a consensus of investigators who currently have or are building syndromic surveillance systems. Design Clinical condition–syndrome pairs were catalogued for 10 surveillance systems across the United States and the representatives of these systems were brought together for a workshop to discuss consensus syndrome definitions. Results Consensus syndrome definitions were generated for the four syndromes monitored by the majority of the 10 participating surveillance systems: Respiratory, gastrointestinal, constitutional, and influenza-like illness (ILI). An important element in coming to consensus quickly was the development of a sensitive and specific definition for respiratory and gastrointestinal syndromes. After the workshop, the definitions were refined and supplemented with keywords and regular expressions, the keywords were mapped to standard vocabularies, and a web ontology language (OWL) ontology was created. Limitations The consensus definitions have not yet been validated through implementation. Conclusion The consensus definitions provide an explicit description of the current state-of-the-art syndromes used in automated surveillance, which can subsequently be systematically evaluated against real data to improve the definitions. The method for creating consensus definitions could be applied to other domains that have diverse existing definitions. PMID:20819870

  18. Lingua franca of personality - Taxonomies and structures based on the psycholexical approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raad, B; Perugini, M; Hrebickova, M; Szarota, P

    Data sets from seven original trait taxonomies from different languages, American English, Dutch, German, Hungarian, Italian, Czech, and Polish, are used for a crosscultural study. The taxonomic procedures, involving culling trait terms from the various lexicons and the construction Of

  19. A Survey on the Taxonomy of Cluster-Based Routing Protocols for Homogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Soroush; Ghafghazi, Hamidreza; Chow, Chee-Onn; Ishii, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed increased interest among researchers in cluster-based protocols for homogeneous networks because of their better scalability and higher energy efficiency than other routing protocols. Given the limited capabilities of sensor nodes in terms of energy resources, processing and communication range, the cluster-based protocols should be compatible with these constraints in either the setup state or steady data transmission state. With focus on these constraints, we classify routing protocols according to their objectives and methods towards addressing the shortcomings of clustering process on each stage of cluster head selection, cluster formation, data aggregation and data communication. We summarize the techniques and methods used in these categories, while the weakness and strength of each protocol is pointed out in details. Furthermore, taxonomy of the protocols in each phase is given to provide a deeper understanding of current clustering approaches. Ultimately based on the existing research, a summary of the issues and solutions of the attributes and characteristics of clustering approaches and some open research areas in cluster-based routing protocols that can be further pursued are provided. PMID:22969350

  20. European Society of Anaesthesiology evidence-based and consensus-based guideline on postoperative delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldecoa, César; Bettelli, Gabriella; Bilotta, Federico

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to present evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium. The cornerstones of the guideline are the preoperative identification and handling of patients at risk, adequate intraoperative care, postoper...

  1. European Society of Anaesthesiology evidence-based and consensus-based guideline on postoperative delirium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aldecoa, César; Bettelli, Gabriella; Bilotta, Federico; Sanders, Robert D.; Audisio, Riccardo; Borozdina, Anastasia; Cherubini, Antonio; Jones, Christina; Kehlet, Henrik; Maclullich, Alasdair; Radtke, Finn; Riese, Florian; Slooter, Arjen J C; Veyckemans, Francis; Kramer, Sylvia; Neuner, Bruno; Weiss, Bjoern; Spies, Claudia D.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to present evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations for the prevention and treatment of postoperative delirium. The cornerstones of the guideline are the preoperative identification and handling of patients at risk, adequate intraoperative care,

  2. International, Expert-Based, Consensus Statement Regarding the Management of Acute Diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, D Peter; Lynch, Noel; Clancy, Cillian; Winter, Desmond C; Myers, Eddie

    2015-09-01

    This Delphi study provides consensus related to many aspects of acute diverticulitis and identifies other areas in need of research. To generate an international, expert-based, consensus statement to address controversies in the management of acute diverticulitis. This study was conducted using the Delphi technique from April 3 through October 21, 2014. A survey website was used and a panel of acute diverticulitis experts was formed via the snowball method. The top 5 acute diverticulitis experts in 5 international geographic regions were identified based on their number of publications related to acute diverticulitis. The Delphi study used 3 rounds of questions, after which the consensus statement was collated. A consensus statement related to the management of acute diverticulitis. Twenty items were selected for inclusion in the consensus statement following 3 rounds of questioning. A clear definition of uncomplicated and complicated diverticulitis is provided. In uncomplicated diverticulitis, consensus was reached regarding appropriate laboratory and radiological evaluation of patients as well as nonsurgical, surgical, and follow-up strategies. A number of important topics, including antibiotic treatment, failed to reach consensus. In addition, consensus was reached regarding many nonsurgical and surgical treatment strategies in complicated diverticulitis. Controversy continues internationally regarding the management of acute diverticulitis. This study demonstrates that there is more nonconsensus among experts than consensus regarding most issues, even in the same region. It also provides insight into the status quo regarding the treatment of acute diverticulitis and provides important direction for future research.

  3. CURRICULUM POLICY MAKERS PERCEPTIONS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT PROCESS BASED ON SOLO TAXONOMY IN SECONDARY LEVEL SCHOOLS IN SRI LANKA

    OpenAIRE

    P. H. Kusumawathie; Norhisham Mohamad; Ferdous Azam

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore the conceptual awareness of curriculum policy makers on curriculum development process based on SOLO Taxonomy curriculum approach in secondary level schools. Further, the study explored the relationship between the curriculum development inputs and the SOLO based curriculum development process. The curriculum development inputs are teacher effectiveness, school community, school environment and technology availability. Method: Data was collecte...

  4. Recurrence of Dupuytren's contracture: A consensus-based definition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester J Kan

    Full Text Available One of the major determinants of Dupyutren disease (DD treatment efficacy is recurrence of the contracture. Unfortunately, lack of agreement in the literature on what constitutes recurrence makes it nearly impossible to compare the multiple treatments alternatives available today. The aim of this study is to bring an unbiased pool of experts to agree upon what would be considered a recurrence of DD after treatment; and from that consensus establish a much-needed definition for DD recurrence.To reach an expert consensus on the definition of recurrence we used the Delphi method and invited 43 Dupuytren's research and treatment experts from 10 countries to participate by answering a series of questionnaire rounds. After each round the answers were analyzed and the experts received a feedback report with another questionnaire round to further hone in of the definition. We defined consensus when at least 70% of the experts agreed on a topic.Twenty-one experts agreed to participate in this study. After four consensus rounds, we agreed that DD recurrence should be defined as "more than 20 degrees of contracture recurrence in any treated joint at one year post-treatment compared to six weeks post-treatment". In addition, "recurrence should be reported individually for every treated joint" and afterwards measurements should be repeated and reported yearly.This study provides the most comprehensive to date definition of what should be considered recurrence of DD. These standardized criteria should allow us to better evaluate the many treatment alternatives.

  5. A Hybrid Distance-Based Ideal-Seeking Consensus Ranking Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madjid Tavana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ordinal consensus ranking problems have received much attention in the management science literature. A problem arises in situations where a group of k decision makers (DMs is asked to rank order n alternatives. The question is how to combine the DM rankings into one consensus ranking. Several different approaches have been suggested to aggregate DM responses into a compromise or consensus ranking; however, the similarity of consensus rankings generated by the different algorithms is largely unknown. In this paper, we propose a new hybrid distance-based ideal-seeking consensus ranking model (DCM. The proposed hybrid model combines parts of the two commonly used consensus ranking techniques of Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985 into an intuitive and computationally simple model. We illustrate our method and then run a Monte Carlo simulation across a range of k and n to compare the similarity of the consensus rankings generated by our method with the best-known method of Borda and Kendall (Kendall 1962 and the two methods proposed by Beck and Lin (1983 and Cook and Kress (1985. DCM and Beck and Lin's method yielded the most similar consensus rankings, whereas the Cook-Kress method and the Borda-Kendall method yielded the least similar consensus rankings.

  6. How to Analyze the Students’ Thinking Levels Based on SOLO Taxonomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, U. H.; Mardiyana, M.; Saputro, D. R. S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine the extent to which the students ‘thinking level based on SOLO taxonomy in geometry learning viewed from students’ self efficacy (SE). This research utilizes descriptive research with qualitative approach. The data was collected by giving SE questionnaires to 32 students of grade VIII Junior High School which were then categorized into three (high, medium, and low). The subjects of the study were taken by one student in each SE category (high, medium, and low) which then given the problem solving test and the result was triangulated by interview. From this research, it is found that students with high SE can achieve uniructural-relational thinking level, subject with medium SE can be reach the level of unistructural-multistructural thinking, and subject with low SE able to reach unistructural-pristructural level. By paying attention to SE in learning, especially in problem solving process, it is expected that the educator can prepare the learning as well as possible so as to obtain optimal learning achievement.

  7. Implementation of a novel taxonomy based on cognitive work analysis in the assessment of safety performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niskanen, Toivo

    2017-12-12

    The aim of this study was to examine how the developed taxonomy of cognitive work analysis (CWA) can be applied in combination with statistical analysis regarding different sociotechnical categories. This study applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Workers (n = 120) and managers (n = 85) in the chemical industry were asked in a questionnaire how different occupational safety and health (OSH) measures were being implemented. The exploration of the qualitative CWA taxonomy consisted of an analysis of the following topics: (a) work domain; (b) control task; (c) strategies; (d) social organization and cooperation; (e) worker competencies. The following hypotheses were supported - activities of the management had positive impacts on the aggregated variables: near-accident investigation and instructions (H 1 ); OSH training (H 2 ); operations, technical processes and safe use of chemicals (H 3 ); use of personal protective equipment (H 4 ); measuring, follow-up and prevention of major accidents (H 5 ). The CWA taxonomy was applied in mixed methods when testing H 1 -H 5 . A special approach is to analyze the work demands of complex sociotechnical systems with the taxonomy of CWA. In problem-solving, the CWA taxonomy should seek to capitalize on the strengths and minimize the limitations of safety performance.

  8. A new consensus measure based on Pearson correlation coefficient

    OpenAIRE

    Chiclana, Francisco; Gonzalez-Arteaga, Teresa; de Andres Calle, Rocio

    2016-01-01

    Obtaining consensual solutions is an important issue in decision making processes. It depends on several factors such as experts’ opinions, principles, knowledge, experience, etc. In the literature we can find a considerable amount of consensus measurement from different research areas (from a Social Choice perspective: Alcalde-Unzu and Vorsatz [1], Alcantud, de Andres Calle and Cascon [2] and Bosch [3], among others and from Decision Making Theory: Gonzalez-Arteaga, Alcantud and ...

  9. Consensus Based Definition of Growth Restriction in the Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beune, Irene M; Bloomfield, Frank H; Ganzevoort, Wessel; Embleton, Nicholas D; Rozance, Paul J; van Wassenaer-Leemhuis, Aleid G; Wynia, Klaske; Gordijn, Sanne J

    2018-05-01

    To develop a consensus definition of growth restriction in the newborn that can be used clinically to identify newborn infants at risk and in research to harmonize reporting and definition in the current absence of a gold standard. An international panel of pediatric leaders in the field of neonatal growth were invited to participate in an electronic Delphi procedure using standardized methods and predefined consensus rules. Responses were fed back at group-level and the list of participants was provided. Nonresponders were excluded from subsequent rounds. In the first round, variables were scored on a 5-point Likert scale; in subsequent rounds, inclusion of variables and cut-offs were determined with a 70% level of agreement. In the final round participants selected the ultimate algorithm. In total, 57 experts participated in the first round; 79% completed the procedure. Consensus was reached on the following definition: birth weight less than the third percentile, or 3 out of the following: birth weight definition for growth restriction in the newborn. This definition recognizes that infants with birth weights 10th percentile can be growth restricted. This definition can be adopted in clinical practice and in clinical trials to better focus on newborns at risk, and is complementary to the previously determined definition of fetal growth restriction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Na; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  11. A refined taxonomy of behaviour change techniques to help people change their physical activity and healthy eating behaviours: the CALO-RE taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Ashford, Stefanie; Sniehotta, Falko F; Dombrowski, Stephan U; Bishop, Alex; French, David P

    2011-11-01

    Current reporting of intervention content in published research articles and protocols is generally poor, with great diversity of terminology, resulting in low replicability. This study aimed to extend the scope and improve the reliability of a 26-item taxonomy of behaviour change techniques developed by Abraham and Michie [Abraham, C. and Michie, S. (2008). A taxonomy of behaviour change techniques used in interventions. Health Psychology, 27(3), 379-387.] in order to optimise the reporting and scientific study of behaviour change interventions. Three UK study centres collaborated in applying this existing taxonomy to two systematic reviews of interventions to increase physical activity and healthy eating. The taxonomy was refined in iterative steps of (1) coding intervention descriptions, and assessing inter-rater reliability, (2) identifying gaps and problems across study centres and (3) refining the labels and definitions based on consensus discussions. Labels and definitions were improved for all techniques, conceptual overlap between categories was resolved, some categories were split and 14 techniques were added, resulting in a 40-item taxonomy. Inter-rater reliability, assessed on 50 published intervention descriptions, was good (kappa = 0.79). This taxonomy can be used to improve the specification of interventions in published reports, thus improving replication, implementation and evidence syntheses. This will strengthen the scientific study of behaviour change and intervention development.

  12. Analysis of difficulties in mathematics problem solving based on revised Bloom’s Taxonomy viewed from high self-efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prismana, R. D. E.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    The ability of solving problem is a part of the mathematic curriculum that is very important. Problem solving prefers the process and strategy that is done by students in solving a problem rather than the result. This learning concept in accordance with the stages on the revised bloom’s taxonomy. The revised Bloom’s Taxonomy has two dimensions, namely the dimension of cognitive process and the dimension of knowledge. Dimension of knowledge has four categories, but this study only restricted on two knowledge, conceptual knowledge and procedural knowledge. Dimensions of cognitive processes are categorized into six kinds, namely remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, evaluating, and creating. Implementation of learning more emphasis on the role of students. Students must have their own belief in completing tasks called self-efficacy. This research is a qualitative research. This research aims to know the site of the students’ difficulty based on revised Bloom’s Taxonomy viewed from high self-efficacy. The results of the study stated the students with high self efficacy have difficulties site. They are evaluating conceptual knowledge, evaluating procedural knowledge, creating conceptual knowledge, and creating procedural knowledge. It could be the consideration of teachers in the teaching, so as to reduce the difficulties of learning in students.

  13. Dynamic Consensus Algorithm based Distributed Voltage Harmonic Compensation in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Tang, Fen; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi

    2015-01-01

    generators can be employed as compensators to enhance the power quality on consumer side. However, conventional centralized control is facing obstacles because of the distributed fashion of generation and consumption. Accordingly, this paper proposes a consensus algorithm based distributed hierarchical...

  14. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Cristiane C.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Souza, Rangel C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera) from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of...

  15. Herbarium-based studies on taxonomy, biogeography and ecology of Psilochilus (Orchidaceae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, A. M.; Jaskuła, R.

    nov, č. 11 (2016), č. článku 2600. ISSN 2167-8359 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Biodiversity * Ecological niche modeling * Neotropic ecozone * New species * Phytogeography * Psilochilus * Species richness * Taxonomy Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.177, year: 2016

  16. Analysis of the ENADE items complexity based on the Revised Bloom Taxonomy: contributions to physics teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo de Castro Costa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The National Student Performance Exam (ENADE is the main component of the National Higher Education Evaluation System (SINAES that deals with the Brazilian Higher Education Degrees. This article deals with 120 (one hundred and twenty objectives and discursive items from four ENADE editions for Teaching Physics Degree, applied in 2005, 2008, 2011 and 2014. We search for the Exam complexity throughout cognitive aspects mobilized to solve each item, according to the Bloom Taxonomy Revised (BTR. The BTR proposes a two-dimensional matrix classification that crosses a knowledge dimension, which means, “what” students must know in order to answer the questions, with the cognitive process involved in the task, reflecting “how” the problem was solved. According the BTR theory, the knowledge has been understood in the dimensions: effective, conceptual, procedure and metacognitive, which deals, respectively with basics terminology knowledge, concepts knowledge, procedure methodology knowledge and reflexive/analytical knowledge. The cognitive process described in verbs at the BTR presents the student´s skills in the resolutions ranked as: to remember, to understand, to apply, to analyze, to evaluate and to create. To classify discursive items, pattern answers were used, and to classify multiple choice items, our resolutions of the questions were used. The items were located at the two-dimensional BTR matrix, which gives us an Exam complexity overview. We observe that only 17 (14% items are in the effective knowledge domain, while 103 (86% items require the conceptual and procedure knowledge domain, which demands higher complexity. We consider these results compatible with the ENADE role as a Higher Brazilian Education quality referential. We intend to update Physics professors throughout Physics Teaching Examination in order to increase their commitment to the Higher Education Evaluation. We also believe that understanding the examination could

  17. Regionalizing Aquatic Ecosystems Based on the River Subbasin Taxonomy Concept and Spatial Clustering Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiahu Zhao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic ecoregions were increasingly used as spatial units for aquatic ecosystem management at the watershed scale. In this paper, the principle of including land area, comprehensiveness and dominance, conjugation and hierarchy were selected as regionalizing principles. Elevation and drainage density were selected as the regionalizing indicators for the delineation of level I aquatic ecoregions, and percent of construction land area, percent of cultivated land area, soil type and slope for the level II. Under the support of GIS technology, the spatial distribution maps of the two indicators for level I and the four indicators for level II aquatic ecoregion delineation were generated from the raster data based on the 1,107 subwatersheds. River subbasin taxonomy concept, two-step spatial clustering analysis approach and manual-assisted method were used to regionalize aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed. Then the Taihu Lake watershed was divided into two level I aquatic ecoregions, including Ecoregion I1 and Ecoregion I2, and five level II aquatic subecoregions, including Subecoregion II11, Subecoregion II12, Subecoregion II21, Subecoregion II22 and Subecoregion II23. Moreover, the characteristics of the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions in the Taihu Lake watershed were summarized, showing that there were significant differences in topography, socio-economic development, water quality and aquatic ecology, etc. The results of quantitative comparison of aquatic life also indicated that the dominant species of fish, benthic density, biomass, dominant species, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Margalef species richness index, Pielou evenness index and ecological dominance showed great spatial variability between the two level I aquatic ecoregions and five level II aquatic subecoregions. It reflected the spatial heterogeneities and the uneven natures of aquatic ecosystems in the Taihu Lake watershed.

  18. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artuñedo, Antonio; Del Toro, Raúl M; Haber, Rodolfo E

    2017-04-26

    Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller ( TLC ) network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  19. Consensus-Based Cooperative Control Based on Pollution Sensing and Traffic Information for Urban Traffic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Artuñedo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays many studies are being conducted to develop solutions for improving the performance of urban traffic networks. One of the main challenges is the necessary cooperation among different entities such as vehicles or infrastructure systems and how to exploit the information available through networks of sensors deployed as infrastructures for smart cities. In this work an algorithm for cooperative control of urban subsystems is proposed to provide a solution for mobility problems in cities. The interconnected traffic lights controller (TLC network adapts traffic lights cycles, based on traffic and air pollution sensory information, in order to improve the performance of urban traffic networks. The presence of air pollution in cities is not only caused by road traffic but there are other pollution sources that contribute to increase or decrease the pollution level. Due to the distributed and heterogeneous nature of the different components involved, a system of systems engineering approach is applied to design a consensus-based control algorithm. The designed control strategy contains a consensus-based component that uses the information shared in the network for reaching a consensus in the state of TLC network components. Discrete event systems specification is applied for modelling and simulation. The proposed solution is assessed by simulation studies with very promising results to deal with simultaneous responses to both pollution levels and traffic flows in urban traffic networks.

  20. Asteroid taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tholen, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The spectral reflectivity of asteroid surfaces over the wavelength range of 0.3 to 1.1 μm can be used to classify these objects onto several broad groups with similar spectral characteristics. The three most recently developed taxonomies group the asteroids into 9, 11 or 14 different classes, depending on the technique used to perform the analysis. The distribution of the taxonomic classes shows that darker and redder objects become more dominant at larger heliocentric distances, while the rare asteroid types are found more frequently among the small objects of the planet-crossing population

  1. Distributed Position-Based Consensus of Second-Order Multiagent Systems With Continuous/Intermittent Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiang; Liu, Fang; Wen, Guanghui; Cao, Jinde; Yang, Xinsong

    2017-04-24

    This paper considers the position-based consensus in a network of agents with double-integrator dynamics and directed topology. Two types of distributed observer algorithms are proposed to solve the consensus problem by utilizing continuous and intermittent position measurements, respectively, where each observer does not interact with any other observers. For the case of continuous communication between network agents, some convergence conditions are derived for reaching consensus in the network with a single constant delay or multiple time-varying delays on the basis of the eigenvalue analysis and the descriptor method. When the network agents can only obtain intermittent position data from local neighbors at discrete time instants, the consensus in the network without time delay or with nonuniform delays is investigated by using the Wirtinger's inequality and the delayed-input approach. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the theoretical analysis.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: honey bee [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available thale cress Arabidopsis thaliana Arabidopsis_thaliana_L.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NL.png Arabidopsis_thal...iana_S.png Arabidopsis_thaliana_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thal...iana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NL http://...biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Arabidopsis+thaliana&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: sorghum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: fission yeast [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: potato [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available potato Solanum tuberosum Solanum_tuberosum_L.png Solanum_tuberosum_NL.png Solanum_tuber...osum_S.png Solanum_tuberosum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Solanum+tuberosum&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus corniculatus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus Lotus corniculatus Lotus_corniculatus_L.png Lotus_corniculatus_NL.png Lotus_corn...iculatus_S.png Lotus_corniculatus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corn...iculatus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+corniculatus&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: barrel medic [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available barrel medic Medicago truncatula Medicago_truncatula_L.png Medicago_truncatula_NL.png Medi...cago_truncatula_S.png Medicago_truncatula_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medi...cago+truncatula&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NL http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Medicago+truncatula&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: fruit fly [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster Arthropoda Drosophila_melanogaster_L.png Drosophila_mela...nogaster_NL.png Drosophila_melanogaster_S.png Drosophila_melanogaster_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/...taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+mela...nogaster&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Drosophila+melanogaster&t=NS ...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Lotus japonicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Lotus japonicus Lotus japonicus Lotus_japonicus_L.png Lotus_japonicus_NL.png Lotus_japonicus_S.png Lotus_jap...onicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=L ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+jap...onicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lotus+japonicus&t=NS ...

  11. Voting-based consensus clustering for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Faisal

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many consensus clustering methods have been successfully used for combining multiple classifiers in many areas such as machine learning, applied statistics, pattern recognition and bioinformatics, few consensus clustering methods have been applied for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures. It is known that any individual clustering method will not always give the best results for all types of applications. So, in this paper, three voting and graph-based consensus clusterings were used for combining multiple clusterings of chemical structures to enhance the ability of separating biologically active molecules from inactive ones in each cluster. Results The cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (CVAA, cluster-based similarity partitioning algorithm (CSPA and hyper-graph partitioning algorithm (HGPA were examined. The F-measure and Quality Partition Index method (QPI were used to evaluate the clusterings and the results were compared to the Ward’s clustering method. The MDL Drug Data Report (MDDR dataset was used for experiments and was represented by two 2D fingerprints, ALOGP and ECFP_4. The performance of voting-based consensus clustering method outperformed the Ward’s method using F-measure and QPI method for both ALOGP and ECFP_4 fingerprints, while the graph-based consensus clustering methods outperformed the Ward’s method only for ALOGP using QPI. The Jaccard and Euclidean distance measures were the methods of choice to generate the ensembles, which give the highest values for both criteria. Conclusions The results of the experiments show that consensus clustering methods can improve the effectiveness of chemical structures clusterings. The cumulative voting-based aggregation algorithm (CVAA was the method of choice among consensus clustering methods.

  12. On Federated and Proof Of Validation Based Consensus Algorithms In Blockchain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambili, K. N.; Sindhu, M.; Sethumadhavan, M.

    2017-08-01

    Almost all real world activities have been digitized and there are various client server architecture based systems in place to handle them. These are all based on trust on third parties. There is an active attempt to successfully implement blockchain based systems which ensures that the IT systems are immutable, double spending is avoided and cryptographic strength is provided to them. A successful implementation of blockchain as backbone of existing information technology systems is bound to eliminate various types of fraud and ensure quicker delivery of the item on trade. To adapt IT systems to blockchain architecture, an efficient consensus algorithm need to be designed. Blockchain based on proof of work first came up as the backbone of cryptocurrency. After this, several other methods with variety of interesting features have come up. In this paper, we conduct a survey on existing attempts to achieve consensus in block chain. A federated consensus method and a proof of validation method are being compared.

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Ratsnake [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Ratsnake Elaphe climacophora Chordata/Vertebrata/Reptilia/etc Elaphe_climacophora_L.png Elaphe_clim...acophora_NL.png Elaphe_climacophora_S.png Elaphe_climacophora_NS.png http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+clima...cophora&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elaphe+climacophora&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=3 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: Trypanosoma brucei [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma brucei Trypanosoma_brucei_L.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NL.png Trypanoso...ma_brucei_S.png Trypanosoma_brucei_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanoso...ma+brucei&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Trypanosoma+brucei&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=121 ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Schistosoma japonicum [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Schistosoma japonicum Schistosoma japonicum Platyhelminthes Schistosoma_japonicum_L.png Schistoso...ma_japonicum_NL.png Schistosoma_japonicum_S.png Schistosoma_japonicum_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistoso...ma+japonicum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Schistosoma+japonicum&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=132 ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Toxoplasma gondii [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma gondii Toxoplasma_gondii_L.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NL.png Toxoplasma..._gondii_S.png Toxoplasma_gondii_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma...+gondii&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplasma+gondii&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Toxoplas...ma+gondii&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=113 ...

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Anopheles stephensi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Anopheles stephensi Anopheles stephensi Arthropoda Anopheles_stephensi_L.png Anopheles_stephen...si_NL.png Anopheles_stephensi_S.png Anopheles_stephensi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_i...con/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&...t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Anopheles+stephensi&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=149 ...

  18. Taxonomy Icon Data: Planaria [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Planaria Dugesia japonica Platyhelminthes Dugesia_japonica_L.png Dugesia_japonica_NL.png Dugesia_jap...onica_S.png Dugesia_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Dugesia+japonica&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=124 ...

  19. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F; Schiffman, E L; Alstergren, P; Anderson, G C; de Leeuw, R; Jensen, R; Michelotti, A; Ohrbach, R; Petersson, A; List, T

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing and further criteria refinement. A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria and the ability to operationalise and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMDs taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalised diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. The expanded TMDs taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalise and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A Taxonomy of Manufacturing Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey G. Miller; Aleda V. Roth

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the development and analysis of a numerical taxonomy of manufacturing strategies. The taxonomy was developed with standard methods of cluster analysis, and is based on the relative importance attached to eleven competitive capabilities defining the manufacturing task of 164 large American manufacturing business units. Three distinct clusters of manufacturing strategy groups were observed. Though there is an industry effect, all three manufacturing strategy types are obser...

  1. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  2. The analysis of probability task completion; Taxonomy of probabilistic thinking-based across gender in elementary school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Dwi Ivayana; Budayasa, I. Ketut; Juniati, Dwi

    2017-08-01

    Formulation of mathematical learning goals now is not only oriented on cognitive product, but also leads to cognitive process, which is probabilistic thinking. Probabilistic thinking is needed by students to make a decision. Elementary school students are required to develop probabilistic thinking as foundation to learn probability at higher level. A framework of probabilistic thinking of students had been developed by using SOLO taxonomy, which consists of prestructural probabilistic thinking, unistructural probabilistic thinking, multistructural probabilistic thinking and relational probabilistic thinking. This study aimed to analyze of probability task completion based on taxonomy of probabilistic thinking. The subjects were two students of fifth grade; boy and girl. Subjects were selected by giving test of mathematical ability and then based on high math ability. Subjects were given probability tasks consisting of sample space, probability of an event and probability comparison. The data analysis consisted of categorization, reduction, interpretation and conclusion. Credibility of data used time triangulation. The results was level of boy's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated multistructural probabilistic thinking, while level of girl's probabilistic thinking in completing probability tasks indicated unistructural probabilistic thinking. The results indicated that level of boy's probabilistic thinking was higher than level of girl's probabilistic thinking. The results could contribute to curriculum developer in developing probability learning goals for elementary school students. Indeed, teachers could teach probability with regarding gender difference.

  3. Machine Learning Consensus Scoring Improves Performance Across Targets in Structure-Based Virtual Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericksen, Spencer S; Wu, Haozhen; Zhang, Huikun; Michael, Lauren A; Newton, Michael A; Hoffmann, F Michael; Wildman, Scott A

    2017-07-24

    In structure-based virtual screening, compound ranking through a consensus of scores from a variety of docking programs or scoring functions, rather than ranking by scores from a single program, provides better predictive performance and reduces target performance variability. Here we compare traditional consensus scoring methods with a novel, unsupervised gradient boosting approach. We also observed increased score variation among active ligands and developed a statistical mixture model consensus score based on combining score means and variances. To evaluate performance, we used the common performance metrics ROCAUC and EF1 on 21 benchmark targets from DUD-E. Traditional consensus methods, such as taking the mean of quantile normalized docking scores, outperformed individual docking methods and are more robust to target variation. The mixture model and gradient boosting provided further improvements over the traditional consensus methods. These methods are readily applicable to new targets in academic research and overcome the potentially poor performance of using a single docking method on a new target.

  4. The “Social Gaze Space”: A Taxonomy for Gaze-Based Communication in Triadic Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathis Jording

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humans substantially rely on non-verbal cues in their communication and interaction with others. The eyes represent a “simultaneous input-output device”: While we observe others and obtain information about their mental states (including feelings, thoughts, and intentions-to-act, our gaze simultaneously provides information about our own attention and inner experiences. This substantiates its pivotal role for the coordination of communication. The communicative and coordinative capacities – and their phylogenetic and ontogenetic impacts – become fully apparent in triadic interactions constituted in its simplest form by two persons and an object. Technological advances have sparked renewed interest in social gaze and provide new methodological approaches. Here we introduce the ‘Social Gaze Space’ as a new conceptual framework for the systematic study of gaze behavior during social information processing. It covers all possible categorical states, namely ‘partner-oriented,’ ‘object-oriented,’ ‘introspective,’ ‘initiating joint attention,’ and ‘responding joint attention.’ Different combinations of these states explain several interpersonal phenomena. We argue that this taxonomy distinguishes the most relevant interactional states along their distinctive features, and will showcase the implications for prominent social gaze phenomena. The taxonomy allows to identify research desiderates that have been neglected so far. We argue for a systematic investigation of these phenomena and discuss some related methodological issues.

  5. Systematics of the grey mullets (Teleostei: Mugiliformes: Mugilidae): molecular phylogenetic evidence challenges two centuries of morphology-based taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, J-D; Shen, K-N; Chen, W-J; Jamandre, B W; Blel, H; Diop, K; Nirchio, M; Garcia de León, F J; Whitfield, A K; Chang, C-W; Borsa, P

    2012-07-01

    The family Mugilidae comprises mainly coastal marine species that are widely distributed in all tropical, subtropical and temperate seas. Mugilid species are generally considered to be ecologically important and they are a major food resource for human populations in certain parts of the world. The taxonomy and systematics of the Mugilidae are still much debated and based primarily on morphological characters. In this study, we provide the first comprehensive molecular systematic account of the Mugilidae using phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide sequence variation at three mitochondrial loci (16S rRNA, cytochrome oxidase I, and cytochrome b) for 257 individuals from 55 currently recognized species. The study covers all 20 mugilid genera currently recognized as being valid. The family comprises seven major lineages that radiated early on from the ancestor to all current forms. All genera that were represented by two species or more, except Cestraeus, turned out to be paraphyletic or polyphyletic. Thus, the present phylogenetic results generally disagree with the current taxonomy at the genus level and imply that the anatomical characters used for the systematics of the Mugilidae may be poorly informative phylogenetically. The present results should provide a sound basis for a taxonomic revision of the mugilid genera. A proportion of the species with large distribution ranges (including Moolgarda seheli, Mugil cephalus and M. curema) appear to consist of cryptic species, thus warranting further taxonomic and genetic work at the infra-generic level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. CVTree3 Web Server for Whole-genome-based and Alignment-free Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Zuo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A faithful phylogeny and an objective taxonomy for prokaryotes should agree with each other and ultimately follow the genome data. With the number of sequenced genomes reaching tens of thousands, both tree inference and detailed comparison with taxonomy are great challenges. We now provide one solution in the latest Release 3.0 of the alignment-free and whole-genome-based web server CVTree3. The server resides in a cluster of 64 cores and is equipped with an interactive, collapsible, and expandable tree display. It is capable of comparing the tree branching order with prokaryotic classification at all taxonomic ranks from domains down to species and strains. CVTree3 allows for inquiry by taxon names and trial on lineage modifications. In addition, it reports a summary of monophyletic and non-monophyletic taxa at all ranks as well as produces print-quality subtree figures. After giving an overview of retrospective verification of the CVTree approach, the power of the new server is described for the mega-classification of prokaryotes and determination of taxonomic placement of some newly-sequenced genomes. A few discrepancies between CVTree and 16S rRNA analyses are also summarized with regard to possible taxonomic revisions. CVTree3 is freely accessible to all users at http://tlife.fudan.edu.cn/cvtree3/ without login requirements.

  7. CVTree3 Web Server for Whole-genome-based and Alignment-free Prokaryotic Phylogeny and Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guanghong; Hao, Bailin

    2015-10-01

    A faithful phylogeny and an objective taxonomy for prokaryotes should agree with each other and ultimately follow the genome data. With the number of sequenced genomes reaching tens of thousands, both tree inference and detailed comparison with taxonomy are great challenges. We now provide one solution in the latest Release 3.0 of the alignment-free and whole-genome-based web server CVTree3. The server resides in a cluster of 64 cores and is equipped with an interactive, collapsible, and expandable tree display. It is capable of comparing the tree branching order with prokaryotic classification at all taxonomic ranks from domains down to species and strains. CVTree3 allows for inquiry by taxon names and trial on lineage modifications. In addition, it reports a summary of monophyletic and non-monophyletic taxa at all ranks as well as produces print-quality subtree figures. After giving an overview of retrospective verification of the CVTree approach, the power of the new server is described for the mega-classification of prokaryotes and determination of taxonomic placement of some newly-sequenced genomes. A few discrepancies between CVTree and 16S rRNA analyses are also summarized with regard to possible taxonomic revisions. CVTree3 is freely accessible to all users at http://tlife.fudan.edu.cn/cvtree3/ without login requirements. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Expert consensus v. evidence-based approaches in the revision of the DSM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Solomon, M

    2016-08-01

    The development of DSM-III through DSM-5 has relied heavily on expert consensus. In this essay, we provide an historical and critical perspective on this process. Over the last 40 years, medicine has struggled to find appropriate methods for summarizing research results and making clinical recommendations. When such recommendations are issued by authorized organizations, they can have widespread influence (i.e. DSM-III and its successors). In the 1970s, expert consensus conferences, led by the NIH, reviewed research about controversial medical issues and successfully disseminated results. However, these consensus conferences struggled with aggregating the complex available evidence. In the 1990s, the rise of evidence-based medicine cast doubt on the reliability of expert consensus. Since then, medicine has increasingly relied on systematic reviews, as developed by the evidence-based medicine movement, and advocated for their early incorporation in expert consensus efforts. With the partial exception of DSM-IV, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of the DSMs, leaving their development out of step with the larger medical field. Like the recommendations made for the NIH consensus conferences, we argue that the DSM process should be modified to require systematic evidence-based reviews before Work Groups make their assessments. Our suggestions - which would require leadership and additional resources to set standards for appropriate evidence hierarchies, carry out systematic reviews, and upgrade the group process - should improve the objectivity of the DSM, increase the validity of its results, and improve the reception of any changes in nosology.

  9. Sparc: a sparsity-based consensus algorithm for long erroneous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxi Ye

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motivation. The third generation sequencing (3GS technology generates long sequences of thousands of bases. However, its current error rates are estimated in the range of 15–40%, significantly higher than those of the prevalent next generation sequencing (NGS technologies (less than 1%. Fundamental bioinformatics tasks such as de novo genome assembly and variant calling require high-quality sequences that need to be extracted from these long but erroneous 3GS sequences. Results. We describe a versatile and efficient linear complexity consensus algorithm Sparc to facilitate de novo genome assembly. Sparc builds a sparse k-mer graph using a collection of sequences from a targeted genomic region. The heaviest path which approximates the most likely genome sequence is searched through a sparsity-induced reweighted graph as the consensus sequence. Sparc supports using NGS and 3GS data together, which leads to significant improvements in both cost efficiency and computational efficiency. Experiments with Sparc show that our algorithm can efficiently provide high-quality consensus sequences using both PacBio and Oxford Nanopore sequencing technologies. With only 30× PacBio data, Sparc can reach a consensus with error rate <0.5%. With the more challenging Oxford Nanopore data, Sparc can also achieve similar error rate when combined with NGS data. Compared with the existing approaches, Sparc calculates the consensus with higher accuracy, and uses approximately 80% less memory and time. Availability. The source code is available for download at https://github.com/yechengxi/Sparc.

  10. Assessing excellence in translational cancer research: a consensus based framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, A.; Caldas, C.; van Luenen, H.; Saghatchian, M.; van Harten, Willem H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It takes several years on average to translate basic research findings into clinical research and eventually deliver patient benefits. An expert-based excellence assessment can help improve this process by: identifying high performing Comprehensive Cancer Centres; best practices in

  11. Distributed Consensus-Based Robust Adaptive Formation Control for Nonholonomic Mobile Robots with Partial Known Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia Peng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the distributed consensus-based robust adaptive formation control for nonholonomic mobile robots with partially known dynamics. Firstly, multirobot formation control problem has been converted into a state consensus problem. Secondly, the practical control strategies, which incorporate the distributed kinematic controllers and the robust adaptive torque controllers, are designed for solving the formation control problem. Thirdly, the specified reference trajectory for the geometric centroid of the formation is assumed as the trajectory of a virtual leader, whose information is available to only a subset of the followers. Finally, numerical results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approaches.

  12. 77 FR 68717 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSH-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; withdrawal. SUMMARY: With this notice, OSHA is withdrawing the proposed rule that...

  13. 77 FR 42988 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Direct final rule; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a... confusion resulting from a drafting error. OSHA published the DFR on June 22, 2012 (77 FR 37587). OSHA also...

  14. 77 FR 43018 - Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    .... OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Construction Standards Based on National Consensus... Health Administration (OSHA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking; correction. SUMMARY: OSHA is correcting a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) with regard to the construction...

  15. 77 FR 68684 - Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ..., 1918, and 1926 [Docket No. OSHA-2011-0184] RIN 1218-AC65 Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Head Protection AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION: Final rule; confirmation of effective date. SUMMARY: OSHA is confirming the effective date of its...

  16. [Observational studies in the era of evidence based medicine: short review on their relevance, taxonomy and designs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this review of the literature, we distinguish between experimental and observational studies, highlighting the importance that the later have gained in the era of evidence-based medicine. We further analyze the value of observational studies in light of experimental studies. We present a taxonomy for observational studies based on units of observation and measurement (cross-sectional or longitudinal). We distinguish between descriptive studies and analytical studies. Then, and given its specificity, we define and present a classification for ecological studies. We define and consider the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional, case control and cohort studies. We analyze the strength of the evidence given by each study design. We finished by examining what should guide the choice of a study design.

  17. A consensus-based dynamics for market volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatelli, Lorenzo; Richmond, Peter

    2004-12-01

    We develop a model of trading orders based on opinion dynamics. The agents may be thought as the share holders of a major mutual fund rather than as direct traders. The balance between their buy and sell orders determines the size of the fund order (volume) and has an impact on prices and indexes. We assume agents interact simultaneously to each other through a Sznajd-like interaction. Their degree of connection is determined by the probability of changing opinion independently of what their neighbours are doing. We assume that such a probability may change randomly, after each transaction, of an amount proportional to the relative difference between the volatility then measured and a benchmark that we assume to be an exponential moving average of the past volume values. We show how this simple model is compatible with some of the main statistical features observed for the asset volumes in financial markets.

  18. Consensus-Based Sorting of Neuronal Spike Waveforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Julien; Mueller, Christian M; Shein-Idelson, Mark; Hemberger, Mike; Laurent, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Optimizing spike-sorting algorithms is difficult because sorted clusters can rarely be checked against independently obtained "ground truth" data. In most spike-sorting algorithms in use today, the optimality of a clustering solution is assessed relative to some assumption on the distribution of the spike shapes associated with a particular single unit (e.g., Gaussianity) and by visual inspection of the clustering solution followed by manual validation. When the spatiotemporal waveforms of spikes from different cells overlap, the decision as to whether two spikes should be assigned to the same source can be quite subjective, if it is not based on reliable quantitative measures. We propose a new approach, whereby spike clusters are identified from the most consensual partition across an ensemble of clustering solutions. Using the variability of the clustering solutions across successive iterations of the same clustering algorithm (template matching based on K-means clusters), we estimate the probability of spikes being clustered together and identify groups of spikes that are not statistically distinguishable from one another. Thus, we identify spikes that are most likely to be clustered together and therefore correspond to consistent spike clusters. This method has the potential advantage that it does not rely on any model of the spike shapes. It also provides estimates of the proportion of misclassified spikes for each of the identified clusters. We tested our algorithm on several datasets for which there exists a ground truth (simultaneous intracellular data), and show that it performs close to the optimum reached by a support vector machine trained on the ground truth. We also show that the estimated rate of misclassification matches the proportion of misclassified spikes measured from the ground truth data.

  19. Taxonomy Icon Data: coelacanth [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Latimeria_chalumnae_L.png Latime...ria_chalumnae_NL.png Latimeria_chalumnae_S.png Latimeria_chalumnae_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.j...p/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeri...a+chalumnae&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalu...mnae&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Latimeria+chalumnae&t=NS ...

  20. Taxonomy Icon Data: mandrill [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available mandrill Mandrillus sphinx Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Mandrillus_sphinx..._L.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NL.png Mandrillus_sphinx_S.png Mandrillus_sphinx_NS.png http://biosci...encedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Mandrillus+sphinx&t=NS ...

  1. Taxonomy Icon Data: sperm whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sperm whale Physeter macrocephalus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Cetacea Physeter_macrocephal...us_L.png Physeter_macrocephalus_NL.png Physeter_macrocephalus_S.png Physeter_macrocephal...us_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physeter+macrocephalus&t=NS ...

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: Oryzias javanicus [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oryzias javanicus Oryzias javanicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Oryzias_javanicus_L.png Oryzias_java...nicus_NL.png Oryzias_javanicus_S.png Oryzias_javanicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javan...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=S ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Oryzias+javanicus&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=77 ...

  3. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic elephant Elephas maximus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Elephas_maxim...us_L.png Elephas_maximus_NL.png Elephas_maximus_S.png Elephas_maximus_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maxim...us&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Elephas+maximus&t=NS ...

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: Asiatic tapir [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Asiatic tapir Tapirus indicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tapirus_indicus_L.png Tapi...rus_indicus_NL.png Tapirus_indicus_S.png Tapirus_indicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+ind...icus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tapirus+indicus&t=NS ...

  5. Taxonomy Icon Data: okapi [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available okapi Okapia johnstoni Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Okapi...a_johnstoni_L.png Okapia_johnstoni_NL.png Okapia_johnstoni_S.png Okapia_johnstoni_NS.png http://bioscienc...edbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapi...a+johnstoni&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnston...i&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Okapia+johnstoni&t=NS ...

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: fathead minnow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Pimephales_promela...s_L.png Pimephales_promelas_NL.png Pimephales_promelas_S.png Pimephales_promelas_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promela...s&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Pimephales+promelas&t=NS ...

  7. Taxonomy Icon Data: giant panda [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_L.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_NL.png Ailuropoda_melanoleuca_S.png Ailuropoda_mela...noleuca_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=L http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NL http://biosciencedb...c.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ailuropoda+melanoleuca&t=NS ...

  8. Taxonomy Icon Data: Guinea baboon [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Guinea baboon Papio papio Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Papio_papio_L.png Papio_papi...o_NL.png Papio_papio_S.png Papio_papio_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papi...o&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papio+papio&t=NS ...

  9. Taxonomy Icon Data: white shark [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available white shark Carcharodon carcharias Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Carcharodon_carcharias_L.png Carcharo...don_carcharias_NL.png Carcharodon_carcharias_S.png Carcharodon_carcharias_NS.png http:/.../biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharo...don+carcharias&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Carcharodon+carcharias&t=NS ...

  10. Leader-Following Consensus Stability of Discrete-Time Linear Multiagent Systems with Observer-Based Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingbing Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the leader-following consensus problem of discrete-time multiagent systems on a directed communication topology. Two types of distributed observer-based consensus protocols are considered to solve such a problem. The observers involved in the proposed protocols include full-order observer and reduced-order observer, which are used to reconstruct the state variables. Two algorithms are provided to construct the consensus protocols, which are based on the modified discrete-time algebraic Riccati equation and Sylvester equation. In light of graph and matrix theory, some consensus conditions are established. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the obtained result.

  11. Coordinated Control for Flywheel Energy Storage Matrix Systems for Wind Farm Based on Charging/Discharging Ratio Consensus Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qian; Song, Y. D.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed algorithm for coordination of flywheel energy storage matrix system (FESMS) cooperated with wind farm. A simple and distributed ratio consensus algorithm is proposed to solve FESMS dispatch problem. The algorithm is based on average consensus for both undirected...... and unbalanced directed graphs. Average consensus is guaranteed in unbalanced digraphs by updating the weight matrix with both its row sums and column sums being 1. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control method....

  12. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrow, Mark J; Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-04-09

    In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner's seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner's 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. Wilson and Jungner's principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles. Ultimately, this review and consensus process provides a

  13. Consolidated principles for screening based on a systematic review and consensus process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagens, Victoria; Chafe, Roger; Sullivan, Terrence; Rabeneck, Linda

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 1968, Wilson and Jungner published 10 principles of screening that often represent the de facto starting point for screening decisions today; 50 years on, are these principles still the right ones? Our objectives were to review published work that presents principles for population-based screening decisions since Wilson and Jungner’s seminal publication, and to conduct a Delphi consensus process to assess the review results. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and modified Delphi consensus process. We searched multiple databases for articles published in English in 1968 or later that were intended to guide population-based screening decisions, described development and modification of principles, and presented principles as a set or list. Identified sets were compared for basic characteristics (e.g., number, categorization), a citation analysis was conducted, and principles were iteratively synthesized and consolidated into categories to assess evolution. Participants in the consensus process assessed the level of agreement with the importance and interpretability of the consolidated screening principles. RESULTS: We identified 41 sets and 367 unique principles. Each unique principle was coded to 12 consolidated decision principles that were further categorized as disease/condition, test/intervention or program/system principles. Program or system issues were the focus of 3 of Wilson and Jungner’s 10 principles, but comprised almost half of all unique principles identified in the review. The 12 consolidated principles were assessed through 2 rounds of the consensus process, leading to specific refinements to improve their relevance and interpretability. No gaps or missing principles were identified. INTERPRETATION: Wilson and Jungner’s principles are remarkably enduring, but increasingly reflect a truncated version of contemporary thinking on screening that does not fully capture subsequent focus on program or system principles

  14. Revisiting the taxonomy of the Rattini tribe: a phylogeny-based delimitation of species boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waengsothorn Surachit

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rodents are recognized as hosts for at least 60 zoonotic diseases and may represent a serious threat for human health. In the context of global environmental changes and increasing mobility of humans and animals, contacts between pathogens and potential animal hosts and vectors are modified, amplifying the risk of disease emergence. An accurate identification of each rodent at a specific level is needed in order to understand their implications in the transmission of diseases. Among the Muridae, the Rattini tribe encompasses 167 species inhabiting South East Asia, a hotspot of both biodiversity and emerging and re-emerging diseases. The region faces growing economical development that affects habitats, biodiversity and health. Rat species have been demonstrated as significant hosts of pathogens but are still difficult to recognize at a specific level using morphological criteria. DNA-barcoding methods appear as accurate tools for rat species identification but their use is hampered by the need of reliable identification of reference specimens. In this study, we explore and highlight the limits of the current taxonomy of the Rattini tribe. Results We used the DNA sequence information itself as the primary information source to establish group membership and estimate putative species boundaries. We sequenced two mitochondrial and one nuclear genes from 122 rat samples to perform phylogenetic reconstructions. The method of Pons and colleagues (2006 that determines, with no prior expectations, the locations of ancestral nodes defining putative species was then applied to our dataset. To give an appropriate name to each cluster recognized as a putative species, we reviewed information from the literature and obtained sequences from a museum holotype specimen following the ancient DNA criteria. Conclusions Using a recently developed methodology, this study succeeds in refining the taxonomy of one of the most difficult groups of

  15. Taxonomies of Educational Objective Domain

    OpenAIRE

    Eman Ghanem Nayef; Nik Rosila Nik Yaacob; Hairul Nizam Ismail

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights an effort to study the educational objective domain taxonomies including Bloom’s taxonomy, Lorin Anderson’s taxonomy, and Wilson’s taxonomy. In this study a comparison among these three taxonomies have been done. Results show that Bloom’s taxonomy is more suitable as an analysis tool to Educational Objective domain.

  16. A new taxonomy of sublinear keyword pattern matching algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleophas, L.G.W.A.; Watson, B.W.; Zwaan, G.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a new taxonomy of sublinear (multiple) keyword pattern matching algorithms. Based on an earlier taxonomy by Watson and Zwaan [WZ96, WZ95], this new taxonomy includes not only suffix-based algorithms related to the Boyer-Moore, Commentz-Walter and Fan-Su algorithms, but

  17. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalhatu Muhammed

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal, long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node’s cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted.

  18. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Dalhatu; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Zareei, Mahdi; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Khan, Anwar

    2018-02-01

    Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal), long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node's cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted.

  19. Game Theory-Based Cooperation for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks: Taxonomy, Review, Research Challenges and Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammed, Dalhatu; Anisi, Mohammad Hossein; Vargas-Rosales, Cesar; Khan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    Exploring and monitoring the underwater world using underwater sensors is drawing a lot of attention these days. In this field cooperation between acoustic sensor nodes has been a critical problem due to the challenging features such as acoustic channel failure (sound signal), long propagation delay of acoustic signal, limited bandwidth and loss of connectivity. There are several proposed methods to improve cooperation between the nodes by incorporating information/game theory in the node’s cooperation. However, there is a need to classify the existing works and demonstrate their performance in addressing the cooperation issue. In this paper, we have conducted a review to investigate various factors affecting cooperation in underwater acoustic sensor networks. We study various cooperation techniques used for underwater acoustic sensor networks from different perspectives, with a concentration on communication reliability, energy consumption, and security and present a taxonomy for underwater cooperation. Moreover, we further review how the game theory can be applied to make the nodes cooperate with each other. We further analyze different cooperative game methods, where their performance on different metrics is compared. Finally, open issues and future research direction in underwater acoustic sensor networks are highlighted. PMID:29389874

  20. Eschar removal by bromelain based enzymatic debridement (Nexobrid®) in burns: An European consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirche, Christoph; Citterio, Antonella; Hoeksema, Henk; Koller, Ján; Lehner, Martina; Martinez, José Ramón; Monstrey, Stan; Murray, Alexandra; Plock, Jan A; Sander, Frank; Schulz, Alexandra; Ziegler, Benjamin; Kneser, Ulrich

    2017-12-01

    Early debridement and/or eschar removal is regarded as a significant step in the treatment of deep partial and full thickness burns. It aims to control wound bioburden and allows early wound closure by conservative treatment or skin grafting. Preservation of viable dermis accompanied by early wound closure, is regarded as a necessary step to reduce scar related complication, e.g. functional limitations and/or unaesthetic scar formation. Aside from the classical techniques of surgical excision as tangential excision for eschar removal, hydro-surgery, maggot therapy, laser, enzymatic debridement have been described as additional techniques in the burn surgeon's armamentarium. It is widely accepted that early eschar removal within 72h improves the outcome of burn wound treatment by reducing bacterial wound colonization, infection and length of hospital stay. In contrast, the right technique for eschar removal is still a matter of debate. There is increasing evidence that enzymatic debridement is a powerful tool to remove eschar in burn wounds, reducing blood loss, the need for autologous skin grafting and the number of wounds requiring surgical excision. In order to assess the role and clinical advantages of enzymatic debridement by a mixture of proteolytic enzymes enriched in Bromelain (Nexobrid ® ) beyond the scope of the literature and in view of users' experience, a European Consensus Meeting was scheduled. The aim was to provide statements for application, based on the mutual experience of applying enzymatic debridement in more than 500 adult and pediatric patients by the consensus panelists. Issues to be addressed were: indications, pain management and anesthesia, timing of application, technique of application, after-intervention care, skin grafting after enzymatic debridement, blood loss, training strategies and learning curve and areas of future research needs. Sixty-eight (68) consensus statements were provided for the use of enzymatic debridement. The

  1. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boulay, Anne Marie; Bare, Jane; Camillis, De Camillo; Döll, Petra; Gassert, Francis; Gerten, Dieter; Humbert, Sebastien; Inaba, Atsushi; Itsubo, Norihiro; Lemoine, Yann; Margni, Manuele; Motoshita, Masaharu; Núñez, Montse; Pastor, A.V.; Ridoutt, Brad; Schencker, Urs; Shirakawa, Naoki; Vionnet, Samuel; Worbe, Sebastien; Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Pfister, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential

  2. Pull-Based Distributed Event-Triggered Consensus for Multiagent Systems With Directed Topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xinlei; Lu, Wenlian; Chen, Tianping

    2017-01-01

    This paper mainly investigates consensus problem with a pull-based event-triggered feedback control. For each agent, the diffusion coupling feedbacks are based on the states of its in-neighbors at its latest triggering time, and the next triggering time of this agent is determined by its in-neighbors' information. The general directed topologies, including irreducible and reducible cases, are investigated. The scenario of distributed continuous communication is considered first. It is proved that if the network topology has a spanning tree, then the event-triggered coupling algorithm can realize the consensus for the multiagent system. Then, the results are extended to discontinuous communication, i.e., self-triggered control, where each agent computes its next triggering time in advance without having to observe the system's states continuously. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is illustrated by a numerical example finally.

  3. 26th Hohenheim Consensus Conference, September 11, 2010 Scientific substantiation of health claims: Evidence-based nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biesalski, H.K.; Aggett, P.J.; Anton, R.; Bernstein, P.S.; Blumberg, J.; Heaney, R.P.; Henry, J.; Nolan, J.M.; Richardson, D.P.; Ommen, B. van; Witkamp, R.F.; Rijkers, G.T.; Zöllner, I.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to define the term evidence based nutrition on the basis of expert discussions and scientific evidence. Methods and procedures: The method used is the established Hohenheim Consensus Conference. The term "Hohenheim Consensus Conference" defines conferences dealing with

  4. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Chatwood

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required.

  5. Approaching Etuaptmumk – introducing a consensus-based mixed method for health services research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwood, Susan; Paulette, Francois; Baker, Ross; Eriksen, Astrid; Hansen, Ketil Lenert; Eriksen, Heidi; Hiratsuka, Vanessa; Lavoie, Josée; Lou, Wendy; Mauro, Ian; Orbinski, James; Pabrum, Nathalie; Retallack, Hanna; Brown, Adalsteinn

    2015-01-01

    With the recognized need for health systems’ improvements in the circumpolar and indigenous context, there has been a call to expand the research agenda across all sectors influencing wellness and to recognize academic and indigenous knowledge through the research process. Despite being recognized as a distinct body of knowledge in international forums and across indigenous groups, examples of methods and theories based on indigenous knowledge are not well documented in academic texts or peer-reviewed literature on health systems. This paper describes the use of a consensus-based, mixed method with indigenous knowledge by an experienced group of researchers and indigenous knowledge holders who collaborated on a study that explored indigenous values underlying health systems stewardship. The method is built on the principles of Etuaptmumk or two-eyed seeing, which aim to respond to and resolve the inherent conflicts between indigenous ways of knowing and the scientific inquiry that informs the evidence base in health care. Mixed methods’ frameworks appear to provide a framing suitable for research questions that require data from indigenous knowledge sources and western knowledge. The nominal consensus method, as a western paradigm, was found to be responsive to embedding of indigenous knowledge and allowed space to express multiple perspectives and reach consensus on the question at hand. Further utilization and critical evaluation of this mixed methodology with indigenous knowledge are required. PMID:26004427

  6. Taxonomies of Educational Technology Uses: Dewey, Chip and Me

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, James A.

    2014-01-01

    In the early 1990s, Chip Bruce created a taxonomy of education technology uses, which the author of the article helped to expand and evaluate. This taxonomy is based on John Dewey's "four impulses of the child": inquiry, construction, communication, and expression. This taxonomy has helped people interested in the uses of…

  7. Assessment and improvement of radiation oncology trainee contouring ability utilizing consensus-based penalty metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, Abhirami; Read, Nancy; D'Souza, David

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and assess the feasibility of utilizing consensus-based penalty metrics for the purpose of critical structure and organ at risk (OAR) contouring quality assurance and improvement. A Delphi study was conducted to obtain consensus on contouring penalty metrics to assess trainee-generated OAR contours. Voxel-based penalty metric equations were used to score regions of discordance between trainee and expert contour sets. The utility of these penalty metric scores for objective feedback on contouring quality was assessed by using cases prepared for weekly radiation oncology radiation oncology trainee treatment planning rounds. In two Delphi rounds, six radiation oncology specialists reached agreement on clinical importance/impact and organ radiosensitivity as the two primary criteria for the creation of the Critical Structure Inter-comparison of Segmentation (CriSIS) penalty functions. Linear/quadratic penalty scoring functions (for over- and under-contouring) with one of four levels of severity (none, low, moderate and high) were assigned for each of 20 OARs in order to generate a CriSIS score when new OAR contours are compared with reference/expert standards. Six cases (central nervous system, head and neck, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, gynaecological and thoracic) then were used to validate 18 OAR metrics through comparison of trainee and expert contour sets using the consensus derived CriSIS functions. For 14 OARs, there was an improvement in CriSIS score post-educational intervention. The use of consensus-based contouring penalty metrics to provide quantitative information for contouring improvement is feasible.

  8. A knowledge-based taxonomy of critical factors for adopting electronic health record systems by physicians: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Víctor H; Martínez-García, Ana I; Pulido, J R G

    2010-10-15

    The health care sector is an area of social and economic interest in several countries; therefore, there have been lots of efforts in the use of electronic health records. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting that these systems have not been adopted as it was expected, and although there are some proposals to support their adoption, the proposed support is not by means of information and communication technology which can provide automatic tools of support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical adoption factors for electronic health records by physicians and to use them as a guide to support their adoption process automatically. This paper presents, based on the PRISMA statement, a systematic literature review in electronic databases with adoption studies of electronic health records published in English. Software applications that manage and process the data in the electronic health record have been considered, i.e.: computerized physician prescription, electronic medical records, and electronic capture of clinical data. Our review was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a taxonomy of the physicians main barriers for adopting electronic health records, that can be addressed by means of information and communication technology; in particular with the information technology roles of the knowledge management processes. Which take us to the question that we want to address in this work: "What are the critical adoption factors of electronic health records that can be supported by information and communication technology?". Reports from eight databases covering electronic health records adoption studies in the medical domain, in particular those focused on physicians, were analyzed. The review identifies two main issues: 1) a knowledge-based classification of critical factors for adopting electronic health records by physicians; and 2) the definition of a base for the design of a conceptual framework for supporting the design of knowledge-based

  9. A knowledge-based taxonomy of critical factors for adopting electronic health record systems by physicians: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-García Ana I

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health care sector is an area of social and economic interest in several countries; therefore, there have been lots of efforts in the use of electronic health records. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting that these systems have not been adopted as it was expected, and although there are some proposals to support their adoption, the proposed support is not by means of information and communication technology which can provide automatic tools of support. The aim of this study is to identify the critical adoption factors for electronic health records by physicians and to use them as a guide to support their adoption process automatically. Methods This paper presents, based on the PRISMA statement, a systematic literature review in electronic databases with adoption studies of electronic health records published in English. Software applications that manage and process the data in the electronic health record have been considered, i.e.: computerized physician prescription, electronic medical records, and electronic capture of clinical data. Our review was conducted with the purpose of obtaining a taxonomy of the physicians main barriers for adopting electronic health records, that can be addressed by means of information and communication technology; in particular with the information technology roles of the knowledge management processes. Which take us to the question that we want to address in this work: "What are the critical adoption factors of electronic health records that can be supported by information and communication technology?". Reports from eight databases covering electronic health records adoption studies in the medical domain, in particular those focused on physicians, were analyzed. Results The review identifies two main issues: 1 a knowledge-based classification of critical factors for adopting electronic health records by physicians; and 2 the definition of a base for the design of a conceptual

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: moss [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available moss Physcomitrella patens subsp. patens. Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_L.png Physcomitrella_patens..._subsp_patens_NL.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens_S.png Physcomitrella_patens_subsp_patens..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t...=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens...%2e&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Physcomitrella+patens+subsp%2e+patens%2e&t

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Arabian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Arabian camel Camelus dromedarius Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_dromedarius_L.png Camelus_dromedarius_NL.png Camelus_dromedarius_S.png Camelus_dromedarius_...NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxo...nomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camel...us+dromedarius&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+dromedarius&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese serow [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese serow Capricornis crispus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Capricorn...is_crispus_L.png Capricornis_crispus_NL.png Capricornis_crispus_S.png Capricornis_crispus..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricorn...is+crispus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Capricornis+crispus&t=NS ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: dog [Taxonomy Icon

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    Full Text Available dog Canis lupus familiaris Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Carnivora Canis_lupus..._familiaris_L.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_NL.png Canis_lupus_familiaris_S.png Canis_lupus_familiari...s_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp.../taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Canis+lupus+familiaris&t=NS ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: llama [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available llama Lama glama Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Lama_glama_L.png Lama_glama_NL.png Lama_glama_S.png Lama_glama..._NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glam...a&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Lama+glama&t=NS ...

  15. Consensus based on learning game theory with a UAV rendezvous application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjie Lin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-agent cooperation problems are becoming more and more attractive in both civilian and military applications. In multi-agent cooperation problems, different network topologies will decide different manners of cooperation between agents. A centralized system will directly control the operation of each agent with information flow from a single centre, while in a distributed system, agents operate separately under certain communication protocols. In this paper, a systematic distributed optimization approach will be established based on a learning game algorithm. The convergence of the algorithm will be proven under the game theory framework. Two typical consensus problems will be analyzed with the proposed algorithm. The contributions of this work are threefold. First, the designed algorithm inherits the properties in learning game theory for problem simplification and proof of convergence. Second, the behaviour of learning endows the algorithm with robustness and autonomy. Third, with the proposed algorithm, the consensus problems will be analyzed from a novel perspective.

  16. Semantic Interoperable Electronic Patient Records: The Unfolding of Consensus based Archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Rune; Wynn, Rolf; Ellingsen, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    This paper is a status report from a large-scale openEHR-based EPR project from the North Norway Regional Health Authority encouraged by the unfolding of a national repository for openEHR archetypes. Clinicians need to engage in, and be responsible for the production of archetypes. The consensus processes have so far been challenged by a low number of active clinicians, a lack of critical specialties to reach consensus, and a cumbersome review process (3 or 4 review rounds) for each archetype. The goal is to have several clinicians from each specialty as a backup if one is hampered to participate. Archetypes and their importance for structured data and sharing of information has to become more visible for the clinicians through more sharpened information practice.

  17. An adaptive critic-based scheme for consensus control of nonlinear multi-agent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Ali; Balakrishnan, S. N.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of decentralised consensus control of a network of heterogeneous nonlinear systems is formulated as an optimal tracking problem and a solution is proposed using an approximate dynamic programming based neurocontroller. The neurocontroller training comprises an initial offline training phase and an online re-optimisation phase to account for the fact that the reference signal subject to tracking is not fully known and available ahead of time, i.e., during the offline training phase. As long as the dynamics of the agents are controllable, and the communication graph has a directed spanning tree, this scheme guarantees the synchronisation/consensus even under switching communication topology and directed communication graph. Finally, an aerospace application is selected for the evaluation of the performance of the method. Simulation results demonstrate the potential of the scheme.

  18. Modeling and Sensitivity Study of Consensus Algorithm-Based Distributed Hierarchical Control for DC Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lexuan; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Roldan Perez, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes a challen......Distributed control methods based on consensus algorithms have become popular in recent years for microgrid (MG) systems. These kinds of algorithms can be applied to share information in order to coordinate multiple distributed generators within a MG. However, stability analysis becomes...... in the communication network, continuous-time methods can be inaccurate for this kind of dynamic study. Therefore, this paper aims at modeling a complete DC MG using a discrete-time approach in order to perform a sensitivity analysis taking into account the effects of the consensus algorithm. To this end......, a generalized modeling method is proposed and the influence of key control parameters, the communication topology and the communication speed are studied in detail. The theoretical results obtained with the proposed model are verified by comparing them with the results obtained with a detailed switching...

  19. Operationalising emergency care delivery in sub-Saharan Africa: consensus-based recommendations for healthcare facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvello, Emilie J B; Tenner, Andrea G; Broccoli, Morgan C; Skog, Alexander P; Muck, Andrew E; Tupesis, Janis P; Brysiewicz, Petra; Teklu, Sisay; Wallis, Lee; Reynolds, Teri

    2016-08-01

    A major barrier to successful integration of acute care into health systems is the lack of consensus on the essential components of emergency care within resource-limited environments. The 2013 African Federation of Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference was convened to address the growing need for practical solutions to further implementation of emergency care in sub-Saharan Africa. Over 40 participants from 15 countries participated in the working group that focused on emergency care delivery at health facilities. Using the well-established approach developed in the WHO's Monitoring Emergency Obstetric Care, the workgroup identified the essential services delivered-signal functions-associated with each emergency care sentinel condition. Levels of emergency care were assigned based on the expected capacity of the facility to perform signal functions, and the necessary human, equipment and infrastructure resources identified. These consensus-based recommendations provide the foundation for objective facility capacity assessment in developing emergency health systems that can bolster strategic planning as well as facilitate monitoring and evaluation of service delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. CT features of vasculitides based on the 2012 international chapel hill consensus conference revised classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Jee Hye; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Hae Young; Kim, Jeong Jae; Lee, Kyung Won; Kwang, Hyon Joo; Yoo, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    Vasculitis, characterized by inflammation of vessel walls, is comprised of heterogeneous clinicopathological entities, and thus poses a diagnostic challenge. The most widely used approach for classifying vasculitides is based on the International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC) nomenclature system. Based on the recently revised CHCC 2012, we propose computed tomography (CT) features of vasculitides and a differential diagnosis based on location and morphological characteristics. Finally, vasculitis mimics should be differentiated, because erroneous application of immunosuppressive drugs on vasculitis mimics may be ineffective, even deteriorating. This article presents the utility of CT in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vasculitides

  1. CT features of vasculitides based on the 2012 international chapel hill consensus conference revised classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Jee Hye; Chun, Eun Ju; Kim, Hae Young; Kim, Jeong Jae; Lee, Kyung Won [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Kwang, Hyon Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Vasculitis, characterized by inflammation of vessel walls, is comprised of heterogeneous clinicopathological entities, and thus poses a diagnostic challenge. The most widely used approach for classifying vasculitides is based on the International Chapel Hill Consensus Conference (CHCC) nomenclature system. Based on the recently revised CHCC 2012, we propose computed tomography (CT) features of vasculitides and a differential diagnosis based on location and morphological characteristics. Finally, vasculitis mimics should be differentiated, because erroneous application of immunosuppressive drugs on vasculitis mimics may be ineffective, even deteriorating. This article presents the utility of CT in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of vasculitides.

  2. Linking payment to health outcomes: a taxonomy and examination of performance-based reimbursement schemes between healthcare payers and manufacturers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Josh J; Sullivan, Sean D; Garrison, Louis P; Neumann, Peter J; Veenstra, David L

    2010-08-01

    To identify, categorize and examine performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes for medical technology. We performed a review of performance-based health outcomes reimbursement schemes over the past 10 years (7/98-010/09) using publicly available databases, web and grey literature searches, and input from healthcare reimbursement experts. We developed a taxonomy of scheme types by inductively organizing the schemes identified according to the timing, execution, and health outcomes measured in the schemes. Our search yielded 34 coverage with evidence development schemes, 10 conditional treatment continuation schemes, and 14 performance-linked reimbursement schemes. The majority of schemes are in Europe and Australia, with an increasing number in Canada and the U.S. These schemes have the potential to alter the reimbursement and pricing landscape for medical technology, but significant challenges, including high transaction costs and insufficient information systems, may limit their long-term impact. Future studies regarding experiences and outcomes of implemented schemes are necessary. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Why Consensus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Polletta

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Activists have long justified their egalitarian organizational forms in prefigurative terms. Making decisions by consensus, decentralizing organization, and rotating leadership serves to model the radically democratic society that activists hope to bring into being. Our comparison of consensus-based decision-making in three historical periods, however, shows that activists have understood the purposes of prefiguration in very different ways. Whereas radical pacifists in the 1940s saw their cooperative organizations as sustaining movement stalwarts in a period of political repression, new left activists in the 1960s imagined that their radically democratic practices would be adopted by ever-widening circles. Along with the political conditions in which they have operated, activists’ distinctive understandings of equality have also shaped the way they have made decisions. Our interviews with 30 leftist activists today reveal a view of decision-making as a place to work through inequalities that are informal, unacknowledged, and pervasive.

  4. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liliawati, W; Utama, J A; Fauziah, H

    2016-01-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing and understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting and applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling. (paper)

  5. Susan Loucks-Horsley learning model in light pollution theme: based on a new taxonomy for science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liliawati, W.; Utama, J. A.; Fauziah, H.

    2016-08-01

    The curriculum in Indonesia recommended that science teachers in the elementary and intermediate schools should have interdisciplinary ability in science. However, integrated learning still has not been implemented optimally. This research is designing and applying integrated learning with Susan Loucks-Horsley model in light pollution theme. It can be showed how the student's achievements based on new taxonomy of science education with five domains: knowing & understanding, science process skill, creativity, attitudinal and connecting & applying. This research use mixed methods with concurrent embedded design. The subject is grade 8 of junior high school students in Bandung as many as 27 students. The Instrument have been employed has 28 questions test mastery of concepts, observations sheet and moral dilemma test. The result shows that integrated learning with model Susan Loucks-Horsley is able to increase student's achievement and positive characters on light pollution theme. As the results are the average normalized gain of knowing and understanding domain reach in lower category, the average percentage of science process skill domain reach in good category, the average percentage of creativity and connecting domain reach respectively in good category and attitudinal domain the average percentage is over 75% in moral knowing and moral feeling.

  6. GEM Building Taxonomy (Version 2.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzev, S.; Scawthorn, C.; Charleson, A.W.; Allen, L.; Greene, M.; Jaiswal, Kishor; Silva, V.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the development and applications of the Building Taxonomy for the Global Earthquake Model (GEM). The purpose of the GEM Building Taxonomy is to describe and classify buildings in a uniform manner as a key step towards assessing their seismic risk, Criteria for development of the GEM Building Taxonomy were that the Taxonomy be relevant to seismic performance of different construction types; be comprehensive yet simple; be collapsible; adhere to principles that are familiar to the range of users; and ultimately be extensible to non-buildings and other hazards. The taxonomy was developed in conjunction with other GEM researchers and builds on the knowledge base from other taxonomies, including the EERI and IAEE World Housing Encyclopedia, PAGER-STR, and HAZUS. The taxonomy is organized as a series of expandable tables, which contain information pertaining to various building attributes. Each attribute describes a specific characteristic of an individual building or a class of buildings that could potentially affect their seismic performance. The following 13 attributes have been included in the GEM Building Taxonomy Version 2.0 (v2.0): 1.) direction, 2.)material of the lateral load-resisting system, 3.) lateral load-resisting system, 4.) height, 5.) date of construction of retrofit, 6.) occupancy, 7.) building position within a block, 8.) shape of the building plan, 9.) structural irregularity, 10.) exterior walls, 11.) roof, 12.) floor, 13.) foundation system. The report illustrates the pratical use of the GEM Building Taxonomy by discussing example case studies, in which the building-specific characteristics are mapped directly using GEM taxonomic attributes and the corresponding taxonomic string is constructed for that building, with "/" slash marks separating attributes. For example, for the building shown to the right, the GEM Taxonomy string is: DX1/MUR+CLBRS+MOCL2/LWAL3/

  7. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many water quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi Criteria Decision Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes are considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts are taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. All calculations are carried out by using the expertise software called Group Fuzzy Decision Making (GFDM. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, are related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that is drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks are consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement from the decision making group. This study indicates that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and

  8. Extending a Consensus-based Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average (FOWA Model in New Water Quality Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Baghapour

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In developing a specific WQI (Water Quality Index, many quality parameters are involved with different levels of importance. The impact of experts’ different opinions and viewpoints, current risks affecting their opinions, and plurality of the involved parameters double the significance of the issue. Hence, the current study tries to apply a consensus-based FOWA (Fuzzy Ordered Weighting Average model as one of the most powerful and well-known Multi-Criteria Decision- Making (MCDM techniques to determine the importance of the used parameters in the development of such WQIs which is shown with an example. This operator has provided the capability of modeling the risks in decision-making through applying the optimistic degree of stakeholders and their power coupled with the use of fuzzy numbers. Totally, 22 water quality parameters for drinking purposes were considered in this study. To determine the weight of each parameter, the viewpoints of 4 decision-making groups of experts were taken into account. After determining the final weights, to validate the use of each parameter in a potential WQI, consensus degrees of both the decision makers and the parameters are calculated. The highest and the lowest weight values, 0.999 and 0.073 respectively, were related to Hg and temperature. Regarding the type of consumption that was drinking, the parameters’ weights and ranks were consistent with their health impacts. Moreover, the decision makers’ highest and lowest consensus degrees were 0.9905 and 0.9669, respectively. Among the water quality parameters, temperature (with consensus degree of 0.9972 and Pb (with consensus degree of 0.9665, received the highest and lowest agreement with the decision-making group. This study indicated that the weight of parameters in determining water quality largely depends on the experts’ opinions and approaches. Moreover, using the FOWA model provides results accurate and closer- to-reality on the significance of

  9. Evidence- and consensus-based practice guidelines for the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fass, R; Longstreth, G F; Pimentel, M; Fullerton, S; Russak, S M; Chiou, C F; Reyes, E; Crane, P; Eisen, G; McCarberg, B; Ofman, J

    2001-09-24

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) presents a significant diagnostic and management challenge for primary care practitioners. Improving the accuracy and timeliness of diagnosis may result in improved quality and efficiency of care. To systematically appraise the existing diagnostic criteria and combine the evidence with expert opinion to derive evidence- and consensus-based guidelines for a diagnostic approach to patients with suspected IBS. We performed a systematic literature review (January 1966-April 2000) of computerized bibliographic databases. Articles meeting explicit inclusion criteria for diagnostic studies in IBS were subjected to critical appraisal, which formed the basis of guideline statements presented to an expert panel. To develop a diagnostic algorithm, an expert panel of specialists and primary care physicians was used to fill in gaps in the literature. Consensus was developed using a modified Delphi technique. The systematic literature review identified only 13 published studies regarding the effectiveness of competing diagnostic approaches for IBS, the accuracy of diagnostic tests, and the internal validity of current diagnostic symptom criteria. Few studies met accepted methodological criteria. While symptom criteria have been validated, the utility of endoscopic and other diagnostic interventions remains unknown. An analysis of the literature, combined with consensus from experienced clinicians, resulted in the development of a diagnostic algorithm relevant to primary care that emphasizes a symptom-based diagnostic approach, refers patients with alarm symptoms to subspecialists, and reserves radiographic, endoscopic, and other tests for referral cases. The resulting algorithm highlights the reliance on symptom criteria and comprises a primary module, 3 submodules based on the predominant symptom pattern (constipation, diarrhea, and pain) and severity level, and a subspecialist referral module. The dearth of available evidence highlights the need

  10. Developing consensus-based policy solutions for medicines adherence for Europe: a delphi study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to prescribed medication is a pervasive problem that can incur serious effects on patients’ health outcomes and well-being, and the availability of resources in healthcare systems. This study aimed to develop practical consensus-based policy solutions to address medicines non-adherence for Europe. Methods A four-round Delphi study was conducted. The Delphi Expert Panel comprised 50 participants from 14 countries and was representative of: patient/carers organisations; healthcare providers and professionals; commissioners and policy makers; academics; and industry representatives. Participants engaged in the study remotely, anonymously and electronically. Participants were invited to respond to open questions about the causes, consequences and solutions to medicines non-adherence. Subsequent rounds refined responses, and sought ratings of the relative importance, and operational and political feasibility of each potential solution to medicines non-adherence. Feedback of individual and group responses was provided to participants after each round. Members of the Delphi Expert Panel and members of the research group participated in a consensus meeting upon completion of the Delphi study to discuss and further refine the proposed policy solutions. Results 43 separate policy solutions to medication non-adherence were agreed by the Panel. 25 policy solutions were prioritised based on composite scores for importance, and operational and political feasibility. Prioritised policy solutions focused on interventions for patients, training for healthcare professionals, and actions to support partnership between patients and healthcare professionals. Few solutions concerned actions by governments, healthcare commissioners, or interventions at the system level. Conclusions Consensus about practical actions necessary to address non-adherence to medicines has been developed for Europe. These actions are also applicable to other regions. Prioritised

  11. EPA's Information Architecture and Web Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's Information Architecture creates a topical organization of our website, instead of an ownership-based organization. The EPA Web Taxonomy allows audiences easy access to relevant information from EPA programs, by using a common vocabulary.

  12. Genomic taxonomy of vibrios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iida Tetsuya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vibrio taxonomy has been based on a polyphasic approach. In this study, we retrieve useful taxonomic information (i.e. data that can be used to distinguish different taxonomic levels, such as species and genera from 32 genome sequences of different vibrio species. We use a variety of tools to explore the taxonomic relationship between the sequenced genomes, including Multilocus Sequence Analysis (MLSA, supertrees, Average Amino Acid Identity (AAI, genomic signatures, and Genome BLAST atlases. Our aim is to analyse the usefulness of these tools for species identification in vibrios. Results We have generated four new genome sequences of three Vibrio species, i.e., V. alginolyticus 40B, V. harveyi-like 1DA3, and V. mimicus strains VM573 and VM603, and present a broad analyses of these genomes along with other sequenced Vibrio species. The genome atlas and pangenome plots provide a tantalizing image of the genomic differences that occur between closely related sister species, e.g. V. cholerae and V. mimicus. The vibrio pangenome contains around 26504 genes. The V. cholerae core genome and pangenome consist of 1520 and 6923 genes, respectively. Pangenomes might allow different strains of V. cholerae to occupy different niches. MLSA and supertree analyses resulted in a similar phylogenetic picture, with a clear distinction of four groups (Vibrio core group, V. cholerae-V. mimicus, Aliivibrio spp., and Photobacterium spp.. A Vibrio species is defined as a group of strains that share > 95% DNA identity in MLSA and supertree analysis, > 96% AAI, ≤ 10 genome signature dissimilarity, and > 61% proteome identity. Strains of the same species and species of the same genus will form monophyletic groups on the basis of MLSA and supertree. Conclusion The combination of different analytical and bioinformatics tools will enable the most accurate species identification through genomic computational analysis. This endeavour will culminate in

  13. Empirically based assessment and taxonomy of psychopathology for ages 1½-90+ years: Developmental, multi-informant, and multicultural findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y; Rescorla, Leslie A

    2017-11-01

    Originating in the 1960s, the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) comprises a family of instruments for assessing problems and strengths for ages 1½-90+ years. To provide an overview of the ASEBA, related research, and future directions for empirically based assessment and taxonomy. Standardized, multi-informant ratings of transdiagnostic dimensions of behavioral, emotional, social, and thought problems are hierarchically scored on narrow-spectrum syndrome scales, broad-spectrum internalizing and externalizing scales, and a total problems (general psychopathology) scale. DSM-oriented and strengths scales are also scored. The instruments and scales have been iteratively developed from assessments of clinical and population samples of hundreds of thousands of individuals. Items, instruments, scales, and norms are tailored to different kinds of informants for ages 1½-5, 6-18, 18-59, and 60-90+ years. To take account of differences between informants' ratings, parallel instruments are completed by parents, teachers, youths, adult probands, and adult collaterals. Syndromes and Internalizing/Externalizing scales derived from factor analyses of each instrument capture variations in patterns of problems that reflect different informants' perspectives. Confirmatory factor analyses have supported the syndrome structures in dozens of societies. Software displays scale scores in relation to user-selected multicultural norms for the age and gender of the person being assessed, according to ratings by each type of informant. Multicultural norms are derived from population samples in 57 societies on every inhabited continent. Ongoing and future research includes multicultural assessment of elders; advancing transdiagnostic progress and outcomes assessment; and testing higher order structures of psychopathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Let's go beyond taxonomy in diet description: testing a trait-based approach to prey-predator relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Jérôme; Ridoux, Vincent; Brind'Amour, Anik

    2014-09-01

    Understanding 'Why a prey is a prey for a given predator?' can be facilitated through trait-based approaches that identify linkages between prey and predator morphological and ecological characteristics and highlight key functions involved in prey selection. Enhanced understanding of the functional relationships between predators and their prey is now essential to go beyond the traditional taxonomic framework of dietary studies and to improve our knowledge of ecosystem functioning for wildlife conservation and management. We test the relevance of a three-matrix approach in foraging ecology among a marine mammal community in the northeast Atlantic to identify the key functional traits shaping prey selection processes regardless of the taxonomy of both the predators and prey. Our study reveals that prey found in the diet of marine mammals possess functional traits which are directly and significantly linked to predator characteristics, allowing the establishment of a functional typology of marine mammal-prey relationships. We found prey selection of marine mammals was primarily shaped by physiological and morphological traits of both predators and prey, confirming that energetic costs of foraging strategies and muscular performance are major drivers of prey selection in marine mammals. We demonstrate that trait-based approaches can provide a new definition of the resource needs of predators. This framework can be used to anticipate bottom-up effects on marine predator population dynamics and to identify predators which are sensitive to the loss of key prey functional traits when prey availability is reduced. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2014 British Ecological Society.

  15. Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

    2014-07-01

    In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Herbarium-based studies on taxonomy, biogeography and ecology of Psilochilus (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolanowska, Marta; Naczk, Aleksandra M; Jaskuła, Radomir

    2016-01-01

    Psilochilus is a poorly studied orchid genus distributed from southern Mexico to south-eastern Brazil. A taxonomic revision of this Neotropical endemic based on morphological data is presented. Over 170 dried herbarium specimens and flowers preserved in liquid of Psilochilus were analyzed. Morphological variation among examined taxa was described based on multivariate analysis. To evaluate the similarity between niches occupied by various Psilochilus species ecological niche modeling (ENM) was applied. Species richness and the distribution patterns of Psilochilus representatives were analyzed based on squares of 5° latitude and longitude while similarities among floras between biogeographical units were measured using the Bray-Curtis index for presence/absence data. A new species of the P. physurifolius -complex is described based on Central American material. Psilochilus crenatifolius is reduced to the rank of variety as P. macrophyllus var. crenatifolius . A key to 18 accepted Psilochilus species is provided. The illustrations of perianth segments of all recognized taxa are presented. The climatic niches preferred by the particular Psilochilus representatives are well separated based on ecological niche modeling analysis. Their distribution is limited mainly by the isothermality and temperature seasonality. The highest Psilochilus species richness is observed in the North Andean, Panamanian, Brazilian Planalto and Central American biogeographical provinces. A high level of endemism is observed in all those regions as well as Yungas biogeographical province. Most Psilochilus species occur in areas above 800 m of elevation. The populations were most often reported from the tropical rain forest and tropical moist deciduous forest.

  17. Numerical taxonomy of the genus Pestivirus based on palindromic nucleotide substitutions in the 5' untranslated region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangaspero, Massimo; Harasawa, Ryô

    2007-12-01

    The palindromic nucleotide substitutions (PNS) at the three variable loci (V1, V2 and V3) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of Pestivirus RNA have been considered for taxonomical segregation of species, through the evaluation of 430 genomic sequences. On the basis of qualitative and quantitative secondary structure characteristics, six species have been identified: Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 (BVDV-1), Bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVDV-2), Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), Border disease virus (BDV), the tentative species Giraffe and a new proposed taxon named Pronghorn. The first step was qualitative and consisted in the characterization of the different positions of the three stems and loops in the 5' UTR sequences of all the strains under consideration belonging to the genus. Secondary structure sequences showing divergent base-pair combinations have been aligned for comparison. Palindromic positions have been characterized according to changes in nucleotide base-pairs identifying low-variable positions (LVP) including base-pairs present in less than 80% of the genus. The second step was quantitative, allowing the identification of genomic groups by clustering the base-pair combinations according to LVP. Relatedness among types was evaluated to identify homogeneous groups. Cross comparisons between types within the genus have been evaluated by computing the divergence percentage thus clarifying borderline and multirelated sequences.

  18. A novel three-stage distance-based consensus ranking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghayi, Nazila; Tavana, Madjid

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a three-stage weighted sum method for identifying the group ranks of alternatives. In the first stage, a rank matrix, similar to the cross-efficiency matrix, is obtained by computing the individual rank position of each alternative based on importance weights. In the second stage, a secondary goal is defined to limit the vector of weights since the vector of weights obtained in the first stage is not unique. Finally, in the third stage, the group rank position of alternatives is obtained based on a distance of individual rank positions. The third stage determines a consensus solution for the group so that the ranks obtained have a minimum distance from the ranks acquired by each alternative in the previous stage. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the applicability and exhibit the efficacy of the proposed method and algorithms.

  19. Consensus-based recommendations for case report in Chinese medicine (CARC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Shu-Fei; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Zhang, Li; Zhong, Linda Li-Dan; Kun, Wai; Lin, Jia; Zhang, Bo-Li; Wang, Yong-Yan; Shang, Hong-Cai; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Case reports are valuable clinical evidence in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, the general reporting quality is suboptimal. A working group comprising 20 members was set up to develop systematic recommendations on case report in Chinese medicine (CARC). The working group (CARC group) developed a primary checklist based on reviewing the general reporting quality of case reports in TCM and thorough internal discussion. Two-round consensus process had been carried out among clinical experts, evidence-based medicine methodologists, medical journal editors and clinical practitioners with designated questionnaire embedded with the primary checklist. In total, 118 participants from 17 provinces of China and Korea completed the questionnaires. Their feedback was analyzed and discussed by the CARC group. The checklist was amended accordingly, and the final version, comprising 16-item, is presented here. Under the framework of CARC recommendations, the reporting quality of case reports in TCM can be improved.

  20. MGmapper: Reference based mapping and taxonomy annotation of metagenomics sequence reads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas Nordahl; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Thomsen, Martin Christen Frølund

    2017-01-01

    number of false positive species annotations are a problem unless thresholds or post-processing are applied to differentiate between correct and false annotations. MGmapper is a package to process raw next generation sequence data and perform reference based sequence assignment, followed by a post...... pipeline is freely available as a bitbucked package (https://bitbucket.org/genomicepidemiology/mgmapper). A web-version (https://cge.cbs.dtu.dk/services/MGmapper) provides the basic functionality for analysis of small fastq datasets....

  1. Expanding the Taxonomy of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Christopher C.; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Lobbezoo, Frank; Schiffman, Eric L.; Alstergren, Per; Anderson, Gary C.; de Leeuw, Reny; Jensen, Rigmor; Michelotti, Ambra; Ohrbach, Richard; Petersson, Arne; List, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorder (TMD) classification to include less common, but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for less common TMDs. The long-term aim was to establish a foundation, vis-à-vis this classification system, that will stimulate data collection, validity testing, and further criteria refinement. Methods A working group [members of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network of the International Association for Dental Research (IADR), members of the Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP), and members from other professional societies] reviewed disorders for inclusion based on clinical significance, the availability of plausible diagnostic criteria, and the ability to operationalize and study the criteria. The disorders were derived from the literature when possible and based on expert opinion as necessary. The expanded TMD taxonomy was presented for feedback at international meetings. Results Of 56 disorders considered, 37 were included in the expanded taxonomy and were placed into the following four categories: temporomandibular joint disorders, masticatory muscle disorders, headache disorders, and disorders affecting associated structures. Those excluded were extremely uncommon, lacking operationalized diagnostic criteria, not clearly related to TMDs, or not sufficiently distinct from disorders already included within the taxonomy. Conclusions The expanded TMD taxonomy offers an integrated approach to clinical diagnosis and provides a framework for further research to operationalize and test the proposed taxonomy and diagnostic criteria. PMID:24443898

  2. Populism vs. elitism: social consensus and social status as bases of attitude certainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prislin, Radmila; Shaffer, Emily; Crowder, Marisa

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of social consensus and social status on attitude certainty that is conceptualized multi-dimensionally as perceived clarity and correctness of one's attitude. In a mock opinion exchange about a social issue, participants were either supported (high consensus) or opposed (low consensus) by most of the confederates. They were informed that their opinion (high status) or their opponents' opinion (low status) had the alleged psychological significance indicative of future success. Post-experimental attitude clarity was significantly greater when attitudinal position was associated with high rather than low status. Attitude correctness was interactively affected by social status and social consensus. Supporting the compensatory effect hypothesis, attitude correctness was comparable across the levels of social consensus as long as they were associated with high status, and across the levels of social status as long as they were associated with high social consensus.

  3. Taxonomy-based content analysis of sedentary behavior questionnaires: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivière, Fabien; Aubert, Salomé; Omorou, Abdou Yacoubou; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2018-01-01

    Background Health effects of sedentary behaviors (SB) may vary depending on their characteristics such as type, purpose, duration, and intensity of the behavior. While a growing number of questionnaires assess sedentary behaviors, it is unclear which characteristics of SB are measured. The aim of this review was to examine the content of self-report SB questionnaires. Methods Three databases were searched for sedentary behavior questionnaires published before January 1st, 2016. Based on the inclusion criteria, 82 articles out of 1369 were retrieved for a total of 60 questionnaires. For each questionnaire, the sedentary behavior characteristics identified were reported and analyzed. Results Most of the questionnaires assessed the time (n = 60), posture (n = 54), purpose (n = 46) and the types (n = 45) of SB performed. Fewer questionnaires assessed the environment (n = 20) social context (n = 11), status (n = 2), and associated behaviors (n = 2) related to sedentary behaviors. All the questionnaires except two assessed time spent in SB with 17 assessing frequency and 6 assessing breaks in SB. The most frequent characteristics identified in the questionnaires were the categories of sitting (90%), a day (95%), watching television (65%) and using a computer (55%). Many characteristics of SB were not measured. Conclusions By knowing the breadth of SB included in questionnaires, this review provides support to shape the design of new questionnaires designed to reduce the gaps in measuring sedentary behaviors. PMID:29509791

  4. TAXONOMY AND GENETIC RELATIONSHIPS OF PANGASIIDAE, ASIAN CATFISHES, BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhy Gustiano

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pangasiids are economically important riverine catfishes generally residing in freshwater from the Indian subcontinent to the Indonesian Archipelago. The systematics of this family are still poorly known. Consequently, lack of such basic information impedes the understanding of the biology of the Pangasiids and the study of their aquaculture potential as well as improvement of seed production and growth performance. The objectives of the present study are to clarify phylogeny of this family based on a biometric analysis and molecular evidence using 12S ribosomal mtDNA on the total of 1070 specimens. The study revealed that 28 species are recognised as valid in Pangasiidae. Four genera are also recognized as Helicophagus Bleeker 1858, Pangasianodon Chevey 1930, Pteropangasius Fowler 1937, and Pangasius Valenciennes 1840 instead of two as reported by previous workers. The phylogenetic analysis demonstrated the recognised genera, and genetic relationships among taxa. Overall, trees from the different analyses show similar topologies and confirm the hypothesis derived from geological history, palaeontology, and similar models in other taxa of fishes from the same area. The oldest genus may already have existed when the Asian mainland was still connected to the islands in the southern part about 20 million years ago.

  5. Reliability of a consensus-based ultrasound score for tenosynovitis in rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naredo, Esperanza; D'Agostino, Maria Antonietta; Wakefield, Richard J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To produce consensus-based scoring systems for ultrasound (US) tenosynovitis and to assess the intraobserver and interobserver reliability of these scoring systems in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We undertook a Delphi process on US-defined tenosynovitis and US scoring system...... recruited. Ten rheumatologists expert in MSUS blindly, independently and consecutively scored for tenosynovitis in B-mode and PD mode three wrist extensor compartments, two finger flexor tendons and two ankle tendons of each patient in two rounds in a blinded fashion. Intraobserver reliability was assessed...... Doppler signal within the synovial sheath. The intraobserver reliability for tenosynovitis scoring on B-mode and PD mode was good (κ value 0.72 for B-mode; κ value 0.78 for PD mode). Interobserver reliability assessment showed good κ values for PD tenosynovitis scoring (first round, 0.64; second round, 0...

  6. A Decentralized Eigenvalue Computation Method for Spectrum Sensing Based on Average Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jafar; Limmer, Steffen; Stańczak, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers eigenvalue estimation for the decentralized inference problem for spectrum sensing. We propose a decentralized eigenvalue computation algorithm based on the power method, which is referred to as generalized power method GPM; it is capable of estimating the eigenvalues of a given covariance matrix under certain conditions. Furthermore, we have developed a decentralized implementation of GPM by splitting the iterative operations into local and global computation tasks. The global tasks require data exchange to be performed among the nodes. For this task, we apply an average consensus algorithm to efficiently perform the global computations. As a special case, we consider a structured graph that is a tree with clusters of nodes at its leaves. For an accelerated distributed implementation, we propose to use computation over multiple access channel (CoMAC) as a building block of the algorithm. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the performance of the two algorithms.

  7. Characterization of network structure in stereoEEG data using consensus-based partial coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Wal, Marije; Cardellicchio, Pasquale; LoRusso, Giorgio; Pelliccia, Veronica; Avanzini, Pietro; Orban, Guy A; Tiesinga, Paul He

    2018-06-06

    Coherence is a widely used measure to determine the frequency-resolved functional connectivity between pairs of recording sites, but this measure is confounded by shared inputs to the pair. To remove shared inputs, the 'partial coherence' can be computed by conditioning the spectral matrices of the pair on all other recorded channels, which involves the calculation of a matrix (pseudo-) inverse. It has so far remained a challenge to use the time-resolved partial coherence to analyze intracranial recordings with a large number of recording sites. For instance, calculating the partial coherence using a pseudoinverse method produces a high number of false positives when it is applied to a large number of channels. To address this challenge, we developed a new method that randomly aggregated channels into a smaller number of effective channels on which the calculation of partial coherence was based. We obtained a 'consensus' partial coherence (cPCOH) by repeating this approach for several random aggregations of channels (permutations) and only accepting those activations in time and frequency with a high enough consensus. Using model data we show that the cPCOH method effectively filters out the effect of shared inputs and performs substantially better than the pseudo-inverse. We successfully applied the cPCOH procedure to human stereotactic EEG data and demonstrated three key advantages of this method relative to alternative procedures. First, it reduces the number of false positives relative to the pseudo-inverse method. Second, it allows for titration of the amount of false positives relative to the false negatives by adjusting the consensus threshold, thus allowing the data-analyst to prioritize one over the other to meet specific analysis demands. Third, it substantially reduced the number of identified interactions compared to coherence, providing a sparser network of connections from which clear spatial patterns emerged. These patterns can serve as a starting

  8. Consensus Among International Ethical Guidelines for the Provision of Videoconferencing-Based Mental Health Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; McGill, Brittany C; Wilson, Helen L; Patterson, Pandora

    2016-01-01

    Background Online technologies may reduce barriers to evidence-based mental health care, yet they also create numerous ethical challenges. Recently, numerous professional organizations and expert groups have produced best-practice guidelines to assist mental health professionals in delivering online interventions in an ethically and clinically sound manner. However, there has been little critical examination of these international best-practice guidelines regarding appropriate electronic mental health (e-mental health) service delivery via technologies such as videoconferencing (including Skype), particularly for specific, vulnerable populations. Further, the extent to which concordance exists between these guidelines remains unclear. Synthesizing this literature to provide clear guidance to both mental health professionals and researchers is critical to ensure continued progress in the field of e-mental health. Objective This study aims to review all currently available ethical and best-practice guidelines relating to videoconferencing-delivered mental health treatments in order to ascertain the recommendations for which international consensus could be found. Additionally, this review examines the extent to which each set of guidance addresses several key special populations, including children and young people, and populations living with illness. Methods This systematic review examined guidelines using a two-armed search strategy, examining (1) professional organizations’ published guidance; and (2) MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE for the past ten years. In order to determine consensus for best-practice, a recommendation was considered "firm" if 50% or more of the reviewed guidelines endorsed it and "tentative" if recommended by fewer guidelines than these. The professional guidelines were also scored by two raters using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II (AGREE-II) criteria. Results In the study, 19 guidelines were included, yielding 11

  9. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachlis, Beth; Sodhi, Sumeet; Burciul, Barry; Orbinski, James; Cheng, Amy H Y; Cole, Donald

    2013-04-16

    Community-based care (CBC) can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE) for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were 'HIV' or 'AIDS' and 'community-based care' or 'CBC'. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  10. A taxonomy for community-based care programs focused on HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in resource-poor settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Rachlis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Community-based care (CBC can increase access to key services for people affected by HIV/AIDS through the mobilization of community interests and resources and their integration with formal health structures. Yet, the lack of a systematic framework for analysis of CBC focused on HIV/AIDS impedes our ability to understand and study CBC programs. We sought to develop taxonomy of CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings in an effort to understand their key characteristics, uncover any gaps in programming, and highlight the potential roles they play. Our review aimed to systematically identify key CBC programs focused on HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. We used both bibliographic database searches (Medline, CINAHL, and EMBASE for peer-reviewed literature and internet-based searches for gray literature. Our search terms were ‘HIV’ or ‘AIDS’ and ‘community-based care’ or ‘CBC’. Two co-authors developed a descriptive taxonomy through an iterative, inductive process using the retrieved program information. We identified 21 CBC programs useful for developing taxonomy. Extensive variation was observed within each of the nine categories identified: region, vision, characteristics of target populations, program scope, program operations, funding models, human resources, sustainability, and monitoring and evaluation strategies. While additional research may still be needed to identify the conditions that lead to overall program success, our findings can help to inform our understanding of the various aspects of CBC programs and inform potential logic models for CBC programming in the context of HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings. Importantly, the findings of the present study can be used to develop sustainable HIV/AIDS-service delivery programs in regions with health resource shortages.

  11. EPA Web Taxonomy

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — EPA's Web Taxonomy is a faceted hierarchical vocabulary used to tag web pages with terms from a controlled vocabulary. Tagging enables search and discovery of EPA's...

  12. Building a model based on scientific consensus for Life Cycle Impact Assessment of chemicals:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Huijbregts, Mark; Jolliet, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Achieving consensus among scientists is often a challenge - particularly in model development. In this article we describe a recent scientific consensus-building process for Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) models applied to chemical emissions - including the strategy, execution, and results...

  13. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu Ates

    Full Text Available Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14, self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes.A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8, "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11 and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39.The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4. The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps.This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  14. A consensus linkage map of lentil based on DArT markers from three RIL mapping populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Duygu; Aldemir, Secil; Alsaleh, Ahmad; Erdogmus, Semih; Nemli, Seda; Kahriman, Abdullah; Ozkan, Hakan; Vandenberg, Albert; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2018-01-01

    Lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) is a diploid (2n = 2x = 14), self-pollinating grain legume with a haploid genome size of about 4 Gbp and is grown throughout the world with current annual production of 4.9 million tonnes. A consensus map of lentil (Lens culinaris ssp. culinaris Medikus) was constructed using three different lentils recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations, including "CDC Redberry" x "ILL7502" (LR8), "ILL8006" x "CDC Milestone" (LR11) and "PI320937" x "Eston" (LR39). The lentil consensus map was composed of 9,793 DArT markers, covered a total of 977.47 cM with an average distance of 0.10 cM between adjacent markers and constructed 7 linkage groups representing 7 chromosomes of the lentil genome. The consensus map had no gap larger than 12.67 cM and only 5 gaps were found to be between 12.67 cM and 6.0 cM (on LG3 and LG4). The localization of the SNP markers on the lentil consensus map were in general consistent with their localization on the three individual genetic linkage maps and the lentil consensus map has longer map length, higher marker density and shorter average distance between the adjacent markers compared to the component linkage maps. This high-density consensus map could provide insight into the lentil genome. The consensus map could also help to construct a physical map using a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome library and map based cloning studies. Sequence information of DArT may help localization of orientation scaffolds from Next Generation Sequencing data.

  15. A study on group decision-making based fault multi-symptom-domain consensus diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yongyong; Chu Fulei; Zhong Binglin

    2001-01-01

    In the field of fault diagnosis for rotating machines, the conventional methods or the neural network based methods are mainly single symptom domain based methods, and the diagnosis accuracy of which is not always satisfactory. In this paper, in order to utilize multiple symptom domains to improve the diagnosis accuracy, an idea of fault multi-symptom-domain consensus diagnosis is developed. From the point of view of the group decision-making, two particular multi-symptom-domain diagnosis strategies are proposed. The proposed strategies use BP (Back-Propagation) neural networks as diagnosis models in various symptom domains, and then combine the outputs of these networks by two combination schemes, which are based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory and fuzzy integral theory, respectively. Finally, a case study pertaining to the fault diagnosis for rotor-bearing systems is given in detail, and the results show that the proposed diagnosis strategies are feasible and more efficient than conventional stacked-vector methods

  16. Taxonomy of the extrasolar planet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plávalová, Eva

    2012-04-01

    When a star is described as a spectral class G2V, we know that the star is similar to our Sun. We know its approximate mass, temperature, age, and size. When working with an extrasolar planet database, it is very useful to have a taxonomy scale (classification) such as, for example, the Harvard classification for stars. The taxonomy has to be easily interpreted and present the most relevant information about extrasolar planets. I propose an extrasolar planet taxonomy scale with four parameters. The first parameter concerns the mass of an extrasolar planet in the form of units of the mass of other known planets, where M represents the mass of Mercury, E that of Earth, N Neptune, and J Jupiter. The second parameter is the planet's distance from its parent star (semimajor axis) described in a logarithm with base 10. The third parameter is the mean Dyson temperature of the extrasolar planet, for which I established four main temperature classes: F represents the Freezing class, W the Water class, G the Gaseous class, and R the Roasters class. I devised one additional class, however: P, the Pulsar class, which concerns extrasolar planets orbiting pulsar stars. The fourth parameter is eccentricity. If the attributes of the surface of the extrasolar planet are known, we are able to establish this additional parameter where t represents a terrestrial planet, g a gaseous planet, and i an ice planet. According to this taxonomy scale, for example, Earth is 1E0W0t, Neptune is 1N1.5F0i, and extrasolar planet 55 Cnc e is 9E-1.8R1.

  17. Multiagent-based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled DC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiagent based distributed control is proposed for DC microgrid to minimize the operation cost. The power of each distributed generator (DG) is dispatched in a distributed manner in a multiagent system by means of voltage scheduling. Every DG unit is taken as an agent......, and they share the load corresponding to the operation cost of all the units in the system with only communication with direct neighbors through incremental cost consensus. The power regulation according to the power reference generated by consensus is implemented through voltage scheduling in local primary...... controllers. Simulation verification shows that total operation cost of the DC microgrid is successfully reduced though the proposed method....

  18. The new Central American seismic hazard zonation: Mutual consensus based on up to day seismotectonic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Guillermo E.; Benito, Belén; Staller, Alejandra; Climent, Álvaro; Camacho, Eduardo; Rojas, Wilfredo; Marroquín, Griselda; Molina, Enrique; Talavera, J. Emilio; Martínez-Cuevas, Sandra; Lindholm, Conrad

    2017-11-01

    Central America is one of the most active seismic zones in the World, due to the interaction of five tectonic plates (North America, Caribbean, Coco, Nazca and South America), and its internal deformation, which generates almost one destructive earthquakes (5.4 ≤ Mw ≤ 8.1) every year. A new seismological zonation for Central America is proposed based on seismotectonic framework, a geological context (tectonic and geological maps), geophysical and geodetic evidence (gravimetric maps, magnetometric, GPS observations), and previous works. As a main source of data a depurated earthquake catalog was collected covering the period from 1522 to 2015. This catalog was homogenized to a moment magnitude scale (Mw). After a careful analysis of all the integrated geological and seismological information, the seismogenic zones were established into seismic areas defined by similar patterns of faulting, seismicity, and rupture mechanism. The tectonic environment has required considering seismic zones in two particular seismological regimes: a) crustal faulting (including local faults, major fracture zones of plate boundary limits, and thrust fault of deformed belts) and b) subduction, taking into account the change in the subduction angle along the trench, and the type and location of the rupture. The seismicity in the subduction zone is divided into interplate and intraplate inslab seismicity. The regional seismic zonation proposed for the whole of Central America, include local seismic zonations, avoiding discontinuities at the national boundaries, because of a consensus between the 7 countries, based on the cooperative work of specialists on Central American seismotectonics and related topics.

  19. TOPSIS-based consensus model for group decision-making with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei-Guo

    2014-08-01

    Due to the vagueness of real-world environments and the subjective nature of human judgments, it is natural for experts to estimate their judgements by using incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. In this paper, based on the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method, we present a consensus model for group decision-making (GDM) with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. To do this, we first define a new consistency measure for incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations. Second, a goal programming model is proposed to estimate the missing interval preference values and it is guided by the consistency property. Third, an ideal interval fuzzy preference relation is constructed by using the induced ordered weighted averaging operator, where the associated weights of characterizing the operator are based on the defined consistency measure. Fourth, a similarity degree between complete interval fuzzy preference relations and the ideal one is defined. The similarity degree is related to the associated weights, and used to aggregate the experts' preference relations in such a way that more importance is given to ones with the higher similarity degree. Finally, a new algorithm is given to solve the GDM problem with incomplete interval fuzzy preference relations, which is further applied to partnership selection in formation of virtual enterprises.

  20. [Isolated primary nocturnal enuresis: international evidence based management. Consensus recommendations by French expert group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, D; Berard, E; Blanc, J-P; Lenoir, G; Liard, F; Lottmann, H

    2010-05-01

    The causes and treatment of isolated primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) are the subject of ongoing controversy. We are proposing consensus practical recommendations, based on a formalised analysis of the literature and validated by a large panel of experts. A task force of six experts based its work on the guide for literature analysis and recommendations and recommendation grading of the French Haute Autorité de Santé (formalized consensus process methodological guidelines) to evaluate the level of scientific proof (grade of 1 to 4) and the strength of the recommendations (grade A, B, C) of the publications on PNE. As a result of this, 223 articles from 2003 on were identified, of which only 127 (57 %) have an evaluable level of proof. This evaluation was then reviewed by a 19-member rating group. Several recommendations, poorly defined by the literature, had to be proposed by a professional agreement resulting from a consultation between the members of the task force and those of the rating group. For its final validation, the document was submitted to a reading group of 21 members working in a wide range of specialist areas and practices but all involved in PNE. The definition of PNE is very specific: intermittent incontinence during sleep, from the age of 5, with no continuous period of continence longer than 6 months, with no other associated symptom, particularly during the day. Its diagnosis is clinical by the exclusion of all other urinary pathologies. Two factors must be identified during the consultation: nocturnal polyuria promoted by excessive fluid intake, inverse secretion of vasopressin, snoring and sleep apnoea. It is sensitive to desmopressin; small bladder capacity evaluated according to a voiding diary and the ICCS formula. It may be associated with diurnal hyperactivity of the detrusor (30 %). It is resistant to desmopressin. Problems associated with PNE are: abnormal arousal threshold, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (10 %), low

  1. Clinical Guidelines for Management of Bone Health in Rett Syndrome Based on Expert Consensus and Available Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jefferson, Amanda; Leonard, Helen; Siafarikas, Aris

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We developed clinical guidelines for the management of bone health in Rett syndrome through evidence review and the consensus of an expert panel of clinicians. METHODS: An initial guidelines draft was created which included statements based upon literature review and 11 open-ended que...

  2. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Koen W; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J; Grantcharov, Teodor P; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C; Broeders, Ivo A M J

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was to establish consensus on exercise configurations and on a validated training program for a virtual reality simulator, based on the experience of international experts to set criterion levels to construct a proficiency-based training program. A consensus meeting was held with eight European teams, all extensively experienced in using the VR simulator. Construct validity of the training program was tested by 20 experts and 60 novices. The data were analyzed by using the t test for equality of means. Consensus was achieved on training designs, exercise configuration, and examination. Almost all exercises (7/8) showed construct validity. In total, 50 of 94 parameters (53%) showed significant difference. A European, multicenter, validated, training program was constructed according to the general consensus of a large international team with extended experience in virtual reality simulation. Therefore, a proficiency-based training program can be offered to training centers that use this simulator for training in basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery.

  3. Analyses of integrated aircraft cabin contaminant monitoring network based on Kalman consensus filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Li, Yanxiao; Sun, Hui; Chen, Zengqiang

    2017-11-01

    The modern civil aircrafts use air ventilation pressurized cabins subject to the limited space. In order to monitor multiple contaminants and overcome the hypersensitivity of the single sensor, the paper constructs an output correction integrated sensor configuration using sensors with different measurement theories after comparing to other two different configurations. This proposed configuration works as a node in the contaminant distributed wireless sensor monitoring network. The corresponding measurement error models of integrated sensors are also proposed by using the Kalman consensus filter to estimate states and conduct data fusion in order to regulate the single sensor measurement results. The paper develops the sufficient proof of the Kalman consensus filter stability when considering the system and the observation noises and compares the mean estimation and the mean consensus errors between Kalman consensus filter and local Kalman filter. The numerical example analyses show the effectiveness of the algorithm. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Distributed MPC based consensus for single-integrator multi-agent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaomeng; Fan, Ming-Can; Zhang, Hai-Tao

    2015-09-01

    This paper addresses model predictive control schemes for consensus in multi-agent systems (MASs) with discrete-time single-integrator dynamics under switching directed interaction graphs. The control horizon is extended to be greater than one which endows the closed-loop system with extra degree of freedom. We derive sufficient conditions on the sampling period and the interaction graph to achieve consensus by using the property of infinite products of stochastic matrices. Consensus can be achieved asymptotically if the sampling period is selected such that the interaction graph among agents has a directed spanning tree jointly. Significantly, if the interaction graph always has a spanning tree, one can select an arbitrary large sampling period to guarantee consensus. Finally, several simulations are conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Rain Taxonomy for Degraded Visual Environment Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatlin, P. N.; Petersen, W. A.

    2018-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum (TM) provides a description of a rainfall taxonomy that defines the detailed characteristics of naturally occurring rainfall. The taxonomy is based on raindrop size measurements collected around the globe and encompasses several different climate types. Included in this TM is a description of these rainfall observations, an explanation of methods used to process those data, and resultant metrics comprising the rain taxonomy database. Each of the categories in the rain taxonomy are characterized by a unique set of raindrop sizes that can be used in simulations of electromagnetic wave propagation through a rain medium.

  6. Protocol of the COSMIN study: COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick DL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Choosing an adequate measurement instrument depends on the proposed use of the instrument, the concept to be measured, the measurement properties (e.g. internal consistency, reproducibility, content and construct validity, responsiveness, and interpretability, the requirements, the burden for subjects, and costs of the available instruments. As far as measurement properties are concerned, there are no sufficiently specific standards for the evaluation of measurement properties of instruments to measure health status, and also no explicit criteria for what constitutes good measurement properties. In this paper we describe the protocol for the COSMIN study, the objective of which is to develop a checklist that contains COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments, including explicit criteria for satisfying these standards. We will focus on evaluative health related patient-reported outcomes (HR-PROs, i.e. patient-reported health measurement instruments used in a longitudinal design as an outcome measure, excluding health care related PROs, such as satisfaction with care or adherence. The COSMIN standards will be made available in the form of an easily applicable checklist. Method An international Delphi study will be performed to reach consensus on which and how measurement properties should be assessed, and on criteria for good measurement properties. Two sources of input will be used for the Delphi study: (1 a systematic review of properties, standards and criteria of measurement properties found in systematic reviews of measurement instruments, and (2 an additional literature search of methodological articles presenting a comprehensive checklist of standards and criteria. The Delphi study will consist of four (written Delphi rounds, with approximately 30 expert panel members with different backgrounds in clinical medicine, biostatistics, psychology, and epidemiology. The final checklist will

  7. A WAO - ARIA - GA²LEN consensus document on molecular-based allergy diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Pawankar, Ruby; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; van Hage, Marianne; Baena-Cagnani, Carlos E; Melioli, Giovanni; Nunes, Carlos; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Rosenwasser, Lanny; Sampson, Hugh; Sastre, Joaquin; Bousquet, Jean; Zuberbier, Torsten

    2013-10-03

    Molecular-based allergy (MA) diagnostics is an approach used to map the allergen sensitization of a patient at a molecular level, using purified natural or recombinant allergenic molecules (allergen components) instead of allergen extracts. Since its introduction, MA diagnostics has increasingly entered routine care, with currently more than 130 allergenic molecules commercially available for in vitro specific IgE (sIgE) testing.MA diagnostics allows for an increased accuracy in allergy diagnosis and prognosis and plays an important role in three key aspects of allergy diagnosis: (1) resolving genuine versus cross-reactive sensitization in poly-sensitized patients, thereby improving the understanding of triggering allergens; (2) assessing, in selected cases, the risk of severe, systemic versus mild, local reactions in food allergy, thereby reducing unnecessary anxiety for the patient and the need for food challenge testing; and (3) identifying patients and triggering allergens for specific immunotherapy (SIT).Singleplex and multiplex measurement platforms are available for MA diagnostics. The Immuno-Solid phase Allergen Chip (ISAC) is the most comprehensive platform currently available, which involves a biochip technology to measure sIgE antibodies against more than one hundred allergenic molecules in a single assay. As the field of MA diagnostics advances, future work needs to focus on large-scale, population-based studies involving practical applications, elucidation and expansion of additional allergenic molecules, and support for appropriate test interpretation. With the rapidly expanding evidence-base for MA diagnosis, there is a need for allergists to keep abreast of the latest information. The aim of this consensus document is to provide a practical guide for the indications, determination, and interpretation of MA diagnostics for clinicians trained in allergology.

  8. Teaching Taxonomy: How Many Kingdoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Emily

    2008-01-01

    Taxonomy, the identification, naming, and classification of living things, is an indispensable unit in any biology curriculum and indeed, an integral part of biological science. Taxonomy catalogues life's diversity and is an essential tool for communication. Textbook discussions of taxonomy range anywhere from three to eight domains of kingdoms.…

  9. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of gastroesophageal reflux disease: an evidence-based consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Filho, Joaquim Prado P; Navarro-Rodriguez, Tomas; Barbuti, Ricardo; Eisig, Jaime; Chinzon, Decio; Bernardo, Wanderley

    2010-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common disorders in medical practice. A number of guidelines and recommendations for the diagnosis and management of GERD have been published in different countries, but a Brazilian accepted directive by the standards of evidence-based medicine is still lacking. As such, the aim of the Brazilian GERD Consensus Group was to develop guidelines for the diagnosis and management of GERD, strictly using evidence-based medicine methodology that could be clinically used by primary care physicians and specialists and would encompass the needs of physicians, investigators, insurance and regulatory bodies. A total of 30 questions were proposed. Systematic literature reviews, which defined inclusion and/or exclusion criteria, were conducted to identify and grade the available evidence to support each statement. A total of 11,069 papers on GERD were selected, of which 6,474 addressed the diagnosis and 4,595, therapeutics. Regarding diagnosis, 51 met the requirements for the analysis of evidence-based medicine: 19 of them were classified as grade A and 32 as grade B. As for therapeutics, 158 met the evidence-based medicine criteria; 89 were classified as grade A and 69 as grade B. In the topic Diagnosis, answers supported by publications grade A and B were accepted. In the topic Treatment only publications grade A were accepted: answers supported by publications grade B were submitted to the voting by the Consensus Group. The present publication presents the most representative studies that responded to the proposed questions, followed by pertinent comments. Follow examples. In patients with atypical manifestations, the conventional esophageal pH-metry contributes little to the diagnosis of GERD. The sensitivity, however, increases with the use of double-channel pH-metry. In patients with atypical manifestations, the impedance-pH-metry substantially contributes to the diagnosis of GERD. The examination, however, is costly

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Old world swallowtail [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Old world swallowtail Papilio machaon Arthropoda Papilio_machaon_L.png Papilio_machaon_NL.png Papilio_machao...n_S.png Papilio_machaon_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machao...n&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_...icon/icon.cgi?i=Papilio+machaon&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=47 ...

  11. Context based computational analysis and characterization of ARS consensus sequences (ACS of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar Singh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide experimental studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveal that autonomous replicating sequence (ARS requires an essential consensus sequence (ACS for replication activity. Computational studies identified thousands of ACS like patterns in the genome. However, only a few hundreds of these sites act as replicating sites and the rest are considered as dormant or evolving sites. In a bid to understand the sequence makeup of replication sites, a content and context-based analysis was performed on a set of replicating ACS sequences that binds to origin-recognition complex (ORC denoted as ORC-ACS and non-replicating ACS sequences (nrACS, that are not bound by ORC. In this study, DNA properties such as base composition, correlation, sequence dependent thermodynamic and DNA structural profiles, and their positions have been considered for characterizing ORC-ACS and nrACS. Analysis reveals that ORC-ACS depict marked differences in nucleotide composition and context features in its vicinity compared to nrACS. Interestingly, an A-rich motif was also discovered in ORC-ACS sequences within its nucleosome-free region. Profound changes in the conformational features, such as DNA helical twist, inclination angle and stacking energy between ORC-ACS and nrACS were observed. Distribution of ACS motifs in the non-coding segments points to the locations of ORC-ACS which are found far away from the adjacent gene start position compared to nrACS thereby enabling an accessible environment for ORC-proteins. Our attempt is novel in considering the contextual view of ACS and its flanking region along with nucleosome positioning in the S. cerevisiae genome and may be useful for any computational prediction scheme.

  12. Developing the Australasian Hepatology Association's Consensus-based Guidelines for the Nursing Care of Patients with Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Jacqueline; Wheeler, Emily; Warner, Sherryne; Mason, Susan

    2014-05-03

    Abstract Purpose: Hepatology nursing is an emerging speciality. To define best practice, the Australasian Hepatology Association developed consensus-based guidelines for the nursing care of patients with liver disease. Methods: Using the Delphi technique, six rounds of consultation were conducted with Australian hepatology nurses and non-nursing hepatology professionals. Input was captured through face-to-face and electronic communication and questionnaires. Results: The experts' opinions were collated and consensus on the delivery of hepatology nursing care was achieved. In total, 90 consensus guidelines were developed. The principles underpinning the Guidelines include patient-centred care, non-discriminatory practice, cultural competence, collaboration and partnership and working within own scope of practice. Conclusion: Internationally, the Australasian Hepatology Association Guidelines are the first to document a consensus on the scope of hepatology nursing practice. The Guidelines reflect the expansion of hepatology nursing, from viral hepatitis to caring for patients with advanced liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma, and provides a framework for future nursing practice.

  13. Taxonomy of the burden of treatment: a multi-country web-based qualitative study of patients with chronic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Viet-Thi; Barnes, Caroline; Montori, Victor M; Falissard, Bruno; Ravaud, Philippe

    2015-05-14

    Management strategies for patients with chronic conditions are becoming increasingly complex, which may result in a burden of treatment for patients. To develop a Minimally Disruptive Medicine designed to reduce the burden of treatment, clinicians need to understand which healthcare tasks and aggravating factors may be responsible for this burden. The objective of the present study was to describe and classify the components of the burden of treatment for patients with chronic conditions from the patient's perspective. We performed a multi-country qualitative study using an online survey and a purposive sampling strategy to select English-, French-, and Spanish-speaking participants with different chronic conditions. Participants were recruited by physicians, patients' associations, advertisement on social media, and 'snowballing'. The answers were analyzed by i) manual content analysis with a grounded theory approach, coded by two researchers, and ii) automatic textual analysis by Reinert's method. Between 2013 and 2014, 1,053 participants from 34 different countries completed the online survey using 408,625 words. Results from both analyses were synthesized in a taxonomy of the burden of treatment, which described i) the tasks imposed on patients by their diseases and by their healthcare system (e.g., medication management, lifestyle changes, follow-up, etc.); ii) the structural (e.g., access to healthcare resources, coordination between care providers), personal, situational, and financial factors that aggravated the burden of treatment; and iii) patient-reported consequences of the burden (e.g., poor adherence to treatments, financial burden, impact on professional, family, and social life, etc.). Our findings may not be applicable to patients with chronic conditions who differ from those who responded to our survey. Our taxonomy of the burden of treatment, provided by patients with chronic conditions from different countries and settings, supports the

  14. Cumulative impact of GM herbicide-tolerant cropping on arable plants assessed through species-based and functional taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Geoffrey R; Hawes, Cathy; Begg, Graham S; Young, Mark W

    2009-01-01

    in all instances would be prohibitive. Simulations of diversity-reducing treatments could provide a theoretical framework for predicting the likely regional effects from in-field plant dynamics. Accumulation curves potentially offer a means of linking within-site effects to regional impacts on biodiversity resulting from any change in agricultural practice. To guide empirical measurement, there is a scope to apply a methodology such as individual-based modelling at the field scale to explore the links between agronomic treatments and the relative abundance of plant types. The framework needs to be validated in practice, using species-based and functional taxonomies, the latter defined by measured rather than inferred traits.

  15. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. Direct final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-14

    In this direct final rule, the Agency is removing several references to consensus standards that have requirements that duplicate, or are comparable to, other OSHA rules; this action includes correcting a paragraph citation in one of these OSHA rules. The Agency also is removing a reference to American Welding Society standard A3.0-1969 ("Terms and Definitions") in its general-industry welding standards. This rulemaking is a continuation of OSHA's ongoing effort to update references to consensus and industry standards used throughout its rules.

  16. Evidence-based consensus on opportunistic infections in inflammatory bowel disease (republication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD patients are a high-risk population for opportunistic infections. The IBD group of the Chinese Society of Gastroenterology of the Chinese Medical Association organized an expert group to discuss and develop this consensus opinion. This consensus opinion referenced clinical study results from China and other countries to provide guidance for clinical practices. Eight major topics, including cytomegalovirus infection, Epstein-Barr virus infection, viral hepatitis, bacterial infection, Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, fungal infection, parasitic infection, and vaccines were introduced in this article.

  17. A Novel Consensus-Based Particle Swarm Optimization-Assisted Trust-Tech Methodology for Large-Scale Global Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-Feng; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-09-01

    A novel three-stage methodology, termed the "consensus-based particle swarm optimization (PSO)-assisted Trust-Tech methodology," to find global optimal solutions for nonlinear optimization problems is presented. It is composed of Trust-Tech methods, consensus-based PSO, and local optimization methods that are integrated to compute a set of high-quality local optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The proposed methodology compares very favorably with several recently developed PSO algorithms based on a set of small-dimension benchmark optimization problems and 20 large-dimension test functions from the CEC 2010 competition. The analytical basis for the proposed methodology is also provided. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methodology can rapidly obtain high-quality optimal solutions that can contain the global optimal solution. The scalability of the proposed methodology is promising.

  18. Comment: 61 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan イメージを差し替えました(添付は旧イメージ) ttamura 2009/04/21 12:50:03 ...

  19. Company Taxonomy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Ørnager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    analyses of search log-files from WFP intranet portal (WFPgo) from September to November 2013, the results were applied and a suggested taxonomy tested at workshops conducted for the staff in headquarters. Findings – The results reveal an organization with a high demand for easier access to information...

  20. Comment: 215 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 215.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Science licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:電子顕微鏡バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:30:03 2010/02/15 15:30:03 ...

  1. The EPTN consensus-based atlas for CT- and MR-based contouring in neuro-oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eekers, Daniëlle Bp; In 't Ven, Lieke; Roelofs, Erik; Postma, Alida; Alapetite, Claire; Burnet, Neil G; Calugaru, Valentin; Compter, Inge; Coremans, Ida E M; Høyer, Morton; Lambrecht, Maarten; Nyström, Petra Witt; Romero, Alejandra Méndez; Paulsen, Frank; Perpar, Ana; de Ruysscher, Dirk; Renard, Laurette; Timmermann, Beate; Vitek, Pavel; Weber, Damien C; van der Weide, Hiske L; Whitfield, Gillian A; Wiggenraad, Ruud; Troost, Esther G C

    2018-03-13

    To create a digital, online atlas for organs at risk (OAR) delineation in neuro-oncology based on high-quality computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. CT and 3 Tesla (3T) MR images (slice thickness 1 mm with intravenous contrast agent) were obtained from the same patient and subsequently fused. In addition, a 7T MR without intravenous contrast agent was obtained from a healthy volunteer. Based on discussion between experienced radiation oncologists, the clinically relevant organs at risk (OARs) to be included in the atlas for neuro-oncology were determined, excluding typical head and neck OARs previously published. The draft atlas was delineated by a senior radiation oncologist, 2 residents in radiation oncology, and a senior neuro-radiologist incorporating relevant available literature. The proposed atlas was then critically reviewed and discussed by European radiation oncologists until consensus was reached. The online atlas includes one CT-scan at two different window settings and one MR scan (3T) showing the OARs in axial, coronal and sagittal view. This manuscript presents the three-dimensional descriptions of the fifteen consensus OARs for neuro-oncology. Among these is a new OAR relevant for neuro-cognition, the posterior cerebellum (illustrated on 7T MR images). In order to decrease inter- and intra-observer variability in delineating OARs relevant for neuro-oncology and thus derive consistent dosimetric data, we propose this atlas to be used in photon and particle therapy. The atlas is available online at www.cancerdata.org and will be updated whenever required. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. An Evidence-based, Longitudinal Curriculum for Resident Physician Wellness: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jacob; Tango, Jennifer; Walker, Ian; Waranch, Chris; McKamie, Joshua; Poonja, Zafrina; Messman, Anne

    2018-03-01

    Physicians are at much higher risk for burnout, depression, and suicide than their non-medical peers. One of the working groups from the May 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS) addressed this issue through the development of a longitudinal residency curriculum to address resident wellness and burnout. A 30-person (27 residents, three attending physicians) Wellness Curriculum Development workgroup developed the curriculum in two phases. In the first phase, the workgroup worked asynchronously in the Wellness Think Tank - an online resident community - conducting a literature review to identify 10 core topics. In the second phase, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank at the live RWCS event to identify gaps in the curriculum. This resulted in an additional seven core topics. Seventeen foundational topics served as the framework for the longitudinal resident wellness curriculum. The curriculum includes a two-module introduction to wellness; a seven-module "Self-Care Series" focusing on the appropriate structure of wellness activities and everyday necessities that promote physician wellness; a two-module section on physician suicide and self-help; a four-module "Clinical Care Series" focusing on delivering bad news, navigating difficult patient encounters, dealing with difficult consultants and staff members, and debriefing traumatic events in the emergency department; wellness in the workplace; and dealing with medical errors and shame. The resident wellness curriculum, derived from an evidence-based approach and input of residents from the Wellness Think Tank and the RWCS event, provides a guiding framework for residency programs in emergency medicine and potentially other specialties to improve physician wellness and promote a culture of wellness.

  3. An Evidence-based, Longitudinal Curriculum for Resident Physician Wellness: The 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Arnold

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians are at much higher risk for burnout, depression, and suicide than their non-medical peers. One of the working groups from the May 2017 Resident Wellness Consensus Summit (RWCS addressed this issue through the development of a longitudinal residency curriculum to address resident wellness and burnout. Methods: A 30-person (27 residents, three attending physicians Wellness Curriculum Development workgroup developed the curriculum in two phases. In the first phase, the workgroup worked asynchronously in the Wellness Think Tank – an online resident community – conducting a literature review to identify 10 core topics. In the second phase, the workgroup expanded to include residents outside the Wellness Think Tank at the live RWCS event to identify gaps in the curriculum. This resulted in an additional seven core topics. Results: Seventeen foundational topics served as the framework for the longitudinal resident wellness curriculum. The curriculum includes a two-module introduction to wellness; a seven-module “Self-Care Series” focusing on the appropriate structure of wellness activities and everyday necessities that promote physician wellness; a two-module section on physician suicide and self-help; a four-module “Clinical Care Series” focusing on delivering bad news, navigating difficult patient encounters, dealing with difficult consultants and staff members, and debriefing traumatic events in the emergency department; wellness in the workplace; and dealing with medical errors and shame. Conclusion: The resident wellness curriculum, derived from an evidence-based approach and input of residents from the Wellness Think Tank and the RWCS event, provides a guiding framework for residency programs in emergency medicine and potentially other specialties to improve physician wellness and promote a culture of wellness.

  4. ClassyFire: automated chemical classification with a comprehensive, computable taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumbou Feunang, Yannick; Eisner, Roman; Knox, Craig; Chepelev, Leonid; Hastings, Janna; Owen, Gareth; Fahy, Eoin; Steinbeck, Christoph; Subramanian, Shankar; Bolton, Evan; Greiner, Russell; Wishart, David S

    2016-01-01

    Scientists have long been driven by the desire to describe, organize, classify, and compare objects using taxonomies and/or ontologies. In contrast to biology, geology, and many other scientific disciplines, the world of chemistry still lacks a standardized chemical ontology or taxonomy. Several attempts at chemical classification have been made; but they have mostly been limited to either manual, or semi-automated proof-of-principle applications. This is regrettable as comprehensive chemical classification and description tools could not only improve our understanding of chemistry but also improve the linkage between chemistry and many other fields. For instance, the chemical classification of a compound could help predict its metabolic fate in humans, its druggability or potential hazards associated with it, among others. However, the sheer number (tens of millions of compounds) and complexity of chemical structures is such that any manual classification effort would prove to be near impossible. We have developed a comprehensive, flexible, and computable, purely structure-based chemical taxonomy (ChemOnt), along with a computer program (ClassyFire) that uses only chemical structures and structural features to automatically assign all known chemical compounds to a taxonomy consisting of >4800 different categories. This new chemical taxonomy consists of up to 11 different levels (Kingdom, SuperClass, Class, SubClass, etc.) with each of the categories defined by unambiguous, computable structural rules. Furthermore each category is named using a consensus-based nomenclature and described (in English) based on the characteristic common structural properties of the compounds it contains. The ClassyFire webserver is freely accessible at http://classyfire.wishartlab.com/. Moreover, a Ruby API version is available at https://bitbucket.org/wishartlab/classyfire_api, which provides programmatic access to the ClassyFire server and database. ClassyFire has been used to

  5. Adverse events after cervical spinal manipulative therapy: consensus based classification and definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. C.P. van der Schans; M. Schmitt; dr. S.E. Lakke; H.A. Kranenburg

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spinal manipulations (CSM) are frequently employed techniques to alleviate neck pain and headache. Minor and major complications following CSM have been described, though clear consensus on definition and the classification of the complications had not yet been achieved. As a result,

  6. Adverse events after cervical spinal manipulative therapy: consensus based classification and definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, Rik; Jorna-Lakke, Sandra; Schmitt, M.A.; van der Schans, Cees

    2016-01-01

    Cervical spinal manipulations (CSM) are frequently employed techniques to alleviate neck pain and headache. Minor and major complications following CSM have been described, though clear consensus on definition and the classification of the complications had not yet been achieved. As a result,

  7. Minimal-Approximation-Based Distributed Consensus Tracking of a Class of Uncertain Nonlinear Multiagent Systems With Unknown Control Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun Ho; Yoo, Sung Jin

    2017-03-28

    A minimal-approximation-based distributed adaptive consensus tracking approach is presented for strict-feedback multiagent systems with unknown heterogeneous nonlinearities and control directions under a directed network. Existing approximation-based consensus results for uncertain nonlinear multiagent systems in lower-triangular form have used multiple function approximators in each local controller to approximate unmatched nonlinearities of each follower. Thus, as the follower's order increases, the number of the approximators used in its local controller increases. However, the proposed approach employs only one function approximator to construct the local controller of each follower regardless of the order of the follower. The recursive design methodology using a new error transformation is derived for the proposed minimal-approximation-based design. Furthermore, a bounding lemma on parameters of Nussbaum functions is presented to handle the unknown control direction problem in the minimal-approximation-based distributed consensus tracking framework and the stability of the overall closed-loop system is rigorously analyzed in the Lyapunov sense.

  8. Phylogeny and Taxonomy of Archaea: A Comparison of the Whole-Genome-Based CVTree Approach with 16S rRNA Sequence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghong Zuo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A tripartite comparison of Archaea phylogeny and taxonomy at and above the rank order is reported: (1 the whole-genome-based and alignment-free CVTree using 179 genomes; (2 the 16S rRNA analysis exemplified by the All-Species Living Tree with 366 archaeal sequences; and (3 the Second Edition of Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology complemented by some current literature. A high degree of agreement is reached at these ranks. From the newly proposed archaeal phyla, Korarchaeota, Thaumarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Aigarchaeota, to the recent suggestion to divide the class Halobacteria into three orders, all gain substantial support from CVTree. In addition, the CVTree helped to determine the taxonomic position of some newly sequenced genomes without proper lineage information. A few discrepancies between the CVTree and the 16S rRNA approaches call for further investigation.

  9. The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students' Social, Emotional, and Academic Development. Consensus Statements of Evidence from the Council of Distinguished Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Stephanie M.; Kahn, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    "The Evidence Base for How We Learn: Supporting Students' Social, Emotional, and Academic Development" articulates the scientific consensus regarding how people learn. The research brief presents a set of consensus statements--developed and unanimously signed onto by the Commission's Council of Distinguished Scientists--that affirm the…

  10. Forensic Taxonomy of Android Social Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    An Android social app taxonomy incorporating artifacts that are of forensic interest will enable users and forensic investigators to identify the personally identifiable information (PII) stored by the apps. In this study, 30 popular Android social apps were examined. Artifacts of forensic interest (e.g., contacts lists, chronology of messages, and timestamp of an added contact) were recovered. In addition, images were located, and Facebook token strings used to tie account identities and gain access to information entered into Facebook by a user were identified. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the social apps is proposed. A comparative summary of existing forensic taxonomies of different categories of Android apps, designed to facilitate timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from Android devices, is presented. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. ICDTag: a prototype for a web-based system for organizing physician-written blog posts using a hybrid taxonomy-folksonomy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Yamen; Yusof, Maryati Mohd; Noah, Shahrul Azman

    2013-02-27

    Medical blogs have emerged as new media, extending to a wider range of medical audiences, including health professionals and patients to share health-related information. However, extraction of quality health-related information from medical blogs is challenging primarily because these blogs lack systematic methods to organize their posts. Medical blogs can be categorized according to their author into (1) physician-written blogs, (2) nurse-written blogs, and (3) patient-written blogs. This study focuses on how to organize physician-written blog posts that discuss disease-related issues and how to extract quality information from these posts. The goal of this study was to create and implement a prototype for a Web-based system, called ICDTag, based on a hybrid taxonomy-folksonomy approach that follows a combination of a taxonomy classification schemes and user-generated tags to organize physician-written blog posts and extract information from these posts. First, the design specifications for the Web-based system were identified. This system included two modules: (1) a blogging module that was implemented as one or more blogs, and (2) an aggregator module that aggregated posts from different blogs into an aggregator website. We then developed a prototype for this system in which the blogging module included two blogs, the cardiology blog and the gastroenterology blog. To analyze the usage patterns of the prototype, we conducted an experiment with data provided by cardiologists and gastroenterologists. Next, we conducted two evaluation types: (1) an evaluation of the ICDTag blog, in which the browsing functionalities of the blogging module were evaluated from the end-user's perspective using an online questionnaire, and (2) an evaluation of information quality, in which the quality of the content on the aggregator website was assessed from the perspective of medical experts using an emailed questionnaire. Participants of this experiment included 23 cardiologists and

  12. A Taxonomy of Human Translation Styles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carl, Michael; Dragsted, Barbara; Lykke Jakobsen, Arnt

    2011-01-01

    on the translators' activity data, we develop a taxonomy of translation styles. The taxonomy could serve to inform the development of advanced translation assistance tools and provide a basis for a felicitous and grounded integration of human machine interaction in translation.......While the translation profession becomes increasingly technological, we are still far from understanding how humans actually translate and how they could be best supported by machines. In this paper we outline a method which helps to uncover characteristics of human translation processes. Based...

  13. Statistical Parametric Mapping to Identify Differences between Consensus-Based Joint Patterns during Gait in Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwenhuys, Angela; Papageorgiou, Eirini; Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; De Laet, Tinne

    2017-01-01

    Experts recently identified 49 joint motion patterns in children with cerebral palsy during a Delphi consensus study. Pattern definitions were therefore the result of subjective expert opinion. The present study aims to provide objective, quantitative data supporting the identification of these consensus-based patterns. To do so, statistical parametric mapping was used to compare the mean kinematic waveforms of 154 trials of typically developing children (n = 56) to the mean kinematic waveforms of 1719 trials of children with cerebral palsy (n = 356), which were classified following the classification rules of the Delphi study. Three hypotheses stated that: (a) joint motion patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' (n = 11 patterns) do not differ significantly from the gait pattern of typically developing children; (b) all other pathological joint motion patterns (n = 38 patterns) differ from typically developing gait and the locations of difference within the gait cycle, highlighted by statistical parametric mapping, concur with the consensus-based classification rules. (c) all joint motion patterns at the level of each joint (n = 49 patterns) differ from each other during at least one phase of the gait cycle. Results showed that: (a) ten patterns with 'no or minor gait deviations' differed somewhat unexpectedly from typically developing gait, but these differences were generally small (≤3°); (b) all other joint motion patterns (n = 38) differed from typically developing gait and the significant locations within the gait cycle that were indicated by the statistical analyses, coincided well with the classification rules; (c) joint motion patterns at the level of each joint significantly differed from each other, apart from two sagittal plane pelvic patterns. In addition to these results, for several joints, statistical analyses indicated other significant areas during the gait cycle that were not included in the pattern definitions of the consensus study

  14. Towards an Artificial Space Object Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.; Jah, M.; Pfeffer, A.

    2013-09-01

    Object recognition is the first step in positively identifying a resident space object (RSO), i.e. assigning an RSO to a category such as GPS satellite or space debris. Object identification is the process of deciding that two RSOs are in fact one and the same. Provided we have appropriately defined a satellite taxonomy that allows us to place a given RSO into a particular class of object without any ambiguity, one can assess the probability of assignment to a particular class by determining how well the object satisfies the unique criteria of belonging to that class. Ultimately, tree-based taxonomies delineate unique signatures by defining the minimum amount of information required to positively identify a RSO. Therefore, taxonomic trees can be used to depict hypotheses in a Bayesian object recognition and identification process. This work describes a new RSO taxonomy along with specific reasoning behind the choice of groupings. An alternative taxonomy was recently presented at the Sixth Conference on Space Debris in Darmstadt, Germany. [1] The best example of a taxonomy that enjoys almost universal scientific acceptance is the classical Linnaean biological taxonomy. A strength of Linnaean taxonomy is that it can be used to organize the different kinds of living organisms, simply and practically. Every species can be given a unique name. This uniqueness and stability are a result of the acceptance by biologists specializing in taxonomy, not merely of the binomial names themselves. Fundamentally, the taxonomy is governed by rules for the use of these names, and these are laid down in formal Nomenclature Codes. We seek to provide a similar formal nomenclature system for RSOs through a defined tree-based taxonomy structure. Each categorization, beginning with the most general or inclusive, at any level is called a taxon. Taxon names are defined by a type, which can be a specimen or a taxon of lower rank, and a diagnosis, a statement intended to supply characters that

  15. Methylphenidate poisoning: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharman, Elizabeth J; Erdman, Andrew R; Cobaugh, Daniel J; Olson, Kent R; Woolf, Alan D; Caravati, E Martin; Chyka, Peter A; Booze, Lisa L; Manoguerra, Anthony S; Nelson, Lewis S; Christianson, Gwenn; Troutman, William G

    2007-01-01

    A review of US poison center data for 2004 showed over 8,000 ingestions of methylphenidate. A guideline that determines the conditions for emergency department referral and prehospital care could potentially optimize patient outcome, avoid unnecessary emergency department visits, reduce health care costs, and reduce life disruption for patients and caregivers. An evidence-based expert consensus process was used to create the guideline. Relevant articles were abstracted by a trained physician researcher. The first draft of the guideline was created by the lead author. The entire panel discussed and refined the guideline before distribution to secondary reviewers for comment. The panel then made changes based on the secondary review comments. The objective of this guideline is to assist poison center personnel in the appropriate out-of-hospital triage and initial out-of-hospital management of patients with suspected ingestions of methylphenidate by 1) describing the process by which a specialist in poison information should evaluate an exposure to methylphenidate, 2) identifying the key decision elements in managing cases of methylphenidate ingestion, 3) providing clear and practical recommendations that reflect the current state of knowledge, and 4) identifying needs for research. This review focuses on the ingestion of more than a single therapeutic dose of methylphenidate and the effects of an overdose and is based on an assessment of current scientific and clinical information. The expert consensus panel recognizes that specific patient care decisions may be at variance with this guideline and are the prerogative of the patient and the health professionals providing care, considering all of the circumstances involved. This guideline does not substitute for clinical judgment. Recommendations are in chronological order of likely clinical use. The grade of recommendation is in parentheses. 1) All patients with suicidal intent, intentional abuse, or in cases in which

  16. A Multiagent-based Consensus Algorithm for Distributed Coordinated Control of Distributed Generators in the Energy Internet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Qiuye; Han, Renke; Zhang, Huaguang

    2015-01-01

    With the bidirectional power flow provided by the Energy Internet, various methods are promoted to improve and increase the energy utilization between Energy Internet and Main-Grid. This paper proposes a novel distributed coordinated controller combined with a multi-agent-based consensus algorithm...... which is applied to distributed generators in the Energy Internet. Then, the decomposed tasks, models, and information flow of the proposed method are analyzed. The proposed coordinated controller installed between the Energy Internet and the Main-Grid keeps voltage angles and amplitudes consensus while...... providing accurate power-sharing and minimizing circulating currents. Finally, the Energy Internet can be integrated into the Main-Grid seamlessly if necessary. Hence the Energy Internet can be operated as a spinning reserve system. Simulation results are provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed...

  17. Sampled-data consensus in switching networks of integrators based on edge events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Feng; Meng, Xiangyu; Chen, Tongwen

    2015-02-01

    This paper investigates the event-driven sampled-data consensus in switching networks of multiple integrators and studies both the bidirectional interaction and leader-following passive reaction topologies in a unified framework. In these topologies, each information link is modelled by an edge of the information graph and assigned a sequence of edge events, which activate the mutual data sampling and controller updates of the two linked agents. Two kinds of edge-event-detecting rules are proposed for the general asynchronous data-sampling case and the synchronous periodic event-detecting case. They are implemented in a distributed fashion, and their effectiveness in reducing communication costs and solving consensus problems under a jointly connected topology condition is shown by both theoretical analysis and simulation examples.

  18. Consensus building on the development of a stress-based indicator for LCA-based impact assessment of water consumption: outcome of the expert workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    The WULCA group, active since 2007 on Water Use in LCA, commenced the development of consensus-based indicators in January 2014. This activity is planned to last 2 years and covers human health, ecosystem quality, and a stress-based indicator. This latter encompasses potential de...

  19. A Multidisciplinary Delphi Consensus-Based Checklist to Define Clinical Documentation Tools for Both Routine and Research Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Veraar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To the best of our knowledge, a strategic approach to define the contents of structured clinical documentation tools for both clinical routine patient care and research purposes has not been reported so far, although electronic health record will become more and more structured and detailed in the future. Objective: To achieve an interdisciplinary consensus on a checklist to be considered for the preparation of disease- and situation-specific clinical documentation tools. Methods: A 2-round Delphi consensus-based process was conducted both with 19 physicians of different disciplines and 14 students from Austria, Switzerland, and Germany. Agreement was defined as 80% or more positive votes of the participants. Results: The participants agreed that a working group should be set up for the development of structured disease- or situation-specific documentation tools (97% agreement. The final checklist included 4 recommendations concerning the setup of the working group, 12 content-related recommendations, and 3 general and technical recommendations (mean agreement [standard deviation] = 97.4% [4.0%], ranging from 84.2% to 100.0%. Discussion and Conclusion: In the future, disease- and situation-specific structured documentation tools will provide an important bridge between registries and electronic health records. Clinical documentation tools defined according to this Delphi consensus-based checklist will provide data for registries while serving as high-quality data acquisition tools in routine clinical care.

  20. Updating OSHA standards based on national consensus standards. final rule; confirmation of effective date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-14

    OSHA is confirming the effective date of its direct final rule that revises a number of standards for general industry that refer to national consensus standards. The direct final rule states that it would become effective on March 13, 2008 unless OSHA receives significant adverse comment on these revisions by January 14, 2008. OSHA received no adverse comments by that date and, therefore, is confirming that the rule will become effective on March 13, 2008.

  1. Surgical complications following cochlear implantation in adults based on a proposed reporting consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jonas; Faber, Christian Emil

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Conclusion: The rate of severe complications was low and cochlear implantation is a relatively safe procedure. Standardization is crucial when reporting on cochlear implant complications to ensure comparability between studies. A consensus on the reporting of complications proposed by a ...... occurred following one implantation (0.3%). Transient chorda tympani syndrome (30.8%), vertigo/dizziness (29.5%) and tinnitus (4.9%) were the most frequent minor complications....

  2. Taxonomy of Payments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix B.; Holst, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    that impact payers’ choice of payment instruments. Design/methodology/approach: Through in-depth interviews using the repertory grid technique, the authors explored 15 payers’ perceptions of six payment instruments, including coins, banknotes, debit cards, credit cards, mobile payments, and online banking....... The approach draws heavily on organizational systematics to better understand payers’ choice of payment instruments. Findings: A four-category taxonomy of payments was developed. The authors refer to the taxonomy as the 4Ps: the purchase, the payer, the payment instrument, and the physical technology...... or checks. Research limitations/implications: The findings suggest that payers view payment instruments in a much broader sense, including context, control, or cultural beliefs. Consequently, the authors suggest that researchers try to understand the essence of an innovation before assuming any economic...

  3. The CARE guidelines: consensus-based clinical case report guideline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnier, Joel J; Kienle, Gunver; Altman, Douglas G; Moher, David; Sox, Harold; Riley, David

    2014-01-01

    A case report is a narrative that describes, for medical, scientific, or educational purposes, a medical problem experienced by one or more patients. Case reports written without guidance from reporting standards are insufficiently rigorous to guide clinical practice or to inform clinical study design. Develop, disseminate, and implement systematic reporting guidelines for case reports. We used a three-phase consensus process consisting of (1) pre-meeting literature review and interviews to generate items for the reporting guidelines, (2) a face-to-face consensus meeting to draft the reporting guidelines, and (3) post-meeting feedback, review, and pilot testing, followed by finalization of the case report guidelines. This consensus process involved 27 participants and resulted in a 13-item checklist-a reporting guideline for case reports. The primary items of the checklist are title, key words, abstract, introduction, patient information, clinical findings, timeline, diagnostic assessment, therapeutic interventions, follow-up and outcomes, discussion, patient perspective, and informed consent. We believe the implementation of the CARE (CAse REport) guidelines by medical journals will improve the completeness and transparency of published case reports and that the systematic aggregation of information from case reports will inform clinical study design, provide early signals of effectiveness and harms, and improve healthcare delivery. Copyright © 2014 Reproduced with permission of Global Advances in Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Improved Consensus Linkage Map of Barley Based on Flow-Sorted Chromosomes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Muñoz-Amatriaín

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in high-throughput genotyping have made it easier to combine information from different mapping populations into consensus genetic maps, which provide increased marker density and genome coverage compared to individual maps. Previously, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP-based genotyping platform was developed and used to genotype 373 individuals in four barley ( L. mapping populations. This led to a 2943 SNP consensus genetic map with 975 unique positions. In this work, we add data from six additional populations and more individuals from one of the original populations to develop an improved consensus map from 1133 individuals. A stringent and systematic analysis of each of the 10 populations was performed to achieve uniformity. This involved reexamination of the four populations included in the previous map. As a consequence, we present a robust consensus genetic map that contains 2994 SNP loci mapped to 1163 unique positions. The map spans 1137.3 cM with an average density of one marker bin per 0.99 cM. A novel application of the genotyping platform for gene detection allowed the assignment of 2930 genes to flow-sorted chromosomes or arms, confirmed the position of 2545 SNP-mapped loci, added chromosome or arm allocations to an additional 370 SNP loci, and delineated pericentromeric regions for chromosomes 2H to 7H. Marker order has been improved and map resolution has been increased by almost 20%. These increased precision outcomes enable more optimized SNP selection for marker-assisted breeding and support association genetic analysis and map-based cloning. It will also improve the anchoring of DNA sequence scaffolds and the barley physical map to the genetic map.

  5. Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP): development of a consensus based paediatric podiatry and physiotherapy standardised recording proforma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranage, Simone; Banwell, Helen; Williams, Cylie M

    2016-01-01

    Paediatric gait and lower limb assessments are frequently undertaken in podiatry and physiotherapy clinical practice and this is a growing area of expertise within Australia. No concise paediatric standardised recording proforma exists to assist clinicians in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to develop a gait and lower limb standardised recording proforma guided by the literature and consensus, for assessment of the paediatric foot and lower limb in children aged 0-18 years. Expert Australian podiatrists and physiotherapists were invited to participate in a three round Delphi survey panel using the online Qualtrics(©) survey platform. The first round of the survey consisted of open-ended questions on paediatric gait and lower limb assessment developed from existing templates and a literature search of standardised lower limb assessment methods. Rounds two and three consisted of statements developed from the first round responses. Questions and statements were included in the final proforma if 70 % or more of the participants indicated consensus or agreement with the assessment method and if there was support within the literature for paediatric age-specific normative data with acceptable reliability of outcome measures. There were 17 of the 21 (81 %) participants who completed three rounds of the survey. Consensus was achieved for 41 statements in Round one, 54 statements achieved agreement in two subsequent rounds. Participants agreed on 95 statements relating to birth history, developmental history, hip measurement, rotation of the lower limb, ankle range of motion, foot posture, balance and gait. Assessments with acceptable validity and reliability were included within the final Gait and Lower Limb Observation of Paediatrics (GALLOP) proforma. The GALLOP proforma is a consensus based, systematic and standardised way to collect information and outcome measures in paediatric lower limb assessment. This standardised recording proforma will assist

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: aye-aye [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aye-aye Daubentonia madagascariensis Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Primate Daubentonia_madaga...scariensis_L.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_NL.png Daubentonia_madagascariensis_S.png Daubentonia_madagasc...ariensis_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascar...iensis&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Daubentonia+madagascariensis&t=S http://bi

  7. Comment: 219 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese medaka Oryzias latipes Oryzias_latipes_L.png 219.png Taxonomy icon (c) Database Center for Life Sci...ence licensed under CC Attribution2.1 Japan アイコン:メダカ HNI-Ⅱ系統バージョン bando 2010/02/15 15:31:07 2010/02/16 09:53:27 ...

  8. Crafting consensus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zápal, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 173, 1–2 (2017), s. 169-200 ISSN 0048-5829 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-27902P Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : consensus building * agenda setting * vote buying Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Economic Theory Impact factor: 0.788, year: 2016

  9. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna

    2017-01-01

    the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). METHODS: As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership...... with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain...... Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria...

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium tomitaroanum Masam Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_L.png Diplazium_tomit...aroanum_Masam_NL.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masam_S.png Diplazium_tomitaroanum_Masa...m_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=L http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NL http://bioscien...cedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Diplazium+tomitaroanum+Masam&t=NS ...

  11. Taxonomy Icon Data: Javan tree shrew [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Javan tree shrew Tupaia javanica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Tupaia_java...nica_L.png Tupaia_javanica_NL.png Tupaia_javanica_S.png Tupaia_javanica_NS.png http://bioscienced...bc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+java...nica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Tupaia+javanica&t=NS ...

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  13. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: wild Bactrian camel [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available wild Bactrian camel Camelus ferus Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/Artiodactyla Camel...us_ferus_L.png Camelus_ferus_NL.png Camelus_ferus_S.png Camelus_ferus_NS.png http://bioscience...dbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+f...erus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Camelus+ferus&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: Pacific electric ray [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pacific electric ray Torpedo californica Chordata/Vertebrata/Pisciformes Torpedo_californica_L.png Torpedo..._californica_NL.png Torpedo_californica_S.png Torpedo_californica_NS.png http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo...+californica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Torpedo+californica&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese tree frog [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese tree frog Hyla japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Hyla_japonica_L.png Hyla_jap...onica_NL.png Hyla_japonica_S.png Hyla_japonica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap...onica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Hyla+jap

  17. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese giant salamander [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese giant salamander Andrias japonicus Chordata/Vertebrata/Amphibia Andrias_japonicus_L.png Andrias_jap...onicus_NL.png Andrias_japonicus_S.png Andrias_japonicus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc....jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+jap...onicus&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus...&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Andrias+japonicus&t=NS ...

  18. Global Aesthetics Consensus: Avoidance and Management of Complications from Hyaluronic Acid Fillers—Evidence- and Opinion-Based Review and Consensus Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Steven; Sundaram, Hema; De Boulle, Koenraad L.; Goodman, Greg J.; Monheit, Gary; Wu, Yan; Trindade de Almeida, Ada R.; Swift, Arthur; Vieira Braz, André

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although the safety profile of hyaluronic acid fillers is favorable, adverse reactions can occur. Clinicians and patients can benefit from ongoing guidance on adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. Methods: A multinational, multidisciplinary group of experts in cosmetic medicine convened the Global Aesthetics Consensus Group to review the properties and clinical uses of Hylacross and Vycross hyaluronic acid products and develop updated consensus recommendations for early and late complications associated with hyaluronic acid fillers. Results: The consensus panel provided specific recommendations focusing on early and late complications of hyaluronic acid fillers and their management. The impact of patient-, product-, and technique-related factors on such reactions was described. Most of these were noted to be mild and transient. Serious adverse events are rare. Early adverse reactions to hyaluronic acid fillers include vascular infarction and compromise; inflammatory reactions; injection-related events; and inappropriate placement of filler material. Among late reactions are nodules, granulomas, and skin discoloration. Most adverse events can be avoided with proper planning and technique. Detailed understanding of facial anatomy, proper patient and product selection, and appropriate technique can further reduce the risks. Should adverse reactions occur, the clinician must be prepared and have tools available for effective treatment. Conclusions: Adverse reactions with hyaluronic acid fillers are uncommon. Clinicians should take steps to further reduce the risk and be prepared to treat any complications that arise. PMID:27219265

  19. Generalized metamaterials: Definitions and taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Noori; Yoon, Yong-Jin; Allen, Jont B

    2016-06-01

    This article reviews the development of metamaterials (MM), starting from Newton's discovery of the wave equation, and ends with a discussion of the need for a technical taxonomy (classification) of these materials, along with a better defined definition of metamaterials. It is intended to be a technical definition of metamaterials, based on a historical perspective. The evolution of MMs began with the discovery of the wave equation, traceable back to Newton's calculation of the speed of sound. The theory of sound evolved to include quasi-statics (Helmholtz) and the circuit equations of Kirchhoff's circuit laws, leading to the ultimate development of Maxwell's equations and the equation for the speed of light. Be it light, or sound, the speed of the wave-front travel defines the wavelength, and thus the quasi-static (QS) approximation. But there is much more at stake than QSs. Taxonomy requires a proper statement of the laws of physics, which includes at least the six basic network postulates: (P1) causality (non-causal/acausal), (P2) linearity (non-linear), (P3) real (complex) time response, (P4) passive (active), (P5) time-invariant (time varying), and (P6) reciprocal (non-reciprocal). These six postulates are extended to include MMs.

  20. Consensus-based identification of factors related to false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovitis and tenosynovitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Kei; Narita, Akihiro; Ogasawara, Michihiro; Ohno, Shigeru; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kawakami, Atsushi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsushita, Isao; Suzuki, Takeshi; Misaki, Kenta; Ogura, Takehisa; Kamishima, Tamotsu; Seto, Yohei; Nakahara, Ryuichi; Kaneko, Atsushi; Nakamura, Takayuki; Henmi, Mihoko; Fukae, Jun; Nishida, Keiichiro; Sumida, Takayuki; Koike, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to identify causes of false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovial/tenosynovial/bursal inflammation and provide corresponding imaging examples. We first performed systematic literature review to identify previously reported causes of false-positives. We next determined causes of false-positives and corresponding example images for educational material through Delphi exercises and discussion by 15 experts who were an instructor and/or a lecturer in the 2013 advanced course for musculoskeletal ultrasound organized by Japan College of Rheumatology Committee for the Standardization of Musculoskeletal Ultrasonography. Systematic literature review identified 11 articles relevant to sonographic false-positives of synovial/tenosynovial inflammation. Based on these studies, 21 candidate causes of false-positives were identified in the consensus meeting. Of these items, 11 achieved a predefined consensus (≥ 80%) in Delphi exercise and were classified as follows: (I) Gray-scale assessment [(A) non-specific synovial findings and (B) normal anatomical structures which can mimic synovial lesions due to either their low echogenicity or anisotropy]; (II) Doppler assessment [(A) Intra-articular normal vessels and (B) reverberation)]. Twenty-four corresponding examples with 49 still and 23 video images also achieved consensus. Our study provides a set of representative images that can help sonographers to understand false-positives in ultrasound scanning of synovitis and tenosynovitis.

  1. Refining the global spatial limits of dengue virus transmission by evidence-based consensus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J Brady

    Full Text Available Dengue is a growing problem both in its geographical spread and in its intensity, and yet current global distribution remains highly uncertain. Challenges in diagnosis and diagnostic methods as well as highly variable national health systems mean no single data source can reliably estimate the distribution of this disease. As such, there is a lack of agreement on national dengue status among international health organisations. Here we bring together all available information on dengue occurrence using a novel approach to produce an evidence consensus map of the disease range that highlights nations with an uncertain dengue status.A baseline methodology was used to assess a range of evidence for each country. In regions where dengue status was uncertain, additional evidence types were included to either clarify dengue status or confirm that it is unknown at this time. An algorithm was developed that assesses evidence quality and consistency, giving each country an evidence consensus score. Using this approach, we were able to generate a contemporary global map of national-level dengue status that assigns a relative measure of certainty and identifies gaps in the available evidence.The map produced here provides a list of 128 countries for which there is good evidence of dengue occurrence, including 36 countries that have previously been classified as dengue-free by the World Health Organization and/or the US Centers for Disease Control. It also identifies disease surveillance needs, which we list in full. The disease extents and limits determined here using evidence consensus, marks the beginning of a five-year study to advance the mapping of dengue virus transmission and disease risk. Completion of this first step has allowed us to produce a preliminary estimate of population at risk with an upper bound of 3.97 billion people. This figure will be refined in future work.

  2. Classification and taxonomy of vegetable macergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukola Rhoda Aremu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Macergens are bacteria capable of releasing pectic enzymes (pectolytic bacteria. These enzymatic actions result in the separation of plant tissues leading to total plant destruction. This can be attributed to soft rot diseases in vegetables. These macergens primarily belong to the genus Erwinia and to a range of opportunistic pathogens namely: the Xanthomonas spp, Pseudomonas spp., Clostridium spp., Cytophaga spp. and Bacillus spp. They consist of taxa that displayed considerable heterogeneity and intermingled with members of other genera belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. They have been classified based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic which obviously not necessary in the taxonomy of all bacterial genera for defining bacterial species and describing new ones These taxonomic markers have been used traditionally as a simple technique for identification of bacterial isolates. The most important fields of taxonomy are supposed to be based on clear, reliable and worldwide applicable criteria. Hence, this review clarifies the taxonomy of the macergens to the species level and revealed that their taxonomy is beyond complete. For discovery of additional species, further research with the use modern molecular methods like phylogenomics need to be done. This can precisely define classification of macergens resulting in occasional, but significant changes in previous taxonomic schemes of these macergens.

  3. Late presentation to HIV testing is overestimated when based on the consensus definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, A; Florence, E; Pharris, A; De Wit, S; Lacor, P; Van Beckhoven, D; Deblonde, J; Delforge, M-L; Fransen, K; Goffard, J-C; Legrand, J-C; Moutschen, M; Piérard, D; Ruelle, J; Vaira, D; Vandercam, B; Van Ranst, M; Van Wijngaerden, E; Vandekerckhove, L; Verhofstede, C

    2016-03-01

    In 2011, a consensus was reached defining "late presenters" (LPs) as individuals presenting for care with a CD4 count account. Case surveillance data for newly diagnosed patients in Belgium in 1998-2012 were analysed, including CD4 count at diagnosis, the presence of AIDS-defining events, and recent infections (definition. Secondly, LPs were reclassified as "nonlate" if infections were reported as recent. A total of 7949 HIV diagnoses were included in the study. Recent infections were increasingly reported over time, accounting for 8.2% of new infections in 1998 and 37.5% in 2012. The consideration of clinical stage significantly modified the proportion of LPs: 18.2% of men who have sex with men (MSM) diagnosed in 2012 would be classified as LPs instead of 30.9% using the consensus definition (P definition. The impact of transient CD4 count on late presentation estimates should be assessed and, if relevant, the introduction of clinical stage in the definition of late presentation should be considered. © 2015 British HIV Association.

  4. An Android Communication App Forensic Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azfar, Abdullah; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Liu, Lin

    2016-09-01

    Due to the popularity of Android devices and applications (apps), Android forensics is one of the most studied topics within mobile forensics. Communication apps, such as instant messaging and Voice over IP (VoIP), are one popular app category used by mobile device users, including criminals. Therefore, a taxonomy outlining artifacts of forensic interest involving the use of Android communication apps will facilitate the timely collection and analysis of evidentiary materials from such apps. In this paper, 30 popular Android communication apps were examined, where a logical extraction of the Android phone images was collected using XRY, a widely used mobile forensic tool. Various information of forensic interest, such as contact lists and chronology of messages, was recovered. Based on the findings, a two-dimensional taxonomy of the forensic artifacts of the communication apps is proposed, with the app categories in one dimension and the classes of artifacts in the other dimension. Finally, the artifacts identified in the study of the 30 communication apps are summarized using the taxonomy. It is expected that the proposed taxonomy and the forensic findings in this paper will assist forensic investigations involving Android communication apps. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. The HCBS Taxonomy- A New Language for Classifying Home...

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The home- and community-based services (HCBS) taxonomy provides a common language for describing and categorizing HCBS across Medicaid programs. Prior to the...

  6. Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Scott A; Cimino, Cynthia R; Stricker, Nikki H; Heffelfinger, Amy K; Gess, Jennifer L; Osborn, Katie E; Roper, Brad L

    2017-07-01

    Historically, the clinical neuropsychology training community has not clearly or consistently defined education or training opportunities. The lack of consistency has limited students' and trainees' ability to accurately assess and compare the intensity of neuropsychology-specific training provided by programs. To address these issues and produce greater 'truth in advertising' across programs, CNS, with SCN's Education Advisory Committee (EAC), ADECN, AITCN, and APPCN constructed a specialty-specific taxonomy, namely, the Taxonomy for Education and Training in Clinical Neuropsychology. The taxonomy provides consensus in the description of training offered by doctoral, internship, and postdoctoral programs, as well as at the post-licensure stage. Although the CNS approved the taxonomy in February 2015, many programs have not adopted its language. Increased awareness of the taxonomy and the reasons behind its development and structure, as well as its potential benefits, are warranted. In 2016, a working group of clinical neuropsychologists from the EAC and APPCN, all authors of this manuscript, was created and tasked with disseminating information about the taxonomy. Group members held regular conference calls, leading to the generation of this manuscript. This manuscript is the primary byproduct of the working group. Its purpose is to (1) outline the history behind the development of the taxonomy, (2) detail its structure and utility, (3) address the expected impact of its adoption, and (4) call for its adoption across training programs. This manuscript outlines the development and structure of the clinical neuropsychology taxonomy and addresses the need for its adoption across training programs.

  7. Consensus-based recommendations for the management of uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: the SHARE initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantin, Tamas; Foeldvari, Ivan; Anton, Jordi; de Boer, Joke; Czitrom-Guillaume, Severine; Edelsten, Clive; Gepstein, Raz; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Pilkington, Clarissa A; Simonini, Gabriele; Uziel, Yosef; Vastert, Sebastian J; Wulffraat, Nico M; Haasnoot, Anne-Mieke; Walscheid, Karoline; Pálinkás, Annamária; Pattani, Reshma; Györgyi, Zoltán; Kozma, Richárd; Boom, Victor; Ponyi, Andrea; Ravelli, Angelo; Ramanan, Athimalaipet V

    2018-03-28

    In 2012, a European initiative called S ingle Hub and Access point for pediatric Rheumatology in Europe (SHARE) was launched to optimise and disseminate diagnostic and management regimens in Europe for children and young adults with rheumatic diseases. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children and uveitis is possibly its most devastating extra-articular manifestation. Evidence-based guidelines are sparse and management is mostly based on physicians' experience. Consequently, treatment practices differ widely, within and between nations. To provide recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated uveitis. Recommendations were developed by an evidence-informed consensus process using the European League Against Rheumatism standard operating procedures. A committee was constituted, consisting of nine experienced paediatric rheumatologists and three experts in ophthalmology from Europe. Recommendations derived from a validated systematic literature review were evaluated by an Expert Committee and subsequently discussed at two consensus meetings using nominal group techniques. Recommendations were accepted if >80% agreement was reached (including all three ophthalmologists). In total, 22 recommendations were accepted (with >80% agreement among experts): 3 on diagnosis, 5 on disease activity measurements, 12 on treatment and 2 on future recommendations. The SHARE initiative aims to identify best practices for treatment of patients suffering from JIA-associated uveitis. Within this remit, recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of JIA-associated uveitis have been formulated by an evidence-informed consensus process to suggest a standard of care for JIA-associated uveitis patients throughout Europe. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Updating OSHA Standards Based on National Consensus Standards; Eye and Face Protection. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-25

    On March 13, 2015, OSHA published in the Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to revise its eye and face protection standards for general industry, shipyard employment, marine terminals, longshoring, and construction by updating the references to national consensus standards approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA received no significant objections from commenters and therefore is adopting the amendments as proposed. This final rule updates the references in OSHA's eye and face standards to reflect the most recent edition of the ANSI/International Safety Equipment Association (ISEA) eye and face protection standard. It removes the oldest-referenced edition of the same ANSI standard. It also amends other provisions of the construction eye and face protection standard to bring them into alignment with OSHA's general industry and maritime standards.

  9. Ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri in systems science and systematics

    CERN Document Server

    Currás, Emilia

    2010-01-01

    The originality of this book, which deals with such a new subject matter, lies in the application of methods and concepts never used before - such as ontologies and taxonomies, as well as thesauri - to the ordering of knowledge based on primary information. Chapters in the book also examine the study of ontologies, taxonomies and thesauri from the perspective of systematics and general systems theory. Ontologies, Taxonomies and Thesauri in Systems Science and Systematics will be extremely useful to those operating within the network of related fields, which includes documentation and informati

  10. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saari, Nurhidayu; Gao, Feng; Rohul, Amin A K M; Sato, Kazumichi; Sato, Keisuke; Mino, Sayaka; Suda, Wataru; Oshima, Kenshiro; Hattori, Masahira; Ohkuma, Moriya; Meirelles, Pedro M; Thompson, Fabiano L; Thompson, Cristiane; Filho, Gilberto M A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Sawabe, Toko; Sawabe, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20) showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity) and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity), respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V. agarivorans CECT

  11. Advanced Microbial Taxonomy Combined with Genome-Based-Approaches Reveals that Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov., an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium, Forms a New Clade in Vibrionaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhidayu Al-Saari

    Full Text Available Advances in genomic microbial taxonomy have opened the way to create a more universal and transparent concept of species but is still in a transitional stage towards becoming a defining robust criteria for describing new microbial species with minimum features obtained using both genome and classical polyphasic taxonomies. Here we performed advanced microbial taxonomies combined with both genome-based and classical approaches for new agarolytic vibrio isolates to describe not only a novel Vibrio species but also a member of a new Vibrio clade. Two novel vibrio strains (Vibrio astriarenae sp. nov. C7T and C20 showing agarolytic, halophilic and fermentative metabolic activity were isolated from a seawater sample collected in a coral reef in Okinawa. Intraspecific similarities of the isolates were identical in both sequences on the 16S rRNA and pyrH genes, but the closest relatives on the molecular phylogenetic trees on the basis of 16S rRNA and pyrH gene sequences were V. hangzhouensis JCM 15146T (97.8% similarity and V. agarivorans CECT 5085T (97.3% similarity, respectively. Further multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA on the basis of 8 protein coding genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA obtained by the genome sequences clearly showed the V. astriarenae strain C7T and C20 formed a distinct new clade protruded next to V. agarivorans CECT 5085T. The singleton V. agarivorans has never been included in previous MLSA of Vibrionaceae due to the lack of some gene sequences. Now the gene sequences are completed and analysis of 100 taxa in total provided a clear picture describing the association of V. agarivorans into pre-existing concatenated network tree and concluded its relationship to our vibrio strains. Experimental DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH data showed that the strains C7T and C20 were conspecific but were separated from all of the other Vibrio species related on the basis of both 16S rRNA and pyrH gene phylogenies (e.g., V

  12. The evolution of trypanosomatid taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufer, Alexa; Ellis, John; Stark, Damien; Barratt, Joel

    2017-06-08

    Trypanosomatids are protozoan parasites of the class Kinetoplastida predominately restricted to invertebrate hosts (i.e. possess a monoxenous life-cycle). However, several genera are pathogenic to humans, animals and plants, and have an invertebrate vector that facilitates their transmission (i.e. possess a dixenous life-cycle). Phytomonas is one dixenous genus that includes several plant pathogens transmitted by phytophagous insects. Trypanosoma and Leishmania are dixenous genera that infect vertebrates, including humans, and are transmitted by hematophagous invertebrates. Traditionally, monoxenous trypanosomatids such as Leptomonas were distinguished from morphologically similar dixenous species based on their restriction to an invertebrate host. Nonetheless, this criterion is somewhat flawed as exemplified by Leptomonas seymouri which reportedly infects vertebrates opportunistically. Similarly, Novymonas and Zelonia are presumably monoxenous genera yet sit comfortably in the dixenous clade occupied by Leishmania. The isolation of Leishmania macropodum from a biting midge (Forcipomyia spp.) rather than a phlebotomine sand fly calls into question the exclusivity of the Leishmania-sand fly relationship, and its suitability for defining the Leishmania genus. It is now accepted that classic genus-defining characteristics based on parasite morphology and host range are insufficient to form the sole basis of trypanosomatid taxonomy as this has led to several instances of paraphyly. While improvements have been made, resolution of evolutionary relationships within the Trypanosomatidae is confounded by our incomplete knowledge of its true diversity. The known trypanosomatids probably represent a fraction of those that exist and isolation of new species will help resolve relationships in this group with greater accuracy. This review incites a dialogue on how our understanding of the relationships between certain trypanosomatids has shifted, and discusses new knowledge

  13. Ultrasonography diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules: Revised Korean society of thyroid radiology consensus statement and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jung Hee [Dept. of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin [Dept. of Radiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-06-15

    The rate of detection of thyroid nodules and carcinomas has increased with the widespread use of ultrasonography (US), which is the mainstay for the detection and risk stratification of thyroid nodules as well as for providing guidance for their biopsy and nonsurgical treatment. The Korean Society of Thyroid Radiology (KSThR) published their first recommendations for the US-based diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules in 2011. These recommendations have been used as the standard guidelines for the past several years in Korea. Lately, the application of US has been further emphasized for the personalized management of patients with thyroid nodules. The Task Force on Thyroid Nodules of the KSThR has revised the recommendations for the ultrasound diagnosis and imaging-based management of thyroid nodules. The review and recommendations in this report have been based on a comprehensive analysis of the current literature and the consensus of experts.

  14. Taxonomy Icon Data: African savanna elephant [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available African savanna elephant Loxodonta africana Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eutheria/etc. Loxodonta_afri...cana_L.png Loxodonta_africana_NL.png Loxodonta_africana_S.png Loxodonta_africana_NS....png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonom...y_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+afric...ana&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Loxodonta+africana&t=NS ...

  15. Taxonomy Icon Data: North Pacific right whale [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available North Pacific right whale Eubalaena japonica Chordata/Vertebrata/Mammalia/Theria/Eu...theria/Cetacea Eubalaena_japonica_L.png Eubalaena_japonica_NL.png Eubalaena_japonica_S.png Eubalaena_japonic...a_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_ic...on/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Eubalaena+japonica&t=NS ...

  16. Taxonomy of oxalotrophic Methylobacterium strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Nurettin; Kato, Yuko; Yilmaz, Ferah

    2008-10-01

    Most of the oxalotrophic bacteria are facultative methylotrophs and play important ecological roles in soil fertility and cycling of elements. This study gives a detailed picture of the taxonomy and diversity of these bacteria and provides new information about the taxonomical variability within the genus Methylobacterium. Twelve mesophilic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic oxalate-oxidizing strains were included in this work that had been previously isolated from the soil and some plant tissues by the potassium oxalate enrichment method. The isolates were characterized using biochemical tests, cellular lipid profiles, spectral characteristics of carotenoid pigments, G+C content of the DNA, and 16S rDNA sequencing. The taxonomic similarities among the strains were analyzed using the simple matching ( S SM) and Jaccard ( S J) coefficients, and the UPGMA clustering algorithm. The phylogenetic position of the strains was inferred by the neighbor-joining method on the basis of the 16S rDNA sequences. All isolates were Gram-negative, facultatively methylotrophic, oxidase and catalase positive, and required no growth factors. Based on the results of numerical taxonomy, the strains formed four closely related clusters sharing ≥85% similarity. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences demonstrated that oxalotrophic, pink-pigmented, and facultatively methylotrophic strains could be identified as members of the genus Methylobacterium. Except for M. variabile and M. aquaticum, all of the Methylobacterium type strains tested had the ability of oxalate utilization. Our results indicate that the capability of oxalate utilization seems to be an uncommon trait and could be used as a valuable taxonomic criterion for differentiation of Methylobacterium species.

  17. Indicators of activity-friendly communities: an evidence-based consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan Ramirez, Laura K; Hoehner, Christine M; Brownson, Ross C; Cook, Rebeka; Orleans, C Tracy; Hollander, Marla; Barker, Dianne C; Bors, Philip; Ewing, Reid; Killingsworth, Richard; Petersmarck, Karen; Schmid, Thomas; Wilkinson, William

    2006-12-01

    Regular physical activity, even at modest intensities, is associated with many health benefits. Most Americans, however, do not engage in the recommended levels. As practitioners seek ways to increase population rates of physical activity, interventions and advocacy efforts are being targeted to the community level. Yet, advocates, community leaders, and researchers lack the tools needed to assess local barriers to and opportunities for more active, healthy lifestyles. Investigators used a systematic review process to identify key indicators of activity-friendly communities that can assess and improve opportunities for regular physical activity. Investigators conducted a comprehensive literature review of both peer-reviewed literature and fugitive information (e.g., reports and websites) to generate an initial list of indicators for review (n=230). The review included a three-tiered, modified Delphi consensus-development process that incorporated input of international, national, state, and local researchers and practitioners from academic institutions, federal and state government agencies, nonprofit organizations, and funding agencies in public health, transportation, urban planning, parks and recreation, and public policy. Ten promising indicators of activity-friendly communities were identified: land use environment, access to exercise facilities, transportation environment, aesthetics, travel patterns, social environment, land use economics, transportation economics, institutional and organizational policies, and promotion. Collaborative, multidisciplinary approaches are underway to test, refine, and expand this initial list of indicators and to develop measures that communities, community leaders, and policymakers can use to design more activity-friendly community environments.

  18. Biomarkers of stroke recovery: Consensus-based core recommendations from the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Lara A; Hayward, Kathryn S; Ward, Nick S; Stinear, Cathy M; Rosso, Charlotte; Fisher, Rebecca J; Carter, Alexandre R; Leff, Alex P; Copland, David A; Carey, Leeanne M; Cohen, Leonardo G; Basso, D Michele; Maguire, Jane M; Cramer, Steven C

    2017-07-01

    The most difficult clinical questions in stroke rehabilitation are "What is this patient's potential for recovery?" and "What is the best rehabilitation strategy for this person, given her/his clinical profile?" Without answers to these questions, clinicians struggle to make decisions regarding the content and focus of therapy, and researchers design studies that inadvertently mix participants who have a high likelihood of responding with those who do not. Developing and implementing biomarkers that distinguish patient subgroups will help address these issues and unravel the factors important to the recovery process. The goal of the present paper is to provide a consensus statement regarding the current state of the evidence for stroke recovery biomarkers. Biomarkers of motor, somatosensory, cognitive and language domains across the recovery timeline post-stroke are considered; with focus on brain structure and function, and exclusion of blood markers and genetics. We provide evidence for biomarkers that are considered ready to be included in clinical trials, as well as others that are promising but not ready and so represent a developmental priority. We conclude with an example that illustrates the utility of biomarkers in recovery and rehabilitation research, demonstrating how the inclusion of a biomarker may enhance future clinical trials. In this way, we propose a way forward for when and where we can include biomarkers to advance the efficacy of the practice of, and research into, rehabilitation and recovery after stroke.

  19. Systematic Review of Real-time Remote Health Monitoring System in Triage and Priority-Based Sensor Technology: Taxonomy, Open Challenges, Motivation and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albahri, O S; Albahri, A S; Mohammed, K I; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hashim, M; Salman, Omar H

    2018-03-22

    The new and ground-breaking real-time remote monitoring in triage and priority-based sensor technology used in telemedicine have significantly bounded and dispersed communication components. To examine these technologies and provide researchers with a clear vision of this area, we must first be aware of the utilised approaches and existing limitations in this line of research. To this end, an extensive search was conducted to find articles dealing with (a) telemedicine, (b) triage, (c) priority and (d) sensor; (e) comprehensively review related applications and establish the coherent taxonomy of these articles. ScienceDirect, IEEE Xplore and Web of Science databases were checked for articles on triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The retrieved articles were filtered according to the type of telemedicine technology explored. A total of 150 articles were selected and classified into two categories. The first category includes reviews and surveys of triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine. The second category includes articles on the three-tiered architecture of telemedicine. Tier 1 represents the users. Sensors acquire the vital signs of the users and send them to Tier 2, which is the personal gateway that uses local area network protocols or wireless body area network. Medical data are sent from Tier 2 to Tier 3, which is the healthcare provider in medical institutes. Then, the motivation for using triage and priority-based sensor technology in telemedicine, the issues related to the obstruction of its application and the development and utilisation of telemedicine are examined on the basis of the findings presented in the literature.

  20. Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of Paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravensbergen, H J C Rianne; Mann, D L; Kamper, S J

    2016-04-01

    Paralympic sports are required to develop evidence-based systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' on the basis of the impact of their impairment on sport performance. However, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) classify athletes solely based on the WHO criteria for low vision and blindness. One key barrier to evidence-based classification is the absence of guidance on how to address classification issues unique to VI sport. The aim of this study was to reach expert consensus on how issues specific to VI sport should be addressed in evidence-based classification. A four-round Delphi study was conducted with 25 participants who had expertise as a coach, athlete, classifier and/or administrator in Paralympic sport for VI athletes. The experts agreed that the current method of classification does not fulfil the requirements of Paralympic classification, and that the system should be different for each sport to account for the sports' unique visual demands. Instead of relying only on tests of visual acuity and visual field, the panel agreed that additional tests are required to better account for the impact of impairment on sport performance. There was strong agreement that all athletes should not be required to wear a blindfold as a means of equalising the impairment during competition. There is strong support within the Paralympic movement to change the way that VI athletes are classified. This consensus statement provides clear guidance on how the most important issues specific to VI should be addressed, removing key barriers to the development of evidence-based classification. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. OARSI recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis, Part II: OARSI evidence-based, expert consensus guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W; Moskowitz, R W; Nuki, G; Abramson, S; Altman, R D; Arden, N; Bierma-Zeinstra, S; Brandt, K D; Croft, P; Doherty, M; Dougados, M; Hochberg, M; Hunter, D J; Kwoh, K; Lohmander, L S; Tugwell, P

    2008-02-01

    To develop concise, patient-focussed, up to date, evidence-based, expert consensus recommendations for the management of hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA), which are adaptable and designed to assist physicians and allied health care professionals in general and specialist practise throughout the world. Sixteen experts from four medical disciplines (primary care, rheumatology, orthopaedics and evidence-based medicine), two continents and six countries (USA, UK, France, Netherlands, Sweden and Canada) formed the guidelines development team. A systematic review of existing guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA published between 1945 and January 2006 was undertaken using the validated appraisal of guidelines research and evaluation (AGREE) instrument. A core set of management modalities was generated based on the agreement between guidelines. Evidence before 2002 was based on a systematic review conducted by European League Against Rheumatism and evidence after 2002 was updated using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, AMED, the Cochrane Library and HTA reports. The quality of evidence was evaluated, and where possible, effect size (ES), number needed to treat, relative risk or odds ratio and cost per quality-adjusted life years gained were estimated. Consensus recommendations were produced following a Delphi exercise and the strength of recommendation (SOR) for propositions relating to each modality was determined using a visual analogue scale. Twenty-three treatment guidelines for the management of hip and knee OA were identified from the literature search, including six opinion-based, five evidence-based and 12 based on both expert opinion and research evidence. Twenty out of 51 treatment modalities addressed by these guidelines were universally recommended. ES for pain relief varied from treatment to treatment. Overall there was no statistically significant difference between non-pharmacological therapies [0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.16, 0.34] and

  2. New Augmented Reality Taxonomy: Technologies and Features of Augmented Environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Hugues , Olivier; Fuchs , Philippe; Nannipieri , Olivier

    2011-01-01

    978-1-4614-0063-9; This article has a dual aim: firstly to define augmented reality (AR) en- vironments and secondly, based on our definition, a new taxonomy enabling these environments to be classified. After briefly reviewing existing classifica- tions, we define AR by its purpose, ie. to enable someone to create sensory- motor and cognitive activities in a new space combining the real environment and a virtual environment. Below we present our functional taxonomy of AR environments. We div...

  3. Characters in Arctostaphylos taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Parker, V. Thomas; Vasey, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    There is value in understanding the past and how it has affected the present. Science focuses on empirical findings, and we know that our prior experiences and those of our predecessors play important roles in determining how we interpret the present. We learn from accomplishments and foibles of predecessors and appreciate the real life experiences we have gone through. In our studies of the genus Arctostaphylos Adans. we have been struck by the fascinating stories surrounding taxonomists who have played roles in the development of our current understanding of the group. In addition to providing insights, they sometimes provide humor and lessons on the value of competition versus collaboration. We offer this history of the humans that forged the taxonomy behind Arctostaphylos classification in this light.

  4. Novel concept of enzyme selective nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-modified inhibitors based on enzyme taxonomy from the diphosphate conformation of NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Mikio; Kitagawa, Yasuyuki; Iida, Shui; Kato, Keisuke; Ono, Machiko

    2015-11-15

    The dihedral angle θ of the diphosphate part of NAD(P) were investigated to distinguish the differences in the binding-conformation of NAD(P) to enzymes and to create an enzyme taxonomy. Furthermore, new inhibitors with fixed dihedral angles showed that enzymes could recognize the differences in the dihedral angle θ. We suggest the taxonomy and the dihedral angle θ are important values for chemists to consider when designing inhibitors and drugs that target enzymes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Multiagent based Distributed Control for Operation Cost Minimization of Droop Controlled AC Microgrid Using Incremental Cost Consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Firoozabadi, Mehdi Savaghebi; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    sharing based on the power rating. With various types of distributed generator (DG) units in the system, factors that closely related to the operation cost, such as fuel cost and efficiencies of the generator should be taken into account in order to improve the efficiency of the whole system....... In this paper, a multiagent based distributed method is proposed to minimize operation cost of the AC microgrid. Each DG is acting as an agent which regulates the power individually using proposed frequency scheduling method. Optimal power command is obtained through carefully designed consensus algorithm...... with only light communication between neighboring agents. Case studies verified that the proposed control strategy can effectively reduce the operation cost....

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis sp.PCC 6803 Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_L.png Synecho...cystis_sp_PCC_6803_NL.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_S.png Synechocystis_sp_PCC_6803_NS.png http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synecho...cystis+sp%2ePCC+6803&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Synechocystis

  7. Towards a new taxonomy of idiopathic orofacial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Alain; Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie; Bouhassira, Didier; Attal, Nadine; Fleiter, Bernard; Goulet, Jean-Paul; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle; Navez, Marie Louise; Picard, Pascale; Pionchon, Paul; Albuisson, Eliane

    2005-08-01

    There is no current consensus on the taxonomy of the different forms of idiopathic orofacial pain (stomatodynia, atypical odontalgia, atypical facial pain, facial arthromyalgia), which are sometimes considered as separate entities and sometimes grouped together. In the present prospective multicentric study, we used a systematic approach to help to place these different painful syndromes in the general classification of chronic facial pain. This multicenter study was carried out on 245 consecutive patients presenting with chronic facial pain (>4 months duration). Each patient was seen by two experts who proposed a diagnosis, administered a 111-item questionnaire and filled out a standardized 68-item examination form. Statistical processing included univariate analysis and several forms of multidimensional analysis. Migraines (n=37), tension-type headache (n=26), post-traumatic neuralgia (n=20) and trigeminal neuralgia (n=13) tended to cluster independently. When signs and symptoms describing topographic features were not included in the list of variables, the idiopathic orofacial pain patients tended to cluster in a single group. Inside this large cluster, only stomatodynia (n=42) emerged as a distinct homogenous subgroup. In contrast, facial arthromyalgia (n=46) and an entity formed with atypical facial pain (n=25) and atypical odontalgia (n=13) could only be individualised by variables reflecting topographical characteristics. These data provide grounds for an evidence-based classification of idiopathic facial pain entities and indicate that the current sub-classification of these syndromes relies primarily on the topography of the symptoms.

  8. American Burn Association Consensus Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    quality consensus conference was underwrit- ten in part by unrestricted educational grants from Molnlycke Health Care and Baxter Health Care. Address... nutrition , psychological outcomes, resuscitation, and wound repair. After reviewing the literature, debating the issues at the consensus conference and...need for intubation, concomitant trauma. 3. Resuscitation characteristics: Lab values (base defi- cit, lactate, hemoglobin /hematocrit, blood urea

  9. It Ain't the Heat, It's the Humanity: Evidence and Implications of a Knowledge-Based Consensus on Man-Made Global Warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, P.; Cook, J.; Nuccitelli, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    One of the most worrisome misconceptions among the general public about climate change is a belief that scientists disagree not only about the cause of the present climate change, but also whether or not the planet is currently warming. Recent surveys have demonstrated that an overwhelming consensus exists, both within the scientific literature and among scientists with climate expertise, that the planet is warming and humans are driving this climatic change. This disconnect, or 'consensus gap', between scientific agreement and public belief has significant consequences for public understanding of the reality and cause of climate change, as well as support for potential solutions. Ensuring that the consensus message is not simply broadcast but is also accepted as legitimate by the public appears to be a primary education and communications opportunity. While the existence of a consensus is not itself evidence of a position's truth, according to Miller (2013) scientific consensus can be taken as evidence that a position is true if it is 'knowledge-based', satisfying the conditions of social calibration, apparent consilience of evidence, and social diversity. We demonstrate that the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change is knowledge-based, satisfying Miller's criteria. In so doing, we hope to increase confidence in its use as an education and communications tool, and assure the public of its validity. We show the consensus is socially calibrated, based on common evidential standards, ontological schemes, and shared formalism. We establish that consilience of evidence points overwhelmingly to the reality of anthropogenic climate change by examining the evidence from several perspectives. We identify unique fingerprints expected as a result of increased greenhouse forcing, eliminate potential natural drivers of climate change as the cause of the present change, and demonstrate the consistency of the observed climate response with known changes in natural

  10. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    OpenAIRE

    David Peón; Manel Antelo; Anxo Calvo-Silvosa

    2017-01-01

    This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category,...

  11. Pragmatic Strategies and Linguistic Structures in Making ‘Suggestions’: Towards Comprehensive Taxonomies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Abolfathiasl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses and upgrades taxonomies of strategies and structures for the speech act of suggesting based on existing taxonomies and classifications in the pragmatics research literature. Previous studies have focused mainly on linguistic structures used to perform the speech act of suggesting. Thus, there seems to be a need to provide a more comprehensive set of taxonomies for structures as well as strategies that can be used in EFL/ESL classrooms and for research on the speech act of suggesting. To this end, the speech act of suggesting is defined first and the features of this speech act are discussed. Second, the most recent classifications proposed for structures and linguistic realization strategies for suggestions were analysed and contrasted and a more comprehensive taxonomy of structures and linguistic realization strategies is provided, based on previous taxonomies. Finally, taxonomy of politeness strategies in making suggestions are provided, based on recent studies in cross-cultural pragmatics research.

  12. Constructing a Business Model Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Pernille; Nielsen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    the quality of business model taxonomy studies in the future are identified. Originality/Value: The paper highlights the benefits and potential implications of designing business model taxonomy studies and makes the case for ensuring the quality of future studies relating to e.g. performance. Reviewing......Abstract Purpose: The paper proposes a research design recipe capable of leading to future business model taxonomies and discusses the potential benefits and implications of achieving this goal. Design/Methodology/Approach: The paper provides a review of relevant scholarly literature about business...... models to clarify the subject as well as highlighting the importance of past studies of business model classifications. In addition it reviews the scholarly literature on relevant methodological approaches, such as cluster analysis and latent class analysis, for constructing a business model taxonomy...

  13. A taxonomy of inductive problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Charles; Jern, Alan

    2014-02-01

    Inductive inferences about objects, features, categories, and relations have been studied for many years, but there are few attempts to chart the range of inductive problems that humans are able to solve. We present a taxonomy of inductive problems that helps to clarify the relationships between familiar inductive problems such as generalization, categorization, and identification, and that introduces new inductive problems for psychological investigation. Our taxonomy is founded on the idea that semantic knowledge is organized into systems of objects, features, categories, and relations, and we attempt to characterize all of the inductive problems that can arise when these systems are partially observed. Recent studies have begun to address some of the new problems in our taxonomy, and future work should aim to develop unified theories of inductive reasoning that explain how people solve all of the problems in the taxonomy.

  14. A Comprehensive Survey on Hierarchical-Based Routing Protocols for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks: Review, Taxonomy, and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabil Sabor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducing mobility to Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs puts new challenges particularly in designing of routing protocols. Mobility can be applied to the sensor nodes and/or the sink node in the network. Many routing protocols have been developed to support the mobility of WSNs. These protocols are divided depending on the routing structure into hierarchical-based, flat-based, and location-based routing protocols. However, the hierarchical-based routing protocols outperform the other routing types in saving energy, scalability, and extending lifetime of Mobile WSNs (MWSNs. Selecting an appropriate hierarchical routing protocol for specific applications is an important and difficult task. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing some of the recently hierarchical-based routing protocols that are developed in the last five years for MWSNs. This survey divides the hierarchical-based routing protocols into two broad groups, namely, classical-based and optimized-based routing protocols. Also, we present a detailed classification of the reviewed protocols according to the routing approach, control manner, mobile element, mobility pattern, network architecture, clustering attributes, protocol operation, path establishment, communication paradigm, energy model, protocol objectives, and applications. Moreover, a comparison between the reviewed protocols is investigated in this survey depending on delay, network size, energy-efficiency, and scalability while mentioning the advantages and drawbacks of each protocol. Finally, we summarize and conclude the paper with future directions.

  15. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S; Ruiter, Robert A C; Fernández, María E; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters for effectiveness of methods, and explicate the related distinction between theory-based methods and practical applications and the probability that poor translation of methods may lead to erroneous conclusions as to method-effectiveness. Third, we recommend a minimal set of intervention characteristics that may be reported when intervention descriptions and evaluations are published. Specifying these characteristics can greatly enhance the quality of our meta-analyses and other literature syntheses. In conclusion, the dynamics of behaviour change are such that any taxonomy of methods of behaviour change needs to acknowledge the importance of, and provide instruments for dealing with, three conditions for effectiveness for behaviour change methods. For a behaviour change method to be effective: (1) it must target a determinant that predicts behaviour; (2) it must be able to change that determinant; (3) it must be translated into a practical application in a way that preserves the parameters for effectiveness and fits with the target population, culture, and context. Thus, taxonomies of methods of behaviour change must distinguish the specific determinants that are targeted, practical, specific applications, and the theory-based methods they embody. In addition, taxonomies should acknowledge that the lists of behaviour change methods will be used by, and should be used by, intervention developers. Ideally, the taxonomy should be readily usable for this goal; but alternatively, it should be

  16. Team Science Approach to Developing Consensus on Research Good Practices for Practice-Based Research Networks: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Voytal, Kimberly; Daly, Jeanette M; Nagykaldi, Zsolt J; Aspy, Cheryl B; Dolor, Rowena J; Fagnan, Lyle J; Levy, Barcey T; Palac, Hannah L; Michaels, LeAnn; Patterson, V Beth; Kano, Miria; Smith, Paul D; Sussman, Andrew L; Williams, Robert; Sterling, Pamela; O'Beirne, Maeve; Neale, Anne Victoria

    2015-12-01

    Using peer learning strategies, seven experienced PBRNs working in collaborative teams articulated procedures for PBRN Research Good Practices (PRGPs). The PRGPs is a PBRN-specific resource to facilitate PBRN management and staff training, to promote adherence to study protocols, and to increase validity and generalizability of study findings. This paper describes the team science processes which culminated in the PRGPs. Skilled facilitators used team science strategies and methods from the Technology of Participation (ToP®), and the Consensus Workshop Method to support teams to codify diverse research expertise in practice-based research. The participatory nature of "sense-making" moved through identifiable stages. Lessons learned include (1) team input into the scope of the final outcome proved vital to project relevance; (2) PBRNs with diverse domains of research expertise contributed broad knowledge on each topic; and (3) ToP® structured facilitation techniques were critical for establishing trust and clarifying the "sense-making" process. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Containment and Consensus-based Distributed Coordination Control for Voltage Bound and Reactive Power Sharing in AC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Renke; Meng, Lexuan; Ferrari-Trecate, Giancarlo

    2017-01-01

    This paper offers a highly flexible and reliable control strategy to achieve voltage bounded regulation and accurate reactive power sharing coordinately in AC Micro-Grids. A containment and consensus-based distributed coordination controller is proposed, by which each output voltage magnitude can...... be bounded within a reasonable range and the accurate reactive power sharing among distributed generators can be also achieved. Combined with the two proposed controllers and electrical part of the AC Micro-Grid, a small signal model is fully developed to analyze the sensitivity of different control...... parameters. The effectiveness of the proposed controller in case of load variation, communication failure, plug-and-play capability are verified by the experimental setup as an islanded Micro-Grid....

  18. Toward a comprehensive taxonomy of human motives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talevich, Jennifer R.; Walsh, David A.; Iyer, Ravi; Chopra, Gurveen

    2017-01-01

    A major success in personality has been the development of a consensual structure of traits. However, much less progress has been made on the structure of an equally important aspect of human psychology: motives. We present an empirically and theoretically structured hierarchical taxonomy of 161 motives gleaned from a literature review from McDougall to the present and based on the cluster analysis of similarity judgments among these 161 motives, a broader sampling of motives than previous work. At the broadest level were: Meaning, Communion, and Agency. These divided into nine clusters: Morality & Virtue, Religion & Spirituality, Self-Actualization, Avoidance, Social Relating, Family, Health, Mastery & Competence, and Financial & Occupational Success. Each divided into more concrete clusters to form 5 levels. We discuss contributions to research on motives, especially recent work on goal systems, and the aiding of communication and systematization of research. Finally, we compare the taxonomy to other motive organizations. PMID:28231252

  19. Understanding Random Effects in Group-Based Trajectory Modeling: An Application of Moffitt’s Developmental Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Jessica M.

    2010-01-01

    The group-based trajectory modeling approach is a systematic way of categorizing subjects into different groups based on their developmental trajectories using formal and objective statistical criteria. With the recent advancement in methods and statistical software, modeling possibilities are almost limitless; however, parallel advances in theory development have not kept pace. This paper examines some of the modeling options that are becoming more widespread and how they impact both empiric...

  20. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawyndt Peter

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the

  1. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabbinck, Bram; Waegeman, Willem; Dawyndt, Peter; De Vos, Paul; De Baets, Bernard

    2010-01-30

    Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for the discrimination of bacterial

  2. From learning taxonomies to phylogenetic learning: Integration of 16S rRNA gene data into FAME-based bacterial classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Machine learning techniques have shown to improve bacterial species classification based on fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) data. Nonetheless, FAME analysis has a limited resolution for discrimination of bacteria at the species level. In this paper, we approach the species classification problem from a taxonomic point of view. Such a taxonomy or tree is typically obtained by applying clustering algorithms on FAME data or on 16S rRNA gene data. The knowledge gained from the tree can then be used to evaluate FAME-based classifiers, resulting in a novel framework for bacterial species classification. Results In view of learning in a taxonomic framework, we consider two types of trees. First, a FAME tree is constructed with a supervised divisive clustering algorithm. Subsequently, based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, phylogenetic trees are inferred by the NJ and UPGMA methods. In this second approach, the species classification problem is based on the combination of two different types of data. Herein, 16S rRNA gene sequence data is used for phylogenetic tree inference and the corresponding binary tree splits are learned based on FAME data. We call this learning approach 'phylogenetic learning'. Supervised Random Forest models are developed to train the classification tasks in a stratified cross-validation setting. In this way, better classification results are obtained for species that are typically hard to distinguish by a single or flat multi-class classification model. Conclusions FAME-based bacterial species classification is successfully evaluated in a taxonomic framework. Although the proposed approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared to flat multi-class classification, it has some distinct advantages. First, it has better capabilities for distinguishing species on which flat multi-class classification fails. Secondly, the hierarchical classification structure allows to easily evaluate and visualize the resolution of FAME data for

  3. The Distributed Wind Cost Taxonomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, Trudy; Jimenez, Tony; Preus, Robert; Tegen, Suzanne; Baring-Gould, Ian

    2017-03-28

    To date, there has been no standard method or tool to analyze the installed and operational costs for distributed wind turbine systems. This report describes the development of a classification system, or taxonomy, for distributed wind turbine project costs. The taxonomy establishes a framework to help collect, sort, and compare distributed wind cost data that mirrors how the industry categorizes information. The taxonomy organizes costs so they can be aggregated from installers, developers, vendors, and other sources without losing cost details. Developing a peer-reviewed taxonomy is valuable to industry stakeholders because a common understanding the details of distributed wind turbine costs and balance of station costs is a first step to identifying potential high-value cost reduction opportunities. Addressing cost reduction potential can help increase distributed wind's competitiveness and propel the U.S. distributed wind industry forward. The taxonomy can also be used to perform cost comparisons between technologies and track trends for distributed wind industry costs in the future. As an initial application and piloting of the taxonomy, preliminary cost data were collected for projects of different sizes and from different regions across the contiguous United States. Following the methods described in this report, these data are placed into the established cost categories.

  4. Molecular studies of Callithrix pygmaea (Primates, Platyrrhini based on transferrin intronic and ND1 regions: implications for taxonomy and conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tagliaro Claudia Helena

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional classifications of Platyrrhini monkeys, based mainly on morphological features, are being contested by recent molecular data. The subfamily Callitrichinae (Platyrrhini, Primates consists of a diverse group of species, many of them considered endangered. Our analysis of two DNA regions, a mtDNA gene (ND1 and a nuclear gene (intronic regions of the transferrin gene, suggests that Callithrix pygmaea may have sufficient variability to justify the existence of subspecies or even separate species. Phylogenetic dendrograms based on the ND1 region show that this species is more closely related to Amazonian than to Atlantic forest marmosets. These results reopen the discussion about diversity and conservation programs based exclusively on traditional classifications.

  5. Using a consensus approach based on the conservation of inter-residue contacts to rank CAPRI models

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna

    2013-10-17

    Herein we propose the use of a consensus approach, CONSRANK, for ranking CAPRI models. CONSRANK relies on the conservation of inter-residue contacts in the analyzed decoys ensemble. Models are ranked according to their ability to match the most frequently observed contacts. We applied CONSRANK to 19 CAPRI protein-protein targets, covering a wide range of prediction difficulty and involved in a variety of biological functions. CONSRANK results are consistently good, both in terms of native-like (NL) solutions ranked in the top positions and of values of the Area Under the receiver operating characteristic Curve (AUC). For targets having a percentage of NL solutions above 3%, an excellent performance is found, with AUC values approaching 1. For the difficult target T46, having only 3.4% NL solutions, the number of NL solutions in the top 5 and 10 ranked positions is enriched by a factor 30, and the AUC value is as high as 0.997. AUC values below 0.8 are only found for targets featuring a percentage of NL solutions within 1.1%. Remarkably, a false consensus emerges only in one case, T42, which happens to be an artificial protein, whose assembly details remain uncertain, based on controversial experimental data. We also show that CONSRANK still performs very well on a limited number of models, provided that more than 1 NL solution is included in the ensemble, thus extending its applicability to cases where few dozens of models are available.© 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Consensus-Based Palliative Care Competencies for Undergraduate Nurses and Physicians: A Demonstrative Process with Colombian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, Tania; Wenk, Roberto; De Lima, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    A World Health Assembly (WHA) resolution adopted in 2014 strongly encourages member states to integrate palliative care (PC) in undergraduate training for health professionals. The study objective was to describe a consensus-based process workshop to develop PC competences for medical and nursing schools in Colombia and to present a summary of the findings. The workshop included 36 participants representing 16 medical and 6 nursing schools from 18 universities in Colombia. Participants were distributed in four thematic groups. Using the International Association for Hospice and Palliative Care (IAHPC) List of Essential Practices (LEP) as guidance, they were asked to discuss and define PC competencies at the undergraduate level. Participants provided feedback and approved each recommendation, and then were asked to complete an evaluation. The resulting competences were separated into six categories: (1) Definition and Principles of PC, (2) Identification and Control of Symptoms, (3) End-of-Life Care, (4) Ethical and Legal Issues, (5) Psychosocial and Spiritual Issues, and (6) Teamwork. A comparative analysis revealed that treatment of several symptoms in the IAHPC LEP (pain, dyspnea, constipation, nausea, vomit, diarrhea, delirium, and insomnia) were included in the competencies. All of the IAHPC LEP related to psychological/emotional/spiritual care was included. The evaluation rate of return was 80%. The assessment was very positive: total score of 4.7/5.0; SD = 0.426), with 89% considering the workshop to be helpful. The workshop provided an opportunity for individuals from different disciplines to discuss competencies and achieve consensus. The resulting competencies will be helpful in the development of PC curricula for physicians and nurses throughout schools in Colombia and other countries.

  7. Microbial taxonomy in the post-genomic era: Rebuilding from scratch?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Cristiane C. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Amaral, Gilda R. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Campeão, Mariana [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Edwards, Robert A. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); San Diego State Univ., CA (United States); Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Polz, Martin F. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Dutilh, Bas E. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Radbould Univ., Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ussery, David W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sawabe, Tomoo [Hokkaido Univ., Hakodate (Japan); Swings, Jean [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Thompson, Fabiano L. [Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ) (Brazil); Advanced Systems Laboratory Production Management COPPE / UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2014-12-23

    Microbial taxonomy should provide adequate descriptions of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic microbial diversity in ecological, clinical, and industrial environments. We re-evaluated the prokaryote species twice. It is time to revisit polyphasic taxonomy, its principles, and its practice, including its underlying pragmatic species concept. We will be able to realize an old dream of our predecessor taxonomists and build a genomic-based microbial taxonomy, using standardized and automated curation of high-quality complete genome sequences as the new gold standard.

  8. Stochastic bounded consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled data with general sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li; Xie Lin-Bo; Wen Ji-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a unified framework for consensus tracking of leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises based on sampled data with a general sampling delay. First, a stochastic bounded consensus tracking protocol based on sampled data with a general sampling delay is presented by employing the delay decomposition technique. Then, necessary and sufficient conditions are derived for guaranteeing leader-follower multi-agent systems with measurement noises and a time-varying reference state to achieve mean square bounded consensus tracking. The obtained results cover no sampling delay, a small sampling delay and a large sampling delay as three special cases. Last, simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  9. Taxonomy of the phyllosoma of Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 and P. gracilis Streets, 1871, based on morphometry and molecular analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Muñoz-García

    Full Text Available Analysis of wild phyllosoma of Panulirus inflatus (Bouvier, 1895 and P. gracilis Streets, 1871 determined the morphological structures having taxonomic value for differentiation of the two species, in addition to the structures described previously. Of 54 phyllosoma, species identity was confirmed by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP on 42 P. inflatus and 4 P. gracilis, for which morphology and morphometric measurements were taken. Morphological analysis found subexopodal spines, spines at the base of pereopods 1 and 2, and the mandibles are structures of taxonomic value for differentiating the two species. Morphometric data did not allow differentiation.

  10. Prediction of Protein Structural Classes for Low-Similarity Sequences Based on Consensus Sequence and Segmented PSSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunyun Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences is useful for understanding fold patterns, regulation, functions, and interactions of proteins. It is well known that feature extraction is significant to prediction of protein structural class and it mainly uses protein primary sequence, predicted secondary structure sequence, and position-specific scoring matrix (PSSM. Currently, prediction solely based on the PSSM has played a key role in improving the prediction accuracy. In this paper, we propose a novel method called CSP-SegPseP-SegACP by fusing consensus sequence (CS, segmented PsePSSM, and segmented autocovariance transformation (ACT based on PSSM. Three widely used low-similarity datasets (1189, 25PDB, and 640 are adopted in this paper. Then a 700-dimensional (700D feature vector is constructed and the dimension is decreased to 224D by using principal component analysis (PCA. To verify the performance of our method, rigorous jackknife cross-validation tests are performed on 1189, 25PDB, and 640 datasets. Comparison of our results with the existing PSSM-based methods demonstrates that our method achieves the favorable and competitive performance. This will offer an important complementary to other PSSM-based methods for prediction of protein structural classes for low-similarity sequences.

  11. Practical aspects of equine parasite control: a review based upon a workshop discussion consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Fritzen, B; Duncan, J L; Guillot, J; Eysker, M; Dorchies, P; Laugier, C; Beugnet, F; Meana, A; Lussot-Kervern, I; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G

    2010-07-01

    Development of resistance of several important equine parasites to most of the available anthelmintic drug classes has led to a reconsideration of parasite control strategies in many equine establishments. Routine prophylactic treatments based on simple calendar-based schemes are no longer reliable and veterinary equine clinicians are increasingly seeking advice and guidance on more sustainable approaches to equine parasite control. Most techniques for the detection of equine helminth parasites are based on faecal analysis and very few tests have been developed as diagnostic tests for resistance. Recently, some molecular and in vitro based diagnostic assays have been developed and have shown promise, but none of these are currently available for veterinary practice. Presently, the only reliable method for the detection of anthelmintic resistance is a simple faecal egg count reduction test, and clinicians are urged to perform such tests on a regular basis. The key to managing anthelmintic resistance is maintaining parasite refugia and this concept is discussed in relation to treatment strategies, drug rotations and pasture management. It is concluded that treatment strategies need to change and more reliance should now be placed on surveillance of parasite burdens and regular drug efficacy tests are also recommended to ensure continuing drug efficacy. The present review is based upon discussions held at an equine parasite workshop arranged by the French Equine Veterinary Association (Association Vétérinaire Equine Française, AVEF) in Reims, France, in October 2008.

  12. A WAO - ARIA - GA2LEN consensus document on molecular-based allergy diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Pawankar, Ruby

    2013-01-01

    Molecular-based allergy (MA) diagnostics is an approach used to map the allergen sensitization of a patient at a molecular level, using purified natural or recombinant allergenic molecules (allergen components) instead of allergen extracts. Since its introduction, MA diagnostics has increasingly ...

  13. Comparing Student Success and Understanding in Introductory Statistics under Consensus and Simulation-Based Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hldreth, Laura A.; Robison-Cox, Jim; Schmidt, Jade

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the transferability of results from previous studies of simulation-based curriculum in introductory statistics using data from 3,500 students enrolled in an introductory statistics course at Montana State University from fall 2013 through spring 2016. During this time, four different curricula, a traditional curriculum and…

  14. Involving Stakeholders in Programme Theory Specification: Discussion of a Systematic, Consensus-Based Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Urk, Felix; Grant, Sean; Bonell, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The use of explicit programme theory to guide evaluation is widely recommended. However, practitioners and other partnering stakeholders often initiate programmes based on implicit theories, leaving researchers to explicate them before commencing evaluation. The current study aimed to apply a systematic method to undertake this process. We…

  15. Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John; Oreskes, Naomi; Doran, Peter T.; Anderegg, William R. L.; Verheggen, Bart; Maibach, Ed W.; Carlton, J. Stuart; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Skuce, Andrew G.; Green, Sarah A.; Nuccitelli, Dana; Jacobs, Peter; Richardson, Mark; Winkler, Bärbel; Painting, Rob; Rice, Ken

    2016-04-01

    The consensus that humans are causing recent global warming is shared by 90%-100% of publishing climate scientists according to six independent studies by co-authors of this paper. Those results are consistent with the 97% consensus reported by Cook et al (Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) based on 11 944 abstracts of research papers, of which 4014 took a position on the cause of recent global warming. A survey of authors of those papers (N = 2412 papers) also supported a 97% consensus. Tol (2016 Environ. Res. Lett. 11 048001) comes to a different conclusion using results from surveys of non-experts such as economic geologists and a self-selected group of those who reject the consensus. We demonstrate that this outcome is not unexpected because the level of consensus correlates with expertise in climate science. At one point, Tol also reduces the apparent consensus by assuming that abstracts that do not explicitly state the cause of global warming (‘no position’) represent non-endorsement, an approach that if applied elsewhere would reject consensus on well-established theories such as plate tectonics. We examine the available studies and conclude that the finding of 97% consensus in published climate research is robust and consistent with other surveys of climate scientists and peer-reviewed studies.

  16. The integrative future of taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vences Miguel

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxonomy is the biological discipline that identifies, describes, classifies and names extant and extinct species and other taxa. Nowadays, species taxonomy is confronted with the challenge to fully incorporate new theory, methods and data from disciplines that study the origin, limits and evolution of species. Results Integrative taxonomy has been proposed as a framework to bring together these conceptual and methodological developments. Here we review perspectives for an integrative taxonomy that directly bear on what species are, how they can be discovered, and how much diversity is on Earth. Conclusions We conclude that taxonomy needs to be pluralistic to improve species discovery and description, and to develop novel protocols to produce the much-needed inventory of life in a reasonable time. To cope with the large number of candidate species revealed by molecular studies of eukaryotes, we propose a classification scheme for those units that will facilitate the subsequent assembly of data sets for the formal description of new species under the Linnaean system, and will ultimately integrate the activities of taxonomists and molecular biologists.

  17. Implicit Consensus: Blockchain with Unbounded Throughput

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhijie; Cong, Kelong; Pouwelse, Johan; Erkin, Zekeriya

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the blockchain technique was put in the spotlight as it introduced a systematic approach for multiple parties to reach consensus without needing trust. However, the application of this technique in practice is severely restricted due to its limitations in throughput. In this paper, we propose a novel consensus model, namely the implicit consensus, with a distinctive blockchain-based distributed ledger in which each node holds its individual blockchain. In our system, the consensus i...

  18. Asymptotic bounded consensus tracking of double-integrator multi-agent systems with bounded-jerk target based on sampled-data without velocity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuang-Shuang; Wu Zhi-Hai; Peng Li; Xie Lin-Bo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates asymptotic bounded consensus tracking (ABCT) of double-integrator multi-agent systems (MASs) with an asymptotically-unbounded-acceleration and bounded-jerk target (AUABJT) available to partial agents based on sampled-data without velocity measurements. A sampled-data consensus tracking protocol (CTP) without velocity measurements is proposed to guarantee that double-integrator MASs track an AUABJT available to only partial agents. The eigenvalue analysis method together with the augmented matrix method is used to obtain the necessary and sufficient conditions for ABCT. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of theoretical results. (paper)

  19. Sustainable implementation of school-based physical activity: A four-stage Delphi consensus process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Danielle Louise Nørager; Skovgaard, Thomas; Møller, Niels Christian

    condensed into a total amount of 63 factors, arranged into nine overall categories, and prioritized by the national expert group in the questionnaire (1.School leadership, 2.Co-workers, 3.Resources, 4.Policy level, 5.Organizational/cultural level, 6.Pupils, 7.Physical surroundings, 8.Intervention context......, and 9.External factors). Based on five expert interviews, outliers from the questionnaire was examined. Finally, at the workshop, five of the nine overall categories were rated as particularly relevant and important (School leadership, Co-workers, Policy level, Resources and Organizational/cultural...... level). Conclusions All nine overall categories are deemed as decisive for sustainable implementation of school-based PA. However, School leadership were singled out as a particular important category, since commitment at this level is deemed a pre-requisite for many of the other factors....

  20. Light and Energy Based Therapeutics for Genitourinary Syndrome of Menopause: Consensus and Controversies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadir, Yona; Gaspar, Adrian; Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam; Alexiades, Macrene; Alinsod, Red; Bader, Alex; Calligaro, Alberto; Elias, Jorge A.; Gambaciani, Marco; Gaviria, Jorge E.; Iglesia, Cheryl B.; Selih-Martinec, Ksenija; Mwesigwa, Patricia L.; Ogrinc, Urska B.; Salvatore, Stefano; Scollo, Paolo; Zerbinati, Nicola; Nelson, John Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Gynecologist and plastic surgeons pioneered the application of lasers in medicine and surgery almost 5 decades ago, initially used to treat cervical and vaginal pathologies. Ever since, energy-based devices have been deployed to treat pelvic pathologies and improve fertility. Recent technological developments triggered an unprecedented wave of publications, assessing the efficacy of fractional laser, and radiofrequency on the vaginal wall in reversing natural aging processes. Studies have shown that a certain degree of thermal energy deposited on the vaginal wall stimulates proliferation of the glycogen-enriched epithelium, neovascularization, and collagen formation in the lamina propria, and improves natural lubrication and control of urination. This review aimed to review such data and to guide future research. A unique assembly of experts from around the globe, compiled and edited this manuscript based on a thorough literature review and personal experience. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:137–159, 2017. PMID:28220946

  1. Comparison of Capability of Digitizing Methods to Predict Soil classification According to the Soil Taxonomy and World Reference Base for Soil Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zohreh mosleh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil classification generally aims to establish a taxonomy based on breaking the soil continuum into homogeneous groups that can highlight the essential differences in soil properties and functions between classes.The two most widely used modern soil classification schemes are Soil Taxonomy (ST and World Reference Base for Soil Resources (WRB.With the development of computers and technology, digital and quantitative approaches have been developed. These new techniques that include the spatial prediction of soil properties or classes, relies on finding the relationships between soil and the auxiliary information that explain the soil forming factors or processes and finally predict soil patterns on the landscape. These approaches are commonly referred to as digital soil mapping (DSM (14. A key component of any DSM mapping activity is the method used to define the relationship between soil observation and auxiliary information (4. Several types of machine learning approaches have been applied for digital soil mapping of soil classes, such as logistic and multinomial logistic regressions (10,12, random forests (15, neural networks (3,13 and classification trees (22,4. Many decisions about the soil use and management are based on the soil differences that cannot be captured by higher taxonomic levels (i.e., order, suborder and great group (4. In low relief areas such as plains, it is expected that the soil forming factors are more homogenous and auxiliary information explaining soil forming factors may have low variation and cannot show the soil variability. Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the Shahrekord plain of Chaharmahal-Va-Bakhtiari province. According tothe semi-detailed soil survey (16, 120 pedons with approximate distance of 750 m were excavated and described according to the “field book for describing and sampling soils” (19. Soil samples were taken from different genetic horizons, air dried and

  2. A Multistep, Consensus-Based Approach to Organ Allocation in Liver Transplantation: Toward a "Blended Principle Model".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, U; Burra, P; Mazzaferro, V; Belli, L; Pinna, A D; Spada, M; Nanni Costa, A; Toniutto, P

    2015-10-01

    Since Italian liver allocation policy was last revised (in 2012), relevant critical issues and conceptual advances have emerged, calling for significant improvements. We report the results of a national consensus conference process, promoted by the Italian College of Liver Transplant Surgeons (for the Italian Society for Organ Transplantation) and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, to review the best indicators for orienting organ allocation policies based on principles of urgency, utility, and transplant benefit in the light of current scientific evidence. MELD exceptions and hepatocellular carcinoma were analyzed to construct a transplantation priority algorithm, given the inequity of a purely MELD-based system for governing organ allocation. Working groups of transplant surgeons and hepatologists prepared a list of statements for each topic, scoring their quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using the Centers for Disease Control grading system. A jury of Italian transplant surgeons, hepatologists, intensivists, infectious disease specialists, epidemiologists, representatives of patients' associations and organ-sharing organizations, transplant coordinators, and ethicists voted on and validated the proposed statements. After carefully reviewing the statements, a critical proposal for revising Italy's current liver allocation policy was prepared jointly by transplant surgeons and hepatologists. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Muscle Injuries in Sports: A New Evidence-Informed and Expert Consensus-Based Classification with Clinical Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Tol, Johannes L; Hamilton, Bruce; Garrett, William E; Pruna, Ricard; Til, Lluís; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Alomar, Xavier; Balius, Ramón; Malliaropoulos, Nikos; Monllau, Joan Carles; Whiteley, Rodney; Witvrouw, Erik; Samuelsson, Kristian; Rodas, Gil

    2017-07-01

    Muscle injuries are among the most common injuries in sport and continue to be a major concern because of training and competition time loss, challenging decision making regarding treatment and return to sport, and a relatively high recurrence rate. An adequate classification of muscle injury is essential for a full understanding of the injury and to optimize its management and return-to-play process. The ongoing failure to establish a classification system with broad acceptance has resulted from factors such as limited clinical applicability, and the inclusion of subjective findings and ambiguous terminology. The purpose of this article was to describe a classification system for muscle injuries with easy clinical application, adequate grouping of injuries with similar functional impairment, and potential prognostic value. This evidence-informed and expert consensus-based classification system for muscle injuries is based on a four-letter initialism system: MLG-R, respectively referring to the mechanism of injury (M), location of injury (L), grading of severity (G), and number of muscle re-injuries (R). The goal of the classification is to enhance communication between healthcare and sports-related professionals and facilitate rehabilitation and return-to-play decision making.

  4. Using a consensus approach based on the conservation of inter-residue contacts to rank CAPRI models

    KAUST Repository

    Vangone, Anna; Cavallo, Luigi; Oliva, Romina M.

    2013-01-01

    Herein we propose the use of a consensus approach, CONSRANK, for ranking CAPRI models. CONSRANK relies on the conservation of inter-residue contacts in the analyzed decoys ensemble. Models are ranked according to their ability to match the most

  5. Psychological first aid: a consensus-derived, empirically supported, competency-based training model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, O Lee; Everly, George S; Brown, Lisa M; Wendelboe, Aaron M; Abd Hamid, Nor Hashidah; Tallchief, Vicki L; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-04-01

    Surges in demand for professional mental health services occasioned by disasters represent a major public health challenge. To build response capacity, numerous psychological first aid (PFA) training models for professional and lay audiences have been developed that, although often concurring on broad intervention aims, have not systematically addressed pedagogical elements necessary for optimal learning or teaching. We describe a competency-based model of PFA training developed under the auspices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Association of Schools of Public Health. We explain the approach used for developing and refining the competency set and summarize the observable knowledge, skills, and attitudes underlying the 6 core competency domains. We discuss the strategies for model dissemination, validation, and adoption in professional and lay communities.

  6. Physician consensus on preventability and predictability of readmissions based on standard case scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Galen, L. S.; Cooksley, T; Merten, H

    2016-01-01

    Background: Policy makers struggle with unplanned readmissions as a quality indicator since integrating preventability in such indicators is difficult. Most studies on the preventability of readmissions questioned physicians whether they consider a given readmission to be preventable, from which...... conclusions on factors predicting preventable readmissions were derived. There is no literature on the interobserver agreement of physician judgement. Aim: To assess the degree of agreement among physicians regarding predictability and preventability of medical readmissions. Design: An online survey based...... on eight real-life case scenarios was distributed to European physicians. Methods: Physicians were requested to rate from the first four (index admission) scenarios whether they expected these patients to be readmitted within 30 days (the predictability). The remaining four cases, describing a readmission...

  7. Facilitating Consensus in Cooperative Design Processes using animation-based sketching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    2016-01-01

    In the following paper we show how animation can be used as a digital sketching tool to facilitate cooperative work processes when exploring the application of non-idiomatic digital technologies. Focus is on the early stages of the design process, framed as ‘product formation’. Based on the results...... from a action research case study at the North Sea Oceanarium we show that animation can act as a tool to create clear representations of the quality criteria at hand, and thus enable a richer feedback loop between the different stakeholders in the design process. The main contribution...... in cooperative design processes, and detail how the techniques differs from other representational options in the early design process....

  8. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, John Peterson; Antoniou, Michael N; Blumberg, Bruce; Carroll, Lynn; Colborn, Theo; Everett, Lorne G; Hansen, Michael; Landrigan, Philip J; Lanphear, Bruce P; Mesnage, Robin; Vandenberg, Laura N; Vom Saal, Frederick S; Welshons, Wade V; Benbrook, Charles M

    2016-02-17

    The broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate (common trade name "Roundup") was first sold to farmers in 1974. Since the late 1970s, the volume of glyphosate-based herbicides (GBHs) applied has increased approximately 100-fold. Further increases in the volume applied are likely due to more and higher rates of application in response to the widespread emergence of glyphosate-resistant weeds and new, pre-harvest, dessicant use patterns. GBHs were developed to replace or reduce reliance on herbicides causing well-documented problems associated with drift and crop damage, slipping efficacy, and human health risks. Initial industry toxicity testing suggested that GBHs posed relatively low risks to non-target species, including mammals, leading regulatory authorities worldwide to set high acceptable exposure limits. To accommodate changes in GBH use patterns associated with genetically engineered, herbicide-tolerant crops, regulators have dramatically increased tolerance levels in maize, oilseed (soybeans and canola), and alfalfa crops and related livestock feeds. Animal and epidemiology studies published in the last decade, however, point to the need for a fresh look at glyphosate toxicity. Furthermore, the World Health Organization's International Agency for Research on Cancer recently concluded that glyphosate is "probably carcinogenic to humans." In response to changing GBH use patterns and advances in scientific understanding of their potential hazards, we have produced a Statement of Concern drawing on emerging science relevant to the safety of GBHs. Our Statement of Concern considers current published literature describing GBH uses, mechanisms of action, toxicity in laboratory animals, and epidemiological studies. It also examines the derivation of current human safety standards. We conclude that: (1) GBHs are the most heavily applied herbicide in the world and usage continues to rise; (2) Worldwide, GBHs often contaminate drinking water sources, precipitation, and air

  9. Evidence- and consensus-based (S3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis - International League of Dermatological Societies in cooperation with the European Dermatology Forum - Short version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, R N; Stockfleth, E; Connolly, S M; Correia, O; Erdmann, R; Foley, P; Gupta, A K; Jacobs, A; Kerl, H; Lim, H W; Martin, G; Paquet, M; Pariser, D M; Rosumeck, S; Röwert-Huber, H-J; Sahota, A; Sangueza, O P; Shumack, S; Sporbeck, B; Swanson, N A; Torezan, L; Nast, A

    2015-11-01

    Actinic keratosis (AK) is a frequent health condition attributable to chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Several treatment options are available and evidence based guidelines are missing. The goal of these evidence- and consensus-based guidelines was the development of treatment recommendations appropriate for different subgroups of patients presenting with AK. A secondary aim of these guidelines was the implementation of knowledge relating to the clinical background of AK, including consensus-based recommendations for the histopathological definition, diagnosis and the assessment of patients. The guidelines development followed a pre-defined and structured process. For the underlying systematic literature review of interventions for AK, the methodology suggested by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was adapted. All recommendations were consented during a consensus conference using a formal consensus methodology. Strength of recommendations was expressed based on the GRADE approach. If expert opinion without external evidence was incorporated into the reasoning for making a certain recommendation, the rationale was provided. The Guidelines underwent open public review and approval by the commissioning societies. Various interventions for the treatment of AK have been assessed for their efficacy. The consenting procedure led to a treatment algorithm as shown in the guidelines document. Based on expert consensus, the present guidelines present recommendations on the classification of patients, diagnosis and histopathological definition of AK. Details on the methods and results of the systematic literature review and guideline development process have been published separately. International guidelines are intended to be adapted to national or regional

  10. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Rhabdoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Peter J; Blasdell, Kim R; Calisher, Charles H; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Kondo, Hideki; Kurath, Gael; Longdon, Ben; Stone, David M; Tesh, Robert B; Tordo, Noël; Vasilakis, Nikos; Whitfield, Anna E; Nbsp Ictv Report Consortium

    2018-04-01

    The family Rhabdoviridae comprises viruses with negative-sense (-) single-stranded RNA genomes of 10.8-16.1 kb. Virions are typically enveloped with bullet-shaped or bacilliform morphology but can also be non-enveloped filaments. Rhabdoviruses infect plants and animals including mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, as well as arthropods which serve as single hosts or act as biological vectors for transmission to animals or plants. Rhabdoviruses include important pathogens of humans, livestock, fish and agricultural crops. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of Rhabdoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/rhabdoviridae.

  11. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William F. McCoy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA. It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods.

  12. HACCP-Based Programs for Preventing Disease and Injury from Premise Plumbing: A Building Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, William F.; Rosenblatt, Aaron A.

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of preventable injuries and deaths are annually caused by microbial, chemical and physical hazards from building water systems. Water is processed in buildings before use; this can degrade the quality of the water. Processing steps undertaken on-site in buildings often include conditioning, filtering, storing, heating, cooling, pressure regulation and distribution through fixtures that restrict flow and temperature. Therefore, prevention of disease and injury requires process management. A process management framework for buildings is the hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) adaptation of failure mode effects analysis (FMEA). It has been proven effective for building water system management. Validation is proof that hazards have been controlled under operating conditions and may include many kinds of evidence including cultures of building water samples to detect and enumerate potentially pathogenic microorganisms. However, results from culture tests are often inappropriately used because the accuracy and precision are not sufficient to support specifications for control limit or action triggers. A reliable negative screen is based on genus-level Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for Legionella in building water systems; however, building water samples with positive results from this test require further analysis by culture methods. PMID:26184325

  13. Management and prevention of refeeding syndrome in medical inpatients: An evidence-based and consensus-supported algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedli, Natalie; Stanga, Zeno; Culkin, Alison; Crook, Martin; Laviano, Alessandro; Sobotka, Lubos; Kressig, Reto W; Kondrup, Jens; Mueller, Beat; Schuetz, Philipp

    2018-03-01

    Refeeding syndrome (RFS) can be a life-threatening metabolic condition after nutritional replenishment if not recognized early and treated adequately. There is a lack of evidence-based treatment and monitoring algorithm for daily clinical practice. The aim of the study was to propose an expert consensus guideline for RFS for the medical inpatient (not including anorexic patients) regarding risk factors, diagnostic criteria, and preventive and therapeutic measures based on a previous systematic literature search. Based on a recent qualitative systematic review on the topic, we developed clinically relevant recommendations as well as a treatment and monitoring algorithm for the clinical management of inpatients regarding RFS. With international experts, these recommendations were discussed and agreement with the recommendation was rated. Upon hospital admission, we recommend the use of specific screening criteria (i.e., low body mass index, large unintentional weight loss, little or no nutritional intake, history of alcohol or drug abuse) for risk assessment regarding the occurrence of RFS. According to the patient's individual risk for RFS, a careful start of nutritional therapy with a stepwise increase in energy and fluids goals and supplementation of electrolyte and vitamins, as well as close clinical monitoring, is recommended. We also propose criteria for the diagnosis of imminent and manifest RFS with practical treatment recommendations with adoption of the nutritional therapy. Based on the available evidence, we developed a practical algorithm for risk assessment, treatment, and monitoring of RFS in medical inpatients. In daily routine clinical care, this may help to optimize and standardize the management of this vulnerable patient population. We encourage future quality studies to further refine these recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  15. Dynamic Involvement of Real World Objects in the IoT: A Consensus-Based Cooperation Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilloni, Virginia; Atzori, Luigi; Mallus, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    A significant role in the Internet of Things (IoT) will be taken by mobile and low-cost unstable devices, which autonomously self-organize and introduce highly dynamic and heterogeneous scenarios for the deployment of distributed applications. This entails the devices to cooperate to dynamically find the suitable combination of their involvement so as to improve the system reliability while following the changes in their status. Focusing on the above scenario, we propose a distributed algorithm for resources allocation that is run by devices that can perform the same task required by the applications, allowing for a flexible and dynamic binding of the requested services with the physical IoT devices. It is based on a consensus approach, which maximizes the lifetime of groups of nodes involved and ensures the fulfillment of the requested Quality of Information (QoI) requirements. Experiments have been conducted with real devices, showing an improvement of device lifetime of more than 20 % , with respect to a uniform distribution of tasks.

  16. Fast tracking the design of theory-based KT interventions through a consensus process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussières, André E; Al Zoubi, Fadi; Quon, Jeffrey A; Ahmed, Sara; Thomas, Aliki; Stuber, Kent; Sajko, Sandy; French, Simon

    2015-02-11

    Despite available evidence for optimal management of spinal pain, poor adherence to guidelines and wide variations in healthcare services persist. One of the objectives of the Canadian Chiropractic Guideline Initiative is to develop and evaluate targeted theory- and evidence-informed interventions to improve the management of non-specific neck pain by chiropractors. In order to systematically develop a knowledge translation (KT) intervention underpinned by the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF), we explored the factors perceived to influence the use of multimodal care to manage non-specific neck pain, and mapped behaviour change techniques to key theoretical domains. Individual telephone interviews exploring beliefs about managing neck pain were conducted with a purposive sample of 13 chiropractors. The interview guide was based upon the TDF. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed by two independent assessors using thematic content analysis. A 15-member expert panel formally met to design a KT intervention. Nine TDF domains were identified as likely relevant. Key beliefs (and relevant domains of the TDF) included the following: influence of formal training, colleagues and patients on clinicians (Social Influences); availability of educational material (Environmental Context and Resources); and better clinical outcomes reinforcing the use of multimodal care (Reinforcement). Facilitating factors considered important included better communication (Skills); audits of patients' treatment-related outcomes (Behavioural Regulation); awareness and agreement with guidelines (Knowledge); and tailoring of multimodal care (Memory, Attention and Decision Processes). Clinicians conveyed conflicting beliefs about perceived threats to professional autonomy (Social/Professional Role and Identity) and speed of recovery from either applying or ignoring the practice recommendations (Beliefs about Consequences). The expert panel mapped behaviour change

  17. An Analytical Overview of Spirituality in NANDA-I Taxonomies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Ana Cláudia; Caldeira, Sílvia; Chaves, Erika; Carvalho, Emilia Campos de

    2017-03-01

    To discuss the approach of spirituality in NANDA-I taxonomies, based on the elements that characterize this phenomenon. This study was based on concepts that are usually adopted in the literature for defining spirituality and on the analysis of the NANDA-I taxonomies from I to III. Spirituality is included in all taxonomies but all three are missing some attributes to guarantee the completeness of this dimension for nursing diagnosis. Taxonomy III makes different approaches to spirituality and some inconsistencies. Contribute to the development and review of the new proposal for taxonomy. Discutir a abordagem à espiritualidade nas taxonomias da NANDA-I, baseada nos elementos que caracterizam este fenômeno. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi baseado em conceitos usualmente adotados na literatura de enfermagem para definir espiritualidade e na análise das taxonomias da NANDA-I, desde a I à III. A espiritualidade está incluída nas taxonomias, porém estas carecem de atributos do seu conceito. CONCLUSÕES: A taxonomia III faz diferentes abordagens à espiritualidade, porém com algumas inconsistências identificadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A ENFERMAGEM: Esta análise pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento e revisão da taxonomia III. © 2017 NANDA International, Inc.

  18. Protein consensus-based surface engineering (ProCoS): a computer-assisted method for directed protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivange, Amol V; Hoeffken, Hans Wolfgang; Haefner, Stefan; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    Protein consensus-based surface engineering (ProCoS) is a simple and efficient method for directed protein evolution combining computational analysis and molecular biology tools to engineer protein surfaces. ProCoS is based on the hypothesis that conserved residues originated from a common ancestor and that these residues are crucial for the function of a protein, whereas highly variable regions (situated on the surface of a protein) can be targeted for surface engineering to maximize performance. ProCoS comprises four main steps: ( i ) identification of conserved and highly variable regions; ( ii ) protein sequence design by substituting residues in the highly variable regions, and gene synthesis; ( iii ) in vitro DNA recombination of synthetic genes; and ( iv ) screening for active variants. ProCoS is a simple method for surface mutagenesis in which multiple sequence alignment is used for selection of surface residues based on a structural model. To demonstrate the technique's utility for directed evolution, the surface of a phytase enzyme from Yersinia mollaretii (Ymphytase) was subjected to ProCoS. Screening just 1050 clones from ProCoS engineering-guided mutant libraries yielded an enzyme with 34 amino acid substitutions. The surface-engineered Ymphytase exhibited 3.8-fold higher pH stability (at pH 2.8 for 3 h) and retained 40% of the enzyme's specific activity (400 U/mg) compared with the wild-type Ymphytase. The pH stability might be attributed to a significantly increased (20 percentage points; from 9% to 29%) number of negatively charged amino acids on the surface of the engineered phytase.

  19. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2015-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  20. A Preliminary Bloom's Taxonomy Assessment of End-of-Chapter Problems in Business School Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jennings B.; Carson, Charles M.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines textbook problems used in a sampling of some of the most common core courses found in schools of business to ascertain what level of learning, as defined by Bloom's Taxonomy, is required to provide a correct answer. A set of working definitions based on Bloom's Taxonomy (Bloom & Krathwohl, 1956) was developed for the six…

  1. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pleolipoviridae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bamford, D.H.; Pietila, M.K.; Roine, E.; Atanasova, N.S.; Dienstbier, Ana; Oksanen, H.M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 12 (2017), s. 2916-2917 ISSN 0022-1317 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Pleolipoviridae * taxonomy * Halorubrum pleomorphic virus 1 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  2. An inclusive taxonomy of behavioral biases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Peón

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper overviews the theoretical and empirical research on behavioral biases and their influence in the literature. To provide a systematic exposition, we present a unified framework that takes the reader through an original taxonomy, based on the reviews of relevant authors in the field. In particular, we establish three broad categories that may be distinguished: heuristics and biases; choices, values and frames; and social factors. We then describe the main biases within each category, and revise the main theoretical and empirical developments, linking each bias with other biases and anomalies that are related to them, according to the literature.

  3. Instruments and Taxonomy of Workplace Bullying in Health Care Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jun Park, PhD, RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study was aimed to evaluate the methodological issues and comprehensiveness of workplace bullying instruments and to suggest a taxonomy of psychological abuse. Methods: Nineteen instruments applied in health care organizations and 469 questionnaire items mainly regarding psychological abuse were collected through a literature review. Three researchers classified the questionnaire items according to a “taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace.” Results: Many instruments of workplace bullying were developed in the 2000s using a reflective measurement model, but their psychometric property was not sufficient and the measurement model is questioned. Based on the questionnaire items, the “taxonomy of psychological abuse in the workplace” was modified by adding two new subcategories (unachievable work and unfair treatment and clarifying some operational definitions. According to the modified taxonomy of 11 (subcategories, the reviewed instruments assessed 6.5 (subcategories on average. No instrument measured all (subcategories. Category 4.2 (disrespect, humiliation, and rejection of the person was measured in all instruments, followed by Categories 5 (professional discredit and denigration and 1.2 (social isolation behaviors. Conclusion: The current instruments are not comprehensive enough. It is suggested that the modified taxonomy is verified and guide more reliable and inclusive instruments in the future. Furthermore, a formative measurement model, which defines a bullying as an inventory of different types of behaviors, should be used. Keywords: aggression, bullying, hostility, mobbing, surveys and questionnaires

  4. Climbing Bloom's taxonomy pyramid: Lessons from a graduate histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Nikki B; Hwang, Charles; Scott, Sara; Stallard, Stefanie; Purkiss, Joel; Hortsch, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Bloom's taxonomy was adopted to create a subject-specific scoring tool for histology multiple-choice questions (MCQs). This Bloom's Taxonomy Histology Tool (BTHT) was used to analyze teacher- and student-generated quiz and examination questions from a graduate level histology course. Multiple-choice questions using histological images were generally assigned a higher BTHT level than simple text questions. The type of microscopy technique (light or electron microscopy) used for these image-based questions did not result in any significant differences in their Bloom's taxonomy scores. The BTHT levels for teacher-generated MCQs correlated positively with higher discrimination indices and inversely with the percent of students answering these questions correctly (difficulty index), suggesting that higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions differentiate well between higher- and lower-performing students. When examining BTHT scores for MCQs that were written by students in a Multiple-Choice Item Development Assignment (MCIDA) there was no significant correlation between these scores and the students' ability to answer teacher-generated MCQs. This suggests that the ability to answer histology MCQs relies on a different skill set than the aptitude to construct higher-level Bloom's taxonomy questions. However, students significantly improved their average BTHT scores from the midterm to the final MCIDA task, which indicates that practice, experience and feedback increased their MCQ writing proficiency. Anat Sci Educ 10: 456-464. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Gossip Consensus Algorithm Based on Time-Varying Influence Factors and Weakly Connected Graph for Opinion Evolution in Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingyun Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a new gossip algorithm to investigate the problem of opinion consensus with the time-varying influence factors and weakly connected graph among multiple agents. What is more, we discuss not only the effect of the time-varying factors and the randomized topological structure but also the spread of misinformation and communication constrains described by probabilistic quantized communication in the social network. Under the underlying weakly connected graph, we first denote that all opinion states converge to a stochastic consensus almost surely; that is, our algorithm indeed achieves the consensus with probability one. Furthermore, our results show that the mean of all the opinion states converges to the average of the initial states when time-varying influence factors satisfy some conditions. Finally, we give a result about the square mean error between the dynamic opinion states and the benchmark without quantized communication.

  6. Consensus categorization of cheese based on water activity and pH-A rational approach to systemizing cheese diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trmčić, A; Ralyea, R; Meunier-Goddik, L; Donnelly, C; Glass, K; D'Amico, D; Meredith, E; Kehler, M; Tranchina, N; McCue, C; Wiedmann, M

    2017-01-01

    Development of science-based interventions in raw milk cheese production is challenging due to the large diversity of production procedures and final products. Without an agreed upon categorization scheme, science-based food safety evaluations and validation of preventive controls would have to be completed separately on each individual cheese product, which is not feasible considering the large diversity of products and the typically small scale of production. Thus, a need exists to systematically group raw milk cheeses into logically agreed upon categories to be used for food safety evaluations. This paper proposes and outlines one such categorization scheme that provides for 30 general categories of cheese. As a base for this systematization and categorization of raw milk cheese, we used Table B of the US Food and Drug Administration's 2013 Food Code, which represents the interaction of pH and water activity for control of vegetative cells and spores in non-heat-treated food. Building on this table, we defined a set of more granular pH and water activity categories to better represent the pH and water activity range of different raw milk cheeses. The resulting categorization scheme was effectively validated using pH and water activity values determined for 273 different cheese samples collected in the marketplace throughout New York State, indicating the distribution of commercially available cheeses among the categories proposed here. This consensus categorization of cheese provides a foundation for a feasible approach to developing science-based solutions to assure compliance of the cheese processors with food safety regulations, such as those required by the US Food Safety Modernization Act. The key purpose of the cheese categorization proposed here is to facilitate product assessment for food safety risks and provide scientifically validated guidance on effective interventions for general cheese categories. Once preventive controls for a given category have

  7. Present developments in reaching an international consensus for a model-based approach to particle beam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prayongrat, Anussara; Umegaki, Kikuo; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Koong, Albert C; Lin, Steven H; Whitaker, Thomas; McNutt, Todd; Matsufuji, Naruhiro; Graves, Edward; Mizuta, Masahiko; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Date, Hiroyuki; Moriwaki, Kensuke; Ito, Yoichi M; Kobashi, Keiji; Dekura, Yasuhiro; Shimizu, Shinichi; Shirato, Hiroki

    2018-03-01

    Particle beam therapy (PBT), including proton and carbon ion therapy, is an emerging innovative treatment for cancer patients. Due to the high cost of and limited access to treatment, meticulous selection of patients who would benefit most from PBT, when compared with standard X-ray therapy (XRT), is necessary. Due to the cost and labor involved in randomized controlled trials, the model-based approach (MBA) is used as an alternative means of establishing scientific evidence in medicine, and it can be improved continuously. Good databases and reasonable models are crucial for the reliability of this approach. The tumor control probability and normal tissue complication probability models are good illustrations of the advantages of PBT, but pre-existing NTCP models have been derived from historical patient treatments from the XRT era. This highlights the necessity of prospectively analyzing specific treatment-related toxicities in order to develop PBT-compatible models. An international consensus has been reached at the Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education (GI-CoRE) joint symposium, concluding that a systematically developed model is required for model accuracy and performance. Six important steps that need to be observed in these considerations include patient selection, treatment planning, beam delivery, dose verification, response assessment, and data analysis. Advanced technologies in radiotherapy and computer science can be integrated to improve the efficacy of a treatment. Model validation and appropriately defined thresholds in a cost-effectiveness centered manner, together with quality assurance in the treatment planning, have to be achieved prior to clinical implementation.

  8. A smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer: establishing system requirements and a pain care algorithm based on literature review, interviews, and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jibb, Lindsay A; Stevens, Bonnie J; Nathan, Paul C; Seto, Emily; Cafazzo, Joseph A; Stinson, Jennifer N

    2014-03-19

    Pain that occurs both within and outside of the hospital setting is a common and distressing problem for adolescents with cancer. The use of smartphone technology may facilitate rapid, in-the-moment pain support for this population. To ensure the best possible pain management advice is given, evidence-based and expert-vetted care algorithms and system design features, which are designed using user-centered methods, are required. To develop the decision algorithm and system requirements that will inform the pain management advice provided by a real-time smartphone-based pain management app for adolescents with cancer. A systematic approach to algorithm development and system design was utilized. Initially, a comprehensive literature review was undertaken to understand the current body of knowledge pertaining to pediatric cancer pain management. A user-centered approach to development was used as the results of the review were disseminated to 15 international experts (clinicians, scientists, and a consumer) in pediatric pain, pediatric oncology and mHealth design, who participated in a 2-day consensus conference. This conference used nominal group technique to develop consensus on important pain inputs, pain management advice, and system design requirements. Using data generated at the conference, a prototype algorithm was developed. Iterative qualitative testing was conducted with adolescents with cancer, as well as pediatric oncology and pain health care providers to vet and refine the developed algorithm and system requirements for the real-time smartphone app. The systematic literature review established the current state of research related to nonpharmacological pediatric cancer pain management. The 2-day consensus conference established which clinically important pain inputs by adolescents would require action (pain management advice) from the app, the appropriate advice the app should provide to adolescents in pain, and the functional requirements of the app

  9. Objective consensus from decision trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Pra, Alan Dal; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties

  10. Objective consensus from decision trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putora, Paul Martin; Panje, Cedric M; Papachristofilou, Alexandros; Dal Pra, Alan; Hundsberger, Thomas; Plasswilm, Ludwig

    2014-12-05

    Consensus-based approaches provide an alternative to evidence-based decision making, especially in situations where high-level evidence is limited. Our aim was to demonstrate a novel source of information, objective consensus based on recommendations in decision tree format from multiple sources. Based on nine sample recommendations in decision tree format a representative analysis was performed. The most common (mode) recommendations for each eventuality (each permutation of parameters) were determined. The same procedure was applied to real clinical recommendations for primary radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Data was collected from 16 radiation oncology centres, converted into decision tree format and analyzed in order to determine the objective consensus. Based on information from multiple sources in decision tree format, treatment recommendations can be assessed for every parameter combination. An objective consensus can be determined by means of mode recommendations without compromise or confrontation among the parties. In the clinical example involving prostate cancer therapy, three parameters were used with two cut-off values each (Gleason score, PSA, T-stage) resulting in a total of 27 possible combinations per decision tree. Despite significant variations among the recommendations, a mode recommendation could be found for specific combinations of parameters. Recommendations represented as decision trees can serve as a basis for objective consensus among multiple parties.

  11. The Japan Lung Cancer Society–Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology consensus-based computed tomographic atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itazawa, Tomoko; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Komiyama, Takafumi; Nishimura, Yasumasa; Nakayama, Yuko; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ohde, Yasuhisa; Kusumoto, Masahiko; Sakai, Shuji; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Hirokazu; Asamura, Hisao

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a consensus-based computed tomographic (CT) atlas that defines lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer based on the lymph node map of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC). A project group in the Japanese Radiation Oncology Study Group (JROSG) initially prepared a draft of the atlas in which lymph node Stations 1–11 were illustrated on axial CT images. Subsequently, a joint committee of the Japan Lung Cancer Society (JLCS) and the Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology (JASTRO) was formulated to revise this draft. The committee consisted of four radiation oncologists, four thoracic surgeons and three thoracic radiologists. The draft prepared by the JROSG project group was intensively reviewed and discussed at four meetings of the committee over several months. Finally, we proposed definitions for the regional lymph node stations and the consensus-based CT atlas. This atlas was approved by the Board of Directors of JLCS and JASTRO. This resulted in the first official CT atlas for defining regional lymph node stations in radiotherapy for lung cancer authorized by the JLCS and JASTRO. In conclusion, the JLCS–JASTRO consensus-based CT atlas, which conforms to the IASLC lymph node map, was established.

  12. Failure Modes Taxonomy for Reliability Assessment of Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for Probabilistic Risk Analysis - Failure modes taxonomy for reliability assessment of digital I and C systems for PRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amri, A.; Blundell, N.; ); Authen, S.; Betancourt, L.; Coyne, K.; Halverson, D.; Li, M.; Taylor, G.; Bjoerkman, K.; Brinkman, H.; Postma, W.; Bruneliere, H.; Chirila, M.; Gheorge, R.; Chu, L.; Yue, M.; Delache, J.; Georgescu, G.; Deleuze, G.; Quatrain, R.; Thuy, N.; Holmberg, J.-E.; Kim, M.C.; Kondo, K.; Mancini, F.; Piljugin, E.; Stiller, J.; Sedlak, J.; Smidts, C.; Sopira, V.

    2015-01-01

    Digital protection and control systems appear as upgrades in older nuclear power plants (NPP), and are commonplace in new NPPs. To assess the risk of NPP operation and to determine the risk impact of digital systems, there is a need to quantitatively assess the reliability of the digital systems in a justifiable manner. Due to the many unique attributes of digital systems (e.g., functions are implemented by software, units of the system interact in a communication network, faults can be identified and handled online), a number of modelling and data collection challenges exist, and international consensus on the reliability modelling has not yet been reached. The objective of the task group called DIGREL has been to develop a taxonomy of failure modes of digital components for the purposes of probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). An activity focused on the development of a common taxonomy of failure modes is seen as an important step towards standardised digital instrumentation and control (I and C) reliability assessment techniques for PRA. Needs from PRA has guided the work, meaning, e.g., that the I and C system and its failures are studied from the point of view of their functional significance point of view. The taxonomy will be the basis of future modelling and quantification efforts. It will also help to define a structure for data collection and to review PRA studies. The proposed failure modes taxonomy has been developed by first collecting examples of taxonomies provided by the task group organisations. This material showed some variety in the handling of I and C hardware failure modes, depending on the context where the failure modes have been defined. Regarding the software part of I and C, failure modes defined in NPP PRAs have been simple - typically a software CCF failing identical processing units. The DIGREL task group has defined a new failure modes taxonomy based on a hierarchical definition of five levels of abstraction: 1. system level (complete

  13. Clinical Orofacial Examination in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis: International Consensus-based Recommendations for Monitoring Patients in Clinical Practice and Research Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoustrup, Peter; Twilt, Marinka; Spiegel, Lynn; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Koos, Bernd; Pedersen, Thomas Klit; Küseler, Annelise; Cron, Randy Q; Abramowicz, Shelly; Verna, Carlalberta; Peltomäki, Timo; Alstergren, Per; Petty, Ross; Ringold, Sarah; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Saurenmann, Rotraud K; Herlin, Troels

    2017-03-01

    To develop international consensus-based recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), for use in clinical practice and research. Using a sequential phased approach, a multidisciplinary task force developed and evaluated a set of recommendations for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA. Phase 1: A Delphi survey was conducted among 40 expert physicians and dentists with the aim of identifying and ranking the importance of items for inclusion. Phase 2: The task force developed consensus about the domains and items to be included in the recommendations. Phase 3: A systematic literature review was performed to assess the evidence supporting the consensus-based recommendations. Phase 4: An independent group of orofacial and JIA experts were invited to assess the content validity of the task force's recommendations. Five recommendations were developed to assess the following 5 domains: medical history, orofacial symptoms, muscle and temporomandibular joint function, orofacial function, and dentofacial growth. After application of data search criteria, 56 articles were included in the systematic review. The level of evidence for the 5 recommendations was derived primarily from descriptive studies, such as cross-sectional and case-control studies. Five recommendations are proposed for the orofacial examination of patients with JIA to improve the clinical practice and aid standardized data collection for future studies. The task force has formulated a future research program based on the proposed recommendations.

  14. Team errors: definition and taxonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasou, Kunihide; Reason, James

    1999-01-01

    In error analysis or error management, the focus is usually upon individuals who have made errors. In large complex systems, however, most people work in teams or groups. Considering this working environment, insufficient emphasis has been given to 'team errors'. This paper discusses the definition of team errors and its taxonomy. These notions are also applied to events that have occurred in the nuclear power industry, aviation industry and shipping industry. The paper also discusses the relations between team errors and Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs). As a result, the proposed definition and taxonomy are found to be useful in categorizing team errors. The analysis also reveals that deficiencies in communication, resource/task management, excessive authority gradient, excessive professional courtesy will cause team errors. Handling human errors as team errors provides an opportunity to reduce human errors

  15. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Pneumoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rima, Bert; Collins, Peter; Easton, Andrew; Fouchier, Ron; Kurath, Gael; Lamb, Robert A; Lee, Benhur; Maisner, Andrea; Rota, Paul; Wang, Linfa; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-12-01

    The family Pneumoviridae comprises large enveloped negative-sense RNA viruses. This taxon was formerly a subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae, but was reclassified in 2016 as a family with two genera, Orthopneumovirus and Metapneumovirus. Pneumoviruses infect a range of mammalian species, while some members of the Metapneumovirus genus may also infect birds. Some viruses are specific and pathogenic for humans, such as human respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus. There are no known vectors for pneumoviruses and transmission is thought to be primarily by aerosol droplets and contact. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Pneumoviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/pneumoviridae.

  16. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Hepeviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdy, Michael A; Harrison, Tim J; Jameel, S; Meng, X-J; Okamoto, H; Van der Poel, W H M; Smith, Donald B; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-11-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which is responsible for self-limiting acute hepatitis in humans and several mammalian species; the infection may become chronic in immunocompromised individuals. Extrahepatic manifestations of Guillain-Barré syndrome, neuralgic amyotrophy, glomerulonephritis and pancreatitis have been described in humans. Avian hepatitis E virus causes hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Hepeviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/hepeviridae.

  17. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile: Picornaviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, R; Delwart, E; Gorbalenya, A E; Hovi, T; King, A M Q; Knowles, N J; Lindberg, A M; Pallansch, M A; Palmenberg, A C; Reuter, G; Simmonds, P; Skern, T; Stanway, G; Yamashita, T; Ictv Report Consortium

    2017-10-01

    The family Picornaviridae comprises small non-enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 6.7 to 10.1 kb, and contains >30 genera and >75 species. Most of the known picornaviruses infect mammals and birds, but some have also been detected in reptiles, amphibians and fish. Many picornaviruses are important human and veterinary pathogens and may cause diseases of the central nervous system, heart, liver, skin, gastrointestinal tract or upper respiratory tract. Most picornaviruses are transmitted by the faecal-oral or respiratory routes. This is a summary of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Report on the taxonomy of the Picornaviridae, which is available at www.ictv.global/report/picornaviridae.

  18. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a stand...

  19. A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume for pelvic lymph nodes in external beam radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kaneyasu, Yuko

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based guideline as well as an atlas defining pelvic nodal clinical target volumes in external beam radiotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. A working subgroup to establish the consensus-based guideline on clinical target volumes for uterine cervical cancer was formulated by the Radiation Therapy Study Group of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group in July 2008. The working subgroup consisted of seven radiation oncologists. The process resulting in the consensus included a comparison of contouring on CT images among the members, reviewing of published textbooks and the relevant literature and a distribution analysis of metastatic nodes on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging of actual patients. The working subgroup defined the pelvic nodal clinical target volumes for cervical cancer and developed an associated atlas. As a basic criterion, the lymph node clinical target volume was defined as the area encompassed by a 7 mm margin around the applicable pelvic vessels. Modifications were made in each nodal area to cover adjacent adipose tissues at risk of microscopic nodal metastases. Although the bones and muscles were excluded, the bowel was not routinely excluded in the definition. Each of the following pelvic node regions was defined: common iliac, external iliac, internal iliac, obturator and presacral. Anatomical structures bordering each lymph node region were defined for six directions; anterior, posterior, lateral, medial, cranial and caudal. Drafts of the definition and the atlas were reviewed by members of the JCOG Gynecologic Cancer Study Group (GCSG). We developed a consensus-based guideline defining the pelvic node clinical target volumes that included an atlas. The guideline will be continuously updated to reflect the ongoing changes in the field. (author)

  20. Computer-assisted tree taxonomy by automated image recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, E.J.; Zeeuw, P.M.de; Ranguelova, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    We present an algorithm that performs image-based queries within the domain of tree taxonomy. As such, it serves as an example relevant to many other potential applications within the field of biodiversity and photo-identification. Unsupervised matching results are produced through a chain of

  1. Applying a Knowledge Management Taxonomy to Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambi, Melinda; O'Toole, Paddy

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the relevance of a corporate-based taxonomy of knowledge management to secondary schooling. Do the principles of knowledge management from the corporate world translate to the world of education; specifically, secondary schooling? This article examines categories of knowledge management articulated in…

  2. Taxonomy of Lecture Note-Taking Skills and Subskills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musalli, Alaa M.

    2015-01-01

    Note taking (NT) in lectures is as active a skill as listening, which stimulates it, and as challenging as writing, which is the end product. Literature on lecture NT misses an integration of the processes involved in listening with those in NT. In this article, a taxonomy is proposed of lecture NT skills and subskills based on a similar list…

  3. Redesign of a Life Span Development Course Using Fink's Taxonomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Carolyn R.

    2008-01-01

    This study compared a traditional lecture-based life span development course to the same course redesigned using Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning. The goals, activities, and feedback within the course corresponded to Fink's 6 taxa (knowledge, application, integration, human dimension, caring, learning how to learn). Undergraduates in…

  4. A Taxonomy of Privacy Constructs for Privacy-Sensitive Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Rueben, Matthew; Grimm, Cindy M.; Bernieri, Frank J.; Smart, William D.

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of robots into our society will also introduce new concerns about personal privacy. In order to study these concerns, we must do human-subject experiments that involve measuring privacy-relevant constructs. This paper presents a taxonomy of privacy constructs based on a review of the privacy literature. Future work in operationalizing privacy constructs for HRI studies is also discussed.

  5. Conception of Learning Outcomes in the Bloom's Taxonomy Affective Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savickiene, Izabela

    2010-01-01

    The article raises a problematic issue regarding an insufficient base of the conception of learning outcomes in the Bloom's taxonomy affective domain. The search for solutions introduces the conception of teaching and learning in the affective domain as well as presents validity criteria of learning outcomes in the affective domain. The…

  6. Spumaretroviruses: Updated taxonomy and nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arifa S; Bodem, Jochen; Buseyne, Florence; Gessain, Antoine; Johnson, Welkin; Kuhn, Jens H; Kuzmak, Jacek; Lindemann, Dirk; Linial, Maxine L; Löchelt, Martin; Materniak-Kornas, Magdalena; Soares, Marcelo A; Switzer, William M

    2018-03-01

    Spumaretroviruses, commonly referred to as foamy viruses, are complex retroviruses belonging to the subfamily Spumaretrovirinae, family Retroviridae, which naturally infect a variety of animals including nonhuman primates (NHPs). Additionally, cross-species transmissions of simian foamy viruses (SFVs) to humans have occurred following exposure to tissues of infected NHPs. Recent research has led to the identification of previously unknown exogenous foamy viruses, and to the discovery of endogenous spumaretrovirus sequences in a variety of host genomes. Here, we describe an updated spumaretrovirus taxonomy that has been recently accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Executive Committee, and describe a virus nomenclature that is generally consistent with that used for other retroviruses, such as lentiviruses and deltaretroviruses. This taxonomy can be applied to distinguish different, but closely related, primate (e.g., human, ape, simian) foamy viruses as well as those from other hosts. This proposal accounts for host-virus co-speciation and cross-species transmission. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. A consensus-based template for uniform reporting of data from pre-hospital advanced airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, Stephen J M; Lockey, David; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2009-01-01

    with airway management have recently propagated the need for guidelines and standards in pre-hospital airway management. Following the path of other initiatives to establish templates for uniform data reporting, like the many Utstein-style templates, we initiated and carried out a structured consensus process......, the group defined 19 optional variables for which a consensus could not be achieved or the data were considered as valuable but not essential. CONCLUSION: We successfully developed an Utstein-style template for documenting and reporting pre-hospital airway management. The core dataset for this template......BACKGROUND: Advanced airway management is a critical intervention that can harm the patient if performed poorly. The available literature on this subject is rich, but it is difficult to interpret due to a huge variability and poor definitions. Several initiatives from large organisations concerned...

  8. Planetary Taxonomy: Label Round Bodies "Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margot, Jean-Luc; Levison, H. F.

    2009-05-01

    The classification of planetary bodies is as important to Astronomy as taxonomy is to other sciences. The etymological, historical, and IAU definitions of planet rely on a dynamical criterion, but some authors prefer a geophysical criterion based on "roundness". Although the former criterion is superior when it comes to classifying newly discovered objects, the conflict need not exist if we agree to identify the subset of "round" planetary objects as "worlds". This addition to the taxonomy would conveniently recognize that "round" objects such as Earth, Europa, Titan, Triton, and Pluto share some common planetary-type processes regardless of their distance from the host star. Some of these worlds are planets, others are not. Defining how round is round and handling the inevitable transition objects are non-trivial tasks. Because images at sufficient resolution are not available for the overwhelming majority of newly discovered objects, the degree of roundness is not a directly observable property and is inherently problematic as a basis for classification. We can tolerate some uncertainty in establishing the "world" status of a newly discovered object, and still establish its planet or satellite status with existing dynamical criteria. Because orbital parameters are directly observable, and because mass can often be measured either from orbital perturbations or from the presence of companions, the dynamics provide a robust and practical planet classification scheme. It may also be possible to determine which bodies are dynamically dominant from observations of the population magnitude/size distribution.

  9. Developing a Distributed Consensus-Based Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control System for Heterogeneous Vehicles with Predecessor Following Topology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziran Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Connected and automated vehicle (CAV has become an increasingly popular topic recently. As an application, Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC systems are of high interest, allowing CAVs to communicate with each other and coordinating their maneuvers to form platoons, where one vehicle follows another with a constant velocity and/or time headway. In this study, we propose a novel CACC system, where distributed consensus algorithm and protocol are designed for platoon formation, merging maneuvers, and splitting maneuvers. Predecessor following information flow topology is adopted for the system, where each vehicle only communicates with its following vehicle to reach consensus of the whole platoon, making the vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communication fast and accurate. Moreover, different from most studies assuming the type and dynamics of all the vehicles in a platoon to be homogenous, we take into account the length, location of GPS antenna on vehicle, and braking performance of different vehicles. A simulation study has been conducted under scenarios including normal platoon formation, platoon restoration from disturbances, and merging and splitting maneuvers. We have also carried out a sensitivity analysis on the distributed consensus algorithm, investigating the effect of the damping gain on convergence rate, driving comfort, and driving safety of the system.

  10. A consensus-based guideline defining clinical target volume for primary disease in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toita, Takafumi; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kaneyasu, Yuko

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consensus-based guideline to define clinical target volume for primary disease (clinical target volume primary) in external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. The working subgroup of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group (JCOG) Radiation Therapy Study Group began developing a guideline for primary clinical target volume in November 2009. The group consisted of 10 radiation oncologists and 2 gynecologic oncologists. The process started with comparing the contouring on computed tomographic images of actual cervical cancer cases among the members. This was followed by a comprehensive literature review that included primary research articles and textbooks as well as information on surgical procedures. Extensive discussion occurred in face-to-face meetings (three occasions) and frequent e-mail communications until a consensus was reached. The working subgroup reached a consensus on the definition for the clinical target volume primary. The clinical target volume primary consists of the gross tumor volume, uterine cervix, uterine corpus, parametrium, vagina and ovaries. Definitions for these component structures were determined. Anatomical boundaries in all directions were defined for the parametrium. Examples delineating these boundaries were prepared for the posterior border of the parametrium for various clinical situations (id est (i.e.) central tumor bulk, degree of parametrial involvement). A consensus-based guideline defining the clinical target volume primary was developed for external beam radiotherapy for intact uterine cervical cancer. This guideline will serve as a template for radiotherapy protocols in future clinical trials. It may also be used in actual clinical practice in the setting of highly precise external beam radiotherapy, including intensity-modulated radiotherapy. (author)

  11. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  12. Ocular allergy latin american consensus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna Serapião dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To establish current definition, classification and staging, and to develop diagnosis and treatment recommendations for ocular allergy, by using Delphi approach. METHODS: Ten Latin American experts on ocular allergy participated in a 4-round Delphi panel approach. Four surveys were constructed and answered by panelists. A two-thirds majority was defined as consensus. Definition, classification, staging and diagnosis and treatment recommendations were the main outcomes. RESULTS: "Ocular allergy" was proposed as the general term to describe ocular allergic diseases. Consensus regarding classification was not reached. Signs and symptoms were considered extremely important for the diagnosis. It was consensus that a staging system should be proposed based on the disease severity. Environmental control, avoidance of allergens and the use of artificial tears were recommended as first line treatment. The secondary treatment should include topical anti-histamines, mast cell stabilizers and multi actions drugs. Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory and vasoconstrictors were not recommended. Topical corticosteroids were recommended as third line of treatment for the most severe keratoconjunctivitis. Consensus was not reached regarding the use of systemic corticosteroids or immunosuppressant. Surgical approach and unconventional treatments were not recommended as routine. CONCLUSION: The task of creating guidelines for ocular allergies showed to be very complex. Many controversial topics remain unsolved. A larger consensus including experts from different groups around the world may be needed to further improve the current recommendations for several aspects of ocular allergy.

  13. The ACTTION–APS–AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L.; Tighe, Patrick J.; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J.; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M.; Buckenmaier, Chester C.; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I.; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B.; Hurley, Robert W.; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D.; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A.; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C.; Weisman, Steven J.; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Terman, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Objective. With the increasing societal awareness of the prevalence and impact of acute pain, there is a need to develop an acute pain classification system that both reflects contemporary mechanistic insights and helps guide future research and treatment. Existing classifications of acute pain conditions are limiting, with a predominant focus on the sensory experience (e.g., pain intensity) and pharmacologic consumption. Consequently, there is a need to more broadly characterize and classify the multidimensional experience of acute pain. Setting. Consensus report following expert panel involving the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). Methods. As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria for a comprehensive set of acute pain conditions. Perspective. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) is a multidimensional acute pain classification system designed to classify acute pain along the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Conclusions. Significant numbers of patients still suffer from significant acute pain

  14. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) Multidimensional Approach to Classifying Acute Pain Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Michael L; Tighe, Patrick J; Belfer, Inna; Brennan, Timothy J; Bruehl, Stephen; Brummett, Chad M; Buckenmaier, Chester C; Buvanendran, Asokumar; Cohen, Robert I; Desjardins, Paul; Edwards, David; Fillingim, Roger; Gewandter, Jennifer; Gordon, Debra B; Hurley, Robert W; Kehlet, Henrik; Loeser, John D; Mackey, Sean; McLean, Samuel A; Polomano, Rosemary; Rahman, Siamak; Raja, Srinivasa; Rowbotham, Michael; Suresh, Santhanam; Schachtel, Bernard; Schreiber, Kristin; Schumacher, Mark; Stacey, Brett; Stanos, Steven; Todd, Knox; Turk, Dennis C; Weisman, Steven J; Wu, Christopher; Carr, Daniel B; Dworkin, Robert H; Terman, Gregory

    2017-05-01

    With the increasing societal awareness of the prevalence and impact of acute pain, there is a need to develop an acute pain classification system that both reflects contemporary mechanistic insights and helps guide future research and treatment. Existing classifications of acute pain conditions are limiting, with a predominant focus on the sensory experience (eg, pain intensity) and pharmacologic consumption. Consequently, there is a need to more broadly characterize and classify the multidimensional experience of acute pain. Consensus report following expert panel involving the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations, Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTTION), American Pain Society (APS), and American Academy of Pain Medicine (AAPM). As a complement to a taxonomy recently developed for chronic pain, the ACTTION public-private partnership with the US Food and Drug Administration, the APS, and the AAPM convened a consensus meeting of experts to develop an acute pain taxonomy using prevailing evidence. Key issues pertaining to the distinct nature of acute pain are presented followed by the agreed-upon taxonomy. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy will include the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Future efforts will consist of working groups utilizing this taxonomy to develop diagnostic criteria for a comprehensive set of acute pain conditions. The ACTTION-APS-AAPM Acute Pain Taxonomy (AAAPT) is a multidimensional acute pain classification system designed to classify acute pain along the following dimensions: 1) core criteria, 2) common features, 3) modulating factors, 4) impact/functional consequences, and 5) putative pathophysiologic pain mechanisms. Significant numbers of patients still suffer from significant acute pain, despite the advent of modern multimodal analgesic strategies

  15. Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Swift, Stephen; Liu, Xiaohui

    Ensemble Clustering has been developed to provide an alternative way of obtaining more stable and accurate clustering results. It aims to avoid the biases of individual clustering algorithms. However, it is still a challenge to develop an efficient and robust method for Ensemble Clustering. Based on an existing ensemble clustering method, Consensus Clustering (CC), this paper introduces an advanced Consensus Clustering algorithm called Multi-Optimisation Consensus Clustering (MOCC), which utilises an optimised Agreement Separation criterion and a Multi-Optimisation framework to improve the performance of CC. Fifteen different data sets are used for evaluating the performance of MOCC. The results reveal that MOCC can generate more accurate clustering results than the original CC algorithm.

  16. The Copenhagen Consensus Conference 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Krustrup, Peter; Duda, Joan

    2016-01-01

    that consists of many structured and unstructured forms within school and out-of-school-time contexts, including organised sport, physical education, outdoor recreation, motor skill development programmes, recess, and active transportation such as biking and walking. This consensus statement presents the accord......From 4 to 7 April 2016, 24 researchers from 8 countries and from a variety of academic disciplines gathered in Snekkersten, Denmark, to reach evidence-based consensus about physical activity in children and youth, that is, individuals between 6 and 18 years. Physical activity is an overarching term...... on the effects of physical activity on children’s and youth’s fitness, health, cognitive functioning, engagement, motivation, psychological well-being and social inclusion, as well as presenting educational and physical activity implementation strategies. The consensus was obtained through an iterative process...

  17. Molecular taxonomy of scopulariopsis-like fungi with description of new clinical and environmental species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagielski, Tomasz; Sandoval-Denis, Marcelo; Yu, Jin; Yao, Limin; Bakuła, Zofia; Kalita, Joanna; Skóra, Magdalena; Krzyściak, Paweł; de Hoog, G Sybren; Guarro, Josep; Gené, Josepa

    The taxonomy of scopulariopsis-like fungi, comprising numerous human opportunistic species, has recently been reassessed with delineation of the genera Microascus, Pithoascus, Pseudoscopulariopsis, and Scopulariopsis, using morphological data and multilocus sequence analysis based on four loci (ITS,

  18. Communication skills training in oncology: a position paper based on a consensus meeting among European experts in 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiefel, F; Barth, J; Bensing, J; Fallowfield, L; Jost, L; Razavi, D; Kiss, A

    2010-02-01

    Communication in cancer care has become a major topic of interest. Since there is evidence that ineffective communication affects both patients and oncology clinicians (physicians and nurses), so-called communication skills trainings (CSTs) have been developed over the last decade. While these trainings have been demonstrated to be effective, there is an important heterogeneity with regard to implementation and with regard to evidence of different aspects of CST. In order to review and discuss the scientific literature on CST in oncology and to formulate recommendations, the Swiss Cancer League has organised a consensus meeting with European opinion leaders and experts in the field of CST, as well as oncology clinicians, representatives of oncology societies and patient organisations. On the basis of a systematic review and a meta-analysis, recommendations have been developed and agreed upon. Recommendations address (i) the setting, objectives and participants of CST, (ii) its content and pedagogic tools, (iii) organisational aspects, (iv) outcome and (v) future directions and research. This consensus meeting, on the basis of European expert opinions and a systematic review and meta-analysis, defines key elements for the current provision and future development and evaluation of CST in oncology.

  19. Consensus on the Definition of Advanced Parkinson’s Disease: A Neurologists-Based Delphi Study (CEPA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-Rosario Luquin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, no consensus exists on the key factors for diagnosing advanced Parkinson disease (APD. To obtain consensus on the definition of APD, we performed a prospective, multicenter, Spanish nationwide, 3-round Delphi study (CEPA study. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed with 33 questions concerning the relevance of several clinical features for APD diagnosis. In the first-round, 240 neurologists of the Spanish Movement Disorders Group participated in the study. The results obtained were incorporated into the questionnaire and both, results and questionnaire, were sent out to and fulfilled by 26 experts in Movement Disorders. Review of results from the second-round led to a classification of symptoms as indicative of “definitive,” “probable,” and “possible” APD. This classification was confirmed by 149 previous participating neurologists in a third-round, where 92% completely or very much agreed with the classification. Definitive symptoms of APD included disability requiring help for the activities of daily living, presence of motor fluctuations with limitations to perform basic activities of daily living without help, severe dysphagia, recurrent falls, and dementia. These results will help neurologists to identify some key factors in APD diagnosis, thus allowing users to categorize the patients for a homogeneous recognition of this condition.

  20. Distributed k-Means Algorithm and Fuzzy c-Means Algorithm for Sensor Networks Based on Multiagent Consensus Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiahu; Fu, Weiming; Gao, Huijun; Zheng, Wei Xing

    2016-03-03

    This paper is concerned with developing a distributed k-means algorithm and a distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where each node is equipped with sensors. The underlying topology of the WSN is supposed to be strongly connected. The consensus algorithm in multiagent consensus theory is utilized to exchange the measurement information of the sensors in WSN. To obtain a faster convergence speed as well as a higher possibility of having the global optimum, a distributed k-means++ algorithm is first proposed to find the initial centroids before executing the distributed k-means algorithm and the distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm. The proposed distributed k-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into measure-dependent groups which have small in-group and large out-group distances, while the proposed distributed fuzzy c-means algorithm is capable of partitioning the data observed by the nodes into different measure-dependent groups with degrees of membership values ranging from 0 to 1. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithms can achieve almost the same results as that given by the centralized clustering algorithms.

  1. Een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, E.H.

    2007-01-01

    Recent kwam het lang verwachte ruim tweehonderdvijftig pagina`s tellende manuscript uit met daarin een revisie van de taxonomie van gifkikkers. De auteurs onder leiding van Taran Grant stellen een nieuwe taxonomie voor, die de familie Dendrobatidae met haar tien algemener geaccepteerde genera

  2. Application of the ultrametric distance to portfolio taxonomy. Critical approach and comparison with other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórnik-Pokarowska, Urszula; Orłowski, Arkadiusz

    2004-12-01

    We calculate the ultrametric distance between the pairs of stocks that belong to the same portfolio. The ultrametric distance allows us to distinguish groups of shares that are related. In this way, we can construct a portfolio taxonomy that can be used for constructing an efficient portfolio. We also construct a portfolio taxonomy based not only on stock prices but also on economic indices such as liquidity ratio, debt ratio and sales profitability ratio. We show that a good investment strategy can be obtained by applying to the portfolio chosen by the taxonomy method the so-called Constant Rebalanced Portfolio.

  3. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  4. Evidence and consensus based guideline for the management of delirium, analgesia, and sedation in intensive care medicine. Revision 2015 (DAS-Guideline 2015 – short version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAS-Taskforce 2015

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, under the guidance of the DGAI (German Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine and DIVI (German Interdisciplinary Association for Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine, twelve German medical societies published the “Evidence- and Consensus-based Guidelines on the Management of Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium in Intensive Care”. Since then, several new studies and publications have considerably increased the body of evidence, including the new recommendations from the American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM in conjunction with Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM and American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP from 2013. For this update, a major restructuring and extension of the guidelines were needed in order to cover new aspects of treatment, such as sleep and anxiety management. The literature was systematically searched and evaluated using the criteria of the Oxford Center of Evidence Based Medicine. The body of evidence used to formulate these recommendations was reviewed and approved by representatives of 17 national societies. Three grades of recommendation were used as follows: Grade “A” (strong recommendation, Grade “B” (recommendation and Grade “0” (open recommendation. The result is a comprehensive, interdisciplinary, evidence and consensus-based set of level 3 guidelines. This publication was designed for all ICU professionals, and takes into account all critically ill patient populations. It represents a guide to symptom-oriented prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of delirium, anxiety, stress, and protocol-based analgesia, sedation, and sleep-management in intensive care medicine.

  5. Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Y.; Hu, N.; Spanos, C.J.

    2016-01-01

    We propose Veto-Consensus Multiple Kernel Learning (VCMKL), a novel way of combining multiple kernels such that one class of samples is described by the logical intersection (consensus) of base kernelized decision rules, whereas the other classes by the union (veto) of their complements. The

  6. Validation of consensus panel diagnosis in dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Matthew J; Foster, Norman L; Heidebrink, Judith L; Higdon, Roger; Aizenstein, Howard J; Arnold, Steven E; Barbas, Nancy R; Boeve, Bradley F; Burke, James R; Clark, Christopher M; Dekosky, Steven T; Farlow, Martin R; Jagust, William J; Kawas, Claudia H; Koeppe, Robert A; Leverenz, James B; Lipton, Anne M; Peskind, Elaine R; Turner, R Scott; Womack, Kyle B; Zamrini, Edward Y

    2010-12-01

    The clinical diagnosis of dementing diseases largely depends on the subjective interpretation of patient symptoms. Consensus panels are frequently used in research to determine diagnoses when definitive pathologic findings are unavailable. Nevertheless, research on group decision making indicates that many factors can adversely affect panel performance. To determine conditions that improve consensus panel diagnosis. Comparison of neuropathologic diagnoses with individual and consensus panel diagnoses based on clinical scenarios only, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography images only, and scenarios plus images. Expert and trainee individual and consensus panel deliberations using a modified Delphi method in a pilot research study of the diagnostic utility of fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography. Forty-five patients with pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease or frontotemporal dementia. Statistical measures of diagnostic accuracy, agreement, and confidence for individual raters and panelists before and after consensus deliberations. The consensus protocol using trainees and experts surpassed the accuracy of individual expert diagnoses when clinical information elicited diverse judgments. In these situations, consensus was 3.5 times more likely to produce positive rather than negative changes in the accuracy and diagnostic certainty of individual panelists. A rule that forced group consensus was at least as accurate as majority and unanimity rules. Using a modified Delphi protocol to arrive at a consensus diagnosis is a reasonable substitute for pathologic information. This protocol improves diagnostic accuracy and certainty when panelist judgments differ and is easily adapted to other research and clinical settings while avoiding the potential pitfalls of group decision making.

  7. [A new taxonomic system of the genus Murraya (Rutaceae) based on integration of morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy; and a philological survey on M. exotica in view of the relationship between Okinawa and China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    This review concerns the taxonomic status of the genus Murraya in tribe Clausenae, subfamily Aurantioideae, family Rutaceae, and presents a new system integrating both morphology-based taxonomy and chemotaxonomy. This genus has been morphologically divided into the sects Murraya and Bergera. This dichotomy is justified by the noticeable difference of secondary metabolites with 3-prenylindoles in Murraya and carbazoles in Bergera. As for other metabolites of genus Murraya, coumarins are found in both sects, but differ clearly in types; 8-prenylcoumarins occur throughout the sect Murraya whereas geranylated furocoumarins are known from some species of the sect Bergera. As far as chemical properties are concerned, sect Bergera is much closer to genus Clausena than sect Murraya, suggesting the dichotomy of genus Murraya to be generic rather than sectional. 8-Prenylcoumarins characterizing sect Murraya play a decisive role in the distinction of M. exotica from M. paniculata that occurs most widely in subtropical and tropical Asia and is well known for morphologic as well as chemical diversity. Though the morphological difference between the two species is slight only in leaves and leaflets, the distinction is well substantiated by the following chemical feature: 7-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins occur in M. exotica whereas 5,7-di-OMe-8-prenylcoumarins in M. paniculata. Sect Murraya has a very close relation to genus Merrillia that is chemically characterized by similar types of 8-prenylcoumarins, and is also related to a certain extent to genus Micromelum. M. exotica is philologically surveyed in view of the delicate relationships between Okinawa, the only habitat of this plant in Japan, and China in order to clarify its historical background.

  8. COPD: time to improve its taxonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé R. Celli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease. Now we know that some genetic predisposition and/or different environmental interactions (nutritional, infectious, pollution and immunological may negatively modulate post-natal lung development and lead to poorly reversible airflow limitation later in life, consistent with COPD. We believe it is time to rethink the taxonomy of this disease based on the evidence at hand. To do so, we have followed the principles outlined in the 1980s by J.D. Scadding who proposed that diseases can be defined by four key characteristics: 1 clinical description (syndrome, 2 disorder of structure (morbid anatomy, 3 disorder of function (pathophysiology and 4 causation (aetiology. Here, we propose a pragmatic approach to the taxonomy of COPD based on different processes that result in a similar syndromic presentation. It can accommodate changes over time, as the pathobiology that may lead to COPD expands. We hope that stakeholders in the field may find it useful to better define the patients now boxed into one single entity, so that specific studies can be designed and conducted for each type of COPDs.

  9. The Limits of Consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, John B.

    Dynamics in the education policy arena suggest that, despite two generations of researchers extolling democratic leadership styles and consensus building over autocratic techniques, wide participation in policymaking and the broadest possible consensus are not always productive: American society has not yet agreed on what schools should…

  10. Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauffer, Jr., Jay Richard; Madsen, Henry; Konings, Adrianus

    2007-01-01

    We have observed a dramatic decrease in the abundance of snail-eating fishes and an increase in the prevalence of schistosomiasis among village residents and expatriate tourists at Lake Malawi, Africa, over the past two decades. We hypothesized that these observations were linked by a cause-and-e...... identified. Before we can identify the interactions among these components of the system and effectively manage snail-eating fishes, we must be able to accurately delimit the taxonomic units (e.g., species, populations, and demes) within each of the above groups....

  11. Evidence-based national guidelines for the management of suspected fetal growth restriction: comparison, consensus, and controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCowan, Lesley M; Figueras, Francesc; Anderson, Ngaire H

    2018-02-01

    Small for gestational age is usually defined as an infant with a birthweight restriction refers to a fetus that has failed to reach its biological growth potential because of placental dysfunction. Small-for-gestational-age babies make up 28-45% of nonanomalous stillbirths, and have a higher chance of neurodevelopmental delay, childhood and adult obesity, and metabolic disease. The majority of small-for-gestational-age babies are not recognized before birth. Improved identification, accompanied by surveillance and timely delivery, is associated with reduction in small-for-gestational-age stillbirths. Internationally and regionally, detection of small for gestational age and management of fetal growth problems vary considerably. The aim of this review is to: summarize areas of consensus and controversy between recently published national guidelines on small for gestational age or fetal growth restriction; highlight any recent evidence that should be incorporated into existing guidelines; and identify future research priorities in this field. A search of MEDLINE, Google, and the International Guideline Library identified 6 national guidelines on management of pregnancies complicated by fetal growth restriction/small for gestational age published from 2010 onwards. There is general consensus between guidelines (at least 4 of 6 guidelines in agreement) in early pregnancy risk selection, and use of low-dose aspirin for women with major risk factors for placental insufficiency. All highlight the importance of smoking cessation to prevent small for gestational age. While there is consensus in recommending fundal height measurement in the third trimester, 3 specify the use of a customized growth chart, while 2 recommend McDonald rule. Routine third-trimester scanning is not recommended for small-for-gestational-age screening, while women with major risk factors should have serial scanning in the third trimester. Umbilical artery Doppler studies in suspected small

  12. Recommendations for reporting tumor budding in colorectal cancer based on the International Tumor Budding Consensus Conference (ITBCC) 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lugli, Alessandro; Kirsch, Richard; Ajioka, Yoichi

    2017-01-01

    to determine the strength of recommendations and quality of evidence. The following 10 statements achieved consensus: Tumor budding is defined as a single tumor cell or a cell cluster consisting of four tumor cells or less (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is an independent predictor of lymph node metastases in pT1......%). Intratumoral budding exists in colorectal cancer and has been shown to be related to lymph node metastasis (22/22, 100%). Tumor budding is assessed in one hotspot (in a field measuring 0.785 mm 2) at the invasive front (22/22, 100%). A three-tier system should be used along with the budding count in order...

  13. An improved Greengenes taxonomy with explicit ranks for ecological and evolutionary analyses of bacteria and archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Daniel; Price, Morgan N; Goodrich, Julia; Nawrocki, Eric P; DeSantis, Todd Z; Probst, Alexander; Andersen, Gary L; Knight, Rob; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2012-03-01

    Reference phylogenies are crucial for providing a taxonomic framework for interpretation of marker gene and metagenomic surveys, which continue to reveal novel species at a remarkable rate. Greengenes is a dedicated full-length 16S rRNA gene database that provides users with a curated taxonomy based on de novo tree inference. We developed a 'taxonomy to tree' approach for transferring group names from an existing taxonomy to a tree topology, and used it to apply the Greengenes, National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and cyanoDB (Cyanobacteria only) taxonomies to a de novo tree comprising 408,315 sequences. We also incorporated explicit rank information provided by the NCBI taxonomy to group names (by prefixing rank designations) for better user orientation and classification consistency. The resulting merged taxonomy improved the classification of 75% of the sequences by one or more ranks relative to the original NCBI taxonomy with the most pronounced improvements occurring in under-classified environmental sequences. We also assessed candidate phyla (divisions) currently defined by NCBI and present recommendations for consolidation of 34 redundantly named groups. All intermediate results from the pipeline, which includes tree inference, jackknifing and transfer of a donor taxonomy to a recipient tree (tax2tree) are available for download. The improved Greengenes taxonomy should provide important infrastructure for a wide range of megasequencing projects studying ecosystems on scales ranging from our own bodies (the Human Microbiome Project) to the entire planet (the Earth Microbiome Project). The implementation of the software can be obtained from http://sourceforge.net/projects/tax2tree/.

  14. Building the Layers of a New Manufacturing Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetaniou, Chrystalla; Rieple, Alison; Pilkington, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Recent innovations in 3D printing technologies and processes have influenced how products are designed, built and delivered. However, there is a significant gap in our knowledge of how 3D printing is impacting on manufacturing eco-systems within different industries and contexts. Drawing...... inspiration from earlier manufacturing taxonomies as well as the competitive dynamics literature which provides insights into industries' moves from straightforwardly rivalrous frameworks, through competitive-cooperative exemplars, into the more recent relational-based competition. Basing our analysis...

  15. Managing Carious Lesions: Consensus Recommendations on Carious Tissue Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwendicke, F.; Frencken, J.E.; Bjorndal, L.; Maltz, M.; Manton, D.J.; Ricketts, D.; Van Landuyt, K.; Banerjee, A.; Campus, G.; Domejean, S.; Fontana, M.; Leal, S.; Lo, E.; Machiulskiene, V.; Schulte, A.; Splieth, C.; Zandona, A.F.; Innes, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The International Caries Consensus Collaboration undertook a consensus process and here presents clinical recommendations for carious tissue removal and managing cavitated carious lesions, including restoration, based on texture of demineralized dentine. Dentists should manage the disease dental

  16. Curriculum development for a national cardiotocography education program: a Delphi survey to obtain consensus on learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thellesen, Line; Hedegaard, Morten; Bergholt, Thomas; Colov, Nina P; Hoegh, Stinne; Sorensen, Jette L

    2015-08-01

    To define learning objectives for a national cardiotocography (CTG) education program based on expert consensus. A three-round Delphi survey. One midwife and one obstetrician from each maternity unit in Denmark were appointed based on CTG teaching experience and clinical obstetric experience. Following national and international guidelines, the research group determined six topics as important when using CTG: fetal physiology, equipment, indication, interpretation, clinical management, and communication/responsibility. In the first Delphi round, participants listed one to five learning objectives within the predefined topics. Responses were analyzed by a directed approach to content analysis. Phrasing was modified in accordance with Bloom's taxonomy. In the second and third Delphi rounds, participants rated each objective on a five-point relevance scale. Consensus was predefined as objectives with a mean rating value of ≥ 3. A prioritized list of CTG learning objectives. A total of 42 midwives and obstetricians from 21 maternity units were invited to participate, of whom 26 completed all three Delphi rounds, representing 18 maternity units. The final prioritized list included 40 objectives. The highest ranked objectives emphasized CTG interpretation and clinical management. The lowest ranked objectives emphasized fetal physiology. Mean ratings of relevance ranged from 3.15 to 5.00. National consensus on CTG learning objectives was achieved using the Delphi methodology. This was an initial step in developing a valid CTG education program. A prioritized list of objectives will clarify which topics to emphasize in a CTG education program. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Surfacing the Iceberg of Leadership: A New Taxonomy of Leadership Concepts and Theories

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, EK; Cletzer, DA

    2017-01-01

    Leadership scholars have long sought to impose order on the numerous theories in leadership literature. While mid-level theories abound, no taxonomy exists to provide hierarchy and a mechanism for explaining how theories interrelate. This poster offers a new taxonomy for organizing leadership theories and concepts based on the metaphor of an iceberg. It invites leadership scholars to vet their own leadership courses and undergraduate leadership programs to determine the depth to which they ex...

  18. A Taxonomy of Consumer Motives through Preferred Brand Personality : Empirical Findings for 11 Countries

    OpenAIRE

    N. GEEROMS; I. VERMEIR; P. VAN KENHOVE; H. HENDRICKX

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a circumplex taxonomy of related consumer motives based on valence ratings of 34 preferred brand personality traits. Results of INDSCAL analysis reveal a consistent, replicable preferred brand personality structure across 11 different countries and four different product categories. As preferred brand personality dimensions are considered as behavioral expressions of underlying motives, the found structure was reformulated in terms of a taxonomy of eight fundamental consum...

  19. Building a taxonomy of GI knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arleth, Mette

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on and ongoing study concerning non-professional users` understanding of GI. Online access to GI are offered by many public authorities, in order to make the public able to serve them selves online and gain insight in the physical planning and area administration. The aim...... of this project is to investigate how and how well non-professional users actually understand GI. For that purpose a taxonomy of GI knowledge is built, drawing on Bloom`s taxonomy. The elements of this taxonomy are described after a presentation of the main research question of the study, the applications chosen...

  20. Organising knowledge taxonomies, knowledge and organisational effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Lambe, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Taxonomies are often thought to play a niche role within content-oriented knowledge management projects. They are thought to be 'nice to have' but not essential. In this ground-breaking book, Patrick Lambe shows how they play an integral role in helping organizations coordinate and communicate effectively. Through a series of case studies, he demonstrates the range of ways in which taxonomies can help organizations to leverage and articulate their knowledge. A step-by-step guide in the book to running a taxonomy project is full of practical advice for knowledge managers and business owners ali

  1. Horizon 2020 Priorities in Clinical Mental Health Research: Results of a Consensus-Based ROAMER Expert Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Elfeddali

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the ROAMER project, which aims to provide a Roadmap for Mental Health Research in Europe, a two-stage Delphi survey among 86 European experts was conducted in order to identify research priorities in clinical mental health research. Expert consensus existed with regard to the importance of three challenges in the field of clinical mental health research: (1 the development of new, safe and effective interventions for mental disorders; (2 understanding the mechanisms of disease in order to be able to develop such new interventions; and (3 defining outcomes (an improved set of outcomes, including alternative outcomes to use for clinical mental health research evaluation. Proposed actions involved increasing the utilization of tailored approaches (personalized medicine, developing blended eHealth/mHealth decision aids/guidance tools that help the clinician to choose between various treatment modalities, developing specific treatments in order to better target comorbidity and (further development of biological, psychological and psychopharmacological interventions. The experts indicated that addressing these priorities will result in increased efficacy and impact across Europe; with a high probability of success, given that Europe has important strengths, such as skilled academics and a long research history. Finally, the experts stressed the importance of creating funding and coordinated networking as essential action needed in order to target the variety of challenges in clinical mental health research.

  2. Evaluating ILI Advanced Series through Bloom's Revised Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDIPOUR, Nasim; SADEGHI, Bahador

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. This study investigated Iran Language Institute Advanced Series in terms of learning objectives based on Bloom's Revised Taxonomy. It examined the cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains to see how the critical thinking skills are used and to what extent these books are different from each other. For these purposes, the frequencies, percentages and Standard Residual were analyzed. Results revealed that the lower-order cognitive skills (i.e. remembering, understanding and applyi...

  3. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  4. Developing Cognitive Test Based on the Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy on The Structure and Cell Function Material for XI Grade Students in Senior High School of Tarakan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulfadli Zulfadli

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This research was to develop a cognitive test tool based on Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy. This study aimed to determine the quality of the test based on experts assessment, to measure the level of validity, reliability, and to determine the difficulty levels of the questions, discrimination power, and distractors. This research employed Research and Development (R&D method. The development test model used was the 4D procedure which was modified into three steps: define, design, and develop. The subjects were the Science students of XI grade at SMAN 2 Tarakan and SMA Muhammadiyah Tarakan. The results of the study were: (1 the experts validation analysis showed that the cognitive test has been categorized as valid which the value was 4.28 (2 The quality of cognitive test were: (A the 90% items were valid, while 10% were invalid. (B the reliability value was 0.79 (highly reliable (C the levels of difficulty were: easy (27%, moderate (53%, difficult (20%. (Dthe test discrimination index were: weak (10%, sufficient (33%, good (53%, and either once (3%. (E distractors effectiveness: effective category (85%, ineffective (15%. Assessment results from expert validators and empirical tests indicate that this cognitive test device is feasible to use and apply. The uniformity of this level of difficulty makes the quality of items were good to use. The discrimination power of these test tool, which has good value, indicate that the high diversity of items is able to measure students' abilities.

  5. Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences.

  6. Unravelling the tangled taxonomies of health informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barrett

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Even though informatics is a term used commonly in healthcare, it can be a confusing and disengaging one. Many definitions exist in the literature, and attempts have been made to develop a clear taxonomy. Despite this, informatics is still a term that lacks clarity in both its scope and the classification of sub-terms that it encompasses.This paper reviews the importance of an agreed taxonomy and explores the challenges of establishing exactly what is meant by health informatics (HI. It reviews what a taxonomy should do, summarises previous attempts at categorising and organising HI and suggests the elements to consider when seeking to develop a system of classification.The paper does not provide all the answers, but it does clarify the questions. By plotting a path towards a taxonomy of HI, it will be possible to enhance understanding and optimise the benefits of embracing technology in clinical practice.

  7. Towards the Development of a Taxonomy for Visualisation of Streamed Geospatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibolla, B. H.; Van Zyl, T.; Coetzee, S.

    2016-06-01

    Geospatial data has very specific characteristics that need to be carefully captured in its visualisation, in order for the user and the viewer to gain knowledge from it. The science of visualisation has gained much traction over the last decade as a response to various visualisation challenges. During the development of an open source based, dynamic two-dimensional visualisation library, that caters for geospatial streaming data, it was found necessary to conduct a review of existing geospatial visualisation taxonomies. The review was done in order to inform the design phase of the library development, such that either an existing taxonomy can be adopted or extended to fit the needs at hand. The major challenge in this case is to develop dynamic two dimensional visualisations that enable human interaction in order to assist the user to understand the data streams that are continuously being updated. This paper reviews the existing geospatial data visualisation taxonomies that have been developed over the years. Based on the review, an adopted taxonomy for visualisation of geospatial streaming data is presented. Example applications of this taxonomy are also provided. The adopted taxonomy will then be used to develop the information model for the visualisation library in a further study.

  8. testing a consensus conference method by discussing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-10-10

    Oct 10, 2000 ... Objectives: To test the recommended consensus conference methods in Tanzania by discussing the management ... “wrong”, based on recommendations advocated in western ..... future scenarios sponsored the conference.

  9. Application of a Consumer Health Information Needs Taxonomy to Questions in Maternal-Fetal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenson, Jared A; Ingram, Ebone; Colon, Nadja; Jackson, Gretchen Purcell

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy is a time when expectant mothers may have numerous questions about their unborn children, especially when congenital anomalies are diagnosed prenatally. We sought to characterize information needs of pregnant women seen in the Vanderbilt Children's Hospital Fetal Center. Participants recorded questions from diagnosis through delivery. Questions were categorized by two researchers using a hierarchical taxonomy describing consumer health information needs. Consensus category assignments were made, and inter-rater reliability was measured with Cohen's Kappa. Sixteen participants reported 398 questions in 39 subcategories, of which the most common topics were prognosis (53 questions; 13.3%) and indications for intervention (31 questions; 7.8%). Inter-rater reliability of assignments showed moderate (κ=0.57) to substantial (κ=0.75) agreement for subcategories and primary categories, respectively. Pregnant women with prenatal diagnoses have diverse unmet information needs; a taxonomy of consumer health information needs may improve the ability to meet such needs through content and system design.

  10. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  11. NASA Taxonomies for Searching Problem Reports and FMEAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Jane T.; Throop, David R.

    2006-01-01

    Many types of hazard and risk analyses are used during the life cycle of complex systems, including Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Hazard Analysis, Fault Tree and Event Tree Analysis, Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Reliability Analysis and analysis of Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) databases. The success of these methods depends on the availability of input data and the analysts knowledge. Standard nomenclature can increase the reusability of hazard, risk and problem data. When nomenclature in the source texts is not standard, taxonomies with mapping words (sets of rough synonyms) can be combined with semantic search to identify items and tag them with metadata based on a rich standard nomenclature. Semantic search uses word meanings in the context of parsed phrases to find matches. The NASA taxonomies provide the word meanings. Spacecraft taxonomies and ontologies (generalization hierarchies with attributes and relationships, based on terms meanings) are being developed for types of subsystems, functions, entities, hazards and failures. The ontologies are broad and general, covering hardware, software and human systems. Semantic search of Space Station texts was used to validate and extend the taxonomies. The taxonomies have also been used to extract system connectivity (interaction) models and functions from requirements text. Now the Reconciler semantic search tool and the taxonomies are being applied to improve search in the Space Shuttle PRACA database, to discover recurring patterns of failure. Usual methods of string search and keyword search fall short because the entries are terse and have numerous shortcuts (irregular abbreviations, nonstandard acronyms, cryptic codes) and modifier words cannot be used in sentence context to refine the search. The limited and fixed FMEA categories associated with the entries do not make the fine distinctions needed in the search. The approach assigns PRACA report titles to problem classes in

  12. Tailored botulinum toxin type A injections in aesthetic medicine: consensus panel recommendations for treating the forehead based on individual facial anatomy and muscle tone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anido J

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Javier Anido,1 Daniel Arenas,2 Cristina Arruabarrena,3 Alfonso Domínguez-Gil,4 Carlos Fajardo,5 Mar Mira,6 Javier Murillo,7 Natalia Ribé,8 Helga Rivera,9 Sofia Ruiz del Cueto,6 Helder Silvestre,10 Marisa Tirado11 1A-Clinic, Madrid, 2Hospital Cruz Roja, Madrid, 3Clinic Cristina Arruabarrena, San Sebastiá, 4Salamanca University, Salamanca, 5Clinic Fajardo, Malaga, 6Clinic Mira+Cueto, Madrid, 7Clinic CIR, Seville, 8Institute Natalia Ribé, Barcelona, 9Clinic Helga Rivera, Vigo, Spain; 10Clinic Europa, Lisbon, Portugal; 11Clinic Derma Alemar, Castellón, Spain Background: Facial lines and wrinkles are strongly influenced by individual differences in anatomy and muscle activity and no single injection protocol will suit all patients. However, there is only limited information in the published literature on how to develop a tailored approach to botulinum toxin treatment.Methods: An expert panel of physicians was convened to establish a consensus on developing an individualized approach to treatment of the forehead with incobotulinumtoxinA. Separate treatment protocols were developed for men and women and subdivided by background level of muscle activity: kinetic, hyperkinetic, and hypertonic. Each muscle tone category was then further subdivided to take account of individual characteristics that can influence treatment.Results: Consensus members describe how to perform a dynamic assessment to optimize the dose and injection technique for each patient. A tailored treatment protocol is described for men and women with a wide range of forehead presentations. For each presentation, units of toxin as well as the precise location of injection points were defined by creating a 12-zone map of the forehead.Conclusion: These recommendations depart from traditional consensus documents by providing detailed incobotulinumtoxinA injection protocols for the forehead based on the major parameters that differ between patients, including muscular anatomy, size, and

  13. A Hierarchical Causal Taxonomy of Psychopathology across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Krueger, Robert F.; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Zald, David H.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a taxonomy of psychopathology based on patterns of shared causal influences identified in a review of multivariate behavior genetic studies that distinguish genetic and environmental influences that are either common to multiple dimensions of psychopathology or unique to each dimension. At the phenotypic level, first-order dimensions are defined by correlations among symptoms; correlations among first-order dimensions similarly define higher-order domains (e.g., internalizing or externalizing psychopathology). We hypothesize that the robust phenotypic correlations among first-order dimensions reflect a hierarchy of increasingly specific etiologic influences. Some nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk for all first-order dimensions of psychopathology to varying degrees through a general factor of psychopathology. Other nonspecific etiologic factors increase risk only for all first-order dimensions within a more specific higher-order domain. Furthermore, each first-order dimension has its own unique causal influences. Genetic and environmental influences common to family members tend to be nonspecific, whereas environmental influences unique to each individual are more dimension-specific. We posit that these causal influences on psychopathology are moderated by sex and developmental processes. This causal taxonomy also provides a novel framework for understanding the heterogeneity of each first-order dimension: Different persons exhibiting similar symptoms may be influenced by different combinations of etiologic influences from each of the three levels of the etiologic hierarchy. Furthermore, we relate the proposed causal taxonomy to transdimensional psychobiological processes, which also impact the heterogeneity of each psychopathology dimension. This causal taxonomy implies the need for changes in strategies for studying the etiology, psychobiology, prevention, and treatment of psychopathology. PMID:28004947

  14. Scientific Teaching: Defining a Taxonomy of Observable Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A.; Brown, Tanya L.; Schelpat, Tyler J.; Graham, Mark J.; Knight, Jennifer K.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST’s core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. PMID:25713097

  15. Informed consent -- Building consensus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovenheim, R.

    1990-01-01

    The author shares his observations and offers an approach to 'building consensus' for what he believes is the only environmentally sound option, i.e., safe, permanent disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW). Consensus does not mean unanimity, acceptance, or harmony. The low-level radioactive waste disposal issue is fraught with fear and hysteria. The paper discusses major emotions that fracture public opinion regarding this issue. The author defines consensus as the informed consent of LLRW disposal strategies by a majority of citizens whose cooperation is required to achieve the goals of environmentally sound solution. The political aspects are reviewed. The need for US Department of Energy to fulfill its importance technical assistance role is discussed

  16. The taxobook principles and practices of building taxonomies

    CERN Document Server

    Hlava, Marjorie

    2014-01-01

    This book outlines the basic principles of creation and maintenance of taxonomies and thesauri. It also provides step by step instructions for building a taxonomy or thesaurus and discusses the various ways to get started on a taxonomy construction project.Often, the first step is to get management and budgetary approval, so I start this book with a discussion of reasons to embark on the taxonomy journey. From there I move on to a discussion of metadata and how taxonomies and metadata are related, and then consider how, where, and why taxonomies are used.Information architecture has its corner

  17. Commentary on the "Evidence- and Consensus-Based (S3) Guidelines for the Treatment of Actinic Keratosis" Published by the International League of Dermatological Societies in Cooperation with the European Dermatology Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diepgen, Thomas L; Kresken, Joachim; Krutmann, Jean; Merk, Hans F; Senger, Erik; Surber, Christian; Szeimies, Rolf-Markus

    2018-04-03

    In 2015, the International League of Dermatological Societies and the European Dermatology Forum published a guideline for the treatment of actinic keratosis, which is classified as an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline. From the point of view of the GD Task Force "Licht.Hautkrebs.Prävention," an interdisciplinary expert panel of the Society for Dermopharmacy for the prevention and treatment of skin cancer, this guideline reveals strengths and weaknesses but, in summary, does not meet the claim for an evidence- and consensus-based S3 guideline. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Continuity and consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    maternal leave. These changes can be explained as adjustments to post-industrial conditions within a political culture relying on class compromises and a broad consensus informed by expert advice coming from civil servants and ad hoc policy commissions. The paper concludes that changes in Danish family...... policy reflect changing conditions for employment and the minding of children and that there has been a high degree of continuity and consensus about the change, as indicated by the strong increase in female labour market involvement....

  19. Mexican consensus on dyspepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Carmona-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the publication of the 2007 dyspepsia guidelines of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología, there have been significant advances in the knowledge of this disease. A systematic search of the literature in PubMed (01/2007 to 06/2016 was carried out to review and update the 2007 guidelines and to provide new evidence-based recommendations. All high-quality articles in Spanish and English were included. Statements were formulated and voted upon using the Delphi method. The level of evidence and strength of recommendation of each statement were established according to the GRADE system. Thirty-one statements were formulated, voted upon, and graded. New definition, classification, epidemiology, and pathophysiology data were provided and include the following information: Endoscopy should be carried out in cases of uninvestigated dyspepsia when there are alarm symptoms or no response to treatment. Gastric and duodenal biopsies can confirm Helicobacter pylori infection and rule out celiac disease, respectively. Establishing a strong doctor-patient relationship, as well as dietary and lifestyle changes, are useful initial measures. H2-blockers, proton-pump inhibitors, prokinetics, and antidepressants are effective pharmacologic therapies. H. pylori eradication may be effective in a subgroup of patients. There is no evidence that complementary and alternative therapies are beneficial, with the exception of Iberogast and rikkunshito, nor is there evidence on the usefulness of prebiotics, probiotics, or psychologic therapies. The new consensus statements on dyspepsia provide guidelines based on up-to-date evidence. A discussion, level of evidence, and strength of recommendation are presented for each statement. Resumen: Desde la publicación de las guías de dispepsia 2007 de la Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología ha habido avances significativos en el conocimiento de esta enfermedad. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la

  20. Expert consensus statement to guide the evidence-based classification of Paralympic athletes with vision impairment: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravensbergen, H.J.C.; Mann, D.L.; Kamper, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Paralympic sports are required to develop evidence-based systems that allocate athletes into 'classes' on the basis of the impact of their impairment on sport performance. However, sports for athletes with vision impairment (VI) classify athletes solely based on the WHO criteria for low

  1. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Spencer; Brophy, Mark; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal; Barron, John L.; Beauchemin, Steven S.; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart

    2015-02-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development.

  2. A proposed framework for consensus-based lung tumour volume auto-segmentation in 4D computed tomography imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Spencer; Rodrigues, George; Gaede, Stewart; Brophy, Mark; Barron, John L; Beauchemin, Steven S; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V; Yu, Edward; Yaremko, Brian; Ahmad, Belal

    2015-01-01

    This work aims to propose and validate a framework for tumour volume auto-segmentation based on ground-truth estimates derived from multi-physician input contours to expedite 4D-CT based lung tumour volume delineation. 4D-CT datasets of ten non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were manually segmented by 6 physicians. Multi-expert ground truth (GT) estimates were constructed using the STAPLE algorithm for the gross tumour volume (GTV) on all respiratory phases. Next, using a deformable model-based method, multi-expert GT on each individual phase of the 4D-CT dataset was propagated to all other phases providing auto-segmented GTVs and motion encompassing internal gross target volumes (IGTVs) based on GT estimates (STAPLE) from each respiratory phase of the 4D-CT dataset. Accuracy assessment of auto-segmentation employed graph cuts for 3D-shape reconstruction and point-set registration-based analysis yielding volumetric and distance-based measures. STAPLE-based auto-segmented GTV accuracy ranged from (81.51  ±  1.92) to (97.27  ±  0.28)% volumetric overlap of the estimated ground truth. IGTV auto-segmentation showed significantly improved accuracies with reduced variance for all patients ranging from 90.87 to 98.57% volumetric overlap of the ground truth volume. Additional metrics supported these observations with statistical significance. Accuracy of auto-segmentation was shown to be largely independent of selection of the initial propagation phase. IGTV construction based on auto-segmented GTVs within the 4D-CT dataset provided accurate and reliable target volumes compared to manual segmentation-based GT estimates. While inter-/intra-observer effects were largely mitigated, the proposed segmentation workflow is more complex than that of current clinical practice and requires further development. (paper)

  3. NIH Consensus Conference. Acupuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-11-04

    To provide clinicians, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of the use and effectiveness of acupuncture to treat a variety of conditions. A nonfederal, nonadvocate, 12-member panel representing the fields of acupuncture, pain, psychology, psychiatry, physical medicine and rehabilitation, drug abuse, family practice, internal medicine, health policy, epidemiology, statistics, physiology, biophysics, and the representatives of the public. In addition, 25 experts from these same fields presented data to the panel and a conference audience of 1200. Presentations and discussions were divided into 3 phases over 2 1/2 days: (1) presentations by investigators working in areas relevant to the consensus questions during a 2-day public session; (2) questions and statements from conference attendees during open discussion periods that were part of the public session; and (3) closed deliberations by the panel during the remainder of the second day and morning of the third. The conference was organized and supported by the Office of Alternative Medicine and the Office of Medical Applications of Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. The literature, produced from January 1970 to October 1997, was searched through MEDLINE, Allied and Alternative Medicine, EMBASE, and MANTIS, as well as through a hand search of 9 journals that were not indexed by the National Library of Medicine. An extensive bibliography of 2302 references was provided to the panel and the conference audience. Expert speakers prepared abstracts of their own conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. The panel, answering predefined questions, developed their conclusions based on the scientific evidence presented in the open forum and scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience

  4. Development of new taxonomy of inappropriate communication and its application to operating teams in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, In Seok; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun; Park, Jin Kyun

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this regard, various kinds of taxonomies of inappropriate communications have been developed to prevent inappropriate communications. However, there seems to be difficult to identify inappropriate communications from verbal protocol data between operators. Because the existing taxonomies were developed for use in report analysis, there is a problem of 'uncertainty'. In consequence, this paper proposes a new taxonomy of inappropriate communications and provides some insights to prevent inappropriate communications. In order to develop the taxonomy, existing taxonomies for four industries from 1980 to 2010 were collected and a new taxonomy is developed based on the simplified one-way communication model. In addition, the ratio of inappropriate communications from 8 samples of audio-visual format verbal protocol data recorded during emergency training sessions by operating teams is compared with performance scores calculated based on the task analysis. As a result, inappropriate communications can be easily identified from the verbal protocol data using the suggested taxonomy, and teams with a higher ratio of inappropriate communications tend to have a lower performance score.

  5. Development of new taxonomy of inappropriate communication and its application to operating teams in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ar Ryum; Lee, Seung Woo; Jang, In Seok; Kang, Hyun Gook; Seong, Poong Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Integrated Safety Assessment Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Inappropriate communications can cause a lack of necessary information exchange between operators and lead to serious consequences in large process systems such as nuclear power plants (NPPs). In this regard, various kinds of taxonomies of inappropriate communications have been developed to prevent inappropriate communications. However, there seems to be difficult to identify inappropriate communications from verbal protocol data between operators. Because the existing taxonomies were developed for use in report analysis, there is a problem of 'uncertainty'. In consequence, this paper proposes a new taxonomy of inappropriate communications and provides some insights to prevent inappropriate communications. In order to develop the taxonomy, existing taxonomies for four industries from 1980 to 2010 were collected and a new taxonomy is developed based on the simplified one-way communication model. In addition, the ratio of inappropriate communications from 8 samples of audio-visual format verbal protocol data recorded during emergency training sessions by operating teams is compared with performance scores calculated based on the task analysis. As a result, inappropriate communications can be easily identified from the verbal protocol data using the suggested taxonomy, and teams with a higher ratio of inappropriate communications tend to have a lower performance score.

  6. African Americans, democracy, and biomedical and behavioral research: contradictions or consensus in community-based participatory research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spigner, C

    Individualism, in both its political and attitudinal senses, reinforces societal and institutional racism in the United States. Because of individualism's dominant focus on self-interest and self-reliance, any application of "participatory democracy" in community-based biomedical and behavioral research is fraught with dilemmas similar to those that Gunnar Myrdal observed between American racism and democracy. The research establishment is overwhelmed by well-meaning non-minorities who recognize racism and its consequences in health, but only greater representation of people-of-color in the health establishment can ameliorate the inherent contradictions of "participatory democracy" which is so fundamental to the process of community-based participatory research.

  7. A Taxonomy of Instructional Objectives for Developmentally Disabled Persons: Personal Maintenance and Development: Homemaking and Community Life; Leisure; and Travel Domains. Working Paper 85-2. COMPETE: Community-Based Model for Public-School Exit and Transition to Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dever, Richard B.

    The purpose of Project COMPETE is to use previous research and exemplary practices to develop and validate a model and training sequence to assist retarded youth to make the transition from school to employment in the most competitive environment possible. The taxonomy described in this project working paper focuses on instructional objectives in…

  8. Dynamic Average Consensus and Consensusability of General Linear Multiagent Systems with Random Packet Dropout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Min Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the consensus problem of general linear discrete-time multiagent systems (MASs with random packet dropout that happens during information exchange between agents. The packet dropout phenomenon is characterized as being a Bernoulli random process. A distributed consensus protocol with weighted graph is proposed to address the packet dropout phenomenon. Through introducing a new disagreement vector, a new framework is established to solve the consensus problem. Based on the control theory, the perturbation argument, and the matrix theory, the necessary and sufficient condition for MASs to reach mean-square consensus is derived in terms of stability of an array of low-dimensional matrices. Moreover, mean-square consensusable conditions with regard to network topology and agent dynamic structure are also provided. Finally, the effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through an illustrative example.

  9. Canadian Helicobacter Study Group Consensus Conference: Update on the Approach to Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Children and Adolescents – an Evidence-Based Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola L Jones

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available As an update to previously published recommendations for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, an evidence-based appraisal of 14 topics was undertaken in a consensus conference sponsored by the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group. The goal was to update guidelines based on the best available evidence using an established and uniform methodology to address and formulate recommendations for each topic. The degree of consensus for each recommendation is also presented. The clinical issues addressed and recommendations made were: population-based screening for H pylori in asymptomatic children to prevent gastric cancer is not warranted; testing for H pylori in children should be considered if there is a family history of gastric cancer; the goal of diagnostic interventions should be to determine the cause of presenting gastrointestinal symptoms and not the presence of H pylori infection; recurrent abdominal pain of childhood is not an indication to test for H pylori infection; H pylori testing is not required in patients with newly diagnosed gastroesophageal reflux disease; H pylori testing may be considered before the use of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy; testing for H pylori infection should be considered in children with refractory iron deficiency anemia when no other cause has been found; when investigation of pediatric patients with persistent or severe upper abdominal symptoms is indicated, upper endoscopy with biopsy is the investigation of choice; the 13C-urea breath test is currently the best noninvasive diagnostic test for H pylori infection in children; there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend stool antigen tests as acceptable diagnostic tools for H pylori infection; serological antibody tests are not recommended as diagnostic tools for H pylori infection in children; first-line therapy for H pylori infection in children is a twice-daily, triple-drug regimen comprised of a proton pump inhibitor plus two

  10. Canadian Helicobacter Study Group Consensus Conference: Update on the approach to Helicobacter pylori infection in children and adolescents--an evidence-based evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Billy; Ceponis, Peter; Chiba, Naoki; Czinn, Steve; Ferraro, Richard; Fischbach, Lori; Gold, Ben; Hyunh, Hien; Jacobson, Kevan; Jones, Nicola L; Koletzko, Sibylle; Lebel, Sylvie; Moayyedi, Paul; Ridell, Robert; Sherman, Philip; van Zanten, Sander; Beck, Ivan; Best, Linda; Boland, Margaret; Bursey, Ford; Chaun, Hugh; Cooper, Geraldine; Craig, Brian; Creuzenet, Carole; Critch, Jeffrey; Govender, Krishnasamy; Hassall, Eric; Kaplan, Alan; Keelan, Monica; Noad, Garth; Robertson, Marli; Smith, Lesley; Stein, Markus; Taylor, Diane; Walters, Thomas; Persaud, Robin; Whitaker, Scott; Woodland, Robert

    2005-07-01

    As an update to previously published recommendations for the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, an evidence-based appraisal of 14 topics was undertaken in a consensus conference sponsored by the Canadian Helicobacter Study Group. The goal was to update guidelines based on the best available evidence using an established and uniform methodology to address and formulate recommendations for each topic. The degree of consensus for each recommendation is also presented. The clinical issues addressed and recommendations made were: population-based screening for H. pylori in asymptomatic children to prevent gastric cancer is not warranted; testing for H. pylori in children should be considered if there is a family history of gastric cancer; the goal of diagnostic interventions should be to determine the cause of presenting gastrointestinal symptoms and not the presence of H. pylori infection; recurrent abdominal pain of childhood is not an indication to test for H. pylori infection; H. pylori testing is not required in patients with newly diagnosed gastroesophageal reflux disease; H. pylori testing may be considered before the use of long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy; testing for H. pylori infection should be considered in children with refractory iron deficiency anemia when no other cause has been found; when investigation of pediatric patients with persistent or severe upper abdominal symptoms is indicated, upper endoscopy with biopsy is the investigation of choice; the 13C-urea breath test is currently the best noninvasive diagnostic test for H. pylori infection in children; there is currently insufficient evidence to recommend stool antigen tests as acceptable diagnostic tools for H. pylori infection; serological antibody tests are not recommended as diagnostic tools for H. pylori infection in children; first-line therapy for H. pylori infection in children is a twice-daily, triple-drug regimen comprised of a proton pump inhibitor plus two antibiotics

  11. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Koen W.; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P.; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was

  12. European consensus on a competency-based virtual reality training program for basic endoscopic surgical psychomotor skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Koen W.; Ahlberg, Gunnar; Bonavina, Luigi; Carter, Fiona J.; Grantcharov, Teodor P.; Hyltander, Anders; Schijven, Marlies P.; Stefani, Alessandro; van der Zee, David C.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators have been demonstrated to improve basic psychomotor skills in endoscopic surgery. The exercise configuration settings used for validation in studies published so far are default settings or are based on the personal choice of the tutors. The purpose of this study was

  13. The Activity-Based Approach to Achieving Theoretical and Practical Consensus in Pedagogy of N. F. Talyzina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapaev, Nikolay K.; Akimova, Olga B.; Selivanov, Andrey V.; Shaforostova, Tatiana V.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the problem under study is based on the necessity to solve the permanent problem of the unity of theory and practice in the content of students' cognitive activity in the modern conditions. The purpose of the article is to analyze and to generalize the main concepts of pedagogy by N.F. Talyzina for implementation of the…

  14. Using experts’ consensus (the Delphi method) to evaluate weighting techniques in web surveys not based on probability schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toepoel, V.; Emerson, Hannah

    2017-01-01

    Weighting techniques in web surveys based on no probability schemes are devised to correct biases due to self-selection, undercoverage, and nonresponse. In an interactive panel, 38 survey experts addressed weighting techniques and auxiliary variables in web surveys. Most of them corrected all biases

  15. Is the Generally Held View That Intravenous Dihydroergotamine Is Effective in Migraine Based on Wrong "General Consensus" of One Trial?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekan, Goran; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The claim that parenteral dihydroergotamine (DHE) is effective in migraine is based on one randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial from 1986. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate the original article. It was also found to be of interest to review quotes concerning...

  16. The "Acute coronary syndromes: consensus recommendations for translating knowledge into action" position statement is based on a false premise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forge, Brett H

    2010-06-21

    Recent National Heart Foundation of Australia (NHFA) guidelines for management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) recommend increasing the rates of early invasive management of ACS and providing equal access for all Australians to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) facilities. For patients with ACS managed in regional hospitals without PCI facilities, review of the evidence does not show unequivocal benefit of early routine PCI over selective PCI for patients with non-ST-segment-elevation ACS or ST-elevation myocardial infarction. The current pattern of transfer based on the NHFA guidelines is expensive and disruptive of patient care, as well as undermining regional health care services. Further increase in transfer rates and increases in PCI facilities would divert resources away from supporting the regional infrastructure needed to provide evidence-based therapies, without any evidence that lives would be saved.

  17. Autecology and phylogeny of Coolia tropicalis and Coolia malayensis (Dinophyceae), with emphasis on taxonomy of C. tropicalis based on light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and LSU rDNA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad-Noor, Normawaty; Moestrup, Øjvind; Lundholm, Nina; Fraga, Santiago; Adam, Aimimualiani; Holmes, Michael J; Saleh, Ejria

    2013-06-01

    Coolia is a widespread and ecologically important genus of benthic marine dinoflagellates found in tropical regions. Historically, there has been taxonomic confusion about the taxonomy and toxicity of this group. The goal of this study was to resolve morphological questions concerning Coolia tropicalis and determine the taxonomic identity of the Australian Coolia isolate which has been reported to produce cooliatoxins. To accomplish this, the morphology of tropical strains from Belize (the type locality of C. tropicalis), Malaysia, Indonesia, and Australia were examined and compared to published reports. The morphological analysis showed that C. tropicalis differs from the original description in that it has a slightly larger size (35-47 μm long by 30-45 μm wide versus 23-40 μm long by 25-39 μm wide), and the shape of fourth apical plate, and the length of Po plate (7.4-12 μm versus 7 μm). Based on both morphology and phylogenetic analysis using LSU D1- D3 rDNA sequences, the clones of C. tropicalis from Malaysia, Indonesia, and Belize were found to form a monophyletic clade within the genus. The strain producing cooliatoxin was found to be C. tropicalis, not Coolia monotis as originally assumed. To explore the factors influencing the growth of Coolia species, the growth rates of C. tropicalis and Coolia malayensis were determined at different temperatures and salinities. Both species tolerated a wide range of temperatures, but cannot survive at temperatures 35°C. C. monotis, the dominant species reported in the literature, probably does not produce toxins. © 2013 Phycological Society of America.

  18. A taxonomy of behaviour change methods: an Intervention Mapping approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Gottlieb, Nell H.; Peters, Gjalt-Jorn Y.; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Parcel, Guy S.; Ruiter, Robert A.C.; Fern?ndez, Mar?a E.; Markham, Christine; Bartholomew, L. Kay

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this paper, we introduce the Intervention Mapping (IM) taxonomy of behaviour change methods and its potential to be developed into a coding taxonomy. That is, although IM and its taxonomy of behaviour change methods are not in fact new, because IM was originally developed as a tool for intervention development, this potential was not immediately apparent. Second, in explaining the IM taxonomy and defining the relevant constructs, we call attention to the existence of parameters fo...

  19. Developing an international scoring system for a consensus-based social cognition measure: MSCEIT-managing emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellemann, G S; Green, M F; Kern, R S; Sitarenios, G; Nuechterlein, K H

    2017-10-01

    Measures of social cognition are increasingly being applied to psychopathology, including studies of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Tests of social cognition present unique challenges for international adaptations. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, Managing Emotions Branch (MSCEIT-ME) is a commonly-used social cognition test that involves the evaluation of social scenarios presented in vignettes. This paper presents evaluations of translations of this test in six different languages based on representative samples from the relevant countries. The goal was to identify items from the MSCEIT-ME that show different response patterns across countries using indices of discrepancy and content validity criteria. An international version of the MSCEIT-ME scoring was developed that excludes items that showed undesirable properties across countries. We then confirmed that this new version had better performance (i.e. less discrepancy across regions) in international samples than the version based on the original norms. Additionally, it provides scores that are comparable to ratings based on local norms. This paper shows that it is possible to adapt complex social cognitive tasks so they can provide valid data across different cultural contexts.

  20. Cybercrimes: A Proposed Taxonomy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harmandeep Singh Brar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cybersecurity is one of the most important concepts of cyberworld which provides protection to the cyberspace from various types of cybercrimes. This paper provides an updated survey of cybersecurity. We conduct the survey of security of recent prominent researches and categorize the recent incidents in context to various fundamental principles of cybersecurity. We have proposed a new taxonomy of cybercrime which can cover all types of cyberattacks. We have analyzed various cyberattacks as per the updated cybercrime taxonomy to identify the challenges in the field of cybersecurity and highlight various research directions as future work in this field.

  1. A consensus-based template for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andreas J; Lockey, David; Kurola, Jouni

    2011-01-01

    -staffed pre-hospital services in Europe. METHODS: Using predefined criteria, we recruited sixteen European experts in the field of pre-hospital care. These experts were guided through a four-step modified nominal group technique. The process was carried out using both e-mail-based communication and a plenary...... have established a core data set for documenting and reporting in physician-staffed pre-hospital services. We believe that this template could facilitate future studies within the field and facilitate standardised reporting and future shared research efforts in advanced pre-hospital care....

  2. Reexamining organizational configurations: an update, validation, and expansion of the taxonomy of health networks and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubbs, Nicole L; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Shortell, Stephen M; Kralovec, Peter D

    2004-02-01

    To (a) assess how the original cluster categories of hospital-led health networks and systems have changed over time; (b) identify any new patterns of cluster configurations; and (c) demonstrate how additional data can be used to refine and enhance the taxonomy measures. DATA SOURCES; 1994 and 1998 American Hospital Association (AHA) Annual Survey of Hospitals. As in the original taxonomy, separate cluster solutions are identified for health networks and health systems by applying three strategic/structural dimensions (differentiation, integration, and centralization) to three components of the health service/product continuum (hospital services, physician arrangements, and provider-based insurance activities). Factor, cluster, and discriminant analyses are used to analyze the 1998 data. Descriptive and comparative methods are used to analyze the updated 1998 taxonomy relative to the original 1994 version. The 1998 cluster categories are similar to the original taxonomy, however, they reveal some new organizational configurations. For the health networks, centralization of product/service lines is occurring more selectively than in the past. For the health systems, participation has grown in and dispersed across a more diverse set of decentralized organizational forms. For both networks and systems, the definition of centralization has changed over time. In its updated form, the taxonomy continues to provide policymakers and practitioners with a descriptive and contextual framework against which to assess organizational programs and policies. There is a need to continue to revisit the taxonomy from time to time because of the persistent evolution of the U.S. health care industry and the consequent shifting of organizational configurations in this arena. There is also value in continuing to move the taxonomy in the direction of refinement/expansion as new opportunities become available.

  3. The genus Gloriosa (Colchicaceae) : ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroyi, A.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the ethnobotany, phylogeny and taxonomy of the genus Gloriosa L. over its distributional range. Some Gloriosa species are known to have economic and commercial value, but the genus is also well known for its complex alpha taxonomy. An appropriate taxonomy for this group is of

  4. Formal Revision of the Alexandrium tamarense Species Complex (Dinophyceae) Taxonomy: The Introduction of Five Species with Emphasis on Molecular-based (rDNA) Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Uwe; Litaker, R. Wayne; Montresor, Marina; Murray, Shauna; Brosnahan, Michael L.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The Alexandrium tamarense species complex is one of the most studied marine dinoflagellate groups due to its ecological, toxicological and economic importance. Several members of this complex produce saxitoxin and its congeners – potent neurotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. Isolates from this complex are assigned to A. tamarense, A. fundyense, or A. catenella based on two main morphological characters: the ability to form chains and the presence/absence of a ventral pore between Plates 1′ and 4′. However, studies have shown that these characters are not consistent and/or distinctive. Further, phylogenies based on multiple regions in the rDNA operon indicate that the sequences from morphologically indistinguishable isolates partition into five clades. These clades were initially named based on their presumed geographic distribution, but recently were renamed as Groups I–V following the discovery of sympatry among some groups. In this study we present data on morphology, ITS/5.8S genetic distances, ITS2 compensatory base changes, mating incompatibilities, toxicity, the sxtA toxin synthesis gene, and rDNA phylogenies. All results were consistent with each group representing a distinct cryptic species. Accordingly, the groups were assigned species names as follows: Group I, A. fundyense; Group II, A. mediterraneum; Group III, A. tamarense; Group IV, A. pacificum; Group V, A. australiense. PMID:25460230

  5. Towards a consensus-based biokinetic model for green microalgae - The ASM-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wágner, Dorottya S; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Sæbø, Mariann; Bregua de la Sotilla, Marta; Van Wagenen, Jonathan; Smets, Barth F; Plósz, Benedek Gy

    2016-10-15

    Cultivation of microalgae in open ponds and closed photobioreactors (PBRs) using wastewater resources offers an opportunity for biochemical nutrient recovery. Effective reactor system design and process control of PBRs requires process models. Several models with different complexities have been developed to predict microalgal growth. However, none of these models can effectively describe all the relevant processes when microalgal growth is coupled with nutrient removal and recovery from wastewaters. Here, we present a mathematical model developed to simulate green microalgal growth (ASM-A) using the systematic approach of the activated sludge modelling (ASM) framework. The process model - identified based on a literature review and using new experimental data - accounts for factors influencing photoautotrophic and heterotrophic microalgal growth, nutrient uptake and storage (i.e. Droop model) and decay of microalgae. Model parameters were estimated using laboratory-scale batch and sequenced batch experiments using the novel Latin Hypercube Sampling based Simplex (LHSS) method. The model was evaluated using independent data obtained in a 24-L PBR operated in sequenced batch mode. Identifiability of the model was assessed. The model can effectively describe microalgal biomass growth, ammonia and phosphate concentrations as well as the phosphorus storage using a set of average parameter values estimated with the experimental data. A statistical analysis of simulation and measured data suggests that culture history and substrate availability can introduce significant variability on parameter values for predicting the reaction rates for bulk nitrate and the intracellularly stored nitrogen state-variables, thereby requiring scenario specific model calibration. ASM-A was identified using standard cultivation medium and it can provide a platform for extensions accounting for factors influencing algal growth and nutrient storage using wastewater resources. Copyright

  6. A taxonomy of anatomical and pathological entities to support commenting on radiographs (preliminary clinical evaluation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosson, Philip; Dash, Robert

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that radiographers have a lot to offer the patient by providing their expert opinion in a timely intervention; including the possibility of Radiographer Led Discharge. Some excellent paper based ‘commenting’ systems have been developed locally and the Society and College of Radiographers has issued national guidance with a pro-forma to support implementation. However, delivery and audit of the PCE service can be burdensome. There is also an ongoing training need linked in to annual reviews. This paper provides a brief introduction to the field of controlled vocabularies and ontologies in radiology and serves to identify their potential for PCE systems. The current work has constructed a prototype taxonomy and accompanying ontology (list of relationships) that enable the generation of radiographer comments using an electronic, fast, and structured web based interface. For example, in the current implementation any one of thousands of possible unique comments could be constructed by making just six selections from filtered lists of terms. The prototype taxonomy has been tested to refine and validate the concept. The resulting taxonomy and its evolution is described here. Finally, the taxonomy was trialled by 23 participants who generated structured PCE's after reviewing 27 cases on DICOM workstations. An analysis of agreement between participants and the ‘gold standard’ is presented. In conclusion, a taxonomy has been created that would provide for: a standardised framework for training staff and students, efficient and robust delivery of the service, and audit of individual practice

  7. Achieving diagnosis by consensus

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kane, Bridget

    2009-08-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the collaborative work conducted at a multidisciplinary medical team meeting, where a patient’s definitive diagnosis is agreed, by consensus. The features that distinguish this process of diagnostic work by consensus are examined in depth. The current use of technology to support this collaborative activity is described, and experienced deficiencies are identified. Emphasis is placed on the visual and perceptual difficulty for individual specialities in making interpretations, and on how, through collaboration in discussion, definitive diagnosis is actually achieved. The challenge for providing adequate support for the multidisciplinary team at their meeting is outlined, given the multifaceted nature of the setting, i.e. patient management, educational, organizational and social functions, that need to be satisfied.

  8. Identification of human flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) inhibitors using a machine learning based consensus virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Amit Laxmikant; Chandra, Sharat; Singh, Deependra Kumar; Siddiqi, Mohammad Imran; Banerjee, Dibyendu

    2017-07-25

    Human Flap endonuclease1 (FEN1) is an enzyme that is indispensable for DNA replication and repair processes and inhibition of its Flap cleavage activity results in increased cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents (cisplatin, temozolomide, MMS, etc.), with the potential to improve cancer prognosis. Reports of the high expression levels of FEN1 in several cancer cells support the idea that FEN1 inhibitors may target cancer cells with minimum side effects to normal cells. In this study, we used large publicly available, high-throughput screening data of small molecule compounds targeted against FEN1. Two machine learning algorithms, Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RF), were utilized to generate four classification models from huge PubChem bioassay data containing probable FEN1 inhibitors and non-inhibitors. We also investigated the influence of randomly selected Zinc-database compounds as negative data on the outcome of classification modelling. The results show that the SVM model with inactive compounds was superior to RF with Matthews's correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.67 for the test set. A Maybridge database containing approximately 53 000 compounds was screened and top ranking 5 compounds were selected for enzyme and cell-based in vitro screening. The compound JFD00950 was identified as a novel FEN1 inhibitor with in vitro inhibition of flap cleavage activity as well as cytotoxic activity against a colon cancer cell line, DLD-1.

  9. Comparison and Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for CT- and MR-Based Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, Akila N.; Erickson, Beth; Gaffney, David K.; Beriwal, Sushil; Bhatia, Sudershan K.; Lee Burnett, Omer; D'Souza, David P.; Patil, Nikhilesh; Haddock, Michael G.; Jhingran, Anuja; Jones, Ellen L.; Kunos, Charles A.; Lee, Larissa J.; Lin, Lilie L.; Mayr, Nina A.; Petersen, Ivy; Petric, Primoz; Portelance, Lorraine; Small, William; Strauss, Jonathan B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To create and compare consensus clinical target volume (CTV) contours for computed tomography (CT) and 3-Tesla (3-T) magnetic resonance (MR) image-based cervical-cancer brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three experts in gynecologic radiation oncology contoured the same 3 cervical cancer brachytherapy cases: 1 stage IIB near-complete response (CR) case with a tandem and ovoid, 1 stage IIB partial response (PR) case with tandem and ovoid with needles, and 1 stage IB2 CR case with a tandem and ring applicator. The CT contours were completed before the MRI contours. These were analyzed for consistency and clarity of target delineation using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), with κ statistics as a measure of agreement between participants. The conformity index was calculated for each of the 6 data sets. Dice coefficients were generated to compare the CT and MR contours of the same case. Results: For all 3 cases, the mean tumor volume was smaller on MR than on CT (P<.001). The κ and conformity index estimates were slightly higher for CT, indicating a higher level of agreement on CT. The Dice coefficients were 89% for the stage IB2 case with a CR, 74% for the stage IIB case with a PR, and 57% for the stage IIB case with a CR. Conclusion: In a comparison of MR-contoured with CT-contoured CTV volumes, the higher level of agreement on CT may be due to the more distinct contrast medium visible on the images at the time of brachytherapy. MR at the time of brachytherapy may be of greatest benefit in patients with large tumors with parametrial extension that have a partial or complete response to external beam. On the basis of these results, a 95% consensus volume was generated for CT and for MR. Online contouring atlases are available for instruction at (http://www.nrgoncology.org/Resources/ContouringAtlases/GYNCervicalBrachytherapy.aspx)

  10. Comparison and Consensus Guidelines for Delineation of Clinical Target Volume for CT- and MR-Based Brachytherapy in Locally Advanced Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, Akila N., E-mail: aviswanathan@lroc.harvard.edu [Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Erickson, Beth [Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin (United States); Gaffney, David K. [University of Utah Huntsman Cancer Hospital, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Beriwal, Sushil [University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Bhatia, Sudershan K. [University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); Lee Burnett, Omer [University of Alabama, Birmingham, Alabama (United States); D' Souza, David P.; Patil, Nikhilesh [London Health Sciences Centre and Western University, London, Ontario (Canada); Haddock, Michael G. [Mayo Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Jhingran, Anuja [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Jones, Ellen L. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina (United States); Kunos, Charles A. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Lee, Larissa J. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital/Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Lin, Lilie L. [University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Mayr, Nina A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States); Petersen, Ivy [Mayo Medical Center, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Petric, Primoz [Division of Radiotherapy, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Doha (Qatar); Portelance, Lorraine [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, Florida (United States); Small, William [Loyola University Strich School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Strauss, Jonathan B. [The Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois (United States); and others

    2014-10-01

    Objective: To create and compare consensus clinical target volume (CTV) contours for computed tomography (CT) and 3-Tesla (3-T) magnetic resonance (MR) image-based cervical-cancer brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-three experts in gynecologic radiation oncology contoured the same 3 cervical cancer brachytherapy cases: 1 stage IIB near-complete response (CR) case with a tandem and ovoid, 1 stage IIB partial response (PR) case with tandem and ovoid with needles, and 1 stage IB2 CR case with a tandem and ring applicator. The CT contours were completed before the MRI contours. These were analyzed for consistency and clarity of target delineation using an expectation maximization algorithm for simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE), with κ statistics as a measure of agreement between participants. The conformity index was calculated for each of the 6 data sets. Dice coefficients were generated to compare the CT and MR contours of the same case. Results: For all 3 cases, the mean tumor volume was smaller on MR than on CT (P<.001). The κ and conformity index estimates were slightly higher for CT, indicating a higher level of agreement on CT. The Dice coefficients were 89% for the stage IB2 case with a CR, 74% for the stage IIB case with a PR, and 57% for the stage IIB case with a CR. Conclusion: In a comparison of MR-contoured with CT-contoured CTV volumes, the higher level of agreement on CT may be due to the more distinct contrast medium visible on the images at the time of brachytherapy. MR at the time of brachytherapy may be of greatest benefit in patients with large tumors with parametrial extension that have a partial or complete response to external beam. On the basis of these results, a 95% consensus volume was generated for CT and for MR. Online contouring atlases are available for instruction at (http://www.nrgoncology.org/Resources/ContouringAtlases/GYNCervicalBrachytherapy.aspx)

  11. The role of enterprise systems in supply chain networks: a taxonomy of supply chain strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Charles

    2006-01-01

    in the supply chain and to choose the right supply chain strategy. The work is based on a comprehensive study of the Supply Chain Management (SCM) and Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) literature and the study suggests that there is an emerging new research potential for Enterprise Systems (ES) in the supply......This paper proposes a taxonomy for supply chain integration strategies. The taxonomy is based on the contingencies of supply chain network coupling and the Extended Enterprise Systems (EES) architecture in the supply chain. The purpose of this model is to map the portfolio of relations...

  12. Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Dahl, Bettina

    2008-01-01

    the science faculties at University of Aarhus, Denmark (AU) and the University of Southern Denmark (SDU) that had been rewritten to explicitly incorporate course objectives, interpreted as intended learning outcomes (ILOs), using the principles of Constructive Alignment and the SOLO Taxonomy. In this paper we...

  13. A Diagnostic Taxonomy of Adult Career Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Robert E.; Cellini, James V.

    1981-01-01

    Developed a taxonomy for the differential diagnosis of adult career development problems. Problem categories identified were: (1) problems in career decision making; (2) problems in implementing career plans; (3) problems in organizational/institutional performance; and (4) problems in organizational/institutional adaption. (Author)

  14. A Taxonomy for Mannerisms of Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Valerie J.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation involving 24 blind children (2-11 years old) set out to develop and validate a coding procedure which employed a set of 34 descriptors with their corresponding definitions. The use of the taxonomy enabled a detailed, systematic study of manneristic behavior in blind children. (Author/SBH)

  15. Towards a taxonomy for project management competences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr Ruben Vrijhoef; Steven Nijhuis; J. Kessels

    2016-01-01

    Presented at Conference: IPMA World Conference 2014, At Rotterdam, The Netherlands, Volume: 28 A taxonomy is used for classifying things in general. For the purpose of this paper it is a systematic classification of competences into hierarchical groups where each sublevel constitutes a breakdown of

  16. Current and pending taxonomy of the Pasteurellaceae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angen, Øystein

    Since the family Pasteurellaceae was established in 1981 the taxonomy of this group of bacteria has undergone significant changes. 16S DNA sequencing showed in the early 1990-ties, that the three original genera were genetically heterogeneous. Presently, the family consists of 13 genetically cohe...

  17. A taxonomy for user-healthcare robot interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzura, Conrad; Im, Hosung; Liu, Tammy; Malehorn, Kevin; Padir, Taskin; Tulu, Bengisu

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates existing taxonomies aimed at characterizing the interaction between robots and their users and modifies them for health care applications. The modifications are based on existing robot technologies and user acceptance of robotics. Characterization of the user, or in this case the patient, is a primary focus of the paper, as they present a unique new role as robot users. While therapeutic and monitoring-related applications for robots are still relatively uncommon, we believe they will begin to grow and thus it is important that the spurring relationship between robot and patient is well understood.

  18. TAXONOMY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHIC RECORD OF THE UPPER TRIASSIC CONODONTS OF THE PIZZO MONDELLO SECTION (WESTERN SICILY, ITALY, GSSP CANDIDATE FOR THE BASE OF THE NORIAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHELE MAZZA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New taxonomic and biostratigraphic investigations on the late Carnian to Rhaetian (Upper Triassic platform conodonts from the Pizzo Mondello section (Western Sicily, Italy, Sicano basin are here presented. Pizzo Mondello is one of the two GSSP candidates for the Carnian/Norian boundary; the section is a 430 m thick continuous succession of upper Carnian to upper Norian marine limestones (Scillato Formation, characterized by uniform facies and high sedimentation rates, and ca. 20 m of Rhaetian white calcilutites (Portella Gebbia limestone. Pizzo Mondello offers one of the most complete conodont records for this time interval in the Tethys. The conodont faunas are characterized by a large variety of species, belonging to the genera Carnepigondolella, Epigondolella, Metapolygnathus, Misikella, Mockina, Neocavitella, Norigondolella, Paragondolella, and Parvigondolella. The richness of the populations allowed a detailed revision and description of all the Upper Triassic species and morphotypes recovered. The revision of the problematic species Carnepigondolella nodosa and "Metapolygnathus communisti B" was thus possible, leading to the establishment of two new species: Carnepigondolella tuvalica n.sp. and Carnepigondolella gulloae n.sp. The latter species would be a good proxy for the Carnian/Norian boundary in the case that the FAD of Halobia austriaca (sample FNP135a will be selected as the primary biomarker for the base of the Norian. 

  19. Diagnosis - the limiting focus of taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M

    2016-02-01

    The focus on the diagnosis is a pivotal aspect of medical practice since antiquity. Diagnostic taxonomy helped to categorize ailments to improve medical care, and in its social sense resulted in validation of the sick role for some, but marginalization or stigmatization for others. In the medical industrial complex, diagnostic taxonomy structured health care financing, management and practitioner remuneration. However, with increasing demands from multiple agencies, there are increasing unintended and unwarranted consequences of our current taxonomies and diagnostic processes resulting from the conglomeration of underpinning concepts, theories, information and motivations. We argue that the increasing focus on the diagnosis resulted in excessive compartmentalization - 'partialism' - of medical practice, diminishing medical care and being naively simplistic in light of the emerging understanding of the interconnected nature of the diseasome. The human is a complex organic system of interconnecting dynamics and feedback loops responding to internal and external forces including genetic, epigenetic and environmental attractors, rather than the sum of multiple discrete organs which can develop isolated diseases or multiple morbidities. Solutions to these unintended consequences of many contemporary health system processes involve revisiting the nature of diagnostic taxonomies and the processes of their construction. A dynamic taxonomic framework would shift to more relevant attractors at personal, clinical and health system levels recognizing the non-linear nature of health and disease. Human health at an individual, group and population level is the ability to adapt to internal and external stressors with resilience throughout the life course, yet diagnostic taxonomies are increasingly constructed around fixed anchors. Understanding diagnosis as dissecting, pigeonholing or bean counting (learning by dividing) is no longer useful, the challenge for the future is to

  20. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurstedt, H.A.; Jones, R.M.; Walker, J.A.; Middleman, L.I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). They define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of their planned applied research, the authors first discuss nominal group technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities

  1. Achieving consensus in environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurstedt, Jr., H. A.; Jones, R. M.; Walker, J. A.; Middleman, L. I.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new research effort on consensus tied to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) within the US Department of Energy's Office of Defense Waste and Transportation Management (DWTM). We define consensus and explain why consensus decisions are not merely desirable but necessary in furthering ERP activities. As examples of our planned applied research, we first discuss Nominal Group Technique as a representative consensus-generating tool, and we conclude by describing the consensus-related mission of the Waste Management Review Group, established at Virginia Tech to conduct independent, third-party review of DWTM/ERP plans and activities. 10 refs.

  2. An overview of the taxonomy of Attalea (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The genus Attalea (Arecaceae is distributed in continental habitats of the Neotropical region and in some Caribbean islands. Life forms of Attalea species vary from small acaulescent palms to tall and massive palms, always solitary. The ecological range of the genus encompasses most of the Neotropical ecosystems, from coastal sand dunes to sub-Andean forests up to 1600 m in elevation, lowland wet to dry forests, savannas, swamps, etc. The taxonomy of the genus has been poorly understood due to conflicting genus and species concepts that exist since the last decades. Taxonomical problems have been caused by the lack of adequate material, especially species of large size, loss of many types and difficulties in interpreting hybrids. In this article, I review the most recent taxonomic literature on Attalea. The number of species in Attalea varies from 29 to 67 depending on different authors, with a maximum estimate of 73 species when combining the revised publications. There is a consensus for the validity of 20 species among modern palm taxonomists. The most conflicting species or group of species are discussed in detail as well as the taxonomic significance of some characters such as the pattern of insertion of staminate flowers on rachillae, insertion of pinnae on rachis, and arrangement of fibrous strands in the endocarp.

  3. Pragmatic, consensus-based minimum standards and structured interview to guide the selection and development of cancer support group leaders: a protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomery, Amanda; Schofield, Penelope; Xhilaga, Miranda; Gough, Karla

    2017-06-30

    Across the globe, peer support groups have emerged as a community-led approach to accessing support and connecting with others with cancer experiences. Little is known about qualities required to lead a peer support group or how to determine suitability for the role. Organisations providing assistance to cancer support groups and their leaders are currently operating independently, without a standard national framework or published guidelines. This protocol describes the methods that will be used to generate pragmatic consensus-based minimum standards and an accessible structured interview with user manual to guide the selection and development of cancer support group leaders. We will: (A) identify and collate peer-reviewed literature that describes qualities of support group leaders through a systematic review; (B) content analyse eligible documents for information relevant to requisite knowledge, skills and attributes of group leaders generally and specifically to cancer support groups; (C) use an online reactive Delphi method with an interdisciplinary panel of experts to produce a clear, suitable, relevant and appropriate structured interview comprising a set of agreed questions with behaviourally anchored rating scales; (D) produce a user manual to facilitate standard delivery of the structured interview; (E) pilot the structured interview to improve clinical utility; and (F) field test the structured interview to develop a rational scoring model and provide a summary of existing group leader qualities. The study is approved by the Department Human Ethics Advisory Group of The University of Melbourne. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed written consent, with participants able to withdraw at any time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences and peer review journals. Presentations and free access to the developed structured interview and user manual will be available to cancer agencies. © Article author(s) (or their

  4. Development and clinical validation of a novel photography-based skin erythema evaluation system: a comparison with the calculated consensus of dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Lee, D-H; Doh, E J; Kim, Y; Chung, J H; Kim, H C; Kim, S

    2017-08-01

    Erythema is the most common presenting sign in patients with skin diseases, and various methods to treat erythema symptoms have become common. To evaluate changes in erythema, a reliable device that can support objective diagnosis is required. We developed a novel photography-based system for erythema diagnosis that provides a high-resolution three-view photograph taken in a consistent photography environment with a curved surface light source and can be integrated with optimized image processing algorithms. A new diagnostic algorithm was applied to photographs from 32 patients to determine areas of erythema automatically. To assess the performance in comparison to dermatologists' evaluations, five dermatologists independently evaluate the areas of erythema, and we defined an area called the clinical consensus area of erythema (CCAE), which is based on the majority opinion of dermatologists during evaluation. The CCAE values obtained were compared with the erythema areas determined by the system's diagnostic algorithm. Forty-one photographs with areas of erythema were evaluated by the proposed system and by dermatologists. The results obtained with the proposed system had a mean accuracy of 93.18% with a standard deviation of 3.52% when compared with the CCAE results. The results also showed that the proposed system could detect erythema areas without any pigmentation. In contrast to assessments by individual dermatologists, use of the CCAE reduced the amount of error that occurred owing to bias or subjectivity. A new erythema evaluation system was developed and validated through CCAE, suggesting that the system can support dermatologists' objective diagnoses of erythema. © 2017 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  5. Consensus among Economists--An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Dan; Geide-Stevenson, Doris

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore consensus among economists on specific propositions based on a fall 2011 survey of American Economic Association members. Results are based on 568 responses and provide evidence of changes in opinion over time by including propositions from earlier studies in 2000 (Fuller and Geide-Stevenson 2003) and 1992…

  6. Microscopic enteritis: Bucharest consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, Kamran; Aldulaimi, David; Holmes, Geoffrey; Johnson, Matt W; Robert, Marie; Srivastava, Amitabh; Fléjou, Jean-François; Sanders, David S; Volta, Umberto; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Going, James J; Becheanu, Gabriel; Catassi, Carlo; Danciu, Mihai; Materacki, Luke; Ghafarzadegan, Kamran; Ishaq, Sauid; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Peña, A Salvador; Bassotti, Gabrio; Marsh, Michael N; Villanacci, Vincenzo

    2015-03-07

    Microscopic enteritis (ME) is an inflammatory condition of the small bowel that leads to gastrointestinal symptoms, nutrient and micronutrient deficiency. It is characterised by microscopic or sub-microscopic abnormalities such as microvillus changes and enterocytic alterations in the absence of definite macroscopic changes using standard modern endoscopy. This work recognises a need to characterize disorders with microscopic and submicroscopic features, currently regarded as functional or non-specific entities, to obtain further understanding of their clinical relevance. The consensus working party reviewed statements about the aetiology, diagnosis and symptoms associated with ME and proposes an algorithm for its investigation and treatment. Following the 5(th) International Course in Digestive Pathology in Bucharest in November 2012, an international group of 21 interested pathologists and gastroenterologists formed a working party with a view to formulating a consensus statement on ME. A five-step agreement scale (from strong agreement to strong disagreement) was used to score 21 statements, independently. There was strong agreement on all statements about ME histology (95%-100%). Statements concerning diagnosis achieved 85% to 100% agreement. A statement on the management of ME elicited agreement from the lowest rate (60%) up to 100%. The remaining two categories showed general agreement between experts on clinical presentation (75%-95%) and pathogenesis (80%-90%) of ME. There was strong agreement on the histological definition of ME. Weaker agreement on management indicates a need for further investigations, better definitions and clinical trials to produce quality guidelines for management. This ME consensus is a step toward greater recognition of a significant entity affecting symptomatic patients previously labelled as non-specific or functional enteropathy.

  7. The Bootstrap, the Jackknife, and the Randomization Test: A Sampling Taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, J L

    1999-10-01

    A simple sampling taxonomy is defined that shows the differences between and relationships among the bootstrap, the jackknife, and the randomization test. Each method has as its goal the creation of an empirical sampling distribution that can be used to test statistical hypotheses, estimate standard errors, and/or create confidence intervals. Distinctions between the methods can be made based on the sampling approach (with replacement versus without replacement) and the sample size (replacing the whole original sample versus replacing a subset of the original sample). The taxonomy is useful for teaching the goals and purposes of resampling schemes. An extension of the taxonomy implies other possible resampling approaches that have not previously been considered. Univariate and multivariate examples are presented.

  8. Consensus Convolutional Sparse Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Biswarup; Swanson, Robin; Heide, Felix; Wetzstein, Gordon; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new approach to solving CSC as a consensus optimization problem, which lifts these limitations. By learning CSC features from large-scale image datasets for the first time, we achieve significant quality improvements in a number of imaging tasks. Moreover, the proposed method enables new applications in high dimensional feature learning that has been intractable using existing CSC methods. This is demonstrated for a variety of reconstruction problems across diverse problem domains, including 3D multispectral demosaickingand 4D light field view synthesis.

  9. Scientific teaching: defining a taxonomy of observable practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couch, Brian A; Brown, Tanya L; Schelpat, Tyler J; Graham, Mark J; Knight, Jennifer K

    2015-03-02

    Over the past several decades, numerous reports have been published advocating for changes to undergraduate science education. These national calls inspired the formation of the National Academies Summer Institutes on Undergraduate Education in Biology (SI), a group of regional workshops to help faculty members learn and implement interactive teaching methods. The SI curriculum promotes a pedagogical framework called Scientific Teaching (ST), which aims to bring the vitality of modern research into the classroom by engaging students in the scientific discovery process and using student data to inform the ongoing development of teaching methods. With the spread of ST, the need emerges to systematically define its components in order to establish a common description for education researchers and practitioners. We describe the development of a taxonomy detailing ST's core elements and provide data from classroom observations and faculty surveys in support of its applicability within undergraduate science courses. The final taxonomy consists of 15 pedagogical goals and 37 supporting practices, specifying observable behaviors, artifacts, and features associated with ST. This taxonomy will support future educational efforts by providing a framework for researchers studying the processes and outcomes of ST-based course transformations as well as a concise guide for faculty members developing classes. © 2015 B. A. Couch et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  10. Fast reactor knowledge preservation system: Taxonomy and basic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The IAEA has taken the initiative to coordinate efforts of Member States in the preservation of knowledge in the area of fast reactors. In the framework of this initiative, the IAEA intends to create an international database compiling information from different Member States on fast reactors through a web portal. Other activities related to this initiative are being designed to accumulate and exchange information on the fast reactor area, to facilitate access to this information by users in different countries and to assist Member States in preserving the experience gained in their countries. The purpose of this publication is to develop a taxonomy of the Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation System (FRKPS) that will facilitate the preservation of the world's fast reactor knowledge base, to identify basic requirements of this taxonomy on the basis of the experience gained in the fast reactor area, as well as results of previous IAEA activities on fast reactor knowledge preservation. The need for such taxonomy arises from the fact that during the past 15 years there has been stagnation in the development of fast reactors in the industrialized countries that were involved, earlier, in intensive development of this area. All studies on fast reactors have been stopped in countries such as Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom and the United States of America and the only work being carried out is related to the decommissioning of fast reactors. Many specialists who were involved in the studies and development work in this area in these countries have already retired or are close to retirement. In countries such as France, Japan and the Russian Federation that are still actively pursuing the evolution of fast reactor technology, the situation is aggravated by the lack of young scientists and engineers moving into this branch of nuclear power

  11. A Taxonomy for Modeling Flexibility and a Computationally Efficient Algorithm for Dispatch in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Højgaard; Edlund, Kristian; Hansen, Lars Henrik

    2013-01-01

    The word flexibility is central to Smart Grid literature, but still a formal definition of flexibility is pending. This paper present a taxonomy for flexibility modeling denoted Buckets, Batteries and Bakeries. We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant (VPP), which is given the task...... of servicing a portfolio of flexible consumers by use of a fluctuating power supply. Based on the developed taxonomy we first prove that no causal optimal dispatch strategies exist for the considered problem. We then present two heuristic algorithms for solving the balancing task: Predictive Balancing...

  12. Taxonomy-based collaborative filtering algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracia, J.; Lozano, E.; Liem, J.; Collarana, D.; Corcho, O.; Gómez-Pérez, A.; Villazón, B.

    2011-01-01

    In DynaLearn, semantics of the QR models ingredients is made explicit by representing them as terms in ontologies. That easies the task of exploring the knowledge contained in the models, enabling rich comparisons among them. The facts that the user explicitly represents in the model constitutes the

  13. Asian Consensus Report on Functional Dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Hiroto; Ghoshal, Uday C; Gonlachanvit, Sutep; Gwee, Kok-Ann; Ang, Tiing-Leong; Chang, Full-Young; Fock, Kwong Ming; Hongo, Michio; Hou, Xiaohua; Kachintorn, Udom; Ke, Meiyun; Lai, Kwok-Hung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Lu, Ching-Liang; Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Miura, Soichiro; Park, Hyojin; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Sugano, Kentaro; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Wong, Benjamin CY

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Environmental factors such as food, lifestyle and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection are widely different in Asian countries compared to the West, and physiological functions and genetic factors of Asians may also be different from those of Westerners. Establishing an Asian consensus for functional dyspepsia is crucial in order to attract attention to such data from Asian countries, to articulate the experience and views of Asian experts, and to provide a relevant guide on management of functional dyspepsia for primary care physicians working in Asia. Methods Consensus team members were selected from Asian experts and consensus development was carried out using a modified Delphi method. Consensus teams collected published papers on functional dyspepsia especially from Asia and developed candidate consensus statements based on the generated clinical questions. At the first face-to-face meeting, each statement was reviewed and e-mail voting was done twice. At the second face-to-face meeting, final voting on each statement was done using keypad voting system. A grade of evidence and a strength of recommendation were applied to each statement according to the method of the GRADE Working Group. Results Twenty-nine consensus statements were finalized, including 7 for definition and diagnosis, 5 for epidemiology, 9 for pathophysiology and 8 for management. Algorithms for diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia were added. Conclusions This consensus developed by Asian experts shows distinctive features of functional dyspepsia in Asia and will provide a guide to the diagnosis and management of functional dyspepsia for Asian primary care physicians. PMID:22523724

  14. Development and evaluation of a specialized task taxonomy for spatial planning - A map literacy experiment with topographic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenbach, Victoria; Coetzee, Serena; Çöltekin, Arzu

    2017-05-01

    Topographic maps are among the most commonly used map types, however, their complex and information-rich designs depicting natural, human-made and cultural features make them difficult to read. Regardless of their complexity, spatial planners make extensive use of topographic maps in their work. On the other hand, various studies suggest that map literacy among the development planning professionals in South Africa is not very high. The widespread use of topographic maps combined with the low levels of map literacy presents challenges for effective development planning. In this paper we address some of these challenges by developing a specialized task taxonomy based on systematically assessed map literacy levels; and conducting an empirical experiment with topographic maps to evaluate our task taxonomy. In such empirical studies if non-realistic tasks are used, the results of map literacy tests may be skewed. Furthermore, experience and familiarity with the studied map type play a role in map literacy. There is thus a need to develop map literacy tests aimed at planners specifically. We developed a taxonomy of realistic map reading tasks typically executed during the planning process. The taxonomy defines six levels tasks of increasing difficulty and complexity, ranging from recognising symbols to extracting knowledge. We hypothesized that competence in the first four levels indicates functional map literacy. In this paper, we present results from an empirical experiment with 49 map literate participants solving a subset of tasks from the first four levels of the taxonomy with a topographic map. Our findings suggest that the proposed taxonomy is a good reference for evaluating topographic map literacy. Participants solved the tasks on all four levels as expected and we therefore conclude that the experiment based on the first four levels of the taxonomy successfully determined the functional map literacy of the participants. We plan to continue the study for the

  15. Learning consensus in adversarial environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamvoudakis, Kyriakos G.; García Carrillo, Luis R.; Hespanha, João. P.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents a game theory-based consensus problem for leaderless multi-agent systems in the presence of adversarial inputs that are introducing disturbance to the dynamics. Given the presence of enemy components and the possibility of malicious cyber attacks compromising the security of networked teams, a position agreement must be reached by the networked mobile team based on environmental changes. The problem is addressed under a distributed decision making framework that is robust to possible cyber attacks, which has an advantage over centralized decision making in the sense that a decision maker is not required to access information from all the other decision makers. The proposed framework derives three tuning laws for every agent; one associated with the cost, one associated with the controller, and one with the adversarial input.

  16. Taxonomy for Common-Cause Failure Vulnerability and Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Richard Thomas [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Korsah, Kofi [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mullens, James Allen [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Pullum, Laura L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Applying current guidance and practices for common-cause failure (CCF) mitigation to digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems has proven problematic, and the regulatory environment has been unpredictable. The potential for CCF vulnerability inhibits I&C modernization, thereby challenging the long-term sustainability of existing plants. For new plants and advanced reactor concepts, concern about CCF vulnerability in highly integrated digital I&C systems imposes a design burden that results in higher costs and increased complexity. The regulatory uncertainty in determining which mitigation strategies will be acceptable (e.g., what diversity is needed and how much is sufficient) drives designers to adopt complicated, costly solutions devised for existing plants. To address the conditions that constrain the transition to digital I&C technology by the US nuclear industry, crosscutting research is needed to resolve uncertainty, demonstrate necessary characteristics, and establish an objective basis for qualification of digital technology for nuclear power plant (NPP) I&C applications. To fulfill this research need, Oak Ridge National Laboratory is investigating mitigation of CCF vulnerability for nuclear-qualified applications. The outcome of this research is expected to contribute to a fundamentally sound, comprehensive basis to qualify digital technology for nuclear power applications. This report documents the development of a CCF taxonomy. The basis for the CCF taxonomy was generated by determining consistent terminology and establishing a classification approach. The terminology is based on definitions from standards, guides, and relevant nuclear power industry technical reports. The classification approach is derived from identified classification schemes focused on I&C systems and key characteristics, including failure modes. The CCF taxonomy provides the basis for a systematic organization of key systems aspects relevant to analyzing the potential for

  17. Toward A Unifying Taxonomy and Definition for Meditation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan David Nash

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the fabrication of categories based exclusively on first-person perspectives. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on a third-person paradigm borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation as a dynamic process composed of several related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings.

  18. The Consensus of Strategic Consensus: A Study of the State of the Art about the Theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curth

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present the state of the art regarding the strategic consensus, emphasizing the approaches and the nature of the research methods used, the results obtained and the future agenda for this theme studies. Analyzing beyond the last four decades of publications, it was understood that relating the strategic consensus only with the performance and strategic levels can be seen as something limited, suggesting the need to bring to the researching field new aspects and backgrounds as innovation, the methods for generating new ideas, the occurrence beyond the Top Management Team level (TMT, among others. Moreover, concludes that the predominant approach the strategic consensus is a process and the methodology used is based on quantitative techniques. As a suggestion for future studies, this study indicates the investigation of situations in which the strategic consensus is not positive.

  19. CT-based delineation of lymph node levels and related CTVs in the node-negative neck: DAHANCA, EORTC, GORTEC, NCIC,RTOG consensus guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Levendag, Peter; Ang, Kian K.; Bernier, Jacques; Braaksma, Marijel; Budach, Volker; Chao, Cliff; Coche, Emmanuel; Cooper, Jay S.; Cosnard, Guy; Eisbruch, Avraham; El-Sayed, Samy; Emami, Bahman; Grau, Cai; Hamoir, Marc; Lee, Nancy; Maingon, Philippe; Muller, Karin; Reychler, Herve

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The appropriate application of 3-D CRT and IMRT for HNSCC requires a standardization of the procedures for the delineation of the target volumes. Over the past few years, two proposals - the so-called Brussels guidelines from Gregoire et al., and the so-called Rotterdam guidelines from Nowak et al. - emerged from the literature for the delineation of the neck node levels. Detailed examination of these proposals however revealed some important discrepancies. Materials and methods: Within this framework, the Brussels and Rotterdam groups decided to review their guidelines and derive a common set of recommendations for delineation of neck node levels. This proposal was then discussed with representatives of major cooperative groups in Europe (DAHANCA, EORTC, GORTEC) and in North America (NCIC, RTOG), which, after some additional refinements, have endorsed them. The objective of the present article is to present the consensus guidelines for the delineation of the node levels in the node-negative neck. Results and conclusions: First a short discussion of the discrepancies between the previous Brussels and the Rotterdam guidelines is presented. The general philosophy of the consensus guidelines and the methodology used to resolve the various discrepancies are then described. The consensus proposal is then presented and representative CTVs that are consistent with these guidelines are illustrated on CT sections. Last, the limitations of the consensus guidelines are discussed and some concerns about the direct applications of these guidelines to the node-positive neck and the post-operative neck are described

  20. Evidence- and consensus-based practice guidelines for the therapy of primary myelodysplastic syndromes. A statement from the Italian Society of Hematology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alessandrino, Emilio Paolo; Amadori, Sergio; Barosi, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    or older than 75 years and the strategy of watchful waiting were decided by patient-oriented questions. INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: Using evidence and consensus, recommendations for the treatment of MDS were issued. Statements were graded according to the strength of the supporting evidence...

  1. Cultural Consensus Theory for the ordinal data case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Royce; Batchelder, William H

    2015-03-01

    A Cultural Consensus Theory approach for ordinal data is developed, leading to a new model for ordered polytomous data. The model introduces a novel way of measuring response biases and also measures consensus item values, a consensus response scale, item difficulty, and informant knowledge. The model is extended as a finite mixture model to fit both simulated and real multicultural data, in which subgroups of informants have different sets of consensus item values. The extension is thus a form of model-based clustering for ordinal data. The hierarchical Bayesian framework is utilized for inference, and two posterior predictive checks are developed to verify the central assumptions of the model.

  2. Modern Grid Initiative Distribution Taxonomy Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Chen, Yousu; Chassin, David P.; Pratt, Robert G.; Engel, David W.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-11-01

    This is the final report for the development of a toxonomy of prototypical electrical distribution feeders. Two of the primary goals of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Modern Grid Initiative (MGI) are 'to accelerate the modernization of our nation's electricity grid' and to 'support demonstrations of systems of key technologies that can serve as the foundation for an integrated, modern power grid'. A key component to the realization of these goals is the effective implementation of new, as well as existing, 'smart grid technologies'. Possibly the largest barrier that has been identified in the deployment of smart grid technologies is the inability to evaluate how their deployment will affect the electricity infrastructure, both locally and on a regional scale. The inability to evaluate the impacts of these technologies is primarily due to the lack of detailed electrical distribution feeder information. While detailed distribution feeder information does reside with the various distribution utilities, there is no central repository of information that can be openly accessed. The role of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in the MGI for FY08 was to collect distribution feeder models, in the SynerGEE{reg_sign} format, from electric utilities around the nation so that they could be analyzed to identify regional differences in feeder design and operation. Based on this analysis PNNL developed a taxonomy of 24 prototypical feeder models in the GridLAB-D simulations environment that contain the fundamental characteristics of non-urban core, radial distribution feeders from the various regions of the U.S. Weighting factors for these feeders are also presented so that they can be used to generate a representative sample for various regions within the United States. The final product presented in this report is a toolset that enables the evaluation of new smart grid technologies, with the ability to aggregate their effects

  3. Towards a taxonomy of digital work

    OpenAIRE

    Mrass, Volkmar; Li, Mahei Manhai; Peters, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of digitization for economy and society, there is few structuring of the very heterogenous kinds of digital work. Representatives from business, politics and science need a basis for the development of strategies to encounter the challenges that result from this digitization. We aim at delivering a contribution to that basis by systematically investigating what different types of digital work exist and by developing a taxonomy. As a first important step towar...

  4. An Empirical Taxonomy of Crowdfunding Intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Haas, Philipp; Blohm, Ivo; Leimeister, Jan Marco

    2014-01-01

    Due to the recent popularity of crowdfunding, a broad magnitude of crowdfunding intermediaries has emerged, while research on crowdfunding intermediaries has been largely neglected. As a consequence, existing classifications of crowdfunding intermediaries are conceptual, lack theoretical grounding, and are not empirically validated. Thus, we develop an empirical taxonomy of crowdfunding intermediaries, which is grounded in the theories of two-sided markets and financial intermediation. Integr...

  5. Taxonomy of Strategic Games with Information Leaks and Corruption of Simultaneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriu Ungureanu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider pseudo-simultaneous normal form games - strategic games with rules violated by information leaks and simultaneity corruption. We provide classification and construction of a game taxonomy based on applicable solution principles. Existence conditions are highlighted, formulated and analysed.

  6. Taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution Approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle in an Integrated Airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a taxonomy of Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) approaches for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) operation in an integrated airspace. Possible approaches for UAVs are surveyed and broken down based on their types of surveillance, coordination, maneuver, and autonomy. The

  7. Developing a Taxonomy of Helpful and Harmful Practices for Clinical Work with Boys and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Good, Glenn E.; Tager, David; Levant, Ronald F.; Mackowiak, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study drew upon the knowledge base of member practitioners of the American Psychological Association (APA) to develop a taxonomy of helpful and harmful practices for treatment with boys and men. Four hundred seventy-five APA-member practitioners solicited from practice-related divisions provided responses to 4 open-ended questions about…

  8. Cooper's Taxonomy of Literature Reviews Applied to Meta-Analyses in Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Theresa Ann; Stallings, William M.

    H. M. Cooper (1988) has developed a taxonomy that classified literature reviews based on six characteristics: (1) focus of attention; (2) goal of the synthesis; (3) perspective on the literature; (4) coverage of the literature; (5) organization of the perspective; and (6) intended audience. One hundred and three meta-analyses identified from the…

  9. Links between Bloom's Taxonomy and Gardener's Multiple Intelligences: The Issue of Textbook Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mahmoud Abdi; Tabari, Iman Abdi

    2015-01-01

    The major thrust of this research was to investigate the cognitive aspect of the high school textbooks and interchange series, due to their extensive use, through content analysis based on Bloom's taxonomy and Gardner's Multiple Intelligences (MI). This study embraced two perspectives in a grid in order to broaden and deepen the analysis by…

  10. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to Evaluate the Cognitive Levels of Master Class Textbook's Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly, Ibtihal R.; Smadi, Oqlah M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the cognitive levels of the questions following the reading texts of Master Class textbook. A checklist based on Bloom's Taxonomy was the instrument used to categorize the cognitive levels of these questions. The researchers used proper statistics to rank the cognitive levels of the comprehension questions. The…

  11. A taxonomy for human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, J.D.; Iwasa-Madge, K.M.

    1984-01-01

    A human interaction taxonomy (classification scheme) was developed to facilitate human reliability analysis in a probabilistic safety evaluation of a nuclear power plant, being performed at Ontario Hydro. A human interaction occurs, by definition, when operators or maintainers manipulate, or respond to indication from, a plant component or system. The taxonomy aids the fault tree analyst by acting as a heuristic device. It helps define the range and type of human errors to be identified in the construction of fault trees, while keeping the identification by different analysts consistent. It decreases the workload associated with preliminary quantification of the large number of identified interactions by including a category called 'simple interactions'. Fault tree analysts quantify these according to a procedure developed by a team of human reliability specialists. The interactions which do not fit into this category are called 'complex' and are quantified by the human reliability team. The taxonomy is currently being used in fault tree construction in a probabilistic safety evaluation. As far as can be determined at this early stage, the potential benefits of consistency and completeness in identifying human interactions and streamlining the initial quantification are being realized

  12. Overview of the taxonomy of zooxanthellate Scleractinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, John

    2013-11-01

    Coral taxonomy has entered a historical phase where nomenclatorial uncertainty is rapidly increasing. The fundamental cause is mandatory adherence to historical monographs that lack essential information of all sorts, and also to type specimens, if they exist at all, that are commonly unrecognizable fragments or are uncharacteristic of the species they are believed to represent. Historical problems, including incorrect subsequent type species designations, also create uncertainty for many well-established genera. The advent of in situ studies in the 1970s revealed these issues; now molecular technology is again changing the taxonomic landscape. The competing methodologies involved must be seen in context if they are to avoid becoming an additional basis for continuing nomenclatorial instability. To prevent this happening, the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN) will need to focus on rules that consolidate well-established nomenclature and allow for the designation of new type specimens that are unambiguous, and which include both skeletal material and soft tissue for molecular study. Taxonomic and biogeographic findings have now become linked, with molecular methodologies providing the capacity to re-visit past taxonomic decisions, and to extend both taxonomy and biogeography into the realm of evolutionary theory. It is proposed that most species will ultimately be seen as operational taxonomic units that are human rather than natural constructs, which in consequence will always have fuzzy morphological, genetic, and distribution boundaries. The pathway ahead calls for the integration of morphological and molecular taxonomies, and for website delivery of information that crosses current discipline boundaries.

  13. Expert consensus document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boehm, Ulrich; Bouloux, Pierre-Marc; Dattani, Mehul T

    2015-01-01

    Congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is a rare disorder caused by the deficient production, secretion or action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), which is the master hormone regulating the reproductive axis. CHH is clinically and genetically heterogeneous, with >25 different...... migration of GnRH-synthesizing neurons. CHH can be challenging to diagnose, particularly when attempting to differentiate it from constitutional delay of puberty. A timely diagnosis and treatment to induce puberty can be beneficial for sexual, bone and metabolic health, and might help minimize some...... of the psychological effects of CHH. In most cases, fertility can be induced using specialized treatment regimens and several predictors of outcome have been identified. Patients typically require lifelong treatment, yet ∼10-20% of patients exhibit a spontaneous recovery of reproductive function. This Consensus...

  14. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, C.C.; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F.; Schiffman, E.L.; Alstergren, P.; Anderson, G.C.; De Leeuw, R.; Jensen, R.; Michelotti, A.; Ohrbach, R.; Petersson, A.; List, T.

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility for

  15. Expanding the taxonomy of the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peck, C C; Goulet, J-P; Lobbezoo, F

    2014-01-01

    There is a need to expand the current temporomandibular disorders' (TMDs) classification to include less common but clinically important disorders. The immediate aim was to develop a consensus-based classification system and associated diagnostic criteria that have clinical and research utility f...

  16. Toward a unifying taxonomy and definition for meditation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Jonathan D.; Newberg, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    One of the well-documented concerns confronting scholarly discourse about meditation is the plethora of semantic constructs and the lack of a unified definition and taxonomy. In recent years there have been several notable attempts to formulate new lexicons in order to define and categorize meditation methods. While these constructs have been useful and have encountered varying degrees of acceptance, they have also been subject to misinterpretation and debate, leaving the field devoid of a consensual paradigm. This paper attempts to influence this ongoing discussion by proposing two new models which hold the potential for enhanced scientific reliability and acceptance. Regarding the quest for a universally acceptable taxonomy, we suggest a paradigm shift away from the norm of fabricatIng new terminology from a first-person perspective. As an alternative, we propose a new taxonomic system based on the historically well-established and commonly accepted third-person paradigm of Affect and Cognition, borrowed, in part, from the psychological and cognitive sciences. With regard to the elusive definitional problem, we propose a model of meditation which clearly distinguishes “method” from “state” and is conceptualized as a dynamic process which is inclusive of six related but distinct stages. The overall goal is to provide researchers with a reliable nomenclature with which to categorize and classify diverse meditation methods, and a conceptual framework which can provide direction for their research and a theoretical basis for their findings. PMID:24312060

  17. The past, the present and the future of eutardigrade taxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pilato

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Author first recalls the past of eutardigrade taxonomy and indicates the main factors that for a long time restrained its progress. One consequence of a superficial analysis is that very wide individual variability has been erroneously attributed to many species, and this has become the main problem for tardigrade taxonomists. The situation began to change after 1969 because of the first attempts to eliminate the above mentioned problems. Novelties gave impetus to the revision of tardigrade taxonomy, and genuine systematics, finally based on phylogenetics, became popular. Today the morphological characters are considered more in depth and studies utilising DNA sequences are more in fashion; they are surely useful and allow the distinction of morphologically very similar species. However, in the author’s opinion, this progress will be possible only if the molecular studies are always associated with careful morphological studies, which, in the meantime, will be more and more detailed also thanks to the use of the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM.

  18. "Communicate to vaccinate": the development of a taxonomy of communication interventions to improve routine childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Natalie; Hill, Sophie; Kaufman, Jessica; Lewin, Simon; Kis-Rigo, John; De Castro Freire, Sara Bensaude; Bosch-Capblanch, Xavier; Glenton, Claire; Lin, Vivian; Robinson, Priscilla; Wiysonge, Charles S

    2013-05-11

    Vaccination is a cost-effective public health measure and is central to the Millennium Development Goal of reducing child mortality. However, childhood vaccination coverage remains sub-optimal in many settings. While communication is a key feature of vaccination programmes, we are not aware of any comprehensive approach to organising the broad range of communication interventions that can be delivered to parents and communities to improve vaccination coverage. Developing a classification system (taxonomy) organised into conceptually similar categories will aid in: understanding the relationships between different types of communication interventions; facilitating conceptual mapping of these interventions; clarifying the key purposes and features of interventions to aid implementation and evaluation; and identifying areas where evidence is strong and where there are gaps. This paper reports on the development of the 'Communicate to vaccinate' taxonomy. The taxonomy was developed in two stages. Stage 1 included: 1) forming an advisory group; 2) searching for descriptions of interventions in trials (CENTRAL database) and general health literature (Medline); 3) developing a sampling strategy; 4) screening the search results; 5) developing a data extraction form; and 6) extracting intervention data. Stage 2 included: 1) grouping the interventions according to purpose; 2) holding deliberative forums in English and French with key vaccination stakeholders to gather feedback; 3) conducting a targeted search of grey literature to supplement the taxonomy; 4) finalising the taxonomy based on the input provided. The taxonomy includes seven main categories of communication interventions: inform or educate, remind or recall, teach skills, provide support, facilitate decision making, enable communication and enhance community ownership. These categories are broken down into 43 intervention types across three target groups: parents or soon-to-be-parents; communities, community

  19. Developing a Gap Taxonomy to Address Crew Health Risks in NASA's Human Research Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Edwards, J. Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) is to understand and reduce the risk to crew health and performance in exploration missions. The HRP addresses 27 specific risks by identifying and then filling gaps in understanding the risks and in the ability to disposition the risks. The primary bases for identifying gaps have been past experience and requirements definition. This approach has been very effective in identifying some important, relevant gaps, but may be inadequate for identifying gaps outside the past experience base. We are exploring the use of a gap taxonomy as a comprehensive, underlying conceptual framework that allows a more systematic identification of gaps. The taxonomy is based on these stages in medical care: prediction, prevention, detection/diagnosis, treatment, monitoring, rehabilitation, and lifetime surveillance. This gap taxonomy approach identifies new gaps in HRP health risks. Many of the new gaps suggest risk reduction approaches that are more cost effective than present approaches. A major benefit of the gap taxonomy approach is to identify new, economical approaches that reduce the likelihood and/or consequence of a risk.

  20. Consensus statement update on posttraumatic stress disorder from the international consensus group on depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballenger, James C; Davidson, Jonathan R T; Lecrubier, Yves; Nutt, David J; Marshall, Randall D; Nemeroff, Charles B; Shalev, Arieh Y; Yehuda, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    To provide an update to the "Consensus Statement on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder From the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety" that was published in a supplement to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry (2000) by presenting important developments in the field, the latest recommendations for patient care, and suggestions for future research. The 4 members of the International Consensus Group on Depression and Anxiety were James C. Ballenger (chair), Jonathan R. T. Davidson, Yves Lecrubier, and David J. Nutt. Other faculty who were invited by the chair were Randall D. Marshall, Charles B. Nemeroff, Arieh Y. Shalev, and Rachel Yehuda. The consensus statement is based on the 7 review articles in this supplement and the related scientific literature. Group meetings were held over a 2-day period. On day 1, the group discussed topics to be represented by the 7 review articles in this supplement, and the chair identified key issues for further debate. On day 2, the group discussed these issues to arrive at a consensus view. After the group meetings, the consensus statement was drafted by the chair and approved by all faculty. There have been advancements in the science and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Attention to this disorder has increased with recent world events; however, continued efforts are needed to improve diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder.