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Sample records for consecutive oxygenation steps

  1. Assessing Gait Impairments Based on Auto-Encoded Patterns of Mahalanobis Distances from Consecutive Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Organero, Mario; Davies, Richard; Mawson, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Insole pressure sensors capture the force distribution patterns during the stance phase while walking. By comparing patterns obtained from healthy individuals to patients suffering different medical conditions based on a given similarity measure, automatic impairment indexes can be computed in order to help in applications such as rehabilitation. This paper uses the data sensed from insole pressure sensors for a group of healthy controls to train an auto-encoder using patterns of stochastic distances in series of consecutive steps while walking at normal speeds. Two experiment groups are compared to the healthy control group: a group of patients suffering knee pain and a group of post-stroke survivors. The Mahalanobis distance is computed for every single step by each participant compared to the entire dataset sensed from healthy controls. The computed distances for consecutive steps are fed into the previously trained autoencoder and the average error is used to assess how close the walking segment is to the autogenerated model from healthy controls. The results show that automatic distortion indexes can be used to assess each participant as compared to normal patterns computed from healthy controls. The stochastic distances observed for the group of stroke survivors are bigger than those for the people with knee pain.

  2. Oxygen chemisorption on a stepped Ru (approx.001) crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrott, S.L.; Praline, G.; Koel, B.E.; White, J.M.; Taylor, T.N.

    1979-01-01

    The 300 K chemisorption of oxygen on a stepped Ru (approx.001) single crystal [17(001) x (100)] gives 2 x 2 complete half-order, 1 x 2 complete or incomplete half-order, and 1 x 1 integral-order LEED patterns depending on oxygen exposure and sample annealing. The corresponding relative AES oxygen signals are 0.25, 0.50, and 1.0, respectively. Under certain surface conditions, the presence of the steps is seen to break the threefold degenerate growth habit of 1 x 2 domains. The 1 x 1 pattern forms at 300 K only after lengthy exposure at relatively high pressure (10 -5 Torr) and is stable to 600 K. Prolonged exposure gives rise to relative AES oxygen signals greater than unity suggesting penetration into the subsurface region

  3. Review of 1,000 consecutive extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs as a quality initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, Harold N; Hardison, Daphne C; Chen, Heidi; Westrick, Ashly C; Danko, Melissa E; Bridges, Brian C; Walsh, William F; Pietsch, John B

    2017-08-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation is a resource-intensive mode of life-support potentially applicable when conventional therapies fail. Given the initial success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation to support neonates and infants in the 1980s, indications have expanded to include adolescents, adults, and selected moribund patients during cardiopulmonary resuscitation. This single-institution analysis was conducted to evaluate programmatic growth, outcomes, and risk for death despite extracorporeal membrane oxygenation across all ages and diseases. Beginning in 1989, we registered prospectively all extracorporeal membrane oxygenation patient data with the Extracorporeal Life Support Organization. We queried this registry for our institution-specific data to compare the parameter of "discharge alive" between age groups (neonatal, pediatric, adult), disease groups (respiratory, cardiac, cardiopulmonary resuscitation), and modes of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (veno-venous; veno-arterial). Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-specific complications (mechanical, hemorrhagic, neurologic, renal, cardiovascular, pulmonary, infectious, metabolic) were analyzed similarly. Descriptive statistics, Kaplan-Meier, and linear regression analyses were conducted. After 1,052 extracorporeal membrane oxygenation runs, indications have expanded to include adults, to supplement cardiopulmonary resuscitation, to support hemodialysis in neonates and plasmapheresis in children, and to bridge all age patients to heart and lung transplant. Overall survival to discharge was 52% and was better for respiratory diseases (P < .001). Probability of individual survival decreased to <50% if pre-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation mechanical ventilation exceeded respectively 123 hours for cardiac, 166 hours for cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and 183 hours for respiratory diseases (P = .013). Complications occurred most commonly among cardiac and cardiopulmonary resuscitation runs

  4. Preparation of C-LiFePO{sub 4}/polypyrrole lithium rechargeable cathode by consecutive potential steps electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyano, Iker; Blazquez, J. Alberto; de Meatza, Iratxe; Bengoechea, Miguel; Miguel, Oscar; Grande, Hans [CIDETEC-IK4, P Miramon 196, 20009 Donostia, San Sebastian (Spain); Huang, Yunhui [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 730074 (China); Goodenough, John B. [Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    In this work carbon coated lithium iron phosphate (C-LiFePO{sub 4})/polypyrrole (PPy) composite preparation has been carried out using electrochemical techniques. This composite has been deposited on a stainless steel mesh in order to use it as a cathode in a lithium-ion battery. When an oxidation potential is applied to the working electrode, the pyrrole monomer is polymerized and the C-LiFePO{sub 4} particles are incorporated into the polymer matrix and bound to the polymer and mesh. An experimental procedure was performed in order to understand how the composite formation is carried out and what the oxidation state of the composite material is during the charge-discharge process. As the electrochemical method of synthesis has a big influence in the electrochemical properties of the polymer, the use of consecutive potential steps has been studied in order to improve the charge-storage capacity of the composite material. The influence on the final composite properties of the oxidation-deposition time and potential and the effect of the number of cycles has been analyzed. An improvement of about 20% has been achieved using short oxidation times (3 s) at 0.9 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The reasons for this improvement are discussed and analyzed using different experimental techniques. (author)

  5. Single turnover studies of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation by horseradish peroxidase reveal a mechanism involving two consecutive one electron steps: toward a functional halophenol bioremediation catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumithran, Suganya; Sono, Masanori; Raner, Gregory M; Dawson, John H

    2012-12-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) catalyzes the oxidative para-dechlorination of the environmental pollutant/carcinogen 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP). A possible mechanism for this reaction is a direct oxygen atom transfer from HRP compound I (HRP I) to trichlorophenol to generate 2,6-dichloro 1,4-benzoquinone, a two-electron transfer process. An alternative mechanism involves two consecutive one-electron transfer steps in which HRP I is reduced to compound II (HRP II) and then to the ferric enzyme as first proposed by Wiese et al. [F.W. Wiese, H.C. Chang, R.V. Lloyd, J.P. Freeman, V.M. Samokyszyn, Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 34 (1998) 217-222]. To probe the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation, the reactions between 2,4,6-TCP and HRP compounds I or II have been investigated under single turnover conditions (i.e., without excess H(2)O(2)) using rapid scan stopped-flow spectroscopy. Addition of 2,4,6-TCP to HRP I leads rapidly to HRP II and then more slowly to the ferric resting state, consistent with a mechanism involving two consecutive one-electron oxidations of the substrate via a phenoxy radical intermediate. HRP II can also directly dechlorinate 2,4,6-TCP as judged by rapid scan stopped-flow and mass spectrometry. This observation is particularly significant since HRP II can only carry out one-electron oxidations. A more detailed understanding of the mechanism of oxidative halophenol dehalogenation will facilitate the use of HRP as a halophenol bioremediation catalyst. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of the first electron transfer step in the oxygen reduction reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartnig, C.B.; Koper, M.T.M.

    2002-01-01

    We present a molecular dynamics simulation of solvent reorganization in the first electron transfer step in the oxygen reduction reaction, i.e. O2+e-¿O2-, modeled as taking place in the outer Helmholtz plane. The first electron transfer step is usually considered the rate-determining step from many

  7. Empirical Modeling of Oxygen Uptake of Flow Over Stepped Chutes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present investigation evaluates the influence of three different step chute geometry when skimming flow was allowed over them with the aim of determining the aerated flow length which is a significant factor when developing empirical equations for estimating aeration efficiency of flow. Overall, forty experiments were ...

  8. Formation of oxygen related donors in step-annealed CZ–silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effect of step-annealing necessitated by the difficulties being faced in the long duration annealing treatments to be given to CZ–silicon has been studied. One pre-anneal of 10 h followed by annealing of 10 h causes a decrease in the absorption coefficient for carbon (c). Oxygen and carbon both accelerate thermal ...

  9. One step synthesis of chlorine-free Pt/Nitrogen-doped graphene composite for oxygen reduction reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamá s; Varga, Á gnes Tí mea; Ballai, Gergő; Haspel, Henrik; Kukovecz, Á kos; Kó nya, Z.

    2018-01-01

    Chlorine-free Platinum/nitrogen-doped graphene oxygen reduction reaction catalysts were synthesized by a one step method of annealing a mixture of platinum acetylacetonate and graphene oxide under ammonia atmosphere. Nanoparticles with close

  10. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  11. Micellar induced regioselectivity in the two-step consecutive reaction of SO3(2-) with Br-(CH2CH2)n-Br (n=2-5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Fredrik; Jarvoll, Patrik; Holmberg, Krister; Romsted, Laurence S; Gunaseelan, Krishnan

    2007-08-15

    High field (800 MHz) (1)H NMR was used to monitor the two-step consecutive reaction of excess SO(3)(2-) with symmetrical bifunctional alpha,omega-dibromoalkanes with butane (DBB), hexane (DBH), octane (DBO), and decane (DBD) chains in CTAB micelles at 25 degrees C. The first-order rate constant for the first substitution step for DBB and DBH is about 5 times faster than for the second, but the kinetics for DBO and DBD were not cleanly first-order. After 40 min, the solution contained about 80% of the intermediate bromoalkanesulfonate from DBB and DBH and the remainder is alkanedisulfonate and unreacted starting material. The same reactions were carried out in homogeneous MeOH/D(2)O solutions at 50 degrees C. The rate constants for all four alpha,omega-dibromoalkanes were first-order throughout the time course of the reaction and the same within +/-10%. However, because micellar solutions are organized on the nanoscale and bring together lipophilic and hydrophilic reactants into a small reaction volume at the micellar interface, they speed this substitution reaction considerably compared to reaction in MeOH/D(2)O. The CTAB micelles also induce a significant regioselectivity in product formation by speeding the first step of the consecutive reaction more than the second. The results are consistent with the bromoalkanesulfonate intermediates having a radial orientation within the micelles with the -CH(2)SO(3)(-) group in the interfacial region and the -CH(2)Br group directed into the micellar core such that the concentration of -CH(2)Br groups in the reactive zone, i.e., the micellar interface, is significantly reduced. These results provide the first example of self-assembled surfactant system altering the relative rates of the reaction steps of a consecutive reaction and, in doing so, enhancing monosubstitution of a symmetrically disubstituted species.

  12. Comparison of the Danish step test and the watt-max test for estimation of maximal oxygen uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aadahl, Mette; Zacho, Morten; Linneberg, Allan René

    2013-01-01

    . Altogether, 795 eligible participants (response rate 35.8%) performed the watt max and the Danish step test. Correlation and agreement between the two VO(2max) test results was explored by Pearson's rho, Bland-Altman plots, Kappa(w), and gamma coefficients.Results: The correlation between VO(2max) (ml......Introduction: There is a need for simple and feasible methods for estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in large study populations, as existing methods for valid estimation of maximal oxygen consumption are generally time consuming and relatively expensive to administer. The Danish step...

  13. A Quantitative, Time-Dependent Model of Oxygen Isotopes in the Solar Nebula: Step one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuth, J. A.; Paquette, J. A.; Farquhar, A.; Johnson, N. M.

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable discovery that oxygen isotopes in primitive meteorites were fractionated along a line of slope I rather than along the typical slope 0,52 terrestrial fractionation line occurred almost 40 years ago, However, a satisfactory, quantitative explanation for this observation has yet to be found, though many different explanations have been proposed, The first of these explanations proposed that the observed line represented the final product produced by mixing molecular cloud dust with a nucleosynthetic component, rich in O-16, possibly resulting from a nearby supernova explosion, Donald Clayton suggested that Galactic Chemical Evolution would gradually change the oxygen isotopic composition of the interstellar grain population by steadily producing O-16 in supernovae, then producing the heavier isotopes as secondary products in lower mass stars, Thiemens and collaborators proposed a chemical mechanism that relied on the availability of additional active rotational and vibrational states in otherwise-symmetric molecules, such as CO2, O3 or SiO2, containing two different oxygen isotopes and a second, photochemical process that suggested that differential photochemical dissociation processes could fractionate oxygen , This second line of research has been pursued by several groups, though none of the current models is quantitative,

  14. Oxygen-tension measurements - The first step towards prevention and early detection of anastomotic leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanase, D.; French, P.J.; Komen, N.; Kleinrensink, G.J.; Jeekel, J.; Lange, J.F.; Draaijer, A.

    2007-01-01

    Many patients still die every year as a result of anastomotic leakage after surgery. The medical world needs an objective aid to detect leakage during surgery and during the critical recovery period. We propose a miniature measurement system to detect adequate tissue oxygenation pre- and

  15. One step synthesis of chlorine-free Pt/Nitrogen-doped graphene composite for oxygen reduction reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Varga, Tamás

    2018-03-14

    Chlorine-free Platinum/nitrogen-doped graphene oxygen reduction reaction catalysts were synthesized by a one step method of annealing a mixture of platinum acetylacetonate and graphene oxide under ammonia atmosphere. Nanoparticles with close to the ideal particle size for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) were formed, i.e., with diameter of 3–4 nm (500 and 600 °C) and 6 nm (700 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the successful introduction of both pyridinic and pyrrolic type nitrogen moieties into the graphene layers, which indicates a strong interaction between the nanoparticles and the graphene layers. The electrocatalytic activity of glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with the synthesized Pt/NG samples for oxygen reduction was compared to that of a platinum/carbon black catalyst modified electrode in acidic and alkaline media. Based on the measured limiting current densities and calculated electron transfer number, the highest activity was measured in acidic and alkaline media on the samples annealed at 600 and 700 °C, respectively.

  16. One-step preparation of N-doped graphene/Co nanocomposite as an advanced oxygen reduction electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Fo; Huang, Hao; Tan, Yanlei; Hou, Changmin; Zhang, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: N-doped graphene/Co nanocomposites were synthesized through one-step pyrolysis process and the product exhibits high performance for ORR and excellent stability in alkaline medium. - Highlights: • N-doped graphene/Co nano-composite is directly synthesized by a one-step method from Co(NO3)2∙6H2O, glucose and dicyandiamide (DCDA). • The electrocatalytic performance of as-prepared NG/Co-0.5 shows the peak potential positively shifts about 10 mV than commercial Pt/C electrode. • The material shows an excellent stability and tolerance to methanol poisoning effects in alkaline medium. - Abstract: N-doped graphene/Co nanocomposites (NG/Co NPs) have been prepared by a simple one-step pyrolysis of Co(NO 3 ) 2 ∙6H 2 O, glucose and dicyandiamide (DCDA). The products with nitrogen doped and suitable graphitic degree perform high electrocatalytic activity (with the reduction peak at −0.099 V vs Ag/AgCl) and near four-electron selectivity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), with excellent stability and durability in alkaline medium comparable to a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Owing to the superb ORR performance, low cost and facile preparation, the catalysts of NG/Co NPs have great potential applications in fuel cells, metal-air batteries and ORR-related electrochemical industries

  17. Quantifying height of ultraprecisely machined steps on oxygen-free electronic copper disc using Fourier-domain short coherence interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Montonen, Risto; Hæggström, Edward; Österberg, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The internal shape and alignment of accelerator discs is crucial for efficient collider operation at the future compact linear collider (CLIC). We applied a calibrated custom-made Fourier-domain short coherence interferometer to measure the height of 40 and 60μm60  μm ultraprecisely turned steps (surface roughness Ra≤25nmRa≤25  nm, flatness ≤2μm≤2  μm) on an oxygen-free electronic copper disc. The step heights were quantified to be (39.6±2.6)μm(39.6±2.6)  μm and (59.0±2.3)μm(59.0±2.3)  μm. The uncertainties are quoted at 95% confidence level and include contributions from calibration, refractive index of air, cosine error, surface roughness, and thermal expansion in comparison to standard temperature of 20°C. The results were verified by measuring the same steps using a commercial white light interferometer Veeco—NT3300. Our instrument can ensure that the accelerator discs of the CLIC are aligned within the tolerance required for efficient collider operation.

  18. Time required for partial pressure of arterial oxygen equilibration during mechanical ventilation after a step change in fractional inspired oxygen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakar, N; Tuŏrul, M; Demirarslan, A; Nahum, A; Adams, A; Akýncý, O; Esen, F; Telci, L

    2001-04-01

    To determine the time required for the partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) to reach equilibrium after a 0.20 increment or decrement in fractional inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) during mechanical ventilation. A multi-disciplinary ICU in a university hospital. Twenty-five adult, non-COPD patients with stable blood gas values (PaO2/FIO2 > or = 180 on the day of the study) on pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV). Following a baseline PaO2 (PaO2b) measurement at FIO2 = 0.35, the FIO2 was increased to 0.55 for 30 min and then decreased to 0.35 without any other change in ventilatory parameters. Sequential blood gas measurements were performed at 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min in both periods. The PaO2 values measured at the 30th min after a step change in FIO2 (FIO2 = 0.55, PaO2[55] and FIO2 = 0.35, PaO2[35]) were accepted as representative of the equilibrium values for PaO2. Each patient's rise and fall in PaO2 over time, PaO2(t), were fitted to the following respective exponential equations: PaO2b + (PaO2[55]-PaO2b)(1-e-kt) and PaO2[55] + (PaO2[35]-PaO2[55])(e-kt) where "t" refers to time, PaO2[55] and PaO2[35] are the final PaO2 values obtained at a new FIO2 of 0.55 and 0.35, after a 0.20 increment and decrement in FIO2, respectively. Time constant "k" was determined by a non-linear fitting curve and 90% oxygenation times were defined as the time required to reach 90% of the final equilibrated PaO2 calculated by using the non-linear fitting curves. Time constant values for the rise and fall periods were 1.01 +/- 0.71 min-1, 0.69 +/- 0.42 min-1, respectively, and 90% oxygenation times for rises and falls in PaO2 periods were 4.2 +/- 4.1 min-1 and 5.5 +/- 4.8 min-1, respectively. There was no significant difference between the rise and fall periods for the two parameters (p > 0.05). We conclude that in stable patients ventilated with PCV, after a step change in FIO2 of 0.20, 5-10 min will be adequate for obtaining a blood gas sample to measure a Pa

  19. One-step Synthesis of Pt Nanoparticles Highly Loaded on Graphene Aerogel as Durable Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Qinghong; Tao, Feifei; Zou, Liangliang; Yuan, Ting; Zou, Zhiqing; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Xiaogang; Yang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of highly active and durable Pt based catalysts with a high metal loading for fuel cells’ applications still remains a big challenge. The three-dimensional (3D) graphene aerogel (GA) not only possess the intrinsic property of graphene, but also have abundant pore architecture for anchoring metal nanoparticles, thus would be suitable as metal catalysts’ support. This work reports a simple and mild one-step co-reduction synthesis of Pt nanoparticles highly loaded on 3D GA and the use as durable oxygen reduction catalyst. Both X-ray diffraction and TEM measurements confirm that Pt nanoparticles (ca. 60 wt.% Pt loading) with an average diameter of ca. 3.2 nm are uniformly decorated on the homogeneously interconnected pores of 3D GA even after a heat treatment at 300 °C. Such a Pt/GA catalyst exhibits significantly enhanced electrocatalytic activity and improved durability for the oxygen reduction reaction. The enhancement in both catalytic activity and durability may result from the unique 3-D architecture structure of GA, the uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles, and the interaction between the Pt nanoparticles and GA. The GA-supported Pt can serve as a highly active catalyst for fuel cell applications

  20. Improving oxygen therapy for children and neonates in secondary hospitals in Nigeria: study protocol for a stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Hamish R; Ayede, Adejumoke I; Bakare, Ayobami A; Oyewole, Oladapo B; Peel, David; Gray, Amy; McPake, Barbara; Neal, Eleanor; Qazi, Shamim; Izadnegahdar, Rasa; Falade, Adegoke G; Duke, Trevor

    2017-10-27

    Oxygen is a life-saving, essential medicine that is important for the treatment of many common childhood conditions. Improved oxygen systems can reduce childhood pneumonia mortality substantially. However, providing oxygen to children is challenging, especially in small hospitals with weak infrastructure and low human resource capacity. This trial will evaluate the implementation of improved oxygen systems at secondary-level hospitals in southwest Nigeria. The improved oxygen system includes: a standardised equipment package; training of clinical and technical staff; infrastructure support (including improved power supply); and quality improvement activities such as supportive supervision. Phase 1 will involve the introduction of pulse oximetry alone; phase 2 will involve the introduction of the full, improved oxygen system package. We have based the intervention design on a theory-based analysis of previous oxygen projects, and used quality improvement principles, evidence-based teaching methods, and behaviour-change strategies. We are using a stepped-wedge cluster randomised design with participating hospitals randomised to receive an improved oxygen system at 4-month steps (three hospitals per step). Our mixed-methods evaluation will evaluate effectiveness, impact, sustainability, process and fidelity. Our primary outcome measures are childhood pneumonia case fatality rate and inpatient neonatal mortality rate. Secondary outcome measures include a range of clinical, quality of care, technical, and health systems outcomes. The planned study duration is from 2015 to 2018. Our study will provide quality evidence on the effectiveness of improved oxygen systems, and how to better implement and scale-up oxygen systems in resource-limited settings. Our results should have important implications for policy-makers, hospital administrators, and child health organisations in Africa and globally. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12617000341325

  1. Step Test: a method for evaluating maximum oxygen consumption to determine the ability kind of work among students of medical emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari, Payam; Varmazyar, Sakineh; Nikpey, Ahmad; Variani, Ali Safari; Jafarvand, Mojtaba

    2017-03-01

    Maximum oxygen consumption shows the maximum oxygen rate of muscle oxygenation that is acceptable in many cases, to measure the fitness between person and the desired job. Given that medical emergencies are important, and difficult jobs in emergency situations require people with high physical ability and readiness for the job, the aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum oxygen consumption, to determine the ability of work type among students of medical emergencies in Qazvin in 2016. This study was a descriptive - analytical, and in cross-sectional type conducted among 36 volunteer students of medical emergencies in Qazvin in 2016. After necessary coordination for the implementation of the study, participants completed health questionnaires and demographic characteristics and then the participants were evaluated with step tests of American College of Sport Medicine (ACSM). Data analysis was done by SPSS version 18 and U-Mann-Whitney tests, Kruskal-Wallis and Pearson correlation coefficient. Average of maximum oxygen consumption of the participants was estimated 3.15±0.50 liters per minute. 91.7% of medical emergencies students were selected as appropriate in terms of maximum oxygen consumption and thus had the ability to do heavy and too heavy work. Average of maximum oxygen consumption evaluated by the U-Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis, had significant relationship with age (p<0.05) and weight groups (p<0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between maximum oxygen consumption with weight and body mass index (p<0.001). The results of this study showed that demographic variables of weight and body mass index are the factors influencing the determination of maximum oxygen consumption, as most of the students had the ability to do heavy, and too heavy work. Therefore, people with ability to do average work are not suitable for medical emergency tasks.

  2. Oxygen permeation flux through 10Sc1YSZ-MnCo2O4 asymmetric membranes prepared by two-step sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pirou, Stéven; Gurauskis, Jonas; Gil, Vanesa

    2016-01-01

    Asymmetric membranes based on a dual phase composite consisting of (Y2O3)0.01(Sc2O3)0.10(ZrO2)0.89 (10Sc1YSZ) as ionic conductor and MnCo2O4 as electronic conductor were prepared and characterized with respect to sinterability, microstructure and oxygen transport properties. The composite membranes...... were prepared by tape casting, lamination and fired in a two-step sintering process. Microstructural analysis showed that a gastight thin membrane layer with the desired ratio of ionic/electronic conducting phases could be fabricated. Oxygen permeation fluxes across the 10SclYSZ/MnCo2O4 (70/30 vol......%) composite membrane were measured from 750 to 940 degrees C using air or pure oxygen as feed gases and N2 or CO2 as sweep gases. Fluxes up to 2.3 mlN min-1 cm-2 were obtained for the 7 μm thick membrane. A degradation test over 1730 h showed an initial degradation of 21% during the first 1100 h after which...

  3. Graphite Carbon-Supported Mo2C Nanocomposites by a Single-Step Solid State Reaction for Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, K; Bi, K; Liang, C; Lin, S; Wang, W J; Yang, T Z; Liu, J; Zhang, R; Fan, D Y; Wang, Y G; Lei, M

    2015-01-01

    Novel graphite-molybdenum carbide nanocomposites (G-Mo2C) are synthesized by a typical solid state reaction with melamine and MoO3 as precursors under inert atmosphere. The characterization results indicate that G-Mo2C composites are composed of high crystallization and purity of Mo2C and few layers of graphite carbon. Mo2C nanoparticles with sizes ranging from 5 to 50 nm are uniformly supported by surrounding graphite layers. It is believed that Mo atom resulting from the reduction of MoO3 is beneficial to the immobilization of graphite carbon. Moreover, the electrocatalytic performances of G-Mo2C for ORR in alkaline medium are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), rotating disk electrode (RDE) and chronoamperometry test with 3M methanol. The results show that G-Mo2C has a considerable catalytic activity and superior methanol tolerance performance for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) benefiting from the chemical interaction between the carbide nanoparticles and graphite carbon.

  4. Rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of nano-flakes like AgCd alloy electro-catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, Nimai; Basu, Suddhasatwa; Ingole, Pravin P.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, for the first time, we report rudimentary simple, single step fabrication of an electro-catalyst based on AgCd alloy nanoparticles with flakes like geometry which shows highly efficient activity towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A simple potentiostatic deposition method has been employed for co-depositing AgCd alloy nanostructures with flakes like shapes along with dendrites on the surface of carbon fibre paper. The chemico-physical properties of the catalyst are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS). Electro-catalytic activity of AgCd alloy based electro-catalyst towards ORR is studied in alkaline medium by cyclic voltammetry and rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique. Electrochemical in-situ FTIR measurements are also performed to identify the species generated during ORR process. Based on the results from electro-catalysis experiment, it is concluded that nano-alloyed AgCd electrodeposited on carbon paper shows excellent activity for ORR, following four electron pathways with H_2O_2 yield less than 15%. The combination of low cost of Ag and Cd, fast and facile method of its fabrication and higher activity towards ORR makes the AgCd electro-catalyst an attractive catalyst of choice for alkaline fuel cell.

  5. A Nanopore-Structured Nitrogen-Doped Biocarbon Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction from Two-Step Carbonization of Lemna minor Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chaozhong; Li, Zhongbin; Niu, Lidan; Liao, Wenli; Sun, Lingtao; Wen, Bixia; Nie, Yunqing; Cheng, Jing; Chen, Changguo

    2016-05-01

    So far, the development of highly active and stable carbon-based electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) to replace commercial Pt/C catalyst is a hot topic. In this study, a new nanoporous nitrogen-doped carbon material was facilely designed by two-step pyrolysis of the renewable Lemna minor enriched in crude protein under a nitrogen atmosphere. Electrochemical measurements show that the onset potential for ORR on this carbon material is around 0.93 V (versus reversible hydrogen electrode), slightly lower than that on the Pt/C catalyst, but its cycling stability is higher compared to the Pt/C catalyst in an alkaline medium. Besides, the ORR at this catalyst approaches to a four-electron transfer pathway. The obtained ORR performance can be basically attributed to the formation of high contents of pyridinic and graphitic nitrogen atoms inside this catalyst. Thus, this work opens up the path in the ORR catalysis for the design of nitrogen-doped carbon materials utilizing aquatic plants as starting precursors.

  6. Oxygen influencing the photocarriers lifetime of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx film grown by two-step interdiffusion method and its photovoltaic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Hailiang; Gong, Haibo; Hao, Yufeng; Cao, Bingqiang

    2016-01-01

    During the growth of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx (MAPbI3-xClx) perovskite films by the two-step inter-diffusion method, the presence of a trace amount of oxygen gas is critical to their physical properties and photovoltaic performance. As the oxygen concentration increases, poor film morphologies and incomplete surface coverage are observed. Moreover, by XRD, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence measurements, we find that MAPbI3-xClx grains become more distorted and the electron-hole recombination rate dramatically increases. Higher oxygen concentration triggers a sharp decrease in the current density and the fill factor of corresponding solar cells, which degrades device performance, on average, from 14.3% to 4.4%. This work proves the importance of controlling the oxygen atmosphere in the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  7. Oxygen influencing the photocarriers lifetime of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx film grown by two-step interdiffusion method and its photovoltaic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Shuai; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Hailiang; Gong, Haibo; Cao, Bingqiang; Hao, Yufeng

    2016-01-01

    During the growth of CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3−x Cl x (MAPbI 3−x Cl x ) perovskite films by the two-step inter-diffusion method, the presence of a trace amount of oxygen gas is critical to their physical properties and photovoltaic performance. As the oxygen concentration increases, poor film morphologies and incomplete surface coverage are observed. Moreover, by XRD, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence measurements, we find that MAPbI 3−x Cl x grains become more distorted and the electron-hole recombination rate dramatically increases. Higher oxygen concentration triggers a sharp decrease in the current density and the fill factor of corresponding solar cells, which degrades device performance, on average, from 14.3% to 4.4%. This work proves the importance of controlling the oxygen atmosphere in the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells

  8. Consecutive cycles of hospital accreditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Bogh, Søren Bie; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between compliance with consecutive cycles of accreditation and patient-related outcomes. Design: A Danish nationwide population-based study from 2012 to 2015. Setting: In-patients admitted with one of the 80 diagnoses at public, non-psychiatric hospitals....... Participants: In-patients admitted with one of 80 primary diagnoses which accounted for 80% of all deaths occuring within 30 dyas after admission. Intervention: Admission to a hospital with high (n = 125 485 in-patients) or low compliance (n = 152 074 in-patients) in both cycles of accreditation by the Danish...... admission (adjusted OR: 1.26 (95% CI: 1.11-1.43) and a longer LOS (adjusted HR of discharge: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.82-0.95) than in-patients at high compliant hospitals. No difference was seen for acute readmission (adjusted HR: 0.98 (95% CI: 0.90-1.06)). Focusing on the second cycle alone, in...

  9. Fifty consecutive pancreatectomies without mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enio Campos Amico

    Full Text Available Objective: to report the group's experience with a series of patients undergoing pancreatic resection presenting null mortality rates. Methods: we prospectively studied 50 consecutive patients undergoing pancreatic resections for peri-ampullary or pancreatic diseases. Main local complications were defined according to international criteria. In-hospital mortality was defined as death occurring in the first 90 postoperative days. Results: patients' age ranged between 16 and 90 years (average: 53.3. We found anemia (Hb < 12g/dl and preoperative jaundice in 38% and 40% of cases, respectively. Most patients presented with peri-ampullary tumors (66%. The most common surgical procedure was the Kausch - Whipple operation (70%. Six patients (12% needed to undergo resection of a segment of the mesenteric-portal axis. The mean operative time was 445.1 minutes. Twenty two patients (44% showed no clinical complications and presented mean hospital stay of 10.3 days. The most frequent complications were pancreatic fistula (56%, delayed gastric emptying (17.1% and bleeding (16%. Conclusion : within the last three decades, pancreatic resection is still considered a challenge, especially outside large specialized centers. Nevertheless, even in our country (Brazil, teams seasoned in such procedure can reach low mortality rates.

  10. Elementary steps of the catalytic oxidation of CO in a gas phase in the presence of rhenium cations with carbonyl and oxygen ligands: a comparison with heterogeneous catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, V.B.; Fialko, E.F.; Shejnin, D.Eh.; Kikhtenko, A.V.

    1997-01-01

    Reactivity in a gaseous phase o rhenium (Re + ) and rhenium monocarbonyl (ReCO + ) in the reaction of CO oxidation in oxygen-containing reagents (NO, O 2 , H 2 O) is studied through the method of the ionic cyclotron resonance. It is shown that presence of carbonyl ligand essentially influences the ion reactivity. The effective channel of the metal monocarbonyl ions oxidation through molecular oxygen is found. Accounting for this stage makes of possible to explain the low-temperature activity of a number of oxide catalyzer Mo, W in the reaction of CO oxidation by molecular oxygen

  11. DNA Damage: Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Study on the Oxygen Binding and Substrate Hydroxylation Step in AlkB Repair Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesne, Matthew G; Latifi, Reza; Gonzalez-Ovalle, Luis E; Kumar, Devesh; de Visser, Sam P

    2014-01-01

    AlkB repair enzymes are important nonheme iron enzymes that catalyse the demethylation of alkylated DNA bases in humans, which is a vital reaction in the body that heals externally damaged DNA bases. Its mechanism is currently controversial and in order to resolve the catalytic mechanism of these enzymes, a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) study was performed on the demethylation of the N1-methyladenine fragment by AlkB repair enzymes. Firstly, the initial modelling identified the oxygen binding site of the enzyme. Secondly, the oxygen activation mechanism was investigated and a novel pathway was found, whereby the catalytically active iron(IV)–oxo intermediate in the catalytic cycle undergoes an initial isomerisation assisted by an Arg residue in the substrate binding pocket, which then brings the oxo group in close contact with the methyl group of the alkylated DNA base. This enables a subsequent rate-determining hydrogen-atom abstraction on competitive σ-and π-pathways on a quintet spin-state surface. These findings give evidence of different locations of the oxygen and substrate binding channels in the enzyme and the origin of the separation of the oxygen-bound intermediates in the catalytic cycle from substrate. Our studies are compared with small model complexes and the effect of protein and environment on the kinetics and mechanism is explained. PMID:24339041

  12. Oxygen influencing the photocarriers lifetime of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Cl{sub x} film grown by two-step interdiffusion method and its photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Shuai; Qiu, Zhiwen; Zhang, Hailiang; Gong, Haibo; Cao, Bingqiang, E-mail: mse-caobq@ujn.edu.cn [Laboratory of Inorganic Energy and Environment Materials, School of Material Science and Engineering, University of Jinan, Jinan 250022, Shandong (China); Hao, Yufeng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-01-18

    During the growth of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3−x}Cl{sub x} (MAPbI{sub 3−x}Cl{sub x}) perovskite films by the two-step inter-diffusion method, the presence of a trace amount of oxygen gas is critical to their physical properties and photovoltaic performance. As the oxygen concentration increases, poor film morphologies and incomplete surface coverage are observed. Moreover, by XRD, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence measurements, we find that MAPbI{sub 3−x}Cl{sub x} grains become more distorted and the electron-hole recombination rate dramatically increases. Higher oxygen concentration triggers a sharp decrease in the current density and the fill factor of corresponding solar cells, which degrades device performance, on average, from 14.3% to 4.4%. This work proves the importance of controlling the oxygen atmosphere in the fabrication of high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  13. Reduced step edges on rutile TiO (110) as competing defects to oxygen vacancies on the terraces and reactive sites for ethanol dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, U.; Hansen, Jonas Ørbæk; Salazar, Estephania Lira

    2012-01-01

    microscopy studies, we here present experimental evidence for the existence of O vacancies along the ⟨11̅ 1⟩R step edges (OS vac.’s) on rutile TiO2(110). Both the distribution of bridging O vacancies on the terraces and temperature-programed reaction experiments of ethanol-covered TiO2(110) point...... to the existence of the OS vac.’s. Based on experiments and density functional theory calculations, we show that OS vac.’s are reactive sites for ethanol dissociation via O-H bond scission. Implications of these findings are discussed...

  14. Consecutive dynamic resolutions of phosphine oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, Felix A.; Chang, Mu-Chieh; Otten, Edwin; Couzijn, Erik P. A.; Lutz, Martin; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2013-01-01

    A crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT) involving a radical-mediated racemization provides access to enantiopure secondary phosphine oxides. A consecutive CIAT is used to prepare enantio-and diastereo-pure tert-butyl(hydroxyalkyl)phenylphosphine oxides.

  15. On the last digits of consecutive primes

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Fred B.

    2016-01-01

    Recently Oliver and Soundararajan made conjectures based on computational enumerations about the frequency of occurrence of pairs of last digits for consecutive primes. By studying Eratosthenes sieve, we have identified discrete dynamic systems that exactly model the populations of gaps across stages of Eratosthenes sieve. Our models provide some insight into the observed biases in the occurrences of last digits in consecutive primes, and the models suggest that the biases will ultimately be ...

  16. Acute adjustments of heart rate and oxygen consuption in an experimental protocol of step training with diferent combinations of platform height and musical rhythms - doi: 10.4025/actascihealthsci.v35i2.11669

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Ribeiro de Ávila

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate adaptations acute heart rate (HR and oxygen consumption (VO2 in an experimental protocol of step training with different combinations of platform height (15.2, 20.3 and 25.4 cm and musical rhythms (125, 135 and 145 bpm. Thirty-five women were randomly selected, (mean ± DP aged 21.6 ± 1.8 years, body weight of 57.8 ± 8.2 kg, height of 162.6 ± 6.8 cm, body mass index of 21.8 ± 2.5 kg m-2 and fat percentage (% Fat of 24.8 ± 4.4%, with at least six months experience in step training sessions, and a frequency of at least two days a week. Techniques of descriptive and inferential statistics were employed. A significant difference was detected for the HR and VO2 in relation to the increase in step platform height and in musical rhythm for all the combinations, except for three situations. From the obtained results, we can infer that the cardiovascular and metabolic responses increase or decrease according to the musical rhythm and/or platform height.

  17. Consecutive dynamic resolutions of phosphine oxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortmann, Felix A.; Chang, Mu Chieh; Otten, Edwin; Couzijn, Erik P A; Lutz, Martin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828971; Minnaard, Adriaan J.

    2014-01-01

    A crystallization-induced asymmetric transformation (CIAT) involving a radical-mediated racemization provides access to enantiopure secondary phosphine oxides. A consecutive CIAT is used to prepare enantio- and diastereo-pure tert-butyl(hydroxyalkyl)phenylphosphine oxides. © 2014 The Royal Society

  18. Consecutive opposed interactions of light waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V V; Chirkin, Anatolii S

    1999-01-01

    The conditions were determined for the occurrence of the opposed interaction of waves having multiple frequencies in two consecutive three-frequency processes in periodically inhomogeneous nonlinear optical crystals. The necessary nonlinear susceptibility modulation period was calculated for an MgO:LiNbO 3 crystal. The characteristic features of the energy exchange between counterpropagating waves with parametric amplification in a low-frequency pump field were investigated. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  19. One-step synthesis of shell/core structural boron and nitrogen co-doped graphitic carbon/nanodiamond as efficient electrocatalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yanhui; Dong, Liang; Chen, Xi; Xin, Guoxiang; Zhang, Yan; Zang, Jianbing

    2016-01-01

    Shell/core structural boron and nitrogen co-doped graphitic carbon/nanodiamond (BN-C/ND) non-noble metal catalyst has been synthesized by a simple one-step heat-treatment of the mixture with nanodiamond, melamine, boric acid and FeCl 3 . In the process of the surface graphitization of nanodiamond with catalysis by FeCl 3 , B and N atoms from the decomposition of boric acid and melamine were directly introduced into the graphite lattice to form B, N co-doped graphitic carbon shell, while the core still retained the diamond structure. Electrochemical measurements of the BN-C/ND catalyst show much higher electrocatalytic activities towards oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline medium than its analogues doped with B or N alone (B-C/ND or N-C/ND). The high catalytic activity of BN-C/ND is attributed to the synergetic effect caused by co-doping of C/ND with B and N. Meanwhile, the BN-C/ND exhibits an excellent electrochemical stability due to the special shell/core structure. There is almost no alteration occurred in the cyclic voltammetry measurements for BN-C/ND before and after 5000 cycles. All experimental results prove that the BN-C/ND may be exploited as a potentially efficient and inexpensive non-noble metal cathode catalyst for ORR to substitute Pt-based catalysts in fuel cells.

  20. [Domiciliary oxygen therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Kafi, S

    2010-09-01

    In Belgium, oxygen therapy is becoming more and more accessible. When oxygen is needed for short periods or for special indications as palliative care, an agreement between mutual insurance companies and pharmacists allows the practitioner the home installation of gazeous oxygen cylinder or of oxygen concentrator. When long term oxygen therapy (LTOT) is indicated for patients with respiratory insufficiency, the pneumologist must first ask the INAMI the authorization to install one of the following modalities: oxygen concentrator with or without demand oxygen delivery cylinder and liquid oxygen. The goal of LTOT is to increase survival and quality of life. The principal and well accepted indication for LTOT is severe hypoxemia. The beneficial effects of oxygen therapy limited at night or on exertion are controversial. In order to increase patient's autonomy, oxygen can be prescribed for ambulation, respecting prescription's rules. At each step of oxygen therapy implementing (indication, choice of the device and follow-up) the patient under oxygen may benefit from a joint approach between the general practitioner and the chest specialist.

  1. Hibernoma: MRI features in eight consecutive cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.C.; Gupta, A.; Saifuddin, A.; Flanagan, A.; Skinner, J.A.; Briggs, T.W.R.; Cannon, S.R.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To describe the preoperative magnetic resonance imaging findings of eight histologically-proven cases of hibernoma. Materials and methods: The site, size, and signal characteristics of eight consecutive hibernomas were retrospectively assessed on T1-weighted spin-echo and short T1 inversion recovery (STIR)/fat-saturated T2-weighted fast spin echo magnetic resonance images. Four patients also had gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated T1-weighted spin echo imaging. Patient age and sex, and duration of symptoms were recorded. Results: Three female and five male patients with an average age 36 years (range 16-53 years) were included. Seven lesions occurred in the thigh, four in the anterior compartment and three in the posterior compartment. One lesion occurred superficial to the scapula. All cases demonstrated common magnetic resonance imaging findings of a well-defined, heterogeneous mass, slightly or clearly hypo-intense to subcutaneous fat on T1-weighted spin-echo images, with prominent thin low signal bands throughout the tumour. The lesions failed to fully suppress on STIR or fat-saturated T2-weighted images. Only one of the four contrast-enhanced studies demonstrated increased vascularity in the tumour. Conclusion: The MRI findings of a lesion that is diffusely slightly hypointense to surrounding subcutaneous fat, should prompt the operator to consider hibernoma in the differential diagnosis

  2. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  3. Oxygen toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. van der Westhuizen

    1990-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen has been discovered about 200 years ago. Since then the vital physiological involvement of oxygen in various biologi­cal processes, mainly energy production, has been established. However, in the body molecular oxygen can be converted to toxic oxygen metabolites such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, the hydroxyl radical and singlet oxygen. These toxic metabolites are produced mainly in the mitochondria, plasma membranes and endoplasmic reticulum.

  4. Recurrent pregnancy loss: what is the impact of consecutive versus non-consecutive losses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C; Krog, M; Nielsen, H S; Christiansen, O B

    2016-11-01

    Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic impact in women with secondary RPL. The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous immunoglobulin (IvIg) conducted from 1991 to 2014. No other treatments were given. Patients with documented explained pregnancy losses (ectopic pregnancies and aneuploid miscarriages) were excluded. Of the 168 patients included in the trials, 127 had secondary RPL and experienced a subsequent live birth or unexplained pregnancy loss in the first pregnancy after giving informed consent to participate in the trials (the index pregnancy). Data analyzed by multivariate analysis included the independent variables age, the number of early pregnancy losses before and after the last birth, respectively and a second trimester pregnancy loss before or after the last birth, respectively. The outcome variable was unexplained loss in the index pregnancy. In patients with secondary RPL, both a late and each early loss before the last birth did not significantly influence the risk of a new pregnancy loss in the index pregnancy: incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.31 (95% CI 0.62-2.77) and IRR 0.88 (95% CI 0.70-1.11), respectively. In contrast, the impact on risk of pregnancy loss conferred by a late and by each early pregnancy loss occurring after the birth was significant: IRR 2

  5. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... their breathing to dangerously low levels. Will I need oxygen when I sleep? Usually if you use supplemental oxygen during the ... your health care provider tells you you only need to use oxygen for exercise or sleep. Even if you feel “fine” off of your ...

  6. Forbidden Structures for Planar Perfect Consecutively Colourable Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowiecka-Olszewska Marta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A consecutive colouring of a graph is a proper edge colouring with posi- tive integers in which the colours of edges incident with each vertex form an interval of integers. The idea of this colouring was introduced in 1987 by Asratian and Kamalian under the name of interval colouring. Sevast- janov showed that the corresponding decision problem is NP-complete even restricted to the class of bipartite graphs. We focus our attention on the class of consecutively colourable graphs whose all induced subgraphs are consecutively colourable, too. We call elements of this class perfect consecutively colourable to emphasise the conceptual similarity to perfect graphs. Obviously, the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs is induced hereditary, so it can be characterized by the family of induced forbidden graphs. In this work we give a necessary and sufficient conditions that must be satisfied by the generalized Sevastjanov rosette to be an induced forbid- den graph for the class of perfect consecutively colourable graphs. Along the way, we show the exact values of the deficiency of all generalized Sevastjanov rosettes, which improves the earlier known estimating result. It should be mentioned that the deficiency of a graph measures its closeness to the class of consecutively colourable graphs. We motivate the investigation of graphs considered here by showing their connection to the class of planar perfect consecutively colourable graphs.

  7. Oxygen Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Solmes

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood oxygen will often be able to accomplish more with less fatigue with the help of supplemental oxygen therapy. Shortness of breath is a mechanical problem resulting from the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Oxygen therapy may or may not reduce shortness of breath, but it will help the lungs and heart to function with less stress.

  8. Application of stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    This book is divided into three parts, which is about practical using of stepping motor. The first part has six chapters. The contents of the first part are about stepping motor, classification of stepping motor, basic theory og stepping motor, characteristic and basic words, types and characteristic of stepping motor in hybrid type and basic control of stepping motor. The second part deals with application of stepping motor with hardware of stepping motor control, stepping motor control by microcomputer and software of stepping motor control. The last part mentions choice of stepping motor system, examples of stepping motor, measurement of stepping motor and practical cases of application of stepping motor.

  9. Consecutive Acupuncture Stimulations Lead to Significantly Decreased Neural Responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeo, S.; Choe, I.H.; Noort, M.W.M.L. van den; Bosch, M.P.C.; Lim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in combination with block design paradigms with consecutive acupuncture stimulations, has often been used to investigate the neural responses to acupuncture. In this study, we investigated whether previous acupuncture stimulations can affect

  10. Etiology of azoospermia in 100 consecutive nonvasectomized men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedder, Jens; Crüger, Dorthe; Oestergaard, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    History was taken systematically for 100 azoospermic, nonvasectomized men referred consecutively to a Danish fertility clinic. The men were examined by ultrasound, and their blood samples were analyzed for karyotype, Y microdeletions, and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene...

  11. Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, M.; Borm, P.E.M.; Quant, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out - Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order.

  12. Step out-step in sequencing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new class of relaxed sequencing games is introduced: the class of Step out–Step in sequencing games. In this relaxation any player within a coalition is allowed to step out from his position in the processing order and to step in at any position later in the processing order. First,

  13. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Ishibashi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7 or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7. They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3. The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day, and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05. In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05. In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  14. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-07-30

    Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  15. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Yoon Ki [Dept. of Radiology, Dongguk University College of Medicine, Ilsan Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain.

  16. Two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Kyeong Hwa; Kim, Seon Jeong; KIm Ok Hwa; Kim, Seung Ho; Lee, Kwang Hwi; Beak, Hye Jin; Lee, Ye Daun; Cha, Yoon Ki

    2015-01-01

    Cervical spondylolysis, with or without spondylolisthesis, is a rare condition defined as a corticated cleft between the superior and inferior articular facets of the articular pillar. The defect occurs predominantly at C6, and is usually bilateral in up to two-thirds of cases. Multilevel involvement is uncommon, however, to date, no case of two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis on opposite sides has been reported. Here, we report a rare case of a patient affected by two consecutive levels of unilateral cervical spondylolysis at C5 and C6 on opposite sides in a 19-year-old male complaining of neck pain

  17. Asymptotics of Multivariate Regression with Consecutively Added Dependent Varibles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2004-01-01

    We consider multivariate regression where new dependent variables are consecutively added during the experiment (or in time).So, viewed at the end of the experiment, the number of observations decreases with each added variable. The explanatory variables are observed throughout.In a previous paper

  18. Confabulations after Bilateral Consecutive Strokes of the Lenticulostriate Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carota

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who manifested persistent confabulations after two consecutive strokes encompassing the area of the lenticulostriate arteries territory on both hemispheres. Findings reported on this rare clinical syndrome suggest that fantastic confabulations and delusional thoughts may arise after bilateral damage of subcortical nonthalamic structures.

  19. Erectile Dysfunction in 101 Consecutive Hypertensive Patients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a 6 month prospective questionnaire study of 101 consecutive newly referred hypertensive patients and 86 normotensive volunteers, the relationship of erectile dysfunction and hypertension in these patients was studied using a modified international index of erectile function (IIEF). The mean age of the hypertensive ...

  20. Step-by-step phacoemulsification training program for ophthalmology residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yulan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim was to analyze the learning curve of phacoemulsification (phaco performed by residents without experience in performing extra-capsular cataract extraction (ECCE in a step-by-step training program (SBSTP. Materials and Methods: Consecutive surgical records of phaco performed from March 2009 to Sept 2011 by four residents without previous ECCE experience were retrospectively reviewed. The completion rate of the first 30 procedures by each resident was calculated. The main intraoperative phaco parameter records for the first 30 surgeries by each resident were compared with those for their last 30 surgeries. Intraoperative complications in the residents′ procedures were also recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1013 surgeries were performed by residents. The completion rate for the first 30 phaco procedures was 79.2 μ 5.8%. The main reasons for halting the procedure were as follows: Anterior capsule tear, inability to crack the nucleus, and posterior capsular rupture during phaco or cortex removal. Cumulative dissipated energy of phaco power used during the surgeries was significantly less in the last 30 cases compared with the first 30 cases (30.10 μ 17.58 vs. 55.41 μ 37.59, P = 0.021. Posterior capsular rupture rate was 2.5 μ 1.2% in total (10.8 μ 4.2% in the first 30 cases and 1.7 μ 1.9% in the last 30 cases, P = 0.008; a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:The step-by-step training program might be a necessary process for a resident to transit from dependence to a self-supported operator. It is also an essential middle step between wet lab training to performing the entire phaco procedure on the patient both effectively and safely.

  1. The structure of stepped surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of Low Energy Ion Scattering (LEIS) as far as multiple scattering effects are concerned, is discussed. The ion fractions of lithium, sodium and potassium scattered from a copper (100) surface have been measured as a function of several experimental parameters. The ratio of the intensities of the single and double scattering peaks observed in ion scattering spectroscopy has been determined and ion scattering spectroscopy applied in the multiple scattering mode is used to determine the structure of a stepped Cu(410) surface. The average relaxation of the (100) terraces of this surface appears to be very small. The adsorption of oxygen on this surface has been studied with LEIS and it is indicated that oxygen absorbs dissociatively. (C.F.)

  2. Oxygen safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sure you have working smoke detectors and a working fire extinguisher in your home. If you move around the house with your oxygen, you may need more than one fire extinguisher in different locations. Smoking can be very dangerous. No one should smoke ...

  3. Oxygen therapy - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathe increased amounts of oxygen to get normal levels of oxygen in their blood. Oxygen therapy provides babies with the extra oxygen. Information Oxygen is a gas that the cells in your body need to work properly. The ...

  4. Ciclon: A neutronic fuel management program for PWR's consecutive cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aragones, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    The program description and user's manual of a new computer code is given. Ciclon performs the neutronic calculation of consecutive reload cycles for PWR's fuel management optimization. Fuel characteristics and burnup data, region or batch sizes, loading schemes and state of previously irradiated fuel are input to the code. Cycle lengths or feed enrichments and burnup sharing for each region or batch are calculate using different core neutronic models and printed or punched in standard fuel management format. (author) [es

  5. Analyte variations in consecutive 24-hour urine collections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jonathan S; Hollingsworth, John M; Langman, Craig B; Asplin, John R; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Yan, Phyllis; Bierlein, Maggie; Barraza, Mark A; Defoor, William R; Figueroa, T Ernesto; Jackson, Elizabeth C; Jayanthi, Venkata R; Johnson, Emilie K; Joseph, David B; Shnorhavorian, Margarett

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic evaluation of children with nephrolithiasis begins with a 24-h urine collection. For adults, the diagnostic yield increases with consecutive collections; however, little is known regarding the variability of multiple 24-h studies in the pediatric population. We sought to evaluate the variability of consecutive 24-h urine collection in children through a multi-institutional study hypothesizing that compared with a single collection, consecutive 24-h urine collections would reveal a greater degree of clinically useful information in the evaluation of children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Including data from six institutions, we identified children less than 18 years of age considered at risk for recurrent nephrolithiasis, undergoing metabolic evaluation. We evaluated a subset of patients performing two collections with urine creatinine varying by 10% or less during a 7-day period. Discordance between repeat collections based on normative urine chemistry values was evaluated. A total of 733 children met inclusion criteria, and in over a third both urine calcium and urine volume differed by 30% or more between samples. Urine oxalate demonstrated greater variation between collections in children collections prior to targeted intervention to modify stone risk are advised to increase diagnostic yield in children at risk for nephrolithiasis. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Internship guide : Work placements step by step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haag, Esther

    2013-01-01

    Internship Guide: Work Placements Step by Step has been written from the practical perspective of a placement coordinator. This book addresses the following questions : what problems do students encounter when they start thinking about the jobs their degree programme prepares them for? How do you

  7. The way to collisions, step by step

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    While the LHC sectors cool down and reach the cryogenic operating temperature, spirits are warming up as we all eagerly await the first collisions. No reason to hurry, though. Making particles collide involves the complex manoeuvring of thousands of delicate components. The experts will make it happen using a step-by-step approach.

  8. Reliability evaluation of linear multi-state consecutively-connected systems constrained by m consecutive and n total gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huan; Yang, Jun; Peng, Rui; Zhao, Yu

    2016-01-01

    This paper extends the linear multi-state consecutively-connected system (LMCCS) to the case of LMCCS-MN, where MN denotes the dual constraints of m consecutive gaps and n total gaps. All the nodes are distributed along a line and form a sequence. The distances between the adjacent nodes are usually non-uniform. The nodes except the last one can contain statistically independent multi-state connection elements (MCEs). Each MCE can provide a connection between the node at which it is located and the next nodes along the sequence. The LMCCS-MN fails if it meets either of the two constraints. The universal generating function technique is adopted to evaluate the system reliability. The optimal allocations of LMCCS-MN with two different types of failures are solved by genetic algorithm. Finally, two examples are given for the demonstration of the proposed model. - Highlights: • A new model of multi-state consecutively-connected system (LMCCS-MN) is proposed. • The non-uniform distributed nodes are involved in the proposed LMCCS-MN model. • An algorithm for system reliability evaluation is provided by the UGF method. • The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is discussed in detail. • Optimal element allocation problem is formulated and solved.

  9. Response behaviour of oxygen sensing solid electrolytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Scharenborg, A.H.A.; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response time (t r) after a step change in oxygen partial pressure was investigated for some solid electrolytes used in Nernst type oxygen sensors. The electrolyte as well as the (porous) electrode material affect the value oft r. Stabilized Bi2O3 materials exhibit slower response rates (largert

  10. Microsoft Office professional 2010 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce; Frye, Curtis

    2011-01-01

    Teach yourself exactly what you need to know about using Office Professional 2010-one step at a time! With STEP BY STEP, you build and practice new skills hands-on, at your own pace. Covering Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Outlook, Excel, Access, Publisher, and OneNote, this book will help you learn the core features and capabilities needed to: Create attractive documents, publications, and spreadsheetsManage your e-mail, calendar, meetings, and communicationsPut your business data to workDevelop and deliver great presentationsOrganize your ideas and notes in one placeConnect, share, and accom

  11. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficiency of Medial Rectus Advancement Surgery in Consecutive Exotropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Yar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the efficiency of medial rectus advancement surgery in consecutive exotropia. Material and Methods: The study group consisted of 20 cases, 10 male, 10 female, who were diagnosed as consecutive exotropia and underwent surgery between 2008-2013 at Cukurova University Medical Faculty Ophthalmology Department. Records of the patients were investigated retrospectively. We evaluated best corrected visual acuity, existence of ambliopia, postoperative duration following the first surgery and applied surgical procedures. Postoperative deviation lower than 10 PD were assesed as successful. Mean follow up period was 29,8 +/- 21,36 (8-80 months, patients with inadequate follow up period were dismissed from the study group. Results: We only applied bilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 6 and unilateral medial rectus advancement surgery to 5 patients and obtained intended surgical result in these 11 cases. The other patients underwent lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations inorder to reach projected deviation degrees. Deviation was found to be 46,4+/-9,24 (40-70 PD in cases who only underwent advancement surgery and was 65,56 +/- 18,78 (40-90 PD in cases who underwent additional surgical procedure. 16 (%80 of the cases had hypermetropi various dioptries and 7 (%35 had ambliopia. Discussion: Consecutive exotropia can appear years after surgery and is an important late period complication. In this study achievement of %55 success with medial rectus advancement surgery indicates that this is a preferable procedure. But in wide angle deviations additional lateral rectus recession or/and medial rectus resection operations can be applied inorder to reach intended adjustment. Accurrate prediction of the propotion of advancement surgery and adjustment is not always possible because of intensive fybrosis in operated muscles and enviroment tissue. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(4.000: 707-713

  13. Caffeine and performance over consecutive days of simulated competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadheim, Hans Kristian; Spencer, Matthew; Olsen, Raymond; Jensen, Jørgen

    2014-09-01

    Performance improvements after caffeine (CAF) ingestion are well documented when using a 1-d protocol. In numerous competitions such as the Tour de France, Tour de Ski, world championships, and National College Athletic Association championships, athletes compete for several days in a row. To date, no studies have investigated the effects of CAF when competing for consecutive days in a row. This study aimed to investigate the effects of placebo (PLA) and two different CAF doses (3 and 4.5 mg·kg body mass) on performance in a 10-min all-out, cross-country, double poling ergometer test (C-PT) 2 d in a row. Eight highly trained male cross-country skiers (V˙O2max-run, 78.5 ± 1.6 mL·kg·min) participated in the study, which was a randomized, double-blind, PLA-controlled, crossover design. Performance was assessed as distance covered during a 10-min all-out C-PT. Oral ingestion of CAF or PLA was consumed 75 min before the all-out C-PT. Poling distance was improved after CAF ingestions compared with that after PLA on both days. The improvements on day 1 were 4.0% (90% confidence limits, ±3.3) and 4.0% ± 2.9% for both CAF doses, respectively (P performance was associated with increased HR, adrenaline concentration, blood lactate concentration, and V˙O2 consumption after CAF ingestion. Furthermore, performance was elevated despite higher creatine kinase concentration and muscular pain at arrival on day 2 for both CAF doses. Both CAF doses improved performance in the 10-min all-out C-PT compared with PLA over two consecutive days. Therefore, CAF seems useful for athletes competing over consecutive days despite higher muscle damage occurring after enhanced performance on the first day.

  14. Oxygen Extraction from Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen, whether used as part of rocket bipropellant or for astronaut life support, is a key consumable for space exploration and commercialization. In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) has been proposed many times as a method for making space exploration more cost effective and sustainable. On planetary and asteroid surfaces the presence of minerals in the regolith that contain oxygen is very common, making them a potential oxygen resource. The majority of research and development for oxygen extraction from minerals has been for lunar regolith although this work would generally be applicable to regolith at other locations in space. This presentation will briefly survey the major methods investigated for oxygen extraction from regolith with a focus on the current status of those methods and possible future development pathways. The major oxygen production methods are (1) extraction from lunar ilmenite (FeTiO3) with either hydrogen or carbon monoxide, (2) carbothermal reduction of iron oxides and silicates with methane, and (3) molten regolith electrolysis (MRE) of silicates. Methods (1) and (2) have also been investigated in a two-step process using CO reduction and carbon deposition followed by carbothermal reduction. All three processes have byproducts that could also be used as resources. Hydrogen or carbon monoxide reduction produce iron metal in small amounts that could potentially be used as construction material. Carbothermal reduction also makes iron metal along with silicon metal and a glass with possible applications. MRE produces iron, silicon, aluminum, titanium, and glass, with higher silicon yields than carbothermal reduction. On Mars and possibly on some moons and asteroids, water is present in the form of mineral hydrates, hydroxyl (-OH) groups on minerals, andor water adsorbed on mineral surfaces. Heating of the minerals can liberate the water which can be electrolyzed to provide a source of oxygen as well. The chemistry of these processes, some key

  15. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  16. Theoretical analysis of consecutive reactions in adiabatic stirred tank reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Byung Wook; Kim, Sun Il; Hong, Won Hae; Cha, Wol Suk; Kim, Soong Pyung; Kim, Jung Gyu

    1990-01-01

    By mathematical model for the case of the consecutive first-order exothermic reaction in an adiabatic CSTR, the effects of the system parameter i. e. relative residence time, heat of reaction and thermal sensitivity of reaction rate constant, on the concentration profile of the intermediate product of a consecutive reaction were obtained as follows. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the correponding system parameter α where α>1 and the sensitivities of the reaction rate constants S1 and S2, the maximum value of the intermediate production dimensionless concentration increases with increase in the values of the relative energy parameter E1 and E2 and it decreases with a decrease in E1 and E2. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the corresponding system parameter α where α 1 and t 2 and it increases with a decrease in S1 and S2. For fixed values of the ratio of the reaction rate constants t 1 / t 2 , the ratio of the corresponding system parameters α where α=1 and the relative energy parameters E1 and E2, the maximum value of the intermediate product dimensionless is constant with either increase or decrease in the sensitivities of the reaction rate constants S1 and S2. (Author)

  17. The consecutive dry days to trigger rainfall over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    In order to resolve contradictions in addressing a soil moisture-precipitation feedback mechanism over West Africa and to clarify the impact of antecedent soil moisture on subsequent rainfall evolution, we first validated various data sets (SMOS satellite soil moisture observations, NOAH land surface model, TRMM rainfall, CMORPH rainfall and HadGEM climate models) with the Analyses Multidisciplinaires de la Mousson Africaine (AMMA) field campaign data. Based on this analysis, it was suggested that biases of data sets might cause contradictions in studying mechanisms. Thus, by taking into account uncertainties in data, it was found that the approach of consecutive dry days (i.e. a relative comparison of time-series) showed consistency across various data sets, while the direct comparison approach for soil moisture state and rainfall did not. Thus, it was discussed that it may be difficult to directly relate rain with soil moisture as the absolute value, however, it may be reasonable to compare a temporal progress of the variables. Based upon the results consistently showing a positive relationship between the consecutive dry days and rainfall, this study supports a negative feedback often neglected by climate model structure. This approach is less sensitive to interpretation errors arising from systematic errors in data sets, as this measures a temporal gradient of soil moisture state.

  18. Analyzing the dependence of oxygen incorporation current density on overpotential and oxygen partial pressure in mixed conducting oxide electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zixuan; Chen, Di; Chueh, William C

    2017-08-30

    The oxygen incorporation reaction, which involves the transformation of an oxygen gas molecule to two lattice oxygen ions in a mixed ionic and electronic conducting solid, is a ubiquitous and fundamental reaction in solid-state electrochemistry. To understand the reaction pathway and to identify the rate-determining step, near-equilibrium measurements have been employed to quantify the exchange coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature. However, because the exchange coefficient contains contributions from both forward and reverse reaction rate constants and depends on both oxygen partial pressure and oxygen fugacity in the solid, unique and definitive mechanistic assessment has been challenging. In this work, we derive a current density equation as a function of both oxygen partial pressure and overpotential, and consider both near and far from equilibrium limits. Rather than considering specific reaction pathways, we generalize the multi-step oxygen incorporation reaction into the rate-determining step, preceding and following quasi-equilibrium steps, and consider the number of oxygen ions and electrons involved in each. By evaluating the dependence of current density on oxygen partial pressure and overpotential separately, one obtains the reaction orders for oxygen gas molecules and for solid-state species in the electrode. We simulated the oxygen incorporation current density-overpotential curves for praseodymium-doped ceria for various candidate rate-determining steps. This work highlights a promising method for studying the exchange kinetics far away from equilibrium.

  19. Consecutive hydrazino-Ugi-azide reactions: synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica de Fátima S. Barreto

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions (IMCRs allow the construction of relatively complex molecules through a one-pot synthesis. The combination of IMCRs in a consecutive or sequential fashion further extends the complexity of the molecules obtained. Herein, we report the efficient application of this approach to the synthesis of acylhydrazines bearing 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles. Our strategy was accomplished in only three steps: first, a one-pot hydrazino-Ugi-azide four-component reaction; second a hydrazinolysis and finally an additional hydrazino-Ugi-azide reaction. This sequence provides the title compounds in moderate to excellent yields. The products synthesized herein contain functional groups within their structures that can be easily modified to obtain new acylhydrazino 1,5-disubstituted tetrazoles.

  20. Androgen excess in women: experience with over 1000 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azziz, R; Sanchez, L A; Knochenhauer, E S; Moran, C; Lazenby, J; Stephens, K C; Taylor, K; Boots, L R

    2004-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of the different pathological conditions causing clinically evident androgen excess and to document the degree of long-term success of suppressive and/or antiandrogen hormonal therapy in a large consecutive population of patients. All patients presenting for evaluation of symptoms potentially related to androgen excess between October 1987 and June 2002 were evaluated, and the data were maintained prospectively in a computerized database. For the assessment of therapeutic response, a retrospective review of the medical chart was performed, after the exclusion of those patients seeking fertility therapy only, or with inadequate follow-up or poor compliance. A total of 1281 consecutive patients were seen during the study period. Excluded from analysis were 408 patients in whom we were unable to evaluate hormonal status, determine ovulatory status, or find any evidence of androgen excess. In the remaining population of 873 patients, the unbiased prevalence of androgen-secreting neoplasms was 0.2%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient classic adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) was 0.6%, 21-hydroxylase-deficient nonclassic adrenal hyperplasia (NCAH) was 1.6%, hyperandrogenic insulin-resistant acanthosis nigricans (HAIRAN) syndrome was 3.1%, idiopathic hirsutism was 4.7%, and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) was 82.0%. Fifty-nine (6.75%) patients had elevated androgen levels and hirsutism but normal ovulation. A total of 257 patients were included in the assessment of the response to hormonal therapy. The mean duration of follow-up was 33.5 months (range, 6-155). Hirsutism improved in 86%, menstrual dysfunction in 80%, acne in 81%, and hair loss in 33% of patients. The major side effects noted were irregular vaginal bleeding (16.1%), nausea (13.0%), and headaches (12.6%); only 36.6% of patients never complained of side effects. In this large study of consecutive patients presenting with clinically evident androgen excess

  1. Step by Step Microsoft Office Visio 2003

    CERN Document Server

    Lemke, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Visio 2003, the Microsoft Office business and technical diagramming program. With STEP BY STEP, you can take just the lessons you need, or work from cover to cover. Either way, you drive the instruction-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Produce computer network diagrams, organization charts, floor plans, and moreUse templates to create new diagrams and drawings quicklyAdd text, color, and 1-D and 2-D shapesInsert graphics and pictures, such as company logosConnect shapes to create a basic f

  2. Spectrum of histological lesions in 185 consecutive prostatic specimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal B

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty five consecutive prostate specimens were studied. The predominant lesion noted was benign prostatic hyperplasia (B.P.H. (92.97%. The incidence of carcinoma was low, (7.02%. Conditions which can mimic and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of carcinoma, like basal cell hyperplasia, atypical hyperplasia and atrophy associated hyperplasia were noted in 10, 4 and 3 cases of B.P.H. respectively. None of these cases showed evidence of carcinoma. Corpora amylacea were noted in 38.91% of the cases of B.P.H. and were conspicuously absent in cases of carcinoma. Chronic prostatitis was frequently encountered (58% and metaplastic changes were seen in 11% of the cases.

  3. Free Modal Algebras Revisited: The Step-by-Step Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio; Jibladze, Mamuka

    2012-01-01

    We review the step-by-step method of constructing finitely generated free modal algebras. First we discuss the global step-by-step method, which works well for rank one modal logics. Next we refine the global step-by-step method to obtain the local step-by-step method, which is applicable beyond

  4. Diabetes PSA (:30) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  5. Diabetes PSA (:60) Step By Step

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-10-24

    First steps to preventing diabetes. For Hispanic and Latino American audiences.  Created: 10/24/2009 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 10/24/2009.

  6. Microsoft Office Word 2007 step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Joyce

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to create impressive documents with Word 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them!Apply styles and themes to your document for a polished lookAdd graphics and text effects-and see a live previewOrganize information with new SmartArt diagrams and chartsInsert references, footnotes, indexes, a table of contentsSend documents for review and manage revisionsTurn your ideas into blogs, Web pages, and moreYour all-in-one learning experience includes:Files for building sk

  7. Aspiration-related deaths in 57 consecutive patients: autopsy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowen Hu

    Full Text Available Aspiration can cause a diverse spectrum of pulmonary disorders some of which can lead to death but can be difficult to diagnose.The medical records and autopsy findings of 57 consecutive patients in whom aspiration was the immediate cause of death at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN, USA over a 9-yr period, from January 1 2004 to December 31 2012 were analyzed.The median age at death was 72 years (range, 13-95 years and included 39 (68% males. The most common symptom before death was dyspnea (63% and chest radiography revealed bilateral infiltrates in the majority (81%. Most common precipitating factors for aspiration were depressed consciousness (46% and dysphagia (44%. Aspiration-related syndromes leading to death were aspiration pneumonia in 26 (46%, aspiration pneumonitis in 25 (44%, and large airway obstruction in 6 patients (11%. Aspiration was clinically unsuspected in 19 (33% patients. Antimicrobial therapy had been empirically administered to most patients (90% with aspiration pneumonia and aspiration pneumonitis.We conclude aspiration-related deaths occur most commonly in the elderly with identifiable risks and presenting bilateral pulmonary infiltrates. One-third of these aspiration-related pulmonary syndromes were clinically unsuspected at the time of death.

  8. Hepatotoxicity in hyperthyroid patient after consecutive methimazole and propylthiouracil therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gomez-Peralta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Methimazole (MMI and propylthiouracil (PTU are widely used antithyroid drugs (ATD that have been approved for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Hepatotoxicity may be induced by these drugs, though they exert dissimilar incidence rates of hepatotoxicity and, possibly, with different underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We report the case of a 55-year-old woman with no relevant medical history diagnosed with hyperthyroidism due to Graves’ disease, who developed two episodes of acute hepatitis concurrent with the consecutive administration of two different ATDs, first MMI and then PTU. Given the impossibility of administering ATDs, it was decided to perform a total thyroidectomy because the patient was found to be euthyroid at that point. Pathological anatomy showed diffuse hyperplasia and a papillary thyroid microcarcinoma of 2 mm in diameter. Subsequent clinical check-ups were normal. This case suggests the importance of regular monitoring of liver function for hyperthyroid patients. Due to the potential severity of this side effect, it is recommended to determine baseline liver function prior to initiation of treatment.

  9. Self Blocking of CO Dissociation on a Stepped Ruthenium Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelbo, Søren Bastholm; Johansson, Martin; Mowbray, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    The influence of steps on CO reactions has been studied on a Ru(0 1 (1) over bar 5 4) single crystal with a step density of 4%. Based on temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and oxygen titration experiments as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we show that the CO dissociation...

  10. Oxygen depletion of bismuth molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, L.K.; Howe, R.F.; Keulks, G.W.; Hall, W.K.

    1978-05-01

    Pure ..cap alpha..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/Mo/sub 3/O/sub 12/), which is known to be weakly active for selective oxidation, and pure ..gamma..-phase bismuth molybdate (Bi/sub 2/MoO/sub 6/), which has good activity, were subjected to oxidation-reduction cycles with known amounts of hydrogen and oxygen, at 300/sup 0/-570/sup 0/C and with evacuation steps between treatments. The volume of oxygen consumed during reoxidation was equal to half the hydrogen consumed during the reduction on the ..cap alpha..-phase, which indicated that no hydrogen was retained during reduction. For the ..gamma..-phase, the oxygen consumption was greater than half of the hydrogen consumption and it increased with extent of reduction. The excess oxygen was apparently consumed by filling anion vacancies formed during outgassing subsequent to the reduction step. ESR spectroscopy and temperature-programed oxidation-reduction indicated that lattice oxide ions which bridge between bismuth and molybdenum layers of the koechlinite structure become more labile when the catalyst is in a partially reduced state, and that this effect is greater in the ..gamma..- than the ..cap alpha..-phase. Table and 15 references.

  11. Sintering uranium oxide using a preheating step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.J.; Nivas, Y.; Packard, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Compacted pellets of uranium oxide or uranium oxide with one or more additives are heated in a kiln in a process having a preheating step, a sintering step, a reduction step, and a cooling step in a controlled atmosphere. The process is practiced to give a range of temperature and atmosphere conditions for obtaining optimum fluoride removal from the compacted pellets along with optimum sintering in a single process. The preheating step of this process is conducted in a temperature range of about 600 0 to about 900 0 C and the pellets are held for at least twenty min, and preferably about 60 min, in an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 10 to about 75 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The sintering step is conducted at a temperature in the range of about 900 0 C to 1500 0 C in the presence of an atmosphere having a composition in the range of about 0.5 to about 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. The reduction step reduces the oxygen to metal ratio of the pellets to a range of about 1.98 to 2.10:1 and this is accomplished by gradually cooling the pellets for about 30 to about 120 min from the temperature of the sintering step to about 1100 0 C in an atmosphere of about 10 to 90 vol % hydrogen with the balance being carbon dioxide. Thereafter the pellets are cooled to about 100 0 C under a protective atmosphere, and in one preferred practice the same atmosphere used in the reduction step is used in the cooling step. The preheating, sintering and reduction steps may also be conducted with their respective atmospheres having an initial additional component of water vapor and the water vapor can comprise up to about 20 vol %

  12. Rapid decay of vacancy islands at step edges on Ag(111): step orientation dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Mingmin; Thiel, P A; Jenks, Cynthia J; Evans, J W

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has established that vacancy islands or pits fill much more quickly when they are in contact with a step edge, such that the common boundary is a double step. The present work focuses on the effect of the orientation of that step, with two possibilities existing for a face centered cubic (111) surface: A- and B-type steps. We find that the following features can depend on the orientation: (1) the shapes of islands while they shrink; (2) whether the island remains attached to the step edge; and (3) the rate of filling. The first two effects can be explained by the different rates of adatom diffusion along the A- and B-steps that define the pit, enhanced by the different filling rates. The third observation-the difference in the filling rate itself-is explained within the context of the concerted exchange mechanism at the double step. This process is facile at all regular sites along B-steps, but only at kink sites along A-steps, which explains the different rates. We also observe that oxygen can greatly accelerate the decay process, although it has no apparent effect on an isolated vacancy island (i.e. an island that is not in contact with a step).

  13. Laparoscopic repair of hiatal hernias: Experience after 200 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelović Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Repair of hiatal hernias has been performed traditionally via open laparotomy or thoracotomy. Since first laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair in 1992, this method had a growing popularity and today it is the standard approach in experienced centers specialized for minimally invasive surgery. Objective. In the current study we present our experience after 200 consecutive laparoscopic hiatal hernia repairs. Methods. A retrospective cohort study included 200 patients who underwent elective laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair at the Department for Minimally Invasive Upper Digestive Surgery, Clinic for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade from April 2004 to December 2013. Results. Hiatal hernia types included 108 (54% patients with type I, 30 (15% with type III, 62 (31% with giant paraesophageal hernia, while 27 (13.5% patients presented with a chronic gastric volvulus. There were a total of 154 (77% Nissen fundoplications. In 26 (13% cases Nissen procedure was combined with esophageal lengthening procedure (Collis-Nissen, and in 17 (8.5% Toupet fundoplications was performed. Primary retroesophageal crural repair was performed in 164 (82% cases, Cleveland Clinic Foundation suture modification in 27 (13.5%, 4 (2% patients underwent synthetic mesh hiatoplasty, 1 (0.5% primary repair reinforced with pledgets, and 4 (2% autologous fascia lata graft reinforcement. Poor result with anatomic and symptomatic recurrence (indication for revisional surgery was detected in 5 patients (2.7%. Conclusion. Based on the result analysis, we found that laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair was a technically challenging but feasible technique, associated with good to excellent postoperative outcomes comparable to the best open surgery series.

  14. Pathologic audit of 164 consecutive cases of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scurry, James; Campion, Michael; Scurry, Bonnie; Kim, Soo Nyung; Hacker, Neville

    2006-04-01

    There are 2 types of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN): warty-basaloid and differentiated. Differentiated VIN is uncommon and seldom diagnosed prior to carcinoma and, traditionally, is not graded. There are currently 3 grading systems for warty-basaloid VIN: the World Health Organization (WHO) 3 grade system of VIN 1-3, a 2 grade system of low and high grade vulvar intraepithelial lesions, and the revised International Society for the Study of Vulvovaginal Disease (ISSVD) classification which has no grading of VIN. According to the ISSVD, VIN 1 should be abolished and VIN 2 and 3 combined into a single category, simply termed warty-basaloid VIN. To determine the best system for grading warty-basaloid VIN and learn more about differentiated VIN, we reviewed the pathology of 164 consecutive women with VIN. Of these, 134 (82.3%) had warty-basaloid VIN, 29 (18.2%) had differentiated VIN, and 1 had both. Of warty-basaloid VIN cases, 4 had VIN 1, 13 VIN 2, and 118 VIN 3 when graded according to the WHO. All VIN 1 occurred in condylomata acuminata. VIN 2 and 3 were distinguished only by degree of abnormality. Differentiated VIN was diagnosed before SCC in only 7 cases (26.7%). Because the only VIN 1 cases seen were in condylomata acuminata and because VIN 2 and 3 were difficult to distinguish and there appears little clinical reason to do so, our study supports the ISSVD proposal that VIN 1 be abolished and VIN 2 and 3 be combined. There needs to be more clinical awareness of vulvar conditions, so that differentiated VIN is biopsied before cancer has supervened.

  15. Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients......Reconstruction of alveolar defects in patients with cleft lip and palate - 111 consecutive patients...

  16. Conventional blood conservation techniques in 500 consecutive coronary artery bypass operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovrum, E; Holen, E A; Abdelnoor, M; Oystese, R

    1991-09-01

    With use of a nonpharmacological, simple, and inexpensive program for blood conservation, 500 consecutive patients underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting without need of homologous red cell transfusions in 493 (98.6%). At least one internal mammary artery was grafted in all but 1 patient, with supplemental saphenous vein grafts. Intraoperatively, autologous heparinized blood was removed before bypass and retransfused at the conclusion of extracorporeal circulation. The volume remaining in the oxygenator and tubing set was returned without cell processing or hemofiltration. Using the hard-shell cardiotomy reservoir from the heart-lung machine, autotransfusion of the shed mediastinal blood was continued hourly up to 18 hours after operation. The mean postoperative mediastinal blood loss was 643 +/- 354 mL, whereas 624 +/- 296 mL was autotransfused. Thirteen patients (2.6%) needed reexploration for bleeding, of whom 7 (7/500, 1.4%) received homologous blood. No other patients required red cell transfusions. In addition, 9 patients were given a mean of 2.6 units of fresh frozen plasma because of suspected coagulopathy. No platelets were transfused, and no cryoprecipitate therapy was undertaken. Thus, in total, 484 patients (96.8%) were not exposed to any homologous blood products during the hospital stay. At discharge, the mean hemoglobin concentration was 121 +/- 14 g/L (12.1 +/- 1.4 g/dL) and the hematocrit, 0.36 +/- 0.04. Postoperative complications were few. There was one in-hospital death (0.2%).

  17. Complications of laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an analysis of 400 consecutive cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afzal, M.; Butt, M.Q.

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the complications of first 400 laparoscopic cholecystectomies (LC) for patients with symptomatic gall stone disease at a tertiary care hospital. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: PNS Shifa Karachi and CMH Lahore, Pakistan from Nov 2009 to Jan 2013. Patients and Methods: A prospective analysis of complications occurring in first 400 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies by a single consultant/unit at a tertiary care hospital was made. Out of total 421 patients presenting with symptomatic gall stone disease in a single unit, 21 cases that underwent open cholecystectomy were excluded from the study. Laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed using three port and four port technique and data including age, sex, diagnosis, number of trocar placements, conversion to open surgery and its reasons, operative time, post-operative hospital stay and complications was collected on personal computer and analyzed using Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 13. Results: Total 400 patients were included in study with median age of 44 years. Female to male ratio was 5.3: 1. Depending upon the preoperative diagnosis and laparoscopic findings, patients had diagnosis of Chronic cholecystitis / biliary colic 68.25%, acute cholecystitis 23.75%, empyema gall bladder 7.25%, gallstone pancreatitis 0.5% and mucocele gallbladder 0.25%. Median operating time was 30min. Median hospital stay was 1 days (range 1 -20 days). Conversion rate was 1.25%. Postoperative complications included bleeding 0.5%, biliaryperitonitis due to cystic duct leak 0.25%, biloma 0.25%, sub hepaticabscess 0.25%, subcutaneous fat necrosis right flank at drain site 0.25%, umbilical trocarsite infection 2%, keloid at umbilical port site 0.25% and incisional hernia at umbilicus 0.25%. There was one hospital death due to myocardial infarction on 2nd post-operative day. Conclusion: Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy is associated with some serious complications

  18. Focal cryotherapy: step by step technique description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Redondo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction and objective: Focal cryotherapy emerged as an efficient option to treat favorable and localized prostate cancer (PCa. The purpose of this video is to describe the procedure step by step. Materials and methods: We present the case of a 68 year-old man with localized PCa in the anterior aspect of the prostate. Results: The procedure is performed under general anesthesia, with the patient in lithotomy position. Briefly, the equipment utilized includes the cryotherapy console coupled with an ultrasound system, argon and helium gas bottles, cryoprobes, temperature probes and an urethral warming catheter. The procedure starts with a real-time trans-rectal prostate ultrasound, which is used to outline the prostate, the urethra and the rectal wall. The cryoprobes are pretested and placed in to the prostate through the perineum, following a grid template, along with the temperature sensors under ultrasound guidance. A cystoscopy confirms the right positioning of the needles and the urethral warming catheter is installed. Thereafter, the freeze sequence with argon gas is started, achieving extremely low temperatures (-40°C to induce tumor cell lysis. Sequentially, the thawing cycle is performed using helium gas. This process is repeated one time. Results among several series showed a biochemical disease-free survival between 71-93% at 9-70 month- follow-up, incontinence rates between 0-3.6% and erectile dysfunction between 0-42% (1–5. Conclusions: Focal cryotherapy is a feasible procedure to treat anterior PCa that may offer minimal morbidity, allowing good cancer control and better functional outcomes when compared to whole-gland treatment.

  19. In Situ Imaging the Oxygen Reduction Reactions of Solid State Na-O2 Batteries with CuO Nanowires as the Air Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiunan; Yang, Tingting; Du, Congcong; Tang, Yongfu; Sun, Yong; Jia, Peng; Chen, Jingzhao; Ye, Hongjun; Shen, Tongde; Peng, Qiuming; Zhang, Liqiang; Huang, Jianyu

    2018-05-14

    We report real time imaging of the oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) in all solid state sodium oxygen batteries (SOBs) with CuO nanowires (NWs) as the air cathode in an aberration-corrected environmental transmission electron microscope under an oxygen environment. The ORR occurred in a distinct two-step reaction, namely, a first conversion reaction followed by a second multiple ORR. In the former, CuO was first converted to Cu 2 O and then to Cu; in the latter, NaO 2 formed first, followed by its disproportionation to Na 2 O 2 and O 2 . Concurrent with the two distinct electrochemical reactions, the CuO NWs experienced multiple consecutive large volume expansions. It is evident that the freshly formed ultrafine-grained Cu in the conversion reaction catalyzed the latter one-electron-transfer ORR, leading to the formation of NaO 2 . Remarkably, no carbonate formation was detected in the oxygen cathode after cycling due to the absence of carbon source in the whole battery setup. These results provide fundamental understanding into the oxygen chemistry in the carbonless air cathode in all solid state Na-O 2 batteries.

  20. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate....... METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... oxygen saturation rate increased significantly from 96% to 99% (P heart rate decreased significantly from 85 beats/min to 81 beats/min (P heart rate occurred...

  1. IMMEDIATE COMPLICATIONS AFTER 88 HEPATECTOMIES - BRAZILIAN CONSECUTIVE SERIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; João, Samir Assi; Guimarães, Priscila Luana Franco Costa; Medeiros, Joafran Alexandre Costa de; Barreto, Élio José Silveira da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Hepatectomies have been increasingly recommended and performed in Brazil; they present great differences related to immediate complications. Assessing the immediate postoperative complications in a series of 88 open liver resections. Prospective database of patients subjected to consecutive hepatectomies over nine years. The post-hepatectomy complications were categorized according to the Clavien-Dindo classification; complications presenting grade equal to or greater than 3 were considered major complications. Hepatic resections involving three or more resected liver segments were considered major hepatectomies. Eighty-four patients were subjected to 88 hepatectomies, mostly were minor liver resections (50 cases, 56.8%). Most patients had malignant diseases (63 cases; 71.6%). The mean hospitalization time was 10.9 days (4-43). Overall morbidity and mortality rates were 37.5% and 6.8%, respectively. The two most common immediate general complications were intra-peritoneal collections (12.5%) and pleural effusion (12.5%). Bleeding, biliary fistula and liver failure were identified in 6.8%, 4.5% and 1.1% of the cases, respectively, among the hepatectomy-specific complications. The patients operated in the second half of the series showed better results, which were apparently influenced by the increased surgical expertise, by the modification of the hepatic parenchyma section method and by the increased organ preservation. No Brasil as hepatectomias têm sido cada vez mais indicadas e realizadas, apresentando grandes diferenças relacionadas às complicações imediatas. Avaliar as complicações pós-operatórias imediatas em uma série de 88 ressecções hepáticas abertas. Foi utilizada uma base de dados prospectiva de pacientes submetidos à hepatectomias consecutivas em nove anos. As complicações pós-hepatectomia seguiram a Classificação de Clavien-Dindo, sendo consideradas complicações maiores aquelas as quais apresentaram grau igual ou maior que 3. Foram

  2. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  3. Step-by-step cyclic processes scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bocewicz, G.; Nielsen, Izabela Ewa; Banaszak, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research is to pro......Automated Guided Vehicles (AGVs) fleet scheduling is one of the big problems in Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) control. The problem is more complicated when concurrent multi-product manufacturing and resource deadlock avoidance policies are considered. The objective of the research...... is to provide a declarative model enabling to state a constraint satisfaction problem aimed at AGVs fleet scheduling subject to assumed itineraries of concurrently manufactured product types. In other words, assuming a given layout of FMS’s material handling and production routes of simultaneously manufactured...... orders, the main objective is to provide the declarative framework aimed at conditions allowing one to calculate the AGVs fleet schedule in online mode. An illustrative example of the relevant algebra-like driven step-by-stem cyclic scheduling is provided....

  4. RESTART simulation of non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villen-Altamirano, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The reliability of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is studied. The model analyzed in this paper is more general than those of previous studies given that repair time and component lifetimes are random variables that follow a general distribution. The system has one repair service which adopts a priority repair rule based on system failure risk. Since crude simulation has proved to be inefficient for highly dependable systems, the RESTART method was used for the estimation of steady-state unavailability, MTBF and unreliability. Probabilities up to the order of 10 -16 have been accurately estimated with little computational effort. In this method, a number of simulation retrials are performed when the process enters regions of the state space where the chance of occurrence of a rare event (e.g., a system failure) is higher. The main difficulty for the application of this method is to find a suitable function, called the importance function, to define the regions. Given the simplicity involved in changing some model assumptions with RESTART, the importance function used in this paper could be useful for dependability estimation of many systems.

  5. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2001-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals. This project has the following 6 main tasks: Task 1--Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. Task 2--Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. Task 3--Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. Task 4--Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. Task 5--Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. Task 6--Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques

  6. Brain Oxygenation During Thoracoscopic Repair of Long Gap Esophageal Atresia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolwijk, Lisanne J; van der Zee, David C; Tytgat, Stefaan; van der Werff, Desiree; Benders, Manon J N L; van Herwaarden, Maud Y A; Lemmers, Petra M A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Elongation and repair of long gap esophageal atresia (LGEA) can be performed thoracoscopically, even directly after birth. The effect of thoracoscopic CO2-insufflation on cerebral oxygenation (rScO2) during the consecutive thoracoscopic procedures in repair of LGEA was evaluated.

  7. Influence of the incremental step size in work rate on exercise response and gas exchange in patients with pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläser, Sven; Lodziewski, Sven; Koch, Beate; Opitz, Christian F; Völzke, Henry; Ewert, Ralf

    2008-02-23

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) has become increasingly important as a routine procedure in daily clinical work. So far, it is generally accepted that an individualized exercise protocol with exercise duration of 6 to 12 minutes is preferable to assess maximal exercise performance. The aim of this study was to compare an individualized NYHA adapted exercise protocol with a fixed standard protocol in patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Twenty-two patients (17 female, 5 male; mean age 49 +/- 14 yrs) underwent symptom limited CPET on a bicycle. On two consecutive days each subject performed a stepwise CPET according to a modified Jones protocol (16 Watt per minute stages) as well as an individualized NYHA adapted protocol with 5 or 10 Watt/min stages in a randomized order. Oxygen uptake at peak exercise (peakVO2) and anaerobic threshold (VO2AT), maximal ventilation (VE), breathing reserve (VE/MVV), ventilatory efficiency (VE vs. VCO2 slope), exercise time, maximal power and work rate were assessed and compared between both protocols. Comparing both, adapted NYHA protocol and standardized Jones protocol, we found significant differences in maximal power (56.7 +/- 19 W vs. 74 +/- 18 W; p rate, VE, VE/MVV, peakVO2, VO2AT and VE vs. VCO2 slope. Variations of incremental step size during CPET significantly affect exercise time and maximal power, whereas relevant parameters for clinical judgement and prognosis such as oxygen uptake, ventilation and ventilatory efficiency remain unchanged. These findings have practical implications for the exercise evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension. To reach maximal results for ventilation, oxygen uptake and gas exchange an individualization of incremental step size appears not to be mandatory.

  8. The Seven Step Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Many well-intended instructors use Socratic or leveled questioning to facilitate the discussion of an assigned reading. While this engages a few students, most can opt to remain silent. The seven step strategy described in this article provides an alternative to classroom silence and engages all students. Students discuss a single reading as they…

  9. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2002-01-01

    Conversion of natural gas to liquid fuels and chemicals is a major goal for the Nation as it enters the 21st Century. Technically robust and economically viable processes are needed to capture the value of the vast reserves of natural gas on Alaska's North Slope, and wean the Nation from dependence on foreign petroleum sources. Technologies that are emerging to fulfill this need are all based syngas as an intermediate. Syngas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) is a fundamental building block from which chemicals and fuels can be derived. Lower cost syngas translates directly into more cost-competitive fuels and chemicals. The currently practiced commercial technology for making syngas is either steam methane reforming (SMR) or a two-step process involving cryogenic oxygen separation followed by natural gas partial oxidation (POX). These high-energy, capital-intensive processes do not always produce syngas at a cost that makes its derivatives competitive with current petroleum-based fuels and chemicals

  10. Oxygen Tension in the Aqueous Humor of Human Eyes under Different Oxygenation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Sharifipour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure oxygen tension in the aqueous humor of human eyes under different oxygenation conditions. Methods: This prospective comparative interventional case series consisted of two parts. In the first part, 120 consecutive patients scheduled for cataract surgery were randomized into group I (control group in which surgery was performed under local anesthesia inhaling 21% oxygen; group II in whom general anesthesia using 50% oxygen was employed; and group III receiving general anesthesia with 100% oxygen. After aspirating 0.2 ml aqueous humor under sterile conditions, the aqueous sample and a simultaneously drawn arterial blood sample were immediately analyzed using a blood gas analyzer. In part II the same procedures were performed in 10 patients after fitting a contact lens and patching the eye for 20 minutes (group IV and in 10 patients after transcorneal delivery of oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min (group V. Results: Mean aqueous PO2 in groups I, II and III was 112.3±6.2, 141.1±20.4, and 170.1±27 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001 and mean arterial PO2 was 85.7±7.9, 184.6±46, and 379.1±75.9 mmHg, respectively (P values <0.001. Aqueous PO2 was 77.2±9.2 mmHg in group IV and 152.3±10.9 mmHg in group V (P values <0.001. There was a significant correlation between aqueous and blood PO2 (r=0.537, P<0.001. The contribution of atmospheric oxygen to aqueous PO2 was 23.7%. Conclusion: Aqueous oxygen tension is mostly dependent on the systemic circulation and in part on the atmosphere. Increasing inspiratory oxygen and transcorneal oxygen delivery both increase aqueous PO2 levels.

  11. Linear step drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haniger, L.; Elger, R.; Kocandrle, L.; Zdebor, J.

    1986-01-01

    A linear step drive is described developed in Czechoslovak-Soviet cooperation and intended for driving WWER-1000 control rods. The functional principle is explained of the motor and the mechanical and electrical parts of the drive, power control, and the indicator of position are described. The motor has latches situated in the reactor at a distance of 3 m from magnetic armatures, it has a low structural height above the reactor cover, which suggests its suitability for seismic localities. Its magnetic circuits use counterpoles; the mechanical shocks at the completion of each step are damped using special design features. The position indicator is of a special design and evaluates motor position within ±1% of total travel. A drive diagram and the flow chart of both the control electronics and the position indicator are presented. (author) 4 figs

  12. Computational Abstraction Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent; Nørmark, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    and class instantiations. Our teaching experience shows that many novice programmers find it difficult to write programs with abstractions that materialise to concrete objects later in the development process. The contribution of this paper is the idea of initiating a programming process by creating...... or capturing concrete values, objects, or actions. As the next step, some of these are lifted to a higher level by computational means. In the object-oriented paradigm the target of such steps is classes. We hypothesise that the proposed approach primarily will be beneficial to novice programmers or during...... the exploratory phase of a program development process. In some specific niches it is also expected that our approach will benefit professional programmers....

  13. Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 3: Manage Your Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  14. Biogeochemistry: Oxygen burrowed away

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meysman, F.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Multicellular animals probably evolved at the seafloor after a rise in oceanic oxygen levels. Biogeochemical model simulations suggest that as these animals started to rework the seafloor, they triggered a negative feedback that reduced global oxygen.

  15. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  16. Modeling and Elucidation of the Kinetics of Multiple Consecutive Photoreactions AB4(4Φ) With Φ-order Kinetics. Application to the Photodegradation of Riboflavin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maafi, Mounir; Maafi, Wassila

    2016-12-01

    New semi-empirical rate-law system of equations is proposed for the first time for consecutive photoreactions that involve up to 4 photoreaction steps, AB 4 (4Φ). The equation system was developed, tested, and validated against synthetic kinetic traces generated by fifth-order Runge-Kutta calculations. The model accurately fitted the kinetic traces of Riboflavin photodegradation in ethanol which decomposes via the AB 2 (2Φ) mechanism involving 2 consecutive photoreaction steps. A kinetic elucidation methodology useful for consecutive photoreactions was also proposed to determine all the kinetic parameters and reaction attributes defining AB 2 (2Φ) reactions. The quantum yields of photodegradation, determined for wavelengths in the visible region 400-480 nm, ranged from 0.005 to 0.00756 and 0.0012 to 8 10 -5 for the first and second photoreaction steps, respectively. They were found to increase with wavelength in defined sigmoid functions. For this monochromatic irradiation range, riboflavin proved to be a useful actinometer. Finally, a photodegradation scale based on pseudo-rate-constant values was also proposed for drugs. This scale (including 4 groups) is thought to contribute to rationalizing photodegradation testing and might prove useful in categorizing drugs' photodegradation reactivity. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for endovenous laser ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Thomas Oleg; Jacomella, Vincenzo; Clemens, Robert Karl Josef; Amann-Vesti, Beatrice

    2015-11-01

    Tumescent anaesthesia (TA) is an important but sometimes very painful step during endovenous thermal ablation of incompetent veins. The aim of this study was to examine whether the use of fixed 50% nitrous oxide/oxygen mixture (N2O/O2), also called equimolar mixture of oxygen and nitrous oxide, reduces pain during the application of TA. Patients undergoing endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of incompetent saphenous veins were included. Thirty consecutive patients inhaled N2O/O2 during the application of TA. Thirty consecutive patients received TA alone (controls). Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire immediately after the intervention to assess satisfaction with the intervention and pain-levels during the different steps of the intervention (0=not at all, 10=very much). Adverse events during the treatment were monitored. 30 patients (14 men, mean age of 44 years) were included in the N2O/O2 group and 30 patients (9 men, mean age 48 years) were included in the control group. In the N2O/O2 group a significantly lower pain score was noted (mean 2.45 points, range 0-6) compared to the controls (mean 4.3 points, range 1-9, p<0.001). Overall, 64.5% of the patients were perfectly satisfied with the N2O/O2-Inhalation. Only 4 patients receiving N2O/O2 complained of adverse effects such as unpleasant loss of control (2 patients), headache (1 patient) and dizziness (1 patient). N2O/O2 is a safe and effective method to reduce pain during the application of tumescent anaesthesia for EVLA.

  18. Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2014-01-01

    This article is concerned with the evolution of atmospheric oxygen concentrations through the Proterozoic Eon. In particular, this article will seek to place the history of atmospheric oxygenation through the Proterozoic Eon in the context of the evolving physical environment including the history...... of continental growth and volcanic outgassing, as well as biogeochemical processing of elements within the oceans. The author will seek to explore constraints on the history of oxygenation and understand which processes have regulated oxygen through this eon....

  19. Oxygen evolution reaction catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Joel A.; Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Jones, Ryan J.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Shinde, Aniketa A.

    2016-09-06

    An Oxygen Evolution Reaction (OER) catalyst includes a metal oxide that includes oxygen, cerium, and one or more second metals. In some instances, the cerium is 10 to 80 molar % of the metals in the metal oxide and/or the catalyst includes two or more second metals. The OER catalyst can be included in or on an electrode. The electrode can be arranged in an oxygen evolution system such that the Oxygen Evolution Reaction occurs at the electrode.

  20. Aircraft Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    An Oxygen Enriched Air System for the AV-8A Harrier (NADC-81198-60).” 70 Horch , T., et. al. “The F-16 Onboard Oxygen Generating System: Performance...Only and Safety Privileged). Horch , T., Miller, R., Bomar, J., Tedor, J., Holden, R., Ikels, K., & Lozano, P. (1983). The F-16 Onboard Oxygen

  1. Steps on rutile TiO2(110): Active sites for water and methanol dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Umberto; Vilhelmsen, Lasse; Kristoffersen, Henrik Høgh

    2011-01-01

    for each step edge, more stable, reconstructed structures were found for the step edge, while the bulk truncated structures were recovered for the step edge.We demonstrate how oxygen vacancies along these defects have lower formation energies than on flat terraces and how water and methanol...

  2. Gallic acid as an oxygen scavenger in bio-based multilayer packaging films

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, Astrid; Sängerlaub, Sven; Müller, Kajetan

    2017-01-01

    Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and lamination. We investigated the film surface color as well as oxygen absorption at different relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures, and compared the oxygen absorption of OSc powder, monolayer films, and ...

  3. Mediating Peer Teaching for Learning Games: An Action Research Intervention across Three Consecutive Sport Education Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.; O'Donovan, Toni

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Method: Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion…

  4. Stepping Stones through Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lyle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Indo-European mythology is known only through written records but it needs to be understood in terms of the preliterate oral-cultural context in which it was rooted. It is proposed that this world was conceptually organized through a memory-capsule consisting of the current generation and the three before it, and that there was a system of alternate generations with each generation taking a step into the future under the leadership of a white or red king.

  5. SYSTEMATIZATION OF THE BASIC STEPS OF THE STEP-AEROBICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darinka Korovljev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Following the development of the powerful sport industry, in front of us appeared a lot of new opportunities for creating of the new programmes of exercising with certain requisites. One of such programmes is certainly step-aerobics. Step-aerobics can be defined as a type of aerobics consisting of the basic aerobic steps (basic steps applied in exercising on stepper (step bench, with a possibility to regulate its height. Step-aerobics itself can be divided into several groups, depending on the following: type of music, working methods and adopted knowledge of the attendants. In this work, the systematization of the basic steps in step-aerobics was made on the basis of the following criteria: steps origin, number of leg motions in stepping and relating the body support at the end of the step. Systematization of the basic steps of the step-aerobics is quite significant for making a concrete review of the existing basic steps, thus making creation of the step-aerobics lesson easier

  6. Oxygen configurations in silica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelikowsky, James R.; Chadi, D. J.; Binggeli, N.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a transition state for oxygen in silica. This state is produced by the insertion of an oxygen molecule into the Si-O-Si bond, i.e., it consists of producing a Si-O-O-O-Si bond. This state allows molecular oxygen diffusion in silica without breaking the molecular O 2 bond and it is energetically more stable than a peroxy configuration. This configuration may allow for exchange of molecular oxygen with the oxygen in the silica framework. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  7. Phase-step retrieval for tunable phase-shifting algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayubi, Gastón A.; Duarte, Ignacio; Perciante, César D.; Flores, Jorge L.; Ferrari, José A.

    2017-12-01

    Phase-shifting (PS) is a well-known technique for phase retrieval in interferometry, with applications in deflectometry and 3D-profiling, which requires a series of intensity measurements with certain phase-steps. Usually the phase-steps are evenly spaced, and its knowledge is crucial for the phase retrieval. In this work we present a method to extract the phase-step between consecutive interferograms. We test the proposed technique with images corrupted by additive noise. The results were compared with other known methods. We also present experimental results showing the performance of the method when spatial filters are applied to the interferograms and the effect that they have on their relative phase-steps.

  8. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Evidence for the Dissociation of Carbon Monoxide on Ruthenium Steps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tison, Yann; Nielsen, Kenneth; Mowbray, Duncan J.

    2012-01-01

    –Tropsch processes under certain conditions, has been debated for years. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT) are used to clarify the role of monatomic steps in the splitting of CO on a stepped Ru(0 1 54) crystal, which displays alternating steps with either 4-fold or 3-fold...... symmetry. After CO doses at elevated temperatures, the STM images reveal step decorations characteristic of atomic oxygen resulting from CO dissociation on every second step. The comparison of the STM images with the results of DFT calculations shows that the step decoration occurs on the steps displaying...

  9. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galyean, W.J.; Whaley, A.M.; Kelly, D.L.; Boring, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  10. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. J. Galyean; A. M. Whaley; D. L. Kelly; R. L. Boring

    2011-05-01

    This guide provides step-by-step guidance on the use of the SPAR-H method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This guide is intended to be used with the worksheets provided in: 'The SPAR-H Human Reliability Analysis Method,' NUREG/CR-6883, dated August 2005. Each step in the process of producing a Human Error Probability (HEP) is discussed. These steps are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff. The discussions on dependence are extensive and include an appendix that describes insights obtained from the psychology literature.

  11. Estimation of Partition Coefficients of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene, and ρ-Xylene by Consecutive Extraction with Solid Phase Microextraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, In Yong

    2011-01-01

    The results show that the partition coefficients of the BTEX compound can be estimated using the SPME method under the consecutive extraction mode. The proposed technique is much simpler than previously reported methods. Its novelty is that it eliminated the calibration step in the GC/FID, i. e., liquid injection method. The use of the autosampler for the SPME fiber can facilitate the adoption of consecutive extractions; thus, it allows estimation of the partition coefficients of various analytes. Recently, GC/MS has increasingly been used in analytical laboratories; this may facilitate the identification of an unknown analyte as well as the computation of the corresponding partition coefficients with the proposed method. It is very important to use partition coefficients of organic pollutants to predict their fate in the environment. A liquid-liquid extraction technique was used to determine the partition coefficients of organic compounds between water and organic solvent. The concentration of the target compounds must be determined after equilibrium is established between the two phases. The partition coefficients can be estimated using the capacity factors of HPLC and GC

  12. Dependability estimation for non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems by fast simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Li Zhizhong; Li Ting

    2007-01-01

    A model of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable system with non-exponential repair time distribution and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is introduced in this paper along with algorithms of three Monte Carlo methods, i.e. importance sampling, conditional expectation estimation and combination of the two methods, to estimate dependability of the non-Markov model including reliability, transient unavailability, MTTF, and MTBF. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the efficiencies of above methods. The results show that combinational method has the highest efficiency for estimation of unreliability and unavailability, while conditional expectation estimation is the most efficient method for estimation of MTTF and MTBF. Conditional expectation estimation seems to have overall higher speedups in estimating dependability of such systems

  13. Hippocampus discovery First steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliasz Engelhardt

    Full Text Available The first steps of the discovery, and the main discoverers, of the hippocampus are outlined. Arantius was the first to describe a structure he named "hippocampus" or "white silkworm". Despite numerous controversies and alternate designations, the term hippocampus has prevailed until this day as the most widely used term. Duvernoy provided an illustration of the hippocampus and surrounding structures, considered the first by most authors, which appeared more than one and a half century after Arantius' description. Some authors have identified other drawings and texts which they claim predate Duvernoy's depiction, in studies by Vesalius, Varolio, Willis, and Eustachio, albeit unconvincingly. Considering the definition of the hippocampal formation as comprising the hippocampus proper, dentate gyrus and subiculum, Arantius and Duvernoy apparently described the gross anatomy of this complex. The pioneering studies of Arantius and Duvernoy revealed a relatively small hidden formation that would become one of the most valued brain structures.

  14. Critical analysis of consecutive unilateral cleft lip repairs: determining ideal sample size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Stephanie M; Matic, Damir B

    2013-03-01

    Objective : Cleft surgeons often show 10 consecutive lip repairs to reduce presentation bias, however the validity remains unknown. The purpose of this study is to determine the number of consecutive cases that represent average outcomes. Secondary objectives are to determine if outcomes correlate with cleft severity and to calculate interrater reliability. Design : Consecutive preoperative and 2-year postoperative photographs of the unilateral cleft lip-nose complex were randomized and evaluated by cleft surgeons. Parametric analysis was performed according to chronologic, consecutive order. The mean standard deviation over all raters enabled calculation of expected 95% confidence intervals around a mean tested for various sample sizes. Setting : Meeting of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association in 2009. Patients, Participants : Ten senior cleft surgeons evaluated 39 consecutive lip repairs. Main Outcome Measures : Preoperative severity and postoperative outcomes were evaluated using descriptive and quantitative scales. Results : Intraclass correlation coefficients for cleft severity and postoperative evaluations were 0.65 and 0.21, respectively. Outcomes did not correlate with cleft severity (P  =  .28). Calculations for 10 consecutive cases demonstrated wide 95% confidence intervals, spanning two points on both postoperative grading scales. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals narrowed within one qualitative grade (±0.30) and one point (±0.50) on the 10-point scale for 27 consecutive cases. Conclusions : Larger numbers of consecutive cases (n > 27) are increasingly representative of average results, but less practical in presentation format. Ten consecutive cases lack statistical support. Cleft surgeons showed low interrater reliability for postoperative assessments, which may reflect personal bias when evaluating another surgeon's results.

  15. Astronomical sketching a step-by-step introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Handy, Richard; Perez, Jeremy; Rix, Erika; Robbins, Sol

    2007-01-01

    This book presents the amateur with fine examples of astronomical sketches and step-by-step tutorials in each medium, from pencil to computer graphics programs. This unique book can teach almost anyone to create beautiful sketches of celestial objects.

  16. Integrated turbomachine oxygen plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Ashok Kumar; DePuy, Richard Anthony; Muthaiah, Veerappan

    2014-06-17

    An integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes a turbomachine and an air separation unit. One or more compressor pathways flow compressed air from a compressor through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. An air separation unit is operably connected to the one or more compressor pathways and is configured to separate the compressed air into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air. A method of air separation in an integrated turbomachine oxygen plant includes compressing a flow of air in a compressor of a turbomachine. The compressed flow of air is flowed through one or more of a combustor and a turbine expander of the turbomachine to cool the combustor and/or the turbine expander. The compressed flow of air is directed to an air separation unit and is separated into oxygen and oxygen-depleted air.

  17. Ambient oxygen promotes tumorigenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Joong Sung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen serves as an essential factor for oxidative stress, and it has been shown to be a mutagen in bacteria. While it is well established that ambient oxygen can also cause genomic instability in cultured mammalian cells, its effect on de novo tumorigenesis at the organismal level is unclear. Herein, by decreasing ambient oxygen exposure, we report a ∼50% increase in the median tumor-free survival time of p53-/- mice. In the thymus, reducing oxygen exposure decreased the levels of oxidative DNA damage and RAG recombinase, both of which are known to promote lymphomagenesis in p53-/- mice. Oxygen is further shown to be associated with genomic instability in two additional cancer models involving the APC tumor suppressor gene and chemical carcinogenesis. Together, these observations represent the first report directly testing the effect of ambient oxygen on de novo tumorigenesis and provide important physiologic evidence demonstrating its critical role in increasing genomic instability in vivo.

  18. Coping with cyclic oxygen availability: evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flück, Martin; Webster, Keith A; Graham, Jeffrey; Giomi, Folco; Gerlach, Frank; Schmitz, Anke

    2007-10-01

    Both the gradual rise in atmospheric oxygen over the Proterozoic Eon as well as episodic fluctuations in oxygen over several million-year time spans during the Phanerozoic Era, have arguably exerted strong selective forces on cellular and organismic respiratory specialization and evolution. The rise in atmospheric oxygen, some 2 billion years after the origin of life, dramatically altered cell biology and set the stage for the appearance of multicelluar life forms in the Vendian (Ediacaran) Period of the Neoproterozoic Era. Over much of the Paleozoic, the level of oxygen in the atmosphere was near the present atmospheric level (21%). In the Late Paleozoic, however, there were extended times during which the level of atmospheric oxygen was either markedly lower or markedly higher than 21%. That these Paleozoic shifts in atmospheric oxygen affected the biota is suggested by the correlations between: (1) Reduced oxygen and the occurrences of extinctions, a lowered biodiversity and shifts in phyletic succession, and (2) During hyperoxia, the corresponding occurrence of phenomena such as arthropod gigantism, the origin of insect flight, and the evolution of vertebrate terrestriality. Basic similarities in features of adaptation to hyopoxia, manifest in living organisms at levels ranging from genetic and cellular to physiological and behavioral, suggest the common and early origin of a suite of adaptive mechanisms responsive to fluctuations in ambient oxygen. Comparative integrative approaches addressing the molecular bases of phenotypic adjustments to cyclic oxygen fluctuation provide broad insight into the incremental steps leading to the early evolution of homeostatic respiratory mechanisms and to the specialization of organismic respiratory function.

  19. Determination of oxygen nonstoichiometry and diffusivity in mixed conducting oxides by oxygen Coulometric titration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lankhorst, M.H.R.; Lankhorst, Martijn H.R.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen coulometric titration has been applied to measure chemical diffusion in La0.8Sr0.2CoO3-δ between 700 and 1000°C. The transient current response to a potentiostatic step has been transformed from the time domain to the frequency domain. The equivalent circuit used to fit the resulting

  20. Synthesis and Consecutive Reactions of α-Azido Ketones: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Faiz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This review paper covers the major synthetic approaches attempted towards the synthesis of α-azido ketones, as well as the synthetic applications/consecutive reactions of α-azido ketones.

  1. STEP and fundamental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-09-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 1013 to one part in 1018 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels.

  2. STEP and fundamental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Overduin, James; Everitt, Francis; Worden, Paul; Mester, John

    2012-01-01

    The Satellite Test of the Equivalence Principle (STEP) will advance experimental limits on violations of Einstein's equivalence principle from their present sensitivity of two parts in 10 13 to one part in 10 18 through multiple comparison of the motions of four pairs of test masses of different compositions in a drag-free earth-orbiting satellite. We describe the experiment, its current status and its potential implications for fundamental physics. Equivalence is at the heart of general relativity, our governing theory of gravity and violations are expected in most attempts to unify this theory with the other fundamental interactions of physics, as well as in many theoretical explanations for the phenomenon of dark energy in cosmology. Detection of such a violation would be equivalent to the discovery of a new force of nature. A null result would be almost as profound, pushing upper limits on any coupling between standard-model fields and the new light degrees of freedom generically predicted by these theories down to unnaturally small levels. (paper)

  3. One-step microlithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlen, Franz-Josef; Sankaranarayanan, Srikanth; Kar, Aravinda

    1997-09-01

    Subject of this investigation is a one-step rapid machining process to create miniaturized 3D parts, using the original sample material. An experimental setup where metal powder is fed to the laser beam-material interaction region has been built. The powder is melted and forms planar, 2D geometries as the substrate is moved under the laser beam in XY- direction. After completing the geometry in the plane, the substrate is displaced in Z-direction, and a new layer of material is placed on top of the just completed deposit. By continuous repetition of this process, 3D parts wee created. In particular, the impact of the focal spot size of the high power laser beam on the smallest achievable structures was investigated. At a translation speed of 51 mm/s a minimum material thickness of 590 micrometers was achieved. Also, it was shown that a small Z-displacement has a negligible influence on the continuity of the material deposition over this power range. A high power CO2 laser was used as energy source, the material powder under investigation was stainless steel SS304L. Helium was used as shield gas at a flow rate of 15 1/min. The incident CO2 laser beam power was varied between 300 W and 400 W, with the laser beam intensity distribute in a donut mode. The laser beam was focused to a focal diameter of 600 (Mu) m.

  4. Step 1: Learn about Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 1: Learn About Diabetes Past Issues / Fall 2014 ... the whole family healthy! Here are four key steps to help you control your diabetes and live ...

  5. Factors predisposing to consecutive esotropia after surgery to correct intermittent exotropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jung Hyun; Park, Jung Min; Lee, Soo Jung

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of and factors predisposing to consecutive esotropia after intermittent exotropia surgery, and to prevent the onset of consecutive esotropia. We retrospectively surveyed 226 patients who had been followed up for more than 1 year after surgery for intermittent exotropia conducted between February 2005 and September 2010. Consecutive esotropia was defined as an esotropia of at least 10 prism diopters (PD) at distance or near at least once in 2 weeks after surgery. Presumed risk factors for consecutive esotropia were analyzed. Gender, age at surgery, average binocular spherical equivalent, anisometropia, high myopia, amblyopia, preoperative angle of deviation, vertical deviation, A-V pattern strabismus, exotropia type, type of surgery, stereopsis, and suppression were investigated to evaluate factors influencing the onset of consecutive esotropia. Consecutive esotropia occurred in 22 patients (9.7 %). Significant correlations with occurrence of the condition were found with high myopia (P = 0.013), amblyopia (P = 0.047), preoperative angle of deviation of 25-40 PD at distance (P = 0.016), deviation at distance - deviation at near > 10 PD (P = 0.041), lateral incomitance (P = 0.007), tenacious proximal convergence fusion type (P = 0.001), unilateral lateral rectus muscle recession and medial rectus muscle resection (P = 0.001). High myopia, amblyopia, and lateral incomitance were predisposing factors for consecutive esotropia. Furthermore, the preoperative angle of deviation at distance, differences between the angle of deviation at near and at distance, the type of intermittent exotropia, and the type of surgery affected the incidence of consecutive esotropia. More attention must be paid to patients with such factors.

  6. SPAR-H Step-by-Step Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    April M. Whaley; Dana L. Kelly; Ronald L. Boring; William J. Galyean

    2012-06-01

    Step-by-step guidance was developed recently at Idaho National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the use of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk-Human Reliability Analysis (SPAR-H) method for quantifying Human Failure Events (HFEs). This work was done to address SPAR-H user needs, specifically requests for additional guidance on the proper application of various aspects of the methodology. This paper overviews the steps of the SPAR-H analysis process and highlights some of the most important insights gained during the development of the step-by-step directions. This supplemental guidance for analysts is applicable when plant-specific information is available, and goes beyond the general guidance provided in existing SPAR-H documentation. The steps highlighted in this paper are: Step-1, Categorizing the HFE as Diagnosis and/or Action; Step-2, Rate the Performance Shaping Factors; Step-3, Calculate PSF-Modified HEP; Step-4, Accounting for Dependence, and; Step-5, Minimum Value Cutoff.

  7. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; O'Neil, J.P.; Cerny, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an oxygen-14 beam have been performed

  8. Retinal oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Eri; Hirooka, Kazuyuki; Shimazaki, Takeru; Sato, Shino; Ukegawa, Kaori; Nakano, Yuki; Tsujikawa, Akitaka

    2017-08-01

    This study compared retinal vessel oxygen saturation before and after glaucoma surgery. Retinal oxygen saturation in glaucoma patients was measured using a non-invasive spectrophotometric retinal oximeter. Adequate image quality was found in 49 of the 108 consecutive glaucoma patients recruited, with 30 undergoing trabeculectomy, 11 EX-PRESS and eight trabeculotomy. Retinal oxygen saturation measurements in the retinal arterioles and venules were performed at 1 day prior to and at approximately 10 days after surgery. Statistical analysis was performed using a Student's t-test. After glaucoma surgery, intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 19.8 ± 7.7 mmHg to 9.0 ± 5.7 mmHg (p glaucoma surgery had an effect on the retinal venous oxygen saturation. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niven, W.A.; Shikany, S.D.; Shira, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed

  10. SR-Site: Oxygen ingress in the rock at Forsmark during a glacial cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidborn, Magnus (Kemakta Konsult AB (Sweden)); Sandstroem, Bjoern (WSP Sverige AB (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB (Sweden)); Salas, Joaquin; Maia, Flavia; Delos, Anne; Molinero, Jorge (Amphos21 (Spain)); Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten (Microbial Analytics Sweden AB (Sweden))

    2010-11-15

    matrix is the main source of reducing capacity. The ferrous iron occurs in different reduced minerals, of which biotite and chlorite are the most abundant. The release rate of ferrous iron from biotite is slower than for most of the ferrous minerals considered. Therefore, the ferrous iron is cautiously assumed to be comprised in biotite, as a model substance, and the release rate is calculated based on this assumption. Furthermore, the oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen is assumed to occur in two consecutive steps; dissolution of ferrous iron from the mineral lattice into the pore solution followed by homogeneous oxidation of the dissolved ferrous ions. Direct oxidation of ferrous iron incorporated in the mineral lattice is hence also cautiously approximated by these two coupled processes. At early times, reduced minerals in the undisturbed rock matrix, which are directly exposed to the flowing water, are easily accessible from the flow paths in the fractures. In this situation, the extent of oxygen ingress along the flow path is determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and oxygen consuming reactions. Eventually, the reducing capacity of the rock close to the fracture becomes depleted and the remaining ferrous minerals can only be reached by diffusion in the rock matrix. With time, this diffusion resistance increases as the reducing capacity is depleted further into the rock matrix. The oxygen consuming reaction is then limited by the diffusion resistance. The extent of oxygen ingress is in this situation determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and diffusion into the rock matrix. Both of these situations are represented by two different models that are solved analytically in this report. The case of kinetically controlled oxygen consumption for early times is furthermore evaluated with the geochemical numerical codes PHREEQC and PHAST. Sensitivity analyses of important parameters such as the pH, availability of specific reactive mineral surfaces

  11. SR-Site: Oxygen ingress in the rock at Forsmark during a glacial cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidborn, Magnus; Sandstroem, Bjoern; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Salas, Joaquin; Maia, Flavia; Delos, Anne; Molinero, Jorge; Hallbeck, Lotta; Pedersen, Karsten

    2010-11-01

    matrix is the main source of reducing capacity. The ferrous iron occurs in different reduced minerals, of which biotite and chlorite are the most abundant. The release rate of ferrous iron from biotite is slower than for most of the ferrous minerals considered. Therefore, the ferrous iron is cautiously assumed to be comprised in biotite, as a model substance, and the release rate is calculated based on this assumption. Furthermore, the oxidation of ferrous iron by oxygen is assumed to occur in two consecutive steps; dissolution of ferrous iron from the mineral lattice into the pore solution followed by homogeneous oxidation of the dissolved ferrous ions. Direct oxidation of ferrous iron incorporated in the mineral lattice is hence also cautiously approximated by these two coupled processes. At early times, reduced minerals in the undisturbed rock matrix, which are directly exposed to the flowing water, are easily accessible from the flow paths in the fractures. In this situation, the extent of oxygen ingress along the flow path is determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and oxygen consuming reactions. Eventually, the reducing capacity of the rock close to the fracture becomes depleted and the remaining ferrous minerals can only be reached by diffusion in the rock matrix. With time, this diffusion resistance increases as the reducing capacity is depleted further into the rock matrix. The oxygen consuming reaction is then limited by the diffusion resistance. The extent of oxygen ingress is in this situation determined by the relative rates of oxygen recharge and diffusion into the rock matrix. Both of these situations are represented by two different models that are solved analytically in this report. The case of kinetically controlled oxygen consumption for early times is furthermore evaluated with the geochemical numerical codes PHREEQC and PHAST. Sensitivity analyses of important parameters such as the pH, availability of specific reactive mineral surfaces

  12. Step-to-step variability in treadmill walking: influence of rhythmic auditory cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Terrier

    Full Text Available While walking, human beings continuously adjust step length (SpL, step time (SpT, step speed (SpS = SpL/SpT and step width (SpW by integrating both feedforward and feedback mechanisms. These motor control processes result in correlations of gait parameters between consecutive strides (statistical persistence. Constraining gait with a speed cue (treadmill and/or a rhythmic auditory cue (metronome, modifies the statistical persistence to anti-persistence. The objective was to analyze whether the combined effect of treadmill and rhythmic auditory cueing (RAC modified not only statistical persistence, but also fluctuation magnitude (standard deviation, SD, and stationarity of SpL, SpT, SpS and SpW. Twenty healthy subjects performed 6 × 5 min. walking tests at various imposed speeds on a treadmill instrumented with foot-pressure sensors. Freely-chosen walking cadences were assessed during the first three trials, and then imposed accordingly in the last trials with a metronome. Fluctuation magnitude (SD of SpT, SpL, SpS and SpW was assessed, as well as NonStationarity Index (NSI, which estimates the dispersion of local means in the times series (SD of 20 local means over 10 steps. No effect of RAC on fluctuation magnitude (SD was observed. SpW was not modified by RAC, what is likely the evidence that lateral foot placement is separately regulated. Stationarity (NSI was modified by RAC in the same manner as persistent pattern: Treadmill induced low NSI in the time series of SpS, and high NSI in SpT and SpL. On the contrary, SpT, SpL and SpS exhibited low NSI under RAC condition. We used relatively short sample of consecutive strides (100 as compared to the usual number of strides required to analyze fluctuation dynamics (200 to 1000 strides. Therefore, the responsiveness of stationarity measure (NSI to cued walking opens the perspective to perform short walking tests that would be adapted to patients with a reduced gait perimeter.

  13. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested

  14. Oxygen enrichment incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Guk; Yang, Hee Chul; Park, Geun Il; Kim, Joon Hyung

    2000-10-01

    Oxygen enriched combustion technology has recently been used in waste incineration. To apply the oxygen enrichment on alpha-bearing waste incineration, which is being developed, a state-of-an-art review has been performed. The use of oxygen or oxygen-enriched air instead of air in incineration would result in increase of combustion efficiency and capacity, and reduction of off-gas product. Especially, the off-gas could be reduced below a quarter, which might reduce off-gas treatment facilities, and also increase an efficiency of off-gas treatment. However, the use of oxygen might also lead to local overheating and high nitrogen oxides (NOx) formation. To overcome these problems, an application of low NOx oxy-fuel burner and recycling of a part of off-gas to combustion chamber have been suggested.

  15. Preparative isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. using supercritical fluid extraction combined with consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Rongwei; Shen, Jie; Liu, Xiaojing; Zou, Yong; Xu, Xinjun

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a consecutive preparation method for the isolation and purification of hainanmurpanin, meranzin, and phebalosin from leaves of Murraya exotica L. The process involved supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , solvent extraction, and two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography. Pressure, temperature, and the volume of entrainer were optimized as 27 MPa, 52°C, and 60 mL by response surface methodology in supercritical fluid extraction with CO 2 , and the yield of the crude extracts was 7.91 g from 100 g of leaves. Subsequently, 80% methanol/water was used to extract and condense the three compounds from the crude extracts, and 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts was obtained. Then, a two-step high-speed countercurrent chromatography procedure was developed for the isolation of the three target compounds from methanol/water extracts, including conventional high-speed countercurrent chromatography for further enrichment and consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography for purification. The yield of concentrates from high-speed countercurrent chromatography was 2.50 g from 4.23 g of methanol/water extracts. Finally, the consecutive high-speed countercurrent chromatography produced 103.2 mg of hainanmurpanin, 244.7 mg of meranzin, and 255.4 mg of phebalosin with purities up to 97.66, 99.36, and 98.64%, respectively, from 900 mg of high-speed countercurrent chromatography concentrates in one run of three consecutive sample loadings without exchanging a solvent system. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A.

    1997-01-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10 -6 -1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs

  17. Oxygen partial pressure sensor for gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbero, J.A.; Azcona, M.A.; Orce, A. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche

    1997-10-01

    Precise measurement of very low oxygen partial pressure is important in both laboratories and industries. Particularly in nuclear industry, it is relevant in the different steps of the nuclear fuel fabrication. It is presented an instrument which is handy and of easy construction, suitable for the measurement of oxygen partial pressure of gases, in the range of 10{sup -6}-1 atm. It is based on a solid electrolyte galvanic cell, using Yttria doped zirconia as a ceramic membrane. Through an indirect measurement and calibration, the instrument can be used to measure the content of free oxygen in liquids. It is a import feature in NPP instrumentation. The equipment was calibrated with mixtures of special nonreactive gases. (author). 5 refs.

  18. Effects of walking speed on the step-by-step control of step width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Katy H; Heitkamp, Lauren N; Horne, Joscelyn S; Dean, Jesse C

    2018-02-08

    Young, healthy adults walking at typical preferred speeds use step-by-step adjustments of step width to appropriately redirect their center of mass motion and ensure mediolateral stability. However, it is presently unclear whether this control strategy is retained when walking at the slower speeds preferred by many clinical populations. We investigated whether the typical stabilization strategy is influenced by walking speed. Twelve young, neurologically intact participants walked on a treadmill at a range of prescribed speeds (0.2-1.2 m/s). The mediolateral stabilization strategy was quantified as the proportion of step width variance predicted by the mechanical state of the pelvis throughout a step (calculated as R 2 magnitude from a multiple linear regression). Our ability to accurately predict the upcoming step width increased over the course of a step. The strength of the relationship between step width and pelvis mechanics at the start of a step was reduced at slower speeds. However, these speed-dependent differences largely disappeared by the end of a step, other than at the slowest walking speed (0.2 m/s). These results suggest that mechanics-dependent adjustments in step width are a consistent component of healthy gait across speeds and contexts. However, slower walking speeds may ease this control by allowing mediolateral repositioning of the swing leg to occur later in a step, thus encouraging slower walking among clinical populations with limited sensorimotor control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Cloud Height Retrieval with Oxygen A and B Bands for the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuekui; Marshak, Alexander; Mao, Jianping; Lyapustin, Alexei; Herman, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Planned to fly in 2014, the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR) would see the whole sunlit half of the Earth from the L 1 Lagrangian point and would provide simultaneous data on cloud and aerosol properties with its Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC). EPIC images the Earth on a 2Kx2K CCD array, which gives a horizontal resolution of about 10 km at nadir. A filter-wheel provides consecutive images in 10 spectral channels ranging from the UV to the near-IR, including the oxygen A and B bands. This paper presents a study of retrieving cloud height with EPIC's oxygen A and B bands. As the first step, we analyzed the effect of cloud optical and geometrical properties, sun-view geometry, and surface type on the cloud height determination. Second, we developed two cloud height retrieval algorithms that are based on the Mixed Lambertian-Equivalent Reflectivity (MLER) concept: one utilizes the absolute radiances at the Oxygen A and B bands and the other uses the radiance ratios between the absorption and reference channels of the two bands. Third, we applied the algorithms to the simulated EPIC data and to the data from SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY) observations. Results show that oxygen A and B bands complement each other: A band is better suited for retrievals over ocean, while B band is better over vegetated land due to a much darker surface. Improvements to the MLER model, including corrections to surface contribution and photon path inside clouds, will also be discussed.

  20. Reaction Times to Consecutive Automation Failures: A Function of Working Memory and Sustained Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipp, Meike

    2016-12-01

    This study explored whether working memory and sustained attention influence cognitive lock-up, which is a delay in the response to consecutive automation failures. Previous research has demonstrated that the information that automation provides about failures and the time pressure that is associated with a task influence cognitive lock-up. Previous research has also demonstrated considerable variability in cognitive lock-up between participants. This is why individual differences might influence cognitive lock-up. The present study tested whether working memory-including flexibility in executive functioning-and sustained attention might be crucial in this regard. Eighty-five participants were asked to monitor automated aircraft functions. The experimental manipulation consisted of whether or not an initial automation failure was followed by a consecutive failure. Reaction times to the failures were recorded. Participants' working-memory and sustained-attention abilities were assessed with standardized tests. As expected, participants' reactions to consecutive failures were slower than their reactions to initial failures. In addition, working-memory and sustained-attention abilities enhanced the speed with which participants reacted to failures, more so with regard to consecutive than to initial failures. The findings highlight that operators with better working memory and sustained attention have small advantages when initial failures occur, but their advantages increase across consecutive failures. The results stress the need to consider personnel selection strategies to mitigate cognitive lock-up in general and training procedures to enhance the performance of low ability operators. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  1. Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kristian; Nørholt, Sven Erik; Knudsen, Johan

    Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients......Postoperative morbidity after reconstruction of alveolar bone defects with chin bone transplants in cleft patients - 111 consecutive patients...

  2. HTSC-Josephson step contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, K.

    1994-03-01

    In this work the properties of josephson step contacts are investigated. After a short introduction into Josephson step contacts the structure, properties and the Josphson contacts of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x high-T c superconductors is presented. The fabrication of HTSC step contacts and the microstructure is discussed. The electric properties of these contacts are measured together with the Josephson emission and the magnetic field dependence. The temperature dependence of the stationary transport properties is given. (WL)

  3. Relationship Between Working Memory and English-Chinese Consecu-tive Interpreting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 陈莉; 徐晓娟

    2016-01-01

    Working memory is the system that actively holds multiple pieces of transitory information in the mind, where they can be manipulated. In interpreting, working memory is in charge of the storage and processing of immediate information, thus making an important factor in influencing interpreting quality. The role played by working memory capacity in interpreting re-mains to be a hotspot issue in the field of interpreting research.This thesis aims to investigate the relationship between working memory capacity and E-C consecutive interpreting by conducting two tests. The first test is working memory span test and the second one is E-C consecutive interpreting test. By comparing and analyzing the results of two tests, this thesis comes to the con-clusion that working memory capacity is positively correlated with E-C consecutive interpreting in terms of fluency and logic.

  4. Lyondell develops one step isobutylene process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Lyondell Petrochemical Co., Houston, has developed a one step process to convert normal butylenes to isobutylene, a key component of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE). MTBE is expected to become the additive of choice among U.S. refiners to blend oxygenated gasolines required by 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Lyondell Pres. and Chief Executive Officer Bob Gower the the new process could help assure adequate supplies of MTBE to meet U.S. demand for cleaner burning fuels. Lyondell estimates the capital cost of building a grassroots plant to produce isobutylene with the new process would be less than half the cost of a grassroot plant to produce isobutylene with existing technology starting with normal butane

  5. The NIST Step Class Library (Step Into the Future)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Figure 6. Excerpt from a STEP exclange file based on the Geometry model 1be NIST STEP Class Libary Page 13 An issue of concern in this...Scheifler, R., Gettys, J., and Newman, P., X Window System: C Library and Protocol Reference. Digital Press, Bedford, Mass, 1988. [Schenck90] Schenck, D

  6. Step-by-Step Visual Manuals: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Toshiyuki

    2004-01-01

    The types of handouts and manuals that are used in technology training vary. Some describe procedures in a narrative way without graphics; some employ step-by-step instructions with screen captures. According to Thirlway (1994), a training manual should be like a tutor that permits a student to learn at his own pace and gives him confidence for…

  7. On the Convexity of Step out - Step in Sequencing Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke

    2016-01-01

    The main result of this paper is the convexity of Step out - Step in (SoSi) sequencing games, a class of relaxed sequencing games first analyzed by Musegaas, Borm, and Quant (2015). The proof makes use of a polynomial time algorithm determining the value and an optimal processing order for an

  8. Valve cam design using numerical step-by-step method

    OpenAIRE

    Vasilyev, Aleksandr; Bakhracheva, Yuliya; Kabore, Ousman; Zelenskiy, Yuriy

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the numerical step-by-step method of cam profile design. The results of the study are used for designing the internal combustion engine valve gear. This method allows to profile the peak efficiency of cams in view of many restrictions, connected with valve gear serviceability and reliability.

  9. The bounded proof property via step algebras and step frames

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezhanishvili, N.; Ghilardi, Silvio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a semantic criterion for a specific rule-based calculus Ax axiomatizing a given logic L to have the so-called bounded proof property. This property is a kind of an analytic subformula property limiting the proof search space. Our main tools are one-step frames and one-step algebras. These

  10. Leading Change Step-by-Step: Tactics, Tools, and Tales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiro, Jody

    2010-01-01

    "Leading Change Step-by-Step" offers a comprehensive and tactical guide for change leaders. Spiro's approach has been field-tested for more than a decade and proven effective in a wide variety of public sector organizations including K-12 schools, universities, international agencies and non-profits. The book is filled with proven tactics for…

  11. Oxygen-Vacancy Abundant Ultrafine Co3O4/Graphene Composites for High-Rate Supercapacitor Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuhua; Liu, Yuanyue; Hao, Yufeng; Yang, Xiaopeng; Goddard, William A; Zhang, Xiao Li; Cao, Bingqiang

    2018-04-01

    The metal oxides/graphene composites are one of the most promising supercapacitors (SCs) electrode materials. However, rational synthesis of such electrode materials with controllable conductivity and electrochemical activity is the topical challenge for high-performance SCs. Here, the Co 3 O 4 /graphene composite is taken as a typical example and develops a novel/universal one-step laser irradiation method that overcomes all these challenges and obtains the oxygen-vacancy abundant ultrafine Co 3 O 4 nanoparticles/graphene (UCNG) composites with high SCs performance. First-principles calculations show that the surface oxygen vacancies can facilitate the electrochemical charge transfer by creating midgap electronic states. The specific capacitance of the UCNG electrode reaches 978.1 F g -1 (135.8 mA h g -1 ) at the current densities of 1 A g -1 and retains a high capacitance retention of 916.5 F g -1 (127.3 mA h g -1 ) even at current density up to 10 A g -1 , showing remarkable rate capability (more than 93.7% capacitance retention). Additionally, 99.3% of the initial capacitance is maintained after consecutive 20 000 cycles, demonstrating enhanced cycling stability. Moreover, this proposed laser-assisted growth strategy is demonstrated to be universal for other metal oxide/graphene composites with tuned electrical conductivity and electrochemical activity.

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    Project Objective: The objectives of this project are as follows: (1) Examine the physical and chemical characteristics of a partner mill pre- and post-oxygen delignified pulp and compare them to lab generated oxygen delignified pulps; (2) Apply the chemical selectivity enhancement system to the partner pre-oxygen delignified pulps under mill conditions (with and without any predetermined amounts of carryover) to determine how efficiently viscosity is preserved, how well selectivity is enhanced, if strength is improved, measure any yield differences and/or bleachability differences; and (3) Initiate a mill scale oxygen delignification run using the selectivity enhancement agent, collect the mill data, analyze it, and propose any future plans for implementation.

  13. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch

    2005-01-01

    The oxygen tension of the optic nerve is regulated by the intraocular pressure and systemic blood pressure, the resistance in the blood vessels and oxygen consumption of the tissue. The oxygen tension is autoregulated and moderate changes in intraocular pressure or blood pressure do not affect...... the optic nerve oxygen tension. If the intraocular pressure is increased above 40 mmHg or the ocular perfusion pressure decreased below 50 mmHg the autoregulation is overwhelmed and the optic nerve becomes hypoxic. A disturbance in oxidative metabolism in the cytochromes of the optic nerve can be seen...... at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...

  14. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    This volume has been designed to provide those interested in oxygen toxicity with a working knowledge of advancement in the field with the intention that the topics described in each chapter will be immediately useful...

  15. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at Home Tell your local fire department, electric company, and telephone company that you use oxygen in your home. They ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  16. Pathology of oxygen

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autor, Anne Pomeroy

    1982-01-01

    .... The book is divided into three general sections. The first and smallest section of the book explains the molecular and biochemical basis of our current understanding of oxygen radical toxicity as well as the means by which normal aerobic cells...

  17. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide.......To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  18. Ekstrakorporal oxygenering ved legionellapneumoni

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uslu, Bülent; Steensen, Morten

    2009-01-01

    We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration with hypo......We present a case report with a 49-year-old woman with legionella pneumonia and fulminant respiratory failure. Despite maximal conventional respirator treatment with positive pressure ventilation, 100% oxygen and pharmacological treatment in an intensive care unit, further deterioration...

  19. Intraportal islet oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Avgoustiniatos, Efstathios S; Papas, Klearchos K

    2014-05-01

    Islet transplantation (IT) is a promising therapy for the treatment of diabetes. The large number of islets required to achieve insulin independence limit its cost-effectiveness and the number of patients who can be treated. It is believed that >50% of islets are lost in the immediate post-IT period. Poor oxygenation in the early post-IT period is recognized as a possible reason for islet loss and dysfunction but has not been extensively studied. Several key variables affect oxygenation in this setting, including (1) local oxygen partial pressure (pO(2)), (2) islet oxygen consumption, (3) islet size (diameter, D), and (4) presence or absence of thrombosis on the islet surface. We discuss implications of oxygen-limiting conditions on intraportal islet viability and function. Of the 4 key variables, the islet size appears to be the most important determinant of the anoxic and nonfunctional islet volume fractions. Similarly, the effect of thrombus formation on the islet surface may be substantial. At the University of Minnesota, average size distribution data from clinical alloislet preparations (n = 10) indicate that >150-µm D islets account for only ~30% of the total islet number, but >85% of the total islet volume. This suggests that improved oxygen supply to the islets may have a profound impact on islet survivability and function since most of the β-cell volume is within large islets which are most susceptible to oxygen-limiting conditions. The assumption that the liver is a suitable islet transplant site from the standpoint of oxygenation should be reconsidered. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  20. Production of an accelerated oxygen-14 beam

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, J; Cerny, J

    2003-01-01

    BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 10 sup 8 ions/s have been utilized for experiments. Development of oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 s and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has bee...

  1. Singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen in tetraphenyl-porphyrin solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dedic, Roman; Korinek, Miloslav; Molnar, Alexander; Svoboda, Antonin; Hala, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Time-resolved measurement of singlet oxygen infrared phosphorescence is a powerful tool for determination of quantum yields and kinetics of its photosensitization. This technique was employed to investigate in detail the previously observed effect of singlet oxygen quenching by oxygen. The question whether the singlet oxygen is quenched by oxygen in ground or in excited state was addressed by study of two complementary dependencies of singlet oxygen lifetimes: on dissolved oxygen concentration and on excitation intensity. Oxygen concentration dependence study of meso-tetra(4-sulphonato)phenylporphyrin (TPPS 4 ) phosphorescence kinetics showed linearity of the dependence of TPPS 4 triplet state rate-constant. Corresponding bimolecular quenching constant of (1.5±0.1)x10 9 l/mol s was obtained. On the other hand, rate constants of singlet oxygen depopulation exhibit nonlinear dependence on oxygen concentration. Comparison of zero oxygen concentration-extrapolated value of singlet oxygen lifetime of (6.5±0.4) μs to (3.7±0.1) μs observed under air-saturated conditions indicates importance of the effect of quenching of singlet oxygen by oxygen. Upward-sloping dependencies of singlet oxygen depopulation rate-constant on excitation intensity evidence that singlet oxygen is predominantly quenched by oxygen in excited singlet state

  2. Liquid-phase reforming and hydrodeoxygenation as a two-step route to aromatics from lignin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerius, A.L.; Bruijnincx, P.C.A.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    A two-step approach to the conversion of organosolv, kraft and sugarcane bagasse lignin to monoaromatic compounds of low oxygen content is presented. The first step consists of lignin depolymerization in a liquid phase reforming (LPR) reaction over a 1 wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst at 225 °C in alkaline

  3. A small step for mankind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, C.; Koymans, R.L.C.; Kuiper, R.; Dams, D.; Hannemann, U.; Steffen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For many programming languages, the only formal semantics published is an SOS big-step semantics. Such a semantics is not suited for investigations that observe intermediate states, such as invariant techniques. In this paper, a construction is proposed that generates automatically a small-step SOS

  4. Grief: Difficult Times, Simple Steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Emily Lane

    This guide presents techniques to assist others in coping with the loss of a loved one. Using the language of 9 layperson, the book contains more than 100 tips for caregivers or loved ones. A simple step is presented on each page, followed by reasons and instructions for each step. Chapters include: "What to Say"; "Helpful Things to Do"; "Dealing…

  5. A well-defined silica-supported aluminium alkyl through an unprecedented, consecutive two-step protonolysis–alkyl transfer mechanism

    KAUST Repository

    Pelletier, Jé ré mie; Espinas, Jeff; Vu, Nghiem; Norsic, Sé bastien; Baudouin, Anne; Delevoye, Laurent; Tré bosc, Julien; Le Roux, Erwan; Santini, Catherine; Basset, Jean-Marie; Gauvin, Ré gis M.; Taoufik, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Impregnation of [(AliBu3)(Et2O)] on partially dehydroxylated SBA-15 affords a mesoporous material bearing the well-defined single site surface aluminium species [(≡SiO)2Al(iBu)(Et 2O)]. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Regional aspects of cerebral cysticercosis. Incidence and evaluation by computerized tomography in 1000 consecutive studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jozzolino, D.A. (Instituto de Tomografia Axial Computadorizada de Londrina (Brazil))

    One thousand consecutive studies of the entire brain were performed and 122 patients with tomographic diagnosis of cysticercosis were found. The high incidence of this disease is discussed and its endemic characteristics as well. Various forms and types are described, the most frequent being the presence of calcifications; other tests performed at the time of computerized tomography are mentioned.

  7. Systematic front distortion and presence of consecutive fronts in a precipitation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volford, A.; Izsak, F.; Ripszam, M.; Lagzi, I.

    2006-01-01

    A new simple reaction-diffusion system is presented focusing on pattern formation phenomena as consecutive precipitation fronts and distortion of the precipitation front.The chemical system investigated here is based on the amphoteric property of aluminum hydroxide and exhibits two unique phenomena.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Competitive-Consecutive Reactions in Turbulent Channel Flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrieling, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This thesis deals with mixing of passive scalars in a turbulent flow. The passive scalars are released in a turbulent plane channel flow and interpreted as either non-reactive components or reactive components that are involved in a competitive-consecutive reaction system. The evolution of these

  9. Automatic lameness detection based on consecutive 3D-video recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertem, van T.; Viazzi, S.; Steensels, M.; Maltz, E.; Antler, A.; Alchanatis, V.; Schlageter-Tello, A.; Lokhorst, C.; Romanini, C.E.B.; Bahr, C.; Berckmans, D.; Halachmi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Manual locomotion scoring for lameness detection is a time-consuming and subjective procedure. Therefore, the objective of this study is to optimise the classification output of a computer vision based algorithm for automated lameness scoring. Cow gait recordings were made during four consecutive

  10. TRANSURETHRAL RADIOFREQUENCY HEATING OR THERMOTHERAPY FOR BENIGN PROSTATIC HYPERTROPHY - A PROSPECTIVE TRIAL ON 65 CONSECUTIVE CASES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MEIER, AHP; WEIL, EHJ; VANDOORN, ESCV; VERHAEGH, GTCM; JANKNEGT, RA

    1992-01-01

    65 consecutive cases with symptomatic benign prostate hypertrophy were treated with transurethral radiowave thermotherapy (TURF) using the Thermex-II at a temperature of 44.5-degrees-C. We report uroflowmetry and symptom scores after a follow-up of 6 months. The mean age was 63 years, the mean

  11. La interpretacion consecutiva: metodologia y tecnicas (Consecutive Interpretation: Methodology and Techniques).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drallny, Ines

    1987-01-01

    Describes the purpose and appropriate methodology for various levels of interpreter training, for both consecutive and simultaneous interpretation. The importance of relating the intent of the text to the explicit language forms through which that intent is realized is discussed, and appropriate criteria for evaluation of student interpreters are…

  12. Effect of consecutive driving on accident risk: a comparison between passenger and freight train driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsin-Li; Ju, Lai-Shun

    2008-11-01

    This study combined driver-responsible accidents with on-board driving hours to examine the effect of consecutive driving on the accident risk of train operations. The data collected from the Taiwan Railway Administration for the period 1996-2006 was used to compute accident rates for varied accumulated driving hours for passenger and freight trains. The results showed that accident risk grew with increased consecutive driving hours for both passenger and freight trains, and doubled that of the first hour after four consecutive hours of driving. Additional accident risk was found for freight trains during the first hour due to required shunting in the marshalling yards where there are complex track layouts and semi-automatic traffic controls. Also, accident risk for train driving increased more quickly over consecutive driving hours than for automobile driving, and accumulated fatigue caused by high working pressure and monotony of the working environment are considered to be the part of the reason. To prevent human errors accidents, enhancing safety equipment, driver training programs, and establishing a sound auditing system are suggested and discussed.

  13. Dependence of nitrite oxidation on nitrite and oxygen in low-oxygen seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin; Ji, Qixing; Jayakumar, Amal; Ward, Bess B.

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite oxidation is an essential step in transformations of fixed nitrogen. The physiology of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) implies that the rates of nitrite oxidation should be controlled by concentration of their substrate, nitrite, and the terminal electron acceptor, oxygen. The sensitivities of nitrite oxidation to oxygen and nitrite concentrations were investigated using 15N tracer incubations in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Nitrite stimulated nitrite oxidation under low in situ nitrite conditions, following Michaelis-Menten kinetics, indicating that nitrite was the limiting substrate. The nitrite half-saturation constant (Ks = 0.254 ± 0.161 μM) was 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than in cultivated NOB, indicating higher affinity of marine NOB for nitrite. The highest rates of nitrite oxidation were measured in the oxygen depleted zone (ODZ), and were partially inhibited by additions of oxygen. This oxygen sensitivity suggests that ODZ specialist NOB, adapted to low-oxygen conditions, are responsible for apparently anaerobic nitrite oxidation.

  14. Acute effects of heavy-load squats on consecutive squat jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kurt R; Brown, Lee E; Coburn, Jared W; Zinder, Steven M

    2008-05-01

    Postactivation potentiation (PAP) and complex training have generated interest within the strength and conditioning community in recent years, but much of the research to date has produced confounding results. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effects of a heavy-load back squat [85% 1 repetition maximum (1RM)] condition on consecutive squat jump performance. Twelve in-season Division I male track-and-field athletes participated in two randomized testing conditions: a five-repetition back squat at 85% 1RM (BS) and a five-repetition squat jump (SJ). The BS condition consisted of seven consecutive squat jumps (BS-PRE), followed by five repetitions of the BS at 85% 1RM, followed by another set of seven consecutive squat jumps (BS-POST). The SJ condition was exactly the same as the BS condition except that five consecutive SJs replaced the five BSs, with 3 minutes' rest between each set. BS-PRE, BS-POST, SJ-PRE, and SJ-POST were analyzed and compared for mean and peak jump height, as well as mean and peak ground reaction force (GRF). The BS condition's mean and peak jump height and peak GRF increased 5.8% +/- 4.8%, 4.7% +/- 4.8%, and 4.6% +/- 7.4%, respectively, whereas the SJ condition's mean and peak jump height and peak GRF decreased 2.7% +/- 5.0%, 4.0% +/- 4.9%, and 1.3% +/- 7.5%, respectively. The results indicate that performing a heavy-load back squat before a set of consecutive SJs may enhance acute performance in average and peak jump height, as well as peak GRF.

  15. Labtracker+, a medical smartphone app for the interpretation of consecutive laboratory results: an external validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilderink, Judith M; Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Vanmolkot, Floris H M; Bekers, Otto; Koopmans, Richard P; Meex, Steven J R

    2017-09-01

    When monitoring patients over time, clinicians may struggle to distinguish 'real changes' in consecutive blood parameters from so-called natural fluctuations. In practice, they have to do so by relying on their clinical experience and intuition. We developed Labtracker+ , a medical app that calculates the probability that an increase or decrease over time in a specific blood parameter is real, given the time between measurements. We presented patient cases to 135 participants to examine whether there is a difference between medical students, residents and experienced clinicians when it comes to interpreting changes between consecutive laboratory results. Participants were asked to interpret if changes in consecutive laboratory values were likely to be 'real' or rather due to natural fluctuations. The answers of the study participants were compared with the calculated probabilities by the app Labtracker+ and the concordance rates were assessed. Medical students (n=92), medical residents from the department of internal medicine (n=19) and internists (n=24) at a Dutch University Medical Centre. Concordance rates between the study participants and the calculated probabilities by the app Labtracker+ were compared. Besides, we tested whether physicians with clinical experience scored better concordance rates with the app Labtracker+ than inexperienced clinicians. Medical residents and internists showed significantly better concordance rates with the calculated probabilities by the app Labtracker+ than medical students, regarding their interpretation of differences between consecutive laboratory results (p=0.009 and p<0.001, respectively). The app Labtracker+ could serve as a clinical decision tool in the interpretation of consecutive laboratory test results and could contribute to rapid recognition of parameter changes by physicians. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial

  16. Closed Loop Control of Oxygen Delivery and Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    were used for this study and were connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen...connected via a USB cable to allow communication. The ventilator was modified to allow closed loop control of oxygen based on the oxygen saturation...2017-4119, 28 Aug 2017. oximetry (SpO2) and intermittent arterial blood sampling for arterial oxygen tension (partial pressure of oxygen [PaO2]) and

  17. Microprocessor controller for stepping motors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, B.G.; Thuot, M.E.

    1977-01-01

    A new concept for digital computer control of multiple stepping motors which operate in a severe electromagnetic pulse environment is presented. The motors position mirrors in the beam-alignment system of a 100-kJ CO 2 laser. An asynchronous communications channel of a computer is used to send coded messages, containing the motor address and stepping-command information, to the stepping-motor controller in a bit serial format over a fiber-optics communications link. The addressed controller responds by transmitting to the computer its address and other motor information, thus confirming the received message. Each controller is capable of controlling three stepping motors. The controller contains the fiber-optics interface, a microprocessor, and the stepping-motor driven circuits. The microprocessor program, which resides in an EPROM, decodes the received messages, transmits responses, performs the stepping-motor sequence logic, maintains motor-position information, and monitors the motor's reference switch. For multiple stepping-motor application, the controllers are connected in a daisy chain providing control of many motors from one asynchronous communications channel of the computer

  18. a New Approach for Progressive Dense Reconstruction from Consecutive Images Based on Prior Low-Density 3d Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Z.; El-Sheimy, N.

    2017-09-01

    In recent years, the increasing incidence of climate-related disasters has tremendously affected our environment. In order to effectively manage and reduce dramatic impacts of such events, the development of timely disaster management plans is essential. Since these disasters are spatial phenomena, timely provision of geospatial information is crucial for effective development of response and management plans. Due to inaccessibility of the affected areas and limited budget of first-responders, timely acquisition of the required geospatial data for these applications is usually possible only using low-cost imaging and georefencing sensors mounted on unmanned platforms. Despite rapid collection of the required data using these systems, available processing techniques are not yet capable of delivering geospatial information to responders and decision makers in a timely manner. To address this issue, this paper introduces a new technique for dense 3D reconstruction of the affected scenes which can deliver and improve the needed geospatial information incrementally. This approach is implemented based on prior 3D knowledge of the scene and employs computationally-efficient 2D triangulation, feature descriptor, feature matching and point verification techniques to optimize and speed up 3D dense scene reconstruction procedure. To verify the feasibility and computational efficiency of the proposed approach, an experiment using a set of consecutive images collected onboard a UAV platform and prior low-density airborne laser scanning over the same area is conducted and step by step results are provided. A comparative analysis of the proposed approach and an available image-based dense reconstruction technique is also conducted to prove the computational efficiency and competency of this technique for delivering geospatial information with pre-specified accuracy.

  19. Adsorption-induced step formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thostrup, P.; Christoffersen, Ebbe; Lorensen, Henrik Qvist

    2001-01-01

    Through an interplay between density functional calculations, Monte Carlo simulations and scanning tunneling microscopy experiments, we show that an intermediate coverage of CO on the Pt(110) surface gives rise to a new rough equilibrium structure with more than 50% step atoms. CO is shown to bind...... so strongly to low-coordinated Pt atoms that it can break Pt-Pt bonds and spontaneously form steps on the surface. It is argued that adsorption-induced step formation may be a general effect, in particular at high gas pressures and temperatures....

  20. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative explanat......Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  1. Oxygen Dependent Biocatalytic Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Asbjørn Toftgaard

    Enzyme catalysts have the potential to improve both the process economics and the environ-mental profile of many oxidation reactions especially in the fine- and specialty-chemical industry, due to their exquisite ability to perform stereo-, regio- and chemo-selective oxida-tions at ambient...... to aldehydes and ketones, oxyfunctionalization of C-H bonds, and epoxidation of C-C double bonds. Although oxygen dependent biocatalysis offers many possibilities, there are numerous chal-lenges to be overcome before an enzyme can be implemented in an industrial process. These challenges requires the combined...... far below their potential maximum catalytic rate at industrially relevant oxygen concentrations. Detailed knowledge of the en-zyme kinetics are therefore required in order to determine the best operating conditions and design oxygen supply to minimize processing costs. This is enabled...

  2. Oxygen therapy reduces postoperative tachycardia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stausholm, K; Kehlet, H; Rosenberg, J

    1995-01-01

    Concomitant hypoxaemia and tachycardia in the postoperative period is unfavourable for the myocardium. Since hypoxaemia per se may be involved in the pathogenesis of postoperative tachycardia, we have studied the effect of oxygen therapy on tachycardia in 12 patients randomly allocated to blinded...... air or oxygen by facemask on the second or third day after major surgery. Inclusion criteria were arterial hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation 90 beat.min-1). Each patient responded similarly to oxygen therapy: an increase in arterial oxygen saturation and a decrease...... in heart rate (p oxygen has a positive effect on the cardiac oxygen delivery and demand balance....

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, R.; Hamilton-Farrell, M.R.; Kleij, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy is the inhalation of 100% oxygen at a pressure of at least 1.5 atmospheres absolute (150 kPa). It uses oxygen as a drug by dissolving it in the plasma and delivering it to the tissues independent of hemoglobin. For a variety of organ systems, HBO is known to promote new vessel growth into areas with reduced oxygen tension due to poor vascularity, and therewith promotes wound healing and recovery of radiation-injured tissue. Furthermore, tumors may be sensitized to irradiation by raising intratumoral oxygen tensions. Methods: A network of hyperbaric facilities exists in Europe, and a number of clinical studies are ongoing. The intergovernmental framework COST B14 action 'Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy' started in 1999. The main goal of the Working Group Oncology is preparation and actual implementation of prospective study protocols in the field of HBO and radiation oncology in Europe. Results: In this paper a short overview on HBO is given and the following randomized clinical studies are presented: (a) reirradiation of recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck after HBO sensitization; (b) role of HBO in enhancing radiosensitivity on glioblastoma multiforme; (c) osseointegration in irradiated patients; adjunctive HBO to prevent implant failures; (d) the role of HBO in the treatment of late irradiation sequelae in the pelvic region. The two radiosensitization protocols (a, b) allow a time interval between HBO and subsequent irradiation of 10-20 min. Conclusion: Recruitment of centers and patients is being strongly encouraged, detailed information is given on www.oxynet.org. (orig.)

  4. Antioxidants may Attenuate Plasma Erythropoietin Decline after Hyperbaric Oxygen Diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutzbauer, T S; Schneider, M; Neubauer, B; Weiss, M; Tetzlaff, K

    2015-11-01

    According to previous studies, plasma erythropoietin (EPO) may decrease after hyperbaric oxygen exposure due to oxidative stress. It is hypothesized that the decrease of EPO can be attenuated by oxygen free radical scavengers.The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether EPO plasma levels can be influenced by oral application of vitamin C and E before repeated hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. 16 healthy male police task force divers performed 3 morning dives on oxygen within a regular diving schedule on 3 consecutive days. They were randomized into either the placebo group or the vitamin group, receiving 1 g ascorbic acid and 600 IU D-α-tocopherol orally 60 min before the dive. Blood samples for EPO measurement were taken on days 1, 2, and 3 at T1, T3 and T5 60 min before and at T2, T4 and T6 60 min after each dive, respectively. A moderate decrease of EPO was observed beginning at T3 until T6 in the placebo group. The EPO concentrations in the vitamin group did not show relevant variations compared to baseline. Radical scavenging vitamins C and D may counteract hyperbaric oxygen related mechanisms reducing EPO production in hyperbaric oxygen exposure during diving. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Novel nanostructured oxygen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alan James

    New government regulations and industry requirements for medical oxygen sensors require the development of alternate materials and process optimization of primary sensor components. Current oxygen sensors are not compliant with the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS) Directive. This work focused on two areas. First, was finding suitable readily available materials for the sensor anodes. Second was optimizing the processing of the sensor cathode membrane for reduced delamination. Oxygen sensors were made using tin (Sn) and bismuth (Bi) electrodes, potassium hydroxide (KOH) and acetic acid (CH3COOH) electrolytes with platinum (Pt) and gold (Au) reference electrodes. Bi electrodes were fabricated by casting and pressing processes. Electrochemical characterization of the Sn and Bi electrodes was performed by Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and sensing characterization per BSEN ISO 21647:2009 at various oxygen percentages, 0%, 20.9% and 100% oxygen levels with an automated test apparatus. The Sn anode with both electrolyte solutions showed good oxygen sensing properties and performance in a sensor. This system shows promise for replacement of Pb electrodes as required by the RoHS Directive. The Bi anode with Au cathode in both KOH and CH3COOH electrolytes showed acceptable performance and oxygen sensing properties. The Bi anodes fabricated by separate manufacturing methods demonstrated effectiveness for use in medical oxygen sensors. Gold thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering on Flouroethylene Polymer (FEP) films. The FEP substrate temperature ranged from -77°C to 50°C. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and 4-point resistivity characterized the effects of substrate temperature to Au thin film particle size. XRD peak broadening and resistivity measurements showed a strong correlation of particle size to FEP substrate temperature. Particle size at 50°C was 594A and the -77°C particle size was 2.4 x 103A. Substrate

  6. OXYGEN MANAGEMENT DURING ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION

    OpenAIRE

    MOENNE VARGAS, MARÍA ISABE

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen additions are a common practice in winemaking, as oxygen has a positive effect in fermentative kinetics, biomass synthesis and improvement of color, structure and :flavor in treated wines. However, most oxygen additions are carried out heuristically through pump-over operations solely on a know-how basis, which is difficult to manage in terms of the exact quantity of oxygen transferred to the fermenting must. It is important to estímate the amount of oxygen added because...

  7. The primary steps of photosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, G.R.; Van Grondelle, R.

    1996-01-01

    The two important initial steps of photosynthesis-electron transfer and energy transfer occur with great speed and efficiency. New techniques in laser optics and genetic engineering age helping us to understand why. (author). 24 refs. 8 figs

  8. 7 Steps to Aging Well

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section 7 Steps to Aging Well Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents ... Exercise: A Guide from the National Institute on Aging is a publication from NIA that has strength, ...

  9. The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen at the time of two successive solar minima

    CERN Document Server

    Kondratyeva, M A; Tretyakova, S P; Zhuravlev, D A

    1999-01-01

    The energy spectra of anomalous oxygen have been determined from nuclear track detectors exposed aboard the Earth-orbiting satellites at altitudes ranging from approx 250-400 km in two consecutive solar minimum periods of 1986-1987 and 1994-1995 with opposite polarity of the solar magnetic field. A comparison of the spectra shows no contradiction to current drift models.

  10. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Pedersen, D B; Eysteinsson, T

    2004-01-01

    The authors have previously reported that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors such as acetazolamide and dorzolamide raise optic nerve oxygen tension (ONPO(2)) in pigs. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether timolol, which belongs to another group of glaucoma drugs called beta...

  11. Home Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold it can hurt your skin. Keep a fire extinguisher close by, and let your fire department know that you have oxygen in your ... any symptoms of illness. Medicare, Medicaid, and Commercial Insurance Certain insurance policies may pay for all your ...

  12. Central oxygen pipeline failure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    surgical intensive care unit (ICU), with two patients on full ventilation and ... uncertainty around the cause of the failure and the restoration, .... soon as its level also falls below three tons. Should ... (properly checked and closed prior to each anaesthetic). ... in use at the time of the central oxygen pipeline failure at Tygerberg.

  13. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is not a novel therapy in the true sense of the ... Intention-to-treat analysis showed benefit for ECMO, with a relative risk ... no doubt that VV-ECMO is an advance in medical technology, and that.

  14. Automatic identification of bullet signatures based on consecutive matching striae (CMS) criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Wei; Thompson, Robert M; Song, John; Vorburger, Theodore V

    2013-09-10

    The consecutive matching striae (CMS) numeric criteria for firearm and toolmark identifications have been widely accepted by forensic examiners, although there have been questions concerning its observer subjectivity and limited statistical support. In this paper, based on signal processing and extraction, a model for the automatic and objective counting of CMS is proposed. The position and shape information of the striae on the bullet land is represented by a feature profile, which is used for determining the CMS number automatically. Rapid counting of CMS number provides a basis for ballistics correlations with large databases and further statistical and probability analysis. Experimental results in this report using bullets fired from ten consecutively manufactured barrels support this developed model. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Normal dynamic deformation characteristics of non-consecutive jointed rock masses under impact loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Sheng; Jiang, Bowei; Sun, Bing

    2017-08-01

    In order to study deformation characteristics of non-consecutive single jointed rock masses under impact loads, we used the cement mortar materials to make simulative jointed rock mass samples, and tested the samples under impact loads by the drop hammer. Through analyzing the time-history signal of the force and the displacement, first we find that the dynamic compression displacement of the jointed rock mass is significantly larger than that of the intact jointless rock mass, the compression displacement is positively correlated with the joint length and the impact height. Secondly, the vertical compressive displacement of the jointed rock mass is mainly due to the closure of opening joints under small impact loads. Finally, the peak intensity of the intact rock mass is larger than that of the non-consecutive jointed rock mass and negatively correlated with the joint length under the same impact energy.

  16. Interset stretching does not influence the kinematic profile of consecutive bench-press sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-López, David; Izquierdo, Mikel; Rodríguez, Sergio; González-Calvo, Gustavo; Sainz, Nuria; Abadía, Olaia; Herrero, Azael J

    2010-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the role of interset stretching on the time course of acceleration portion AP and mean velocity profile during the concentric phase of 2 bench-press sets with a submaximal load (60% of the 1 repetition maximum). Twenty-five college students carried out, in 3 different days, 2 consecutive bench-press sets leading to failure, performing between sets static stretching, ballistic stretching, or no stretching. Acceleration portion and lifting velocity patterns of the concentric phase were not altered during the second set, regardless of the stretching treatment performed. However, when velocity was expressed in absolute terms, static stretching reduced significantly (p velocity during the second set compared to the first one. Therefore, if maintenance of a high absolute velocity over consecutive sets is important for training-related adaptations, static stretching should be avoided or replaced by ballistic stretching.

  17. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography findings of the macula in 500 consecutive patients with uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grajewski, R S; Boelke, A C; Adler, W; Meyer, S; Caramoy, A; Kirchhof, B; Cursiefen, C; Heindl, L M

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo analyze the macular structure in a large series of consecutive patients with different types of uveitis using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).Patients and methodsFive hundred eyes of 500 consecutive patients with anterior, intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis underwent standardized macular examination using SD-OCT. Central retinal thickness (CRT), macular volume (MV), and presence of cystoid macular edema (CME), diffuse macular edema (DME), serous retinal detachment (SRD), epiretinal membrane with (ERM+) and without (ERM-) retinal surface wrinkling were determined.ResultsThe anatomic location of inflammation affected significantly CRT and MV (Pmacula is recommended for all uveitis patients. CRT, MV, and the incidence of CME were highest in intermediate and panuveitis.

  18. Ocean Ridges and Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2014-12-01

    The history of oxygen and the fluxes and feedbacks that lead to its evolution through time remain poorly constrained. It is not clear whether oxygen has had discrete steady state levels at different times in Earth's history, or whether oxygen evolution is more progressive, with trigger points that lead to discrete changes in markers such as mass independent sulfur isotopes. Whatever this history may have been, ocean ridges play an important and poorly recognized part in the overall mass balance of oxidants and reductants that contribute to electron mass balance and the oxygen budget. One example is the current steady state O2 in the atmosphere. The carbon isotope data suggest that the fraction of carbon has increased in the Phanerozoic, and CO2 outgassing followed by organic matter burial should continually supply more O2 to the surface reservoirs. Why is O2 not then increasing? A traditional answer to this question would relate to variations in the fraction of burial of organic matter, but this fraction appears to have been relatively high throughout the Phanerozoic. Furthermore, subduction of carbon in the 1/5 organic/carbonate proportions would contribute further to an increasingly oxidized surface. What is needed is a flux of oxidized material out of the system. One solution would be a modern oxidized flux to the mantle. The current outgassing flux of CO2 is ~3.4*1012 moles per year. If 20% of that becomes stored organic carbon, that is a flux of .68*1012 moles per year of reduced carbon. The current flux of oxidized iron in subducting ocean crust is ~2*1012 moles per year of O2 equivalents, based on the Fe3+/Fe2+ ratios in old ocean crust compared to fresh basalts at the ridge axis. This flux more than accounts for the incremental oxidizing power produced by modern life. It also suggests a possible feedback through oxygenation of the ocean. A reduced deep ocean would inhibit oxidation of ocean crust, in which case there would be no subduction flux of oxidized

  19. SOLUTION OF SIGNAL UNCERTAINTY PROBLEM AT ANALYTICAL DESIGN OF CONSECUTIVE COMPENSATOR IN PIEZO ACTUATOR CONTROL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V. Bystrov

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.We present research results for the signal uncertainty problem that naturally arises for the developers of servomechanisms, including analytical design of serial compensators, delivering the required quality indexes for servomechanisms. Method. The problem was solved with the use of Besekerskiy engineering approach, formulated in 1958. This gave the possibility to reduce requirements for input signal composition of servomechanisms by using only two of their quantitative characteristics, such as maximum speed and acceleration. Information about input signal maximum speed and acceleration allows entering into consideration the equivalent harmonic input signal with calculated amplitude and frequency. In combination with requirements for maximum tracking error, the amplitude and frequency of the equivalent harmonic effects make it possible to estimate analytically the value of the amplitude characteristics of the system by error and then convert it to amplitude characteristic of open-loop system transfer function. While previously Besekerskiy approach was mainly used in relation to the apparatus of logarithmic characteristics, we use this approach for analytical synthesis of consecutive compensators. Main Results. Proposed technique is used to create analytical representation of "input–output" and "error–output" polynomial dynamic models of the designed system. In turn, the desired model of the designed system in the "error–output" form of analytical representation of transfer functions is the basis for the design of consecutive compensator, that delivers the desired placement of state matrix eigenvalues and, consequently, the necessary set of dynamic indexes for the designed system. The given procedure of consecutive compensator analytical design on the basis of Besekerskiy engineering approach under conditions of signal uncertainty is illustrated by an example. Practical Relevance. The obtained theoretical results are

  20. Analysis of Dietary Intake during Consecutive-Day Chemotherapy for Bone and Soft-Tissue Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Hori

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBone and soft tissue sarcomas are commonly treated with consecutive-day chemotherapy regimens consisting of multiple anticancer agents. Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV is a serious adverse effect of these regimens and may result in decreased energy intake during chemotherapy. Decreased energy intake may lead to undernutrition and may cause adverse effects on patient quality of life and survival.MethodsPatients with bone and soft tissue sarcomas who received consecutive-day chemotherapy were retrospectively evaluated. CINV and dietary energy intake were assessed, as well as the occurrences of hiccups and constipation during chemotherapy.ResultsA total of 13 patients, 10 males and 3 females, with a total 16 chemotherapy courses were included in the study. All patients received antiemetic prophylaxis. The CINV control rate, defined as no emesis and no rescue therapy, gradually decreased from chemotherapy day 1 (94% to day 5 (75%. Four patients experienced emesis, two of whom had been treated with a cisplatin-containing regimen. Decreased dietary energy intake was possibly associated with CINV during chemotherapy. Anorexia was grade 2 except for one case of grade 3. The incidences of hiccups and constipation were high on days 3–5.ConclusionAntiemetic prophylaxis treatment did not prevent emesis due to consecutive-day chemotherapy, especially with cisplatin-containing regimens, in patients with bone and soft-tissue tumors. Dietary energy intake decreased during chemotherapy, and this appeared to be associated with CINV. In addition, the incidence of hiccups and constipation increased during the course of consecutive-day chemotherapy regimens. Although these results are based on a small number of patients, it may be important to observe nutritional status during chemotherapy, as this may reflect a patient’s general condition. Nutritional counseling might be useful in supporting nutritional status in patients undergoing

  1. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: One Surgeon’s Experience in 100 Consecutive Cases

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    Initial 100 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by one surgeon were studied prospectively. The standard technique was modified in that the gallbladder removal was accomplished through the upper epigastric incision; there was no need to change the location of the camera. The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy was 2%. There were no major complications and no mortality. Minor complications occurred in 9% of the patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely ...

  2. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in India-review of 504 consecutive cases

    OpenAIRE

    Jhobta, Rajender Singh; Attri, Ashok Kumar; Kaushik, Robin; Sharma, Rajeev; Jhobta, Anupam

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background/objective Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation in Tropical countries continues to be different from its Western counterpart. The objective of the study was to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis as encountered by us at Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Chandigarh. Methods Five hundred and four consecutive cases of perforation peritonitis over a period of five years were r...

  3. Comparison of single and consecutive dual frequency induction surface hardening of gear wheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barglik, J.; Ducki, K.; Kukla, D.; Mizera, J.; Mrówka-Nowotnik, G.; Sieniawski, J.; Smalcerz, A.

    2018-05-01

    Mathematical modelling of single and consecutive dual - frequency induction surface hardening systems are presented and compared. The both models are solved by the 3D FEM-based professional software supported by a number of own numerical procedures. The methodology is illustrated with some examples of surface induction hardening of a gear wheel made of steel 41Cr4. The computations are in a good accordance with experiments provided on the laboratory stand.

  4. Oxygen diffusion in monazite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherniak, D. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Nakamura, M.; Watson, E. B.

    2004-09-01

    We report measurements of oxygen diffusion in natural monazites under both dry, 1-atm conditions and hydrothermal conditions. For dry experiments, 18O-enriched CePO4 powder and monazite crystals were sealed in Ag-Pd capsules with a solid buffer (to buffer at NNO) and annealed in 1-atm furnaces. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels, where monazite grains were encapsulated with 18O-enriched water. Following the diffusion anneals, oxygen concentration profiles were measured with Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA) using the reaction 18O(p,α)15N. Over the temperature range 850-1100 °C, the Arrhenius relation determined for dry diffusion experiments on monazite is given by: Under wet conditions at 100 MPa water pressure, over the temperature range 700-880 °C, oxygen diffusion can be described by the Arrhenius relationship: Oxygen diffusion under hydrothermal conditions has a significantly lower activation energy for diffusion than under dry conditions, as has been found the case for many other minerals, both silicate and nonsilicate. Given these differences in activation energies, the differences between dry and wet diffusion rates increase with lower temperatures; for example, at 600 °C, dry diffusion will be more than 4 orders of magnitude slower than diffusion under hydrothermal conditions. These disparate diffusivities will result in pronounced differences in the degree of retentivity of oxygen isotope signatures. For instance, under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust) and high lower-crustal temperatures (∼800 °C), monazite cores of 70-μm radii will preserve O isotope ratios for about 500,000 years; by comparison, they would be retained at this temperature under wet conditions for about 15,000 years.

  5. Minimum distance determination between consecutive carriers in the gamma irradiator IR-200 K trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achmad Suntoro

    2014-01-01

    A design to determine the minimum distance between the consecutive carriers at the trajectory of gamma irradiators IR-200K is implemented. Equilibrium between centrifugal force of a moving carrier in circular trajectory and its gravity force as well as carrier dimensions are used as parameters in determining such a minimum distance. The minimum distance between the consecutive carriers in the design is defined 1.2 meters. The distance is 11.5% greater than the minimum distance theoretically calculated, namely 1,076 meters. Errors tolerance in construction/installation of the trajectory and other unexpected things during irradiator's operation are part of the consideration to enlarge the minimum distance from its theoretical value. The distance between the consecutive carriers will not affect throughput and efficiency of using radiation due to the straight trajectory segments do not need to follow such the minimum distance between the carriers, as the trajectory segments around the i radiation sources are straight. (author)

  6. Yield of two consecutive sputum specimens for the effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad R Islam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From long instances, it is debatable whether three sputum specimens are required for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB or TB can be diagnosed effectively using two consecutive sputum specimens. This study was set out to evaluate the significance of examining multiple sputum specimens in diagnosis of TB. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the acid-fast bacillus (AFB smear and culture results of three consecutive days' sputum specimens from 413 confirmed TB patients which were detected as part of a larger active case finding study in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest correctional facility in Bangladesh. RESULTS: AFB was detected from 81% (n = 334 patients, of which 89% (n = 297 were diagnosed from the first and additional 9% (n = 30 were from the second sputum specimen. M. tuberculosis growth was observed for 406 patients and 85% (n = 343 were obtained from the first sputum and additional 10% (n = 42 were from the second one. The third specimen didn't show significant additional diagnostic value for the detection of AFB by microscopy or growth of the M. tuberculosis. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded from our study results that examining two consecutive sputum specimens is sufficient enough for the effective diagnosis of TB. It can also decrease the laboratory workload and hence improve the quality of work in settings with high TB burden like Bangladesh.

  7. Yield of two consecutive sputum specimens for the effective diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad R; Khatun, Razia; Uddin, Mohammad Khaja Mafij; Khan, Md Siddiqur Rahman; Rahman, Md Toufiq; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Banu, Sayera

    2013-01-01

    From long instances, it is debatable whether three sputum specimens are required for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) or TB can be diagnosed effectively using two consecutive sputum specimens. This study was set out to evaluate the significance of examining multiple sputum specimens in diagnosis of TB. We retrospectively reviewed the acid-fast bacillus (AFB) smear and culture results of three consecutive days' sputum specimens from 413 confirmed TB patients which were detected as part of a larger active case finding study in Dhaka Central Jail, the largest correctional facility in Bangladesh. AFB was detected from 81% (n = 334) patients, of which 89% (n = 297) were diagnosed from the first and additional 9% (n = 30) were from the second sputum specimen. M. tuberculosis growth was observed for 406 patients and 85% (n = 343) were obtained from the first sputum and additional 10% (n = 42) were from the second one. The third specimen didn't show significant additional diagnostic value for the detection of AFB by microscopy or growth of the M. tuberculosis. We concluded from our study results that examining two consecutive sputum specimens is sufficient enough for the effective diagnosis of TB. It can also decrease the laboratory workload and hence improve the quality of work in settings with high TB burden like Bangladesh.

  8. Signal-to-noise ratio measurement in parallel MRI with subtraction mapping and consecutive methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Hiroshi; Miyati, Tosiaki; Ogura, Akio; Doi, Tsukasa; Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Machida, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Masato; Shimizu, Kouzou; Kitou, Yoshihiro

    2008-01-01

    When measuring the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of an image the used parallel magnetic resonance imaging, it was confirmed that there was a problem in the application of past SNR measurement. With the method of measuring the noise from the background signal, SNR with parallel imaging was higher than that without parallel imaging. In the subtraction method (NEMA standard), which sets a wide region of interest, the white noise was not evaluated correctly although SNR was close to the theoretical value. We proposed two techniques because SNR in parallel imaging was not uniform according to inhomogeneity of the coil sensitivity distribution and geometry factor. Using the first method (subtraction mapping), two images were scanned with identical parameters. The SNR in each pixel divided the running mean (7 by 7 pixels in neighborhood) by standard deviation/√2 in the same region of interest. Using the second (consecutive) method, more than fifty consecutive scans of the uniform phantom were obtained with identical scan parameters. Then the SNR was calculated from the ratio of mean signal intensity to the standard deviation in each pixel on a series of images. Moreover, geometry factors were calculated from SNRs with and without parallel imaging. The SNR and geometry factor using parallel imaging in the subtraction mapping method agreed with those of the consecutive method. Both methods make it possible to obtain a more detailed determination of SNR in parallel imaging and to calculate the geometry factor. (author)

  9. Oxygen evolution reaction in nanoconfined carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Lu, Xuefeng; Li, Yunfang; Zhang, Xueqing

    2018-05-01

    Improving oxygen electrochemistry through nanoscopic confinement has recently been highlighted as a promising strategy. In-depth understanding the role of confinement is therefore required. In this study, we simulate the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) on iron oxide nanoclusters under confinement of (7,7) and (8,8) armchair carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The free energies of the four proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) steps and the OER overpotentials are calculated. The Fe4O6 nanocluster confined in (7,7) CNT is found to be the most active for OER among the systems considered in this work. This leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency of OER compared to the hematite (110) surface, which was reported recently as an active surface towards OER. The calculated results show that the OER overpotential depends strongly on the magnetic properties of the iron oxide nanocluster. These findings are helpful for experimental design of efficient catalyst for water splitting applications.

  10. Microsoft® Office Access™ 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Lambert, Steve; Lambert, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to build database solutions with Access 2007. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build databases from scratch or from templatesExchange data with other databases and Office documentsCreate forms to simplify data entryUse filters and queries to find and analyze informationDesign rich reports that help make your data meaningfulHelp prevent data corruption and unauthorized access Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Files for building skills and practic

  11. Microsoft Windows Sharepoint Services 3.0 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Londer, Olga; Bleeker, Todd; Coventry, Penelope

    2007-01-01

    Experience learning made easy-and quickly teach yourself how to use Windows SharePoint Services to enable effective team collaboration. With Step By Step, you set the pace-building and practicing the skills you need, just when you need them! Build your own SharePoint site with easy-to-use templatesCreate lists and libraries to store informationAdd discussion boards, wikis, and blogsSet up Document and Meeting Workspaces for easy collaborationShare calendars, contacts, and data from Microsoft Office programsCustomize your pages with Web Parts Your all-in-one learning experience includes: Fi

  12. Linear, Step by Step Managerial Performance, versus Exponential Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George MOLDOVEANU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the transition from the potential management concept, which its authors approached by determining its dimension (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009b, to the linear, step by step performance concept, as an objective result of management process. In this way, we “answer” the theorists and practitioners, who support exponential management performance. The authors, as detractors of the exponential performance, are influenced by the current crisis (Roşca, Moldoveanu, 2009a, by the lack of organizational excellence in many companies, particularly in Romanian ones and also reaching “the finality” in the evolved companies, developed into an uncontrollable speed.

  13. Microsoft Office SharePoint Designer 2007 Step by Step

    CERN Document Server

    Coventry, Penelope

    2008-01-01

    The smart way to learn Office SharePoint Designer 2007-one step at a time! Work at your own pace through the easy numbered steps, practice files on CD, helpful hints, and troubleshooting tips to master the fundamentals of building customized SharePoint sites and applications. You'll learn how to work with Windows® SharePoint Services 3.0 and Office SharePoint Server 2007 to create Web pages complete with Cascading Style Sheets, Lists, Libraries, and customized Web parts. Then, make your site really work for you by adding data sources, including databases, XML data and Web services, and RSS fe

  14. A step-by-step methodology for enterprise interoperability projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmeta, Ricardo; Pazos, Verónica

    2015-05-01

    Enterprise interoperability is one of the key factors for enhancing enterprise competitiveness. Achieving enterprise interoperability is an extremely complex process which involves different technological, human and organisational elements. In this paper we present a framework to help enterprise interoperability. The framework has been developed taking into account the three domains of interoperability: Enterprise Modelling, Architecture and Platform and Ontologies. The main novelty of the framework in comparison to existing ones is that it includes a step-by-step methodology that explains how to carry out an enterprise interoperability project taking into account different interoperability views, like business, process, human resources, technology, knowledge and semantics.

  15. One step beyond: Different step-to-step transitions exist during continuous contact brachiation in siamangs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fana Michilsens

    2012-02-01

    In brachiation, two main gaits are distinguished, ricochetal brachiation and continuous contact brachiation. During ricochetal brachiation, a flight phase exists and the body centre of mass (bCOM describes a parabolic trajectory. For continuous contact brachiation, where at least one hand is always in contact with the substrate, we showed in an earlier paper that four step-to-step transition types occur. We referred to these as a ‘point’, a ‘loop’, a ‘backward pendulum’ and a ‘parabolic’ transition. Only the first two transition types have previously been mentioned in the existing literature on gibbon brachiation. In the current study, we used three-dimensional video and force analysis to describe and characterize these four step-to-step transition types. Results show that, although individual preference occurs, the brachiation strides characterized by each transition type are mainly associated with speed. Yet, these four transitions seem to form a continuum rather than four distinct types. Energy recovery and collision fraction are used as estimators of mechanical efficiency of brachiation and, remarkably, these parameters do not differ between strides with different transition types. All strides show high energy recoveries (mean  = 70±11.4% and low collision fractions (mean  = 0.2±0.13, regardless of the step-to-step transition type used. We conclude that siamangs have efficient means of modifying locomotor speed during continuous contact brachiation by choosing particular step-to-step transition types, which all minimize collision fraction and enhance energy recovery.

  16. High accuracy step gauge interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byman, V.; Jaakkola, T.; Palosuo, I.; Lassila, A.

    2018-05-01

    Step gauges are convenient transfer standards for the calibration of coordinate measuring machines. A novel interferometer for step gauge calibrations implemented at VTT MIKES is described. The four-pass interferometer follows Abbe’s principle and measures the position of the inductive probe attached to a measuring head. The measuring head of the instrument is connected to a balanced boom above the carriage by a piezo translation stage. A key part of the measuring head is an invar structure on which the inductive probe and the corner cubes of the measuring arm of the interferometer are attached. The invar structure can be elevated so that the probe is raised without breaking the laser beam. During probing, the bending of the probe and the interferometer readings are recorded and the measurement face position is extrapolated to zero force. The measurement process is fully automated and the face positions of the steps can be measured up to a length of 2 m. Ambient conditions are measured continuously and the refractive index of air is compensated for. Before measurements the step gauge is aligned with an integrated 2D coordinate measuring system. The expanded uncertainty of step gauge calibration is U=\\sqrt{{{(64 nm)}2}+{{(88× {{10}-9}L)}2}} .

  17. FIRST STEP towards ICF commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saylor, W.W.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Dudziak, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Production of tritium for weapons and fusion R and D programs and successful development of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technologies are important national goals. A conceptual design for an ICF facility to meet these goals is presented. FIRST STEP (Fusion, Inertial, Reduced-Requirements Systems Test for Special Nuclear Material, Tritium, and Energy Production) is a concept for a plant to produce SNM, tritium, and energy while serving as a test bed for ICF technology development. A credible conceptual design for an ICF SNM and tritium production facility that competes favorably with fission technology on the bases of cost, production quality, and safety was sought. FIRST STEP is also designed to be an engineering test facility that integrates systems required for an ICF power plant and that is intermediate in scale between proof-of-principle experiment and commercial power plant. FIRST STEP driver and pellet performance requirements are moderate and represent reasonable intermediate goals in an R and D plan for ICF commercialization. Repetition rate requirements for FIRST STEP are similar to those of commercial size plants and FIRST STEP can be used to integrate systems under realistic ICF conditions

  18. Oxygen dynamics in the aftermath of the Great Oxidation of Earth’s atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Ngombi-Pemba, Lauriss; Hammarlund, Emma

    2013-01-01

    -oxygenated deep waters whereas the youngest were deposited in euxinic waters, which were globally extensive. These fluctuations in oxygenation were likely driven by the comings and goings of the Lomagundi carbon isotope excursion, the longest–lived positive δ13C excursion in Earth history, generating a huge......The oxygen content of Earth’s atmosphere has varied greatly through time, progressing from exceptionally low levels before about 2.3 billion years ago, to much higher levels afterward. In the absence of better information, we usually view the progress in Earth’s oxygenation as a series of steps...... oxygen source to the atmosphere. As the Lomagundi event waned, the oxygen source became a net oxygen sink as Lomagundi organic matter became oxidized, driving oxygen to low levels; this state may have persisted for 200 million years....

  19. Controlling Oxygen Mobility in Ruddlesden–Popper Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyu Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new energy materials is a key step toward satisfying the needs for next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. Among the various types of oxides, Ruddlesden–Popper (RP oxides (A2BO4 are promising candidates for electrochemical energy devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, owing to their attractive physicochemical properties, including the anisotropic nature of oxygen migration and controllable stoichiometry from oxygen excess to oxygen deficiency. Thus, understanding and controlling the kinetics of oxygen transport are essential for designing optimized materials to use in electrochemical energy devices. In this review, we first discuss the basic mechanisms of oxygen migration in RP oxides depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry. We then focus on the effect of changes in the defect concentration, crystallographic orientation, and strain on the oxygen migration in RP oxides. We also briefly review their thermal and chemical stability. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on potential research directions for future investigation to facilitate controlling oxygen ion migration in RP oxides.

  20. Flight Hours in 7 Consecutive Days and Physical Exercise among the Civil Pilot in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Wicaksana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar belakang Tidak tersedianya waktu merupakan salah satu hambatan melakukan latihan fisik yang sering dilaporkan di negara berkembang. Berdasarkan Peraturan Keselamatan Penerbangan Sipil bagian 121, jam terbang maksimal pilot sipil komersial dalam 7 hari terakhir adalah 30 jam. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan penelitian mengenai hubungan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik pada pilot sipil di Indonesia. Metode Penelitian potong lintang terhadap 600 orang pilot sipil yang melakukan pengujian kesehatan personil penerbangan di Balai Kesehatan Penerbangan pada bulan April 2016 dan memenuhi kriteria inklusi/ekslusi.  Data yang dikumpulkan yaitu karakteristik demografi, pekerjaan, kebiasaan olahraga, tinggi dan berat badan. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan wawancara dan pemeriksaan fisik. Pilot dikategorikan memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai rekomendasi ACSM apabila melakukan latihan fisik dengan intensitas sedang selama 150 menit per minggu atau latihan fisik dengan intensitas berat selama 75 menit per minggu. Hasil Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir merupakan faktor dominan terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik. Jika dibandingkan dengan pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir < 3,5 jam, maka pilot dengan jam terbang 7 hari terakhir 3,5-14 jam berisiko 24% lebih rendah memiliki kebiasaan latihan fisik sesuai [RRa= 0,76; p=0,032]. Simpulan Faktor risiko yang berpengaruh terhadap kebiasaan latihan fisik adalah jam terbang 7 hari terakhir. Kata kunci: Jam terbang 7 hari terakhir, kebiasaan latihan fisik, pilot sipil Indonesia  Background The most frequently reported barrier of doing physical exercise in developed countries is lack of time. Based on the Civil Aviation Safety Regulation part 121, the maximum working hour for commercial pilot in 7 consecutive days is 30 hours. The study objective is to identify the relation between flight hours in 7 consecutive days and the physical exercise habit among the civil pilots in

  1. From raw material to dish: pasta quality step by step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicignano, Angelo; Di Monaco, Rossella; Masi, Paolo; Cavella, Silvana

    2015-10-01

    Pasta is a traditional Italian cereal-based food that is popular worldwide because of its convenience, versatility, sensory and nutritional value. The aim of this review is to present a step-by-step guide to facilitate the understanding of the most important events that can affect pasta characteristics, directing the reader to the appropriate production steps. Owing to its unique flavor, color, composition and rheological properties, durum wheat semolina is the best raw material for pasta production. Although pasta is traditionally made from only two ingredients, sensory quality and chemical/physical characteristics of the final product may vary greatly. Starting from the same ingredients, there are a lot of different events in each step of pasta production that can result in the development of varieties of pasta with different characteristics. In particular, numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of temperature and humidity conditions of the pasta drying operation as well as the significance of the choice of raw material and operating conditions on pasta quality. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Step by step parallel programming method for molecular dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orii, Shigeo; Ohta, Toshio

    1996-07-01

    Parallel programming for a numerical simulation program of molecular dynamics is carried out with a step-by-step programming technique using the two phase method. As a result, within the range of a certain computing parameters, it is found to obtain parallel performance by using the level of parallel programming which decomposes the calculation according to indices of do-loops into each processor on the vector parallel computer VPP500 and the scalar parallel computer Paragon. It is also found that VPP500 shows parallel performance in wider range computing parameters. The reason is that the time cost of the program parts, which can not be reduced by the do-loop level of the parallel programming, can be reduced to the negligible level by the vectorization. After that, the time consuming parts of the program are concentrated on less parts that can be accelerated by the do-loop level of the parallel programming. This report shows the step-by-step parallel programming method and the parallel performance of the molecular dynamics code on VPP500 and Paragon. (author)

  3. Toward enhanced hydrogen generation from water using oxygen permeating LCF membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xiao-Yu; Chang, Le; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Kirchen, Patrick; Ghoniem, Ahmed F.

    2015-01-01

    and flow rates on the feed and sweep sides on the water thermolysis rate and oxygen flux. A single step reaction mechanism is proposed for surface reactions, and three-resistance permeation models are derived. Results show that water thermolysis

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy combined with autologous platelet concentrate applied in rabbit fibula fraction healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cesar Fagundes Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose is to study the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrates in healing the fibula bone of rabbits after induced fractures. METHODS: A total of 128 male New Zealand albino rabbits, between 6-8 months old, were subjected to a total osteotomy of the proximal portion of the right fibula. After surgery, the animals were divided into four groups (n = 32 each: control group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy; autologous platelet concentrate group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site; hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions; and autologous platelet concentrate and hyperbaric oxygen group, in which animals were subjected to osteotomy, autologous platelet concentrate applied at the fracture site, and 9 consecutive daily hyperbaric oxygen therapy sessions. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups according to a pre-determined euthanasia time points: 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks postoperative. After euthanasia at a specific time point, the fibula containing the osseous callus was prepared histologically and stained with hematoxylin and eosin or picrosirius red. RESULTS: Autologous platelet concentrates and hyperbaric oxygen therapy, applied together or separately, increased the rate of bone healing compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy and autologous platelet concentrate combined increased the rate of bone healing in this experimental model.

  5. Time step MOTA thermostat simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, G.L.

    1978-09-01

    The report details the logic, program layout, and operating procedures for the time-step MOTA (Materials Open Test Assembly) thermostat simulation program known as GYRD. It will enable prospective users to understand the operation of the program, run it, and interpret the results. The time-step simulation analysis was the approach chosen to determine the maximum value gain that could be used to minimize steady temperature offset without risking undamped thermal oscillations. The advantage of the GYRD program is that it directly shows hunting, ringing phenomenon, and similar events. Programs BITT and CYLB are faster, but do not directly show ringing time

  6. A mechanism for leader stepping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, U.; Carlson, B. E.; Koehn, C.

    2013-12-01

    The stepping of negative leaders is well observed, but not well understood. A major problem consists of the fact that the streamer corona is typically invisible within a thunderstorm, but determines the evolution of a leader. Motivated by recent observations of streamer and leader formation in the laboratory by T.M.P. Briels, S. Nijdam, P. Kochkin, A.P.J. van Deursen et al., by recent simulations of these processes by J. Teunissen, A. Sun et al., and by our theoretical understanding of the process, we suggest how laboratory phenomena can be extrapolated to lightning leaders to explain the stepping mechanism.

  7. Interplay between O2 and SnO2: oxygen ionosorption and spectroscopic evidence for adsorbed oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurlo, Alexander

    2006-10-13

    Tin dioxide is the most commonly used material in commercial gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides. Despite intensive efforts, the mechanism responsible for gas-sensing effects on SnO(2) is not fully understood. The key step is the understanding of the electronic response of SnO(2) in the presence of background oxygen. For a long time, oxygen interaction with SnO(2) has been treated within the framework of the "ionosorption theory". The adsorbed oxygen species have been regarded as free oxygen ions electrostatically stabilized on the surface (with no local chemical bond formation). A contradiction, however, arises when connecting this scenario to spectroscopic findings. Despite trying for a long time, there has not been any convincing spectroscopic evidence for "ionosorbed" oxygen species. Neither superoxide ions O(2)(-), nor charged atomic oxygen O,(-) nor peroxide ions O(2)(2-) have been observed on SnO(2) under the real working conditions of sensors. Moreover, several findings show that the superoxide ion does not undergo transformations into charged atomic oxygen at the surface, and represents a dead-end form of low-temperature oxygen adsorption on reduced metal oxide.

  8. Efficient Isomerization of Glucose to Fructose over Zeolites in Consecutive Reactions in Alcohol and Aqueous Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Paniagua, Marta; Melero, Juan A

    2013-01-01

    glucose isomerization to fructose and subsequent reaction with methanol to form methyl fructoside (step 1), followed by hydrolysis to re-form fructose after water addition (step 2). NMR analysis with (13)C-labeled sugars confirmed this reaction pathway. Conversion of glucose for 1 h at 120 °C with H......-USY (Si/Al = 6) gave a remarkable 55% yield of fructose after the second reaction step. A main advantage of applying alcohol media and a catalyst that combines Brønsted and Lewis acid sites is that glucose is isomerized to fructose at low temperatures, while direct conversion to industrially important...

  9. Origin of photosynthetic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerster, Richard; Dupuy, Jacques; Guerin de Montgareuil, Pierre

    From the comparison of isotopic exchange kinetics between C 18 O 2 and the water of algae suspensions or aerial leaves subjected to alternating darkness and light, it becomes possible to calculate the isotopic abundance of the CO 2 involved in the photochemical process; this value has been compared to those of the intracellular water and of the evolved O 2 . Kinetics of the appearance of 18 O in the oxygen produced by algae suspended in enriched water are also presented [fr

  10. ITM oxygen for gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, P.A.; Foster, E.P. [Air Products and Chemicals Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada); Gunardson, H.H. [Air Products Canada Ltd., Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    This paper described a newly developed air separation technology called Ionic Transport Membrane (ITM), which reduces the overall cost of the gasification process. The technology is well suited for advanced energy conversion processes such as integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) that require oxygen and use heavy carbonaceous feedstocks such as residual oils, bitumens, coke and coal. It is also well suited for traditional industrial applications for oxygen and distributed power. Air Products Canada Limited developed the ceramic membrane air separation technology that can reduce the cost of pure oxygen by more than 30 per cent. The separation technology achieves a capital cost reduction of 30 per cent and an energy reduction of 35 per cent over conventional cryogenic air separation. ITM is an electrochemical process that integrates well with the gasification process and an IGCC option for producing electricity from the waste heat generated from gasification. This paper described the integration of ITM technology with both the gasification and IGCC processes and showed the attractive economics of ITM. 6 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  11. Driver training in steps (DTS).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    For some years now, it has been possible in the Netherlands to follow a Driver Training in Steps (DTS) as well as the regular driver training. The DTS is a structured training method with clear training objectives which are categorized in four modules. Although the DTS is considerably better than

  12. Oxygen diffusion in zircon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, E. B.; Cherniak, D. J.

    1997-05-01

    Oxygen diffusion in natural, non-metamict zircon was characterized under both dry and water-present conditions at temperatures ranging from 765°C to 1500°C. Dry experiments were performed at atmospheric pressure by encapsulating polished zircon samples with a fine powder of 18O-enriched quartz and annealing the sealed capsules in air. Hydrothermal runs were conducted in cold-seal pressure vessels (7-70 MPa) or a piston cylinder apparatus (400-1000 MPa) on zircon samples encapsulated with both 18O-enriched quartz and 18O water. Diffusive-uptake profiles of 18O were measured in all samples with a particle accelerator, using the 18O(p, α) 15N reaction. For dry experimental conditions at 1100-1500°C, the resulting oxygen diffusivities (24 in all) are well described by: D dry (m 2/s) = 1.33 × 10 -4exp(-53920/T) There is no suggestion of diffusive anisotropy. Under wet conditions at 925°C, oxygen diffusion shows little or no dependence upon P H 2O in the range 7-1000 MPa, and is insensitive to total pressure as well. The results of 27 wet experiments at 767-1160°C and 7-1000 MPa can be described a single Arrhenius relationship: D wet (m 2/s) = 5.5 × 10 -12exp(-25280/T) The insensitivity of oxygen diffusion to P H 2O means that applications to geologic problems can be pursued knowing only whether the system of interest was 'wet' (i.e., P H 2O > 7MPa ) or 'dry'. Under dry conditions (presumably rare in the crust), zircons are extremely retentive of their oxygen isotopic signatures, to the extent that δ 18O would be perturbed at the center of a 200 μm zircon only during an extraordinarily hot and protracted event (e.g., 65 Ma at 900°C). Under wet conditions, δ 18O may or may not be retained in the central regions of individual crystals, cores or overgrowth rims, depending upon the specific thermal history of the system.

  13. Stepping out: dare to step forward, step back, or just stand still and breathe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisman, Mary Sue

    2012-01-01

    It is important to step out and make a difference. We have one of the most unique and diverse professions that allows for diversity in thought and practice, permitting each of us to grow in our unique niches and make significant contributions. I was frightened to 'step out' to go to culinary school at the age of 46, but it changed forever the way I look at my profession and I have since experienced the most enjoyable and innovative career. There are also times when it is important to 'step back' to relish the roots of our profession; to help bring food back into nutrition; to translate all of our wonderful science into a language of food that Canadians understand. We all need to take time to 'just stand still and breathe': to celebrate our accomplishments, reflect on our actions, ensure we are heading toward our vision, keep the profession vibrant and relevant, and cherish one another.

  14. Indo-Pacific sea surface temperature influences on failed consecutive rainy seasons over eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    Rainfall over eastern Africa (10°S–10°N; 35°E–50°E) is bimodal, with seasonal maxima during the "long rains" of March–April–May (MAM) and the "short rains" of October–November–December (OND). Below average precipitation during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa can have devastating long-term impacts on water availability and agriculture. Here, we examine the forcing of drought during consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa by Indo-Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs). The forcing of eastern Africa precipitation and circulation by SSTs is tested using ten ensemble simulations of a global weather forecast model forced by 1950–2010 observed global SSTs. Since the 1980s, Indo-Pacific SSTs have forced more frequent droughts spanning consecutive long and short rains seasons over eastern Africa. The increased frequency of dry conditions is linked to warming SSTs over the Indo-west Pacific and to a lesser degree to Pacific Decadal Variability. During MAM, long-term warming of tropical west Pacific SSTs from 1950–2010 has forced statistically significant precipitation reductions over eastern Africa. The warming west Pacific SSTs have forced changes in the regional lower tropospheric circulation by weakening the Somali Jet, which has reduced moisture and rainfall over the Horn of Africa. During OND, reductions in precipitation over recent decades are oftentimes overshadowed by strong year-to-year precipitation variability forced by the Indian Ocean Dipole and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation.

  15. Indirect Liquefaction of Biomass to Transportation Fuels Via Mixed Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric C.D.

    2016-11-14

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of four emerging conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates. The processing steps include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation.

  16. Oxygen Transport Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay

    2008-08-30

    The focus of this research was to develop new membrane materials by synthesizing different compounds and determining their defect structures, crystallographic structures and electrical properties. In addition to measuring electrical conductivity, oxygen vacancy concentration was also evaluated using thermogravimetry, Neutron diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy. The reducing conditions (CO{sub 2}/CO/H{sub 2} gas mixtures with steam) as encountered in a reactor environment can be expected to have significant influence on the mechanical properties of the oxides membranes. Various La based materials with and without Ti were selected as candidate membrane materials for OTM. The maximum electrical conductivity of LSF in air as a function of temperature was achieved at < 600 C and depends on the concentration of Sr (acceptor dopant). Oxygen occupancy in LSF was estimated using Neutron diffractometry and Moessbauer Spectroscopy by measuring magnetic moment changes depending on the Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+} ratio. After extensive studies of candidate materials, lanthanum ferrites (LSF and LSFT) were selected as the favored materials for the oxygen transport membrane (OTM). LSF is a very good material for an OTM because of its high electronic and oxygen ionic conductivity if long term stability and mechanical strength are improved. LSFT not only exhibits p-type behavior in the high oxygen activity regime, but also has n-type conduction in reducing atmospheres. Higher concentrations of oxygen vacancies in the low oxygen activity regime may improve the performance of LSFT as an OTM. The hole concentration is related to the difference in the acceptor and donor concentration by the relation p = [Sr'{sub La}]-[Ti{sm_bullet}{sub Fe}]. The chemical formulation predicts that the hole concentration is, p = 0.8-0.45 or 0.35. Experimental measurements indicated that p is about {approx} 0.35. The activation energy of conduction is 0.2 eV which implies that LSCF conducts via the

  17. Theory of oxygen isotope exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Otter, M.W.; Boukamp, Bernard A.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Transients for oxygen molecular mass numbers 32, 34 and 36 are derived which can be used for the interpretation of oxygen isotope exchange data based on measurement of concentrations of 16O2, 16O18O and 18O2 in the gas phase. Key parameters in the theory are the rate at which oxygen molecules are

  18. 2-Step IMAT and 2-Step IMRT in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bratengeier, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    In two dimensions, 2-Step Intensity Modulated Arc Therapy (2-Step IMAT) and 2-Step Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) were shown to be powerful methods for the optimization of plans with organs at risk (OAR) (partially) surrounded by a target volume (PTV). In three dimensions, some additional boundary conditions have to be considered to establish 2-Step IMAT as an optimization method. A further aim was to create rules for ad hoc adaptations of an IMRT plan to a daily changing PTV-OAR constellation. As a test model, a cylindrically symmetric PTV-OAR combination was used. The centrally placed OAR can adapt arbitrary diameters with different gap widths toward the PTV. Along the rotation axis the OAR diameter can vary, the OAR can even vanish at some axis positions, leaving a circular PTV. The width and weight of the second segment were the free parameters to optimize. The objective function f to minimize was the root of the integral of the squared difference of the dose in the target volume and a reference dose. For the problem, two local minima exist. Therefore, as a secondary criteria, the magnitude of hot and cold spots were taken into account. As a result, the solution with a larger segment width was recommended. From plane to plane for varying radii of PTV and OAR and for different gaps between them, different sets of weights and widths were optimal. Because only one weight for one segment shall be used for all planes (respectively leaf pairs), a strategy for complex three-dimensional (3-D) cases was established to choose a global weight. In a second step, a suitable segment width was chosen, minimizing f for this global weight. The concept was demonstrated in a planning study for a cylindrically symmetric example with a large range of different radii of an OAR along the patient axis. The method is discussed for some classes of tumor/organ at risk combinations. Noncylindrically symmetric cases were treated exemplarily. The product of width and weight of

  19. Diagnosis and initial management of urological injuries associated with 200 consecutive pelvic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, J K; Benson, G S; Corriere, J N

    1983-10-01

    During 26 months 200 consecutive patients with fracture of the bony pelvis were evaluated and treated for urological injury. There was no correlation between the extent of pelvic injury and degree of hematuria but hematuria was present in all patients with a urological injury. All urological injuries occurred with anterior arch fractures. The over-all incidence of injury was 13.5 per cent (bladder 9 per cent, urethra 3.5 per cent and combined 1 per cent). Limited extraperitoneal bladder ruptures were treated successfully by Foley catheter drainage.

  20. Motion Detection from Mobile Robots with Fuzzy Threshold Selection in Consecutive 2D Laser Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Martínez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motion detection and tracking is a relevant problem for mobile robots during navigation to avoid collisions in dynamic environments or in applications where service robots interact with humans. This paper presents a simple method to distinguish mobile obstacles from the environment that is based on applying fuzzy threshold selection to consecutive two-dimensional (2D laser scans previously matched with robot odometry. The proposed method has been tested with the Auriga-α mobile robot in indoors to estimate the motion of nearby pedestrians.

  1. Oral health-related quality of life of a consecutive sample of Spanish dental patients

    OpenAIRE

    Montero Martín, Javier; Yarte, José María; Bravo Pérez, Manuel; López-Valverde Centeno, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Assessment of the oral health-related quality of life and the modulating factors of patients deman-- ding dental treatment in the city of Salamanca, through the use of two validated instruments: the OIDP-sp (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance) and OHIP-14 (Oral Health Impact Profile). Study design: the study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 200 patients aged 18-65 years visiting an Integral Dental Centre in the city of Salamanca. Two validated instruments (OIDP-sp and OHIP-...

  2. Contamination of Ambient Air with Acinetobacter baumannii on Consecutive Inpatient Days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimose, Luis A; Doi, Yohei; Bonomo, Robert A; De Pascale, Dennise; Viau, Roberto A; Cleary, Timothy; Namias, Nicholas; Kett, Daniel H; Munoz-Price, L Silvia

    2015-07-01

    Acinetobacter-positive patients had their ambient air tested for up to 10 consecutive days. The air was Acinetobacter positive for an average of 21% of the days; the rate of contamination was higher among patients colonized in the rectum than in the airways (relative risk [RR], 2.35; P = 0.006). Of the 6 air/clinical isolate pairs available, 4 pairs were closely related according to rep-PCR results. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: One Surgeon’s Experience in 100 Consecutive Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan J Pokorny

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Initial 100 consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed by one surgeon were studied prospectively. The standard technique was modified in that the gallbladder removal was accomplished through the upper epigastric incision; there was no need to change the location of the camera. The conversion rate to open cholecystectomy was 2%. There were no major complications and no mortality. Minor complications occurred in 9% of the patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be performed safely in a community hospital setting. Simplified technique of gallbladder extraction is recommended.

  4. Acidosis counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to consecutive pruritogen exposure dependent on acid-sensing ion channel 3

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chen; Peng, Zhong; Han, Shao-Ling; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2017-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis of itch refers to a markedly reduced scratching response to consecutive exposures of a pruritogen, a process thought to protect against tissue damage by incessant scratching and to become disrupted in chronic itch. Here, we report that a strong stimulation of the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11 by its agonist, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SL-NH2) or bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide, via subcutaneous injection in mice induces tachyphylaxis to the subsequent applicat...

  5. Reliability analysis of a consecutive r-out-of-n: F system based on neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, Aziz; Alsieidi, Ragab; Youssef, Ghada

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a generalized Markov reliability and fault-tolerant model, which includes the effects of permanent fault and intermittent fault for reliability evaluations based on neural network techniques. The reliability of a consecutive r-out-of-n: F system was obtained with a three-layer connected neural network represents a discrete time state reliability Markov model of the system. Such that we fed the neural network with the desired reliability of the system under design. Then we extracted the parameters of the system from the neural weights at the convergence of the neural network to the desired reliability. Finally, we obtain simulation results.

  6. Stereotactic biopsy aided by a computer graphics workstation: experience with 200 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulm, A J; Bova, F J; Friedman, W A

    2001-12-01

    The advent of modern computer technology has made it possible to examine not just the target point, but the entire trajectory in planning for stereotactic biopsies. Two hundred consecutive biopsies were performed by one surgeon, utilizing a computer graphics workstation. The target point, entry point, and complete trajectory were carefully scrutinized and adjusted to minimize potential complications. Pathologically abnormal tissue was obtained in 197 cases (98.5%). There was no mortality in this series. Symptomatic hemorrhages occurred in 4 cases (2%). Computer graphics workstations facilitate safe and effective biopsies in virtually any brain area.

  7. Physiological and perceptual responses to three consecutive official matches in female boxer. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obmiński Zbigniew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Study aim: The purpose of this study was to assess the physiological cost of three consecutive official boxing fights played during a 3-day tournament and two non-contact specific drills against handheld pads of the same time-profile as the contest, 4 × 2 minutes with 1-minute intervals between them. This assessment was based on the determination of selected hormones and metabolites in the blood sampled directly prior to the contests and throughout short-term post-contest recovery.

  8. Mixed oxygen ion/electron-conducting ceramics for oxygen separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Armstrong, B.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Mixed oxygen ion and electron-conducting ceramics are unique materials that can passively separate high purity oxygen from air. Oxygen ions move through a fully dense ceramic in response to an oxygen concentration gradient, charge-compensated by an electron flux in the opposite direction. Compositions in the system La{sub 1{minus}x}M{sub x}Co{sub 1{minus}y{minus}z}Fe{sub y}N{sub z}O{sub 3{minus}{delta}}, perovskites where M=Sr, Ca, and Ba, and N=Mn, Ni, Cu, Ti, and Al, have been prepared and their electrical, oxygen permeation, oxygen vacancy equilibria, and catalytic properties evaluated. Tubular forms, disks, and asymmetric membrane structures, a thin dense layer on a porous support of the same composition, have been fabricated for testing purposes. In an oxygen partial gradient, the passive oxygen flux through fully dense structures was highly dependent on composition. An increase in oxygen permeation with increased temperature is attributed to both enhanced oxygen vacancy mobility and higher vacancy populations. Highly acceptor-doped compositions resulted in oxygen ion mobilities more than an order of magnitude higher than yttria-stabilized zirconia. The mixed conducting ceramics have been utilized in a membrane reactor configuration to upgrade methane to ethane and ethylene. Conditions were established to balance selectivity and throughput in a catalytic membrane reactor constructed from mixed conducting ceramics.

  9. Biogeochemical Modeling of the Second Rise of Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. L.; Catling, D.; Claire, M.; Zahnle, K.

    2014-03-01

    The rise of atmospheric oxygen set the tempo for the evolution of complex life on Earth. Oxygen levels are thought to have increased in two broad steps: one step occurred in the Archean ~ 2.45 Ga (the Great Oxidation Event or GOE), and another step occured in the Neoproterozoic ~750-580 Ma (the Neoprotoerozoic Oxygenation Event or NOE). During the NOE, oxygen levels increased from ~1-10% of the present atmospheric level (PAL) (Holland, 2006), to ~15% PAL in the late Neoproterozoic, to ~100% PAL later in the Phanerozoic. Complex life requires O2, so this transition allowed complex life to evolve. We seek to understand what caused the NOE. To explore causes for the NOE, we build upon the biogeochemical model of Claire et al. (2006), which calculates the redox evolution of the atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, and crust in the Archean through to the early Proterozoic. In this model, the balance between oxygenconsuming and oyxgen-producing fluxes evolves over time such that at ~2.4 Ga, the rapidly acting sources of oxygen outweigh the rapidly-acting sinks. Or, in other words, at ~2.4 Ga, the flux of oxygen from organic carbon burial exceeds the sinks of oxygen from reaction with reduced volcanic and metamoprphic gases. The model is able to drive oxygen levels to 1-10% PAL in the Proterozoic; however, the evolving redox fluxes in the model cannot explain how oxygen levels pushed above 1-10% in the late Proterozoic. The authors suggest that perhaps another buffer, such as sulfur, is needed to describe Proterozoic and Phanerozoic redox evolution. Geologic proxies show that in the Proterozoic, up to 10% of the deep ocean may have been sulfidic. With this ocean chemistry, the global sulfur cycle would have worked differently than it does today. Because the sulfur and oxygen cycles interact, the oxygen concentration could have permanently changed due to an evolving sulfur cycle (in combination with evolving redox fluxes associated with other parts of the oxygen cycle and carbon

  10. Energetics of highly kinked step edges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    We have determined the step edge free energy, the step edge stiffness and dimensionless inverse step edge stiffness of the highly kinked < 010> oriented step on a (001) surface of a simple square lattice within the framework of a solid-on-solid model. We have found an exact expression for the step

  11. Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP), phase B

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The Space Transportation Engine Program (STEP) Phase 2 effort includes preliminary design and activities plan preparation that will allow smooth and time transition into a Prototype Phase and then into Phases 3, 4, and 5. A Concurrent Engineering approach using Total Quality Management (TQM) techniques, is being applied to define an oxygen-hydrogen engine. The baseline from Phase 1/1' studies was used as a point of departure for trade studies and analyses. Existing STME system models are being enhanced as more detailed module/component characteristics are determined. Preliminary designs for the open expander, closed expander, and gas generator cycles were prepared, and recommendations for cycle selection made at the Design Concept Review (DCR). As a result of July '90 DCR, and information subsequently supplied to the Technical Review Team, a gas generator cycle was selected. Results of the various Advanced Development Programs (ADP's) for the Advanced Launch Systems (ALS) were contributive to this effort. An active vehicle integration effort is supplying the NASA, Air Force, and vehicle contractors with engine parameters and data, and flowing down appropriate vehicle requirements. Engine design and analysis trade studies are being documented in a data base that was developed and is being used to organize information. To date, seventy four trade studies were input to the data base.

  12. The effect of the number of consecutive night shifts on diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Garde, Anne Helene; Kristiansen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge from field studies on how many consecutive night shifts are required for adaptation of diurnal rhythms in cortisol, melatonin and heart rate variability (HRV) to night work. METHODS: A systematic search of the databases Pub...... recordings for HRV. Most of the studies in the review were small studies with less than 30 participants, and most studies evaluated diurnal rhythms after only two consecutive night shifts whereas only six studies used seven or more consecutive night shifts. The majority of studies found that adaptation...... to night work had not occurred after two consecutive night shifts, whereas a small number found evidence for full adaptation after seven consecutive night shifts based on diurnal rhythms in cortisol and melatonin. CONCLUSION: There are methodological differences in the field studies analyzing diurnal...

  13. De novo achondroplasia causing four consecutive unsuccessful pregnancies: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igwegbe Anthony

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The incidence of achondroplasia is very low, and the birth of two or more consecutive babies with achondroplasia to unaffected parents is a rarity. We report a rare case of recurrent achondroplasia in babies of unaffected parents. Case presentation A 29-year-old Nigerian Igbo woman who has had three consecutive dead achondroplastic babies presented at a gestational age of 31 weeks with a two-hour history of drainage of liquor and vaginal bleeding. Neither she nor her husband had features of achondroplasia. Fundal height was compatible with the gestational age. Fetal heart activity was present. An abdominal ultrasound examination showed a viable fetus with short long bones, oligohydramnios, and a fundal placenta with a small retroplacental blood clot. Our patient was stabilized and had an emergency Cesarean section for grade 1 abruptio placentae. A live male baby with Apgar scores of 4 at one minute and 5 at 10 minutes was delivered. The baby had classic features of achondroplasia and died shortly after birth. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of recurrent achondroplasia in siblings of unaffected parents in Nigeria. Management is challenging, and the outcomes of future pregnancies appear bleak. However, proper counseling and follow-up are needed. There is also a need to establish preconception clinics and facilities for prenatal genetic diagnosis and gene therapy in developing countries.

  14. A Consecutive Spray Printing Strategy to Construct and Integrate Diverse Supercapacitors on Various Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinyu; Lu, Qiongqiong; Chen, Chen; Han, Mo; Wang, Qingrong; Li, Haixia; Niu, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jun

    2017-08-30

    The rapid development of printable electronic devices with flexible and wearable characteristics requires supercapacitor devices to be printable, light, thin, integrated macro- and micro-devices with flexibility. Herein, we developed a consecutive spray printing strategy to controllably construct and integrate diverse supercapacitors on various substrates. In such a strategy, all supercapacitor components are fully printable, and their thicknesses and shapes are well controlled. As a result, supercapacitors obtained by this strategy achieve diverse structures and shapes. In addition, different nanocarbon and pseudocapacitive materials are applicable for the fabrication of these diverse supercapacitors. Furthermore, the diverse supercapacitors can be readily constructed on various objects with planar, curved, or even rough surfaces (e.g., plastic film, glass, cloth, and paper). More importantly, the consecutive spray printing process can integrate several supercapacitors together in the perpendicular and parallel directions of one substrate by designing the structure of electrodes and separators. This enlightens the construction and integration of fully printable supercapacitors with diverse configurations to be compatible with fully printable electronics on various substrates.

  15. The way to safe and secure carotid endarterectomy. Review of 232 consecutive cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moteki, Katsuhiko; Murayama, Takaya

    2007-01-01

    We investigated retrospectively perioperative and long-term complications of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) in 232 consecutive cases. Perioperative complications in surgical patients are 2.2% with no mortality. There was no perioperative embolic stroke in the later series of 130 CEA, although postoperative hyperperfusion was associated in two patients with edema and bleeding in their watershed area. We encountered 16 cases of pseudoocclusion, 11 cases were collapsed carotid arteries treated successfully by thromboendarterectomy, and 5 thrombosed cases were treated by CEA and thrombectomy, resulting in poor outcome. Thirteen cases of CEA with contlateral occlusion were performed uneventfully under intraluminal shunting. Redo operation for recurrent stenosis were performed successfully in 1.3% with patching. In the long-term follow-up of 118 consecutive cases, CEA had a clear benefit of preventing ipsilateral stroke in the first 3 years, but actual risks in long-term surgical patients were influenced more by their cardiac events than the stroke. Our findings suggest that managing cardiac events significantly affects life expectancy. (author)

  16. Mediating Peer Teaching for Learning Games: An Action Research Intervention Across Three Consecutive Sport Education Seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Cláudio; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A; O'Donovan, Toni

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an integrated analysis of a teacher's peer-teaching mediation strategies, the student-coaches' instruction, and the students' gameplay development across 3 consecutive seasons of sport education. Twenty-six 7th-grade students participated in 3 consecutive sport education seasons of invasion games (basketball, handball, and soccer). The research involved 3 action research cycles, 1 per season, and each cycle included the processes of planning, acting and monitoring, reflecting, and fact finding. Data collection consisted of videotape and audiotape records of all 47 lessons, a reflective field diary kept by the first author in the role of teacher-researcher, and a total of 24 semistructured focus-group interviews. Trustworthiness criteria for assuring the quality of qualitative research included extensive data triangulation, stakeholders' crosschecking, and collaborative interpretational analysis. Through the application of systematic preparation strategies, student-coaches were able to successfully conduct team instruction that resulted in students' tactical development and improved performance. Aspects such as the study of predominant configurations of players' gameplay and similar tactical principles across games within the same category prevented a setback in the complexity of the learning content addressed at the beginning of each season. Players also showed an increasing ability to adapt gameplay to game conditions. While sport education has the capacity to develop competent players, different levels of teacher guidance and learners' instructional responsibility are necessary when teaching tactics.

  17. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  18. Management approach for recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax in consecutive pregnancies based on clinical and radiographic findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixson George R

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe management and clinical features observed in a patient's seven spontaneous pneumothoraces that developed during two consecutive pregnancies involving both hemithoraces. Materials and methods A 21 year old former smoker developed three spontaneous left pneumothoraces in the index pregnancy, having already experienced four right pneumothorax events in a prior pregnancy at age 19. Results Chest tubes were required in several (but not all hospitalizations during these two pregnancies. Following her fourth right pneumothorax, thoracoscopic excision of right apical lung blebs and mechanical pleurodesis was performed. The series of left pneumothoraces culminated in mini-thoracotomy and thoracoscopically directed mechanical pleurodesis. For both pregnancies unassisted vaginal delivery was performed with no adverse perinatal sequelae. With the exception of multiple pneumothoraces, there were no additional pregnancy complications. Conclusion Spontaneous pneumothorax in pregnancy is believed to be a rare phenomenon, yet the exact incidence is unknown. Here we present the first known case of multiple spontaneous pneumothoraces in two consecutive pregnancies involving both hemithoraces. Clinical management coordinated with obstetrics and surgical teams facilitated a satisfactory outcome for both pregnancies. The diagnosis of pneumothorax should be contemplated in any pregnant patient with dyspnea and chest pain, followed by radiographic confirmation.

  19. The results of a consecutive series of dynamic posterior stabilizations using the PercuDyn device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canero, Gianfranco; Carbone, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the results of a consecutive series of patients affected by lumbar discogenic pain associated with facet pain and canal stenosis surgically treated with the PercuDyn device. From 2009, 129 consecutive patients (96 M, 33 F, mean age 62) were treated with posterior dynamic stabilization screws (PercuDyn). Inclusion criteria were minimum follow-up of 24 months; pain localized at the lumbar spine column alone or in association to lower limb radicular pain; magnetic resonance evidence of disc degeneration associated with facet degeneration and canal stenosis. Patients were clinically studied using VAS scale and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI); CT assessment of the neuroforamina and spinal canal areas was done at 1 month of follow-up. At 24 months of follow-up, 96 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 96 intervertebral spaces were treated (85 levels L5-S1, 11 levels L4-L5). The VAS scale showed a statistically significant difference at 1 month, 6 months and 2 years with respect to the pre-operative value (p fashion (p return to daily activities. At longer follow-ups, 10 % of patients received revision surgery.

  20. Consecutive evaluation of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide nanoplatelets immunotoxicity on monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junyan; Chen, Liliang; Huang, Chih-Ching; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Yang, Lingyan; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Suo, Guangli; Lin, Chia-Hua

    2017-05-01

    The biocompatibilities of graphene-family nanomaterials (GFNs) should be thoroughly evaluated before their application in drug delivery and anticancer therapy. The present study aimed to consecutively assess the immunotoxicity of graphene oxide nanoplatelets (GONPs) and reduced GONPs (rGONPs) on THP-1 cells, a human acute monocytic leukemia cell line. GONPs induced the expression of antioxidative enzymes and inflammatory factors, whereas rGONPs had substantially higher cellular uptake rate, higher levels of NF-κB expression. These distinct toxic mechanisms were observed because the two nanomaterials differ in their oxidation state, which imparts different affinities for the cell membrane. Because GONPs have a higher cell membrane affinity and higher impact on membrane proteins compared with rGONPs, macrophages (THP-1a) derived from GONPs treated THP-1cells showed a severer effect on phagocytosis. By consecutive evaluation the effects of GONPs and rGONPs on THP-1 and THP-1a, we demonstrated that their surface oxidation states may cause GFNs to behave differently and cause different immunotoxic effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Type 2 Diabetes Step 2: Know Your Diabetes ABCs Past Issues / Fall ... 2 Diabetes" Articles Diabetes Is Serious But Manageable / Step 1: Learn About Diabetes / Step 2: Know Your ...

  2. Anomalous optical emission in hot dense oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Gregoryanz, Eugene; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2007-11-01

    We report the observation of unusually strong, broad-band optical emission peaked between 590 and 650 nm when solid and fluid oxygen are heated by a near infrared laser at pressures from 3 to 46 GPa. In situ Raman spectra of oxygen were collected and corresponding temperatures were measured from the Stokes/anti-Stokes intensity ratios of vibrational transitions. The intense optical emission overwhelmed the Raman spectrum at temperatures exceeding 750 K. The spectrum was found to be much narrower than Planck-type thermal emission, and the intensity increase with input power was much steeper than expected for the thermal emission. The result places an important general caveat on calculating temperatures based on optical emission spectra in high-pressure laser-heating experiments. The intense emission in oxygen is photo-induced rather than being purely thermal, through multiphoton or multi-step single photon absorption processes related to the interaction with infrared radiation. The results suggest that short lived ionic species are induced by this laser-matter interaction.

  3. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  4. Blogging business step-by-step startup guide

    CERN Document Server

    magazine, Entrepreneur

    2014-01-01

    This kit includes: Essential industry and business-specific startup steps with worksheets, calculators, checklists and more. Entrepreneur Editors' Start Your Own Business, a guide to starting any business and surviving the first three years. Downloadable, customizable business letters, sales letters, and other sample documents. Entrepreneur's Small Business Legal Toolkit. Blogs are still one of the internet's fastest-growing phenomena–and one of the best and easiest ways to make money online. Packed with the latest blog tools, tricks, and up-and-coming trends, this fully revised edition teache

  5. Hydrogen with intrinsic CO{sub 2} sequestration: the ENI 'One Step Hydrogen' process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, S.; Cornaro, U.; Mizia, F.; Malandrino, A.; Piccoli, V. [Enitecnologie SpA, S. Donata Milanese (Italy); Sanfilippo, D.; Miracca, I. [Snamprogetti SpA, S. Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    The new process, under development in our companies, is aimed to hydrogen production with intrinsic carbon dioxide sequestration. This is made possible combining in a cycle the water oxidative potential with a reverse action by a reducing agent like hydrocarbons, the preferred being natural gas. In the first step a suitable oxide takes up the oxygen from water splitting producing hydrogen. The solid act as an oxygen storage medium. Such 'lattice' oxygen is in turn released through one or more elemental steps. The process fits very well with a circulating fluid bed reactor which allows the movement of the solid from one reactive environment to the other. (orig.)

  6. Oxygen-Methane Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Tim

    2012-01-01

    An oxygen-methane thruster was conceived with integrated igniter/injector capable of nominal operation on either gaseous or liquid propellants. The thruster was designed to develop 100 lbf (approximately 445 N) thrust at vacuum conditions and use oxygen and methane as propellants. This continued development included refining the design of the thruster to minimize part count and manufacturing difficulties/cost, refining the modeling tools and capabilities that support system design and analysis, demonstrating the performance of the igniter and full thruster assembly with both gaseous and liquid propellants, and acquiring data from this testing in order to verify the design and operational parameters of the thruster. Thruster testing was conducted with gaseous propellants used for the igniter and thruster. The thruster was demonstrated to work with all types of propellant conditions, and provided the desired performance. Both the thruster and igniter were tested, as well as gaseous propellants, and found to provide the desired performance using the various propellant conditions. The engine also served as an injector testbed for MSFC-designed refractory combustion chambers made of rhenium.

  7. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  8. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  9. Sterilization by oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Adir Jose; Mansano, Ronaldo Domingues; Andreoli Pinto, Terezinha de Jesus; Ruas, Ronaldo; Silva Zambon, Luis da; Silva, Monica Valero da; Verdonck, Patrick Bernard

    2004-07-31

    The use of polymeric medical devices has stimulated the development of new sterilization methods. The traditional techniques rely on ethylene oxide, but there are many questions concerning the carcinogenic properties of the ethylene oxide residues adsorbed on the materials after processing. Another common technique is the gamma irradiation process, but it is costly, its safe operation requires an isolated site and it also affects the bulk properties of the polymers. The use of a gas plasma is an elegant alternative sterilization technique. The plasma promotes an efficient inactivation of the micro-organisms, minimises the damage to the materials and presents very little danger for personnel and the environment. Pure oxygen reactive ion etching type of plasmas were applied to inactivate a biologic indicator, the Bacillus stearothermophilus, to confirm the efficiency of this process. The sterilization processes took a short time, in a few minutes the mortality was complete. In situ analysis of the micro-organisms' inactivating time was possible using emission spectrophotometry. The increase in the intensity of the 777.5 nm oxygen line shows the end of the oxidation of the biologic materials. The results were also observed and corroborated by scanning electron microscopy.

  10. Oxygen Sorption and Desorption Properties of Selected Lanthanum Manganites and Lanthanum Ferrite Manganites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jimmi; Skou, Eivind M.; Jacobsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Temperature‐programmed desorption (TPD) with a carrier gas was used to study the oxygen sorption and desorption properties of oxidation catalysts and solid‐oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode materials (La0.85Sr0.15)0.95MnO3+δ (LSM) and La0.60Sr0.40Fe0.80Mn0.20O3‐δ (LSFM). The powders were characterized...... by X‐ray diffractometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and BET surface adsorption. Sorbed oxygen could be distinguished from oxygen originating from stoichiometry changes. The results indicated that there is one main site for oxygen sorption/desorption. The amount of sorbed oxygen was monitored over...... time at different temperatures. Furthermore, through data analysis it was shown that the desorption peak associated with oxygen sorption is described well by second‐order desorption kinetics. This indicates that oxygen molecules dissociate upon adsorption and that the rate‐determining step...

  11. Evolving Oxygen Landscape of the Early Atmosphere and Oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, T. W.; Reinhard, C. T.; Planavsky, N. J.

    2013-12-01

    The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding of oxygen on the early Earth, and a new framework, the topic of this presentation, is now in place to address the controls on spatiotemporal distributions of oxygen and their potential relationships to deep-Earth processes. Recent challenges to the Archean biomarker record have put an added burden on inorganic geochemistry to fingerprint and quantify the early production, accumulation, and variation of biospheric oxygen. Fortunately, a wide variety of techniques now point convincingly to photosynthetic oxygen production and dynamic accumulation well before the canonical Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Recent modeling of sulfur recycling over this interval allows for transient oxygen accumulation in the atmosphere without the disappearance of non-mass-dependent (NMD) sulfur isotope anomalies from the stratigraphic record and further allows for persistent accumulation in the atmosphere well before the permanent disappearance of NMD signals. This recent work suggests that the initial rise of oxygen may have occurred in fits and starts rather than a single step, and that once permanently present in the atmosphere, oxygen likely rose to high levels and then plummeted, in phase with the Paleoproterozoic Lomagundi positive carbon isotope excursion. More than a billion years of oxygen-free conditions in the deep ocean followed and set a challenging course for life, including limited abundances and diversity of eukaryotic organisms. Despite this widespread anoxia, sulfidic (euxinic) conditions were likely limited to productive ocean margins. Nevertheless, euxinia was sufficiently widespread to impact redox-dependent nutrient relationships, particularly the availability of bioessential trace metals critical in the nitrogen cycle, which spawned feedbacks that likely maintained oxygen at very low levels in the ocean and atmosphere and delayed the arrival of animals. Then, in the mid, pre-glacial Neoproterozoic

  12. High Selectivity Oxygen Delignification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur J. Ragauskas

    2005-09-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop improved extended oxygen delignification (EOD) technologies for current U.S. pulp mill operations. This was accomplished by: (1) Identifying pulping conditions that optimize O and OO performance; (2) Identifying structural features of lignin that enhance reactivity towards EOD of high kappa pulps; (3) Identifying factors minimizing carbohydrate degradation and improve pulp strength of EOD high kappa pulps; (4) Developing a simple, reproducible method of quantifying yield gains from EOD; and (5) Developing process conditions that significantly reduce the capital requirements of EOD while optimizing the yield benefits. Key research outcomes included, demonstrating the use of a mini-O sequence such as (E+O)Dkf:0.05(E+O) or Dkf:0.05(E+O)(E+O) without interstage washing could capture approximately 60% of the delignification efficiency of a conventional O-stage without the major capital requirements associated with an O-stage for conventional SW kraft pulps. The rate of formation and loss of fiber charge during an O-stage stage can be employed to maximize net fiber charge. Optimal fiber charge development and delignification are two independent parameters and do not parallel each other. It is possible to utilize an O-stage to enhance overall cellulosic fiber charge of low and high kappa SW kraft pulps which is beneficial for physical strength properties. The application of NIR and multi-variant analysis was developed into a rapid and simple method of determining the yield of pulp from an oxygen delignification stage that has real-world mill applications. A focus point of this program was the demonstration that Kraft pulping conditions and oxygen delignification of high and low-kappa SW and HW pulps are intimately related. Improved physical pulp properties and yield can be delivered by controlling the H-factor and active alkali charge. Low AA softwood kraft pulp with a kappa number 30 has an average improvement of 2% in

  13. Robotic retroperitoneal partial nephrectomy: a step-by-step guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Khurshid R; Porter, James; Menon, Mani; Rogers, Craig

    2014-08-01

    To describe a step-by-step guide for successful implementation of the retroperitoneal approach to robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN) PATIENTS AND METHODS: The patient is placed in the flank position and the table fully flexed to increase the space between the 12th rib and iliac crest. Access to the retroperitoneal space is obtained using a balloon-dilating device. Ports include a 12-mm camera port, two 8-mm robotic ports and a 12-mm assistant port placed in the anterior axillary line cephalad to the anterior superior iliac spine, and 7-8 cm caudal to the ipsilateral robotic port. Positioning and port placement strategies for successful technique include: (i) Docking robot directly over the patient's head parallel to the spine; (ii) incision for camera port ≈1.9 cm (1 fingerbreadth) above the iliac crest, lateral to the triangle of Petit; (iii) Seldinger technique insertion of kidney-shaped balloon dilator into retroperitoneal space; (iv) Maximising distance between all ports; (v) Ensuring camera arm is placed in the outer part of the 'sweet spot'. The retroperitoneal approach to RPN permits direct access to the renal hilum, no need for bowel mobilisation and excellent visualisation of posteriorly located tumours. © 2014 The Authors. BJU International © 2014 BJU International.

  14. Medical oxygen and air travel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyznicki, J M; Williams, M A; Deitchman, S D; Howe, J P

    2000-08-01

    This report responds to a resolution that asked the American Medical Association (AMA) to take action to improve airport and airline accommodations for passengers requiring medical oxygen. Information for the report was derived from a search of the MEDLINE database and references listed in pertinent articles, as well as through communications with experts in aerospace and emergency medicine. Based on this information, the AMA Council on Scientific Affairs determined that commercial air travel exposes passengers to altitude-related hypoxia and gas expansion, which may cause some passengers to experience significant symptoms and medical complications during flight. Medical guidelines are available to help physicians evaluate and counsel potential passengers who are at increased risk of inflight hypoxemia. Supplemental oxygen may be needed for some passengers to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation and prevent hypoxemic complications. For safety and security reasons, federal regulations prohibit travelers from using their own portable oxygen system onboard commercial aircraft. Many U.S. airlines supply medical oxygen for use during flight but policies and procedures vary. Oxygen-dependent passengers must make additional arrangements for the use of supplemental oxygen in airports. Uniform standards are needed to specify procedures and equipment for the use of medical oxygen in airports and aboard commercial aircraft. Revision of federal regulations should be considered to accommodate oxygen-dependent passengers and permit them to have an uninterrupted source of oxygen from departure to destination.

  15. Daily steps among Finnish adults: variation by age, sex, and socioeconomic position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvensalo, Mirja; Telama, Risto; Schmidt, Michael D; Tammelin, Tuija H; Xiaolin Yang; Magnussen, Costan G; Vkari, Jorma S A; Raitakari, Olli T

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide descriptive population-based pedometer data from adults aged 30-45 years in Finland, and to compare daily step counts with evidence-based indices. The data was collected from 1853 participants in 7 consecutive days in winter 2007-08 in part of 27-year follow up of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. The participants took (mean±standard deviation) 7499 ± 2908 steps/day. Step counts included 1925 ± 2052 aerobic steps/day gathered in bouts of at least 10 min continuous ambulatory activity. Women had more total steps than men ((7824 ± 2925 vs. 7089 ± 2774; p 10,000 steps/day). We conclude that about one-quarter of men and one-fifth of women are considered as inactive, based on the number of daily total steps. Our results suggest that total steps may provide a very different picture of activity from aerobic steps; important differences are evident by socioeconomic position and day of the week.

  16. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarmonenko, S P; Ehpshtejn, I M [Akademiya Meditsinskikh Nauk SSSR, Moscow. Onkologicheskij Tsentr

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation.

  17. Oxygen effect and intracellular oxygen content (adaptation hypothesis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarmonenko, S.P.; Ehpshtejn, I.M.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data indicating that a radiomodifying action of hypoxia is dependent on the ''prehistory'' of the irradiated object are considered. This dependence manifests itself in a decreased protective action of acute hypoxia on the hypoxia-adapted objects. To explain this a hypothesis is proposed connecting a degree of cell radiosensitivity modification, determined by the oxygen effect, with the intracellular oxygen content. The latter, in accord with current ideas, is regulated by variations in the diffusion resistance to oxygen shown by the cytoplasmic membranes depending on the energy level of the cell and the degree of its oxygenation

  18. Choledocholithiasis and endo-laparoscopic rendezvous. Analysis of 59 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Paolo; Dell'Abate, Paolo; Labonia, Domenico; Negri, Marco; Sianesi, Nicoletta; Arcuri, Maria Francesca; Sianesi, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Choledocholithiasis is a real problem of major clinical importance. The incidence of cholelithiasis is 10-20%. We have examined 2907 patients treated with videolaparoscopic cholecystectomy (VLC) between January 2001 and September 2009. 214 cases (7.4%) were affected by choledocolithiasis; among these, 59 consecutive cases were treated by rendezvous, 151 cases by sequential treatment (ERCP-ES before VLC), 3 cases by extraction with Dormia's basket, and 1 case by ERCP-ES after VLC. The complications were one biliary fistula and three hemorrhages (one from the cystic artery, one from the hepatic area and one from trocar's site). The mean hospital stay was 1.38 +/- 0.83 days for the rendezvous group vs 4 53 +/- 0.74 days in the sequential treatment group (prendezvous procedure reduces hospital stay and has a greater compliance (only one treatment). We can use this option in the management of cases where preoperative ERCP-ES has failed.

  19. Pathology of the heart in AIDS. A study of 60 consecutive autopsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac disease and cardiac death in AIDS patients is seldom reported. In recent years minor cardiac abnormalities have been demonstrated, especially by echocardiography. Cardiac pathology in AIDS patients is here reported from 60 consecutive autopsies where the heart was investigated either using...... single samples of ventricular myocardium (the first 21 cases) or by an examination of the whole heart (the last 39 cases). Myocarditis according to the Dallas criteria was seen in 25 of 60 cases (42%), and in seven of these cases a probable pathogen (Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, fungi...... heart was performed, there was dilation and/or hypertrophy of the right ventricle. This is in agreement with our knowledge that the main diseases and main causes of death in AIDS patients are pulmonary. Survival time in AIDS is increasing due to ever improving symptomatic treatment, and the results...

  20. The role of cognitive representation in consecutive interpretation: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Corina Ionescu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A long-standing source of conceptual difficulty and confusion in interpretation has been the overall construal of the world in the interpreter’s mind when listening to the source language speech. Hence, the target language rendition can be dramatically marked by lack of understanding or by conceptual misrepresentations. The present paper deals with possible landmarks in the follow-up of the target renditions, on the basis of research conducted in the European Master’s Programme for Interpreters’ training in the University of Bucharest. Ultimately, it is not only knowledge of the world and knowledge of the topic that determines appropriate comprehension, it is also knowledge of language grammar that can decisively contribute to a correct, fluent and reliable message in consecutive interpretation.

  1. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  2. [Prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. Outcome in a consecutive group of 59 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roder, M.A.; Reinhardt, S.; Brasso, K.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of prostate cancer patients with lymph node metastasis remains controversial. In this article, the outcome in a consecutive group of patients with newly diagnosed lymph node positive prostate cancer is presented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 59 patients...... with histological verified lymph node positive disease but without osseous metastasis, outcome is described by time to biochemical progression, time to metastasis and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Median pre-treatment PSA was 21 ng/ml. Endocrine treatment was initiated within median 2...... patients died during follow-up, 15 deaths were attributable to prostate cancer. Estimated median survival was 5.5 years. CONCLUSION: Despite early androgen deprivation therapy, patients with lymph node positive prostate cancer have a grave prognosis with a high risk of progression and disease...

  3. Enterobacteriaceae meningitis in adults: a review of 20 consecutive cases 1977-1997

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Eva; Møller, Kirsten; Skinhøj, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Enterobacteriaceae are not a frequent cause of meningitis in adults and are seen mainly in neurosurgical patients and on occasion in elderly and debilitated patients. Consequently, most series studied have been small and selected. In order to obtain a clearer clinical picture, we reviewed 20...... consecutive cases of Enterobacteriaceae meningitis admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, during the years 1977-97. They comprised 1.5% of all cases of acute bacterial meningitis admitted to the department. All of the patients were either elderly and/or had 1 or more......% survived with different sequelae. These high rates may, at least in part, be due to the advanced age and debilitated state of the patients studied. Escherichia coli was the most frequent of the Enterobacteriaceae....

  4. Repeated Time-to-event Analysis of Consecutive Analgesic Events in Postoperative Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Rasmussen, Sten; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduction in consumption of opioid rescue medication is often used as an endpoint when investigating analgesic efficacy of drugs by adjunct treatment, but appropriate methods are needed to analyze analgesic consumption in time. Repeated time-to-event (RTTE) modeling is proposed as a way...... to describe analgesic consumption by analyzing the timing of consecutive analgesic events. METHODS: Retrospective data were obtained from 63 patients receiving standard analgesic treatment including morphine on request after surgery following hip fracture. Times of analgesic events up to 96 h after surgery...... were extracted from hospital medical records. Parametric RTTE analysis was performed with exponential, Weibull, or Gompertz distribution of analgesic events using NONMEM®, version 7.2 (ICON Development Solutions, USA). The potential influences of night versus day, sex, and age were investigated...

  5. Characterization of basal-like subtype in a Danish consecutive primary breast cancer cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinalis, Savvas; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Talman, Maj Lis

    2018-01-01

    of this separate entity is needed. Material and methods: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 1560 tumors from patients with primary breast cancer. Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and associated with basic clinical characteristics...... and aggregated expression levels in the hallmark gene sets. Results: Of the 1560 samples, 168 were classified basal-like and 120 patients were screened for BRCA1/2 mutations, resulting in 19 BRCA1/2 carriers, 95 non-carriers and six patients carried variants of unknown significance. The BRCA1/2 carriers were...... significantly younger and there were no carriers above 60 years of age. The tumors showed a loss in DNA-repair profile, as well as an upregulation in proliferative cancer signaling pathways. A robust molecular signature for identification of the BRCA1/2 - carriers was infeasible in the current cohort. Patients...

  6. One-thousand consecutive inguinal hernia repairs under unmonitored local anesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, T; Bech, K; Kehlet, H

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and safety of unmonitored local anesthesia (ULA) for elective open inguinal hernia repair, we made a prospective, consecutive data collection from 1000 operations on primary and recurrent hernias. Follow-up consisted of a questionnaire 1 mo after surgery and retrieval...... from the electronic patient data management system. In 921 ASA Group I and II and 79 ASA Group III and IV patients, the median age was 60 yr (range, 18-95 yr). ULA was converted to general anesthesia in 5 of 1000 cases, and 961 patients were discharged on the day of surgery after 95 min (median...... anesthesia, day-case setup, or both, primarily because of intraoperative pain (n = 74; 7.8%). We conclude that open inguinal hernia repair can be conducted under ULA, regardless of comorbidity, with a small rate of deviation from day-case setup and minimal morbidity. It provides a safe alternative to other...

  7. Predictive variables for postoperative pain after 520 consecutive dental extraction surgeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoluzzi, Marcelo Carlos; Manfro, Aline Rosler Grings; Nodari, Rudy Jose; Presta, Andreia Antoniuk

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate postoperative pain in patients who had a single tooth or multiple erupted teeth extracted. This research evaluated 520 consecutive dental extraction surgeries in which 680 teeth were removed. Data collection was obtained through a questionnaire of patients and of the undergraduate students who performed all procedures. Pain was evaluated through qualitative self-reported scores at seven days postsurgery. An increased pain level was statistically associated with ostectomy, postoperative complications, and tobacco consumption. Pain that persisted for more than two days was statistically associated with the amount of anesthetic solution used, with a notable increase in surgical time and development of postoperative complications. Periods of pain lasting more than two days could be expected for traumatic surgeries lasting more than 30 minutes. Both severe and prolonged pain were signs of development of postoperative complications, such as alveolar osteitis and alveolar infection.

  8. CONSECUTIVE CULTIVATION OF WHITE HEAD CABBABE HYBRIDS DEVELOPED AT VNIISSOK FOR VEGETABLE MARKET OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Bondareva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The cabbage certainly is the major crop in Russia. Its spreading is caused by highly valuable horticultural characteristics. On the market the popular varieties of head cabbage originated at VNIISSOK, such as ‘Ijulskaya 3200’, ‘Nomer Perviy Gribovskiy 147’, ‘Slava 1305’, ‘Podarok’, ‘Moskovskaya pozdnaya 15’, ‘Gako 741’, ‘Vertu 1340’ are appreciated. Hybrids of cabbage are the most valuable for production, due to their high yield ability, uniformity and quality comparing with cultivars. Recently, early-late maturing heterotic hybrids of white head cabbage, originated at VNIISSOK have been developed. These hybrids can be used throughout a year by means of consecutive cultivation and suitable for fresh consumption, long-storage and processing.

  9. Oxygen isotopic fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balci, N.; Turchyn, A. V.; Lyons, T.; Bruchert, V.; Schrag, D. P.; Wall, J.

    2006-12-01

    Sulfur isotope fractionation during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) is understood to depend on a variety of environmental parameters, such as sulfate concentration, temperature, cell specific sulfate reduction rates, and the carbon substrate. What controls oxygen isotope fractionation during BSR is less well understood. Some studies have suggested that carbon substrate is important, whereas others concluded that there is a stoichiometric relationship between the fractionations of sulfur and oxygen during BSR. Studies of oxygen fractionation are complicated by isotopic equilibration between sulfur intermediates, particularly sulfite, and water. This process can modify the isotopic composition of the extracellular sulfate pool (δ18OSO4 ). Given this, the challenge is to distinguish between this isotopic equilibration and fractionations linked to the kinetic effects of the intercellular enzymes and the incorporation of sulfate into the bacterial cell. The δ18OSO4 , in concert with the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4), could be a powerful tool for understanding the pathways and environmental controls of BSR in natural systems. We will present δ18OSO4 data measured from batch culture growth of 14 different species of sulfate reducing bacteria for which sulfur isotope data were previously published. A general observation is that δ18OSO4 shows little isotopic change (kinetic effect during BSR and/or equilibration between sulfur intermediates and the isotopically light water (~-5‰) of the growth medium. Our present batch culture data do not allow us to convincingly isolate the magnitude and the controlling parameters of the kinetic isotope effect for oxygen. However, ongoing growth of mutant bacteria missing enzymes critical in the different steps of BSR may assist in this mission.

  10. Single-surgeon fully endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery: outcomes in three-hundred consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamelak, Adam N; Carmichael, John; Bonert, Vivien H; Cooper, Odelia; Melmed, Shlomo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using a single-surgeon technique as an alternative to the more commonly employed two-surgeon, three-hand method. Three hundred consecutive endoscopic transsphenoidal procedures performed over a 5 year period from 2006 to 2011 were reviewed. All procedures were performed via a binasal approach utilizing a single surgeon two handed technique with a pneumatic endoscope holder. Expanded enodnansal cases were excluded. Surgical technique, biochemical and surgical outcomes, and complications were analyzed. 276 patients underwent 300 consecutive surgeries with a mean follow-up period of 37 ± 22 months. Non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA) was the most common pathology (n = 152), followed by growth hormone secreting tumors (n = 41) and Rathke's cleft cysts (n = 30). Initial gross total cyst drainage based on radiologic criteria was obtained in 28 cases of Rathke's cleft cyst, with 5 recurrences. For NFPA and other pathologies (n = 173) gross total resection was obtained in 137 cases, with a 92% concordance rate between observed and expected extent of resection. For functional adenoma, remission rates were 30/41 (73%) for GH-secreting, 12/12 (100%) for ACTH-secreting, and 8/17 (47%) for prolactin-secreting tumors. Post-operative complications included transient (11%) and permanent (1.4%) diabetes insipidus, hyponatremia (13%), and new anterior pituitary hormonal deficits (1.4%). CSF leak occurred in 42 cases (15%), and four patients required surgical repair. Two carotid artery injuries occurred, both early in the series. Epistaxis and other rhinological complications were noted in 10% of patients, most of which were minor and diminished as surgical experience increased. Fully endoscopic single surgeon transsphenoidal surgery utilizing a binasal approach and a pneumatic endoscope holder yields outcomes comparable to those reported with a two-surgeon method. Endoscopic outcomes

  11. How Accurately Do Consecutive Cohort Audits Predict Phase III Multisite Clinical Trial Recruitment in Palliative Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, Nikki; Fazekas, Belinda; Cutri, Natalie; Currow, David C

    2016-04-01

    Audits have been proposed for estimating possible recruitment rates to randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but few studies have compared audit data with subsequent recruitment rates. To compare the accuracy of estimates of potential recruitment from a retrospective consecutive cohort audit of actual participating sites and recruitment to four Phase III multisite clinical RCTs. The proportion of potentially eligible study participants estimated from an inpatient chart review of people with life-limiting illnesses referred to six Australian specialist palliative care services was compared with recruitment data extracted from study prescreening information from three sites that participated fully in four Palliative Care Clinical Studies Collaborative RCTs. The predominant reasons for ineligibility in the audit and RCTs were analyzed. The audit overestimated the proportion of people referred to the palliative care services who could participate in the RCTs (pain 17.7% vs. 1.2%, delirium 5.8% vs. 0.6%, anorexia 5.1% vs. 0.8%, and bowel obstruction 2.8% vs. 0.5%). Approximately 2% of the referral base was potentially eligible for these effectiveness studies. Ineligibility for general criteria (language, cognition, and geographic proximity) varied between studies, whereas the reasons for exclusion were similar between the audit and pain and anorexia studies but not for delirium or bowel obstruction. The retrospective consecutive case note audit in participating sites did not predict realistic recruitment rates, mostly underestimating the impact of study-specific inclusion criteria. These findings have implications for the applicability of the results of RCTs. Prospective pilot studies are more likely to predict actual recruitment. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Controlling spark timing for consecutive cycles to reduce the cyclic variations of SI engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleli, Alirıza; Ceviz, Mehmet Akif; Erenturk, Köksal

    2015-01-01

    Minimization of the cyclic variations is one of the most important design goal for spark-ignited engines. Primary motivation of this study is to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines by controlling the spark timing for consecutive cycles. A stochastic model was performed between spark timing and in–cylinder maximum pressure by using the system identification techniques. The incylinder maximum pressure of the next cycle was predicted with this model. Minimum variance and generalized minimum variance controllers were designed to regulate the in–cylinder maximum pressure by changing the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the test engine. The produced control algorithms were built in LabView environment and installed to the Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) chassis. According to the test results, the in–cylinder maximum pressure of the next pressure cycle can be predicted fairly well, and the spark timing can be regulated to keep the in–cylinder maximum pressure in a desired band to reduce the cyclic variations. At fixed spark timing experiments, the COV Pmax and COV imep were 3.764 and 0.677%, whereas they decreased to 3.208 and 0.533% when GMV controller was applied, respectively. - Highlights: • Cycle per cycle spark timing control was carried out. • A stochastic process model was described between P max and the spark timing. • The cyclic variations in P max was decreased by keeping it in a desired band. • Different controllers were used to adjust spark timing signal of the next cycle. • COV Pmax was decreased by about 15% by using GMV controller

  13. Dysphagia in healthy children: Characteristics and management of a consecutive cohort at a tertiary centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svystun, Orysya; Johannsen, Wendy; Persad, Rabin; Turner, Justine M; Majaesic, Carina; El-Hakim, Hamdy

    2017-08-01

    Whereas the literature is replete with reports on complex children with dysphagia (DP), the parameters characterizing non-neurologically impaired (NNI) children have been underreported, leaving a substantial knowledge gap. We set to characterize a consecutive cohort of NNI children, their management, and outcomes. We undertook a retrospective case series. Children (<18 years old) attending a tertiary multidisciplinary swallowing clinic were eligible. Patients with neuro-developmental, neuromuscular, or syndromic abnormalities were excluded. Primary outcomes included demographics, co-morbidities, presentations, McGill score, swallowing and airway abnormalities (and their predictors). Secondary outcomes were interventions and management response. From 171 consecutive patients (37-month period), 128 were included (69 males, median age 6.6 months (0.5-124.2)). Significant clinical presentations included recurrent pneumonias (20), cyanotic spells (14) and life-threatening events (10). Swallowing assessments revealed laryngeal penetration (67), aspiration (25). Other investigations included overnight oximetry (77), airway (70), and gastrointestinal endoscopy (24); revealing laryngomalacia (29), laryngeal mobility disorder (8), and subglottic stenosis (8). Non-surgical interventions involved oral diet modifications (85) and enteral nutrition (15). Surgical interventions included supraglottoplasties (18), endoscopic laryngeal cleft repair (14), and injection (19). 119 patients received intervention and at last follow-up (median 5.2 months (0.3-88.8)) 94 had improved. Of those treated 116 were on an unmodified oral diet, and 24 on a modified diet. ALTE and snoring predicted airway abnormalities, recurrent pneumonia predicted swallowing abnormalities, and age and airway lesions predicted the McGill score. a significant proportion of NNI children with DP harbor airway and swallowing abnormalities warranting endoscopic and instrumental assessment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  14. Consecutive days of cold water immersion: effects on cycling performance and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-02-01

    We investigated performance and heart rate (HR) variability (HRV) over consecutive days of cycling with post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI) or passive recovery (PAS). In a crossover design, 11 cyclists completed two separate 3-day training blocks (120 min cycling per day, 66 maximal sprints, 9 min time trialling [TT]), followed by 2 days of recovery-based training. The cyclists recovered from each training session by standing in cold water (10 °C) or at room temperature (27 °C) for 5 min. Mean power for sprints, total TT work and HR were assessed during each session. Resting vagal-HRV (natural logarithm of square-root of mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals; ln rMSSD) was assessed after exercise, after the recovery intervention, during sleep and upon waking. CWI allowed better maintenance of mean sprint power (between-trial difference [90 % confidence limits] +12.4 % [5.9; 18.9]), cadence (+2.0 % [0.6; 3.5]), and mean HR during exercise (+1.6 % [0.0; 3.2]) compared with PAS. ln rMSSD immediately following CWI was higher (+144 % [92; 211]) compared with PAS. There was no difference between the trials in TT performance (-0.2 % [-3.5; 3.0]) or waking ln rMSSD (-1.2 % [-5.9; 3.4]). CWI helps to maintain sprint performance during consecutive days of training, whereas its effects on vagal-HRV vary over time and depend on prior exercise intensity.

  15. Realization of Tip Tilting By 8-Step Line Tilting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yingtian; Zhang Yang; Lim, Boon Ham; Lim, Chen Sin; Hu Sen; Ho, Tso-Hsiu

    2009-01-01

    By direct calculation of rotation matrices of SO(3), we show how certain specific sequence of eight consecutive rotations of digital angles can yield a tilting of a facet mirror. We also design a detailed program specifically to tilt an array of mirrors from planar orientation to the required focusing orientation. We describe how to use the 8-step to realize the focusing of the mirror array. We have found, in our designed program, an important feature of row-sharing during the rotations for the columns and similarly the column-sharing during the rotations for the row. This feature can save a lot of operating time during the actual realization of the mechanical movements.

  16. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    . The influence of the ion adsorption strength, which is observed in the “particle size studies” on the oxygen reduction rate on Pt/C catalysts, is further investigated under similar reaction conditions by infrared spectroscopy. The designed in situ electrochemical ATR-FTIR setup features a high level...... of instrument automation and online data treatment, and provides welldefined mass transport conditions enabling kinetic measurements. A modified electrochemical / spectroscopic interface is presented allowing the exclusive investigation of the Pt/C catalyst layer. Three types of potential dependent adsorption...... adsorption on Pt does not block the ORR directly. Instead, the onset of oxide formation with the concomitant conversion of the anion adsorbate layer is the decisive blocking mechanism....

  17. Reactive Oxygen Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franchina, Davide G.; Dostert, Catherine; Brenner, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    T cells are a central component of defenses against pathogens and tumors. Their effector functions are sustained by specific metabolic changes that occur upon activation, and these have been the focus of renewed interest. Energy production inevitably generates unwanted products, namely reactive...... and transcription factors, influencing the outcome of the T cell response. We discuss here how ROS can directly fine-tune metabolism and effector functions of T cells....... oxygen species (ROS), which have long been known to trigger cell death. However, there is now evidence that ROS also act as intracellular signaling molecules both in steady-state and upon antigen recognition. The levels and localization of ROS contribute to the redox modeling of effector proteins...

  18. Steps in Researching the Music in Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    2007-01-01

    The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy.......The chapter introduces a generic flowchart + step-by-step guide for microanalysis of music (compositions and improvisations) in music therapy....

  19. Mitochondrial Respiration and Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Meitha, Karlia; Considine, Michael J; Foyer, Christine H

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of respiration and oxygen tension in plant organs allow a precise understanding of mitochondrial capacity and function within the context of cellular oxygen metabolism. Here we describe methods that can be routinely used for the isolation of intact mitochondria, and the determination of respiratory electron transport, together with techniques for in vivo determination of oxygen tension and measurement of respiration by both CO 2 production and O 2 consumption that enables calculation of the respiratory quotient [CO 2 ]/[O 2 ].

  20. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P [Maplewood, MN; Schmoeckel, Alison K [Stillwater, MN; Vernstrom, George D [Cottage Grove, MN; Atanasoski, Radoslav [Edina, MN; Wood, Thomas E [Stillwater, MN; Yang, Ruizhi [Halifax, CA; Easton, E Bradley [Halifax, CA; Dahn, Jeffrey R [Hubley, CA; O'Neill, David G [Lake Elmo, MN

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  1. Oxygen potentials of transuranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haruyoshi Otobe; Mituso Akabori; Arai Yasuo; Kazuo Minato

    2008-01-01

    The oxygen potentials of pyrochlore-type Pu 2 Zr 2 O 7+y , fluorite-type (Pu 0.5 Zr 0.5 )O 2-x and AmO 2-x have been measured by the electromotive force (EMF) method with a zirconia solid-electrolyte. The oxygen potentials of these oxides were reviewed. The phase relations, microstructure, equilibrium state of these oxides were discussed, referring to the isothermal curve of the oxygen potentials. (authors)

  2. empirical modeling of oxygen modeling of oxygen uptake of flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    structure. Keywords: stepped chute, skimming flow, aeration l. 1. INTRODUCTION ..... [3] Toombes, L. and Chanson, H., “Air-water flow and gas transfer at aeration ... of numerical model of the flow behaviour through smooth and stepped.

  3. Lateral step initiation behavior in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sparto, Patrick J; Jennings, J Richard; Furman, Joseph M; Redfern, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Older adults have varied postural responses during induced and voluntary lateral stepping. The purpose of the research was to quantify the occurrence of different stepping strategies during lateral step initiation in older adults and to relate the stepping responses to retrospective history of falls. Seventy community-ambulating older adults (mean age 76 y, range 70–94 y) performed voluntary lateral steps as quickly as possible to the right or left in response to a visual cue, in a blocked de...

  4. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2.) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. PMID:26225731

  5. Singlet oxygen treatment of tumor cells triggers extracellular singlet oxygen generation, catalase inactivation and reactivation of intercellular apoptosis-inducing signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmüller, Michaela; Burger, Nils; Bauer, Georg

    2015-12-01

    Intracellular singlet oxygen generation in photofrin-loaded cells caused cell death without discrimination between nonmalignant and malignant cells. In contrast, extracellular singlet oxygen generation caused apoptosis induction selectively in tumor cells through singlet oxygen-mediated inactivation of tumor cell protective catalase and subsequent reactivation of intercellular ROS-mediated apoptosis signaling through the HOCl and the NO/peroxynitrite signaling pathway. Singlet oxygen generation by extracellular photofrin alone was, however, not sufficient for optimal direct inactivation of catalase, but needed to trigger the generation of cell-derived extracellular singlet oxygen through the interaction between H2O2 and peroxynitrite. Thereby, formation of peroxynitrous acid, generation of hydroxyl radicals and formation of perhydroxyl radicals (HO2(.)) through hydroxyl radical/H2O2 interaction seemed to be required as intermediate steps. This amplificatory mechanism led to the formation of singlet oxygen at a sufficiently high concentration for optimal inactivation of membrane-associated catalase. At low initial concentrations of singlet oxygen, an additional amplification step needed to be activated. It depended on singlet oxygen-dependent activation of the FAS receptor and caspase-8, followed by caspase-8-mediated enhancement of NOX activity. The biochemical mechanisms described here might be considered as promising principle for the development of novel approaches in tumor therapy that specifically direct membrane-associated catalase of tumor cells and thus utilize tumor cell-specific apoptosis-inducing ROS signaling. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Oxygen diffusion and oxygen effect in tumor tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eissa, H.M.; Hehn, G.

    1979-06-01

    The diffusion of oxygen in tumor cords of bronchus carcinoma of the lung have been studied with refined computer methods for solving the diffusion equation in axis symmetric tumor structures. In this tumor configuration we may find three different regions consisting of euoxic cells, hypoxic tumor cells and necrotic parts. In the case of oxygen supply from a capillary inside a cylinder of tumor tissue with radius 200 μm or in a tumor cord of radius 300 μm with oxygen supply by capillaries outside, we get a relation of well oxygenated cells to hypoxic cells approximately as 1:8 or as 1:1.1 respectively. Of course most of the tumor cords observed in histological slices have smaller diameters, so that an average of approximately 20% hypoxic cells can be assumed. Based on the work of Ardenne, the diffusion of oxygen and glucose in a tumor of type DS-carcinosarcom has been investigated in both intact tumor and tumor treated with ionizing radiation. We can show that a strong reoxygenation effect takes place in that the well supplied regions may increase in some tumor configurations up to a factor of four by volume. The biological consequences of the oxygen pressure determined in tumor cells are discussed in detail. The investigation of oxygen diffusion in the intercapillary tumor region should give a quantitative physical basis for considering the oxygen effect with the aim to explain the advantages of neutron therapy against conventional radiotherapy. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Integration of oxygen membranes for oxygen production in cement plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Søgaard, Martin; Hjuler, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The present paper describes the integration of oxygen membranes in cement plants both from an energy, exergy and economic point of view. Different configurations for oxygen enrichment of the tertiary air for combustion in the pre-calciner and full oxy-fuel combustion in both pre-calciner and kiln...

  8. Prostate ultrasound imaging: evaluation of a two-step scoring system in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong; Liao, Xin-Hong; Ma, Yan; Lu, Lu; Wei, Li-Yan; Yan, Xue

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to investigate the feasibility and performance of a two-step scoring system of ultrasound imaging in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. 75 patients with 888 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions were included in this study. Step 1, an initial 5-point scoring system was developed based on conventional transrectal ultrasound (TRUS). Step 2, a final scoring system was evaluated according to contrast-enhanced transrectal ultrasound (CE-TRUS). Each lesion was evaluated using the two-step scoring system (step 1 + step 2) and compared with only using conventional TRUS (step 1). 888 lesions were histologically verified: 315 of them were prostate cancer from 46 patients and 573 were benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) from 29 patients. According to the two-step scoring system, 284 lesions were upgraded and 130 lesions were downgraded from step 1 to step 2 (this means using step 2 to assess the results by step 1). However, 96 cases were improperly upgraded after step 2 and 48 malignant lesions were still missed after step 2 as score-1. For the two-step scoring system, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 84.7%, 83.2%, and 83.7%, respectively, versus 22.8%, 96.6%, and 70.4%, respectively, for conventional TRUS. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for lesion diagnosis was 0.799-0.952 for the two-step scoring system, versus 0.479-0.712 for conventional TRUS. The difference in the diagnostic accuracy of the two-step scoring system and conventional TRUS was statistically significant (Pstep scoring system was straightforward to use and achieved a considerably accurate diagnostic performance for prostate cancer. The application of the two-step scoring system for prostate cancer is promising.

  9. Biomechanical influences on balance recovery by stepping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, E T; Robinovitch, S N

    1999-10-01

    Stepping represents a common means for balance recovery after a perturbation to upright posture. Yet little is known regarding the biomechanical factors which determine whether a step succeeds in preventing a fall. In the present study, we developed a simple pendulum-spring model of balance recovery by stepping, and used this to assess how step length and step contact time influence the effort (leg contact force) and feasibility of balance recovery by stepping. We then compared model predictions of step characteristics which minimize leg contact force to experimentally observed values over a range of perturbation strengths. At all perturbation levels, experimentally observed step execution times were higher than optimal, and step lengths were smaller than optimal. However, the predicted increase in leg contact force associated with these deviations was substantial only for large perturbations. Furthermore, increases in the strength of the perturbation caused subjects to take larger, quicker steps, which reduced their predicted leg contact force. We interpret these data to reflect young subjects' desire to minimize recovery effort, subject to neuromuscular constraints on step execution time and step length. Finally, our model predicts that successful balance recovery by stepping is governed by a coupling between step length, step execution time, and leg strength, so that the feasibility of balance recovery decreases unless declines in one capacity are offset by enhancements in the others. This suggests that one's risk for falls may be affected more by small but diffuse neuromuscular impairments than by larger impairment in a single motor capacity.

  10. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  11. Rapid determination of oxygen saturation and vascularity for cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangyao Hu

    Full Text Available A rapid heuristic ratiometric analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from measured tissue diffuse reflectance spectra is presented. The analysis was validated in tissue-mimicking phantoms and applied to clinical measurements in head and neck, cervical and breast tissues. The analysis works in two steps. First, a linear equation that translates the ratio of the diffuse reflectance at 584 nm and 545 nm to estimate the tissue hemoglobin concentration using a Monte Carlo-based lookup table was developed. This equation is independent of tissue scattering and oxygen saturation. Second, the oxygen saturation was estimated using non-linear logistic equations that translate the ratio of the diffuse reflectance spectra at 539 nm to 545 nm into the tissue oxygen saturation. Correlations coefficients of 0.89 (0.86, 0.77 (0.71 and 0.69 (0.43 were obtained for the tissue hemoglobin concentration (oxygen saturation values extracted using the full spectral Monte Carlo and the ratiometric analysis, for clinical measurements in head and neck, breast and cervical tissues, respectively. The ratiometric analysis was more than 4000 times faster than the inverse Monte Carlo analysis for estimating tissue hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in simulated phantom experiments. In addition, the discriminatory power of the two analyses was similar. These results show the potential of such empirical tools to rapidly estimate tissue hemoglobin in real-time spectral imaging applications.

  12. A step toward nuclear sanity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottfried, K.; Long, F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports that Reykjavik formally ended as a diplomatic failure, but it has begun an overdue revolution in perceptions. At long last, both superpowers have the in concrete terms that vastly smaller nuclear arsenals would make them safer. Implicitly, they are saying that nuclear weapons are not useful weapons. Those insights are a prerequisite to nuclear sanity. The United States has proposed to eliminate all strategic ballistic missiles, on land and submarines, in two five-year steps. During that period, we (and presumably the Soviet Union) would develop missile defenses to be deployed in ten years. The first part of this plan makes excellent sense. Ballistic missiles explode on their targets ten to thirty minutes after launch. Today's huge and accurate missile arsenals have forced both superpowers to adopt a hair-trigger stance: they might launch missiles simply on warning of attack

  13. Steps towards an evolutionary physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiezzi, E

    2006-01-01

    If thermodynamics is to physics as logic is to philosophy, recent theoretical advancements lend new coherence to the marvel and dynamism of life on Earth. Enzo Tiezzi's "Steps Towards an Evolutionary Physics" is a primer and guide, to those who would to stand on the shoulders of giants to attain this view: Heisenberg, Planck, Bateson, Varela, and Prigogine as well as notable contemporary scientists. The adventure of such a free and enquiring spirit thrives not so much on answers as on new questions. The book offers a new gestalt on the uncertainty principle and concept of probability. A wide range of examples, enigmas, and paradoxes lead one's imagination on an exquisite dance. Among the applications are: songs and shapes of nature, oscillatory reactions, orientors, goal functions and configurations of processes, and "dissipative structures and the city". Ecodynamics is a new science, which proposes a cross-fertilization between Charles Darwin and Ilya Prigogine. As an enigma in thermodynamics, Entropy forms ...

  14. Boris push with spatial stepping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, G; Stoltz, P H; Cary, J R; Wurtele, J

    2003-01-01

    The Boris push is commonly used in plasma physics simulations because of its speed and stability. It is second-order accurate, requires only one field evaluation per time step, and has good conservation properties. However, for accelerator simulations it is convenient to propagate particles in z down a changing beamline. A 'spatial Boris push' algorithm has been developed which is similar to the Boris push but uses a spatial coordinate as the independent variable, instead of time. This scheme is compared to the fourth-order Runge-Kutta algorithm, for two simplified muon beam lattices: a uniform solenoid field, and a 'FOFO' lattice where the solenoid field varies sinusoidally along the axis. Examination of the canonical angular momentum, which should be conserved in axisymmetric systems, shows that the spatial Boris push improves accuracy over long distances

  15. Epidemiological and clinical analysis of a consecutive series of conjoined twins in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Frías, María Luisa; Bermejo, Eva; Mendioroz, Jacobo; Rodríguez-Pinilla, Elvira; Blanco, Manuel; Egüés, Javier; Félix, Valentín; García, Angel; Huertas, Héctor; Nieto, Carmen; López, José Antonio; López, Santiago; Paisán, Luis; Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez, María Socorro

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency and certain epidemiological characteristics of a consecutive series of conjoined twins born in Spain. We used data from the Spanish Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations for the period April 1976 to 2006. Because the Spanish law permitting voluntary termination of pregnancies (TOP) when the fetus presented malformations was effective by the end of 1985, we analyzed the data in 4 periods, 2 before 1986 and 2 after. During the first period (1976-1979) only live births were recorded, whereas both still and live births were included in the other three (1980-1985, 1986-1995, and 1996-2006). In the present study, the cases were classified as symmetrical (16 pairs) and asymmetrical (1 pair) conjoined twins. Each pair of conjoined twins was considered as only one case for calculations, regardless of the type of union. Among a total of 2,281,604 consecutive births between 1980 and 2006, there were a total of 15 cases of symmetrical conjoined twins giving a frequency of 0.70 per 100,000 (1/152,107), whereas there was only 1 stillborn asymmetrical conjoined twin pair (0.04/100,000). Among the 13,418 consecutive stillborns surveyed, 6 cases of conjoined twins were identified (either symmetrical or asymmetrical) giving a frequency of 44.72 per 100,000, and 11 pairs were identified among the 2,425,583 total live births surveyed during the first period 1976 to 1979, a frequency of 0.45 per 100,000. Thus, the frequency among stillborn infants is 99.34 times higher than that observed among live births. However, the frequency for the total births (3 last periods) showed a decreasing trend from 1.47 per 100,000 birth in the first period (1980-1985) when TOP was illegal, to a value of 0.09 per 100,000 in the last period, more than 16-fold lower, probably because of the TOP of affected fetuses. Therefore, we consider that the frequencies observed in the period 1980 to 1985 are the basal values in our population. The most

  16. Progressive decrease of melatonin production over consecutive days of simulated night work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Marie; Paquet, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Decreased melatonin production, due to nighttime exposure to light, has been proposed as one of the physiological mechanisms increasing cancer risk in night workers. However, few studies measured melatonin production in night workers, and most of these studies did not measure melatonin over 24 h. One study compared total melatonin production between day and night shifts in rotating night workers and did not find significant differences. However, without baseline measures, it was not possible to exclude that melatonin production was reduced during both day and night work. Here, we used data collected in a simulation study of night work to determine the effect of night work on both nighttime and 24-h melatonin production, during three consecutive days of simulated night work. Thirty-eight healthy subjects (15 men, 23 women; 26.6 ± 4.2 years) participated in a 6-d laboratory study. Circadian phase assessments were made with salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) on the first and last days. Simulated day work (09:00-17:00 h) occurred on the second day, followed by three consecutive days of simulated night work (00:00-08:00 h). Light intensity at eye level was set at 50 lux during both simulated day and night work. The subjects were divided into three matched groups exposed to specific daytime light profiles that produced various degrees of circadian phase delays and phase advances. Melatonin production was estimated with the excretion of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s). For the entire protocol, urine was collected every 2 h, except for the sleep episodes when the interval was 8 h. The aMT6s concentration in each sample was multiplied by the urine volume and then added to obtain total aMT6s excretion during nighttime (00:00-08:00 h) and during each 24-h day (00:00-00:00 h). The results showed that melatonin production progressively decreased over consecutive days of simulated night work, both during nighttime and over the 24 h. This

  17. A single step methane conversion into synthetic fuels using microplasma reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Agiral, A.; Gardeniers, Johannes G.E.; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of natural gas into synthetic fuels such as methanol attracts keen attention because direct process can reduce capital and operating costs of high temperature, energy intensive, multi-step processes. We report a direct and selective synthesis of organic oxygenates such as methanol,

  18. Contactless multiple wavelength photoplethysmographic imaging: a first step toward "spO2 camera" technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, F.P.; Mastik, F.; Steen, A.F.W. van der

    2005-01-01

    We describe a route toward contactless imaging of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) distribution within tissue, based upon detection of a two-dimensional matrix of spatially resolved optical plethysmographic signals at different wavelengths. As a first step toward SpO 2-imaging we built a monochrome

  19. Formation of oxygen related donors in step-annealed CZ–silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Proper interpretation of the data obtained from the measure- ment of the properties ... The wafers were cut into small pieces of size 1 × 2 cm2 and then subjected to .... Oehrlein G S, Lindstrom J L and Cohen S A 1984 Proc. int. conf. defects in ...

  20. Ketamine has no effect on oxygenation indices following elective coronary artery bypass grafting under cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthasarathi Gayatri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to elicit systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ dysfunction. This can result in pulmonary dysfunction and deterioration of oxygenation after cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass. Previous studies have reported varying results on anti-inflammatory strategies and oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass. Ketamine administered as a single dose at induction has been shown to reduce the pro-inflammatory serum markers in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Therefore we investigated if ketamine can result in better oxygenation in these patients. This was a prospective randomized blinded study. Eighty consecutive adult patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting under cardiopulmonary bypass were included in the study. Patients were divided into two groups. Patients in ketamine group received 1mg/kg of ketamine intravenously at induction of anesthesia. Control group patients received an equal volume of saline. All patients received standard anesthesia, operative and postoperative care.Paired t test and independent sample t test were used to compare the inter-group and between group oxygenation indices respectively. Oxygenation index and duration of ventilation were analyzed. Deterioration of oxygenation index was noted in both the groups after cardiopulmonary bypass. However, there was no significant difference in the oxygenation index at various time points after cardiopulmonary bypass or the duration of ventilation between the two groups. This study shows that the administered as a single dose at induction does not result in better oxygenation after cardiopulmonary bypass.

  1. Evaluation of oxygenation time in SmBa2Cu3O7-δ superconductors ceramics in air and ozone atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viana, P.R.P; Cunha, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    High temperature superconductors (HTSC) represent a major milestone in science. During the preparation of superconductors, oxygenation plays a key role, because oxygenation determines the distribution of charge carriers in these plans through the superconducting Cu-O and hence superconductivity. This paper proposes the preparation of polycrystalline superconductors using the ceramic method, and the step of oxygenation made with ozone gas (O 3 ). Ozone exerts chemical pressure on the compound, which has oxygen vacancies in its structure after the step of synthesis. The work was performed by varying the time between oxygenation 20, 40, 80 and 160 hours, with samples going through a process of oxygenation at 350 deg C after the step of synthesis. This study evaluates the time effect as oxygen can improve the superconducting properties such as resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. (author)

  2. Quantitative/Statistical Approach to Bullet-to-Firearm Identification with Consecutively Manufactured Barrels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Striupaitis; R.E. Gaensslen

    2005-01-30

    Efforts to use objective image comparison and bullet scanning technologies to distinguish bullets from consecutively manufactured handgun barrels from two manufacturers gave mixed results. The ability of a technology to reliably distinguish between matching and non-matching bullets, where the non-matching bullets were as close in pattern to the matching ones as is probably possible, would provide evidence that the distinctions could be made ''objectively'', and independently of human eyes. That evidence is identical or very close to what seems to be needed to satisfy Daubert standards. It is fair to say that the FTI IBIS image comparison technology correctly distinguished between all the Springfield barrel bullets, and between most but not all of the HiPoint barrel bullets. In the HiPoint cases that were not distinguished 100% of the time, they would he distinguished correctly at least 83% of the time. These results, although obviously limited to the materials used in the comparisons, provide strong evidence that barrel-to-bullet matching is objectively reliable. The results with SciClops were less compelling. The results do not mean that bullet-to-barrel matching is not objectively reliable--rather, they mean that this version of the particular technology could not quite distinguish between these extremely similar yet different bullets as well as the image comparison technology did. In a number of cases, the numerical results made the correct distinctions, although they were close to one another. It is hard to say from this data that this technology differs in its ability to make distinctions between the manufacturers, because the results are very similar with both. The human examiner results were as expected. We did not expect any misidentifications, and there were not any. It would have been preferable to have a higher return rate, and thus more comparisons in the overall sample. As noted, the ''consecutively manufactured barrel

  3. Hydration Status and Fluid Balance of Elite European Youth Soccer Players during Consecutive Training Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Saun M; Sykes, Dave; Gibson, Neil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the hydration status and fluid balance of elite European youth soccer players during three consecutive training sessions. Fourteen males (age 16.9 ± 0.8 years, height 1.79 ± 0.06 m, body mass (BM) 70.6 ± 5.0 kg) had their hydration status assessed from first morning urine samples (baseline) and pre- and post-training using urine specific gravity (USG) measures, and their fluid balance calculated from pre- to post-training BM change, corrected for fluid intake and urine output. Most participants were hypohydrated upon waking (USG >1.020; 77% on days 1 and 3, and 62% on day 2). There was no significant difference between first morning and pre-training USG (p = 0.11) and no influence of training session (p = 0.34) or time (pre- vs. post-training; p = 0.16) on USG. Significant BM loss occurred in sessions 1-3 (0.69 ± 0.22, 0.42 ± 0.25, and 0.38 ± 0.30 kg respectively, p sessions 1-3 was 425 ± 185, 355 ± 161, and 247 ± 157 ml, respectively (p sessions. Body mass loss, fluid intake, and USG measures showed large inter-individual variation. Elite young European soccer players likely wake and present for training hypohydrated, when a USG threshold of 1.020 is applied. When training in a cool environment with ad libitum access to fluid, replacing ~71% of sweat losses results in minimal hypohydration (training appears to prevent excessive (≥2% BM) dehydration, as advised by current fluid intake guidelines. Current fluid intake guidelines appear applicable for elite European youth soccer players training in a cool environment. Key PointsThe paper demonstrates a notable inter-participant variation in first morning, pre- and post-training hydration status and fluid balance of elite young European soccer players.On average, elite young European soccer players are hypohydrated upon waking and remain hypohydrated before and after training.Elite young European soccer players display varied fluid intake volumes during training

  4. Reliability of perfluoroalkyl substances in plasma of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haug, Line S.; Sabaredzovic, Azemira; Eggesbø, Merete; Longnecker, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    The potential toxicity of background exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) is currently under active investigation. Such investigations typically rely on a single measure of PFAS concentration, yet the longer-term reliability of a single measure has not been well characterized, especially among reproductive-aged women. Our aim was to investigate the association between PFAS plasma concentrations of 100 women in two consecutive pregnancies and explore changes in plasma concentration related to reproductive factors. The women in our study were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) from 2003 to 2009. About half of them breastfed exclusively for 6 months and the rest of the participants did not breastfeed between the two consecutive pregnancies (median time between pregnancies: 18 months). Maternal blood was collected at mid-pregnancy and plasma was analyzed for 10 PFASs. Statistical analyses were restricted to 6 PFASs that were quantifiable in more than 80% of the samples. We estimated the correlation between repeated PFAS measurements, the percentage change between pregnancies and the effect of several reproductive factors in multivariate linear regression models of PFAS concentration in the second pregnancy. The Pearson correlation coefficient between repeated PFAS measurements was, for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 0.80; perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), 0.50; perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), 0.74; perfluorononanoate (PFNA), 0.39; perfluoroundecanoate (PFUnDA), 0.71; and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), 0.60. Adjustment for maternal age, delivery year, and time and breastfeeding between pregnancies did not substantially affect the observed correlations. We found 44-47% median reductions in the concentrations of PFOS, PFOA and PFHxS between pregnancies, while the change in concentrations between pregnancies was smaller and more variable for PFNA, PFUnDA and PFDA. The variation in plasma concentrations in the second pregnancy was mainly

  5. Preimages for Step-Reduced SHA-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoki, Kazumaro; Guo, Jian; Matusiewicz, Krystian

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present preimage attacks on up to 43-step SHA-256 (around 67% of the total 64 steps) and 46-step SHA-512 (around 57.5% of the total 80 steps), which significantly increases the number of attacked steps compared to the best previously published preimage attack working for 24 steps....... The time complexities are 2^251.9, 2^509 for finding pseudo-preimages and 2^254.9, 2^511.5 compression function operations for full preimages. The memory requirements are modest, around 2^6 words for 43-step SHA-256 and 46-step SHA-512. The pseudo-preimage attack also applies to 43-step SHA-224 and SHA-384...

  6. Linking pedestrian flow characteristics with stepping locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiayue; Boltes, Maik; Seyfried, Armin; Zhang, Jun; Ziemer, Verena; Weng, Wenguo

    2018-06-01

    While properties of human traffic flow are described by speed, density and flow, the locomotion of pedestrian is based on steps. To relate characteristics of human locomotor system with properties of human traffic flow, this paper aims to connect gait characteristics like step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and synchronization with speed and density and thus to build a ground for advanced pedestrian models. For this aim, observational and experimental study on the single-file movement of pedestrians at different densities is conducted. Methods to measure step length, step frequency, swaying amplitude and step synchronization are proposed by means of trajectories of the head. Mathematical models for the relations of step length or frequency and speed are evaluated. The problem how step length and step duration are influenced by factors like body height and density is investigated. It is shown that the effect of body height on step length and step duration changes with density. Furthermore, two different types of step in-phase synchronization between two successive pedestrians are observed and the influence of step synchronization on step length is examined.

  7. Oxygen therapy for cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads Cj; Lund, Nunu Lt

    2017-01-01

    -controlled, crossover inpatient study, and 102 CH attacks were treated with 100% oxygen delivered by demand valve oxygen (DVO), O2ptimask or simple mask (15 liters/min) or placebo delivered by DVO for 15 minutes. Primary endpoint: Two-point decrease of pain on a five-point rating scale within 15 minutes. Results Only...

  8. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  9. Oxygen Effects in Anaerobic Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshai Botheju

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of free oxygen in bio-gasification is a sparsely studied area, apart from the common argument of oxygen being toxic and inhibitory for anaerobic micro-cultures. Some studies have, however, revealed increased solubilisation of organic matter in the presence of some free oxygen in anaerobic digestion. This article analyses these counterbalancing phenomena with a mathematical modelling approach using the widely accepted biochemical model ADM 1. Aerobic oxidation of soluble carbon and inhibition of obligatory anaerobic organisms are modelled using standard saturation type kinetics. Biomass dependent first order hydrolysis kinetics is used to relate the increased hydrolysis rate with oxygen induced increase in biomass growth. The amended model, ADM 1-Ox (oxygen, has 25 state variables and 22 biochemical processes, presented in matrix form. The computer aided simulation tool AQUASIM 2.1 is used to simulate the developed model. Simulation predictions are evaluated against experimental data obtained using a laboratory batch test array comprising miniature anaerobic bio-reactors of 100 ml total volume each, operated under different initial air headspaces giving rise to the different oxygen loading conditions. The reactors were initially fed with a glucose solution and incubated at 35 Celsius, for 563 hours. Under the oxygen load conditions of 22, 44 and 88 mg/L, the ADM1-Ox model simulations predicted the experimental methane potentials quite adequately. Both the experimental data and the simulations suggest a linear reduction of methane potential with respect to the increase in oxygen load within this range.

  10. Environmental science: Oceans lose oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Denis

    2017-02-01

    Oxygen is essential to most life in the ocean. An analysis shows that oxygen levels have declined by 2% in the global ocean over the past five decades, probably causing habitat loss for many fish and invertebrate species. See Letter p.335

  11. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  12. On the Go with Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for both the patient and the oxygen supply company. There are two types of concentrators: Stationary concentrators plug into an electrical ... stationary unit. If your oxygen needs change, the type of system can ... supply company should explain and demonstrate whatever system you choose. ...

  13. Prevention of Hypoxemia During Apnea Testing: A Comparison of Oxygen Insufflation And Continuous Positive Airway Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Andreas H; Couillard, Philippe; Bader, Ryan; Dhillon, Peter; Kutsogiannis, Demetrios J; Doig, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Apnea testing is an essential step in the clinical diagnosis of brain death. Current international guidelines recommend placement of an oxygen (O 2 ) insufflation catheter into the endotracheal tube to prevent hypoxemia, but use of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) valve may be more effective at limiting arterial partial pressure of O 2 (PO 2 ) reduction. We performed a multicenter study assessing consecutive apnea tests in 14 intensive care units (ICUs) in two cities utilizing differing protocols. In one city, O 2 catheters are placed and arterial blood gases (ABGs) performed at intervals determined by the attending physician. In the other city, a resuscitation bag with CPAP valve is attached to the endotracheal tube, and ABGs performed every 3-5 min. We assessed arterial PO 2 , partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO 2 ), pH, and blood pressure at the beginning and termination of each apnea test. Thirty-six apnea tests were performed using an O 2 catheter and 50 with a CPAP valve. One test per group was aborted because of physiological instability. There were no significant differences in the degree of PO 2 reduction (-59 vs. -32 mmHg, p = 0.72), rate of PCO 2 rise (3.2 vs. 3.9 mmHg per min, p = 0.22), or pH decline (-0.02 vs. -0.03 per min, p = 0.06). Performance of ABGs at regular intervals was associated with shorter test duration (10 vs. 7 min, p pressure decline (p = 0.006). Both methods of O 2 supplementation are associated with similar changes in arterial PO 2 and PCO 2 . Performance of ABGs at regular intervals shortens apnea test duration and may avoid excessive pH reduction and consequent hemodynamic effects.

  14. Cutaneous Mitochondrial PO2, but Not Tissue Oxygen Saturation, Is an Early Indicator of the Physiologic Limit of Hemodilution in the Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Römers, Luuk H L; Bakker, Charlotte; Dollée, Nathalie; Hoeks, Sanne E; Lima, Alexandre; Raat, Nicolaas J H; Johannes, Tanja; Stolker, Robert J; Mik, Egbert G

    2016-07-01

    Hemodilution is a consequence of fluid replacement during blood loss and is limited by the individual ability to compensate for decreasing hemoglobin level. We tested the ability of a novel noninvasive method for measuring cutaneous mitochondrial PO2 (mitoPO2) to detect this threshold early. Anesthetized and ventilated pigs were hemodynamically monitored and randomized into a hemodilution (n = 12) or a time control (TC) group (n = 14). MitoPO2 measurements were done by oxygen-dependent delayed fluorescence of protoporphyrin IX after preparation of the skin with 20% 5-aminolevulinic acid cream. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) was measured with near infrared spectroscopy on the thoracic wall. After baseline measurements, progressive normovolemic hemodilution was performed in the hemodilution group in equal steps (500 ml blood replaced by 500 ml Voluven; Fresenius Kabi AG, Germany). Consecutive measurements were performed after 20-min stabilization periods and repeated 8 times or until the animal died. The TC animals remained stable with regard to hemodynamics and mitoPO2. In the hemodilution group, mitoPO2 became hemoglobin-dependent after reaching a threshold of 2.6 ± 0.2 g/dl. During hemodilution, hemoglobin and mitoPO2 decreased (7.9 ± 0.2 to 2.1 ± 0.2 g/dl; 23.6 ± 2 to 9.9 ± 0.8 mmHg), but StO2 did not. Notably, mitoPO2 dropped quite abruptly (about 39%) at the individual threshold. We observed that this decrease in mitoPO2 occurred at least one hemodilution step before changes in other conventional parameters. Cutaneous mitoPO2 decreased typically one hemodilution step before occurrence of significant alterations in systemic oxygen consumption and lactate levels. This makes mitoPO2 a potential early indicator of the physiologic limit of hemodilution and possibly a physiologic trigger for blood transfusion.

  15. Glycemic control during consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Jan-Willem; Eijsvogels, Thijs M; Nyakayiru, Jean; Schreuder, Tim H A; Hopman, Maria T; Thijssen, Dick H; van Loon, Luc J C

    2016-07-01

    Despite its general benefits for health, exercise complicates the maintenance of stable blood glucose concentrations in individuals with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to examine changes in food intake, insulin administration, and 24-h glycemic control in response to consecutive days with prolonged walking exercise (∼8h daily) in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Ten individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the worlds' largest walking event were recruited for this observational study. Simultaneous measurements of 24-h glycemic control (continuous glucose monitoring), insulin administration and food intake were performed during a non-walking day (control) and during three subsequent days with prolonged walking exercise (daily distance 40 or 50km). Despite an increase in daily energy (31±18%; p10 mmol/L) and hypoglycemia (blood glucose 0.05 for all variables). The prolonged walking exercise was associated with a modest increase in glycemic variability compared with the control day (pexercise allows for profound reductions in daily insulin administration in persons with type 1 diabetes, despite large increments in energy and carbohydrate intake. When taking such adjustments into account, prolonged moderate-intensity exercise does not necessarily impair 24-h glycemic control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficacy of the Laparoendoscopic "Rendezvous" to Treat Cholecystocholedocholithiasis in 210 Consecutive Patients: A Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Greca, Gaetano; Pesce, Antonio; Vitale, Marco; Mannino, Maurizio; Di Marco, Federica; Di Blasi, Michele; Lombardo, Rosario; Puleo, Stefano; Russello, Domenico; Latteri, Saverio

    2017-08-01

    The simultaneous laparoendoscopic "rendezvous" (LERV) represents an alternative to sequential or totally laparoscopic approaches for patients affected by cholecystocholedocholithiasis. The aim of this study was to analyze the results in a large series of 210 consecutive patients. From 2002 to 2016 all patients affected by cholecystocholedocholithiasis were treated with a standardized "tailored" LERV. The relevant technical features of the procedure were recorded. An analysis of feasibility, effectiveness in stone clearance, and safety was performed. Among 214 patients with common bile duct stones, 210 were treated with LERV and 4 with open rendezvous approach. Intraoperative cholangiography confirmed common bile duct stones in 179 patients (85.2%) or sludge in 18 (8.5%) and in 98.9% stone clearance was obtained endoscopically. Endoscopic papilla cannulation was feasible in 161 patients (76.7%), whereas in 49 (23.3%) a transcystic guidewire was needed. The overall LERV feasibility was 96.6%. The conversion rate to open surgery was 3.3%. Minor morbidity was observed in 1.9% of cases, mortality in 0.47%, and the mean hospital stay was 4.3 days. These results confirm the high effectiveness of LERV. This approach to treat cholecystocholedocholithiasis should be preferred and therefore implemented where a strong collaboration between surgeons and endoscopists is possible.

  17. CHROMIUM IN SOIL ORGANIC MATTER AND COWPEA AFTER FOUR CONSECUTIVE ANNUAL APPLICATIONS OF COMPOSTED TANNERY SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Lucia Jacinto Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery sludge contains high concentrations of inorganic elements, such as chromium (Cr, which may lead to environmental pollution and affect human health The behavior of Cr in organic matter fractions and in the growth of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. was studied in a sandy soil after four consecutive annual applications of composted tannery sludge (CTS. Over a four-year period, CTS was applied on permanent plots (2 × 5 m and incorporated in the soil (0-20 cm at the rates of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, and 20.0 Mg ha-1 (dry weight basis. These treatments were replicated four times in a randomized block design. In the fourth year, cowpea was planted and grown for 50 days, at which time we analyzed the Cr concentrations in the soil, in the fulvic acid, humic acid, and humin fractions, and in the leaves, pods, and grains of cowpea. Composted tannery sludge led to an increase in Cr concentration in the soil. Among the humic substances, the highest Cr concentration was found in humin. The application rates of CTS significantly increased Cr concentration in leaves and grains.

  18. The impact of additions in Shona and English consecutively-interpreted rape trials in Zimbabwean courtrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svongoro, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the conflict between interpreters’ ethical guidelines and the reality in Zimbabwean courtrooms. Although court interpreters’ instructions generally prescribe verbatim translations of original utterances, the reality in the courtroom may demand deviation from what the guidelines prescribe. Focusing on the effect of emphasising and down-toning additions on source language texts in four consecutively-interpreted rape trials heard in Shona and English, this study reveals that court interpreters are aware that their primary goal is to ensure that participants fully understand each other’s intentions. Interpreters therefore adopt a strategy for conveying renditions which would ensure that a speaker’s communicative intention, and not only his/her words, is available to an end receiver. The resultant renditions would nevertheless reveal some additions which may impact on the propositional content and style of the source message and hence the administration of justice. I therefore argue that interpreted courtroom dialogues are essentially ‘three-party’ (Mason, 2000: 9 face-to-face transactions involving two primary speakers and one interpreter.

  19. Clinical outcome in 520 consecutive Danish rectal cancer patients treated with short course preoperative radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L H; Altaf, R; Harling, H

    2010-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to analyse the results of preoperative short course radiotherapy in a consecutive, national cohort of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: Through a validated, prospective national database we identified 520 Danish patients who presented with high-risk mobile...... tumours in the lower two thirds of the rectum and were referred for preoperative radiotherapy with 5 x 5 Gy. The inclusion period was 56 months. Radiotherapy data was retrospectively collected. RESULTS: Of the 520 patients, 514 completed radiotherapy and 506 had surgery. Surgery was considered curative...... in 439 patients. The 3-year local recurrence rate was 4.0% (95% CI 2.5-6.5%) and the distant recurrence rate at 3 years was 18.7% (95% CI 15.4-22.5%). The 5-year disease free survival rate was 40.2% (95% CI 27.0-53.1%) and overall survival 50.4% (95% CI 36.1-63.1%). Most tumours (61%) were classified...

  20. [A naturalistic study: 100 consecutive episodes of acute agitation in a psychiatric emergency department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J C; Madre, M; Puigdemont, D; Oller, S; Corripio, I; Díaz, A; Faus, G; Perez, V; Alvarez, E

    2006-01-01

    Psychomotor agitation is a common event in psychiatric emergency services (PES) with a prevalence of approximately 10 %. There is no general consensus on to how to manage psychomotor agitation; benzodiazepines, typical antipsychotics and now atypical antipsychotics have demonstrated similar efficacy. The aim of our study was to describe the epidemiology and clinical management of agitation in "real-life" in a psychiatric emergency service. A naturalistic study was performed in acutely agitated patients recruited consecutively in a psychiatric emergency service. Demographics, clinical and therapeutic characteristics were analyzed. Efficacy was assessed by the Excitement Component of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS-EC) and the Agitation-Calmness Evaluation Scale (ACES). Pragmatic variables such as the need for second pharmacological intervention and the need for physical restraints were assessed. The study included 100 patients with psychomotor agitation. Mean age was 36.2 % and 54% were women. The most prevalent diagnoses were psychotic disorder (48 %) and personality disorder (24 %). Physical restraint was required in 39 % of patients and 52 % accepted oral treatment. Haloperidol was the most frequent oral treatment and olanzapine was the most frequent intramuscular treatment. A naturalistic approach provides data based on clinical reality in psychiatric emergency services. Strict research designs of clinical trials of efficacy imply sample selection biases and are generally distanced from the clinical reality. Atypical antipsychotics have become the first-line treatment in acute agitation

  1. Plant species richness sustains higher trophic levels of soil nematode communities after consecutive environmental perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesarz, Simone; Ciobanu, Marcel; Wright, Alexandra J; Ebeling, Anne; Vogel, Anja; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2017-07-01

    The magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events are predicted to increase in the future due to ongoing climate change. In particular, floods and droughts resulting from climate change are thought to alter the ecosystem functions and stability. However, knowledge of the effects of these weather events on soil fauna is scarce, although they are key towards functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Plant species richness has been shown to affect the stability of ecosystem functions and food webs. Here, we used the occurrence of a natural flood in a biodiversity grassland experiment that was followed by a simulated summer drought experiment, to investigate the interactive effects of plant species richness, a natural flood, and a subsequent summer drought on nematode communities. Three and five months after the natural flooding, effects of flooding severity were still detectable in the belowground system. We found that flooding severity decreased soil nematode food-web structure (loss of K-strategists) and the abundance of plant feeding nematodes. However, high plant species richness maintained higher diversity and abundance of higher trophic levels compared to monocultures throughout the flood. The subsequent summer drought seemed to be of lower importance but reversed negative flooding effects in some cases. This probably occurred because the studied grassland system is well adapted to drought, or because drought conditions alleviated the negative impact of long-term soil waterlogging. Using soil nematodes as indicator taxa, this study suggests that high plant species richness can maintain soil food web complexity after consecutive environmental perturbations.

  2. Percutaneous Vertebroplasty in Multiple Myeloma: Prospective Long-Term Follow-Up in 106 Consecutive Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselmetti, Giovanni Carlo; Manca, Antonio; Montemurro, Filippo; Hirsch, Joshua; Chiara, Gabriele; Grignani, Giovanni; Carnevale Schianca, Fabrizio; Capaldi, Antonio; Rota Scalabrini, Delia; Sardo, Elena; Debernardi, Felicino; Iussich, Gabriella; Regge, Daniele

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PV) is a minimally invasive procedure involving the injection of bone cement within a collapsed vertebral body. Although this procedure was demonstrated to be effective in osteoporosis and metastases, few studies have been reported in cases of multiple myeloma (MM). We prospectively evaluated the safety and efficacy of PV in the treatment of vertebral compression fractures (VCFs) resulting from MM. Materials and Methods: PV was performed in 106 consecutive MM patients who had back pain due to VCFs, the treatment of which had failed conservative therapies. Follow-up (28.2 ± 12.1 months) was evaluated at 7 and 15 days as well as at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, and every 6 months after PV. Visual analog scale (VAS) pain score, opioid use, external brace support, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score were recorded. Results: The median pretreatment VAS score of 9 (range 4–10) significantly (P < 0.001) decreased to 1 (range 0–9) after PV. Median pre-ODI values of 82% (range 36–89%) significantly improved to 7% (range 0–82%) (P < 0.001). Differences in pretreatment and posttreatment use of analgesic drug were statistically significant (P < 0.001). The majority of patients (70 of 81; 86%) did not use an external brace after PV (P < 0.001). Conclusion: PV is a safe, effective, and long-lasting procedure for the treatment of vertebral compression pain resulting from MM.

  3. Oral health-related quality of life of a consecutive sample of Spanish dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Javier; Yarte, José-María; Bravo, Manuel; López-Valverde, Antonio

    2011-09-01

    Assessment of the oral health-related quality of life and the modulating factors of patients demanding dental treatment in the city of Salamanca, through the use of two validated instruments: the OIDP-sp (Oral Impacts on Daily Performance) and OHIP-14 (Oral Health Impact Profile). the study was conducted on a consecutive sample of 200 patients aged 18-65 years visiting an Integral Dental Centre in the city of Salamanca. Two validated instruments (OIDP-sp and OHIP-14) were used to measure the oral health-related quality of life. An analogue visual scale was used to register oral satisfaction. Data on sociodemographic background, behavioural and clinical factors were also gathered. ANOVA, T Student Test, and both Pearson and Spearman correlations coefficients were used for the statistical analysis. according to the OIDP, 68.5% suffered from some kind of impact in their oral quality of life, while impact prevalence with the OHIP was 85%. Some other factors influencing the quality of life and degree of satisfaction were revealed. patients over 45 years, regardless of their gender, from high social class, living in rural areas and with poor hygiene, showed higher impact and lower satisfaction. The study also revealed some clinical conditions closely related to the level of satisfaction.

  4. Tetrahydrofuran Calpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids: two consecutive beta-turns in a crystalline linear tripeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Prantik; Zabel, Manfred; König, Burkhard

    2007-10-12

    The synthesis of tetrahydrofuran Calpha-tetrasubstituted amino acids (TAAs) and their effect on the conformation in small peptides are reported. The synthesis starts from the protein amino acid methionine, which is protected at the C and N terminus and converted into the corresponding sulfonium salt by alkylation. Simple base treatment in the presence of an aryl aldehyde leads to the formation of tetrahydrofuran tetrasubstituted Calpha-amino acids in a highly diastereoselective (trans/cis ratio up to 97:3) reaction with moderate to good yields (35-78%) depending on the aldehyde used. Palladium-catalyzed coupling reactions allow a subsequent further functionalization of the TAA. The R,S,S-TAA-Ala dipeptide amide adopts a beta-turn type I conformation, whereas its S,R,S isomer does not. The R,S,S-Gly-TAA-Ala tripeptide amide shows in the solid state and in solution a conformation of two consecutive beta-turn type III structures, stabilized by i+3-->i intramolecular hydrogen bonds.

  5. Constitutional mismatch repair deficiency and Lynch syndrome among consecutive Arab Bedouins with colorectal cancer in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Freha, Naim; Leibovici Weissman, Yaara; Fich, Alexander; Barnes Kedar, Inbal; Halpern, Marisa; Sztarkier, Ignacio; Behar, Doron M; Arbib Sneh, Orly; Vilkin, Alex; Baris, Hagit N; Gingold, Rachel; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Niv, Yaron; Goldberg, Yael; Levi, Zohar

    2018-01-01

    We assessed the molecular characteristics and the frequency of mutations in mismatch-repair genes among Bedouin patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Israel. Bedouin patients with a diagnosis of CRC at a major hospital in the southern part of Israel were deemed eligible for this study. The primary screening method was immunohistochemical staining for mismatch-repair proteins (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2). For subjects with abnormal immunohistochemical staining, we performed microsatellite instability (MSI) analyses, and for tumors with a loss of MLH1 expression we also performed BRAF testing. In MSI high cases we searched further for germline mutations. Of the 24 patients enrolled, four subjects (16.7%) had MSI high tumors: one subject was found to harbor a biallelic PMS2 mutation, one subject had Lynch syndrome (LS) with MSH6 mutation and two subjects had a loss of MLH1/PMS2 proteins/BRAF wild type /normal MLH1 sequence. Ten patients (41.7%) were younger than 50 at the time of diagnosis and none had first degree relatives with CRC. In conclusion, in this cohort of 24 consecutive Arab Bedouins with CRC, one patient was found to harbor a constitutional mismatch repair deficiency, one patient had LS with MSH6 mutation, and two patients had unresolved loss of MLH1/PMS2 proteins/BRAF wild type phenotype.

  6. Cath lab costs in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary angioplasty - detailed analysis of consecutive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Beata; Miechowicz, Izabela; Iwachów, Piotr; Kuzemczak, Michał; Kałmucki, Piotr; Szyszka, Andrzej; Baszko, Artur; Siminiak, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Costs of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) have an important impact on health care expenditures. Despite the present stress upon the cost-effectiveness issues in medicine, few comprehensive data exist on costs and resource use in different clinical settings. To assess catheterisation laboratory costs related to use of drugs and single-use devices in patients undergoing PCI due to coronary artery disease. Retrospective analysis of 1500 consecutive PCIs (radial approach, n = 1103; femoral approach, n = 397) performed due to ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; n = 345) and non ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI; n = 426) as well as unstable angina (UA; n = 489) and stable angina (SA; n = 241) was undertaken. Comparative cost analysis was performed and shown in local currency units (PLN). The cath lab costs were higher in STEMI (4295.01 ± 2384.54PLN, p costs were positively correlated with X-ray dose, fluoroscopy, and total procedure times. Patients' age negatively correlated with cath lab costs in STEMI/NSTEMI patients. Cath lab costs were higher in STEMI patients compared to other groups. In STEMI/NSTEMI they were lower in older patients. In all analysed groups costs were related to the level of procedural difficulty. In female patients, the costs of PCI performed via radial approach were higher compared to femoral approach. Despite younger age, male patients underwent more expensive procedures.

  7. Very low survival rates after non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a consecutive series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Morten Tange; Holm, Gitte; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate factors potentially influencing short- and long-term mortality in patients who had a non-traumatic lower limb amputation in a university hospital. A consecutive series of 93 amputations (16% toe/foot, 33% trans-tibial, 9% through knee and 42......% trans-femoral) were studied. Their mean age was 75.8 years; 21 (23%) were admitted from a nursing home and 87 (92%) were amputated due to a vascular disease and/or diabetes. Thirty days and 1-year mortality were 30 and 54%, respectively. Cox regression analysis demonstrated that the 30-day mortality...... was associated with older age (P = 0.01), and the number of co-morbidities (P = 0.04), when adjusted for gender, previous amputations, cause of and amputation level, and residential status. Thus, a patient with 4 or 5 co-morbidities (n = 20) was seven times more likely to die within 30 days, compared...

  8. Clinical study on microsurgical treatment for craniopharyngioma in a single consecutive institutional series of 335 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Fuyou; Wang, Guoqing; Suresh, Vigneyshwar; Xu, Dingkang; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Feng, Mengzhao; Wang, Fang; Liu, Xianzhi; Song, Laijun

    2018-04-01

    The optimal management of craniopharyngioma is still controversial. The aim of this study is to explore microsurgical outcomes of craniopharyngioma in 335 cases. Clinical data of 335 consecutive patients with craniopharyngioma between March 2011 and March 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 265 cases (79.1%), subtotal resection (STR) was obtained in 70 cases (20.9%). The GTR rate was 81.93% in pediatric group and 78.17% in adult group respectively, no significant difference regarding the GTR rate was found in adult group compared with in pediatric group (p > 0.05). However, there was a noticeable difference in the elevated hypothalamic obesity in children group compared with in adult group after operation (p  0.05). Additionally, there were no statistically significant differences for recurrence-free curves between GTR and STR plus adjuvant radiotherapy (p > 0.05). Present findings demonstrated that tumor recurrence and surgical times contribute to negative total resection for craniopharyngioma. Postoperative precise adjuvant radiotherapy was considered in selected cases if pursuit of GTR was rather dangerous under disadvantageous removal factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Complicated pleural infection: Analysis of 2 consecutive cohorts managed with a different policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moral, L; Loeda, C; Gómez, F; Pena, M A; Martínez, M; Cerdán, J M; Lillo, L; Toral, T

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of complicated pleural infection (CPI) is controversial. Clinical guidelines recommend drainage, but with the lowest grade of evidence. Recent reports have observed good outcomes with antibiotics alone. We retrospectively compared the outcomes in two consecutive cohorts treated with different policies: the first treated according to pleural fluid charactersitics (2005-2009, interventional-prone, group 1) and the second according to clinical assessment (2010-2013, conservative-prone, group 2). The clinical records of all children treated for CPI in our hospital between 2005 and 2013 were thoroughly reviewed. Primary outcomes were the proportion of children drained and the length of hospital stay (LHS). One hundred and nine patients (64 group 1 and 45 group 2) were analyzed. A chest tube was placed in 83% of patients in group 1 and 47% in group 2 (Pdrain most children with CPI. Clinical trials are now needed to identify when a drainage procedure would be useful. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein containing a tract of 13 consecutive aspartates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, P.; Weber, S.; Prakash, L.

    1985-01-01

    The RAD6 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for postreplication repair of UV-damaged DNA, for induced mutagenesis, and for sporulation. The authors have mapped the transcripts and determined the nucleotide sequence of the cloned RAD6 gene. The RAD6 gene encodes two transcripts of 0.98 and 0.86 kilobases which differ only in their 3' termini. The transcribed region contains an open reading frame of 516 nucleotides. The rad6-1 and rad6-3 mutant alleles, which the authors have cloned and sequenced, introduce amber and ochre nonsense mutations, respectively into the open reading frame, proving that it encodes the RAD6 protein. The RAD6 protein predicted by the nucleotide sequence is 172 amino acids long, has a molecular weight of 19,704, and contains 23.3% acidic and 11.6% basic residues. Its most striking feature is the highly acidic carboxyl terminus: 20 of the 23 terminal amino acids are acidic, including 13 consecutive aspartates. RAD6 protein thus resembles high mobility group proteins HMG-1 and HMG-2, which each contain a carboxyl-proximal tract of acidic amino acids. 48 references, 6 figures

  11. Does the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhance medical English communication skills of Japanese-speaking students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, Hideki; Lefor, Alan K

    2018-04-19

    To determine if the Consecutive Interpreting Approach enhances medical English communication skills of students in a Japanese medical university and to assess this method based on performance and student evaluations.  This is a three-phase study using a mixed-methods design, which starts with four language reproduction activities for 30 medical and 95 nursing students, followed by a quantitative analysis of perfect-match reproduction rates to assess changes over the duration of the study and qualitative error analysis of participants' language reproduction. The final stage included a scored course evaluation and free-form comments to evaluate this approach and to identify effective educational strategies to enhance medical English communication skills. Mean perfect-match reproduction rates of all participants over four reproduction activities differed statistically significantly (repeated measures ANOVA, pEnglish communication skills are enhanced using this approach. Participants expressed positive feedback regarding this instruction method. This approach may be effective to enhance the language skills of non-native English-speaking students seeking to practice medicine in English speaking countries.

  12. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in India--review of 504 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhobta, Rajender Singh; Attri, Ashok Kumar; Kaushik, Robin; Sharma, Rajeev; Jhobta, Anupam

    2006-09-05

    Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation in Tropical countries continues to be different from its Western counterpart. The objective of the study was to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis as encountered by us at Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH), Chandigarh. Five hundred and four consecutive cases of perforation peritonitis over a period of five years were reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, operative findings and postoperative course retrospectively at GMCH, Chandigarh. The most common cause of perforation in our series was perforated duodenal ulcer (289 cases) followed by appendicitis (59 cases), gastrointestinal perforation due to blunt trauma abdomen (45 cases), typhoid fever (41 cases) and tuberculosis (20 cases). Despite delay in seeking medical treatment (53%), the overall mortality (10%) was favourably comparable with other published series though the overall morbidity (50%) was unusually high. In contrast to western literature, where lower gastrointestinal tract perforations predominate, upper gastrointestinal tract perforations constitute the majority of cases in India. The increasing incidence of post-traumatic gastro-enteric injuries may be due to an increase in high speed motor vehicle accidents which warrant early recognition and prompt treatment to avoid serious complications and death.

  13. Spectrum of perforation peritonitis in India-review of 504 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rajeev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background/objective Perforation peritonitis is the most common surgical emergency in India. The spectrum of etiology of perforation in Tropical countries continues to be different from its Western counterpart. The objective of the study was to highlight the spectrum of perforation peritonitis as encountered by us at Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH, Chandigarh. Methods Five hundred and four consecutive cases of perforation peritonitis over a period of five years were reviewed in terms of clinical presentation, operative findings and postoperative course retrospectively at GMCH, Chandigarh. Results The most common cause of perforation in our series was perforated duodenal ulcer (289 cases followed by appendicitis (59 cases, gastrointestinal perforation due to blunt trauma abdomen (45 cases, typhoid fever (41 cases and tuberculosis (20 cases. Despite delay in seeking medical treatment (53%, the overall mortality (10% was favourably comparable with other published series though the overall morbidity (50% was unusually high. Conclusion In contrast to western literature, where lower gastrointestinal tract perforations predominate, upper gastrointestinal tract perforations constitute the majority of cases in India. The increasing incidence of post-traumatic gastro-enteric injuries may be due to an increase in high speed motor vehicle accidents which warrant early recognition and prompt treatment to avoid serious complications and death.

  14. Acidosis counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to consecutive pruritogen exposure dependent on acid-sensing ion channel 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-Ming; Huang, Chen; Peng, Zhong; Han, Shao-Ling; Li, Wei-Guang; Zhu, Michael Xi; Xu, Tian-Le

    2017-01-01

    Tachyphylaxis of itch refers to a markedly reduced scratching response to consecutive exposures of a pruritogen, a process thought to protect against tissue damage by incessant scratching and to become disrupted in chronic itch. Here, we report that a strong stimulation of the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11 by its agonist, Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH 2 (SL-NH 2 ) or bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 peptide, via subcutaneous injection in mice induces tachyphylaxis to the subsequent application of SL-NH 2 to the same site. Notably, co-application of acid and SL-NH 2 following the initial injection of the pruritogen alone counteracted itch tachyphylaxis by augmenting the scratching behaviors in wild-type but not in acid-sensing ion channel 3-null, animals. Using an activity-dependent silencing strategy, we identified that acid-sensing ion channel 3-mediated itch enhancement mainly occurred via the Mas-related G-protein-coupled receptor C11-responsive sensory neurons. Together, our results indicate that acid-sensing ion channel 3, activated by concomitant acid and certain pruritogens, constitute a novel signaling pathway that counteracts itch tachyphylaxis to successive pruritogenic stimulation, which likely contributes to chronic itch associated with tissue acidosis.

  15. Late urologic morbidity in 177 consecutive patients after radiotherapy for cervical carcinoma: a longitudinal study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajer, Henrik; Thranov, Ingrid R.; Skovgaard, Lene T.; Engelholm, Svend Aa

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To provide longitudinal data on urologic morbidity after radiotherapy and brachytherapy for cervical carcinoma. Methods and Materials: Five-year longitudinal urologic morbidity data were recorded from 177 consecutive patients of median age 59 years (range: 22-86 years) with cervical carcinoma receiving radiotherapy with curative intent at the Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark. FIGO stages (%) were as follows: Stage I (15), Stage II (30), Stage III (54), and Stage IV (1). Late morbidity was calculated as cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates. Results: The 5-year cumulative incidence based on actuarial estimates of urologic morbidity Grades 1 + 2 + 3, Grades 2 + 3, and Grade 3 were 62%, 32%, and 5%, respectively. Frequencies of urologic morbidity in the 54 recurrence-free survivors at the end of follow-up indicated some reversibility in the case of Grades 1 and 2 morbidity. Conclusion: With the longitudinal design used in the present study, a rate of mild and moderate morbidity higher than that found in most of the previously reported literature was observed, giving cause for concern and underlining the importance of further longitudinal studies on this subject, specifically studies that relate to the background urologic morbidity in the female population, as well as to the fact that urologic morbidity might regress

  16. Bilirubin-Induced Neurological Dysfunction: A Clinico-Radiological-Neurophysiological Correlation in 30 Consecutive Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Toorn, Ronald; Brink, Philip; Smith, Johan; Ackermann, Christelle; Solomons, Regan

    2016-12-01

    The clinical expression of bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction varies according to severity and location of the disease. Definitions have been proposed to describe different bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction subtypes. Our objective was to describe the severity and clinico-radiological-neurophysiological correlation in 30 consecutive children with bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction seen over a period of 5 years. Thirty children exposed to acute neonatal bilirubin encephalopathy were included in the study. The mean peak total serum bilirubin level was 625 μmol/L (range 480-900 μmol/L). Acoustic brainstem responses were abnormal in 73% (n = 22). Pallidal hyperintensity was observed on magnetic resonance imaging in 20 children. Peak total serum bilirubin levels correlated with motor severity (P = .03). Children with severe motor impairment were likely to manifest severe auditory neuropathy (P bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction subtype, and the majority of children had abnormal acoustic brainstem responses and magnetic resonance imaging. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Current comorbidity among consecutive adolescent psychiatric outpatients with DSM-IV mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Linnea; Pelkonen, Mirjami; Ruuttu, Titta; Kiviruusu, Olli; Heilä, Hannele; Holi, Matti; Kettunen, Kirsi; Tuisku, Virpi; Tuulio-Henriksson, Annamari; Törrönen, Johanna; Marttunen, Mauri

    2006-06-01

    To compare selected characteristics (age, sex, age of onset for depression, impairment, severity of depression, somatic comorbidity, and treatment status) of adolescents with currently comorbid and non-comorbid depression. A sample of 218 consecutive adolescent (13-19 years) psychiatric outpatients with depressive disorders, and 200 age- and sex-matched school-attending controls were interviewed for DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II diagnoses. Current comorbidity, most commonly with anxiety disorders, was equally frequent (>70%) in outpatients and depressed controls. Younger age (OR 0.20; 95% CI 0.08, 0.51) and male gender (OR 0.02; 95% CI 0.09, 0.55) were associated with concurrent disruptive disorders. Current comorbidity with substance use disorders (SUD) was independent of age (OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.51, 2.49) and sex (OR 0.51; 95% CI 0.22, 1.17). Personality disorders associated with older age (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.10, 3.86). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, impairment (GAF

  18. Metacarpal lengthening in children: comparison of three different techniques in 15 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, C; Aurégan, J-C; Salon, A; Guéro, S; Glorion, C; Pannier, S

    2016-09-22

    Metacarpal lengthening is a useful procedure to address hand deficiencies in children. In this study, we aimed to compare the results of three different techniques from one consecutive clinical series of hand deficiencies. A total of 15 metacarpal lengthenings have been performed in 12 children aged from 9 to 14 years. The callotasis technique was used in seven cases, the two-stage distraction-graft technique in four cases and the single-stage lengthening in four cases. All the metacarpals healed with bone. The lengthening obtained was a mean of 13 mm (range 8-21 mm), a mean of 22 mm (range 13-32 mm) and a mean of 12 mm (range 9-15 mm), respectively, in the three different techniques. The healing index was longer for callotasis (81 days/cm) compared with the other techniques (41 days/cm and 46 days/cm, respectively). We observed one case of fracture after callotasis and one after distraction-graft. One patient underwent tenolysis of the extensor mechanism after single-stage lengthening. In conclusion, distraction graft and single-stage lengthening may be valuable alternatives to callotasis. IV; therapeutic study; multi-case series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Pro re nata prescribing in a population receiving palliative care: a prospective consecutive case note review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Bethany J; Rowett, Debra; Currow, David C

    2014-09-01

    To document pro re nata (PRN) prescribing practices and to identify patterns with respect to clinical characteristics and the medications prescribed. Prospective consecutive case note review. Two interrelated consultative hospice and palliative care services in regional Victoria, Australia. Terminally ill inpatients and community-based individuals (N = 203) at the time of referral to a hospice or palliative care service. Number of medications that the referring physician prescribed on a PRN basis and on a regular basis for symptom control; comorbid disease, performance status, comorbidity burden, disease phase, and survival. Mean number of PRN medications prescribed was 3.0, with significantly higher rates in the last week of life (rate ratio (RR) = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.59) and during the terminal phase of disease (RR = 1.36, 95% CI = 1.09-1.68). One-quarter of prescriptions were for medications that met the Beers consensus criteria for potentially inappropriate medication use in elderly persons. These descriptive baseline data are new. A mean of three different medications allows responsiveness to a variety of fluctuating symptoms, but there was a large range within the sample, indicating that some individuals and their caregivers have a high burden of administration-related decision-making. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  20. Partial strands synthesizing leads to inevitable aborting and complicated products in consecutive polymerase chain reactions (PCRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Rui; ZHANG DaMing

    2007-01-01

    Various abnormal phenomena have been observed during PCR so far. The present study performed a series of consecutive PCRs (including many rounds of re-amplification continuously) and found that the abortion of re-amplification was inevitable as long as a variety of complicated product appeared.The aborting stages varied, according to the lengths of targets. Longer targets reached the abortion earlier than the shorter ones, marked by appearance of the complex that was immobile in electrophoresis. Denatured gel-electrophoresis revealed that the complex was mainly made up of shorter or partially synthesized strands, together with small amounts of full-length ones. Able to be digested by S1 nuclease but unable by restriction endonucleases (REs), the complex was proved to consist of both single regions and double-helix regions that kept the complex stable thermodynamically. Simulations gave evidence that partial strands, even at lower concentration, could disturb re-amplification effectively and lead to the abortion of re-amplifications finally. It was pointed out that the partial strands formed chiefly via polymerase's infidelity, and hence the solution to lighten the abnormality was also proposed.

  1. Partial strands synthesizing leads to inevitable aborting and complicated products in consecutive polymerase chain reactions (PCRs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Various abnormal phenomena have been observed during PCR so far. The present study performed a series of consecutive PCRs (including many rounds of re-amplification continuously) and found that the abortion of re-amplification was inevitable as long as a variety of complicated product appeared. The aborting stages varied, according to the lengths of targets. Longer targets reached the abortion earlier than the shorter ones, marked by appearance of the complex that was immobile in electropho-resis. Denatured gel-electrophoresis revealed that the complex was mainly made up of shorter or partially synthesized strands, together with small amounts of full-length ones. Able to be digested by S1 nuclease but unable by restriction endonucleases (REs), the complex was proved to consist of both single regions and double-helix regions that kept the complex stable thermodynamically. Simulations gave evidence that partial strands, even at lower concentration, could disturb re-amplification effec- tively and lead to the abortion of re-amplifications finally. It was pointed out that the partial strands formed chiefly via polymerase’s infidelity, and hence the solution to lighten the abnormality was also proposed.

  2. Changes in adolescents' conflict responses associated with consecutive presentation of hypothetical conflict situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H D; LaVoie, J C; Eggenburg, E; Mahoney, M A; Pounds, L

    2001-10-01

    The advantages of using hypothetical situations are one reason they have been widely used to examine adolescents' responses to conflict situations. One frequently used research protocol involves presenting several conflict scenarios to participants during a single session. However, in real-life situations multiple conflicts rarely occur within short periods of time, and the nature of this presentation may be associated with changes in adolescents' reports of conflict behaviors. Trend analyses of emotional, conflict goal, and conflict tactic responses from grade 8, 10, 12, and college students to consecutively presented conflict situations showed that responses were associated with presentation of the hypothetical situations. Findings revealed an increase in reports of assertive conflict behaviors and a decrease in reports of constructive conflict behaviors with successive situation presentation. Results from the current study suggest that researchers must consider trends in responses when examining findings from successive situation presentation methodologies because adolescent reports of conflict behavior may change as situation presentation proceeds. Copyright 2001 The Association for Professionals in Services for Adolescents.

  3. Direct separation of uranium and thorium from Qatrani phosphatic raw ore by consecutive percolation leaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein El-Sayed, M

    1984-07-01

    Phosphatic sandstone of Qatrani area contains high concentrations of uranium and thorium (1450 and 870 ppm respectively). These elements were directly separated from a representative sample of the ore by percolation leaching. Separation made was carried out by using two different leaching reagents, citric and nitric acids for obtaining two separate concentrates of U and Th consecutively from the sample. Uranium was leached first by using citric acid where other rock ingredients were left intact. The effects of: (a) increasing acid input amounts and (b) increasing leaching solution volumes (dilution) on U leaching efficiency were studied. The results revealed that citric acid reaction upon phosphate is limited in spite of higher residual acidity reported in the leach liquors. Regarding uranium, its leaching efficiency increased by increasing acid amounts and/or leaching solution volumes while fixing the acid input amounts. The efficiency of U leaching is more pronounced in the second case than in the first. Increasing U leaching while phosphate dissolution is limited could be interpreted as that the relative complexing affinity of citrate anion for hexavalent uranium is by far much greater than with phosphate. Thorium was thereafter leached by using dilute solutions of nitric acid to avoid dissolution of nitric acid to avoid dissolution of impurities. Percolation leaching experiments were thus performed on the uranium-free samples in the columns used previously in uranium leaching. The effects of increasing acid amounts and increasing leach liquor recycles on Th (and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/) leaching efficiency were studied.

  4. [Occupational Hearing Loss (BK-No. 2301) - A Retrospective Analysis of 100 Consecutive Cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, R; Brosch, S

    2016-10-01

    Introduction: In order for a diagnosis of Occupational Hearing Loss (BK-no. 2301) to be made certain criteria must be fulfilled to establish that the hearing loss is occupational in origin. This work compares 2 groups, those who fulfil the criteria (BKE) and those who do not (BKNE). Methods: A 100 consecutive reports ("Lärmgutachten BK-no. 2301") written by the authors were examined retrospectively. These recorded audiometric examination, an analysis of any tinnitus and noise exposure plus use of hearing protection. Pre- and post-noise exposure status together with an expert assessment of work limitations was made to produce a 7 point score. Results: 67% of the group fulfilled the conditions for occupational hearing loss (9% were entitled to compensation). In the BKE group 82% showed typical audiometric signs of noise damage with 75% of them fulfilling at least 6 criteria of occupational disease no. 2301. Tinnitus typical for noise exposure was found in 26%. Discussion: A 7 point score could be useful in the future as a method of helping distinguish hearing loss and tinnitus from occupational as opposed to other causes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a consecutive series of patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Lucia; Scatena, Alessia; Tacconi, Danilo; Ventoruzzo, Giorgio; Liistro, Francesco; Bolognese, Leonardo; Monami, Matteo; Mannucci, Edoardo

    2017-09-01

    Mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) have been explored in few small studies with a short follow-up. Aim of the present study is to assess all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and predictors of mortality in a consecutive series of patients with DFO. Patients with a diagnosis of DFO, attending the Diabetic Foot Unit of San Donato Hospital in Arezzo between January 1st, 2012 and December 31st, 2013, were included in this retrospective study. Information on all-cause mortality up to December 1st, 2016, was obtained from the registry of the Local Health Unit of Arezzo, which contains updated records of all persons living in Tuscany. One hundred ninety-four patients were included in the study. During a mean period of observation of 2.8±1.4years, 73 (37.6%) died, with a yearly rate of 13.2%. Of the 73 deaths, 59 were attributable to cardiovascular causes. After adjusting for possible confounders in a Cox analysis, site of osteomyelitis (hindfoot vs mid/forefoot) was associated with a higher mortality, and surgical treatment with a lower mortality. Mortality in patients with DFO appears to be much higher than that reported in clinical series of patients with diabetic foot ulcers, particularly when hindfoot is affected. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Retropubic radical prostatectomy: Clinicopathological observations and outcome analysis of 428 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdeesh N Kulkarni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : We report the outcome analysis of retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP performed in 428 patients in terms of pathological findings, complications, and survival. Materials and Methods : Systematically recorded case reports forms of consecutive 428 RRPs done over a 14-year period were analyzed using the SPSS 14 software. Secondary analysis was done to evaluate era specific (pre and post 2002 changes in clinical features and survivals. Results : Seven-year overall survival (OAS, cancer-specific survival (CSS, and event-free survival (EFS was 83.2%, 82.8%, and 69.8% respectively in our series. Era-specific survival showed higher CSS post 2002, and there was an increase in presentation with organ-confined disease. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed statistically significant impact on era specific outcome. With the improvement in techniques decrease in complications rate and increase in quality of life was noted. Conclusions : Our series spanning over decade demonstrates that RRP is viable option to offer cure to organ-confined carcinoma prostate. Further, there is evidence of stage migration and improvements in outcome in post 2002 patients. Although our series is modest in number, the success rates and outcome data matches those reported in the literature.

  7. Adaptive response of Chironomus riparius populations exposed to uranium contaminated sediments during consecutive generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, V.

    2010-01-01

    The intensity of selection on populations caused by polluted environment often exceeds which is caused by an unpolluted environment. Therefore, micro evolution can occur in response to this anthropic-directional force over a short period. In this context, this thesis focused on studying phenotypic changes in Chironomus riparius populations exposed during several consecutive generations to uranium-contaminated sediments. In laboratory-controlled conditions experiments were conducted with same origin populations exposed to a range of uranium concentration inducing toxic effects. Over eight-generations of exposure, life-history traits measures revealed micro evolution in exposed populations, including increase of adult reproductive success. Other experiments (acute toxicity test, common garden experiment) performed in parallel enabled to link these micro evolution with a tolerance induction, as a consequence of genetic adaptation. Nonetheless this adaptation also induced cost in terms of fitness and genetic diversity for pre-exposed populations. These results lead to the hypothesis of a selection by uranium that acted sequentially on populations. They also underline the need to better-understand the adaptive mechanisms to better assess the ecological consequences of chronic exposure of populations to a pollutant. (author)

  8. CT features of focal organizing pneumonia: An analysis of consecutive histopathologically confirmed 45 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Feng [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Yan, Sen-Xiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wang, Gao-Feng [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Wang, Jin [Department of Pathology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Lu, Pu-Xuan [Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Third People' s Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, 518020 (China); Chen, Bin [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Yuan, Jing [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Zhang, Shi-Zheng, E-mail: shizhengzhang@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310016 (China); Wang, Yi-Xiang J., E-mail: yixiang_wang@cuhk.edu.hk [Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong SAR (China); Department of Radiology, Shenzhen Third People' s Hospital, Guangdong Medical College, Shenzhen, 518020 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Objective: To study the CT characteristics of solitary focal organizing pneumonia (FOP). Materials and methods: Chest CT of consecutive 45 patients (34 males and 11 females, median age: 56 years) with confirmed FOP were analyzed. The CT features between large FOP (>3 cm, n = 27) and small FOP (≤3 cm, n = 18) were compared. Results: FOP lesions predominately located in peripheral lungs (86.7%), with the right lower lobe being most common lobe (44.4%). No lesion mainly located in the inner 1/3 of lungs. All large lesions were polygon in shape and had an irregular margin, while small lesions were more likely to be round or oval with an irregular or smooth border. Air bronchogram or small bubble-like lucency was present in majority of the lesions. 42.2% of lesions had incompact internal structure with inhomogeneous density besides air component. Most lesions were associated with a contraction or convergence of surrounding vessels; while no pulmonary vessel was interrupted abruptly by a small FOP lesion. Majority of large lesions had broad contact with the pleura, while only one patient had mild pleural effusion. Mild mediastinal lymph nodes enlargement was present in about 1/5 of the patients. Conclusion: Compared with the known CT features of lung cancer, our results suggest differential diagnosis can often be made for large FOP, while small FOP may resemble lung cancer.

  9. Untangling surface oxygen exchange effects in YBa2Cu3O6+x thin films by electrical conductivity relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayado, P; Sánchez-Valdés, C F; Stangl, A; Coll, M; Roura, P; Palau, A; Puig, T; Obradors, X

    2017-05-31

    The kinetics of oxygen incorporation (in-diffusion process) and excorporation (out-diffusion process), in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x (YBCO) epitaxial thin films prepared using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) methodology by the trifluoroacetate route, was investigated by electrical conductivity relaxation measurements. We show that the oxygenation kinetics of YBCO films is limited by the surface exchange process of oxygen molecules prior to bulk diffusion into the films. The analysis of the temperature and oxygen partial pressure influence on the oxygenation kinetics has drawn a consistent picture of the oxygen surface exchange process enabling us to define the most likely rate determining step. We have also established a strategy to accelerate the oxygenation kinetics at low temperatures based on the catalytic influence of Ag coatings thus allowing us to decrease the oxygenation temperature in the YBCO thin films.

  10. Composition of single-step media used for human embryo culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbeck, Dean E; Baumann, Nikola A; Oglesbee, Devin

    2017-04-01

    To determine compositions of commercial single-step culture media and test with a murine model whether differences in composition are biologically relevant. Experimental laboratory study. University-based laboratory. Inbred female mice were superovulated and mated with outbred male mice. Amino acid, organic acid, and ions content were determined for single-step culture media: CSC, Global, G-TL, and 1-Step. To determine whether differences in composition of these media are biologically relevant, mouse one-cell embryos were cultured for 96 hours in each culture media at 5% and 20% oxygen in a time-lapse incubator. Compositions of four culture media were analyzed for concentrations of 30 amino acids, organic acids, and ions. Blastocysts at 96 hours of culture and cell cycle timings were calculated, and experiments were repeated in triplicate. Of the more than 30 analytes, concentrations of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids, phosphate, calcium, and magnesium varied in concentrations. Mouse embryos were differentially affected by oxygen in G-TL and 1-Step. Four single-step culture media have compositions that vary notably in pyruvate, lactate, and amino acids. Blastocyst development was affected by culture media and its interaction with oxygen concentration. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. EFFECT OF HYDRAULIC AND GEOMETRICAL PROPERTIES ON STEPPED CASCADE AERATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VEDHACHALAM RATHINAKUMAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Stepped cascade aeration system is commonly used to aerate the water and wastewater to increase the dissolved oxygen during pre and post treatment process. In the present research, experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of a rectangular Cascade Aeration System with varying flow rates, risers and tread by maintaining constant width of the channel using water collected from reverse osmosis plant. The experiments were carried out with four different risers such as 0.15 m, 0.18 m, 0.225 m and 0.30 m. Each rise was investigated with five different tread of 0.60 m, 0.55 m, 0.50 m, 0.45 m and 0.40 m. Comprehensive experimental investigations were carried out for different hydraulic loading rates of 0.005 to 0.035 m3/s/m2. Results obtained from the experiments reveals that increasing dimensionless discharges promotes more aeration, attains a maximum up to dimensionless discharge= 2.22 and beyond this there was a significant decrease in aeration. In addition, the increased in number of steps significantly enhances air entertainment and surface fall rate in the Stepped Cascade Aeration System. A regression equation was derived by keeping aeration efficiency as response with dimensionless discharge and oxygen saturation concentration as influencing parameters. The dimension less discharge is a function of critical depth of the rectangular channel and step height, whereas oxygen saturation concentration represents the ratio of oxygen deficit and oxygen saturation concentration. Based on the experimental results, the optimum design and/or results such as number of steps (12 numbers and hydraulic loading rate (0.025 m3/s/m2 with fixed tread width of 0.6 m were identified to achieve maximum aeration rate (0.5-0.60 in Aeration system.

  12. Advanced Oxygen Systems for Aircraft (Systemes d’Oxygene Avances)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Oxygen Generating System (NAOGS), SAM-TR-80-12, Brooks AFB TX 78235, 1980. 11. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and...sieve oxygen generation sys- tem. Data from Horch et al (15). cabin altitude. The minimum and maximum oxygen concen- tration lines depict the...an AV-8A Aircraft; Naval Air Test Center Report No. SY-136R-81, 1981. 15. Horch TC, Miller RL, Bomar JB Jr, Tedor JB, Holden RD, Ikels KG, and

  13. Diffusion of oxygen through cork stopper: is it a Knudsen or a Fickian mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorce-Tachon, Aurélie; Karbowiak, Thomas; Simon, Jean-Marc; Gougeon, Régis; Bellat, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-17

    The aim of this work is to identify which law governs oxygen transfer through cork: Knudsen or Fickian mechanism. This is important to better understand wine oxidation during post-bottling aging. Oxygen transfer through cork wafers is measured at 298 K using a manometric permeation technique. Depending on the mechanism, we can extract the transport coefficients. Increasing the initial pressure of oxygen from 50 to 800 hPa leads to a change in the values of the transport coefficients. This implies that oxygen transport through cork does not obey the Knudsen law. From these results, we conclude that the limiting step of oxygen transport through cork occurs in the cell wall following Fickian law. From the diffusion dependence's coefficients with pressure, we also extract by applying transition state theory an apparent activation volume of 45 ± 4 nm(3). This high value indicates that oxygen molecules also diffuse from one site to another by passing through a gas phase.

  14. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    28. Alagoz, T., R. Buller, B. Anderson, K. Terrell , R...and oxygenation Ann . New Acad. Sci. 838 29–45 Chapman J D, Stobbe C C, Arnfield M R, Santus R, Lee J and McPhee M S 1991 Oxygen dependency of tumor

  15. Oxygenation impairment after total arch replacement with a stented elephant trunk for type-A dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuwen; Liu, Chuanzhen; Fang, Changcun; Xi, Jie; Wu, Shuming; Pang, Xinyan; Song, Guangmin

    2018-06-01

    To study the risk factors of oxygenation impairment in patients with type-A acute aortic dissection who underwent total arch replacement with a stented elephant trunk. In this study, 169 consecutive patients were enrolled who were diagnosed with type-A acute aortic dissection and underwent a total arch replacement procedure at the Qilu Hospital of Shandong University between January 2015 and February 2017. Postoperative oxygenation impairment was defined as arterial oxygen partial pressure/inspired oxygen fraction ≤ 200 with positive end expiratory pressure ≥ 5 cm H 2 O that occurred within 72 hours of surgery. Perioperative clinical characteristics of all patients were collected and univariable analyses were performed. Risk factors associated with oxygenation impairment identified by univariable analyses were included in the multivariable regression analysis. The incidence of postoperative oxygenation impairment was 48.5%. Postoperative oxygenation impairment was associated with prolonged mechanical ventilation time, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. Multivariable regression analysis demonstrated that body mass index (odds ratio [OR], 1.204; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.065-1.361; P = .003), preoperative oxygenation impairment (OR, 9.768; 95% CI, 4.159-22.941; P impairment. Postoperative oxygenation impairment is a common complication of surgery for type-A acute aortic dissection. Body mass index, preoperative oxygenation impairment, preoperative homocysteine, circulatory arrest time, and plasma transfusion were independent risk factors for oxygenation impairment after a total arch replacement procedure. Copyright © 2018 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Steps to Advanced CANDU 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yongshick; Brooks, G. L.

    1988-01-01

    The CANDU nuclear power system was developed from merging of AECL heavy water reactor technology with Ontario Hydro electrical power station expertise. The original four units of Ontario Hydro's Pickering Generating Station are the first full-scale commercial application of the CANDU system. AECL and Ontario Hydro then moved to the next evolutionary step, a more advanced larger scale design for four units at the Bruce Generating Station. CANDU 600 followed as a single unit nuclear electric power station design derived from an amalgam of features of the multiple unit Pickering and Bruce designs. The design of the CANDU 600 nuclear steam supply system is based on the Pickering design with improvements derived from the Bruce design. For example, most CANDU 600 auxiliary systems are based on Bruce systems, whereas the fuel handling system is based on the Pickering system. Four CANDU 600 units are in operation, and five are under construction in Romania. For the additional four units at Pickering Generating Station 'B', Ontario Hydro selected a replica of the Pickering 'A' design with limited design changes to maintain a high level of standardization across all eight units. Ontario Hydro applied a similar policy for the additional four units at Bruce Generating Station 'B'. For the four unit Darlington station, Ontario Hydro selected a design based on Bruce with improvements derived from operating experience, the CANDU 600 design and development programs

  17. Multi-step direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koning, A.J.

    1992-07-01

    In recent years a variety of statistical theories has been developed concerning multistep direct (MSD) nuclear reactions. In addition, dominant in applications is a whole class of semiclassical models that may be subsumed under the heading of 'generalized exciton models'; these are basically MSD-type extensions on top of compound-like concepts. In this report the relation between their underlying statistical MSD-postulates are highlighted. A command framework is sketched that enables to generate the various MSD theories through assigning statistical properties to different parts of the nuclear Hamiltonian. Then it is shown that distinct forms of nuclear randomness are embodied in the mentioned theories. All these theories appear to be very similar at a qualitative level. In order to explain the high energy-tails and forward-peaked angular distribution typical for particles emitted in MSD reactions, it is imagined that the incident continuum particle stepwise looses its energy and direction in a sequence of collisions, thereby creating new particle-hole pairs in the target system. At each step emission may take place. The statistical aspect comes in because many continuum states are involved in the process. These are supposed to display chaotic behavior, the associated randomness assumption giving rise to important simplifications in the expression for MSD emission cross sections. This picture suggests that mentioned MSD models can be interpreted as a variant of essentially one and the same theory. 113 refs.; 25 figs.; 9 tabs

  18. OBJEKTIVNOST REGULACIJSKIH TESTOVA (HARVARDSKI STEP-TEST U PROCENI STANJA FIZIČKE PRIPREMLJENOSTI MLADIH SPORTISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Šekeljić

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The need of estimation of one of the phisical characteristics of men (the aerobic capacity led to the appearance of the first test (Harvard step-test in 1943. and consequently to the appearance of the first instrument for testing functional abilities (step-bench. Despite the subsequente appearance of the step-bench – it is simple, economic and available to wide-spread use – have favourized step-test as test of choise, and in certain circumstance they are the only possible test. The aim of this research has been to check and possibly improve standardization of the Harvard step-test. A sample of 64 male athletes aged 15 to 17 has been chosen. Statiscally signifant in the estimation of maximum oxygen uptake have been fond

  19. Comparative TEA for Indirect Liquefaction Pathways to Distillate-Range Fuels via Oxygenated Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Eric; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Jones, Susanne; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Gray, Michael; Dagle, Robert; Padmaperuma, Asanga; Gerber, Mark; Sahir, Asad; Tao, Ling; Zhang, Yanan

    2017-03-03

    This paper presents a comparative techno-economic analysis of five conversion pathways from biomass to gasoline-, jet-, and diesel-range hydrocarbons via indirect liquefaction with specific focus on pathways utilizing oxygenated intermediates (derived either via thermochemical or biochemical conversion steps). The four emerging pathways of interest are compared with one conventional pathway (Fischer-Tropsch) for the production of the hydrocarbon blendstocks. The processing steps of the four emerging pathways include: biomass-to-syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, conversion of syngas to alcohols/oxygenates, followed by conversion of alcohols/oxygenates to hydrocarbon blendstocks via dehydration, oligomerization, and hydrogenation. We show that the emerging pathways via oxygenated intermediates have the potential to be cost competitive with the conventional Fischer-Tropsch process. The evaluated pathways and the benchmark process generally exhibit similar fuel yields and carbon conversion efficiencies. The resulting minimum fuel selling prices are comparable to the benchmark at approximately $3.60 per gallon-gasoline equivalent, with potential for two new pathways to be more economically competitive. Additionally, the coproduct values can play an important role in the economics of the processes with oxygenated intermediates derived via syngas fermentation. Major cost drivers for the integrated processes are tied to achievable fuel yields and conversion efficiency of the intermediate steps, i.e., the production of oxygenates/alcohols from syngas and the conversion of oxygenates/alcohols to hydrocarbon fuels.

  20. Critical flux determination by flux-stepping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Søren; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    2010-01-01

    In membrane filtration related scientific literature, often step-by-step determined critical fluxes are reported. Using a dynamic microfiltration device, it is shown that critical fluxes determined from two different flux-stepping methods are dependent upon operational parameters such as step...... length, step height, and.flux start level. Filtrating 8 kg/m(3) yeast cell suspensions by a vibrating 0.45 x 10(-6) m pore size microfiltration hollow fiber module, critical fluxes from 5.6 x 10(-6) to 1.2 x 10(-5) m/s have been measured using various step lengths from 300 to 1200 seconds. Thus......, such values are more or less useless in itself as critical flux predictors, and constant flux verification experiments have to be conducted to check if the determined critical fluxes call predict sustainable flux regimes. However, it is shown that using the step-by-step predicted critical fluxes as start...

  1. What is the preferred number of consecutive night shifts? results from a crossover intervention study among police officers in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Hansen, Åse Marie; Kristiansen, Jesper; Garde, Anne Helene

    2016-10-01

    Among police officers in Denmark, we studied (i) how many consecutive night shifts participants preferred at baseline; (ii) preferences regarding three intervention conditions (two, four, and seven consecutive night shifts followed by the same number of days off/day shifts: '2 + 2', '4 + 4', '7 + 7') at follow-up; (iii) characteristics of participants preferring each of these intervention conditions. Questionnaire data from a crossover intervention study were used (baseline: n = 73; follow-up: n = 68). At baseline, 49% preferred four consecutive night shifts. At follow-up, 57% preferred '4 + 4', 26% preferred '2 + 2' and 26% preferred '7 + 7'. Participants, who preferred longer spells of night work experienced that night work was less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types compared with participants who preferred shorter spells of night work. The participants' preferences are likely to be influenced by their previous shift work experience. Practitioner Summary: We investigated police officers' preferences regarding the number of consecutive night shifts. The majority preferred four consecutive night shifts. Those who preferred the longer spells of night work found night work less demanding, found it easier to sleep at different times of the day, and were more frequently evening types.

  2. Oxygen dependency of porfiromycin cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, R.S.; Rauth, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors determined the oxygen dependency of toxicity for the bioreductive alkylating agents mitomycin C (MMC) and porfiromycin (PM) to investigate whether the toxicities of these agents increase in the range of oxygen tensions over which cells become increasingly radioresistant. In the present work the oxygen dependency of PM in CHO cells was determined by assaying survival as a function of time of exposure to 1.0 μg/ml PM under various known levels of oxygen. While PM demonstrated preferential hypoxic cell toxicity, aerobic cell survival was reduced ten-fold after five hours of exposure. Conversely, PM toxicity after a five hour hypoxic exposure to <0.001% oxygen appeared to be greater than that observed for similar MMC exposures, suggesting that PM may be more selective than MMC in killing hypoxic rather than aerobic cells. The authors are currently investigating this preferential toxicity in two human cell lines, one of which is resistant to these agents. At present, these observations suggest that PM may be more effective than MMC at destroying tumour cells in regions of intermediate and low oxygen tensions which may survive radiotherapy, though the range of oxygen tensions which mediate toxicity is similar for both agents

  3. Attention demanding tasks during treadmill walking reduce step width variability in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy Karen L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The variability of step time and step width is associated with falls by older adults. Further, step time is significantly influenced when performing attention demanding tasks while walking. Without exception, step time variability has been reported to increase in normal and pathologically aging older adults. Because of the role of step width in managing frontal plane dynamic stability, documenting the influence of attention-demanding tasks on step width variability may provide insight to events that can disturb dynamic stability during locomotion and increase fall risk. Preliminary evidence suggests performance of an attention demanding task significantly decreases step width variability of young adults walking on a treadmill. The purpose of the present study was to confirm or refute this finding by characterizing the extent and direction of the effects of a widely used attention demanding task (Stroop test on the step width variability of young adults walking on a motorized treadmill. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults walked on a motorized treadmill at a self-selected velocity for 10 minutes under two conditions; without performing an attention demanding task and while performing the Stroop test. Step width of continuous and consecutive steps during the collection was derived from the data recorded using a motion capture system. Step width variability was computed as the standard deviation of all recorded steps. Results Step width decreased four percent during performance of the Stroop test but the effect was not significant (p = 0.10. In contrast, the 16 percent decrease in step width variability during the Stroop test condition was significant (p = 0.029. Conclusion The results support those of our previous work in which a different attention demanding task also decreased step width variability of young subjects while walking on a treadmill. The decreased step width variability observed while performing an attention

  4. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Primary Amyloidosis With Renal Involvement: Outcomes in 77 Consecutive Patients at a Single Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Sandy W; Toskic, Denis; Warner, Melissa; Varga, Cindy; Moreno-Koehler, Alejandro; Fein, Daniel; Fogaren, Teresa; Lee, Lisa; Oliver, Colin M; Guthrie, Spencer D; Comenzo, Raymond L

    2017-11-01

    Outcomes in primary amyloid renal patients are of interest as the era of monoclonal antibody therapies begins. We studied 77 consecutive primary amyloid renal patients (58% men) for renal progression (end stage renal disease [ESRD]), renal response (RR), and overall survival (OS). At diagnosis median age was 63 (range, 35-81) years, estimated glomerular filtration rate 70 mL/min (range, 5-114), difference between involved and uninvolved free light chains 127 mg/L (range, 1-9957), ESRD 4%, renal stage 2 and 3 78%, and cardiac stage 2 and 3 56%. Ninety-six percent received bortezomib and 44% stem cell transplantation as well as bortezomib, 68% achieved complete or very good partial hematologic response (CR/VGPR), 34% had ESRD, and 39% RR. Median times to ESRD and RR were 18 (range, 3-81) and 12 (range, 2-30) months, respectively. Median OS was not reached in this cohort and was not reached from onset of ESRD. More than two-thirds of patients with ESRD also achieved CR/VGPR. In those without ESRD at diagnosis, baseline creatinine and absent RR predicted progression to ESRD in multivariate Cox regression analysis, whereas CR/VGPR predicted RR. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, cardiac stage and achievement of CR/VGPR predicted OS, enabling construction of a prognostic model. Anti-plasma cell therapies provide a definite albeit limited benefit and new approaches to amyloid-related organ dysfunction are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw method: Review of 44 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Rivkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary of Background Data: Multilevel posterior cervical instrumented fusions are becoming more prevalent in current practice. Biomechanical characteristics of the cervicothoracic junction may necessitate extending the construct to upper thoracic segments. However, fixation in upper thoracic spine can be technically demanding owing to transitional anatomy while suboptimal placement facilitates vascular and neurologic complications. Thoracic instrumentation methods include free-hand, fluoroscopic guidance, and CT-based image guidance. However, fluoroscopy of upper thoracic spine is challenging secondary to vertebral geometry and patient positioning, while image-guided systems present substantial financial commitment and are not readily available at most centers. Additionally, imaging modalities increase radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon while potentially lengthening surgical time. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of 44 consecutive patients undergoing a cervicothoracic fusion by a single surgeon using the novel free-hand T1 pedicle screw technique between June 2009 and November 2012. A starting point medial and cephalad to classic entry as well as new trajectory were utilized. No imaging modalities were employed during screw insertion. Postoperative CT scans were obtained on day 1. Screw accuracy was independently evaluated according to the Heary classification. Results: In total, 87 pedicle screws placed were at T1. Grade 1 placement occurred in 72 (82.8% screws, Grade 2 in 4 (4.6% screws and Grade 3 in 9 (10.3% screws. All Grade 2 and 3 breaches were <2 mm except one Grade 3 screw breaching 2-4 mm laterally. Only two screws (2.3% were noted to be Grade 4, both breaching medially by less than 2 mm. No new neurological deficits or returns to operating room took place postoperatively. Conclusions: This modification of the traditional starting point and trajectory at T1 is safe and effective. It attenuates additional bone

  7. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Mehmet Fatih; Erdem, Mehmet Nuri; Disli, Zeliha; Selcuk, Engin Burak; Karakaplan, Mustafa; Gogus, Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF) classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA) physical status classification (ASA grade). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37-98 years), and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range: 12-75 months). Postoperative radiographs showed a near-anatomical fracture reduction in 78% of patients. The Harris hip score was negatively correlated with the ASA score and patient age. No cases of implant failure were observed. Three patients died before discharge (one due to pulmonary embolism, two due to cardiac arrest), and five patients died due to unrelated medical conditions within the first 3 months of the follow-up. Our study showed that proximal femoral nail is a reliable fixation with good fracture union, and it is not associated with major complications in any type of trochanteric femoral fracture.

  8. 3066 consecutive Gamma Nails. 12 years experience at a single centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekholm Carl

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fixation of trochanteric hip fractures using the Gamma Nail has been performed since 1988 and is today well established and wide-spread. However, a number of reports have raised serious concerns about the implant's complication rate. The main focus has been the increased risk of a subsequent femoral shaft fracture and some authors have argued against its use despite other obvious advantages, when this implant is employed. Through access to a uniquely large patient data base available, which is available for analysis of trochanteric fractures; we have been able to evaluate the performance of the Gamma Nail over a twelve year period. Methods 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures using Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l'Orthopedie (CTO, Strasbourg, France. These patients were retrospectively analysed. Information on epidemiological data, intra- and postoperative complications and patients' outcome was retrieved from patient notes. All available radiographs were assessed by a single reviewer (AJB. Results The results showed a low complication rate with the use of the Gamma Nail. There were 137 (4.5% intraoperative fracture-related complications. Moreover 189 (6.2% complications were detected postoperatively and during follow-up. Cut-out of the lag screw from the femoral head was the most frequent mechanical complication (57 patients, 1.85%, whereas a postoperative femoral shaft fracture occurred in 19 patients (0.6%. Other complications, such as infection, delayed healing/non-union, avascular femoral head necrosis and distal locking problems occurred in 113 patients (3.7%. Conclusions The use of the Gamma Nail in trochanteric hip fractures is a safe method with a low complication rate. In particular, a low rate of femoral shaft fractures was reported. The low complication rate reported in this series can probably be explained by strict adherence to a proper

  9. Testicular parenchymal abnormalities in Klinefelter syndrome: a question of cancer? Examination of 40 consecutive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Accardo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Klinefelter syndrome (KS is a hypergonadotropic hypogonadism characterized by a 47, XXY karyotype. The risk of testicular cancer in KS is of interest in relation to theories about testicular cancer etiology generally; nevertheless it seems to be low. We evaluated the need for imaging and serum tumor markers for testicular cancer screening in KS. Participants were 40 consecutive KS patients, enrolled from December 2009 to January 2013. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin subunit (β-HCG serum levels assays and testicular ultrasound (US with color Doppler, were carried out at study entry, after 6 months and every year for 3 years. Abdominal magnetic resonance (MR was performed in KS when testicular US showed micro-calcifications, testicular nodules and cysts. Nearly 62% of the KS had regular testicular echotexture, 37.5% showed an irregular echotexture and 17.5% had micro-calcifications and cysts. Eighty seven percent of KS had a regular vascular pattern, 12.5% varicocele, 12.5% nodules 1 cm. MR ruled out the diagnosis of cancer in all KS with testicular micro calcifications, nodules and cysts. No significant variations in LDH, AFP, and β-HCG levels and in US pattern have been detected during follow-up. We compared serum tumor markers and US pattern between KS with and without cryptorchidism and no statistical differences were found. We did not find testicular cancer in KS, and testicular US, tumor markers and MR were, in selected cases, useful tools for correctly discriminating benign from malignant lesions.

  10. A consecutive series of patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated by primary irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greisen, O.; Carl, J.; Pedersen, M.

    1997-01-01

    In Denmark there is an increasing frequency of laryngeal carcinoma, in particular in women and among these especially in supraglottic tumours. The incidence during the past 20 years has risen from about 40 to 60 cases per million per year. A series of 335 consecutive patients treated with primary radiation is presented. In one-third of all patients the tumour was localized in the supraglottic area; in women in more than half and in men in about one-fourth of the cases. The frequency of primary lymph node metastases in the supraglottic and the glottic tumours was 24% and 2% respectively. A multivariate analysis identified sex and tumour size as independent prognostic parameters of local control. Five-year survival corrected for intercurrent deaths was obtained in 59% of all cases, in 56% of supraglottic and in 92% of glottic tumours. A multivariate analysis defined localization, tumour grade and stage as independent prognostic parameters of survival. Salvage surgery was performed in about 32% of the cases, total laryngectomy in 26%, and partial laryngectomy in 6%. The survival rate among all total laryngectomies was 55%. A tracheostomy during or before radiation treatment prior to total laryngectomy had no influence on complication rate, admission time or recurrence rate. The frequency of pharyngo-cutaneous fistulae in the entire series was 11.5%; after routine use of metronidazol, however, only 5.7%. Radical neck dissection was carried out in 7.8% of the cases, by far most in the supraglottic group, only a few in the glottic carcinomas, in three-fourth in connection with a laryngectomy and in one-fourth without local recurrence in the larynx. (orig.)

  11. A consecutive series of patients with laryngeal carcinoma treated by primary irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greisen, O. [ENT Dept. and the Oncological Dept., Aalborg Sygehus (Denmark); Carl, J. [ENT Dept. and the Oncological Dept., Aalborg Sygehus (Denmark); Pedersen, M. [ENT Dept. and the Oncological Dept., Aalborg Sygehus (Denmark)

    1997-09-01

    In Denmark there is an increasing frequency of laryngeal carcinoma, in particular in women and among these especially in supraglottic tumours. The incidence during the past 20 years has risen from about 40 to 60 cases per million per year. A series of 335 consecutive patients treated with primary radiation is presented. In one-third of all patients the tumour was localized in the supraglottic area; in women in more than half and in men in about one-fourth of the cases. The frequency of primary lymph node metastases in the supraglottic and the glottic tumours was 24% and 2% respectively. A multivariate analysis identified sex and tumour size as independent prognostic parameters of local control. Five-year survival corrected for intercurrent deaths was obtained in 59% of all cases, in 56% of supraglottic and in 92% of glottic tumours. A multivariate analysis defined localization, tumour grade and stage as independent prognostic parameters of survival. Salvage surgery was performed in about 32% of the cases, total laryngectomy in 26%, and partial laryngectomy in 6%. The survival rate among all total laryngectomies was 55%. A tracheostomy during or before radiation treatment prior to total laryngectomy had no influence on complication rate, admission time or recurrence rate. The frequency of pharyngo-cutaneous fistulae in the entire series was 11.5%; after routine use of metronidazol, however, only 5.7%. Radical neck dissection was carried out in 7.8% of the cases, by far most in the supraglottic group, only a few in the glottic carcinomas, in three-fourth in connection with a laryngectomy and in one-fourth without local recurrence in the larynx. (orig.).

  12. Prevalence and Characteristics of Discogenic Pain in Tertiary Practice: 223 Consecutive Cases Utilizing Lumbar Discography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrills, Paul; Nowesenitz, Gillian; Barnard, Adele

    2015-08-01

    Between 26% and 42% of chronic low back pain is attributed to internal disc disruption of lumbar intervertebral discs. These prevalence estimates and data characterizing discogenic pain originate largely from research at elite practices, conducted 20 years ago. With few studies since, their concordance with rates in community practice has rarely been addressed. To assess the prevalence and key features of discogenic pain within community-based tertiary practice, and to evaluate the accuracy and clinical utility of discography. This prospective, three-year study of 223 consecutive cases of chronic low back pain used image-guided lumbar discography to identify symptomatic and flanking asymptomatic discs. A subset of patients (n = 195) had previously undergone posterior column blocks to investigate spinal facet and/or sacroiliac joints as contributing pain sources. A total of 644 discs were tested without infection or complication. Positive discograms were recorded in 74% of patients, with 22.9% negative and 3.1% assessed as indeterminate. Among patients receiving both discography and diagnostic blocks, 63% had proven discogenic pain, 18% had pain of mixed etiology and 14% remained undiagnosed. Taking into account all low back pain cases during this study (n = 756), discogenic pain prevalence was 21.8% (95% CI: 17-26%). The prevalence of discogenic pain in this community practice is below the range, but within confidence intervals, previously reported. Prevalence is considerably elevated, however, among well-selected patients and discography enabled a firm diagnosis in most such cases. These findings are broadly in keeping with those reached in key publications and support the clinical utility of discography. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Complications and management in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty: Analysis of consecutive 430 cases

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    Samar K Basak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the complications and their managements in Descemet′s stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK in consecutive 430 cases by single surgeon in a tertiary eye hospital. Materials and Methods: 430 eyes of 366 patients with endothelial dysfunctions scheduled for DSEK, were analyzed retrospectively. In all cases donor dissection was performed manually, and ′Taco′ insertion and unfolding technique was used. Intra-operative and postoperative complications with their managements and outcomes were reviewed retrospectively. Periodic endothelial cell density was analyzed for each patient till the last visit. Follow-up period was between 3 to 60 months (mean 18.7 months. Results: 13 (3.0% eyes had operative complications during donor dissection and 16 (3.7% had during recipient procedure. In 7 (1.6% eyes, donor lenticule was replaced with a new one during the surgery. In early postoperative period, 21 (4.9% eyes had donor dislocation and 12 (2.8% eyes had air-induced pupillary block; and they were managed immediately. 2 cases had primary graft failure and in 1 case had postoperative bacterial endophthalmitis requiring evisceration. In late postoperative period, 48 (11.3% eyes had secondary glaucoma and 14 (3.3% eyes had late secondary graft failure. Endothelial rejection occurred in 5 (1.2% cases. Mean endothelial cell loss was 19.7% after 3 months and 54.2% after 5 years. Total graft failure in this series was 31 (7.2% and in 17 cases re-DSEK was performed successfully. Conclusions: Both operative and postoperative complications do occur in DSEK. Most of these complications can be managed by medical or appropriate surgical means. Some of the complications can be avoided and reduced with experience.

  14. Decompressive laminectomy for lumbar stenosis: review of 65 consecutive cases from Tema, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, N B; Lawson, H J; Darko, D

    2007-01-01

    There have been previous reports describing patients with lumbar stenosis (LS) in West Africa; however, to date no such report has been published from Ghana. To provide data on the pattern of lumbar stenosis and the effects of decompressive lumbar laminectomy (DLL) on the clinical course of LS in Tema. Sixty-five consecutive patients who underwent DLL for lumbar stenosis over between January 2001 and December 2004 had their medical records analyzed. The parameters of interest included demographics, pre and post surgical clinical status utilizing the modified low back pain clinical scoring system, operative procedure and complications. Sixty-five patients (36M, 29F) with a mean age of 51 years constituted the series. All had failed conservative treatment; each patient was operated on once at our institution. Eighty nine percent of the series presented with neurogenic claudication and accompanying motor and sensory deficits. Twenty-seven patients (41.5%) underwent bilateral DLL; the rest underwent unilateral DLL. The mean preoperative score for the series was 2.3; that for males 2.6, females 1.9 (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between patients 60 years. The mean postoperative score for the series was 8.7. There was a significant difference between preoperative and postoperative scores of series. No mortality was recorded The complication rate was 15%. In Tema, decompressive lumbar laminectomy for lumbar stenosis achieves significant clinical improvement with attendant low morbidity and mortality rates in patients who have failed conservative treatment. Accompanying disc excision and or fusion are required in only a small minority of patients.

  15. Lymphotoxin-alpha polymorphisms and presence of cancer in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muramatsu Masaaki

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTA is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with anti-tumor activity. The objective of this study was to determine whether LTA polymorphisms influence the presence of cancer. Methods LTA polymorphisms C804A (rs1041981, T60N and T495C (rs2229094, C13R were determined in 1,536 consecutive autopsy cases and were registered in the Japanese single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs for geriatric research (JG-SNP Internet database. Tumors were systematically reviewed, pathologically confirmed, and assessed in relation to LTA genotype. Results The study population consisted of 827 males and 709 females, with a mean age of 80 years. Altogether, we studied 606 subjects without cancer and 930 subjects with cancer of the stomach (n = 183, lung (n = 164, colon or rectum (n = 143, or other sites. The presence of cancer was higher in males than in females. The C804A and T495C polymorphisms were associated with cancer in males (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.53 – 0.99; TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.04 – 2.02; respectively but not in females. In males, the C804A polymorphism was associated with lung cancer (CA + AA: CC, adjusted OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37 – 0.97, whereas the T495C polymorphism was associated with gastric cancer (TC + CC: TT, adjusted OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.06 – 2.65. Conclusion We found some evidence of an association between LTA polymorphisms and cancer risk in elderly Japanese men. Further studies in larger populations should examine this hypothesis.

  16. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx--an analysis of treatment results in 289 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, L.V.; Grau, C.; Overgaard, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this retrospective study the results of primary and salvage treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma were evaluated. A total of 289 consecutive patients (103 females and 186 males) were included in the study. Most tumours originated in the tonsil area (58%) and comprised stages I 8%, II 19%, III 46% and IV 28%. The primary treatment was delivered with curative intent in 276 cases (96%). Of these, 266 received primary radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 62 Gy, given as laterally opposed fields to the primary tumour and bilateral neck. Eight patients were treated with primary surgery and two with chemotherapy as part of a curatively intended treatment programme including radiotherapy. Six patients received palliative treatment, and seven were not treated at all. Out of 276 tumours treated with curative intent, 173 reappeared; 72% recurred in T position, 38% in N position, and 12% at distant metastatic sites, some in combination. Salvage surgery was possible in 52 patients, and 24 treatments were successful. Salvage radiotherapy or cryotherapy was used in 22 patients and 4 were controlled. For the entire group, the 5-year locoregional tumour control, disease-specific survival and overall survival rates were 38%, 44% and 31%, respectively. For patients treated with curative intent, clinical T- and N-stage, stage, tumour size, gender, age, and pretreatment haemoglobin were significant prognostic parameters in a univariate analysis. The Cox multivariate analysis showed that T-stage, N-stage and gender were independent prognostic factors. It is concluded that T-stage, N-stage and gender are significant independent prognostic factors. The primary control of the carcinoma in the T-position is crucial for overall success, but salvage surgery is found to have a favourable success rate in patients suitable for relapse treatment

  17. Review of one hundred consecutive abdominal hysterectomies: their suitability for vaginal hysterectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal hysterectomy is one of the most common major operations in gynaecology. However, it is associated with considerable morbidity and relatively slow recovery. The superiority of hysterectomy by the vaginal route is not denied. It is associated with a significant fewer complications than abdominal hysterectomy. This study was done with the aim to determine what proportion of hysterectomies performed via abdominal route could have been performed vaginally or with laparoscopic assistance. Methods: Case notes of one hundred consecutive patients who had an abdominal hysterectomy were obtained from the records department. Out of 100 cases only 85 case notes were made available for analysis. Results: A total of 74 cases for benign disorder were studied; 50% of the cases were over the age of 40 years and 82% of the patients were multiparous. The uterine size was less than 12 weeks in 67 cases. About 44.6% of cases were found to have menorrhagia without any organic pathology. For the majority of cases it was not apparent from the cases notes as to the degree of uterine descent. Three patients required blood transfusion in the preoperative group and 7 cases in the postoperative group. Primary haemorrhage was noted in 3 cases. Three patients needed readmission for secondary haemorrhage due to vault hematoma formation and in one case a hematoma of rectus sheath was noted which needed drainage. Paralytic ileus was noted in 2 cases and one case had intestinal obstruction. Most of the patients were allowed home within 7 days. One patient stayed for 17 days due to intestinal obstruction requiring laparotomies and gut resection. Majority of the cases were done by the consultants. Conclusion: By considering the specific guidelines for vaginal hysterectomy, every patient who need hysterectomy should be assessed for vaginal hysterectomy, provided there is no contraindication for it. Preoperative assessment under anaesthesia should be an integral part of management of a patient

  18. Decreasing radiation doses in digital subtraction angiographies consecutively performed by trainees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, G.; Zhao, W.; Zheng, L.; Fan, X.; Yin, Q.; Liu, X.

    2012-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) performed by trainees may be related to increased radiation exposure. This study was aimed to investigate and quantify this learning effect, with fluoroscopy time and dose-area product (DAP) as parameters. We collected procedure data of the first to the fortieth cerebral DSA consecutively performed by 13 trainees in a training centre. DAP, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, number of cine-frames of the first 20 DSA procedures performed by these trainees were compared with that of the second 20 procedures. There was no significant difference concerning the procedure time between the first and the second 20 procedures (56.3 ±29.5 vs 51.5±20.2 min, p = 0.113). Numbers of cine-frames were very similar between the first and the second 20 procedures (750.7 ±290.3 vs 744.5 ±188.7, p = 0.830). Fluoroscopy time of the first 20 procedures was significantly longer than that of the second 20 procedures (17.8 ±15.4 vs 12.6 ±9.0, p = 0.001). DAP of the first 20 procedures was significantly higher than that of the second 20 procedures (6.4 ±4.9 vs 3.8 ±1.8, p < 0.001). DAP was correlated significantly with the performer's experience (R = -0.288, p < 0.001). There exists a learning effect of radiation exposure during cerebral DSA procedures performed by trainees. The learning effect is significant during the first 20 procedures, and becomes insignificant after 20 procedures. Insufficient catheter skills in novice trainees may be one reason for this effect. (authors)

  19. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma: analysis of 80 patients treated with two consecutive sessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhim, Hyunchul; Kim, Young-sun; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K.; Park, KoWoon

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the reasons for some patients requiring two consecutive sessions of percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We reviewed our database of 1,179 patients (1,624 treatments) with HCCs treated by percutaneous ultrasound (US)-guided RF ablation over 6 years. We retrospectively evaluated 80 patients who required a second session after the first session. The medical records and follow-up CTs were studied. We assessed the reasons for the second session and the patient outcomes. A second session was required in 80 (4.8%) out of 1,642 treatments of percutaneous RF ablation for HCC. The reason for the second session included technical failure related to the patient or the procedure (n=26), technical failure due to residual (n=40), newly detected (n=11) or missed (n=3) tumors found at the immediate follow-up CT. All patients were retreated with a second RFA session the next day. Seventy-five (93%) of 80 patients achieved complete ablation after the second session. The remaining five patients were treated by TACE (n=1), additional RFA (as second treatment at next admission) (n=3), or were lost to follow-up (n=1). After 1 month follow-up, 72 patients (96%) showed complete ablation after the second session. The interventional oncologist should understand the technical reasons for a patient requiring a second session of RF ablation when providing treatment for HCCs and perform careful pre-procedural planning to minimize the need for multi-session procedures. (orig.)

  20. Fluid balance of elite Brazilian youth soccer players during consecutive days of training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael P; Mündel, Toby; Natali, Antônio J; Bara Filho, Maurício G; Lima, Jorge R P; Alfenas, Rita C G; Lopes, Priscila R N R; Belfort, Felipe G; Marins, João C B

    2011-04-01

    In this study we investigated pre-training hydration status, fluid intake, and sweat loss in 20 elite male Brazilian adolescent soccer players (mean ± s: age 17.2 ± 0.5 years; height 1.76 ± 0.05 m; body mass 69.9 ± 6.0 kg) on three consecutive days of typical training during the qualifying phase of the national soccer league. Urine specific gravity (USG) and body mass changes were evaluated before and after training sessions to estimate hydration status. Players began the days of training mildly hypohydrated (USG > 1.020) and fluid intake did not match fluid losses. It was warmer on Day 1 (33.1 ± 2.4°C and43.4 ± 3.2% relative humidity; P < 0.05) and total estimated sweat losses (2822 ± 530 mL) and fluid intake (1607 ± 460 mL) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) compared with Days 2 and 3. Data also indicate a significant correlation between the extent of sweat loss and the volume of fluid consumed (Day 1: r = 0.560, P = 0.010; Day 2: r = 0.445, P = 0.049; Day 3: r = 0.743, P = 0.0001). We conclude that young, native tropical soccer players arrive hypohydrated to training and that they exhibit voluntary dehydration; therefore, enhancing athletes' self-knowledge of sweat loss during training might help them to consume sufficient fluid to match the sweat losses.

  1. Initial primary endovascular treatment in the management of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a prospective consecutive series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejdoubi, Mehdi; Cognard, Christophe; Gigaud, Michel; Tremoulet, Michel; Albucher, Jean-Francois

    2006-01-01

    From January 1998 to December 2002, endovascular treatment (EVT) was used as first intention in all patients with ruptured aneurysms. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of this therapeutic strategy. Among 401 patients admitted with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), 73 (18%) had a nonaneurysmal perimesencephalic SAH, 28 were not explored by angiography due to very poor clinical status, and 28 with aneurysmal SAH were not treated due to poor clinical status. Thus, of the 300 patients with a proven aneurysmal SAH, 272 (83%) were treated. EVT was attempted in 230 patients and was successful in 222 (82%), and clipping was performed in 50 (18%). Finally, EVT was successful in 234 aneurysms (96.7%) in 222 patients out of 242 aneurysms in 230 patients (some of the patients were treated for more than one aneurysm in the same procedure). EVT-related morbidity occurred in ten patients (4.5%) and mortality in eight (3.6%). Rate of dependency or death (modified Rankin scale 3-5) was 24.5% at 26 months. Initially, complete aneurysm occlusion was obtained in 81%, a dog ear in 3.4%, a neck remnant in 8% and incomplete occlusion in 8.1% of the patients. At follow-up (mean 26 months), the occlusion rate remained stable at 75%. This consecutive prospective series shows that EVT can be performed routinely as first-intention treatment in most aneurysmal SAH. Using this therapeutic strategy, EVT was performed in 82% of patients with long-term clinical results similar to those of the ISAT study. (orig.)

  2. Renal artery origins and variations: angiographic evaluation of 855 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Uğur; Oğuzkurt, Levent; Tercan, Fahri; Kizilkiliç, Osman; Koç, Zafer; Koca, Nihal

    2006-12-01

    To determine angiographically the origins and variations of renal arteries. The study included 855 consecutive patients (163 females, 692 males; mean age, 61 years) living in the Cukurova region of Turkey, who underwent either aortofemoropopliteal (AFP) angiography for the investigation of peripheral arterial disease, or renal angiography for renovascular hypertension, and were prospectively evaluated. Renal arteries were visualized by non-selective catheterization during AFP angiography and by selective or non-selective catheterization during renal angiography. Locations of renal artery origins and renal artery variations, including the presence of extra renal arteries and division patterns were analyzed on angiograms. The origin of main renal arteries off the aorta was between the upper margin of L1 and lower margin of L2 vertebra in 98% of the patients, and in 74%, this was the origin of extra renal arteries. The most common location for renal artery origin was the L1-L2 intervertebral disc level. A single renal artery was present in both kidneys in 76% of patients. Renal artery variations included multiple arteries in 24%, bilateral multiple arteries in 5%, and early division in 8% of the cases. Additional renal arteries on the right side were found in 16% and on the left side in 13% of cases. Of all the extra renal arteries, the percentage of accessory and aberrant renal arteries were 49% and 51%, respectively. Renal arteries originated between the first and the second lumbar vertebral levels in most patients. Extra renal arteries were quite frequent. These results should be kept in mind when a non-invasive diagnostic search is performed for renal artery stenosis, or when renal surgery related to renal arteries is performed.

  3. The correlation between lacunes and microbleeds on magnetic resonance imaging in consecutive 180 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajitsu, Kenichiro; Yokoyama, Shunichi; Taguci, Yuichiro; Kusumoto, Kazuhiro

    2006-01-01

    Microbleeds on T2 * -weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) represent a hemorrhagic type of small vessel disease. Small vessel disease causes both intracerebral hemorrhages and lacunar infarctions. We studied clinical background and MRI findings of the patients to clarify the correlation between microbleeds and lacunes. This study consisted of 180 consecutive patients who underwent brain MRI using 1.5T system in our hospital for a year. We obtained T2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging as well as T1 and T2-weighted images. We statistically identified the factors related to the presence of microbleeds in all patients. The distribution of lacunes and microbleeds on MRI was compared to clarify the correlation of the lesions in the patients who had both lesions. The overall prevalence of microbleeds was 41.1% (74 of 180 patients). Logistic regression analysis indicated that previous stroke, leukoaraiosis and lacunes were significantly correlated with microbleeds. In the patients who have both microbleeds and lacunes, lesions are tended to locate in thalamus and basal ganglia, especially incidence of lacunes are significantly greater compared with other regions. Thirty-six of 398 lesions (9.05%) diagnosed as lacunes with T1- and T2-weighted imaging were demonstrated as microbleeds with T2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging. Lacunes, leukoaraiosis as a hypertensive change on MRI had statistically significant correlation with the presence of microbleeds. T2 * -weighted gradient-echo imaging should be included in the imaging protocol for cerebrovascular disease, because T1- and T2-weighted imaging recognizing some of the microbleeds as lacunar infarction. (author)

  4. Clinical outcomes for 14 consecutive patients with solid pseudopapillary neoplasms who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Matsushita, Akira; Katsuno, Akira; Yamahatsu, Kazuya; Sumiyoshi, Hiroki; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Eiji

    2016-02-01

    The postoperative results of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy for solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas (SPN), including the effects of spleen-preserving resection, are still to be elucidated. Of the 139 patients who underwent laparoscopic pancreatectomy for non-cancerous tumors, 14 consecutive patients (average age, 29.6 years; 1 man, 13 women) with solitary SPN who underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy between March 2004 and June 2015 were enrolled. The tumors had a mean diameter of 4.8 cm. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed in eight patients (spleen-preserving group), including two cases involving pancreatic tail preservation, and laparoscopic spleno-distal pancreatectomy was performed in six patients (standard resection group). The median operating time was 317 min, and the median blood loss was 50 mL. Postoperatively, grade B pancreatic fistulas appeared in two patients (14.3%) but resolved with conservative treatment. No patients had postoperative complications, other than pancreatic fistulas, or required reoperation. The median postoperative hospital stay was 11 days, and the postoperative mortality was zero.None of the patients had positive surgical margins or lymph nodes with metastasis. The median follow-up period did not significantly differ between the two groups (20 vs 39 months, P = 0.1368). All of the patients are alive and free from recurrent tumors without major late-phase complications. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy might be a suitable treatment for patients with SPN. A spleen-preserving operation is preferable for younger patients with SPN, and this study demonstrated the non-inferiority of the procedure compared to spleno-distal pancreatectomy. © 2015 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Standardization of the Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty technique: Outcomes of the first 450 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satué, M; Rodríguez-Calvo-de-Mora, M; Naveiras, M; Cabrerizo, J; Dapena, I; Melles, G R J

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of the first 450 consecutive cases after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK), as well as the effect of standardization of the technique. Comparison between 3 groups: Group I: (cases 1-125), as the extended learning curve; Group II: (cases 126-250), transition to technique standardization; Group III: (cases 251-450), surgery with standardized technique. Best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density, pachymetry and intra- and postoperative complications were evaluated before, and 1, 3 and 6 months after DMEK. At 6 months after surgery, 79% of eyes reached a best corrected visual acuity of≥0.8 and 43%≥1.0. Mean preoperative endothelial cell density was 2,530±220 cells/mm2 and 1,613±495 at 6 months after surgery. Mean pachymetry measured 668±92 μm and 526±46 μm pre- and (6 months) postoperatively, respectively. There were no significant differences in best corrected visual acuity, endothelial cell density and pachymetry between the 3 groups (P > .05). Graft detachment presented in 17.3% of the eyes. The detachment rate declined from 24% to 12%, and the rate of secondary surgeries from 9.6% to 3.5%, from group I to III respectively. Visual outcomes and endothelial cell density after DMEK are independent of the technique standardization. However, technique standardization may have contributed to a lower graft detachment rate and a relatively low number of secondary interventions required. As such, DMEK may become the first choice of treatment in corneal endothelial disease. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx--an analysis of treatment results in 289 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, L.V.; Grau, C.; Overgaard, J. [Aarhus Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Experimental Clinical Oncology

    2001-01-01

    In this retrospective study the results of primary and salvage treatment of oropharyngeal carcinoma were evaluated. A total of 289 consecutive patients (103 females and 186 males) were included in the study. Most tumours originated in the tonsil area (58%) and comprised stages I 8%, II 19%, III 46% and IV 28%. The primary treatment was delivered with curative intent in 276 cases (96%). Of these, 266 received primary radiotherapy. The median radiation dose was 62 Gy, given as laterally opposed fields to the primary tumour and bilateral neck. Eight patients were treated with primary surgery and two with chemotherapy as part of a curatively intended treatment programme including radiotherapy. Six patients received palliative treatment, and seven were not treated at all. Out of 276 tumours treated with curative intent, 173 reappeared; 72% recurred in T position, 38% in N position, and 12% at distant metastatic sites, some in combination. Salvage surgery was possible in 52 patients, and 24 treatments were successful. Salvage radiotherapy or cryotherapy was used in 22 patients and 4 were controlled. For the entire group, the 5-year locoregional tumour control, disease-specific survival and overall survival rates were 38%, 44% and 31%, respectively. For patients treated with curative intent, clinical T- and N-stage, stage, tumour size, gender, age, and pretreatment haemoglobin were significant prognostic parameters in a univariate analysis. The Cox multivariate analysis showed that T-stage, N-stage and gender were independent prognostic factors. It is concluded that T-stage, N-stage and gender are significant independent prognostic factors. The primary control of the carcinoma in the T-position is crucial for overall success, but salvage surgery is found to have a favourable success rate in patients suitable for relapse treatment.

  7. Copper absorption and copper balance during consecutive periods for rats fed varying levels of dietary copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, M.A.; Johnson, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Copper (Cu) balance and absorption were studied to determine the extent to which absorption is dependent on dietary Cu. Over 12 consecutive 5-d metabolic periods, Cu balance was determined for four groups of young growing rats (n = 8) fed modified AIN-76 diets having different levels of added Cu (2.5, 5.0, 10 or 20 micrograms/g). Among groups, mean body weights did not differ over time (P greater than 0.05). There were no significant differences among groups for liver, heart or plasma Cu. Rats in all groups were in positive Cu balance throughout the study. After consuming the experimental diets for 10 d, rats eating 10 or 20 micrograms Cu/g diet showed a more positive Cu balance than did rats in the other groups. This trend continued until d 60. For rats eating 20 micrograms Cu/g diet, balance varied significantly over time. Three test meals labeled with stable 65Cu were fed at d 10, 40 and 50, respectively. Apparent Cu absorption, as determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu, did not change appreciably over time for rats eating 2.5 or 5.0 micrograms Cu/g diet. A test meal labeled with radioactive 67Cu was fed at d 40. For rats eating 2.5 micrograms Cu/g diet, apparent absorption was higher (31%) than that for all other groups (5.0, 23%; 10, 19%; 20, 16%; P less than 0.05). Absorption values determined by whole-body retention of 67Cu were similar to those determined by fecal monitoring of 65Cu

  8. Nitrogen emissions from broilers measured by mass balance over eighteen consecutive flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coufal, C D; Chavez, C; Niemeyer, P R; Carey, J B

    2006-03-01

    Emission of nitrogen in the form of ammonia from poultry rearing facilities has been an important topic for the poultry industry because of concerns regarding the effects of ammonia on the environment. Sound scientific data is needed to accurately estimate air emissions from poultry operations. Many factors, such as season of the year, ambient temperature and humidity, bird health, and management practices can influence ammonia volatilization from broiler rearing facilities. Precise results are often difficult to attain from commercial facilities, particularly over long periods of time. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine nitrogen loss from broilers in a research facility under conditions simulating commercial production for 18 consecutive flocks. Broilers were reared to 40 to 42 d of age and fed diets obtained from a commercial broiler integrator. New rice hulls were used for litter for the first flock, and the same litter was recycled for all subsequent flocks with caked litter removed between flocks. All birds, feeds, and litter materials entering and leaving the facility were quantified, sampled, and analyzed for total nitrogen content. Nitrogen loss was calculated by the mass balance method in which loss was equal to the difference between the nitrogen inputs and the nitrogen outputs. Nitrogen partitioning as a percentage of inputs averaged 15.29, 6.84, 55.52, 1.27, and 21.08% for litter, caked litter, broiler carcasses, mortalities, and nitrogen loss, respectively, over all eighteen flocks. During the production of 18 flocks of broilers on the same recycled litter, the average nitrogen emission rate was calculated to range from 4.13 to 19.74 g of N/ kg of marketed broiler (grams of nitrogen per kilogram) and averaged 11.07 g of N/kg. Nitrogen loss was significantly (P broiler grow-out facilities varies significantly on a flock-to-flock basis.

  9. Results after laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation for esophageal achalasia in 100 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Kazuto; Omura, Nobuo; Yano, Fumiaki; Kashiwagi, Hideyuki; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2009-01-01

    The laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation has been the procedure of choice for the treatment of achalasia. However, because the incidence of achalasia is low, reports on the outcome of surgical treatment for achalasia are limited. In this study, the therapeutic results after laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation for achalasia at a single university hospital were evaluated. Between August 1994 and July 2006, 100 consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation. The therapeutic results after laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation were assessed based on complications, operation time, blood loss, postoperative hospital stay, and the standardized questionnaire for satisfaction by telephone or outpatient clinic interview. With respect to perioperative complications, lower esophageal mucosal perforation occurred in 14 patients, but all of them could be suture-obliterated laparoscopically. One patient was converted to laparotomy because of uncontrolled bleeding from the short gastric artery. The mean operative time was 169 minutes, and the mean perioperative blood loss was 22 mL. The median postoperative hospital stay was 7 days. Reflux esophagitis, which was seen in five patients, was treated successfully with a proton pump inhibitor. According to the standardized questionnaire for satisfaction, 77 patients rated their recovery as 'excellent', 17 as 'good', 4 as 'fair', and 2 as 'poor'; thus, the overall success rate was 94%. There were no significant differences in surgical outcomes by morphologic type and severity of esophageal dilatation; however, the success rate deteriorated significantly with progression of the morphologic type. Laparoscopic Heller-Dor operation is a safe and effective surgical treatment for achalasia.

  10. Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx - An analysis of treatment results in 149 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, Lars V.; Grau, Cai; Overgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of primary treatment and treatment of recurrences in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The material included 149 consecutive patients seen at the Aarhus University Hospital from 1963 to 1991 (49 females and 100 males). The stage distribution was: Stage I -9%, II-3%, III-28%, and IV-60%. Primary treatment was delivered with curative intent in 145 patients (97%). Persistent or recurrent disease after primary radical treatment was observed in 82 of the patients; 54% at the T-level, 40% at the N-level, and 33% at the M-level. A curative salvage attempt was carried out in 14 patients only, all with nodal recurrence: surgery in 8 patients (4 controlled) and radiotherapy in 6 patients (2 controlled). The 5-year local tumour control, locoregional tumour control, disease-specific survival rate and the overall survival rate for the patients treated with curative intent were 66%, 53%, 50% and 43%, respectively. Most of the patients (88%) had poorly differentiated tumours and these patients had the best prognosis. A major complication in three patients was radiation-induced myelopathy due to high-dose radiation delivered to the brain stem. Significant positive prognostic factors for treatment outcome in univariate analyses were early T-classification, small clinical stage, poor differentiation and low age. The Cox multivariate analysis showed that early T-categories, low N-categories and poor differentiation were independent, positive prognostic factors. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is curable with primary radiotherapy; patients with poorly differentiated tumours have the best prognosis. Only a few patients were salvaged after recurrence. The factor most essential for success is primary control of the disease at the T- and N-levels

  11. IgG4-related disease-experience of 100 consecutive cases from a specialist centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateman, Adrian C; Culver, Emma L

    2017-04-01

    To describe the features of 100 consecutive cases referred to a single UK institution in which a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) was under consideration. The histological features were reviewed by a single histopathologist, and cases were categorized according to the 2012 Boston criteria: Category 1-histologically highly suggestive of IgG4-RD; Category 2-probable histopathological features of IgG4-RD; and Category 3-insufficient histopathological evidence of IgG4-RD. A 'global assessment' was performed with the available clinical information: Assessment group 1-'definite/very likely IgG4-RD'; Assessment group 2-'possible IgG4-RD'; Assessment group 3-'not IgG4-RD'; and Assessment group 4-insufficient information. The mean IgG4+ plasma cell count and IgG4+/IgG+ ratio were highest in Category 1 [134/high-power field (HPF); 57%] and Assessment group 1 (113/HPF; 52%), and lowest in Category 3 (11/HPF; 18%) and Assessment group 3 (43/HPF; 31%) (Category comparison of IgG4+ count and ratio, both P IgG4+ count, P IgG4-RD diagnosis was rare in Category 1 (7%) but common in Category 2 (60%) and Category 3 (47%). Stromal reactions to neoplasia and chronic oral ulceration were simulants of IgG4-RD. The Boston criteria are linked to the likelihood of IgG4-RD. Other conditions may show some histological features of IgG4-RD. The likelihood of IgG4-RD is much greater when the histological features reach the threshold for Category 1 than when they reach the thresholds for Categories 2 and 3. Despite the utility of the Boston criteria, this study highlights the crucial importance of careful clinicopathological correlation when a diagnosis of IgG4-RD is under consideration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Malignant gliomas (MG) in the elderly. A study of 85 consecutive patients in two institutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, S.; Vinolas, N.; Verger, E.; Gil, M.; Caralt, L.; Moreno, V.; Graus, F.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The treatment of MG in old patients is controversial and not well established. Some authors consider that adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) is not useful to improve survival. Our aim was to identify which group of patients older than 65 years might benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT). Patients and Methods: A total of 85 consecutive patients were analyzed from two Institutions diagnosed during the period 1987-1995. Forty six were male and 39 female. The median age was 70 (r 65-81). The extent of surgery (S) was analyzed by neurosurgeons reports or postoperative CT scan (32 p. underwent biopsy, 25 partial resection, 28 complete resection). Glioblastoma Multiforme was observed in 64 patients (75%) and anaplastic gliomas in 21 patients (25%). Postoperative Karnofsky Index (KI) was as follows: in 47 p 60% (for 2 p was unknown). Survival probability was estimated using Kaplan-Meier method and compared with log-rank test. Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were calculated using Cox's regression models. Results: Forty four patients were treated by adjuvant RT and 41 patients were not. Median survival time for all patients was 18.3 weeks. In multivariate analysis we found that the most powerful independent variable was not to receive RT with a hazard ratio of 8.5 (CI 4.55-16.06). Reasons for not RT were: in 7 p. postsurgical complications, in 17 p. KI 40%. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant independent variable was age ( 71 y) with a HR of 2.85 (CI 1.31-6.19). Conclusions: 1- Patients who did not received RT, due to several reasons, had poorer evolution. 2-In patients who received adjuvant treatment, it was suggested that age is the first variable to consider, although patients older than 71 can benefit of RT (see table)

  13. Initial experience with robotic pancreatic surgery in Singapore: single institution experience with 30 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Brian K P; Low, Tze-Yi; Lee, Ser-Yee; Chan, Chung-Yip; Chung, Alexander Y F; Ooi, London L P J

    2018-05-24

    Presently, the worldwide experience with robotic pancreatic surgery (RPS) is increasing although widespread adoption remains limited. In this study, we report our initial experience with RPS. This is a retrospective review of a single institution prospective database of 72 consecutive robotic hepatopancreatobiliary surgeries performed between 2013 and 2017. Of these, 30 patients who underwent RPS were included in this study of which 25 were performed by a single surgeon. The most common procedure was robotic distal pancreatectomy (RDP) which was performed in 20 patients. This included eight subtotal pancreatectomies, two extended pancreatecto-splenectomies (en bloc gastric resection) and 10 spleen-saving-RDP. Splenic preservation was successful in 10/11 attempted spleen-saving-RDP. Eight patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomies (five hybrid with open reconstruction), one patient underwent a modified Puestow procedure and one enucleation of uncinate tumour. Four patients had extended resections including two RDP with gastric resection and two pancreaticoduodenectomies with vascular resection. There was one (3.3%) open conversion and seven (23.3%) major (>Grade II) morbidities. Overall, there were four (13.3%) clinically significant (Grade B) pancreatic fistulas of which three required percutaneous drainage. These occurred after three RDP and one robotic enucleation. There was one reoperation for port-site hernia and no 30-day/in-hospital mortalities. The median post-operative stay was 6.5 (range: 3-36) days and there were six (20%) 30-day readmissions. Our initial experience showed that RPS can be adopted safely with a low open conversion rate for a wide variety of procedures including pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2018 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Vascular complications following 1500 consecutive living and cadaveric donor renal transplantations: A single center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehipour, Mehdi; Salahi, Heshmatollah; Jalaeian, Hamed; Bahador, Ali; Nikeghbalian, Saman; Barzideh, Ehsan; Ariafar, Ali; Malek-Hosseini, Seyed Ali

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document vascular complications that occurred following cadaveric and living donor kidney transplants in order to assess the overall incidence of these complications at our center as well as to identify possible risk factors. In a retrospective cohort study, 1500 consecutive renal transplant recipients who received a living or cadaveric donor kidney between December 1988 and July 2006 were evaluated. The study was performed at the Nemazee Hospital, Shiraz, Iran. The assessment of the anatomy and number of renal arteries as well as the incidence of vascular complications was made by color doppler ultrasonography, angiography, and/or surgical exploration. Clinically apparent vascular complications were seen in 8.86% of all study patients (n = 133) with the most frequent being hemorrhage (n = 91; 6.1%) followed by allograft renal artery stenosis (n = 26; 1.7%), renal artery thrombosis (n = 9; 0.6%), and renal vein thrombosis (n = 7; 0.5%). Vascular complications were more frequent in recipients of cadaveric organs than recipients of allografts from living donors (12.5% vs. 7.97%; P0.017). The occurrence of vascular complications was significantly more frequent among recipients of renal allografts with multiple arteries when compared with recipients of kidneys with single artery (12.3% vs. 8.2%; P0.033). The same was true to venous complications as well (25.4% vs. 8.2%; P< 0.001). Our study shows that vascular complications were more frequent in allografts with multiple renal blood vessels. Also, the complications were much less frequent in recipients of living donor transplants. (author)

  15. Microbial communities in air and wine of a winery at two consecutive vintages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Martín, Fátima; Seseña, Susana; Fernández-González, Mónica; Arévalo, María; Palop, María Llanos

    2014-11-03

    The aim of this study was to assess, both quantitatively and qualitatively, the populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in air and wine of a winery, in order to evaluate the possible exchange of microorganisms between them. Samples were taken in a winery located in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) during the winemaking period of two consecutive vintages (2011 and 2012). The microbial composition was determined by using both a culture-dependent method and a culture-independent method, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). In addition, genetic characterization of isolates from plates was carried out. A high diversity of species was detected in air and wine samples from both vintages. Leuconostoc mesenteroides was the predominant lactic acid bacteria in air from both vintages while Oenococcus oeni was the predominant in wine. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the most frequently isolated yeast in both air and wine. Typing of O. oeni and S. cerevisiae isolates from air and wine samples showed the presence of coincident genotypes in both samples, that would confirm the exchange of microorganisms between the two environments, air and wine, and furthermore some of these genotypes were also found at samples taken at different vintages, indicating that they would remain in the winery. The results display the influence of the activity taking place in the winery and the moment of fermentation of the wines in tanks, on the microorganisms present in the air and the role of the air for the dispersal of microorganisms within the winery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Robotic surgery for rectal cancer: a single center experience of 100 consecutive cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănciulea, O; Eftimie, M; David, L; Tomulescu, V; Vasilescu, C; Popescu, I

    2013-01-01

    Minimally invasive techniques have revolutionized the field of general surgery over the few last decades. Despite its advantages, in complex procedures such as rectal surgery, laparoscopy has not achieved a high penetration rate because of its steep learning curve, its relatively high conversion rate and technical challenges. The aim of this study was to present a single center experience with robotic surgery for rectal cancer focusing mainly on early and mid-term postoperative outcome. A series of 100 consecutive patients who underwent robotic rectal surgery between January 2008 and June 2012 was analyzed retrospectively in terms of demographics, pathological data, surgical and oncological outcomes. Seventy-seven patients underwent robotic sphincter-saving resection, and 23 patients underwent robotic abdominoperineal resection. There were 4 conversions. The median operative time for sphincter-saving procedures was 180 min. The median time for robotic abdominoperineal resection was 160 min. The median distal resection margin of the operative specimen was 3 cm. The median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 14. The median hospital stay was 10 days. In-hospital mortality was nil. The overall morbidity was 30%. Four patients presented transitory postoperative urinary dysfunction. Severe erectile dysfunction was reported by 3 patients. The median length of follow-up was 24 months. The 3-year overall survival rate was 90%. Robotic surgery is advantageous for both surgeons (in that it facilitates dissection in a narrow pelvis) and patients (in that it affords a very good quality of life via the preservation of sexual and urinary function in the vast majority of patients and it has low morbidity and good midterm oncological outcomes). In rectal cancer surgery, the robotic approach is a promising alternative and is expected to overcome the low penetration rate of laparoscopy in this field. Celsius.

  17. Adrenal venous sampling: the learning curve of a single interventionalist with 282 consecutive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Hugo; Farmaki, Katerina; Sakinis, Augustinas; Ehn, Olof; Johannsson, Gudmundur; Ragnarsson, Oskar

    2018-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is a common cause of secondary hypertension. Adrenal venous sampling (AVS) is the gold standard for assessing laterality of PA, which is of paramount importance to decide adequate treatment. AVS is a technically complicated procedure with success rates ranging between 30% and 96%. The aim of this study was to investigate the success rate of AVS over time, performed by a single interventionalist. This was a retrospective study based on consecutive AVS procedures performed by a single operator between September 2005 and June 2016. Data on serum concentrations of aldosterone and cortisol from right and left adrenal vein, inferior vena cava, and peripheral vein were collected and selectivity index (SI) calculated. Successful AVS was defined as SI > 5. In total, 282 AVS procedures were performed on 269 patients, 168 men (62%) and 101 women (38%), with a mean age of 55±11 years (range, 26-78 years). Out of 282 AVS procedures, 259 were successful, giving an overall success rate of 92%. The most common reason for failure was inability to localize the right adrenal vein (n=16; 76%). The success rates were 63%, 82%, and 94% during the first, second, and third years, respectively. During the last 8 years the success rate was 95%, and on average 27 procedures were performed annually. Satisfactory AVS success rate was achieved after approximately 36 procedures and satisfactory success rate was maintained by performing approximately 27 procedures annually. AVS should be limited to few operators that perform sufficiently large number of procedures to achieve, and maintain, satisfactory AVS success rate.

  18. Bloodstream infection following 217 consecutive systemic-enteric drained pancreas transplants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Walter

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combined kidney pancreas transplantation (PTx evolved as excellent treatment for diabetic nephropathy. Infections remain common and serious complications. Methods 217 consecutive enteric drained PTxs performed from 1997 to 2004 were retrospectively analyzed with regard to bloodstream infection. Immunosuppression consisted of antithymocyteglobuline induction, tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids for the majority of cases. Standard perioperative antimicrobial prophylaxis consisted of pipercillin/tazobactam in combination with ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. Results One year patient, pancreas and kidney graft survival were 96.4%, 88.5% and 94.8%, surgical complication rate was 35%, rejection rate 30% and rate of infection 59%. In total 46 sepsis episodes were diagnosed in 35 patients (16% with a median onset on day 12 (range 1–45 post transplant. Sepsis source was intraabdominal infection (IAI (n = 21, a contaminated central venous line (n = 10, wound infection (n = 5, urinary tract infection (n = 2 and graft transmitted (n = 2. Nine patients (4% experienced multiple episodes of sepsis. Overall 65 pathogens (IAI sepsis 39, line sepsis 15, others 11 were isolated from blood. Gram positive cocci accounted for 50 isolates (77%: Coagulase negative staphylococci (n = 28, i.e. 43% (nine multi-resistant, Staphylococcus aureus (n = 11, i.e. 17% (four multi-resistant, enterococci (n = 9, i.e. 14% (one E. faecium. Gram negative rods were cultured in twelve cases (18%. Patients with blood borne infection had a two year pancreas graft survival of 76.5% versus 89.4% for those without sepsis (p = 0.036, patient survival was not affected. Conclusion Sepsis remains a serious complication after PTx with significantly reduced pancreas graft, but not patient survival. The most common source is IAI.

  19. Step dynamics and terrace-width distribution on flame-annealed gold films: The effect of step-step interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoni, Nira; Ayal, Shai; Millo, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Dynamics of atomic steps and the terrace-width distribution within step bunches on flame-annealed gold films are studied using scanning tunneling microscopy. The distribution is narrower than commonly observed for vicinal planes and has a Gaussian shape, indicating a short-range repulsive interaction between the steps, with an apparently large interaction constant. The dynamics of the atomic steps, on the other hand, appear to be influenced, in addition to these short-range interactions, also by a longer-range attraction of steps towards step bunches. Both types of interactions promote self-ordering of terrace structures on the surface. When current is driven through the films a step-fingering instability sets in, reminiscent of the Bales-Zangwill instability

  20. Ten steps to successful software process improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandt, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper identifies ten steps for managing change that address organizational and cultural issues. Four of these steps are critical, that if not done, will almost guarantee failure. This ten-step program emphasizes the alignment of business goals, change process goals, and the work performed by the employees of an organization.

  1. 7 CFR 65.230 - Production step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production step. 65.230 Section 65.230 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.230 Production step. Production step means, in...

  2. Surface oxygen vacancy and oxygen permeation flux limits of perovskite ion transport membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Hunt, Anton

    2015-09-01

    © 2015 Elsevier B.V. The mechanisms and quantitative models for how oxygen is separated from air using ion transport membranes (ITMs) are not well understood, largely due to the experimental complexity for determining surface exchange reactions at extreme temperatures (>800°C). This is especially true when fuels are present at the permeate surface. For both inert and reactive (fuels) operations, solid-state oxygen surface vacancies (δ) are ultimately responsible for driving the oxygen flux, JO2. In the inert case, the value of δ at either surface is a function of the local PO2 and temperature, whilst the magnitude of δ dictates both the JO2 and the inherent stability of the material. In this study values of δ are presented based on experimental measurements under inert (CO2) sweep: using a permeation flux model and local PO2 measurements, collected by means of a local gas-sampling probe in our large-scale reactor, we can determine δ directly. The ITM assessed was La0.9Ca0.1FeO3-δ (LCF); the relative resistances to JO2 were quantified using the pre-defined permeation flux model and local PO2 values. Across a temperature range from 825°C to 1056°C, δ was found to vary from 0.007 to 0.029 (<1%), safely within material stability limits, whilst the permeate surface exchange resistance dominates. An inert JO2 limit was identified owing to a maximum sweep surface δ, δmaxinert. The physical presence of δmaxinert is attributed to a rate limiting step shift from desorption to associative electron transfer steps on the sweep surface as PO2 is reduced. Permeate surface exchange limitations under non-reactive conditions suggest that reactive (fuel) operation is necessary to accelerate surface chemistry for future work, to reduce flux resistance and push δpast δmaxinert in a stable manner.

  3. Oxygen treatment of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anja S; Barloese, Mads C J; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Our aim was to review the existing literature to document oxygen's therapeutic effect on cluster headache. METHOD: A PubMed search resulted in 28 hits, and from these and their references we found in total 11 relevant studies. We included six studies that investigated the efficacy......, but not a prophylactic effect. Despite the fact that only a few high-quality RCT studies are available, oxygen treatment is close to an ideal treatment because it is effective and safe. However, sufferers of cluster headache do not always have access to oxygen because of logistic and financial concerns....

  4. Oxygen diffusion in cuprate superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routbort, J.L.; Rothman, S.J.

    1995-01-01

    Superconducting properties of the cuprate superconductors depend on the oxygen content of the material; the diffusion of oxygen is thus an important process in the fabrication and application of these materials. This article reviews studies of the diffusion of oxygen in La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 , YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7- δ, YBa 2 Cu 4 O 8 , and the Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca n-1 Cu n O 2+4 (n = 1, and 2) superconductors, and attempt to elucidate the atomic mechanisms responsible

  5. Oxygen permeation modelling of perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hassel, Bart A.; van Hassel, B.A.; Kawada, Tatsuya; Sakai, Natsuko; Yokokawa, Harumi; Dokiya, Masayuki; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A point defect model was used to describe the oxygen nonstoichiometry of the perovskites La0.75Sr0.25CrO3, La0.9Sr0.1FeO3, La0.9Sr0.1CoO3 and La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 as a function of the oxygen partial pressure. Form the oxygen vacancy concentration predicte by the point defect model, the ionic conductivity

  6. Traffic safety and step-by-step driving licence for young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønning, Charlotte; Agerholm, Niels

    2017-01-01

    presents a review of safety effects from step-by-step driving licence schemes. Most of the investigated schemes consist of a step-by-step driving licence with Step 1) various tests and education, Step 2) a period where driving is only allowed together with an experienced driver and Step 3) driving without...... companion is allowed but with various restrictions and, in some cases, additional driving education and tests. In general, a step-by-step driving licence improves traffic safety even though the young people are permitted to drive a car earlier on. The effects from driving with an experienced driver vary......Young novice car drivers are much more accident-prone than other drivers - up to 10 times that of their parents' generation. A central solution to improve the traffic safety for this group is implementation of a step-by-step driving licence. A number of countries have introduced a step...

  7. Comparison of the effectiveness of high flow nasal oxygen cannula vs. standard non-rebreather oxygen face mask in post-extubation intensive care unit patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotfain, Evgeni; Zlotnik, Alexander; Schwartz, Andrei; Frenkel, Amit; Koyfman, Leonid; Gruenbaum, Shaun E; Klein, Moti

    2014-11-01

    Optimal oxygen supply is the cornerstone of the management of critically ill patients after extubation, especially in patients at high risk for extubation failure. In recent years, high flow oxygen system devices have offered an appropriate alternative to standard oxygen therapy devices such as conventional face masks and nasal prongs. To assess the clinical effects of high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) compared with standard oxygen face masks in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients after extubation. We retrospectively analyzed 67 consecutive ventilated critical care patients in the ICU over a period of 1 year. The patients were allocated to two treatment groups: HFNC (34 patients, group 1) and non-rebreathing oxygen face mask (NRB) (33 patients, group 2). Vital respiratory and hemodynamic parameters were assessed prior to extubation and 6 hours after extubation. The primary clinical outcomes measured were improvement in oxygenation, ventilation-free days, re-intubation, ICU length of stay, and mortality. The two groups demonstrated similar hemodynamic patterns before and after extubation. The respiratory rate was slightly elevated in both groups after extubation with no differences observed between groups. There were no statistically significant clinical differences in PaCO2. However, the use of HFNC resulted in improved PaO2/FiO2 post-extubation (P < 0.05). There were more ventilator-free days in the HFNC group (P< 0.05) and fewer patients required reintubation (1 vs. 6). There were no differences in ICU length of stay or mortality. This study demonstrated better oxygenation for patients treated with HFNC compared with NRB after extubation. HFNC may be more effective than standard oxygen supply devices for oxygenation in the post-extubation period.

  8. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naito, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Keiji; Mizoue, Shiro; Nanno, Mami; Kimura, Tairo; Suzumura, Hirotaka; Takeda, Ryuji; Shiraga, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD) value and glaucomatous visual field (VF) progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG), including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma. The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program). The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening) at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%), while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%). There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran-Armitage trend test). A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224) and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008) consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282). The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0.01). This retrospective study has shown that three or more consecutive deterioration of MD value might be a predictor to future significant MD slope worsening in OAG.

  10. Mechanisms of oxygen evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radmer, R; Cheniae, G

    1976-08-01

    The production of O/sub 2/ from water requires the collaboration of four oxidizing equivalents. When dark-adapted O/sub 2/ evolving photosynthetic material is illuminated by a sequence of short (less than 2 ..mu..sec) saturating flashes, the amount of O/sub 2/ evolved per flash oscillates with a period of four. This indicates that a charge-collector, operating with its own reaction center, successively collects and stores four oxidizing equivalents, which are used in a concerted oxidation of two water molecules. Luminescence, fluorescence, and pH changes also reflect this cycle of four. The O/sub 2/ precursor states are quite stable; under some conditions they can have a lifetime of several minutes. The O/sub 2/-yielding reactions and reactions associated with trap recovery are fast relative to the rate-limiting step of photosynthesis. The molecular identity of the charge-collector is unknown, but correlative evidence suggests that a manganese containing catalyst (approximately 4 Mn/charge collector) participates, possibly directly. Formation of the active Mn-containing catalyst occurs via a multi-quantum process occurring within the System II reaction center. The photoactivated catalyst, located on the inner face of the thylakoid membrane, remains permanently active and essentially inaccessible to chemicals other than analogs of H/sub 2/O (e.g., NH/sub 3/, NH/sub 2/OH). This O/sub 2/ evolving catalyst can be deactivated by a variety of treatments that do not alter the system II reaction center. Anions such as chloride seem to participate rather directly in the O/sub 2/ evolution process via unknown mechanism(s).

  11. Syngas Generation from Methane Using a Chemical-Looping Concept: A Review of Oxygen Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongzhai Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion of methane to syngas using a chemical-looping concept is a novel method for syngas generation. This process is based on the transfer of gaseous oxygen source to fuel (e.g., methane by means of a cycling process using solid oxides as oxygen carriers to avoid direct contact between fuel and gaseous oxygen. Syngas is produced through the gas-solid reaction between methane and solid oxides (oxygen carriers, and then the reduced oxygen carriers can be regenerated by a gaseous oxidant, such as air or water. The oxygen carrier is recycled between the two steps, and the syngas with a ratio of H2/CO = 2.0 can be obtained successively. Air is used instead of pure oxygen allowing considerable cost savings, and the separation of fuel from the gaseous oxidant avoids the risk of explosion and the dilution of product gas with nitrogen. The design and elaboration of suitable oxygen carriers is a key issue to optimize this method. As one of the most interesting oxygen storage materials, ceria-based and perovskite oxides were paid much attention for this process. This paper briefly introduced the recent research progresses on the oxygen carriers used in the chemical-looping selective oxidation of methane (CLSOM to syngas.

  12. Gallic Acid as an Oxygen Scavenger in Bio-Based Multilayer Packaging Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Astrid F; Sängerlaub, Sven; Müller, Kajetan

    2017-05-03

    Oxygen scavengers are used in food packaging to protect oxygen-sensitive food products. A mixture of gallic acid (GA) and sodium carbonate was used as an oxygen scavenger (OSc) in bio-based multilayer packaging films produced in a three-step process: compounding, flat film extrusion, and lamination. We investigated the film surface color as well as oxygen absorption at different relative humidities (RHs) and temperatures, and compared the oxygen absorption of OSc powder, monolayer films, and multilayer films. The films were initially brownish-red in color but changed to greenish-black during oxygen absorption under humid conditions. We observed a maximum absorption capacity of 447 mg O₂/g GA at 21 °C and 100% RH. The incorporation of GA into a polymer matrix reduced the rate of oxygen absorption compared to the GA powder because the polymer acted as a barrier to oxygen and water vapor diffusion. As expected, the temperature had a significant effect on the initial absorption rate of the multilayer films; the corresponding activation energy was 75.4 kJ/mol. Higher RH significantly increased the oxygen absorption rate. These results demonstrate for the first time the production and the properties of a bio-based multilayer packaging film with GA as the oxygen scavenger. Potential applications include the packaging of food products with high water activity (a w > 0.86).

  13. The ovulation pattern during three consecutive menstrual cycles has a significant impact on pregnancy rate and sex of the offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Tatsumi, Kenichi

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right-left-left, an......Identification of the ovary at the time of ovulation during three consecutive menstrual cycles results in one of eight ovulation patterns, left-left-right, right-left-right, left-right-right, and right-right-right of right-sided ovulation and right-right-left, left-right-left, right...

  14. Oxygenates to hike gasoline price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that cost of achieving required US gasoline formulations this winter in Environmental Protection Agency carbon monoxide (CO) nonattainment areas could reach 3-5 cents/gal, an Energy Information Administration analysis has found. EIA says new winter demand for gasoline blending oxygenates such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) or ethanol created by 190 amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) will exceed US oxygenate production by 140,000-220,000 b/d. The shortfall must be made up from inventory or imports. EIA estimates the cost of providing incremental oxygenate to meet expected gasoline blending demand likely will result in a price premium of about 20 cents/gal of MTBE equivalent over traditional gasoline blend octane value. That cost likely will be added to the price of oxygenated gasoline

  15. The Dissolved Oxygen Prediction Method Based on Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Xiao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved oxygen (DO is oxygen dissolved in water, which is an important factor for the aquaculture. Using BP neural network method with the combination of purelin, logsig, and tansig activation functions is proposed for the prediction of aquaculture’s dissolved oxygen. The input layer, hidden layer, and output layer are introduced in detail including the weight adjustment process. The breeding data of three ponds in actual 10 consecutive days were used for experiments; these ponds were located in Beihai, Guangxi, a traditional aquaculture base in southern China. The data of the first 7 days are used for training, and the data of the latter 3 days are used for the test. Compared with the common prediction models, curve fitting (CF, autoregression (AR, grey model (GM, and support vector machines (SVM, the experimental results show that the prediction accuracy of the neural network is the highest, and all the predicted values are less than 5% of the error limit, which can meet the needs of practical applications, followed by AR, GM, SVM, and CF. The prediction model can help to improve the water quality monitoring level of aquaculture which will prevent the deterioration of water quality and the outbreak of disease.

  16. Oxygen Concentration Inside a Functioning Photosynthetic Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A.; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic...

  17. Application of Nanosize Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Medical Oxygen Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Pan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a portable oxygen concentrator is of prime significance for patients with respiratory problems. This paper presents a portable concentrator prototype design using the pressure/vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA cycle with a deep evacuation step (−0.82 barg instead of desorption with purge flow to simplify the oxygen production process. The output of the oxygen concentrator is a ~90 vol % enriched oxygen stream in a continuous adsorption and desorption cycle (cycle time ~90 s. The size of the adsorption column is 3 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. A Li+ exchanged 13X nanosize zeolite is used as the adsorbent to selectively adsorb nitrogen from air. A dynamic model of the pressure and vacuum swing adsorption units was developed to study the pressurization and depressurization process inside the microporous area of nanosized zeolites. The describing equations were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics Chemical Engineering module. The output flow rate and oxygen concentration results from the simulation model were compared with the experimental data. Velocity and concentration profiles were obtained to study the adsorption process and optimize the operational parameters.

  18. Oxygen transport in waterlogged soils, Part II. Diffusion coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obando Moncayo, F.H.

    2004-01-01

    Several equations are available for Oxygen Transport in Waterlogged Soils and have been used for soils and plants. All of them are some form of first Fick's law as given by dQ = - DA(dc/dx)/dt. This equation illustrates some important aspects of aeration in waterlogged soils; first, D is a property of the medium and the gas, and is affected by temperature T. Likewise, the amount of diffusing substance dQ in dt is a direct function of the cross sectional area A and inversely proportional to the distance x. In fact, increasing the water content of air-dry soil, drastically decreases A and creates a further resistance for the flow of oxygen through water films around root plants, soil micro organisms and soil aggregates. The solid phase is also limiting the cross-section of surface of the free gaseous diffusion and the length and tortuosity of diffusion path in soil. In most of cases, soil gas porosity and tortuosity of soil voids are expressed in the equations of diffusion as a broad 'diffusion coefficient' (apparent coefficient diffusion). The process of soil respiration is complicated, involves many parameters, and is difficult to realistically quantify. With regard to the oxygen supply, it is convenient to distinguish macro and micro models, and hence, the flux of oxygen is assumed to have two steps. The first step is related to oxygen diffusion from the atmosphere and the air-filled porosity. The second step is related to the oxygen diffusion through water-films in and around plant roots, soil micro organisms and aggregates. Because of these models we obtain coefficients of macro or micro diffusion, rates of macro or micro diffusion, etc. In the macro diffusion process oxygen is transferred in the soil profile, mainly from the soil surface to a certain depth of the root zone, while micro diffusion deals with the flux over very short distances. Both processes, macro and micro diffusion are highly influenced by soil water content. Of course, if water is added to

  19. Centrifugation. A theoretical study of oxygen enrichment by centrifugation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, P.; Raetz, E.

    1998-12-01

    In the present paper we first investigate what happens if we fill a cylinder with air, close it and rotate it. The results show that no matter which peripheral speed is used, it is not possible by means of the radial separation effect alone, to enrich the oxygen concentration from the previous 21% to more then 23.3%, which is of no practical value. In case of a too low enrichment in one centrifuge, the wanted material from this centrifuge can be used as an input for a second centrifuge and so on, in this way forming a cascade of centrifuges. Oxygen will be enriched in each step, until the desired concentration is reached. Cascading was the technology in the very beginning by enrichment plants for uraniumhexaflouride, used for atomic weapons and nuclear power plants. In this study we try to avoid cascading by aiming for higher separation factors. Therefore, we next investigate the possibilities of using a countercurrent centrifuge where in principle the enriched gas is subjected to several centrifugation in the same centrifuge. The calculations show, that in this way it is possible to produce nearly a 100% pure oxygen (polluted with some heavier molecules like argon) in one machine. Our third step was to calculate the amount of oxygen produced per hour. Using a countercurrent centrifuge of the Zippe type, 100 cm high and 20 cm in diameter, it is or will be possible in the near future to produce 17 g enriched air per hour enriched to 50% oxygen. That corresponds to processing 1 m{sup 3} atmospherical air in the period of approximately 24 hours. This is not very impressive. Our fourth step was to estimate the amount of power used for producing this amount of oxygen. A rough, but complicated, estimate shows that the power consumption at the production level will be about the double of the consumption used today. The overall conclusion is, that centrifugation as a production method for oxygen (or nitrogen) will not be competitive with the currently used method in the

  20. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E-L-Sisworo; H-Rasjid; Haryanto; Idawati

    2008-01-01

    Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days), dry season (120 days), wet season (120 days) at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m 2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m 2 . The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15 N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1) and IR-64 (V2); several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc), Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi ), Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St), grain (G), plant (P1 = St + G) in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to) of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu) of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S) of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1) is better than V2 (IR-64) expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM) and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N. (author)

  1. The Contribution of Azolla and Urea in Lowland Rice Growth Production for Three Consecutive Seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL. Sisworo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Three field experiments have been carried out in three consecutive seasons namely wet season (120 days, dry season (120 days, wet season (120 days at Pusakanegara. The purpose of this experiment is to test whether urea combined with Azolla could increase lowland rice production and soil quality. The experimental plots have a size of 20 m2 and in each experimental plot an isotope plot was placed with a size of 1 m2. The isotope plots were used to apply labeled 15N urea. Treatments conducted were lowland varieties: Atomita I (V1 and IR-64 (V2; several levels of urea and Azolla : Pu1 = urea-tablets + an Azolla cover (Azc, Pu2 = urea-tablets + Azolla incorporated (Azi , Pu3 = urea-prill + Azc , Pu4 = urea-prill + Azi; seasons : Ss 1 = wet season, Ss2 = dry season, Ss3 = wet season. The experimental design used was a factorial experiment in a Randomized Block Design, where each treatment was replicated four times. Parameters used were, dry weight of straw (St, grain (G, plant (P1 = St + G in kg/ha; N-total percentage (% N-to of St and G, percentage N-derived from urea + Az (% N-Pu of St and G; percentage N-derived from soil (% N-S of St and G; uptake of N-Pu and N-S in St, G and P1. Some results of these experiment were, N-Pu play a less important role in growth of lowland crop expressed in several parameters compared to N-soil. The form of N-urea in tablets are superior to that the form of urea in prills. For the last product of lowland rice which is grain obviously V1 (Atomita-1 is better than V2 (IR-64 expressed in t/ha. The progress of seasons showed clearly that there is an N accumulation which might be the increase of soil organic matter (SOM and that means there is an increase in soil quality in the view point of N

  2. Neuronal generator patterns at scalp elicited by lateralized aversive pictures reveal consecutive stages of motivated attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Jürgen; Tenke, Craig E; Abraham, Karen S; Alschuler, Daniel M; Alvarenga, Jorge E; Skipper, Jamie; Warner, Virginia; Bruder, Gerard E; Weissman, Myrna M

    2016-11-15

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have provided evidence for an allocation of attentional resources to enhance perceptual processing of motivationally salient stimuli. Emotional modulation affects several consecutive components associated with stages of affective-cognitive processing, beginning as early as 100-200ms after stimulus onset. In agreement with the notion that the right parietotemporal region is critically involved during the perception of arousing affective stimuli, some ERP studies have reported asymmetric emotional ERP effects. However, it is difficult to separate emotional from non-emotional effects because differences in stimulus content unrelated to affective salience or task demands may also be associated with lateralized function or promote cognitive processing. Other concerns pertain to the operational definition and statistical independence of ERP component measures, their dependence on an EEG reference, and spatial smearing due to volume conduction, all of which impede the identification of distinct scalp activation patterns associated with affective processing. Building on prior research using a visual half-field paradigm with highly controlled emotional stimuli (pictures of cosmetic surgery patients showing disordered [negative] or healed [neutral] facial areas before or after treatment), 72-channel ERPs recorded from 152 individuals (ages 13-68years; 81 female) were transformed into reference-free current source density (CSD) waveforms and submitted to temporal principal components analysis (PCA) to identify their underlying neuronal generator patterns. Using both nonparametric randomization tests and repeated measures ANOVA, robust effects of emotional content were found over parietooccipital regions for CSD factors corresponding to N2 sink (212ms peak latency), P3 source (385ms) and a late centroparietal source (630ms), all indicative of greater positivity for negative than neutral stimuli. For the N2 sink, emotional effects were

  3. Suicide in children and young people in England: a consecutive case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodway, Cathryn; Tham, Su-Gwan; Ibrahim, Saied; Turnbull, Pauline; Windfuhr, Kirsten; Shaw, Jenny; Kapur, Nav; Appleby, Louis

    2016-08-01

    There is concern about the mental health of children and young people and a possible rise in suicidal behaviour in this group. We have done a comprehensive national multi-agency study of suicide in under 20s in England. We aimed to establish how frequently suicide is preceded by child-specific and young person-specific suicide risk factors, as well as all-age factors, and to identify contact with health-care and social-care services and justice agencies. This study is a descriptive examination of suicide in a national consecutive sample of children and young people younger than 20 years who died by suicide in England between Jan 1, 2014, and April 30, 2015. We obtained general population mortality data from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). We collected information about antecedents considered to be relevant to suicide (eg, abuse, bullying, bereavement, academic pressures, self-harm, and physical health) from a range of investigations and inquiries, including coroner inquest hearings, child death investigations, criminal justice system reports, and the National Health Service, including data on people in contact with mental health services in the 12 months before their death. 145 suicides in people younger than 20 years were notified to us during the study period, of which we were able to obtain report data about antecedents for 130 (90%). The number of suicides rose sharply during the late teens with 79 deaths by suicide in people aged 18-19 years compared with 66 in people younger than 18 years. 102 (70%) deaths were in males. 92 (63%) deaths were by hanging. Various antecedents were reported among the individuals for whom we had report data, including academic (especially exam) pressures (35 [27%] individuals), bullying (28 [22%]), bereavement (36 [28%]), suicide in family or friends (17 [13%]), physical health conditions (47 [36%]), family problems (44 [34%]), social isolation or withdrawal (33 [25%]), child abuse or neglect (20 [15%]), excessive

  4. Tubercular spondylodiscitis in elderly is a more severe disease: a report of 66 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Ajoy Prasad; Viswanathan, Vibhu Krishnan; Kanna, Rishi Mukesh; Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran

    2017-12-01

    (1) To analyze peculiarities of presentation and prognosis of tubercular spondylodiscitis (TBS) in elderly. (2) To assess if associated co-morbidities and risks lead to poorer outcome (3) To observe if different management strategy needs to be implemented in them. Retrospective analysis of 66 consecutive elderly TBS patients (>60 years) treated conservatively or surgically between January 2010 and July 2013 was performed. Details regarding clinical presentation (general health, ambulatory status, co-morbidities), neurological status, medical or surgical complications and outcome measurements [visual analog score, clinico-radiological evidence of healing and lumbar lordosis in lumbar (L) or lumbo-sacral (LS) or focal kyphosis in thoracic (T) or thoraco-lumbar (TL) disease] were analysed. Of 66 patients (mean age 67.9 years), 85% had at least one medical co-morbidity and only 45% were community ambulators. Mean delay in presentation was 132 days and lumbar disease was commonest. 35% had neuro-deficit. Most patients had stage 2 (38%) or 3 (42.4%) disease. 19 patients were conservatively managed, while others underwent surgery. Significant complications occurred in 23 patients, most common being liver dysfunction (9 patients). Five patients (8%) expired during treatment: three succumbed to multi-focal tubercular disease, while two expired secondary to medical illnesses. Mean loss of lordosis in conservatively treated (CG) L/LS disease was 8°, while lordosis was restored by 11.6° in operative group (OG). In T/TL disease, sagittal alignment correction by 12.6° was observed in OG as against 5.7° kyphotic collapse in CG patients. 92% patients were cured with no recurrences. The final VAS scores in operative and conservative groups were not significantly different (OG 1.4 ± 0.6, CG 1.9 ± 0.7). TBS in elderly differed from that in younger by having a higher co-morbidities, later presentation, higher neuro-deficit, greater mortality and increased complications

  5. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putkonen Hanna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57. A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle and 4 (antisocial. Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective and facets 1 (interpersonal and 2 (affective. The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide

  6. Factors predicting rotator cuff retears: an analysis of 1000 consecutive rotator cuff repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Brian T N; Wu, Xiao L; Lam, Patrick H; Murrell, George A C

    2014-05-01

    The rate of retears after rotator cuff repair varies from 11% to 94%. A retear is associated with poorer subjective and objective clinical outcomes than intact repair. This study was designed to determine which preoperative and/or intraoperative factors held the greatest association with retears after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study retrospectively evaluated 1000 consecutive patients who had undergone a primary rotator cuff repair by a single surgeon using an arthroscopic inverted-mattress knotless technique and who had undergone an ultrasound evaluation 6 months after surgery to assess repair integrity. Exclusion criteria included previous rotator cuff repair on the same shoulder, incomplete repair, and repair using a synthetic polytetrafluoroethylene patch. All patients had completed the modified L'Insalata Questionnaire and underwent a clinical examination before surgery. Measurements of tear size, tear thickness, associated shoulder injury, tissue quality, and tendon mobility were recorded intraoperatively. The overall retear rate at 6 months after surgery was 17%. Retears occurred in 27% of full-thickness tears and 5% of partial-thickness tears (P < .0001). The best independent predictors of retears were anteroposterior tear length (correlation coefficient r = 0.41, P < .0001), tear size area (r = 0.40, P < .0001), mediolateral tear length (r = 0.34, P < .0001), tear thickness (r = 0.29, P < .0001), age at surgery (r = 0.27, P < .0001), and operative time (r = 0.18, P < .0001). These factors produced a predictive model for retears: logit P = (0.039 × age at surgery in years) + (0.027 × tear thickness in %) + (1 × anteroposterior tear length in cm) + (0.76 × mediolateral tear length in cm) - (0.17 × tear size area in cm(2)) + (0.018 × operative time in minutes) -9.7. Logit P can be transformed into P, which is the chance of retears at 6 months after surgery. A rotator cuff retear is a multifactorial process

  7. Femoral access in 100 consecutive subarachnoid hemorrhage patients: the "craniotomy" of endovascular neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Judy

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Femoral access is a fundamental element of catheter-based cerebral angiography. Knowledge of location of the common femoral artery (CFA bifurcation is important as the risk of retroperitoneal bleeding is increased if the puncture is superior to the inguinal ligament and there is an increased risk of thrombosis and arteriovenous fistula formation if the puncture is distal into branch vessels. We sought to characterize the location of the CFA bifurcation along with the presence of significant atherosclerosis or iliac tortuosity in a contemporary series of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients. Findings The records of a prospective single-center aneurysm database were reviewed to identify 100 consecutive SAH patients. Using an oblique femoral arteriogram, the presence of significant atherosclerosis, iliac tortuosity, and the CFA bifurcation were assessed. The CFA bifurcation was graded according to its position with respect to the femoral head: below (grade 1, lower half (grade 2, and above the upper half (grade 3. We found a CFA bifurcation grade 1 in 50 patients (50%, mean age 51.2 years, grade 2 in 40 patients (40%, mean age 55.5 years, and grade 3 in 10 patients (10%, mean age 58.2 years. Whereas 30 of 90 patients with CFA grades I or II were male (33%, only 10% with grade 3 were male (1 of 10, p = 0.12. Mean age for significant atherosclerosis was 65.5 +/- 2.6 years versus 50.9 +/- 1.6 years (p Conclusions Although a requisite element of endovascular treatment in SAH patients, femoral access can be complicated by a high common femoral artery bifurcation and the presence of atherosclerotic disease and/or iliac artery tortuosity. In this study, we found a grade 3 (above the femoral head CFA bifurcation in 10% patients, with 90% of these patients being female. We also found the presence of atherosclerotic disease and iliac tortuosity to be significantly more likely in patients older than 65 years of age.

  8. Outcomes of trochanteric femoral fractures treated with proximal femoral nail: an analysis of 100 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korkmaz MF

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mehmet Fatih Korkmaz,1 Mehmet Nuri Erdem,2 Zeliha Disli,3 Engin Burak Selcuk,4 Mustafa Karakaplan,1 Abdullah Gogus5 1Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 2Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Nisantasi University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Department of Anesthesiology, Malatya Government Hospital, Malatya, Turkey; 4Department of Family Medicine, Inonu University School of Medicine, Malatya, Turkey; 5Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Florence Nightingale Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: In this study, we aimed to report the results of a retrospective study carried out at our institute regarding cases of patients who had suffered proximal femoral fractures between January 2002 and February 2007, and who were treated with a proximal femoral nail. Materials and methods: One hundred consecutive cases were included in the study. A case documentation form was used to obtain intraoperative data including age, sex, mechanism of injury, type of fracture according to Association for Osteosynthesis/Association for the Study of Internal Fixation (AO/ASIF classification and the American Society of Anesthesiologists' (ASA physical status classification (ASA grade. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed at the time of admission and at the 6th week; subsequent visits were organized on the 3rd month, 6th month, and 12th month, and in patients with longer follow-up and annually postoperatively. The Harris score of hip function was used, and any change in the position of the implants and the progress of the fracture union, which was determined radiologically, was noted. Results: The mean age of the patients was 77.66 years (range: 37–98 years, and the sex distribution was 32 males and 68 females. Seventy-three fractures were reduced by closed means, whereas 27 needed limited open reduction. The mean follow-up time for the study group was 31.3 months (range

  9. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics - a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-05-06

    The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to 19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995-2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents or near relatives than the

  10. Psychopathic traits and offender characteristics – a nationwide consecutive sample of homicidal male adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Laajasalo, Taina; Holi, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä

    2009-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to evaluate psychopathy-like personality traits in a nationwide consecutive sample of adolescent male homicide offenders and to compare the findings with those of a randomly sampled adult male homicide offender group. A further aim was to investigate associations between psychopathic traits and offender and offence characteristics in adolescent homicides. Methods Forensic psychiatric examination reports and crime reports of all 15 to19- year- old male Finnish offenders who had been subjected to a forensic psychiatric examination and convicted for a homicide during 1995–2004 were collected (n = 57). A random sample of 57 adult male homicide offenders was selected as a comparison group. Offence and offender characteristics were collected from the files and a file-based assessment of psychopathic traits was performed using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) by trained raters. Results No significant differences existed between the adolescents and adults in PCL-R total scores, factor 2 (social deviance) scores, or in facets 3 (lifestyle) and 4 (antisocial). Adults scored significantly higher on factor 1 (interpersonal/affective) and facets 1 (interpersonal) and 2 (affective). The adolescent group was divided into two subgroups according to PCL-R total scores. One in five homicidal male adolescents met criteria for psychopathic personality using a PCL-R total score of 26 or higher. These boys significantly more often had a crime history before the index homicide, more frequently used excessive violence during the index homicide, more rarely lived with both parents until 16 years of age, had more institutional or foster home placements in childhood, had more school difficulties, more often had received special education, and, more often had contact with mental health services prior to age 18 years than boys scoring low on the PCL-R. They also more often had parental criminal history as well as homicide history of parents

  11. Intraspinal anomalies in scoliosis: An MRI analysis of 177 consecutive scoliosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajasekaran S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The association of intraspinal neural anomalies with scoliosis is known for more than six decades. However, there are no studies documenting the incidence of association of intraspinal anomalies in scoliotic patients in the Indian population. The guide lines to obtain an magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan to rule out neuro-axial abnormalities in presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis are also not clear. We conducted a prospective study (a to document and analyze the incidence and types of intraspinal anomalies in different types of scoliosis in Indian patients. (b to identify clinico-radiological ′indicators′ that best predict the findings of neuro-axial abnormalities in patients with presumed adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, which will alert the physician to the possible presence of intraspinal anomalies and optimize the use of MRI in this sub group of patients. Materials and Methods : The data from 177 consecutive scoliotic patients aged less than 21 years were analyzed. Patients were categorized into three groups; Group A - congenital scoliosis (n=60, group B -presumed idiopathic scoliosis (n=94 and group C - scoliosis secondary to neurofibromatosis, neuromuscular and connective tissue disorders (n=23. The presence and type of anomaly in the MRI was correlated to patient symptoms, clinical signs and curve characteristics. Results : The incidence of intraspinal anomalies in congenital scoliosis was 35% (21/60, with tethered cord due to filum terminale being the commonest anomaly (10/21. Patients with multiple vertebral anomalies had the highest incidence (48% of neural anomalies and isolated hemi vertebrae had none. In presumed ′idiopathic′ scoliosis patients the incidence was higher (16% than previously reported. Arnold Chiari-I malformation (AC-I with syringomyelia was the most common neural anomaly (9/15 and the incidence was higher in the presence of neurological findings (100%, apical kyphosis (66.6% and early

  12. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria from musts and wines of three consecutive vintages of Ribeira Sacra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas, J M; Rodríguez, M C; Alegre, M T

    2011-03-01

    This study was designed to isolate and characterize the lactic acid microbiota of the musts and wines of a young denomination of origin area, Ribeira Sacra in north-west Spain. Over three consecutive years (2007, 2008 and 2009), we examined musts and wines from four cellars in different zones of the region. Through biochemical and genetic tests, 459 isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were identified as the following species: Lactobacillus alvei (0·7%), Lactobacillus brevis (1·7%), Lactobacillus frumenti (0·9%), Lactobacillus kunkeei (12%), Lactobacillus plantarum (6·5%), Lactobacillus pentosus (0·9%), Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (3%), Leuconostoc citreum (0·7%), Leuconostoc fructosum (synon. Lactobacillus fructosum) (3·7%), Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides (2·8%), Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides (0·2%), Oenococcus oeni (59%), Pediococcus parvulus (7%) and Weisella paramesenteroides (synon. Leuconostoc paramesenteroides) (0·9%). Of these species, O. oeni was the main one responsible for malolactic fermentation (MLF) in all cellars and years with the exception of Lact. plantarum, predominant in 2007, in one cellar, and Lact. brevis, Lact. frumenti and Ped. parvulus coexisting with O. oeni in one cellar in 2009. Different strains (84) of LAB species (14) were identified by biochemical techniques (API strips, the presence of plasmids, enzyme activities and MLF performance) and molecular techniques (PCR). All assays were carried out with every one of the 459 isolates. To select candidates for use as culture starters, we assessed malolactic, β-glucosidase and tannase activities, the presence of genes involved in biogenic amine production and plasmid content. A high diversity of LAB is present in the grape musts of Ribeira Sacra but few species are responsible for MLF; however, different strains of such species are involved in the process. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of Lact. frumenti thriving in wine. Information on LAB

  13. Acute phase response in two consecutive experimentally induced E. coli intramammary infections in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatsi Johanna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary

  14. The percutaneous trampoline platysmaplasty: technique and experience with 105 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gregory P; Leaf, Norman; Aston, Sherrell J; Stone, Corbett W

    2012-01-01

    Controversy persists regarding the optimal procedure to rejuvenate the aging neck. More invasive procedures carry increased risks of complications, whereas less invasive approaches may deliver marginal results. The challenge is selecting the appropriate procedure for delivering consistent, durable results meeting both the patient's and surgeon's expectations. The authors describe their trampoline platysmaplasty (TPP) approach, a percutaneous suture suspension necklift that constitutes a less invasive approach for neck rejuvenation. A retrospective study was conducted of 105 consecutive patients who underwent TPP. Age, sex, procedure(s) performed, complications, and patient satisfaction were recorded. Cadaver studies were conducted to compare the tensile strength of the ligaments that anchor the TPP to the tensile strength of the sutures placed to approximate the medial platysma borders. In addition, the accuracy of light transillumination to determine depth of travel of the light-emitting diode (LED) lighted rod was evaluated. Patients underwent either TPP alone (18 women, 24 men) or TPP with a facelift (35 women, 28 men) between October 2007 and June 2009. The average age of the patients was 52 years, and average length of follow-up was 33 months. Patient satisfaction was high. Three early patients underwent immediate revision to improve results secondary to the suture matrix being too loose. Six additional patients had recurrent banding around one year postoperatively, but correction was achieved in all six by replacing the matrix with the help of the lighted rod. The results of the cadaver study revealed that the tensile strength of the retaining ligaments was statistically identical to the medial platysma borders, and the light transillumination feedback was accurate with regard to the depth of travel of the illuminated rod tip. The TPP approach for neck rejuvenation is effective and durable in properly-selected patients. It works well as a stand

  15. Consecutive successful pregnancies subsequent to intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with recurrent spontaneous miscarriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diejomaoh MF

    2015-12-01

    nonreassuring fetal status, a live female infant weighing 2.29 kg was delivered by emergency cesarean section on January 14, 2015, with an Apgar score of 8 and 9 and mild respiratory distress, and was admitted to the Special Care Baby Unit for intensive therapy. The mother and baby made satisfactory progress and were discharged on January 24, 2015. Conclusion: Two consecutive successful pregnancies in Mrs HM with multiple causes of RSM treated with other medications and IVIG strongly suggest that IVIG has a positive role in RSM. Keywords: recurrent, miscarriage, intravenous immunoglobulin, pregnancy outcome

  16. Parinaud syndrome: a 25-year (1991-2016) review of 40 consecutive adult cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Melissa; Sinkar, Swati; Chan, WengOnn; Crompton, John

    2017-12-01

    To characterize the clinical features, aetiology and management of ophthalmic symptoms in adult patients with Parinaud syndrome. This is a retrospective, non-comparative observational case series. We reviewed 40 consecutive charts of adult patients with the clinical diagnosis of Parinaud syndrome at the Royal Adelaide Hospital Department of Ophthalmology in Adelaide, South Australia, between 1991 and 2016. Charts were reviewed for the following: (1) demographic information, (2) clinical presentation, (3) neuro-ophthalmology signs, (4) aetiology of Parinaud syndrome, and (5) management. Examination findings were collected at initial evaluation, throughout the course of follow-up, and at last follow-up. All the cases were assessed by one of the authors (JLC). The commonest presenting symptoms were diplopia (67.5%) and blurred vision (25%) followed by visual field defect (12.5%), ataxia (7.5%) and manifest squint (7.5%). The commonest presenting signs were vertical gaze palsy (100%), convergence-retraction nystagmus (87.5%) and light-near dissociation (65.0%). Only 65.0% patients had the classical triad of vertical gaze palsy, convergence-retraction nystagmus and light-near dissociation. Midbrain pathologies including haemorrhage (30.0%), infarction (20.0%) and tumour (15.0%) were the commonest aetiology. Pineal region tumours accounted for 30.0% of presentations. Symptoms were managed conservatively in 45% of cases with temporary occlusion, prisms or refractive correction, and observation in 42.5% of cases. Surgical intervention for refractory diplopia was required in 12.5% of cases, of which 80% reported symptom resolution following surgery. Our series highlights the variable clinical presentation of Parinaud syndrome. The classic triad of conjugate upgaze paralysis, convergence-retraction nystagmus and light-near dissociation was only present in 65% of cases. Pineal neoplasms remain an important aetiological consideration; however, primary midbrain pathology

  17. Oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Bandopadhyay; N. Nagabhushana; X.-D Zhou; Q. Cai; J. Yang; W.B. Yelon; W.J. James; H.U. Anderson; Alan Jacobson; C.A. Mims

    2004-05-01

    the LSCrF-2828 membrane to produce the gradients which exist under syngas generation conditions. The CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures have normal isotopic {sup 18}O abundances. The evolution of {sup 18}O on the delivery side in these experiments after an {sup 18}O pulse on the air side reveals a wealth of information about the oxygen transport processes.

  18. A novel one-step Helicobacter pylori saliva antigen test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bi-Ling; Yeh, Chun; Kwong, Wei-Gang; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-02-01

    A rapid, reliable, and sufficiently accurate test for diagnosing Helicobacter pylori infection is required for screening dyspeptic patients before a referral for endoscopy. The purpose of this article is two-fold: first, to evaluate the accuracy of a one-step H. pylori saliva antigen (HPS) test; and second, to compare noninvasive and invasive H. pylori tests in Taiwanese population. A total of 104 consecutive dyspeptic patients admitted for gastroenterology into the outpatient department underwent a one-step HPS test, rapid urease test, histology, and (13)C-urea breath test (13)C-UBT (proto C-13 urea kit). The accuracy of the HPS test was compared with a gold standard defined by at least two positive H. pylori test results from three H. pylori tests (histology, rapid urease test, and (13)C-UBT). The 104 patients eligible for analysis (mean age: 58 years, range 22-87 years), 21 (20%) were gold standard positive. Among them, the positive of the one-step H. pylori saliva Ag test, rapid urease test, (13)C-UBT, histology were (52; 50%), (17; 16%), (27; 25%) and (22; 21%) respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the HPS tests, rapid urease test, (13)C-UBTs, and histology were 71.43% and 55.42%, 76.19% and 98.80%, 100% and 92.77%, and 85.71% and 95.18%, respectively, relative to the gold standard. The one-step HPS test exhibited a sensitivity of 71.43%, nearly equivalent to that of the rapid urea test. The one-step HPS test exhibited a high sensitivity and low specificity compared with the other tests, indicating that it is not sufficiently accurate for use in a clinical setting for diagnosing H. pylori infection. However, the test is simple to use (requiring only a saliva sample), inexpensive, and noninvasive in its application, and thus appealing for use in population-based prevalence surveys of the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  19. Brain Oxygen Optimization in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury Phase-II: A Phase II Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonkwo, David O; Shutter, Lori A; Moore, Carol; Temkin, Nancy R; Puccio, Ava M; Madden, Christopher J; Andaluz, Norberto; Chesnut, Randall M; Bullock, M Ross; Grant, Gerald A; McGregor, John; Weaver, Michael; Jallo, Jack; LeRoux, Peter D; Moberg, Dick; Barber, Jason; Lazaridis, Christos; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon R

    2017-11-01

    A relationship between reduced brain tissue oxygenation and poor outcome following severe traumatic brain injury has been reported in observational studies. We designed a Phase II trial to assess whether a neurocritical care management protocol could improve brain tissue oxygenation levels in patients with severe traumatic brain injury and the feasibility of a Phase III efficacy study. Randomized prospective clinical trial. Ten ICUs in the United States. One hundred nineteen severe traumatic brain injury patients. Patients were randomized to treatment protocol based on intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation monitoring versus intracranial pressure monitoring alone. Brain tissue oxygenation data were recorded in the intracranial pressure -only group in blinded fashion. Tiered interventions in each arm were specified and impact on intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation measured. Monitors were removed if values were normal for 48 hours consecutively, or after 5 days. Outcome was measured at 6 months using the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended. A management protocol based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure monitoring reduced the proportion of time with brain tissue hypoxia after severe traumatic brain injury (0.45 in intracranial pressure-only group and 0.16 in intracranial pressure plus brain tissue oxygenation group; p injury after severe traumatic brain injury based on brain tissue oxygenation and intracranial pressure values was consistent with reduced mortality and increased proportions of patients with good recovery compared with intracranial pressure-only management; however, the study was not powered for clinical efficacy. Management of severe traumatic brain injury informed by multimodal intracranial pressure and brain tissue oxygenation monitoring reduced brain tissue hypoxia with a trend toward lower mortality and more favorable outcomes than intracranial pressure-only treatment. A Phase III randomized trial to assess

  20. How oxygen attacks [FeFe] hydrogenases from photosynthetic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripp, Sven T.; Goldet, Gabrielle; Brandmayr, Caterina; Sanganas, Oliver; Vincent, Kylie A.; Haumann, Michael; Armstrong, Fraser A.; Happe, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Green algae such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii synthesize an [FeFe] hydrogenase that is highly active in hydrogen evolution. However, the extreme sensitivity of [FeFe] hydrogenases to oxygen presents a major challenge for exploiting these organisms to achieve sustainable photosynthetic hydrogen production. In this study, the mechanism of oxygen inactivation of the [FeFe] hydrogenase CrHydA1 from C. reinhardtii has been investigated. X-ray absorption spectroscopy shows that reaction with oxygen results in destruction of the [4Fe-4S] domain of the active site H-cluster while leaving the di-iron domain (2FeH) essentially intact. By protein film electrochemistry we were able to determine the order of events leading up to this destruction. Carbon monoxide, a competitive inhibitor of CrHydA1 which binds to an Fe atom of the 2FeH domain and is otherwise not known to attack FeS clusters in proteins, reacts nearly two orders of magnitude faster than oxygen and protects the enzyme against oxygen damage. These results therefore show that destruction of the [4Fe-4S] cluster is initiated by binding and reduction of oxygen at the di-iron domain—a key step that is blocked by carbon monoxide. The relatively slow attack by oxygen compared to carbon monoxide suggests that a very high level of discrimination can be achieved by subtle factors such as electronic effects (specific orbital overlap requirements) and steric constraints at the active site. PMID:19805068

  1. Energized Oxygen : Speiser Current Sheet Bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, D. E.; Jahn, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    A single population of energized Oxygen (O+) is shown to produce a cross-tail bifurcated current sheet in 2.5D PIC simulations of the magnetotail without the influence of magnetic reconnection. Treatment of oxygen in simulations of space plasmas, specifically a magnetotail current sheet, has been limited to thermal energies despite observations of and mechanisms which explain energized ions. We performed simulations of a homogeneous oxygen background, that has been energized in a physically appropriate manner, to study the behavior of current sheets and magnetic reconnection, specifically their bifurcation. This work uses a 2.5D explicit Particle-In-a-Cell (PIC) code to investigate the dynamics of energized heavy ions as they stream Dawn-to-Dusk in the magnetotail current sheet. We present a simulation study dealing with the response of a current sheet system to energized oxygen ions. We establish a, well known and studied, 2-species GEM Challenge Harris current sheet as a starting point. This system is known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection upon thinning of the current sheet. We added a uniform distribution of thermal O+ to the background. This 3-species system is also known to eventually evolve and produce magnetic reconnection. We add one additional variable to the system by providing an initial duskward velocity to energize the O+. We also traced individual particle motion within the PIC simulation. Three main results are shown. First, energized dawn- dusk streaming ions are clearly seen to exhibit sustained Speiser motion. Second, a single population of heavy ions clearly produces a stable bifurcated current sheet. Third, magnetic reconnection is not required to produce the bifurcated current sheet. Finally a bifurcated current sheet is compatible with the Harris current sheet model. This work is the first step in a series of investigations aimed at studying the effects of energized heavy ions on magnetic reconnection. This work differs

  2. Simultaneous Monitoring of Vascular Oxygenation and Tissue Oxygen Tension of Breast Tumors Under Hyperbaric Oxygen Exposure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xia, Mengna

    2005-01-01

    The goals of the study in the first stage are 1) to develop a mathematic model by which we can derive tumor blood flow and metabolic rate of oxygen from hemoglobin concentration during interventions, 2...

  3. Step-grandparenthood in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahirun, Jenjira J; Park, Sung S; Seltzer, Judith A

    2018-01-18

    This study provides new information about the demography of step-grandparenthood in the United States. Specifically, we examine the prevalence of step-grandparenthood across birth cohorts and for socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups. We also examine lifetime exposure to the step-grandparent role. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Health and Retirement Study, we use percentages to provide first estimates of step-grandparenthood and to describe demographic and socioeconomic variation in who is a step-grandparent. We use life tables to estimate the exposure to step-grandparenthood. The share of step-grandparents is increasing across birth cohorts. However, individuals without a college education and non-Whites are more likely to become step-grandparents. Exposure to the step-grandparent role accounts for approximately 15% of total grandparent years at age 65 for women and men. A growing body of research finds that grandparents are increasingly instrumental in the lives of younger generations. However, the majority of this work assumes that these ties are biological, with little attention paid to the role of family complexity across three generations. Understanding the demographics of step-grandparenthood sheds light on the family experiences of an overlooked, but growing segment of the older adult population in the United States. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  5. The investigation of the FM heavy forging process by the Moiré method. Part II: Consecutive reduction results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, S.L.; Cao, Q.X.

    1994-01-01

    In part I of this work (preceding paper), single-reduction results on the FM forging process were reported. In the work reported in this paper, the cavity closing laws of the consecutive reduction process were investigated, the appropriate turn-over and feed procedure being obtained, along with the

  6. Evaluation of the two non-consecutive 24-h recall instrument for pan-European food consumption surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispim, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The comparability of food consumption data originating from national nutritional surveys in Europe is currently hampered because of different methodologies used. Therefore, experts in the European Food Consumption Survey Method (EFCOSUM) consortium proposed to use two non-consecutive

  7. Craniofacial morphology in complete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients consecutively treated with 1-stage repair of the cleft.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fudalej, P.S.; Surowiec, Z.; Offert, B.; Dudkiewicz, Z.; Katsaros, C.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively evaluate the craniofacial morphology of children with a complete unilateral cleft lip and palate treated with a 1-stage simultaneous cleft repair performed in the first year of life. METHODS: Cephalograms and extraoral profile photographs of 61 consecutively treated

  8. Multicenter assessment of the reproducibility of volumetric radiofrequency-based intravascular ultrasound measurements in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, Jeroen; Egede, R.; Rdzanek, A.; Böse, D.; Erbel, R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    To assess in a multicenter design the between-center reproducibility of volumetric virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) measurements with a semi-automated, computer-assisted contour detection system in coronary lesions that were consecutively stented. To evaluate the reproducibility

  9. The removal of the deep lateral wall in orbital decompression: Its contribution to exophthalmos reduction and influence on consecutive diplopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldeschi, Lelio; Macandie, Kerr; Hintschich, Christoph; Wakelkamp, Iris M. M. J.; Prummel, Mark F.; Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the contribution of maximal removal of the deep lateral wall of the orbit to exophthalmos reduction in Graves' orbitopathy and its influence on the onset of consecutive diplopia. DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: The medical records of two cohorts of patients affected by

  10. Analysis of soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities associated with negative effects of pseudostellaria heterophylla consecutive monoculture on yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.; Lin, W.X.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudostellaria heterophylla is an important medicinal plant in China. However, cultivation of P. heterophylla using consecutive monoculture results in significant reductions in yield and quality. In this study, terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and measurement of soil enzyme activities were used to investigate the regulation of soil micro-ecology to identify ways to overcome the negative effects of P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. T-RFLP analysis showed that rice/P. heterophylla (RP) and bean/P. heterophylla (BP) crop rotation systems increased the number and diversity of microbial groups in P. heterophylla rhizosphere soil. In particular, the RP and BP crop rotations increased the number and abundance of beneficial bacterial species compared with two-year consecutive monoculture of P. heterophylla. The presence of these beneficial bacteria was positively correlated with soil enzyme activities which increased in rhizosphere soils of the RP and BP crop rotation systems. The results indicated that crop rotation systems could increase activities of key soil enzymes and beneficial microbial groups and improve soil health. This study could provide a theoretical basis to resolve the problems associated with P. heterophylla consecutive monoculture. (author)

  11. The neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen treatment on laser-induced retinal damage in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishnevskia-Dai, Victoria; Belokopytov, Mark; Dubinsky, Galina; Nachum, Gal; Avni, Isaac; Belkin, Michael; Rosner, Mordechai

    2005-04-01

    Retinal damage induced by mechanical trauma, ischemia or laser photocoagulation increases considerably by secondary degeneration processes. The spread of damage may be ameliorated by neuroprotection that is aimed at reducing the extent of the secondary degeneration and promote healing processes. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment consists of inspiration of oxygen at higher than one absolute atmospheric pressure. Improved neural function was observed in patients with acute brain trauma or ischemia treated with HBO. This study was designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on laser induced retinal damage in a rat model. Standard argon laser lesions were created in 25 pigmented rats divided into three groups: Ten rats were treated immediately after the irradiation with HBO three times during the first 24 hr followed by 12 consecutive daily treatments. Five rats received a shorter treatment regimen of 10 consecutive HBO treatments. The control group (10 rats) underwent the laser damage with no additional treatment. The retinal lesions were evaluated 20 days after the injury. All outcome measures were improved by the longer HBO treatment (Ptreatment was less effective, showing an increase only in nuclei density at the central area of lesion (Pretinal damage in a rat model. In the range of HBO exposures studied, longer exposure provides more neuroprotection. These results encourage further evaluation of the potential therapeutic use of hyperbaric oxygen in diseases and injuries of the retina.

  12. Relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation value and progression of visual field defect in open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naito T

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomoko Naito,1 Keiji Yoshikawa,2 Shiro Mizoue,3 Mami Nanno,4 Tairo Kimura,5 Hirotaka Suzumura,6 Ryuji Takeda,7 Fumio Shiraga1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Okayama, 2Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, 4Kagurazaka Minamino Eye Clinic, 5Ueno Eye Clinic, 6Suzumura Eye Clinic, Tokyo, 7Department of Agriculture, Kinki University, Nara, Japan Purpose: To analyze the relationship between consecutive deterioration of mean deviation (MD value and glaucomatous visual field (VF progression in open-angle glaucoma (OAG, including primary OAG and normal tension glaucoma.Patients and methods: The subjects of the study were patients undergoing treatment for OAG who had performed VF tests at least 10 times with a Humphrey field analyzer (SITA standard, C30-2 program. The VF progression was defined by a significantly negative MD slope (MD slope worsening at the final VF test during the follow-up period. The relationship between the MD slope worsening and the consecutive deterioration of MD value were retrospectively analyzed.Results: A total of 165 eyes of 165 patients were included in the analysis. Significant progression of VF defects was observed in 72 eyes of 72 patients (43.6%, while no significant progression was evident in 93 eyes of 93 patients (56.4%. There was significant relationship between the frequency of consecutive deterioration of MD value and MD slope worsening (P<0.0001, Cochran–Armitage trend test. A significant association was observed for MD slope worsening in the eyes with three (odds ratio: 2.1, P=0.0224 and four (odds ratio: 3.6, P=0.0008 consecutive deterioration of MD value in multiple logistic regression analysis, but no significant association in the eyes with two consecutive deterioration (odds ratio: 1.1, P=0.8282. The eyes with VF progression had significantly lower intraocular pressure reduction rate (P<0

  13. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al. [1989, ARAA, 27, 279], persists despite the addition of more O data and may betray the occurrence of a hiatus in star formation between the end of halo formation and

  14. Gastro-duodenal perforations: conventional plain film, US and CT findings in 166 consecutive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania; Pinto, Antonio; Romano, Luigia

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Gastro-duodenal perforations may be suspected in patients with history of ulceration, who present with acute pain and abdominal wall rigidity, but radiological findings in these cases may be unable to confirm a clinical diagnosis. The aim of our study was to report our experience in the diagnosis of gastro-duodenal perforation by conventional radiography, US and CT examinations. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 166 consecutive patients who presented in the last 2 years to our institutions with symptoms of acute abdomen and submitted to surgery at the Emergency Unit of the ''A.Cardarelli'' Hospital of Naples with a surgical finding of perforated gastro-duodenal ulcer. The evidence of free intraperitoneal air on abdominal plain film was considered as a direct or suggestive finding of perforation. Evidence of intraperitoneal free fluid and/or reduced intestinal peristalsis at sonographic examination were considered indirect signs of gastro-duodenal perforation. Evidence of free peritoneal gas at CT was considered as a direct evidence of gastro-duodenal perforation. Results: Twenty patients underwent immediate surgery with no preoperative imaging evaluation, in 10 of them the site of perforation was found in a juxta-pyloric region and in the others at level of duodenum. In 146 patients submitted to serial radiological investigations before surgery, the site of perforation was in 56 (38.3%) duodenal, in 52 (35.6%) juxta-pyloric, in 28 (19.1%) gastric and in 10 (6.8%) pyloric. The cause of perforation was in all cases gastric or duodenal ulceration, in seven cases involving pancreatic parenchyma. In 110 (75.4%) patients with direct findings of perforation, in 94 cases (85.5%) the correct diagnosis was established on abdominal plain film, in two (1.8%) with radiographic and sonographic examinations and in 14 (12.7%) on CT findings. In 36 (24,6%) patients with no direct findings of perforation, only 24 (16,4%) of them

  15. Gastro-duodenal perforations: conventional plain film, US and CT findings in 166 consecutive patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassi, Roberto; Romano, Stefania E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Pinto, Antonio; Romano, Luigia

    2004-04-01

    Introduction: Gastro-duodenal perforations may be suspected in patients with history of ulceration, who present with acute pain and abdominal wall rigidity, but radiological findings in these cases may be unable to confirm a clinical diagnosis. The aim of our study was to report our experience in the diagnosis of gastro-duodenal perforation by conventional radiography, US and CT examinations. Material and methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of 166 consecutive patients who presented in the last 2 years to our institutions with symptoms of acute abdomen and submitted to surgery at the Emergency Unit of the ''A.Cardarelli'' Hospital of Naples with a surgical finding of perforated gastro-duodenal ulcer. The evidence of free intraperitoneal air on abdominal plain film was considered as a direct or suggestive finding of perforation. Evidence of intraperitoneal free fluid and/or reduced intestinal peristalsis at sonographic examination were considered indirect signs of gastro-duodenal perforation. Evidence of free peritoneal gas at CT was considered as a direct evidence of gastro-duodenal perforation. Results: Twenty patients underwent immediate surgery with no preoperative imaging evaluation, in 10 of them the site of perforation was found in a juxta-pyloric region and in the others at level of duodenum. In 146 patients submitted to serial radiological investigations before surgery, the site of perforation was in 56 (38.3%) duodenal, in 52 (35.6%) juxta-pyloric, in 28 (19.1%) gastric and in 10 (6.8%) pyloric. The cause of perforation was in all cases gastric or duodenal ulceration, in seven cases involving pancreatic parenchyma. In 110 (75.4%) patients with direct findings of perforation, in 94 cases (85.5%) the correct diagnosis was established on abdominal plain film, in two (1.8%) with radiographic and sonographic examinations and in 14 (12.7%) on CT findings. In 36 (24,6%) patients with no direct findings of perforation, only 24

  16. Oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules for optical dissolved oxygen sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhijuan; Cai, Chenxin; Guo, Fei; Ye, Changhuai; Luo, Yingwu; Ye, Shuming; Luo, Jianchao; Zhu, Fan; Jiang, Chunyue

    2018-04-01

    Immobilization of the oxygen-sensitive probes (OSPs) in the host matrix greatly impacts the performance and long-term usage of the optical dissolved oxygen (DO) sensors. In this work, fluorescent dyes, as the OSPs, were encapsulated with a crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell by interfacial confined reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer miniemulsion polymerization to fabricate oxygen sensitive polymeric nanocapsules (NCs). The location of fluorescent dyes and the fluorescent properties of the NCs were fully characterized by fourier transform infrared spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectrometer and fluorescent spectrum. Dye-encapsulated capacity can be precisely tuned from 0 to 1.3 wt% without self-quenching of the fluorescent dye. The crosslinked fluorinated polymer shell is not only extremely high gas permeability, but also prevents the fluorescent dyes from leakage in aqueous as well as in various organic solvents, such as ethanol, acetone and tetrahydrofuran (THF). An optical DO sensor based on the oxygen sensitive NCs was fabricated, showing high sensitivity, short response time, full reversibility, and long-term operational stability of online monitoring DO. The sensitivity of the optical DO sensor is 7.02 (the ratio of the response value in fully deoxygenated and saturated oxygenated water) in the range 0.96-14.16 mg l-1 and the response time is about 14.3 s. The sensor’s work curve was fit well using the modified Stern-Volmer equation by two-site model, and its response values are hardly affected by pH ranging from 2 to 12 and keep constant during continuous measurement for 3 months. It is believed that the oxygen sensitive polymeric NCs-based optical DO sensor could be particularly useful in long-term online DO monitoring in both aqueous and organic solvent systems.

  17. The micro-step motor controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwang Pyo; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Myung Kook; Choi, Bung Hun; Choi, Young Hyun; Cheon, Jong Gu

    2004-11-01

    The developed micro-step motor controller can handle 4 axes stepping motor drivers simultaneously and provide high power bipolar driving mechanism with constant current mode. It can be easily controlled by manual key functions and the motor driving status is displayed by the front panel VFD. Due to the development of several kinds of communication and driving protocol, PC can operate even several micro-step motor controllers at once by multi-drop connection

  18. Multi-step contrast sensitivity gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Enrico C; Thompson, Kyle R; Moore, David G; Heister, Jack D; Poland, Richard W; Ellegood, John P; Hodges, George K; Prindville, James E

    2014-10-14

    An X-ray contrast sensitivity gauge is described herein. The contrast sensitivity gauge comprises a plurality of steps of varying thicknesses. Each step in the gauge includes a plurality of recesses of differing depths, wherein the depths are a function of the thickness of their respective step. An X-ray image of the gauge is analyzed to determine a contrast-to-noise ratio of a detector employed to generate the image.

  19. Step-wise stimulated martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airoldi, G.; Riva, G.

    1991-01-01

    NiTi alloys, widely known both for their shape memory properties and for unusual pseudoelastic behaviour, are now on the forefront attention for step-wise induced memory processes, thermal or stress stimulated. Literature results related to step-wise stimulated martensite (direct transformation) are examined and contrasted with step-wise thermal stimulated parent phase (reverse transformation). Hypothesis are given to explain the key characters of both transformations, a thermodynamic model from first principles being till now lacking

  20. Microprocessor-based stepping motor driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.

    1979-09-01

    The Pion Generation for Medical Irradiations (PIGMI) program at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory requires a versatile stepping motor driver to do beam diagnostic measurements. A driver controlled by a microprocessor that can move eight stepping motors simultaneously was designed. The driver can monitor and respond to clockwise- and counterclockwise-limit switches, and it can monitor a 0- to 10-V dc position signal. The software controls start and stop ramping and maximum stepping rates. 2 figures, 1 table