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Sample records for conscious manufacturing solvent

  1. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Solvent Substitution Program/switch tube assemblies final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, E.P.; Ohlhausen, J.A.; Peebles, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benkovich, M.G. [ERA Systems Inc., The MESERAN Co., Chattanooga, TN (United States)

    1995-06-01

    As part of an Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) Program, a study was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories to identify an alternative cleaning process that would effectively replace trichloroethylene (TCE) for cleaning mechanical piece parts of Switch Tube assemblies. Eight aqueous alkaline cleaners, as well as an isopropyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol/Cyclohexane cleaning process, were studied as potential replacements. Cleaning efficacy, materials compatibility, etch rate and corrosion studies were conducted and used to screen potential candidates. Cleaning efficacy was determined using visual examination, goniometer/contact angle measurements, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron spectroscopy and an evaporative rate analysis technique known as MESERAN Surface Analysis. Several cleaners were identified as potential replacements for TCE based solely on the cleaning efficacy results. Some of the cleaners, however, left undesirable residues studies were completed, Brulin 815GD (an aqueous alkaline cleaner) was selected as the replacement for TCE.

  2. Environmentally conscious manufacturing integrated demonstration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gentry, D.E.

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Integrated Demonstration was to show that several of the individually developed materials and processes to reduce hazardous materials and waste could be successfully used on a single assembly. A methodology was developed that could be used on any product to plan the approach to eliminating hazardous materials. Sample units of an existing design electronic unit were fabricated applying this methodology and substituting nonhazardous materials and processes. The results of this project show that total waste can be drastically reduced by at least an order of magnitude and hazardous material and waste can be essentially eliminated in the manufacture of this type of electronic devices.

  3. An explorative study to enable environmentally conscious manufacturing for an industrial gearbox manufacturing organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Parag

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM has become an important aspect and proactive approach for majority of the manufacturing organizations in India. The reason is that ECM not only helps to produce environment friendly, but also helps to make money by reducing cost or achieving competitive advantage. Industrial gearbox manufacturing organizations have significant environmental impacts as industrial gearbox manufacturing involves several steps which use valuable resources and pollute the environment. Hence, this paper presents an explorative environmental study of an Indian industrial gearbox manufacturing organization. The objective of the current paper is (i to identify the environmental problems and environmentally conscious manufacturing indicators (ECMI, (ii to find out the root causes of these problems and (iii to solve the root causes based on the available state-of-the-art literature. This research work not only reviews the efficient environment friendly manufacturing techniques, but also helps the organization to become eco-efficient by producing environment friendly while making money. First ECMIs selected from literature review, are validated through process mapping. Then these indicators are prioritized using analytic hierarchy process (AHP to find out the critical environmentally conscious manufacturing indicators (CECMI. The sources of CECMIs are identified using either data envelopment analysis (DEA or direct observation of the available database. Finally, some possible solutions are also addressed in this paper.

  4. Cost-benefit analysis for design of environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matysiak, L.M.

    1993-09-01

    In recent years, much attention has been focused on reducing the environmental impacts of products and manufacturing processes. Concerned about rising compliance costs and stringent regulatory requirements, companies are carefully evaluating the environmental impacts of their products. In response, designers, engineers, and managers are beginning to use life-cycle analysis, design for environment techniques, and environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) as tools to help them to not only do what is best for the environment, but also to do what is best for their company. These tools are also a useful aid in evaluating the trade-offs that may exist between different product and process alternatives. However, how does one choose the optimal solution from these various product and process alternatives? Cost versus benefit analysis is an effective tool that can be used to evaluate various manufacturing alternatives and to choose a solution that is both cost effective and environmentally compatible. Many companies are beginning to use cost benefit analyses as a means to justify product or process modifications that result in a benefit to the environment.

  5. Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing Project: ECM assessment guidance manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a summary of the basic tools that will be used in conducting assessments under the Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing (ECM) Project assessment program. ECM can cover a wide range of issues including: finding safer alternatives to toxic materials; changing processes to become more efficient; environmental costs and regulatory compliance; waste reduction; energy conservation; product packaging; and product reuse/recycling. The assessments performed as part of this program will try to identify opportunities to implement technologies/actions that will promote the types of results listed above. The general methodology, or sequence of events, that will be used in conducting assessments is as follows: 1. Form an Assessment Team; 2. Map Process by flow diagrams and materials accounting; 3. Identify opportunities for ECM by activity based accounting and pareto analysis; 4. Identify and evaluate ECM/pollution prevention alternatives; 5. Implement alternatives; 6. Monitor progress. All of the assessment steps listed above are addressed in this document except forming the assessment team. The tools discussed in this document are well known, widely used process analysis or quality improvement tools which have been adapted for use in evaluating opportunities for ECM/Pollution prevention.

  6. Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zeman, A

    2001-01-01

    Consciousness is topical, for reasons including its renewed respectability among psychologists, rapid progress in the neuroscience of perception, memory and action, advances in artificial intelligence...

  7. Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Terrence J Sejnowski

    2015-01-01

    No one did more to draw neuroscientists’ attention to the problem of consciousness in the twentieth century than Francis Crick, who may be better known as the co-discoverer (with James Watson) of the structure of DNA. Crick focused his research on visual awareness and based his analysis on the progress made over the last fifty years in uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying visual perception. Because much of what happens in our brains occurs below the level of consciousness and many of o...

  8. Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    R. J. Aumann

    2005-01-01

    Consciousness is the last great frontier of science. Here we discuss what it is, how it differs fundamentally from other scientific phenomena, what adaptive function it serves, and the difficulties in trying to explain how it works. The emphasis is on the adaptive function.

  9. Carbon dioxide-based supercritical fluids as IC manufacturing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubin, J.B.; Davenhall, L.B.; Taylor, C.M.V.; Sivils, L.D.; Pierce, T.; Tiefert, K.

    1999-05-11

    The production of integrated circuits (IC's) involves a number of discrete steps which utilize hazardous or regulated solvents and generate large waste streams. ES&H considerations associated with these chemicals have prompted a search for alternative, more environmentally benign solvent systems. An emerging technology for conventional solvent replacement is the use of supercritical fluids based on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). Research work, conducted at Los Alamos in conjunction with the Hewlett-Packard Company, has lead to the development of a CO{sub 2}-based supercritical fluid treatment system for the stripping of hard-baked photoresists. This treatment system, known as Supercritical CO{sub 2} Resist Remover, or CORR, uses a two-component solvent composed of a nonhazardous, non-regulated compound, dissolved in supercritical CO{sub 2}. The solvent/treatment system has been successfully tested on metallized Si wafers coated with negative and positive photoresist, the latter both before and after ion-implantation. A description of the experimental data will be presented. Based on the initial laboratory results, the project has progressed to the design and construction of prototype, single-wafer photoresist-stripping equipment. The integrated system involves a closed-loop, recirculating cycle which continuously cleans and regenerates the CO{sub 2}, recycles the dissolved solvent, and separates and concentrates the spent resist. The status of the current design and implementation strategy of a treatment system to existing IC fabrication facilities will be discussed. Additional remarks will be made on the use of a SCORR-type system for the cleaning of wafers prior to processing.

  10. Solvent-associated decrements in olfactory function in paint manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, B S; Ford, D P; Bolla, K I; Agnew, J; Rothman, N; Bleecker, M L

    1990-01-01

    To assess the effects of low-level organic solvent exposure on olfactory function, a cross-sectional study in paint manufacturing workers was undertaken. Workers in two paint manufacturing facilities (N = 187) were tested using the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), a standardized, quantitative test of olfactory function. Industrial hygiene air samples over the past 13-15 years revealed that average solvent exposures in these plants were 2-40% of the existing threshold limit values for the three chemicals measured. Stratification by smoking status revealed evidence of dose-related decrements in olfactory function (p = .01) only in non-smokers. Furthermore, those nonsmoking workers in the highest exposure category had UPSIT scores below the fifth percentile for their age. These results suggest that solvents may cause nervous system dysfunction at lower levels than previously suspected, and that the olfactory system may be a critical target organ for the neurotoxic effects of solvents and other chemicals.

  11. Dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products for solvent-based dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshfield, Laura; Giridhar, Arun; Taylor, Lynne S; Harris, Michael T; Reklaitis, Gintaras V

    2014-02-01

    In recent years, the US Food and Drug Administration has encouraged pharmaceutical companies to develop more innovative and efficient manufacturing methods with improved online monitoring and control. Mini-manufacturing of medicine is one such method enabling the creation of individualized product forms for each patient. This work presents dropwise additive manufacturing of pharmaceutical products (DAMPP), an automated, controlled mini-manufacturing method that deposits active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) directly onto edible substrates using drop-on-demand (DoD) inkjet printing technology. The use of DoD technology allows for precise control over the material properties, drug solid state form, drop size, and drop dynamics and can be beneficial in the creation of high-potency drug forms, combination drugs with multiple APIs or individualized medicine products tailored to a specific patient. In this work, DAMPP was used to create dosage forms from solvent-based formulations consisting of API, polymer, and solvent carrier. The forms were then analyzed to determine the reproducibility of creating an on-target dosage form, the morphology of the API of the final form and the dissolution behavior of the drug over time. DAMPP is found to be a viable alternative to traditional mass-manufacturing methods for solvent-based oral dosage forms. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. Environmental analysis of the life cycle emissions of 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran solvent manufactured from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C Stewart; Savelski, Mariano J; Hitchcock, David; Cavanagh, Eduardo J

    2016-01-01

    An environmental analysis has been conducted to determine the cradle to gate life cycle emissions to manufacture the green solvent, 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran. The solvent is considered a greener chemical since it can be manufactured from renewable resources with a lower life cycle footprint. Analyses have been performed using different methods to show greenness in both its production and industrial use. This solvent can potentially be substituted for other ether and chlorinated solvents commonly used in organometallic and biphasic reactions steps in pharmaceutical and fine chemical syntheses. The 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran made from renewable agricultural by-products is marketed by Penn A Kem under the name ecoMeTHF™. The starting material, 2-furfuraldehyde (furfural), is produced from corn cob waste by converting the available pentosans by acid hydrolysis. An evaluation of each step in the process was necessary to determine the overall life cycle and specific CO2 emissions for each raw material/intermediate produced. Allocation of credits for CO2 from the incineration of solvents made from renewable feedstocks significantly reduced the overall carbon footprint. Using this approach, the overall life cycle emissions for production of 1 kg of ecoMeTHF™ were determined to be 0.191 kg, including 0.150 kg of CO2. Life cycle emissions generated from raw material manufacture represents the majority of the overall environmental impact. Our evaluation shows that using 2-methyl tetrahydrofuran in an industrial scenario results in a 97% reduction in emissions, when compared to typically used solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, made through a conventional chemical route.

  13. Solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Hamida Y. Mostafa; Ebaa A. El-Shamy; Amal S. Farag; Nadia G. Kandile

    2013-01-01

    Neat ethylacetoacetate (EAA) and its mixtures with a co-solvent and an anti-solvent have been studied for refining of heavy wax distillate fraction to produce substantially non-carcinogenic base oil. The co-solvent and anti-solvent used are dipropylene glycol (DPG) and ethylene glycol (EG) respectively. The solubility characteristics of the main solvent and its mixed solvent systems were studied. Selection of the optimum solvent mixture and extraction variables has been studied. The effect of...

  14. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME III: LABEL MANUFACTURING CASE STUDY: NASHUA CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume discusses Nashua Corporation's Omaha facility, a label and label stock manufacturing facility that no longer uses solvent-based adhesives. Information obtained includes issues related to the technical, economic, and environmental barriers and opportunities associated ...

  15. Energy impact of cathode drying and solvent recovery during lithium-ion battery manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Dees, Dennis W.

    2016-08-01

    Successful deployment of electric vehicles requires maturity of the manufacturing process to reduce the cost of the lithium ion battery (LIB) pack. Drying the coated cathode layer and subsequent recovery of the solvent for recycle is a vital step in the lithium ion battery manufacturing plant and offers significant potential for cost reduction. A spreadsheet model of the drying and recovery of the solvent, is used to study the energy demand of this step and its contribution towards the cost of the battery pack. The base case scenario indicates that the drying and recovery process imposes an energy demand of ∼10 kWh per kg of the solvent n-methyl pyrrolidone (NMP), and is almost 45 times the heat needed to vaporize the NMP. For a plant producing 100 K battery packs per year for 10 kWh plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHEV), the energy demand is ∼5900 kW and the process contributes 107 or 3.4% to the cost of the battery pack. The cost of drying and recovery is equivalent to 1.12 per kg of NMP recovered, saving 2.08 per kg in replacement purchase.

  16. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-01

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  17. Solvent-Free Manufacturing of Electrodes for Lithium-ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Brandon; Zheng, Zhangfeng; Shou, Wan; Wang, Yan; Pan, Heng

    2016-03-17

    Lithium ion battery electrodes were manufactured using a new, completely dry powder painting process. The solvents used for conventional slurry-cast electrodes have been completely removed. Thermal activation time has been greatly reduced due to the time and resource demanding solvent evaporation process needed with slurry-cast electrode manufacturing being replaced by a hot rolling process. It has been found that thermal activation time to induce mechanical bonding of the thermoplastic polymer to the remaining active electrode particles is only a few seconds. Removing the solvent and drying process allows large-scale Li-ion battery production to be more economically viable in markets such as automotive energy storage systems. By understanding the surface energies of various powders which govern the powder mixing and binder distribution, bonding tests of the dry-deposited particles onto the current collector show that the bonding strength is greater than slurry-cast electrodes, 148.8 kPa as compared to 84.3 kPa. Electrochemical tests show that the new electrodes outperform conventional slurry processed electrodes, which is due to different binder distribution.

  18. Neurotoxic effects of organic solvents among workers in paint and lacquer manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Jovica M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Organic solvents are chemically different compounds with one common feature: they dissolve fats, oils, resins, cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate, which makes them widely used in industry. Most often organic solvents are used in paint and lacquer industries, in production of pesticides, plastics, explosives, rubber, cellulose, air conditioners, in pharmaceutical industry and in leather industry. The aim of this research was to analyze the working environment and professional hazards in paint and lacquer manufacturing industry and evaluate effects of chronic exposure to mixture of organic solvents on nervous system of exposed workers. Methodology The exposed group consisted of 50 workers professionally exposed to these noxae, while the control group consisted of 30 workers who have never been exposed to these noxae. Results Examination of working environment in departments of paint and lacquer manufacturing revealed presence of white spirit and toluene above allowed levels. Exposed workers more frequently complained of fatigue, hand numbness, enhanced excitation, and concentration difficulties, forgetfulness and headaches, than workers from the control group. Electroneurographic examination of n. medianus showed reduced motor and sensitive conduction velocity among exposed in comparison to workers from the control group. Reduced motor and sensitive conduction velocity was correlated with duration of exposure to these noxae. Terminal latency of n. medianus was statistically, significantly longer in the exposed group than in the control group. Workers in the exposed group have statistically significantly longer reaction time in response to acoustic and visual stimuli. Discussion Segmental demyelination and axonal degeneration, as forms of damage to peripheral nerves, were identified as responsible for peripheral neuropathy associated with occupational exposure to organic solvents. Conclusion Results of this study show possible

  19. Job satisfaction in relation to energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in selected Illinois manufacturing firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, T.S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was developed through a synthesis and review of literature and research related to the current status of job satisfaction, energy resources, and perceptions of how energy is utilized in the manufacturing work environment. This synthesis and review revolved around several proven contributing factors of job satisfaction, such as age, education, and challenge from work itself. Quality of work life programs and their components are discussed in relation to their impact on job satisfaction. The nature of energy resource utilization is traced back through history with an emphasis on the limitations of current resources and options for the future. The review highlights the current debate over what should be the future path of energy resource development. The concept of satisfaction of human needs is reviewed and related to job satisfaction and energy resources. The purpose of this research study was to contribute to the understanding of how perceptions of energy resources relate to job satisfaction. Results of the study indicated that there were no significant differences between an individual's energy resource consciousness and perceptions of energy utilization in the work place, energy resource consciousness and job satisfaction, and job satisfaction and perceptions of energy utilization in the workplace.

  20. Combined effects of exposure to occupational noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure in car manufacturing company workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Golabadi, Majid; Labbafinejad, Yasser; Mohammadi, Saber

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies suggest that occupational exposures such as noise and organic solvents may affect blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate interaction of noise and mixed organic solvents on blood pressure. Four hundred seventy-one workers of a car manufacturing plant were divided into four groups: group one or G1 workers exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents in the permitted limit or control group, G3 exposed to noise only, G2 exposed to solvents only, and G4 workers exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents at higher than the permitted limit or co-exposure group. Biological interaction of two variables on hypertension was calculated using the synergistic index. The workers of co-exposure group (G4), noise only group (G3), and solvents only group (G2) had significantly higher mean values of SBP and DBP than workers of control group (G1) or office workers (P car manufacturing company workers and co-exposure to noise and a mixture of solvents has an additive effect in this regard. Therefore appropriate preventive programs in these workers recommended. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The role of exhaust ventilation systems in reducing occupational exposure to organic solvents in a paint manufacturing factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the successful design and implementation of several exhaust ventilation systems in a paint manufacturing factory. The ventilation systems were designed based on American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists recommendations. The duct works, fans, and other parts were made and mounted by local manufacturers. The concentrations of toluene and xylene as the common solvents used in paint mixing factories were measured to evaluate the role of ventilation systems in controlling the organic solvents. Occupational exposure to toluene and xylene as the major pollutants was assessed with and without applying ventilation systems. For this purpose, samples were taken from breathing zone of exposed workers using personal samples. The samples were analyzed using Occupational Safety and Health Administration analytical method No.12. The samples were quantified using gas chromatography. The results showed that the ventilation systems successfully controlled toluene and xylene vapors in workplace, air well below the recommended threshold limit value of Iran (44.49 and 97.73 ppm, respectively. It was also discovered that benzene concentration in workplace air was higher than its allowable concentrations. This could be from solvents impurities that require more investigations.

  2. Effect of solvent environment on colloidal-quantum-dot solar-cell manufacturability and performance

    KAUST Repository

    Kirmani, Ahmad R.

    2014-06-04

    The absorbing layer in state-of-the-art colloidal quantum-dot solar cells is fabricated using a tedious layer-by-layer process repeated ten times. It is now shown that methanol, a common exchange solvent, is the main culprit, as extended exposure leaches off the surface halide passivant, creating carrier trap states. Use of a high-dipole-moment aprotic solvent eliminates this problem and is shown to produce state-of-the-art devices in far fewer steps. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Alternative Bio-Based Solvents for Extraction of Fat and Oils: Solubility Prediction, Global Yield, Extraction Kinetics, Chemical Composition and Cost of Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Gaëlle Sicaire

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop’s byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil and non-food (bio fuel applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols. Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  4. Alternative bio-based solvents for extraction of fat and oils: solubility prediction, global yield, extraction kinetics, chemical composition and cost of manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicaire, Anne-Gaëlle; Vian, Maryline; Fine, Frédéric; Joffre, Florent; Carré, Patrick; Tostain, Sylvain; Chemat, Farid

    2015-04-15

    The present study was designed to evaluate the performance of alternative bio-based solvents, more especially 2-methyltetrahydrofuran, obtained from crop's byproducts for the substitution of petroleum solvents such as hexane in the extraction of fat and oils for food (edible oil) and non-food (bio fuel) applications. First a solvent selection as well as an evaluation of the performance was made with Hansen Solubility Parameters and the COnductor-like Screening MOdel for Realistic Solvation (COSMO-RS) simulations. Experiments were performed on rapeseed oil extraction at laboratory and pilot plant scale for the determination of lipid yields, extraction kinetics, diffusion modeling, and complete lipid composition in term of fatty acids and micronutrients (sterols, tocopherols and tocotrienols). Finally, economic and energetic evaluations of the process were conducted to estimate the cost of manufacturing using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MeTHF) as alternative solvent compared to hexane as petroleum solvent.

  5. Solvent substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  6. MODELING CONSCIOUSNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, J G

    2009-01-01

    We present tentative answers to three questions: firstly, what is to be assumed about the structure of the brain in attacking the problem of modeling consciousness; secondly, what is it about consciousness that is attempting to be modeled; and finally, what is taken on board the modeling enterprise, if anything, from the vast works by philosophers about the nature of mind.

  7. Control consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandik, Pete

    2010-10-01

    Control consciousness is the awareness or experience of seeming to be in control of one's actions. One view, which I will be arguing against in the present paper, is that control consciousness is a form of sensory consciousness. In such a view, control consciousness is exhausted by sensory elements such as tactile and proprioceptive information. An opposing view, which I will be arguing for, is that sensory elements cannot be the whole story and must be supplemented by direct contributions of nonsensory, motor elements. More specifically, I will be arguing for the view that the neural basis of control consciousness is constituted by states of recurrent activation in relatively intermediate levels of the motor hierarchy. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  8. Conscious Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pitt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tim Crane maintains that beliefs cannot be conscious because they persist in the absence of consciousness. Conscious judgments can share their contents with beliefs, and their occurrence can be evidence for what one believes; but they cannot be beliefs, because they don’t persist. I challenge Crane’s premise that belief attributions to the temporarily unconscious are literally true. To say of an unconscious agent that she believes that p is like saying that she sings well. To say she sings well is to say that when she sings, her singing is good. To say that she believes that p is (roughly to say that when she consciously considers the content that p she consciously affirms (believes it. I also argue that the phenomenal view of intentional content Crane appears to endorse prima facie commits him to the view, at least controversial, perhaps incoherent, that there is unconscious phenomenology (the intentional contents of unconscious beliefs.

  9. High drug load, stable, manufacturable and bioavailable fenofibrate formulations in mesoporous silica: a comparison of spray drying versus solvent impregnation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shiqi; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, David Cheng Thiam; Ng, Wai Kiong; Liu, Xueming; Chia, Leonard S O; Irwan, Anastasia W; Tan, Reginald; Nowak, Steven A; Marsh, Kennan; Gokhale, Rajeev

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of drugs in mesoporous silica using co-spray drying process has been recently explored as potential industrial method. However, the impact of spray drying on manufacturability, physiochemical stability and bioavailability in relation to conventional drug load processes are yet to be fully investigated. Using a 2(3) factorial design, this study aims to investigate the effect of drug-loading process (co-spray drying and solvent impregnation), mesoporous silica pore size (SBA-15, 6.5 nm and MCM-41, 2.5 nm) and percentage drug load (30% w/w and 50% w/w) on material properties, crystallinity, physicochemical stability, release profiles and bioavailability of fenofibrate (FEN) loaded into mesoporous silica. From the scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) images, powder X-ray diffraction and Differential scanning calorimetry measurements, it is indicated that the co-spray drying process was able to load up to 50% (w/w) FEN in amorphous form onto the mesoporous silica as compared to the 30% (w/w) for solvent impregnation. The in vitro dissolution rate of the co-spray dried formulations was also significantly (p = 0.044) better than solvent impregnated formulations at the same drug loading. Six-month accelerated stability test at 40 °C/75 RH in open dish indicated excellent physical and chemical stability of formulations prepared by both methods. The amorphous state of FEN and the enhanced dissolution profiles were well preserved, and very low levels of degradation were detected after storage. The dog data for the three selected co-spray-dried formulations revealed multiple fold increment in FEN bioavailability compared to the reference crystalline FEN. These results validate the viability of co-spray-dried mesoporous silica formulations with high amorphous drug load as potential drug delivery systems for poorly water soluble drugs.

  10. Experimental neurotoxicity and urinary metabolites of the C5-C7 aliphatic hydrocarbons used as glue solvents in shoe manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frontali, N; Amantini, M C; Spagnolo, A; Guarcini, A M; Saltari, M C; Brugnone, F; Perbellini, L

    1981-12-01

    Rats were intermittently exposed (9 to 10 h/d, 5 to 6 d/week) to controlled concentrations of single analytical grad solvents in ambient air. After periods ranging from 7 to 30 weeks the animals were perfused with glutaraldehyde and samples of nerves were processed for light microscopy of sections and of teased fibers. Animals treated with n-hexane at 5000 ppm (14 weeks) or 2500 ppm (30 weeks) developed the typical giant axonal degeneration already described in rats treated continuously with 400 to 600 ppm of the same solvent for 7 weeks or more. No such alterations were found in rats subjected to the following intermittent respiratory treatments: n-hexane 500 ppm (30 weeks) or 1500 ppm (14 weeks), cyclohexane 1500 or 2500 (30 weeks), n-pentane 3000 ppm (30 weeks), n-heptane 1500 ppm (30 weeks), 2-methylpentane 1500 ppm (14 weeks), and 3-methylpentane 1500 ppm (14 weeks). The following metabolites were found in the urine of rats according to treatment (in parenthesis): 2-methyl-2-pentanol (2-methylpentane); 3-methyl-2-pentanol and 3-methyl-3-pentanol (3-methylpentane), 2-hexanol, 3-hexanol, gamma-valerolactone, 2,5-dimethylfuran, and 2,5-hexanedione (n-hexane). 2-Hexanol was found to be the main urinary metabolite of n-hexane, while 2,5-hexanedione was present only in a lesser proportion. This feature of rat metabolism suggests that in this species 2,5-hexanedione reaches an effective level at its site of action during intermittent respiratory treatment with n-hexane with difficulty and explains the high concentrations necessary to cause polyneuropathy in rats subjected to this treatment.

  11. Occupational Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramugondo, Elelwani L

    2015-10-02

    Occupational consciousness refers to ongoing awareness of the dynamics of hegemony and recognition that dominant practices are sustained through what people do every day, with implications for personal and collective health. The emergence of the construct in post-apartheid South Africa signifies the country's ongoing struggle with negotiating long-standing dynamics of power that were laid down during colonialism, and maintained under black majority rule. Consciousness, a key component of the new terminology, is framed from post-colonial perspectives - notably work by Biko and Fanon - and grounded in the philosophy of liberation, in order to draw attention to continuing unequal intersubjective relations that play out through human occupation. The paper also draws important links between occupational consciousness and other related constructs, namely occupational possibilities, occupational choice, occupational apartheid, and collective occupation. The use of the term 'consciousness' in sociology, with related or different meanings, is also explored. Occupational consciousness is then advanced as a critical notion that frames everyday doing as a potentially liberating response to oppressive social structures. This paper advances theorizing as a scholarly practice in occupational science, and could potentially expand inter or transdisciplinary work for critical conceptualizations of human occupation.

  12. Creative Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that transforms human relationships into sources of rich emotional capacity; and as value-based educational creativity that can awaken and nurture young minds to develop and discover their own inherent capacity for knowledge in freedom. Through such moments do society and humanity evolve. Education is society’s most advanced institution for conscious social evolution. Values are the essence of society’s knowledge for highest accomplishment. Education that imparts values is an evolutionary social organization that can hasten the emergence of that creative consciousness.

  13. Consciousness extended

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    There is no consensus yet regarding a conceptualization of consciousness able to accommodate all the features of such complex phenomenon. Different theoretical and empirical models lend strength to both the occurrence of a non-accessible informational broadcast, and to the mobilization of specific...... brain areas responsible for the emergence of the individual´s explicit and variable access to given segments of such broadcast. Rather than advocating one model over others, this chapter proposes to broaden the conceptualization of consciousness by letting it embrace both mechanisms. Within...... such extended framework, I propose conceptual and functional distinctions between consciousness (global broadcast of information), awareness (individual´s ability to access the content of such broadcast) and unconsciousness (focally isolated neural activations). My hypothesis is that a demarcation in terms...

  14. Demodernizing Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Peter L.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Youth culture and counterculture in contemporary Western societies are complex phenomena that may be viewed from a variety of social science perspectives. The authors analyze these cultures as embodiments of demodernizing consciousness with which they hold they have considerable firsthand experience. (RJ)

  15. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay; Levine, Stanley R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. These carbonaceous preforms have been fabricated by pyrolysis of solid wood bodies at 1000 C. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches.

  16. Creative Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Ashok Natarajan

    2013-01-01

    Consciousness is creative. That creativity expresses in myriad ways – as moments in time in which decades of progress can be achieved overnight, as organizational innovations of immense power for social accomplishment; as creative social values that further influence the evolution of organizations and society; as the creativity of individuality in the leader, genius, artist and inventor; as social creativity that converts raw human experience into civilization; as cultural creativity that tra...

  17. Agential Self-consciousness : beyond conscious agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although we perform many of our actions without much consciousness of these, occasionally we are explicitly conscious that we are doing something for a reason. Such consciousness I call ‘agential self-consciousness’. Since ages we have understood such agential self-consciousness in terms of the

  18. Agential Self-consciousness : beyond conscious agency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Although we perform many of our actions without much consciousness of these, occasionally we are explicitly conscious that we are doing something for a reason. Such consciousness I call ‘agential self-consciousness’. Since ages we have understood such agential self-consciousness in terms of the self

  19. An Essay on Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Wise B.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the role of consciousness within the discipline of psychology (including psychology research and textbooks). Presents information on the nature of consciousness, problems with consciousness, the mind/ matter controversy, and the state of the art of consciousness within psychology today. Concludes that there is a shift in psychology toward…

  20. Solvent-free dry powder coating process for low-cost manufacturing of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shroofy, Mohanad; Zhang, Qinglin; Xu, Jiagang; Chen, Tao; Kaur, Aman Preet; Cheng, Yang-Tse

    2017-06-01

    We report a solvent-free dry powder coating process for making LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) positive electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. This process eliminates volatile organic compound emission and reduces thermal curing time from hours to minutes. A mixture of NMC, carbon black, and poly(vinylidene difluoride) was electrostatically sprayed onto an aluminum current collector, forming a uniformly distributed electrode with controllable thickness and porosity. Charge/discharge cycling of the dry-powder-coated electrodes in lithium-ion half cells yielded a discharge specific capacity of 155 mAh g-1 and capacity retention of 80% for more than 300 cycles when the electrodes were tested between 3.0 and 4.3 V at a rate of C/5. The long-term cycling performance and durability of dry-powder coated electrodes are similar to those made by the conventional wet slurry-based method. This solvent-free dry powder coating process is a potentially lower-cost, higher-throughput, and more environmentally friendly manufacturing process compared with the conventional wet slurry-based electrode manufacturing method.

  1. Practical Approaches to Green Solvents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joseph M. DeSimone

    2002-01-01

    Solvents are widely used in commercial manufacturing and service industries. Despite abundant precaution, they inevitably contaminate our air, land, and water because they are difficult to contain and recycle...

  2. Neural correlates of consciousness

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    consciousness depends on the formation of complex arrangements which ... as well as the involvement of memory in consciousness. 40 Hz synchronized .... the cortex, thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala.1 Spiking activity in cholinergic ...

  3. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to ...

  4. [Altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, E P

    2005-01-01

    The review of modern ideas concerning the altered states of consciousness is presented in this article. Various methods of entry into the altered states of consciousness are looked over. It is shown that the altered states of consciousness are insufficiently known, but important aspects of human being existence. The role of investigation of the altered states of consciousness for the creation of integrative scientific conception base is discussed.

  5. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science...

  6. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  7. Nonneurocognitive Extended Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Kevin; Chemero, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    One of the attributes necessary for Watson to be considered human is that it must be conscious. From Rachlin's (2012) point of view, that of teleological behaviorism, consciousness refers to the organization of behavioral complexity in which overt behavior is distributed widely over time. Consciousness is something that humans do, or achieve, in…

  8. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    changes or to abandon the strong identity thesis altogether. Were one to pursue a theory according to which consciousness is not an epiphenomenon to brain processes, consciousness may in fact affect its own neural basis. The neural correlate of consciousness is often seen as a stable structure, that is...

  9. Acute loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tristán, Bekinschtein; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Manes, Facundo

    2015-01-01

    Acute loss of consciousness poses a fascinating scenario for theoretical and clinical research. This chapter introduces a simple yet powerful framework to investigate altered states of consciousness. We then explore the different disorders of consciousness that result from acute brain injury, and techniques used in the acute phase to predict clinical outcome in different patient populations in light of models of acute loss of consciousness. We further delve into post-traumatic amnesia as a model for predicting cognitive sequels following acute loss of consciousness. We approach the study of acute loss of consciousness from a theoretical and clinical perspective to conclude that clinicians in acute care centers must incorporate new measurements and techniques besides the classic coma scales in order to assess their patients with loss of consciousness.

  10. Consciousness and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Francesco, Michele

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I argue that, even though there is no doubt that to understand consciousness we have to understand the brain, the idea that a complete understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of human consciousness might derive from neuroscience alone is more disputable. Major progress in our understanding of the phenomenon of consciousness can certainly derive from neuroscience, but, as far as human consciousness is concerned, the thesis that since consciousness starts as a biological reality the proper locus of its analysis and explanation lies in neuroscience encounters serious difficulties. In particular, any theory of human consciousness that entails an explanation of the genesis and the nature of the subject of experience would require reference to social and cultural phenomena as well as to biological phenomena: the science of human consciousness, then, cannot avoid being intrinsically pluralistic in character.

  11. Attention and Olfactory Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eKeller

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the relation between attention and consciousness is an important part of our understanding of consciousness. Attention, unlike consciousness, can be systematically manipulated in psychophysical experiments and a law-like relation between attention and consciousness is waiting to be discovered. Most attempts to discover the nature of this relation are focused on a special type of attention: spatial visual attention. In this review I want to introduce another type of attention to the discussion: attention to the olfactory modality. I will first clarify the position of attention to smells in a general taxonomy of attention. I will then review the mechanisms and neuroanatomy of attention and consciousness in the olfactory system before using the newly introduced system to provide evidence that attention is necessary for consciousness.

  12. The Science of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    We not only act in the world but we consciously perceive it. The interactions of myriad of neuronal and sub-neuronal processes that are responsible for visual behaviors also give rise to the daily movie screened for our benefit in the privacy of our own skull. I will discuss the empirical progress that has been achieved over the past several decades in characterizing the behavioral and the neuronal correlates of consciousness in human and non-human animals and in dissociating selective visual attention from visual consciousness. I will introduce Tononi’s integrated Information Theory (IIT) that explains in a principled manner which physical systems are capable of conscious, subjective experience. The theory explains many empirical facts about consciousness and its pathologies in humans. It can also be extrapolated to more difficult cases, such as fetuses, mice, or bees. The theory predicts that many, seemingly complex, systems are not conscious, in particular digital computers running software, even if thes...

  13. Neural correlates of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrao, B L; Viljoen, M

    2009-11-01

    A basic understanding of consciousness and its neural correlates is of major importance for all clinicians, especially those involved with patients with altered states of consciousness. In this paper it is shown that consciousness is dependent on the brainstem and thalamus for arousal; that basic cognition is supported by recurrent electrical activity between the cortex and the thalamus at gamma band frequencies; aand that some kind of working memory must, at least fleetingly, be present for awareness to occur. The problem of cognitive binding and the role of attention are briefly addressed and it shown that consciousness depends on a multitude of subconscious processes. Although these processes do not represent consciousness, consciousness cannot exist without them.

  14. Consciousness: a neurological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Shah, Sachin; Eddy, Clare M; Williams, Adrian; Rickards, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  15. Consciousness: A Neurological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E. Cavanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking.

  16. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  17. The sense of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, A S

    2001-08-21

    I propose that consciousness might be understood as the property of a system that functions as a sense in the biological meaning of that term. The theory assumes that, as a complex system, the sense of consciousness is not a fixed structure but implies structure with variations and that it evolved, as many new functions do, through the integration of simpler systems. The recognized exteroceptive and enteroceptive senses provide information about the organism's environment and about the organism itself that are important to adaptation. The sense of consciousness provides information about the brain and thus about the organism and its environment. It senses other senses and processes in the brain, selecting and relating components into a form that "makes sense"-where making sense is defined as being useful to the organism in its adaptation to the environment. The theory argues that this highly adaptive organizing function evolved with the growing complexity of the brain and that it might have helped resolve discrepancies created at earlier stages. Neural energies in the brain that are the input to the sense of consciousness, along with the processing subsystem of which they are a part, constitute the base of consciousness. Consciousness itself is an emergent effect of an organizing process achieved through the sense of consciousness. The sense of consciousness thus serves an organizing function although it is not the only means of organization in the brain. Its uniqueness lies in the character of the organization it creates with consciousness as a property of that organization. The paper relates the theory to several general conceptions-interactionism, epiphenomenalism and identity theory-and illustrates a number of testable hypotheses. Viewing consciousness as a property of a sense provides a degree of conceptual integration. Much of what we know about the evolution and role of the conventionally recognized senses should help us understand the evolution and role of

  18. Design of Measurement on the Level of Patent Consciousness System--Taking Chongqing Manufacturing Enterprise as an Example%专利意识水平测评指标体系设计——以重庆市制造业企业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许幸荣; 司有和

    2011-01-01

    Based on the theory of patent consciousness, the selection of measurement target and the principle of measurement system construction, against the status of Chongqing manufacturing enterprises, the authors put forward a measurement on the level of patent consciousness system of enterprises and designs the data acquisition method of every indicator. The measurement and evaluating system consists of three first level indicators ,10 second level indicators and 30 third level indicators. The measurement and evaluating system can help evaluate the level of the manufacturing enterprises seriously, and can be used by the enterprise managers to make decision.%在有关专利意识的理论、测评目标选择、指标体系构建原则研究的基础上,基于重庆市制造业企业的现状,提出一个由3个一级指标、10个二级指标和30个三级指标组成的企业专利意识水平测评指标体系,并设计每个测评指标数据的采集方法。利用该测评指标体系,可以科学地评价企业专利意识水平的高低,为企业管理者提供决策参考。

  19. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askenasy, Jean; Lehmann, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain? The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent. We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention, e.g., by cognitive training.

  20. Consciousness, brain, neuroplasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Marcel Askenasy

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Subjectivity, intentionality, self-awareness and will are major components of consciousness in human beings. Changes in consciousness and its content following different brain processes and malfunction have long been studied. Cognitive sciences assume that brain activities have an infrastructure, but there is also evidence that consciousness itself may change this infrastructure. The two-way influence between brain and consciousness has been at the center of philosophy and less so, of science. This so-called bottom-up and top-down interrelationship is controversial and is the subject of our article. We would like to ask: how does it happen that consciousness may provoke structural changes in the brain?The living brain means continuous changes at the synaptic level with every new experience, with every new process of learning, memorizing or mastering new and existing skills. Synapses are generated and dissolved, while others are preserved, in an ever-changing process of so-called neuroplasticity. Ongoing processes of synaptic reinforcements and decay occur during wakefulness when consciousness is present, but also during sleep when it is mostly absent.We suggest that consciousness influences brain neuroplasticity both during wakefulness as well as sleep in a top-down way. This means that consciousness really activates synaptic flow and changes brain structures and functional organization. The dynamic impact of consciousness on brain never stops despite the relative stationary structure of the brain. Such a process can be a target for medical intervention e.g. by cognitive training.

  1. Collective Consciousness and Idealist Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Randrup, Dr. Axel

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Descriptions of publications on collective consciousness, collective conscious experience, and idealist philosophy by Axel Randrup. The recognition of collective consciousness overcomes the problem of solipsism, which has been seen as an argument against idealist philosophy.

  2. The evolution of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-08-16

    It is argued that the principles of classical physics are inimical to the development of an adequate science of consciousness. The problem is that insofar as the classical principles are valid consciousness can have no effect on the behavior, and hence on the survival prospects, of the organisms in which it inheres. Thus within the classical framework it is not possible to explain in natural terms the development of consciousness to the high-level form found in human beings. In quantum theory, on the other hand, consciousness can be dynamically efficacious: quantum theory does allow consciousness to influence behavior, and thence to evolve in accordance with the principles of natural selection. However, this evolutionary requirement places important constraints upon the details of the formulation of the quantum dynamical principles.

  3. Neural Darwinism and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anil K; Baars, Bernard J

    2005-03-01

    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the 'dynamic core'). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized properties of consciousness, both physiological (for example, consciousness is associated with widespread, relatively fast, low amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical system), and phenomenal (for example, consciousness involves the existence of a private flow of events available only to the experiencing subject). While no theory accounts fully for all of these properties at present, we find that ND and its recent extensions fare well.

  4. Consciousness and psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryle, A

    1994-06-01

    The origins and resistance to change of neurotic procedures are considered with particular reference to the nature and role of consciousness. It is argued that the traditional opposition between conscious and unconscious systems provides an unsatisfactory model. The crucial role of language in the formation of human self-consciousness is emphasized. The restricted procedural repertoire of neurotic subjects, and their deficient self-consciousness, can be attributed to a number of factors. It is argued that the main use of consciousness in therapy should be to heighten the patient's awareness of his or her damaging or restricting procedural repertoire through the process of reformulation, which allows recognition, and in due course revision to be achieved.

  5. Inner Consciousness Tindakan Nabi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Helmi Umam

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is written to examine deeds and actions of the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him within inner consciousness analysis of Husserl’s phenomenology. The article is formulated to explore the significance of phenomenology of religious study, Prophet’s deeds as well as his inner consciousness, and inner consciousness analysis of Prophet’s deeds. This article is written using phenomenological method, i.e. a comprehensive interpretation about the source of information or object’s phenomenon as long as it can be traced. Inner consciousness of Prophet’s actions sees that his deeds in deciding important religious pronouncements were results of long-term memory based on divine and social argumentations, which have came into Prophet’s consciousness as a human.

  6. Consciousness in dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, David; Gover, Tzivia

    2010-01-01

    This chapter argues that dreaming is an important state of consciousness and that it has many features that complement consciousness in the wake state. The chapter discusses consciousness in dreams and how it comes about. It discusses the changes that occur in the neuromodulatory environment and in the neuronal connectivity of the brain as we fall asleep and begin our night journeys. Dreams evolve from internal sources though the dream may look different than any one of these since something entirely new may emerge through self-organizing processes. The chapter also explores characteristics of dreaming consciousness such as acceptance of implausibility and how that might lead to creative insight. Examples of studies, which have shown creativity in dream sleep, are provided to illustrate important characteristics of dreaming consciousness. The chapter also discusses the dream body and how it relates to our consciousness while dreaming. Differences and similarities between wake, lucid, non-lucid and day dreaming are explored and the chapter concludes with a discussion on what we can learn from each of these expressions of consciousness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consciousness during dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicogna, P C; Bosinelli, M

    2001-03-01

    Two aspects of consciousness are first considered: consciousness as awareness (phenomenological meaning) and consciousness as strategic control (functional meaning). As to awareness, three types can be distinguished: first, awareness as the phenomenal experiences of objects and events; second, awareness as meta-awareness, i.e., the awareness of mental life itself; third, awareness as self-awareness, i.e., the awareness of being oneself. While phenomenal experience and self-awareness are usually present during dreaming (even if many modifications are possible), meta-awareness is usually absent (apart from some particular experiences of self-reflectiveness) with the major exception of lucid dreaming. Consciousness as strategic control may also be present in dreams. The functioning of consciousness is then analyzed, following a cognitive model of dream production. In such a model, the dream is supposed to be the product of the interaction of three components: (a) the bottom-up activation of mnemonic elements coming from LTM systems, (b) interpretative and elaborative top-down processes, and (c) monitoring of phenomenal experience. A feedback circulation is activated among the components, where the top-down interpretative organization and the conscious monitoring of the oneiric scene elicitates other mnemonic contents, according to the requirements of the dream plot. This dream productive activity is submitted to unconscious and conscious processes. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  8. From cholesterol to consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torday, John S

    2017-08-19

    The nature of consciousness has been debated for centuries. It can be understood as part and parcel of the natural progression of life from unicellular to multicellular, calcium fluxes mediating communication within and between cells. Consciousness is the vertical integration of calcium fluxes, mediated by the Target of Rapamycin gene integrated with the cytoskeleton. The premise of this paper is that there is a fundamental physiologic integration of the organism with the environment that constitutes consciousness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Selection and design of solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    . With increasing interest on issues such as waste, sustainability, environmental impact and green chemistry, the selection and design of solvents have become important problems that need to be addressed during chemical product-process design and development. Systematic methods and tools suitable for selection......Solvents are liquid solutions consisting of one or more chemicals. They have a very wide use and their use is not necessarily restricted to the process industries. This lecture will discuss the different roles and uses of solvents in chemical products and processes that manufacture them...... and design of solvents will be presented together with application examples. The selection problem is defined as finding known chemicals that match the desired functions of a solvent for a specified set of applications. The design problem is defined as finding the molecular structure (or mixture of molecules...

  10. Logical Evaluation of Consciousness: For Incorporating Consciousness into Machine Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Machine Consciousness is the study of consciousness in a biological, philosophical, mathematical and physical perspective and designing a model that can fit into a programmable system architecture. Prime objective of the study is to make the system architecture behave consciously like a biological model does. Present work has developed a feasible definition of consciousness, that characterizes consciousness with four parameters i.e., parasitic, symbiotic, self referral and reproduction. Prese...

  11. Are We Explaining Consciousness Yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Daniel

    2001-01-01

    Maintains that theorists are converging on a version of the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, but that there are residual confusions to be dissolved. Asserts that global accessibility is not the "cause" of consciousness, it "is" consciousness. Argues that like fame, consciousness is not a momentary condition or…

  12. Evolution of consciousness.

    OpenAIRE

    Eccles, J C

    1992-01-01

    The hypothesis of the origin of consciousness is built upon the unique properties of the mammalian neocortex. The apical dendrites of the pyramidal cells bundle together as they ascend to lamina I to form neural receptor units of approximately 100 apical dendrites plus branches receiving hundreds of thousands of excitatory synapses, the collective assemblage being called a dendron. It is proposed that the whole world of consciousness, the mental world, is microgranular, with mental units call...

  13. Attention Networks and Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael ePosner

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The term consciousness is an important one in the vernacular of the western literature in many fields. It is no wonder that scientists have assumed that consciousness will be found as a component of the human brain and that we will come to understand its neural basis. However, there is rather little in common between consciousness as the neurologist would use it to diagnose the vegetative state, how the feminist would use it to support raising male consciousness of the economic plight of women and as the philosopher would use it when defining the really hard question of the subjective state of awareness induced by sensory qualities. When faced with this kind of problem it is usual to subdivide the term into more manageable perhaps partly operational definitions. Three meanings that capture aspects of consciousness are: (1 the neurology of the state of mind allowing coherent orientation to time and place (2 the selection of sensory or memorial information for awareness and (3 the voluntary control over overt responses. In each of these cases the mechanisms of consciousness overlap with one or more of the attentional networks that have been studied with the methods of cognitive neuroscience. In this paper we explore t

  14. Neuroimaging of consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuropsychiatry; UCL Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom). Sobell Dept. of Motor, Neuroscience and Movement Disorders; Nani, Andrea [Birmingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Research Group BSMHFT; Blumenfeld, Hal [Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT (United States). Depts. of Neurology, Neurobiology and Neurosurgery; Laureys, Steven (ed.) [Liege Univ. (Belgium). Cyclotron Research Centre

    2013-07-01

    An important reference work on a multidisciplinary and rapidly expanding area. Particular focus on the relevance of neuroimaging for the diagnosis and treatment of common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness. Written by world-class experts in the field. Relevant for clinicians, researchers, and scholars across different specialties. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This book presents the state of the art in neuroimaging exploration of the brain correlates of the alterations in consciousness across these conditions, with a particular focus on the potential applications for diagnosis and management. Although the book has a practical approach and is primarily targeted at neurologists, neuroradiologists, and psychiatrists, a wide range of researchers and health care professionals will find it an essential reference that explains the significance of neuroimaging of consciousness for clinical practice. Within the field of neuroscience, the past few decades have witnessed an exponential growth of research into the brain mechanisms underlying both normal and pathological states of consciousness in humans. The development of sophisticated imaging techniques (above all fMRI and PET) to visualize and map brain activity in vivo has opened new avenues in our understanding of the pathological processes involved in common neuropsychiatric disorders affecting consciousness, such as epilepsy, coma, vegetative states, dissociative disorders, and dementia. This

  15. Biological Treatment of Solvent-Based Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    solvent. In addition, hydrocarbon mixtures, aromatic hydrocarbon, and Medium Aliphatic Solvent Naphtha are descriptors used by the manufactures to...Enamel Aromatic Hydrocarbon 14 Mineral Spirits 10 Naphtha 10 Ethyl Benzene 0.21 Xylene 1.0 Sherwin Williams Co Enamel Mineral Spirits 49...Solvent Naphtha 31.5 Non-hazardous Ingredients 68 Parker Paints Enamel Mineral Spirits 17 Naphtha 7 Aromatic Hydrocarbons 3 1,2,4

  16. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  17. Consciousness CLEARS the mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossberg, Stephen

    2007-11-01

    A full understanding of consciousness requires that we identify the brain processes from which conscious experiences emerge. What are these processes, and what is their utility in supporting successful adaptive behaviors? Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) predicted a functional link between processes of Consciousness, Learning, Expectation, Attention, Resonance and Synchrony (CLEARS), including the prediction that "all conscious states are resonant states". This connection clarifies how brain dynamics enable a behaving individual to autonomously adapt in real time to a rapidly changing world. The present article reviews theoretical considerations that predicted these functional links, how they work, and some of the rapidly growing body of behavioral and brain data that have provided support for these predictions. The article also summarizes ART models that predict functional roles for identified cells in laminar thalamocortical circuits, including the six layered neocortical circuits and their interactions with specific primary and higher-order specific thalamic nuclei and nonspecific nuclei. These predictions include explanations of how slow perceptual learning can occur without conscious awareness, and why oscillation frequencies in the lower layers of neocortex are sometimes slower beta oscillations, rather than the higher-frequency gamma oscillations that occur more frequently in superficial cortical layers. ART traces these properties to the existence of intracortical feedback loops, and to reset mechanisms whereby thalamocortical mismatches use circuits such as the one from specific thalamic nuclei to nonspecific thalamic nuclei and then to layer 4 of neocortical areas via layers 1-to-5-to-6-to-4.

  18. The Conscious Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the evolutionary development of human consciousness and its increasingly complex and sophisticated organization as human personality from the instinctive behavior of the animal and the subconscious conformity characteristic of early forms of human civilization through progressive stages of transition from physical to social to mental levels of awareness and from the undifferentiated social consciousness of the member of the tribe to the emergence of independent thinking, creativity and uniqueness, which characterize the Conscious Individual. The individual and the collective evolve in tandem. The collective imparts its acquired capacities to its members. The emerging individual acts as a catalyst to spur further development of the collective. Each stage of the journey is the same in essence and structure at progressively higher levels of consciousness and organization. The higher the level achieved by the collective in terms of quality and complexity, the greater the knowledge and organization demanded of the individual. The article ends by cataloging crucial points at which modern society is mired in outmoded conceptions, superstitious beliefs, pre-modern values and archaic institutions that obstruct humanity’s further evolution from problems and limitations to ever-expanding opportunities. The conscious individual is the key to that process.

  19. Cajal and consciousness. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijuán, P C

    2001-04-01

    One hundred years after Santiago Ramón Cajal established the bases of modern neuroscience in his masterpiece Textura del sistema nervioso del hombre y de los vertebrados, the question is stated again: What is the status of consciousness today? The responses in this book, by contemporary leading figures of neuroscience, evolution, molecular biology, computer science, and quantum physics, collectively compose a fascinating conceptual landscape. Both the evolutionary emergence of consciousness and its development towards the highest level may be analyzed by a wealth of new theories and hypotheses, including Cajal's prescient ones. Some noticeable gaps remain, however. Celebrating the centennial of Textura is a timely occasion to reassess how close--and how far--our system of the sciences is to explaining consciousness.

  20. [Consciousness and emotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carton, Solange

    2007-12-01

    This article focuses on the processes that lead to awareness of our own emotions, which deserve particular attention in contemporary models of emotional consciousness. The subjective component of emotion, or emotional experience, was for a long time the most neglected aspect in the study of emotions although it already constituted the initial point of discussion in the famous William James still asked question : What is an emotion? More than a century later, contemporary theories debate about this heritage. We examine the successive historic contributions to the question of the determinants of our own emotional experience: from James-Lange bodily changes to cognitive appraisal theories, also relating the major role that the fundamental emotions theory attributed to facial expressions. Twenty years after the debate about primacy of cognition or emotion, both physiological-somatic and cognitive components are integrated in contemporary approaches to emotions. However, their respective degree of implication varies according to the different levels of emotional consciousness which are modelized. It is on the last level that present models focus, level that leads to consciousness of our emotional experience, benefiting from the contributions of cognitive neurosciences. Models differ according to the role devoted to neuronal substrates in determining emotional experience, but they converge on the specification of a last level of consciousness, which is the only one that allows the subject to be conscious of emotion as it is experienced (feeling) and that what he is experiencing is an emotion. Then, different models of emotional consciousness account for different varieties of emotion experience and also for various cases of emotions, that is occurrence of emotion with a lack of awareness.

  1. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  2. Logical Evaluation of Consciousness: For Incorporating Consciousness into Machine Architecture

    CERN Document Server

    Padhy, C N

    2010-01-01

    Machine Consciousness is the study of consciousness in a biological, philosophical, mathematical and physical perspective and designing a model that can fit into a programmable system architecture. Prime objective of the study is to make the system architecture behave consciously like a biological model does. Present work has developed a feasible definition of consciousness, that characterizes consciousness with four parameters i.e., parasitic, symbiotic, self referral and reproduction. Present work has also developed a biologically inspired consciousness architecture that has following layers: quantum layer, cellular layer, organ layer and behavioral layer and traced the characteristics of consciousness at each layer. Finally, the work has estimated physical and algorithmic architecture to devise a system that can behave consciously.

  3. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...

  4. The birth of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2009-10-01

    Newborn infants fulfil some criteria of being conscious i.e. being aware of the body, the self and the world. They are able to differentiate between self and nonself touch, express emotions and show signs of shared feelings. They process sensory impressions including pain at a cortical level. They remember rhythmic sounds and vowels which they have been exposed to during fetal life. The spontaneous resting activity discovered in the cortex of newborn infants may correspond to what William James called "the stream of consciousness".

  5. Consciousness in the Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalil Chamcham

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available So far we can identify at least three concepts within modern cosmology that bring into debate the question of consciousness in the universe: 1 Fine Tuning; 2 The Anthropic Principle and 3 The Multiverse. This does not exclude the question of the role of observer (i.e. consciousness in cosmology as developed within Quantum Physics: we observe the universe through quanta and any breakthrough in understanding the origin and nature of the universe will come only through a quantum theory of gravity […

  6. Consciousness and stereoscopic environmental imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Steve

    2014-02-01

    The question of human consciousness has intrigued philosophers and scientists for centuries: its nature, how we perceive our environment, how we think, our very awareness of thought and self. It has been suggested that stereoscopic vision is "a paradigm of how the mind works" 1 In depth perception, laws of perspective are known, reasoned, committed to memory from an early age; stereopsis, on the other hand, is a 3D experience governed by strict laws but actively joined within the brain―one sees it without explanation. How do we, in fact, process two different images into one 3D module within the mind and does an awareness of this process give us insight into the workings of our own consciousness? To translate this idea to imaging I employed ChromaDepth™ 3D glasses that rely on light being refracted in a different direction for each eye―colors of differing wavelengths appearing at varying distances from the viewer resulting in a 3D space. This involves neither calculation nor manufacture of two images or views. Environmental spatial imaging was developed―a 3D image was generated that literally surrounds the viewer. The image was printed and adhered to a semi-circular mount; the viewer then entered the interior to experience colored shapes suspended in a 3D space with an apparent loss of surface, or picture plane, upon which the image is rendered. By focusing our awareness through perception-based imaging we are able to gain a deeper understanding of how the brain works, how we see.

  7. Chronic disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiuyou; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Yu, Ronghao; Li, Yuanqing; Huang, Ruiwang

    2017-08-01

    Over the last 20 years, studies have provided greater insight into disorders of consciousness (DOC), also known as altered state of consciousness. Increased brain residual functions have been identified in patients with DOC due to the successful application of novel next-generation imaging technologies. Many unconscious patients have now been confirmed to retain considerable cognitive functions. It is hoped that greater insight regarding the psychological state of patients may be achieved through the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging and brain-computer interfaces. However, issues surrounding the research and treatment of DOC remain problematic. These include differing opinions on the definition of consciousness, difficulties in diagnosis, assessment, prognosis and/or treatment, and newly emerging ethical, legal and social issues. To overcome these, appropriate care must be offered to patients with DOC by clinicians and families, as DOC patients may now be considered to live in more than just a vegetative state. The present article reviews the controversy surrounding the definition of consciousness and the reliability of novel technologies, prognostic prediction, communication with DOC patients and treatment methods. The ethical and social issues surrounding the treatment of DOC and future perspectives are also considered.

  8. Cybernetics and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabka, J

    1999-01-01

    This paper is a review of hypotheses of consciousness which arose from application of the theory of information and regulation and the cybernetic theory of mathematical machines in medicine. The author presents these hypotheses on the examples of his own works.

  9. Consciousness and biological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, B I

    1997-08-21

    It has been suggested that if the preservation and development of consciousness in the biological evolution is a result of natural selection, it is plausible that consciousness not only has been influenced by neural processes, but has had a survival value itself; and it could only have had this, if it had also been efficacious. This argument for mind-brain interaction is examined, both as the argument has been developed by William James and Karl Popper and as it has been discussed by C.D. Broad. The problem of identifying mental phenomena with certain neural phenomena is also addressed. The main conclusion of the analysis is that an explanation of the evolution of consciousness in Darwinian terms of natural selection does not rule out that consciousness may have evolved as a mere causally inert effect of the evolution of the nervous system, or that mental phenomena are identical with certain neural phenomena. However, the interactionistic theory still seems, more plausible and more fruitful for other reasons brought up in the discussion.

  10. Consciousness and the Brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Josef; Damasio, Antonio

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes a theoretical framework and set of hypotheses aimed at accounting for consciousness in neurobiological terms. Discusses the functional neuroanatomy of nuclei in the brainstem reticular formation. Notes that the views presented are compatible with the idea that the reticular formation modulates the electrophysiological activity of the…

  11. The mystery of consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, John R

    1997-01-01

    It has long been one of the most fundamental problems of philosophy, and it is now, John Searle writes, "the most important problem in the biological sciences": What is consciousness? Is my inner awareness of myself something separate from my body? In what began as a series of essays in The New York Review of Books, John Searle evaluates the positions on consciousness of such well-known scientists and philosophers as Francis Crick, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, Daniel Dennett, David Chalmers, and Israel Rosenfield. He challenges claims that the mind works like a computer, and that brain functions can be reproduced by computer programs. With a sharp eye for confusion and contradiction, he points out which avenues of current research are most likely to come up with a biological examination of how conscious states are caused by the brain. Only when we understand how the brain works will we solve the mystery of consciousness, and only then will we begin to understand issues ranging from artificial intelligence...

  12. Self-Consciousness and Reactance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.

    1981-01-01

    Two studies examined the effects of dispositional self-consciousness on reactance. Men who were high in private self-consciousness displayed greater reactance responses to a coercive communication attempt. Women high in private self-consciousness exhibited greater reactance responses to a self-imposed threat to their freedom of choice. (Author)

  13. The minimally conscious state: defining the borders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacino, J T

    2005-01-01

    There is no agreement as to where the limits of consciousness lie, or even if these putative borders exist. Problems inherent to the study of consciousness continue to confound efforts to establish a universally accepted theory of consciousness. Consequently, clinical definitions of consciousness and unconsciousness are unavoidably arbitrary. Recently, a condition of severely altered consciousness has been described, which characterizes the borderzone between the vegetative state and so-called "normal" consciousness. This condition, referred to as the minimally conscious state (MCS), is distinguished from the vegetative state by the presence of minimal but clearly discernible behavioral evidence of self or environmental awareness. This chapter reviews the diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology, prognostic relevance, neurobehavioral assessment procedures and treatment implications associated with MCS.

  14. [Functional pathophysiology of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinger, Kurt A

    2009-01-01

    Consciousness (Latin conscientia "moral conscience"), according to the English philosopher John Locke (1632-1704) [103], is the awareness of all that occurs in the mind of a person, whereas the American philosopher John Searle (2000) defined it as "inner qualitative, subjective states and processes of awareness". In modern science it is defined as a continuous state of full awareness of the Self and one's relationship to the external and internal environment, describing the degree of wakefulness in which an organism recognizes stimuli. This widely discussed biological term for complex neuronal processes that allow an individuum to recognize itself and its environment and to act accordingly, has been and still is the subject of much research in philosophy and natural/neuroscience. Its definition is often used for awareness and recognition, too. While the Egyptians in the papyrus Edwin Smith already recognized the brain as the seat of consciousness, René Descartes (1644 [36]) believed its special structure should be "a small gland in the middle", but the anatomical structures and physiological processes involved in consciousness were elucidated only in the middle of the 20th century. Neuronal substrates include several functional networks that are hierarchically organized and cooperate functionally. The lowest level is the mesencephalic formatio reticularis and its projections to the thalamus that were identified als ascending reticular system (ARAS) by the classical experiments of Moruzzi and Magoun, whereas later analyses of patients with impaired consciousness provided further insights. The mesencephalic ARAS as motor of the function of higher structures projects 1. via the reticular thalamus diffusely to the cortex, 2. via hypothalamus to the basal forebrain and limbic system, and 3. to the medial raphe of the brainstem and locus coeruleus and their diffuse cortical projections. The reticular system is stimulated directly and indirectly via numerous collaterals

  15. Are There Levels of Consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim; Hohwy, Jakob; Owen, Adrian M

    2016-06-01

    The notion of a level of consciousness is a key construct in the science of consciousness. Not only is the term employed to describe the global states of consciousness that are associated with post-comatose disorders, epileptic absence seizures, anaesthesia, and sleep, it plays an increasingly influential role in theoretical and methodological contexts. However, it is far from clear what precisely a level of consciousness is supposed to be. This paper argues that the levels-based framework for conceptualizing global states of consciousness is untenable and develops in its place a multidimensional account of global states. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining the states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, P; Muzet, A

    2001-03-01

    Consciousness remains an elusive concept due to the difficulty to define what has been regarded for many years as a subjective experience, therefore irrelevant for scientific study. Recent development in this field of research has allowed to provide some new insight to a possible way to define consciousness. Going through the extensive literature in this domain, several perspectives are proposed to define this concept. (1) Consciousness and Attention may not reflect the same process. (2) Consciousness during wake and sleep may not involve the same mechanisms. (3) Besides physiological states of consciousness, human beings can experience modified states of consciousness either by self-training (transcendental meditation, hypnosis, etc.) or by drug intake (hallucinogens, anaesthetics, etc.). Altogether, we address the question of a more precise terminology, given the theoretical weight words can convey. To this respect, we propose different definitions for concepts like consciousness, vigilance, arousal and alertness as candidates to separate functional entities.

  17. Perception, Action, and Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety of interdi......What is the relationship between perception and action, between an organism and its environment, in explaining consciousness? These are issues at the heart of philosophy of mind and the cognitive sciences. This book explores the relationship between perception and action from a variety...... of interdisciplinary perspectives, ranging from theoretical discussion of concepts to findings from recent scientific studies. It incorporates contributions from leading philosophers, psychologists, neuroscientists, and an artificial intelligence theorist. The contributions take a range of positions with respect...

  18. The rise of machine consciousness: studying consciousness with computational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggia, James A

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to create computational models of consciousness have accelerated over the last two decades, creating a field that has become known as artificial consciousness. There have been two main motivations for this controversial work: to develop a better scientific understanding of the nature of human/animal consciousness and to produce machines that genuinely exhibit conscious awareness. This review begins by briefly explaining some of the concepts and terminology used by investigators working on machine consciousness, and summarizes key neurobiological correlates of human consciousness that are particularly relevant to past computational studies. Models of consciousness developed over the last twenty years are then surveyed. These models are largely found to fall into five categories based on the fundamental issue that their developers have selected as being most central to consciousness: a global workspace, information integration, an internal self-model, higher-level representations, or attention mechanisms. For each of these five categories, an overview of past work is given, a representative example is presented in some detail to illustrate the approach, and comments are provided on the contributions and limitations of the methodology. Three conclusions are offered about the state of the field based on this review: (1) computational modeling has become an effective and accepted methodology for the scientific study of consciousness, (2) existing computational models have successfully captured a number of neurobiological, cognitive, and behavioral correlates of conscious information processing as machine simulations, and (3) no existing approach to artificial consciousness has presented a compelling demonstration of phenomenal machine consciousness, or even clear evidence that artificial phenomenal consciousness will eventually be possible. The paper concludes by discussing the importance of continuing work in this area, considering the ethical issues it raises

  19. The Impaired Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Docu Any Axelerad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The ”persistent vegetative state” (PVS has the main attention for us in identifying the examples of consciousness that suffer structural injury. PVS is a state that the patient has the ability to open eyes spontaneously, but without responses to threat, verbalization or other pain defend. Several factors that lead to such state, among which the use of drugs is mostly researched, prolong impaired consciousness as a clinical and personal judgment of this condition. The patients with comatose from a destructive structural injury never regain the conscious state due to widespread structural damage. Any clinical review on this is based on bodily changes observation with impact on the clinical diagnosis of prolonged comatose states as largely descriptive. Eye movements need the most attention because its response to approaching objects distinguishes between a PVS (inconsistent or absent, akinetic mutism (no stacking but spontaneous focusing on moving targets, and MCS (always present. Distinguish between this three conditions needs an interdisciplinary intervention (neurologist or rehabilitation physicians.

  20. [Self-consciousness, consciousness of the other and dementias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Roger

    2007-06-01

    Studies of self-consciousness in dementia concern essentially anosognosia or the loss of insight. However, Self-consciousness is multifaceted: it includes awareness of the body, perceptions, one's own history, identity, and one's own projects. Self-consciousness is linked to consciousness of others i.e. to social cognition supported by identification of others, but also by comprehension of facial expression of emotions, comprehension and expression of emotional prosody, pragmatic abilities, ability to infer other's people's mental states, thoughts, and feelings (theory of mind and empathy), knowledge of social norms and rules, social reasoning. The subtypes of dementias (and namely Alzheimer's disease and frontotemporal dementia) affect heterogeneously the different aspects of the self-and other-consciousness. Further studies are needed for a better knowledge of the complex relationship between Self-consciousness, social cognition, decision making and neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioral disturbances occurring in demented patients.

  1. The Neurogenetic Correlates of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandy, John K.

    2013-09-01

    The neurogenetic correlates of consciousness (NgCC) is a new field of consciousness studies that focuses on genes that have an effect on or are involved in the continuum of neuron-based consciousness. A framework of consciousness based on the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) has already been established by Francis Crick and Christof Kock. In this work I propose that there are NgCC underlying the NCC which are both active during the conscious experience. So how are genes involved? There are two significant connections between DNA and neurons that are involved in the conscious experience. First, any brain system can be adversely affected by underlying genetic abnormalities which can be expressed in an individual at birth, in adulthood, or later in life. Second, the DNA molecule does not lay dormant while the neuron runs on autopilot. DNA is active in translating and transcribing RNA and protein products that are utilized during neuron functioning. Without these products being continuously produced by the DNA during a conscious experience the neurons would cease to function correctly and be rendered unable to provide a continuum of human consciousness. Consequently, in addition to NCC, NgCC must be factored in when appreciating a conscious event. In this work I will discuss and explain some NgCC citing several examples.

  2. Are we explaining consciousness yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, D

    2001-04-01

    Theorists are converging from quite different quarters on a version of the global neuronal workspace model of consciousness, but there are residual confusions to be dissolved. In particular, theorists must resist the temptation to see global accessibility as the cause of consciousness (as if consciousness were some other, further condition); rather, it is consciousness. A useful metaphor for keeping this elusive idea in focus is that consciousness is rather like fame in the brain. It is not a privileged medium of representation, or an added property some states have; it is the very mutual accessibility that gives some informational states the powers that come with a subject's consciousness of that information. Like fame, consciousness is not a momentary condition, or a purely dispositional state, but rather a matter of actual influence over time. Theorists who take on the task of accounting for the aftermath that is critical for consciousness often appear to be leaving out the Subject of consciousness, when in fact they are providing an analysis of the Subject, a necessary component in any serious theory of consciousness.

  3. The biological function of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This research is an investigation of whether consciousness—one's ongoing experience—influences one's behavior and, if so, how. Analysis of the components, structure, properties, and temporal sequences of consciousness has established that, (1) contrary to one's intuitive understanding, consciousness does not have an active, executive role in determining behavior; (2) consciousness does have a biological function; and (3) consciousness is solely information in various forms. Consciousness is associated with a flexible response mechanism (FRM) for decision-making, planning, and generally responding in nonautomatic ways. The FRM generates responses by manipulating information and, to function effectively, its data input must be restricted to task-relevant information. The properties of consciousness correspond to the various input requirements of the FRM; and when important information is missing from consciousness, functions of the FRM are adversely affected; both of which indicate that consciousness is the input data to the FRM. Qualitative and quantitative information (shape, size, location, etc.) are incorporated into the input data by a qualia array of colors, sounds, and so on, which makes the input conscious. This view of the biological function of consciousness provides an explanation why we have experiences; why we have emotional and other feelings, and why their loss is associated with poor decision-making; why blindsight patients do not spontaneously initiate responses to events in their blind field; why counter-habitual actions are only possible when the intended action is in mind; and the reason for inattentional blindness. PMID:25140159

  4. Impact of emotion on consciousness: positive stimuli enhance conscious reportability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Rømer Thomsen

    Full Text Available Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human

  5. a critical evaluation of motor vehicle manufacturing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor manufacturing, but the national technological consciousness based on policy thrust. Keywords: major units ... forms that has been variously modified using wood for trucks and ... After the Nigerian. Civil War in the early 1970s, some state.

  6. LEGAL CONSCIOUSNESS AND LEGAL CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    BOSHNO SVETLANA

    2016-01-01

    This chapter of the course manual in jurisprudence discloses the notion of legal consciousness. Comprehending law, legislation, principal state and legal institutes manifests itself in law enforcement. One shouldn't absolutize the role of legislation as it is, since it is only after texts of normative acts go through the prism of legal consciousness of the actor's personality, they convert into some behaviour patterns. Legal consciousness has a definite structure, it is divided into levels. L...

  7. Strategies for measuring machine consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The accurate measurement of the level of consciousness of a creature remains a major scientific challenge, nevertheless a number of new accounts that attempt to address this problem have been proposed recently. In this paper we analyze the principles of these new measures of consciousness along with other classical approaches focusing on their applicability to Machine Consciousness (MC). Furthermore, we propose a set of requirements of what we think a suitable measure for MC should be, discus...

  8. Study of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a powerful organ that controls most of the body. Researchers around the world have long tried to uncover how the brain operates, how memories are formed and stored. Our understanding of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease has been rapidly improving, yet much remains to be done. In this work, we attempt to study changes in intracranial pressure (ICP for a 12-hour period and discuss whether the resulting estimates could be used as a measure of consciousness.

  9. Consciousness -- A Verifiable Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchapakesan, N.

    2014-07-01

    Consciousness may or may not be completely within the realm of science. We have argued elsewhere that there is a high probability that it is not within the purview of science, just like humanities and arts are outside science. Even social sciences do not come under science when human interactions are involved. Here, we suggest a possible experiment to decide whether it is part of science. We suggest that a scientific signal may be available to investigate the prediction in the form of an electromagnetic brainwave background radiation.

  10. Behavioral Methods in Consciousness Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that the research literature has expanded greatly, particularly in cognitive neuroscience and cognitive science. Interestingly, this scientific work has made use of a wide variety of different methods without much consensus on how one might in fact measure subjective consciousness. This situation makes...... it potentially impossible to compare and contrast experimental findings, and difficult to show that consciousness research is a discipline going in a particular direction or has a particular focus. This book provides an overview of methods and approaches for studying consciousness. It aims to make progress...... giving concrete tools for how to investigate consciousness in combination with theoretical discussions of possibilities and limitations of each method...

  11. Basic consciousness of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    The newborn shows several signs of consciousness, such as being awake and aware of him/herself and mother. The infant processes olfactory and painful inputs in the cortex, where consciousness is believed to be localized. Furthermore, the newborn expresses primary emotions such as joy, disgust, and surprise and remember rhymes and vowels to which he or she has been exposed during fetal life. Thus, the newborn infant fulfills the criteria of displaying a basic level of consciousness, being aware of its body and him/her-self and somewhat about the external world. Preterm infants may be conscious to a limited degree from about 25 weeks, when the thalamocortical connections are established.

  12. Hallmarks of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ann B

    2012-01-01

    Consciousness, ranging from the primary, or perceptual, level to high levels that include a sense of self, can be identified in various organisms by a set of hallmarks that include behavioral, neural and phenomenal and/or informational. Behavioral hallmarks include those that indicate high cognitive abilities, such behavioral flexibility, verbal abilities, episodic memories, theory of mind, object constancy, transitive inference and multistability, all of which have been demonstrated in birds as well as in primates. Neural hallmarks include the thalamocortical model for mammals and similar circuitry in some nonmammalian taxa. Informational hallmarks include sensorimotor awareness, as provided by somatosensory and/or lateral line systems, which may form the basis for the sense of self and distinguishing self from nonself, as well as other sensory information, such as the richness and quantity of color and form information obtained by the visual system. The comparative method reveals a correlation of these different types of hallmarks with each other in their degree of development, which thus may be indicative of the level of consciousness present in a particular species.

  13. What is consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solms, M

    1997-01-01

    In the past few years scientists and scholars in a variety of disciplines have been making concerted efforts to answer an ancient question, namely, How exactly do the physical processes in the brain cause consciousness? What is distinctive about the way in which modern scientists and scholars are approaching this question is that they are treating it as a scientific problem rather than a metaphysical one. This transition reflects the air of expectation in contemporary cognitive science to the effect that an empirical solution is imminent to a philosophical problem that previously was considered insoluble. Nevertheless, a recent authoritative review of the publications of such leading contemporary workers in the field as Francis Crick, Daniel Dennett, Gerald Edelman, Roger Penrose, and Israel Rosenfield has concluded that they have all failed to provide a satisfactory answer to the question (Searle 1995a). The present paper makes a psychoanalytic contribution to this interdisciplinary effort and provides an alternative answer to the question, based on Freud's conceptualization of the problem of consciousness. The paper takes a concrete example from Searle's review, reanalyses it within Freud's metapsychological frame of reference, and shows how this frame provides a radical solution to the problem. This implication of Freud's work has not hitherto been recognized and so has not received the attention it deserves.

  14. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian K; Frokjaer, Vibe G;

    2016-01-01

    were insufficient for statistical evaluation. In conclusion, active paradigms may underestimate the degree of consciousness as compared to passive paradigms. While MCS patients show signs of preserved consciousness more frequently in both paradigms, roughly 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis......Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG......, including command following (active paradigms), cortical functional connectivity elicited by external stimuli (passive paradigms) and default mode networks (resting state). Studies were selected from multiple indexing databases until February 2015 and evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic...

  15. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Adam Jonkisz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside, hierarchically referential (semantically ordered, bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system and useful in action (pragmatically functional, is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems, but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes. For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered and private, whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  16. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself.

  17. Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Gallotto

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC. Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power, and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques allow us to study the causal role of oscillatory activity in conscious perception (i.e., ‘entrainment’. This review of oscillatory correlates of consciousness suggests that, for example, activity in the alpha-band (7–13 Hz may index, or even causally support, conscious perception. But such results also showcase an increasingly acknowledged difficulty in NCC research; the challenge of separating neural activity necessary for conscious experience to arise (prerequisites from neural activity underlying the conscious experience itself (substrates or its results (consequences.

  18. Oscillatory Correlates of Visual Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallotto, Stefano; Sack, Alexander T; Schuhmann, Teresa; de Graaf, Tom A

    2017-01-01

    Conscious experiences are linked to activity in our brain: the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC). Empirical research on these NCCs covers a wide range of brain activity signals, measures, and methodologies. In this paper, we focus on spontaneous brain oscillations; rhythmic fluctuations of neuronal (population) activity which can be characterized by a range of parameters, such as frequency, amplitude (power), and phase. We provide an overview of oscillatory measures that appear to correlate with conscious perception. We also discuss how increasingly sophisticated techniques allow us to study the causal role of oscillatory activity in conscious perception (i.e., 'entrainment'). This review of oscillatory correlates of consciousness suggests that, for example, activity in the alpha-band (7-13 Hz) may index, or even causally support, conscious perception. But such results also showcase an increasingly acknowledged difficulty in NCC research; the challenge of separating neural activity necessary for conscious experience to arise (prerequisites) from neural activity underlying the conscious experience itself (substrates) or its results (consequences).

  19. Female Consciousness in Jane Eyre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁存

    2014-01-01

    Charlotte Bront is a remarkable women writer in the 19th-century English literature. Jane Eyre received comprehensive attention. This thesis analyzes main characters from three aspects, Jane Eyre’s female consciousness, pursuit of equality, freedom and presents the limitation in Jane Eyre. It also examines the nature of Charlotte Bront?’s pioneering female consciousness and demonstrates its positive development.

  20. ELT and Consciousness-Raising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jardani, Khalid Salim Saif

    2012-01-01

    The paper highlights the concept of consciousness-raising. It relates it to different aspects of ELT such as explicit teaching, language awareness, language acquisition and practice. How these terms are related to the concept of consciousness-raising within the English Language teaching. Its main aim is to help learners to notice for themselves…

  1. The Emerging Physics of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Tuszynski, Jack A

    2006-01-01

    Consciousness remains one of the major unsolved problems in science. How do the feelings and sensations making up conscious experience arise from the concerted actions of nerve cells and their associated synaptic and molecular processes? Can such feelings be explained by modern science, or is there an entirely different kind of explanation needed? And how can this seemingly intractable problem be approached experimentally? How do the operations of the conscious mind emerge out of the specific interactions involving billions of neurons? This book seeks answers to these questions on the underlying assumption that consciousness can be understood using the intellectual potential of modern physics and other sciences. There are a number of theories of consciousness, some based on classical physics while others require the use of quantum concepts. The latter ones have drawn criticism from the parts of the scientific establishment while simultaneously claiming that classical approaches are doomed to failure. The cont...

  2. Impact of Emotion on Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kristine Rømer; Lou, Hans Olav Christensen; Jønsson, Morten

    2011-01-01

    showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs......) directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously) seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs...... after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies...

  3. [The "bright spot of consciousness"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonov, P V

    1990-01-01

    I.P. Pavlov considered consciousness as an area of optimum excitability moving over the human cerebral cortex depending on the character of performed mental activity. Contemporary methods of computer analysis of electrical activity and brain thermal production have allowed to turn this metaphor into experimentally observed reality. It is shown that preservation of connections of cortical gnostic zones with verbal structures of the left hemisphere is the obligatory condition for consciousness functioning. These data reinforce the determination of consciousness as operation with knowledge, which by means of words, mathematic symbols and art images can be transmitted to other people. Communicative origin of consciousness creates possibility of mental dialogue with oneself, i.e. leads to the appearance of self-consciousness of the personality.

  4. Conscience and consciousness: a definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithoulkas, G; Muresanu, D F

    2014-03-15

    While consciousness has been examined extensively in its different aspects, like in philosophy, psychiatry, neurophysiology, neuroplasticity, etc., conscience though it is an equal important aspect of the human existence, which remains an unknown to a great degree as an almost transcendental aspect of the human mind. It has not been examined as thoroughly as consciousness and largely remains a "terra incognita" for its neurophysiology, brain topography, etc. Conscience and consciousness are part of a system of information that governs our experience and decision making process. The intent of this paper is to define these terms, to discuss about consciousness from both neurological and quantum physics point of view, the relationship between the dynamics of consciousness and neuroplasticity and to highlight the relationship between conscience, stress and health.

  5. Green-solvent-processable organic solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoqing Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Solution-processable organic photovoltaics (OPV has emerged as a promising clean energy-generating technology due to its potential for low-cost manufacturing with a high power/weight ratio. The state-of-the-art OPV devices are processed by hazardous halogenated solvents. Fabricating high-efficiency OPV devices using greener solvents is a necessary step toward their eventual commercialization. In this review, recent research efforts and advances in green-solvent-processable OPVs are summarized, and two basic strategies including material design and solvent selection of light-harvesting layers are discussed. In particular, the most recent green-solvent-processable OPVs with high efficiencies in excess of 9% are highlighted.

  6. Declarative Consciousness for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Leslie G.

    2013-12-01

    Existing information technology tools are harnessed and integrated to provide digital specification of human consciousness of individual persons. An incremental compilation technology is proposed as a transformation of LifeLog derived persona specifications into a Canonical representation of the neocortex architecture of the human brain. The primary purpose is to gain an understanding of the semantical allocation of the neocortex capacity. Novel neocortex content allocation simulators with browsers are proposed to experiment with various approaches of relieving the brain from overload conditions. An IT model of the neocortex is maintained, which is then updated each time new stimuli are received from the LifeLog data stream; new information is gained from brain signal measurements; and new functional dependencies are discovered between live persona consumed/produced signals

  7. What explains consciousness? Or…What consciousness explains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulany, Donelson E

    2014-01-01

    In this invited commentary I focus on the topic addressed in three papers: De Sousa's (2013[1617]) Toward an Integrative Theory of Consciousness, a monograph with Parts 1 & 2, as well as commentaries by Pereira (2013a[59]) and Hirstein (2013[42]). All three are impressively scholarly and can stand-and shout-on their own. But theory of consciousness? My aim is to slice that topic into the two fundamentally different kinds of theories of consciousness, say what appears to be an ideology, out of behaviourism into cognitivism, now also influencing the quest for an "explanation of consciousness" in cognitive neuroscience. I will then say what can be expected given what we know of the complexity of brain structure, the richness of a conscious "vocabulary", and current technological limits of brain imaging. This will then turn to the strategy for examining "what consciousness explains"-metatheory, theories, mappings, and a methodology of competitive support, a methodology especially important where there are competing commitments. There are also increasingly common identifications of methodological bias in, along with failures to replicate, studies reporting unconscious controls in decision, social priming-as there have been in perception, learning, problem solving, etc. The literature critique has provided evidence taken as reducing, and in some cases eliminating, a role for conscious controls-a position consistent with that ideology out of behaviourism into cognitivism. It is an ideological position that fails to recognize the fundamental distinction between theoretical and metaphysical assertions.

  8. [Brain and consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Molina, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    The philosophical and biological concepts of consciousness are briefly reviewed, from Aristoteles to Descartes to the modern neurobiologist of the last 15 years. The CRICK's corticothalamic integration view, the Edelman's primary and higher order consciousness concept as well as the Edelman and Tononi's dynamic core concept were discussed. Then the corticothalamic resonance theory by Llinás was reported. Central to Llinás's theory is the existence of electrical intrinsic properties of neurones in the central nervous system that allows them to oscillate at different frequencies and if the membrane properties are suitable also to resonate at specific frequencies. From this oscillation and the neuronal connectivity result the corticothalamic dynamic loops specific and non specific. The dynamic corticothalamic loop of the specific thalamic nuclei connect directly as well as through the inhibitory interneurones in layer 4, with the pyramids in layer 5 and 6. The pyramids's rhythmic discharge excite the thalamic specific neurones and indirectly through the reticular neurones a rebound burst is also generated in the specific relay neurones. The oscillatory properties of cortical inhibitory interneurones initiates the action of the recurrent circuit whose function is to inform the cerebral cortex of the content of the sensory pathways. On the other side, the thalamocortical resonant loops of the non especific nuclei, particularly the intralaminar, connect with theapical dendrites of layer 1 pyramids whose discharge go to the thalamic relay neurones directly and through the reticular nucleus. The clinical and MEG data are consistent with the suggestion that the intralaminar nucleus works as providing the binding signal to the sensory specif le information conveyed by the specific pathways. In this way the non specific corticothalamic loop would act as the conjunction mechanism along the dendritic apical shaft with the specific sensory information. The specific loop will

  9. Computational manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a general framework for computational manufacturing. The methodology of computational manufacturing aims at integrating computational geometry, machining principle, sensor information fusion, optimization, computational intelligence and virtual prototyping to solve problems of the modeling, reasoning, control, planning and scheduling of manufacturing processes and systems. There are three typical problems in computational manufacturing, i.e., scheduling (time-domain), geometric reasoning (space-domain) and decision- making (interaction between time-domain and space-domain). Some theoretical fundamentals of computational manufacturing are also discussed.

  10. Precision manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    Dornfeld, David

    2008-01-01

    Today there is a high demand for high-precision products. The manufacturing processes are now highly sophisticated and derive from a specialized genre called precision engineering. Precision Manufacturing provides an introduction to precision engineering and manufacturing with an emphasis on the design and performance of precision machines and machine tools, metrology, tooling elements, machine structures, sources of error, precision machining processes and precision process planning. As well as discussing the critical role precision machine design for manufacturing has had in technological developments over the last few hundred years. In addition, the influence of sustainable manufacturing requirements in precision processes is introduced. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, David Dornfeld and Dae-Eun Lee cover precision manufacturing as it applies to: The importance of measurement and metrology in the context of Precision Manufacturing. Th...

  11. Halogenated solvent interactions with N,N-dimethyltryptamine: formation of quaternary ammonium salts and their artificially induced rearrangements during analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Simon D; Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Dempster, Nicola; Riby, Philip G; Gartz, Jochen; Alder, John F

    2008-07-04

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) 1a are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. This particular attribute attracts great interest from a variety of scientific and also clandestine communities. Our recent research has confirmed that DMT reacts with dichloromethane (DCM), either as a result of work-up or storage to give a quaternary N-chloromethyl ammonium salt 2a. Furthermore, this was observed to undergo rearrangement during analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with products including 3-(2-chloroethyl)indole 3 and 2-methyltetrahydro-beta-carboline 4 (2-Me-THBC). This study further investigates this so far unexplored area of solvent interactions by the exposure of DMT to other halogenated solvents including dibromomethane and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE). The N-bromomethyl- and N-chloroethyl quaternary ammonium derivatives were subsequently characterised by ion trap GC-MS in electron and chemical ionisation tandem MS mode and by NMR spectroscopy. The DCE-derived derivative formed at least six rearrangement products in the total ion chromatogram. Identification of mass spectrometry generated by-products was verified by conventional or microwave-accelerated synthesis. The use of deuterated DCM and deuterated DMT 1b provided insights into the mechanism of the rearrangements. The presence of potentially characteristic marker molecules may allow the identification of solvents used during the manufacture of controlled substances, which is often neglected since these are considered inert.

  12. Quantum-Holographic Informational Consciousness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francisco Di Biase

    2009-01-01

      The author propose a quantum-informational holographic model of brain-consciousness-universe interactions based in the holonomic neural networks of Karl Pribram, in the holographic quantum theory...

  13. Conscious brain, metacognition and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Pec, Ondrej; Mishara, Aaron L; Touskova, Tereza; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-07-01

    Recent findings indicate that the binding and synchronization of distributed neural activities are crucial for cognitive processes and consciousness. In addition, there is increasing evidence that disrupted feature binding is related to experiences of disintegration of consciousness in schizophrenia. These data suggest that the disrupted binding and disintegration of consciousness could be typically related to schizophrenia in terms of Bleuler's concept of "splitting". In this context, deficits in metacognitive capacity in schizophrenia may be conceptualized as a spectrum from more discrete to more synthetic activities, related to specific levels of neural binding and neurocognitive deficits. This review summarizes the recent research on metacognition and its relationship to deficits of conscious awareness that may be found in schizophrenia patients. Deficits in synthetic metacognition are likely linked to the integration of information during specific processes of neural binding. Those in turn may be related to a range of mental activities including reasoning style, learning potential and insight.

  14. Social Consciousness, Education and Transformative Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlidis, Periklis

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines two aspects of social consciousness: consciousness in the sense of knowledge of the objective reality and consciousness in the sense of awareness of oneself as a subject in his/her social ties with other persons-subjects. In the light of such an approach to consciousness in this essay we discuss the importance of education and…

  15. Consciousness, Psychology, and Education: A Speculative Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980

    This monograph explores implications of the psychology of consciousness for education. The psychology of consciousness encompasses the relationships among behavior, experience, and states of consciousness. It is interpreted to include different states of consciousness, paranormal phenomena, mystical experiences, dreams, psychic healing, and other…

  16. Four-Dimensional Graded Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkisz, Jakub; Wierzchoń, Michał; Binder, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Both the multidimensional phenomenon and the polysemous notion of consciousness continue to prove resistant to consistent measurement and unambiguous definition. This is hardly surprising, given that there is no agreement even as regards the most fundamental issues they involve. One of the basic disagreements present in the continuing debate about consciousness pertains to its gradational nature. The general aim of this article is to show how consciousness might be graded and multidimensional at the same time. We therefore focus on the question of what it is, exactly, that is or could be graded in cases of consciousness, and how we can measure it. Ultimately, four different gradable aspects of consciousness will be described: quality, abstractness, complexity and usefulness, which belong to four different dimensions, these being understood, respectively, as phenomenal, semantic, physiological, and functional. Consequently, consciousness may be said to vary with respect to phenomenal quality, semantic abstraction, physiological complexity, and functional usefulness. It is hoped that such a four-dimensional approach will help to clarify and justify claims about the hierarchical nature of consciousness. The approach also proves explanatorily advantageous, as it enables us not only to draw attention to certain new and important differences in respect of subjective measures of awareness and to justify how a given creature may be ranked higher in one dimension of consciousness and lower in terms of another, but also allows for innovative explanations of a variety of well-known phenomena (amongst these, the interpretations of blindsight and locked-in syndrome will be briefly outlined here). Moreover, a 4D framework makes possible many predictions and hypotheses that may be experimentally tested (We point out a few such possibilities pertaining to interdimensional dependencies).

  17. Correlates of self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R G; Scheier, M F; Carver, C S; Ickes, W

    1978-06-01

    Examined the relationship between the three subscales of the Self-Consciousness Scale and a variety of other personality dimensions, including measures of reflectivity, self-regulation, and social desirability. Data from six geographically diverse samples (total N = 1395) were presented. In general, both the construct validity and discriminant validity of the subscales were supported. First, private self-consciousness significantly correlated with the Guilford-Zimmerman Thoughtfulness Scale and the Paivio Imagery Scale. Second, all of the self-consciousness subscales were shown to be relatively independent of the social desirability response set. Third, less than 6% of the variance in each self-consciousness subscale was shared with scores on the Self-Monitoring Scale. Finally, the minimal relationships between the self-consciousness subscales and measures of emotionality and test anxiety reported by Carver and Glass (1976) were in general replicated. The low magnitude of the correlations obtained was interpreted as supporting the distinctive contribution of the Self-Consciousness Scale to personality assessment.

  18. Manufacturing technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Manufacturing Technologies Center is an integral part of Sandia National Laboratories, a multiprogram engineering and science laboratory, operated for the Department of Energy (DOE) with major facilities at Albuquerque, New Mexico, and Livermore, California. Our Center is at the core of Sandia`s Advanced Manufacturing effort which spans the entire product realization process.

  19. Manufacturing Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van F.J.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper identifies the changing needs and requirements with respect to the interfacing of manufacturing functions. It considers the manufacturing system, its components and their relationships from the technological and logistic point of view, against the background of concurrent engineering. Desi

  20. The presence of consciousness in absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, Tim

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or 'levels') of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity of consciousness.

  1. Mind-brain and consciousness in psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, W W

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how the brain produces conscious mentation is vital to the prospective integration of psychoanalytic and neuroscientific study of the mind-brain relation. This essay explores some of the current opinions, based on recent neuroscientific research, regarding origins of consciousness in the brain. Areas explored include levels of consciousness, waking versus dream consciousness, and issues of consciousness and self-organization in split-brain studies. Some tentative suggestions are made regarding clinical implications of this perspective.

  2. Miscellaneous hydrocarbon solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebarta, Vikhyat; DeWitt, Christopher

    2004-08-01

    The solvents discussed in this article are common solvents not categorized as halogenated, aromatic, or botanical. The solvents discussed are categorized into two groups: hydrocarbon mixtures and single agents. The hydrocarbon mixtures discussed are Stoddard solvent, naphtha, and kerosene. The remaining solvents described are n-hexane, methyl n-butyl ketone, dimethylformamide, dimethyl sulfoxide, and butyl mercaptans. Effects common to this group of agents and their unique effects are characterized. Treatment of exposures and toxic effects of these solvents is described, and physiochemical properties and occupational exposure levels are listed.

  3. Solvent resistant nanofiltration membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Dutczak, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis describes preparation and characterization of membranes for organic solvent filtration (OSF). The main aim was developing membranes for solvent resistant nanofiltration (SRNF) with molecular weight cut-off below 500 g mol-1.

  4. Solvents in novolak synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobodacha, Chet J.; Lynch, Thomas J.; Durham, Dana L.; Paradis, Valerie R.

    1993-09-01

    Novolac resins may be prepared with or without a solvent present. We have found that solvent power greatly affects the properties of the finished resin and thus gives the resist chemist another variable with which to `fine-tune' resist properties. Using designed experiments, we investigated the effect of solvent power, as measured by Hansen's Solubility Parameters, of a number of solvents and solvent mixtures on the final properties of the novolac resin. We found that the relative molecular weight (RMW) and dissolution rate of a novolac resin can be varied by selection of a solvent or solvent mixture with the appropriate polarity and hydrogen- bonding characteristics. The solvent polarity and hydrogen-bonding characteristics may affect the stability of the cresol/formaldehyde transition state, thus causing the observed changes in RMW and dissolution rate.

  5. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    . If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  6. Proposal for an Approach to Artificial Consciousness Based on Self-Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Menant, Mr Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Current research on artificial consciousness is focused on phenomenal consciousness and on functional consciousness. We propose to shift the focus to self-consciousness in order to open new areas of investigation. We use an existing scenario where self-consciousness is considered as the result of an evolution of representations. Application of the scenario to the possible build up of a conscious robot also introduces questions relative to emotions in robots. Areas of investigation...

  7. Edmund Husserl's theory of image consciousness, aesthetic consciousness, and art

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The central theme of my dissertation is Husserl’s phenomenological analysis of how we experience images. The aim of my dissertation is twofold: 1) to offer a contribution to the understanding of Husserl’s theory of image consciousness, aesthetic consciousness and art, and 2) to find out whether Husserl’s theory of the experience of images is applicable to modern and contemporary art, particularly to strongly site-specific art, unaided ready-mades, and contemporary films and theatre plays in w...

  8. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sanders; Chola Elangeswaran; Jens Wulfsberg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industr...

  9. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Sanders; Chola Elangeswaran; Jens Wulfsberg

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industr...

  10. Micro Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing deals with systems that include products, processes, materials and production systems. These systems have functional requirements, constraints, design parameters and process variables. They must be decomposed in a systematic manner to achieve the best possible system performance....... If a micro manufacturing system isn’t designed rationally and correctly, it will be high-cost, unreliable, and not robust. For micro products and systems it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production. As the products through product development...... processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies that make it possible to produce the products at a reasonable price and in large numbers is growing. The micro/nano manufacturing programme at the Department of Manufacturing...

  11. Smart Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jim; Edgar, Thomas; Graybill, Robert; Korambath, Prakashan; Schott, Brian; Swink, Denise; Wang, Jianwu; Wetzel, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Historic manufacturing enterprises based on vertically optimized companies, practices, market share, and competitiveness are giving way to enterprises that are responsive across an entire value chain to demand dynamic markets and customized product value adds; increased expectations for environmental sustainability, reduced energy usage, and zero incidents; and faster technology and product adoption. Agile innovation and manufacturing combined with radically increased productivity become engines for competitiveness and reinvestment, not simply for decreased cost. A focus on agility, productivity, energy, and environmental sustainability produces opportunities that are far beyond reducing market volatility. Agility directly impacts innovation, time-to-market, and faster, broader exploration of the trade space. These changes, the forces driving them, and new network-based information technologies offering unprecedented insights and analysis are motivating the advent of smart manufacturing and new information technology infrastructure for manufacturing.

  12. Consciousness is still in business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guterman, Yossi

    2010-06-01

    In a recent study (Hassin, Bargh, Engell, & McCulloch, 2009, Exp. 4) half of the participants were informed ofthe occasional occurrence of location regularities (patterns) in visual stimulus sets, while the other half was not. Evidence was presented to the effect that uninformed participants extracted the patterns from the displays better than the informed participants. The authors interpret their finding as demonstrating that working memory (WM) can operate non-consciously. However, inspection of the data suggests that rather than being more effective than the informed participants in extracting patterns, uninformed participants were more strongly affected by the "Broken Patterns" that served as misleading cues. Thus whereas the findings may support the possibility of non-conscious operation of low level WM functions, they nevertheless underscore the importance of conscious awareness as far as higher level functions are concerned. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. How to Assess Ictal Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirja Johanson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the complexity and methodological difficulties in defining the concept of consciousness, it is a central concept in epileptology, and should thus be tractable for scientific analysis. In the present article, a two-dimensional model consisting of concepts related to the level and the contents of consciousness will be presented. This model has been found to be well suited for the description of seizure-induced alterations of consciousness, and is supported both by findings from neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies as well as from phenomenological studies. Further, we will review both traditional introspective methods as well as methods that have recently been developed or utilized in epilepsy research, summarize the main findings concerning first person experiences during epileptic seizures acquired with some of these methods, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

  14. Paranoia and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenigstein, A; Vanable, P A

    1992-01-01

    A new instrument designed to assess paranoid thought in college students, together with reliability and validity data, was presented in Study 1. A single general factor accounted for a substantial portion of the variance in the full scale. Public self-consciousness was consistently and significantly correlated with the present measure of paranoia. In Study 2, both pretested paranoia and public self-consciousness were related to feelings of being watched (a classical manifestation of paranoia), although public self-consciousness had an effect only when there was a 2-way mirror present. In Study 3, self-attention, experimentally induced using a story construction task, again resulted in a heightened sense of being observed. Discussion focuses on paranoid cognition as characteristic of everyday thought and the implications of self-attention for social perception processes.

  15. Consciousness, biology and quantum hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Edelman, David B.

    2012-09-01

    Natural phenomena are reducible to quantum events in principle, but quantum mechanics does not always provide the best level of analysis. The many-body problem, chaotic avalanches, materials properties, biological organisms, and weather systems are better addressed at higher levels. Animals are highly organized, goal-directed, adaptive, selectionist, information-preserving, functionally redundant, multicellular, quasi-autonomous, highly mobile, reproducing, dissipative systems that conserve many fundamental features over remarkably long periods of time at the species level. Animal brains consist of massive, layered networks of specialized signaling cells with 10,000 communication points per cell, and interacting up to 1000 Hz. Neurons begin to divide and differentiate very early in gestation, and continue to develop until middle age. Waking brains operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium under delicate homeostatic control, making them extremely sensitive to a range of physical and chemical stimuli, highly adaptive, and able to produce a remarkable range of goal-relevant actions. Consciousness is “a difference that makes a difference” at the level of massive neuronal interactions in the most parallel-interactive anatomical structure of the mammalian brain, the cortico-thalamic (C-T) system. Other brain structures are not established to result in direct conscious experiences, at least in humans. However, indirect extra-cortical influences on the C-T system are pervasive. Learning, brain plasticity and major life adaptations may require conscious cognition. While brains evolved over hundreds of millions of years, and individual brains grow over months, years and decades, conscious events appear to have a duty cycle of ∼100 ms, fading after a few seconds. They can of course be refreshed by inner rehearsal, re-visualization, or attending to recurrent stimulus sources. These very distinctive brain events are needed when animals seek out and cope with new

  16. Neural correlates of consciousness reconsidered.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neisser, Joseph

    2012-06-01

    It is widely accepted among philosophers that neuroscientists are conducting a search for the neural correlates of consciousness, or NCC. Chalmers (2000) conceptualized this research program as the attempt to correlate the contents of conscious experience with the contents of representations in specific neural populations. A notable claim on behalf of this interpretation is that the neutral language of "correlates" frees us from philosophical disputes over the mind/body relation, allowing the science to move independently. But the experimental paradigms and explanatory canons of neuroscience are not neutral about the mechanical relation between consciousness and the brain. I argue that NCC research is best characterized as an attempt to locate a causally relevant neural mechanism and not as an effort to identify a discrete neural representation, the content of which correlates with some actual experience. It might be said that the first C in "NCC" should stand for "causes" rather than "correlates."

  17. Reading embodied consciousness in "Emma".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbus, Antonina

    2011-01-01

    The language of Emma (1815) reflects Jane Austen's developing view of embodied consciousness and her particular interest in this novel in the physical manifestations of emotions, such as blushes and nervous responses. The discursive exploration of the inner life in Emma is the product of a cultural context that features emerging brain science and Austen's own conceptualization of the psychophysical nature of emotions. This article analyzes the language of mind and emotion in Emma, to contend that Austen grapples with the implications of the idea of embodied consciousness in a narrative that contrasts mind reading with interpreting the body.

  18. Solvent abuse: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, G E

    1979-01-01

    The literature on solvent abuse is reviewed. Methods of use, symptoms of use, and effects of long-term solvent abuse are discussed. Several surveys on solvent use are summarized. The highest prevalence of solvent abuse seems to occur in native peoples undergoing periods of cultural change. Environmental conditions which are postulated as leading to psychological vulnerability and solvent abuse include: low social assets, parental drug use, peer and sibling influence, and acculturative stress. Solvent abuse seems to provide a pharmacological way out of a stressful environment for people who feel helpless to improve their situation in other ways. Methods of intervention that have been proposed for dealing with solvent abuse are discussed. Methods of intervention thus far employed generally have not been evaluated in any systematic fashion. Suggestions for future research are provided.

  19. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  20. EPA's science blog: "It All Starts with Science"; Article title: "EPA's Solvent Substitution Software Tool, PARIS III"

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's solvent substitution software tool, PARIS III is provided by the EPA for free, and can be effective and efficiently used to help environmentally-conscious individuals find better and greener solvent mixtures for many different common industrial processes. People can downlo...

  1. Consciousness from the ground up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2013-05-01

    The book Physics in Mind: a Quantum View of the Brain certainly aims high. Written by the eminent biophysicist Werner Loewenstein, its goal is nothing less than a theory that explains our sense of conscious existence, built from the bottom up.

  2. Trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, RHA; Meijler, WJ; TerHorst, GJ

    1997-01-01

    INTRACISTERNAL infusion of capsaicin was used to induce intracranial trigeminovascular stimulation in conscious rats. Both behaviour and trigeminal nucleus caudalis c-fos expression were examined. Exploratory behaviour was dose-dependently reduced and different types of behaviours were induced with

  3. Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some...

  4. The Awakening of Feminist Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊江

    2013-01-01

    Virginia Woolf in her great novel To the Lighthouse shows her deep concern for women. In this book, she discusses women’s spiritual world and the process of the awakening of feminist consciousness, which is represented by Mrs. Ramsay and Lily Briscoe.

  5. Self-Consciousness, Caring, Relationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes Sanchez, Alba

    In the studies of emotion, shame is classified under several labels: a self-conscious emotion, an emotion of self-assessment, a social emotion, and a moral emotion. All of them are supposed to pick out a defining characteristic of shame. Though all of these labels will be under scrutiny at some p...

  6. The Presence of Consciousness in Absence Seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Bayne

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines three respects in which the study of epileptic absence seizures promises to inform our understanding of consciousness. Firstly, it has the potential to bear on debates concerning the behavioural and cognitive functions associated with consciousness. Secondly, it has the potential to illuminate the relationship between background states (or ‘levels’) of consciousness and the contents of consciousness. Thirdly, it has the potential to bear on our understanding of the unity o...

  7. Consciousness without a cortex, but what kind of consciousness is this? [editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Merker suggests that the thalamocortical system is not an essential system for consciousness, but, instead, that the midbrain reticular system is responsible for consciousness. Indeed, the latter is a crucial system for consciousness, when consciousness is regarded as the waking state. However, when

  8. 8 Questions About the Conscious Mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dooremalen, A.J.P.W.

    2014-01-01

    Can the mind function separately from the brain? Can machines have conscious minds? Is Google Maps part of the conscious mind? Hans Dooremalen provides answers to these three and five other questions about the conscious mind in an easy to read introduction to the philosophy of mind.

  9. Self-Consciousness and Aspects of Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Jonathan M.; Briggs, Stephen R.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between public and private self-consciousness and social and personal aspects of identity. Public self-consciousness correlated more strongly with social than with personal aspects of identity, and private self-consciousness correlated more strongly with personal than with social aspects. Discusses implications for…

  10. Becoming conscious of the American middle class (un)consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroos, Karmo

    2012-09-01

    It is argued in this article that social psychology would make the greatest contribution to research on class identity if it concentrated on the area closest to psychology-analysis of class consciousness. In order to show that the study of the psyche and mentality of the middle class is one of the least researched aspects of the American middle class, a brief overview of the different approaches to the study of the middle class in selected disciplines will be offered. It will be demonstrated that even if the identity of the U.S. middle class cannot be fully understood without its history and the social context in which it operates, it is the study of its (un)consciousness that social psychology should be focusing its research efforts on. The alternative would make social psychology indistinguishable from social history or sociology.

  11. Influence of Solvent-Solvent and Solute-Solvent Interaction Properties on Solvent-Mediated Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-Qi

    2005-01-01

    A recently proposed universal calculational recipe for solvent-mediated potential is applied to calculate excess potential of mean force between two large Lennard-Jones (LJ) or hard core attractive Yukawa particles immersed in small LJ solvent bath at supercritical state. Comparison between the present prediction with a hypernetted chain approximation adopted for solute-solute correlation at infinitely dilute limit and existing simulation data shows high accuracy for the region with large separation, and qualitative reliability for the solute particle contact region. The calculational simplicity of the present recipe allows for a detailed investigation on the effect of the solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interaction details on the excess potential of mean force. The resultant conclusion is that gathering of solvent particles near a solute particle leads to repulsive excess PMF, while depletion of solvent particles away from the solute particle leads to attractive excess PMF, and minor change of the solvent-solvent interaction range has large influence on the excess PMF.

  12. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James H; Farmer, Thomas J; Hunt, Andrew J; Sherwood, James

    2015-07-28

    The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids) will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  13. Opportunities for Bio-Based Solvents Created as Petrochemical and Fuel Products Transition towards Renewable Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Clark

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The global bio-based chemical market is growing in size and importance. Bio-based solvents such as glycerol and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran are often discussed as important introductions to the conventional repertoire of solvents. However adoption of new innovations by industry is typically slow. Therefore it might be anticipated that neoteric solvent systems (e.g., ionic liquids will remain niche, while renewable routes to historically established solvents will continue to grow in importance. This review discusses bio-based solvents from the perspective of their production, identifying suitable feedstocks, platform molecules, and relevant product streams for the sustainable manufacturing of conventional solvents.

  14. Measuring consciousness in severely damaged brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosseries, Olivia; Di, Haibo; Laureys, Steven; Boly, Mélanie

    2014-01-01

    Significant advances have been made in the behavioral assessment and clinical management of disorders of consciousness (DOC). In addition, functional neuroimaging paradigms are now available to help assess consciousness levels in this challenging patient population. The success of these neuroimaging approaches as diagnostic markers is, however, intrinsically linked to understanding the relationships between consciousness and the brain. In this context, a combined theoretical approach to neuroimaging studies is needed. The promise of such theoretically based markers is illustrated by recent findings that used a perturbational approach to assess the levels of consciousness. Further research on the contents of consciousness in DOC is also needed.

  15. An information integration theory of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tononi Giulio

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consciousness poses two main problems. The first is understanding the conditions that determine to what extent a system has conscious experience. For instance, why is our consciousness generated by certain parts of our brain, such as the thalamocortical system, and not by other parts, such as the cerebellum? And why are we conscious during wakefulness and much less so during dreamless sleep? The second problem is understanding the conditions that determine what kind of consciousness a system has. For example, why do specific parts of the brain contribute specific qualities to our conscious experience, such as vision and audition? Presentation of the hypothesis This paper presents a theory about what consciousness is and how it can be measured. According to the theory, consciousness corresponds to the capacity of a system to integrate information. This claim is motivated by two key phenomenological properties of consciousness: differentiation – the availability of a very large number of conscious experiences; and integration – the unity of each such experience. The theory states that the quantity of consciousness available to a system can be measured as the Φ value of a complex of elements. Φ is the amount of causally effective information that can be integrated across the informational weakest link of a subset of elements. A complex is a subset of elements with Φ>0 that is not part of a subset of higher Φ. The theory also claims that the quality of consciousness is determined by the informational relationships among the elements of a complex, which are specified by the values of effective information among them. Finally, each particular conscious experience is specified by the value, at any given time, of the variables mediating informational interactions among the elements of a complex. Testing the hypothesis The information integration theory accounts, in a principled manner, for several neurobiological observations

  16. Powder coating now available for battery manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Landwehr, Inga; Cudazzo, Markus

    2015-01-01

    A space-saving, cost-efficient and eco-friendly new electrostatic powder coatings for electrode manufacturing: Manufacturing electrodes for electrochemical energy storage is an important and costly process. The disadvantages of so far used liquid-coatings are the high energy and floor space demand of drying-process as well as the application of harmful solvents. A new powder-based coating process eliminates potential hazards and offers numerous advantages.

  17. Building a Competitive Edge with Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    be collected, processed to recapture cutting solvents, and compacted into soup can sized aluminum “pucks.” Those pucks are then sold to a third party...Thomas A. Campbell , “Toward a Printed World: Additive Manufacturing and its Implications for National Security.” Defense Horizons, No. 73...A. Campbell , “Toward a Printed World: Additive Manufacturing and its Implications for National Security.” Defense Horizons, No. 73 (September 2012

  18. The Moral Insignificance of Self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, I examine the claim that self-consciousness is highly morally significant, such that the fact that an entity is self-conscious generates strong moral reasons against harming or killing that entity. This claim is apparently very intuitive, but I argue it is false. I consider two ways to defend this claim: one indirect, the other direct. The best-known arguments relevant to self-consciousness's significance take the indirect route. I examine them and argue that (a) in various ways they depend on unwarranted assumptions about self-consciousness's functional significance, and (b) once these assumptions are undermined, motivation for these arguments dissipates. I then consider the direct route to self-consciousness's significance, which depends on claims that self-consciousness has intrinsic value or final value. I argue what intrinsic or final value self-consciousness possesses is not enough to generate strong moral reasons against harming or killing.

  19. Consistency between recognition and behavior creates consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Inaba

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available What is consciousness? Is it possible to create consciousness mechanically? Various studies have been performed in the fields of psychology and cerebral science to answer these questions. As of yet, however, no researchers have proposed a model capable of explaining the mind-body problem described by Descartes or replicating a consciousness as advanced as that of human beings. Ancient people believed that the consciousness resided in a Homunculus, a human in miniature who lived in the brain. It is no mystery that the ancients came up with such an idea; for consciousness has always been veiled in mystery, beyond the reach of our explorative powers. We can assert, however, that consciousness does not "live" in us, but "exists" in us. Insofar as the processes occurring inside the human brain are a product of the physical activity of the neurons that reside there, we believe that it should be possible to define consciousness systematically.

  20. Integrated approach to cost consciousness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Cost consciousness was given a very necessary boost by the collapse of oil prices in 1986 and downward movements in prices have served to re-inforce the need for vigilance: oil companies were becoming complacent. The climate necessary for cost consciousness to flourish as part of the oil company culture is established by higher management attitude and can be reinforced by organizational structure. British Petroleum's current production/exploration organisational structure is reported on in the first section of this paper and this is followed by a discussion of pertinent cost-oriented observations to emerge from this grouping related both to the component phases of the exploitation of a field, and to the cost of engineering/managing same.

  1. Evidence for a communal consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobrow, Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Recently described social network phenomena show that emotionally connected people come to share certain traits, including obesity, happiness, and loneliness. These do not appear to be mediated by face-to-face contact. Other examples of groups with a common connection that act in unison are mass hysteria, menstrual synchrony, and the ability of a group to guess the number of jelly beans in a jar. The animal kingdom abounds with examples of groups functioning as a single whole: fish school, birds flock, hoofed animals herd, ant and bee colonies work as a single organism. Try as they might, neuroscientists have been unable to find an anatomical seat of consciousness within the brain. C.G. Jung's realization of a collective unconscious began with an observation of a patient whose thoughts matched previous writings that the patient had never seen. The "emotional telepathy" of social network phenomena suggests a collective/communal consciousness as well.

  2. Classical Coherence, Life and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Partha

    2014-07-01

    There have been many claims that quantum mechanics plays a key role in the origin and/or operation of biological organisms, beyond merely providing the basis for the shapes and sizes of biological molecules and their chemical affinities. These range from Schrödinger's suggestion that quantum fluctuations produce mutations, to Hameroff and Penrose's conjecture that quantum coherence in microtubules is linked to consciousness. I review some of these claims in this paper, and discuss the serious problem of decoherence.

  3. Conscious sedation: A dying practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Manickam, Palaniappan; Kanaan, Ziad; Zakaria, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Sedation practices vary according to countries with different health system regulations, the procedures done, and local circumstances. Interestingly, differences in the setting in which the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy takes place (university-based vs academic practice) as well as other systematic practice differences influence the attitude of endoscopists concerning sedation practices. Conscious sedation using midazolam and opioids is the current standard method of sedation in ...

  4. Manufacturing technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.A.; Floyd, H.L.; Goetsch, B.; Doran, L. [eds.

    1993-08-01

    This bulletin depicts current research on manufacturing technology at Sandia laboratories. An automated, adaptive process removes grit overspray from jet engine turbine blades. Advanced electronic ceramics are chemically prepared from solution for use in high- voltage varistors. Selective laser sintering automates wax casting pattern fabrication. Numerical modeling improves performance of photoresist stripper (simulation on Cray supercomputer reveals path to uniform plasma). And mathematical models help make dream of low- cost ceramic composites come true.

  5. Green Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patten, John

    2013-12-31

    Green Manufacturing Initiative (GMI): The initiative provides a conduit between the university and industry to facilitate cooperative research programs of mutual interest to support green (sustainable) goals and efforts. In addition to the operational savings that greener practices can bring, emerging market demands and governmental regulations are making the move to sustainable manufacturing a necessity for success. The funding supports collaborative activities among universities such as the University of Michigan, Michigan State University and Purdue University and among 40 companies to enhance economic and workforce development and provide the potential of technology transfer. WMU participants in the GMI activities included 20 faculty, over 25 students and many staff from across the College of Engineering and Applied Sciences; the College of Arts and Sciences' departments of Chemistry, Physics, Biology and Geology; the College of Business; the Environmental Research Institute; and the Environmental Studies Program. Many outside organizations also contribute to the GMI's success, including Southwest Michigan First; The Right Place of Grand Rapids, MI; Michigan Department of Environmental Quality; the Michigan Department of Energy, Labor and Economic Growth; and the Michigan Manufacturers Technical Center.

  6. Alternative Green Solvents Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Phillip R.

    2012-01-01

    Necessary for safe and proper functioning of equipment. Mainly halogenated solvents. Tetrachloride, Trichloroethylene (TCE), CFC-113. No longer used due to regulatory/safety concerns. Precision Cleaning at KSC: Small % of total parts. Used for liquid oxygen (LOX) systems. Dual solvent process. Vertrel MCA (decafluoropentane (DFP) and trons-dichloroethylene) HFE-7100. DFP has long term environmental concerns. Project Goals: a) Identify potential replacements. b) 22 wet chemical processes. c) 3 alternative processes. d) Develop test procedures. e) Contamination and cleaning. f) Analysis. g) Use results to recommend alternative processes. Conclusions: a) No alternative matched Vertrel in this study. b) No clear second place solvent. c) Hydrocarbons- easy; Fluorinated greases- difficult. d) Fluorinated component may be needed in replacement solvent. e) Process may need to make up for shortcoming of the solvent. f) Plasma and SCC02 warrant further testing.

  7. Quality control of residual solvent content in polymeric microparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Kalpana; Athawale, Rajani B; Singh, Sarabjit

    2015-01-01

    Organic solvents are the innate part of pharmaceutical industry, playing vital role in the bulk drug substance as well as finished product manufacturing. Even though they are used for various crucial purposes, they still lack therapeutic beneficial effect and can be toxic if present in unacceptable limits in final product. Hence, their concentration must be regulated in the final pharmaceutical formulation. With the major development in the market of polymeric microparticles in past few decades, drug product manufacturers are paying more attention towards the development of new techniques for reducing residual solvent content of microparticles. This article sheds light on the importance of removal of organic volatile impurities from the formulation and its regulatory aspects. It also highlights how residual solvent affects various physicochemical characteristics of polymeric microparticles and suggests certain solutions as per the current state of art for limiting organic solvent content in the final product.

  8. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

      As part of an employment as Technology Architect at the company Linak in combination with research at the University of Southern Denmark, this paper will present results from a strategy process where Lean has been pointed out as being a very strategic element in the Linak Production System....... The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical......, organizational and management improvements in the company to what is named the Linak Production System.  ...

  9. LEAN Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Arne

      As part of an employment as Technology Architect at the company Linak in combination with research at the University of Southern Denmark, this paper will present results from a strategy process where Lean has been pointed out as being a very strategic element in the Linak Production System....... The mission with the strategy is to obtain competitive production in Denmark and in Western Europe based on the right combination of manufacturing principles, motivated and trained employees, level of automation, and cooperation with suppliers and customers worldwide. The strategy has resulted in technical...

  10. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perogamvros, Lampros

    2013-01-01

    A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel's invention (Casares, 1940), a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating, and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an “endogenous” Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states. PMID:23467765

  11. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id and the conscious (ego. Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  12. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id and the conscious (ego. Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  13. Freudian theory and consciousness: a conceptual analysis**.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id) and the conscious (ego). Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthropological and sociological perspective, we need to look at how Freudian theory may contribute to a better understanding of consciousness. We also need to look at psychoanalytical psychotherapy and its contribution to a better understanding of body-mind dualism and consciousness as a whole. Ego psychology is considered in the present day context and it is synthesized with various psychological studies to give us a better understanding of consciousness.

  14. Conscious Pulse II The rules of engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    2002-01-01

    This is the final paper in a series that considers the rules of engagement between conscious states and physiological states. In this paper, we imagine that an endogenous quantum mechanical superposition is created by a classical stimulus, and that this leads to a `physiological pulse' of states that are in superposition with one another. This pulse is correlated with a `conscious pulse' of the kind discussed in a previous paper (Conscious Pulse I). We then add a rule (5) to the four rules previously given. This rule addresses the effect of `pain' consciousness on both of these pulses, and in doing so, it validates the "Parallel Principle" applied to pain. Key words: Brain states, cat paradox, consciousness, conscious observer, macroscopic superposition, measurement, state reduction, state collapse, von Neumann.

  15. Consciousness and the Invention of Morel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampros ePerogamvros

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A scientific study of consciousness should take into consideration both objective and subjective measures of conscious experiences. To this date, very few studies have tried to integrate third-person data, or data about the neurophysiological correlates of conscious states, with first-person data, or data about subjective experience. Inspired by Morel’s invention (Casares, 1940, a literary machine capable of reproducing sensory-dependent external reality, this article suggests that combination of virtual reality techniques and brain reading technologies, that is, decoding of conscious states by brain activity alone, can offer this integration. It is also proposed that the multimodal, simulating and integrative capacities of the dreaming brain render it an 'endogenous' Morel's machine, which can potentially be used in studying consciousness, but not always in a reliable way. Both the literary machine and dreaming could contribute to a better understanding of conscious states.

  16. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...

  17. Freudian theory and consciousness: A conceptual analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash De Sousa

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims at taking a fresh look at Freudian psychoanalytical theory from a modern perspective. Freudian psychology is a science based on the unconscious (id) and the conscious (ego). Various aspects of Freudian thinking are examined from a modern perspective and the relevance of the psychoanalytical theory of consciousness is projected. Do psychoanalysis and the unconsciousness have something to teach us about consciousness? Approaching Freud from a historical, psychoanalytical, anthro...

  18. Evolving Complexity, Cognition, and Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljenström, H.

    2012-12-01

    All through the history of the universe there is an apparent tendency for increasing complexity, with the organization of matter in evermore elaborate and interactive systems. The living world in general, and the human brain in particular, provides the highest complexity known. It seems obvious that all of this complexity must be the result of physical, chemical and biological evolution, but it was only with Darwin that we began to get a scientific understanding of biological evolution. Darwinian principles are guiding in our understanding of such complex systems as the nervous system, but also for the evolution of human society and technology. Living organisms have to survive in a complex and changing environment. This implies response and adaption to environmental events and changes at several time scales. The interaction with the environment depends on the present state of the organism, as well as on previous experiences stored in its molecular and cellular structures. At a longer time scale, organisms can adapt to slow environmental changes, by storing information in the genetic material carried over from generation to generation. This phylogenetic learning is complemented by ontogenetic learning, which is adaptation at a shorter time scale, occuring in non-genetic structures. The evolution of a nervous system is a major transition in biological evolution and allows for an increasing capacity for information storage and processing, increasing chances of survival. Such neural knowledge processing, cognition, shows the same principal features as nonneural adaptive processes. Similarly, consciousness might appear, to different degrees, at different stages in evolution. Both cognition and consciousness depends critically on the organization and complexity of the organism. In this presentation, I will briefly discuss general principles for evolution of complexity, focussing on the evolution of the nervous system, which provides organisms with ever increasing

  19. Vladimir Nabokov’ s Political Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马红旗

    2006-01-01

    This study consists of three parts. PartⅠ, entitled " Nabokov’ s Women," concentrates on the analysis of Nabokov’ s major women identities of different types. My purpose is to demonstrate that in his creation of the women characters, Nabokov’ s political consciousness—mainly his vindication of individual freedom—is unmistakably, although indirectly, exemplified. Due to the different types of women discussed in this study, and also due to the different aspect of his political consciousness that is emphasized in different women identities, this part is subdivided into three chapters. Chapter One, entitled "Women in the Triangle: Martha and Margot," focuses on the two women characters in Nabokov’ s early novels. King, Queen, Knave and Laughter in the Dark, aiming to provide an in-depth analysis of the two, and to show that Nabokov has be stowed his special purpose on the creation of Martha and Margot, that is, his condemnation on those who reduce the free and active individual into objects, and such condemnation echoing with Nabokov’ s later direct vindication of individual freedom. Chapter Two, entitled "The Eternal Feminine:Lolita and Ada," analyzes the two title characters in Lolita and Ada, or Ardor:A Family Chronicle, illustrating that Lolita is the victim in that her free consciousness is purposefully neglected by the other, man in that case;while Ada enjoys her life totally because she can conduct her free consciousness in her own life. Chapter Three, entitled " Other Types and Women in His Mind’ s Eye," deals with Elisabeth, another woman character in Laughter in the Dark, who is a good traditional wife, and Liza, ex-wife of Pnin in Pnin, who is what Nabokov terms as poshlost. In addition, this chapter also provides an examination of Nabokov’ s attitude toward women. Through this analysis, Nabokov’ s Russian Complex is to a degree illustrated.

  20. Representing Chronic Disorders of Consciousness:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alice

    2014-01-01

    This article explores problems of voicelessness in Isabel Allende’s Paula (1995) through a focus on the story of Paula’s illness and subsequent death from porphyria in 1992. I argue that the language, categories and stories through which disorders of consciousness are constructed are central to ethical decision-making and shifting cultural understandings of these conditions. In Paula, Allende uses an experimental, hybrid narrative form that draws on illness narrative, magical realist novel, national history, letters, and memoir to challenge traditional depictions of “coma” and to create a new public space through which these issues of voicelessness can be addressed. PMID:25055709

  1. Science of consciousness and the hard problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, H.P.

    1996-05-22

    Quantum theory is essentially a rationally coherent theory of the interaction of mind and matter, and it allows our conscious thoughts to play a causally efficacious and necessary role in brain dynamics. It therefore provides a natural basis, created by scientists, for the science of consciousness. As an illustration it is explained how the interaction of brain and consciousness can speed up brain processing, and thereby enhance the survival prospects of conscious organisms, as compared to similar organisms that lack consciousness. As a second illustration it is explained how, within the quantum framework, the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} directs the actions of a human being. It is concluded that contemporary science already has an adequate framework for incorporating causally efficacious experimential events into the physical universe in a manner that: (1) puts the neural correlates of consciousness into the theory in a well defined way, (2) explains in principle how the effects of consciousness, per se, can enhance the survival prospects of organisms that possess it, (3) allows this survival effect to feed into phylogenetic development, and (4) explains how the consciously experienced {open_quotes}I{close_quotes} can direct human behaviour.

  2. Intrinsic Awareness, the Fundamental State of Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Weili

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to simplify the complexity in the studies of consciousness, the author suggests to divide the conscious experiences into a fundamental state, the intrinsic awareness (IA), and functions of this fundamental state. IA does not depend on external environment, our sense organs, and our cognitions. This ground state of consciousness is timeless and irreducible to sub-constituents; therefore reductionism can apply neither to the analysis nor to the new theory of IA. The methodology for investigating IA is proposed and the relation between IA and the hard problem in consciousness proposed by Chalmers is discussed.

  3. Consciousness as a state of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegmark, Max

    2015-07-01

    I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).

  4. Consciousness as a State of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-01-01

    I examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. I explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. This approach generalizes Giulio Tononi's integrated information framework for neural-network-based consciousness to arbitrary quantum systems, and provides interesting links to error-correcting codes and condensed matter criticality, as well as an interesting connections between the emergence of consciousness and the emergence of time. (For more technical details, see arXiv:1401.1219).

  5. Consciousness and Attention: On sufficiency and necessity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen J A Van Boxtel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has slowly corroded a belief that selective attention and consciousness are so tightly entangled that they cannot be individually examined. In this review, we summarize psychophysical and neurophysiological evidence for a dissociation between top-down attention and consciousness. The evidence includes recent findings that show subjects can attend to perceptually invisible objects. More contentious is the finding that subjects can become conscious of an isolated object, or the gist of the scene in the near absence of top-down attention; we critically re-examine the possibility of ‘complete’ absence of top-down attention. We also cover the recent flurry of studies that utilized independent manipulation of attention and consciousness. These studies have shown paradoxical effects of attention, including examples where top-down attention and consciousness have opposing effects, leading us to strengthen and revise our previous views. Neuroimaging studies with EEG, MEG and fMRI are uncovering the distinct neuronal correlates of selective attention and consciousness in dissociative paradigms. These findings point to a functional dissociation: attention as analyzer and consciousness as synthesizer. Separating the effects of selective visual attention from those of visual consciousness is of paramount importance to untangle the neural substrates of consciousness from those for attention.

  6. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven M. Miller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities — indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities — such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science.

  7. Supercritical solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton, L. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Yields of soluble organic extract are increased up to about 50% by the supercritical extraction of particulate coal at a temperature below the polymerization temperature for coal extract fragments (450 C.) and a pressure from 500 psig to 5,000 psig by the conjoint use of a solvent mixture containing a low volatility, high critical temperature coal dissolution catalyst such as phenanthrene and a high volatility, low critical temperature solvent such as toluene.

  8. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  9. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries and arguably binding…

  10. The Double-Consciousness of Du Bois & the "Mestiza Consciousness" of Anzaldua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Theresa A.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that W.E.B. Du Bois' concept of the "double-consciousness" and Gloria Anzaldua's concept of the "mestiza consciousness" are significant forms of oppositional culture and consciousness. Asserts that their two concepts are linked and nuanced ideas that describe interlocking systems of oppression spanning two centuries…

  11. Solvent selection methodology for pharmaceutical processes: Solvent swap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papadakis, Emmanouil; Kumar Tula, Anjan; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    A method for the selection of appropriate solvents for the solvent swap task in pharmaceutical processes has been developed. This solvent swap method is based on the solvent selection method of Gani et al. (2006) and considers additional selection criteria such as boiling point difference, volati...

  12. Music in disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Dieter Rollnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review presents an overview of the use of music therapy in neurological early rehabilitation of patients with coma and other disorders of consciousness (DOC such as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS or minimally conscious state (MCS. There is evidence that patients suffering from UWS show emotional processing of auditory information, such as listening to speech. Thus, it seems reasonable to believe that music listening – as part of an enriched environment setting – may be of therapeutic value in these patients. There is, however, a considerable lack of evidence. The authors strongly encourage further studies to evaluate the efficacy of music listening in patients with DOC in neurological early rehabilitation. These studies should consider a precise clinical definition and homogeneity of the patient cohort with respect to the quality (coma vs. UWS vs. MCS, duration (rather weeks to months than days and cause (traumatic vs. non-traumatic of DOC, a standardised intervention protocol, valid clinical outcome parameters over a longer observation period (weeks to months, monitoring of neurophysiological and vegetative parameters and, if available, neuroimaging to confirm diagnosis and to demonstrate responses and functional changes in the patients` brains.

  13. Defining and measuring environmental consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiménez Sánchez, Manuel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a review of the main analytical approaches found in the literature, in this paper we establish a multidimensional and behaviour-oriented definition of environmental consciousness. We propose a method to operationalize this definition with the final aim of obtaining summary measures (or indexes of this phenomenon which can be applied to different social contexts and time periods. The data obtained from a survey on environmental attitudes and behaviour conducted in 2004 among Andalusians (Ecobarómetro de Andalucía 2004 is used as an empirical basis for the proposed operationalization. The resulting measures are then employed to identify social groups according to the diverse forms of their environmental consciousness and to explore their basic socio-demographic profiles

    A partir de las principales aproximaciones analíticas presentes en la literatura, en este trabajo establecemos una definición de conciencia ambiental multidimensional y orientada a la conducta; proponemos un método para su operacionalización con el objetivo de elaborar medidas sintéticas de este fenómeno en distintos contextos sociales. La operacionalización propuesta utiliza como base empírica los resultados del Ecobarómetro de Andalucía (EBA 2004. Los indicadores resultantes son utilizados seguidamente para identificar distintos grupos sociales según la naturaleza de su conciencia ambiental.

  14. On the character of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arto eAnnila

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is a particularly demanding system to infer its nature from observations. Thus, there is on one hand plenty of room for theorizing and on the other hand a pressing need for a rigorous theory. We apply statistical mechanics of open systems to describe the brain as a hierarchical system in consuming free energy in least time. This holistic tenet accounts for cellular metabolism, neuronal signaling, cognitive processes all together or any other process by a formal equation of motion that extends down to the ultimate precision of one quantum of action. According to this general thermodynamic theory cognitive processes are no different by their operational and organizational principle from other natural processes. Cognition too will emerge and evolve along path-dependent and non-determinate trajectories by consuming free energy in least time to attain thermodynamic balance within the nervous system itself and with its surrounding systems. Specifically, consciousness can be ascribed to a natural process that integrates various neural networks for coherent consumption of free energy, i.e., for meaningful deeds. The whole hierarchy of integrated systems can be formally summed up to thermodynamic entropy. The holistic tenet provides insight to the character of consciousness also by acknowledging awareness in other systems at other levels of nature’s hierarchy.

  15. Embodied mind and phenomenal consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria VENIERI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a central debate in the philosophy of mind and cognitive science concerns the role of the body in perception and cognition. For many contemporary philosophers, not only cognition but also perception is connected mainly with the brain, where the processing of input from the senses takes place; whereas for the proponents of ‘embodied cognition’ other aspects of the body beyond the brain, including the environment, play a constitutive role in cognitive processes. In terms of perception, a new theory has emerged which stresses percep‑ tion’s active character and claims that the embodied subject and the environment, with which it interacts, form a dynamic system. Supporters of ‘enactive perception’ such as Susan Hurley and Alva Noë maintain that the physical substrate or the supervenience basis of perceptual experience and phenomenal consciousness may include besides the brain and the nervous system other bodily and environmental features. Yet, it will be argued in this paper that the interaction between the subject and the environment forms a system of causal relations, so we can theoretically interfere in the causal chains and create hallucinations, which cannot be distinguished from veridical perception, or a virtual reality as in the film Matrix (1999. This kind of argument and its related thought experiments aim to stress the primacy of the brain in determining phenomenal states, and show that the body and certain interactions with the environment have a causal, but not a constitutive or essential role, in forming phenomenal consciousness.

  16. Interference Control Modulations Over Conscious Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsaso Colás

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between attention and consciousness has been a controversial topic over the last decade. Although there seems to be an agreement on their distinction at the functional level, no consensus has been reached about attentional processes being or not necessary for conscious perception. Previous studies have explored the relation of alerting and orienting systems of attention and conscious perception, but the impact of the anterior executive attention system on conscious access remains unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the behavioral interaction between executive attention and conscious perception, testing control mechanisms both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission. We presented a classical Stroop task, manipulating the proportion of congruent and incongruent trials, and analyzed the effect of reactive and proactive control on the conscious perception of near-threshold stimuli. Reactive control elicited under high proportion congruent conditions influenced participants’ decision criterion, whereas proactive control elicited under low proportion congruent conditions was ineffective in modulating conscious perception. In addition, error commission affected both perceptual sensitivity to detect near-threshold information and response criterion. These results suggest that reactivation of task goals through reactive control strategies in conflict situations impacts decision stages of conscious processing, whereas interference control elicited by error commission impacts both perceptual sensitivity and decision stages of conscious processing. We discuss the implications of our results for the gateway hypothesis about attention and consciousness, as they showed that interference control (both at stimulus-level representation and after error commission can modulate the conscious access of near-threshold stimuli.

  17. Purex process solvent: literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geier, R.G.

    1979-10-01

    This document summarizes the data on Purex process solvent presently published in a variety of sources. Extracts from these various sources are presented herein and contain the work done, the salient results obtained, and the original, unaltered conclusions of the author of each paper. Three major areas are addressed: solvent stability, solvent quality testing, and solvent treatment processes. 34 references, 44 tables.

  18. Music and Consciousness: A Continuing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Clarke, Eric

    2014-01-01

    If there is a topic on which the humanities might make a distinctive claim, it is that of consciousness--an essential aspect of human being. And within the humanities, music might make its own claims in relation to both consciousness and being human. To investigate this connection, David Clarke and Eric Clarke brought together a wide variety of…

  19. Equation for Consciousness in terms of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodukula, Siva Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Based on the concepts 'Double Relativity Effectí. 'Film theory of the Universe ','Heart of the God model of the universeí and'Space time equivalenceí, it is concluded that consciousness is defined in terms of physics as Çthe electromagnetic field containing electromagnetic waves of velocity greater than that of light velocity.? Also it is concluded that because of this high velocity the cell or any living organism will get the perception of events before their happenings. This phenomenon is one of the properties of feeling which is a constituent of consciousness. The degree or strength of consciousness can be measured and defined as the distance of point of generation of conscious wave from the center of space time fluid related to consciousness (d). It can be measured by the equation VCW3.d2= Constant. Where 'VCWí is the velocity of consciousness wave observed. The unit of measurement for degree or strength of consciousness is 'conscious meterí.

  20. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena eDemertzi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain’s integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state /unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states. This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain’s plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions, suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain’s plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness.

  1. An Exploration of Jane Eyre's Feminist Consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴伊璐

    2013-01-01

    In the novel Jane Eyre,Jane's feminist consciousness can be divided into three stages which involve her lasting struggle for fundamental equality,economic Independence and freedom of love. Throughout Jane's lifetime,the author expressed the awakening of feminist consciousness which encouraged those traditional females to pursue gender equality of love and expressed concern about the liberation of women and thoughts.

  2. [Analytical problems of altered states of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, M V

    1993-01-01

    Modified states of consciousness are created under the conditions of monotony with modulating influences in minute wave length diapason. These data point to an important role of the modulating system of the cerebral brain in consciousness the content of which is determined by informational processes.

  3. Music and Consciousness: A Continuing Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David; Clarke, Eric

    2014-01-01

    If there is a topic on which the humanities might make a distinctive claim, it is that of consciousness--an essential aspect of human being. And within the humanities, music might make its own claims in relation to both consciousness and being human. To investigate this connection, David Clarke and Eric Clarke brought together a wide variety of…

  4. An integrative view on consciousness and introspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten; Mogensen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The relation between first and higher order mental states is currently unknown. In particular, the relation between conscious experience and introspection is difficult as the same methods are used to investigate them. In order to make progress in the scientific understanding of consciousness...

  5. Neural plasticity lessons from disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demertzi, Athena; Schnakers, Caroline; Soddu, Andrea; Bruno, Marie-Aurélie; Gosseries, Olivia; Vanhaudenhuyse, Audrey; Laureys, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Communication and intentional behavior are supported by the brain's integrity at a structural and a functional level. When widespread loss of cerebral connectivity is brought about as a result of a severe brain injury, in many cases patients are not capable of conscious interactive behavior and are said to suffer from disorders of consciousness (e.g., coma, vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome, minimally conscious states). This lesion paradigm has offered not only clinical insights, as how to improve diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, but also put forward scientific opportunities to study the brain's plastic abilities. We here review interventional and observational studies performed in severely brain-injured patients with regards to recovery of consciousness. The study of the recovered conscious brain (spontaneous and/or after surgical or pharmacologic interventions), suggests a link between some specific brain areas and the capacity of the brain to sustain conscious experience, challenging at the same time the notion of fixed temporal boundaries in rehabilitative processes. Altered functional connectivity, cerebral structural reorganization as well as behavioral amelioration after invasive treatments will be discussed as the main indices for plasticity in these challenging patients. The study of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness may, thus, provide further insights not only at a clinical level (i.e., medical management and rehabilitation) but also from a scientific-theoretical perspective (i.e., the brain's plastic abilities and the pursuit of the neural correlate of consciousness).

  6. Acting: An Altered State of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiffele, Eberhard

    2001-01-01

    Uses notions from the field Psychology of Consciousness, including an explanation of how psychologists define and investigate Altered States of Consciousness (ASCs). Argues that actors routinely enter an ASC. Establishes acting as a way to enter an ASC and discusses why theater artists, educators, and advocates need to be aware of both the dangers…

  7. Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben Morgan; And Others

    This document contains the reports of research at a symposium on "Altered States of Consciousness and Alcohol." The participants primarily agreed that alcohol induces an altered state of consciousness similar to other drugs, but that this phenomenon has not been explicitly stated due to the current interest in newer and more novel drugs. The…

  8. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes...

  9. The compatibility between sociological and cognitive neuroscientific ideas on consciousness: is a neurosociology of consciousness possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkurko, Yulia S

    2013-03-01

    This article considers the possibility of integrating sociological and cognitive neuroscience ideas on consciousness and developing a new research area: neurosociology of consciousnesses. Research was conducted taking into account the limited knowledge on consciousness produced in these disciplines and the necessity of finding ways to study the social roles concerning the neural correlates of consciousness. Applying several ideas on consciousness from these disciplines (intersubjectivity, close connection with collective forms representations, deriving awareness from the brain's processes, and so on), I show that it is difficult to reconcile the differences in the treatment of consciousness through the simple combination of the different ideas. The integration should be pursued in light of the neuroscientific findings concerning consciousness in different social contexts (role behavior, social interactions, and so on). In integrating the concepts, I predicted the role of time delay in conscious awareness in decision making, synchronization of neural oscillations under conscious perception, and the activations of certain brain zones in correspondence to different conscious cognitive processes for understanding in face-to-face situations. The study reveals that the optimal path for neurosociological research on consciousness is in its primary development without a rigid binding to either sociology or neuroscience.

  10. An introduction to the biology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacour, J

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes the main steps in a scientific study of consciousness. From a survey of the recent literature, it appears that: (1) there is a clear tendency to consider consciousness as a scientific object; (2) consistent subjective and objective descriptions of consciousness are possible; an intentional-modeling structure accounts for its main features; (3) from the evolutionary biology standpoint, conscious cognitive activities, as based on models of the self, the world and the alter-ego, have a functional value; (4) the material basis of consciousness can be clarified without recourse to new properties of the matter or to quantum physics. Current neurobiology, based on classical macrophysics, appears able to handle the problem. In this scope, the neurobiology of sleep-wakefulness and attention, and neuropsychology, have already achieved substantial advances.

  11. Volition and the Function of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Hakwan C.

    What are the psychological functions that could only be performed consciously? People have intuitively assumed that many acts of volition are not influenced by unconscious information. These acts range from simple examples such as making a spontaneous motor movement, to higher cognitive control. How ever, the available evidence suggests that under suitable conditions, unconscious information can influence these behaviors and the underlying neural mechanisms. One possibility is that stimuli that are consciously perceived tend to yield strong signals in the brain, which makes us think that consciousness has the function of such strong signals. However, if we could create conditions where the stimuli could yield strong signals but not the conscious experience of perception, perhaps we would find that such stimuli are just as effective in influencing volitional be havior. Future studies that focus on clarifying this issue may tell us what the defining functions of consciousness are.

  12. Hypnosis phenomenology and the neurobiology of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Price, Donald D

    2003-04-01

    Recent developments in the philosophical and neurobiological studies of consciousness provide promising frameworks to investigate the neurobiology of hypnosis. A model of consciousness phenomenology is described to demonstrate that the experiential dimensions characterizing hypnosis (relaxation and mental ease, absorption, orientation and monitoring, and self-agency) reflect basic phenomenal properties of consciousness. Changes in relaxation-mental ease and absorption, produced by standard hypnotic procedures, are further associated with changes in brain activity within structures critically involved in the basic representation of the body-self and the regulation of states of consciousness. The combination of experiential and modern brain imaging methods offers a unique perspective on hypnotic phenomena and provides new observations consistent with the proposition that hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness.

  13. Halogenated solvent remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Kent S.

    2004-08-31

    Methods for enhancing bioremediation of ground water contaminated with nonaqueous halogenated solvents are disclosed. A preferred method includes adding a composition to the ground water wherein the composition is an electron donor for microbe-mediated reductive dehalogenation of the halogenated solvents and enhances mass transfer of the halogenated solvents from residual source areas into the aqueous phase of the ground water. Illustrative compositions effective in these methods include surfactants such as C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, salts thereof, esters of C.sub.2 -C.sub.4 carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids, and mixtures thereof. Especially preferred compositions for use in these methods include lactic acid, salts of lactic acid, such as sodium lactate, lactate esters, and mixtures thereof. The microbes are either indigenous to the ground water, or such microbes can be added to the ground water in addition to the composition.

  14. Safe battery solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrup, Mason K.; Delmastro, Joseph R.; Stewart, Frederick F.; Luther, Thomas A.

    2007-10-23

    An ion transporting solvent maintains very low vapor pressure, contains flame retarding elements, and is nontoxic. The solvent in combination with common battery electrolyte salts can be used to replace the current carbonate electrolyte solution, creating a safer battery. It can also be used in combination with polymer gels or solid polymer electrolytes to produce polymer batteries with enhanced conductivity characteristics. The solvents may comprise a class of cyclic and acyclic low molecular weight phosphazenes compounds, comprising repeating phosphorus and nitrogen units forming a core backbone and ion-carrying pendent groups bound to the phosphorus. In preferred embodiments, the cyclic phosphazene comprises at least 3 phosphorus and nitrogen units, and the pendent groups are polyethers, polythioethers, polyether/polythioethers or any combination thereof, and/or other groups preferably comprising other atoms from Group 6B of the periodic table of elements.

  15. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  16. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.

  17. Conscious sedation: a dying practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Palaniappan; Kanaan, Ziad; Zakaria, Khalid

    2013-07-28

    Sedation practices vary according to countries with different health system regulations, the procedures done, and local circumstances. Interestingly, differences in the setting in which the practice of gastroenterology and endoscopy takes place (university-based vs academic practice) as well as other systematic practice differences influence the attitude of endoscopists concerning sedation practices. Conscious sedation using midazolam and opioids is the current standard method of sedation in diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. Interestingly, propofol is a commonly preferred sedation method by endoscopists due to higher satisfaction rates along with its short half-life and thus lower risk of hepatic encephalopathy. On the other hand, midazolam is the benzodiazepine of choice because of its shorter duration of action and better pharmacokinetic profile compared with diazepam. The administration of sedation under the supervision of a properly trained endoscopist could become the standard practice and the urgent development of an updated international consensus regarding the use of sedative agents like propofol is needed.

  18. Making CSB + -Trees Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...... a systematic method for adapting CSB+-tree to new platforms. This work is a first step towards integrating CSB+-tree in MySQL’s heap storage manager....

  19. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frăţilă Domniţa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furthermore, the manufacturers can improve their competitiveness and profitability by considering the ecological aspects during the manufacturing step of a product. This paper gives a survey on sustainability issues related to AM.

  20. 27 CFR 20.112 - Special industrial solvents general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... general-use formula. (a) A special industrial solvent is any article made with any other ingredients... (equivalent to 85% ester content, as defined in § 21.106 of this chapter), isopropyl alcohol, or methyl... or household use. When a special industrial solvent is used in the manufacture of an article for sale...

  1. Cleaning with solvents methods and machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Durkee, John

    2014-01-01

    High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission

  2. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  3. A mathematical model of embodied consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudrauf, David; Bennequin, Daniel; Granic, Isabela; Landini, Gregory; Friston, Karl; Williford, Kenneth

    2017-09-07

    We introduce a mathematical model of embodied consciousness, the Projective Consciousness Model (PCM), which is based on the hypothesis that the spatial field of consciousness (FoC) is structured by a projective geometry and under the control of a process of active inference. The FoC in the PCM combines multisensory evidence with prior beliefs in memory and frames them by selecting points of view and perspectives according to preferences. The choice of projective frames governs how expectations are transformed by consciousness. Violations of expectation are encoded as free energy. Free energy minimization drives perspective taking, and controls the switch between perception, imagination and action. In the PCM, consciousness functions as an algorithm for the maximization of resilience, using projective perspective taking and imagination in order to escape local minima of free energy. The PCM can account for a variety of psychological phenomena: the characteristic spatial phenomenology of subjective experience, the distinctions and integral relationships between perception, imagination and action, the role of affective processes in intentionality, but also perceptual phenomena such as the dynamics of bistable figures and body swap illusions in virtual reality. It relates phenomenology to function, showing the computational advantages of consciousness. It suggests that changes of brain states from unconscious to conscious reflect the action of projective transformations and suggests specific neurophenomenological hypotheses about the brain, guidelines for designing artificial systems, and formal principles for psychology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessing levels of consciousness with symbolic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, UnCheol; Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A

    2015-02-13

    'Covert consciousness' is a state in which consciousness is present without the capacity for behavioural response, and it can occur in patients with intraoperative awareness or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. To detect and prevent this undesirable state, it is critical to develop a reliable neurobiological assessment of an individual's level of consciousness that is independent of behaviour. One such approach that shows potential is measuring surrogates of cortical communication in the brain using electroencephalography (EEG). EEG is practicable in clinical application, but involves many fundamental signal processing problems, including signal-to-noise ratio and high dimensional complexity. Symbolic analysis of EEG can mitigate these problems, improving the measurement of brain connectivity and the ability to successfully assess levels of consciousness. In this article, we review the problem of covert consciousness, basic neurobiological principles of consciousness, current methods of measuring brain connectivity and the advantages of symbolic processing, with a focus on symbolic transfer entropy (STE). Finally, we discuss recent advances and clinical applications of STE and other symbolic analyses to assess levels of consciousness. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    COWLEY, W.L.

    1999-05-13

    This report provides the basis for closing the organic solvent safety issue. Sufficient information is presented to conclude that risk posed by an organic solvent fire is within risk evaluation guidelines. This report updates information contained in Analysis of Consequences of Postulated Solvent Fires in Hanford Site Waste Tanks. WHC-SD-WM-CN-032. Rev. 0A (Cowley et al. 1996). However, this document will not replace Cowley et al (1996) as the primary reference for the Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) until the recently submitted BIO amendment (Hanson 1999) is approved by the US Department of Energy. This conclusion depends on the use of controls for preventing vehicle fuel fires and for limiting the use of flame cutting in areas where hot metal can fall on the waste surface.The required controls are given in the Tank Waste Remediation System Technical Safety Requirements (Noorani 1997b). This is a significant change from the conclusions presented in Revision 0 of this report. Revision 0 of this calcnote concluded that some organic solvent fire scenarios exceeded risk evaluation guidelines, even with controls imposed.

  6. Organic solvent topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowley, W.L.

    1998-04-30

    This report is the technical basis for the accident and consequence analyses used in the Hanford Tank Farms Basis for Interim Operation. The report also contains the scientific and engineering information and reference material needed to understand the organic solvent safety issue. This report includes comments received from the Chemical Reactions Subcommittee of the Tank Advisory Panel.

  7. Conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness: two dimensions of personality that influence laparoscopic training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Neha; Poolton, Jamie M; Wilson, Mark R; Fan, Joe K M; Masters, Rich S W

    2014-01-01

    Identifying personality factors that account for individual differences in surgical training and performance has practical implications for surgical education. Movement-specific reinvestment is a potentially relevant personality factor that has a moderating effect on laparoscopic performance under time pressure. Movement-specific reinvestment has 2 dimensions, which represent an individual's propensity to consciously control movements (conscious motor processing) or to consciously monitor their 'style' of movement (movement self-consciousness). This study aimed at investigating the moderating effects of the 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment in the learning and updating (cross-handed technique) of laparoscopic skills. Medical students completed the Movement-Specific Reinvestment Scale, a psychometric assessment tool that evaluates the conscious motor processing and movement self-consciousness dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment. They were then trained to a criterion level of proficiency on a fundamental laparoscopic skills task and were tested on a novel cross-handed technique. Completion times were recorded for early-learning, late-learning, and cross-handed trials. Propensity for movement self-consciousness but not conscious motor processing was a significant predictor of task completion times both early (p = 0.036) and late (p = 0.002) in learning, but completion times during the cross-handed trials were predicted by the propensity for conscious motor processing (p = 0.04) rather than movement self-consciousness (p = 0.21). Higher propensity for movement self-consciousness is associated with slower performance times on novel and well-practiced laparoscopic tasks. For complex surgical techniques, however, conscious motor processing plays a more influential role in performance than movement self-consciousness. The findings imply that these 2 dimensions of movement-specific reinvestment have a differential influence in the learning and updating

  8. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    OpenAIRE

    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  9. Additive manufacturing – a sustainable manufacturing route

    OpenAIRE

    Frăţilă Domniţa; Rotaru Horaţiu

    2017-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies allow developing and manufacturing very complex shaped parts and functional products with a high level of customization, being a great alternative to Traditional Manufacturing (TM) methods like injection molding, die-casting or machining. Due to the importance of cleaner production in the field of manufacturing processes, sustainability of AM processes needs to be assessed in order to make easier its acceptance and implementation in the industry. Furth...

  10. A narrative method for consciousness research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, José-Luis

    2013-01-01

    Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.

  11. A narrative method for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis eDíaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some

  12. Desktop Manufacturing Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    1991-01-01

    Desktop manufacturing is the use of data from a computer-assisted design system to construct actual models of an object. Emerging processes are stereolithography, laser sintering, ballistic particle manufacturing, laminated object manufacturing, and photochemical machining. (SK)

  13. Quantum reality explains mystical powers of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Mensky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mystical powers of consciousness, including the direct vision of truth and management a reality, are believed to exist. Various directions of spiritual knowledge, including world religions, deal with these phenomena. Many people are persuaded that mystical events cannot be explained by scientific methods, that they contradict to science. Suggested by the present author Quantum Concept of Consciousness, or Extended Everett Concept, proves that mystical powers have their origin from what is known in quantum mechanics as quantum reality, and therefore are inherent part of science. Therefore, the “mystical” aspect in the sphere of consciousness is a common part of science and spiritual knowledge.

  14. The cognitive approach to conscious machines

    CERN Document Server

    Haikonen, Pentti O

    2003-01-01

    Could a machine have an immaterial mind? The author argues that true conscious machines can be built, but rejects artificial intelligence and classical neural networks in favour of the emulation of the cognitive processes of the brain-the flow of inner speech, inner imagery and emotions. This results in a non-numeric meaning-processing machine with distributed information representation and system reactions. It is argued that this machine would be conscious; it would be aware of its own existence and its mental content and perceive this as immaterial. Novel views on consciousness and the mind-

  15. What about pain in disorders of consciousness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnakers, C; Chatelle, C; Demertzi, A; Majerus, S; Laureys, S

    2012-09-01

    The management and treatment of acute pain is very difficult in non-communicative patients with disorders of consciousness (i.e., vegetative state/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (VS/UWS) and minimally conscious state), creating an ethical dilemma for caregivers and an emotional burden among both relatives and caregivers. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the neural substrates of nociception and pain in VS/UWS patients as well as recent behavioral assessment methods of nociception specifically designed for patients in altered states of consciousness. We will finally discuss implications for pain treatment in these patients.

  16. HOW COULD CONSCIOUS EXPERIENCES AFFECT BRAINS?

    OpenAIRE

    Velmans, Professor Max

    2002-01-01

    In everyday life we take it for granted that we have conscious control of some of our actions and that the part of us that exercises control is the conscious mind. Psychosomatic medicine also assumes that the conscious mind can affect body states, and this is supported by evidence that the use of imagery, hypnosis, biofeedback and other ‘mental interventions’ can be therapeutic in a variety of medical conditions. However, there is no accepted theory of mind/body interaction and this has had...

  17. Can a machine be conscious? How?

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2003-01-01

    A "machine" is any causal physical system, hence we are machines, hence machines can be conscious. The question is: which kinds of machines can be conscious? Chances are that robots that can pass the Turing Test -- completely indistinguishable from us in their behavioral capacities -- can be conscious (i.e. feel), but we can never be sure (because of the "other-minds" problem). And we can never know HOW they have minds, because of the "mind/body" problem. We can only know how they pass the Tu...

  18. Toxicity and hazardous properties of solvent base adhesive wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, M C; Martínez, M A; Font, R

    2001-10-01

    In this work, the hazardous properties of solvent base adhesive wastes generated in the footwear manufacturing process have been studied. The characterisation procedures and criteria used are those contained in the legal documents European Union Council Decision 94/904/CE and October 13th Spanish Ministerial Order. The properties studied were the following: flash point, reactivity (gas generation), ecotoxicity, main contaminants extracted by the leaching process and main harmful substances contained in wastes. An additional study of the relationship between flash point and solvent concentration in waste was carried out for polyurethane-acetone and neoprene-toluene systems. The wastes considered were metal containers with remains of dry or semi-dry adhesive. The results obtained show that the presence of solvent in wastes confers on them hazardous characteristics (flash point and harmful composition) depending on the solvent type and its concentration.

  19. Tribology in Manufacturing Technology

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The present book aims to provide research advances on tribology in manufacturing technology for modern industry. This book can be used as a research book for final undergraduate engineering course (for example, mechanical, manufacturing, materials, etc) or as a subject on manufacturing at the postgraduate level. Also, this book can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and tribology researchers, mechanical, mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers, professionals in related industries with manufacturing and tribology.

  20. The "conscious pilot"-dendritic synchrony moves through the brain to mediate consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive brain functions including sensory processing and control of behavior are understood as "neurocomputation" in axonal-dendritic synaptic networks of "integrate-and-fire" neurons. Cognitive neurocomputation with consciousness is accompanied by 30- to 90-Hz gamma synchrony electroencephalography (EEG), and non-conscious neurocomputation is not. Gamma synchrony EEG derives largely from neuronal groups linked by dendritic-dendritic gap junctions, forming transient syncytia ("dendritic webs") in input/integration layers oriented sideways to axonal-dendritic neurocomputational flow. As gap junctions open and close, a gamma-synchronized dendritic web can rapidly change topology and move through the brain as a spatiotemporal envelope performing collective integration and volitional choices correlating with consciousness. The "conscious pilot" is a metaphorical description for a mobile gamma-synchronized dendritic web as vehicle for a conscious agent/pilot which experiences and assumes control of otherwise non-conscious auto-pilot neurocomputation.

  1. Science of the conscious mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascoli, Giorgio A; Samsonovich, Alexei V

    2008-12-01

    Human beings have direct access to their own mental states, but can only indirectly observe cosmic radiation and enzyme kinetics. Why then can we measure the temperature of far away galaxies and the activation constant of kinases to the third digit, yet we only gauge our happiness on a scale from 1 to 7? Here we propose a radical research paradigm shift to embrace the subjective conscious mind into the realm of objective empirical science. Key steps are the axiomatic acceptance of first-person experiences as scientific observables; the definition of a quantitative, reliable metric system based on natural language; and the careful distinction of subjective mental states (e.g., interpretation and intent) from physically measurable sensory and motor behaviors (input and output). Using this approach, we propose a series of reproducible experiments that may help define a still largely unexplored branch of science. We speculate that the development of this new discipline will be initially parallel to, and eventually converging with, neurobiology and physics.

  2. Consciousness as a State of Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Tegmark, Max

    2014-01-01

    We examine the hypothesis that consciousness can be understood as a state of matter, "perceptronium", with distinctive information processing abilities. We explore five basic principles that may distinguish conscious matter from other physical systems such as solids, liquids and gases: the information, integration, independence, dynamics and utility principles. If such principles can identify conscious entities, then they can help solve the quantum factorization problem: why do conscious observers like us perceive the particular Hilbert space factorization corresponding to classical space (rather than Fourier space, say), and more generally, why do we perceive the world around us as a dynamic hierarchy of objects that are strongly integrated and relatively independent? Tensor factorization of matrices is found to play a central role, and our technical results include a theorem about Hamiltonian separability (defined using Hilbert-Schmidt superoperators) being maximized in the energy eigenbasis. Our approach g...

  3. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    This book is an adaptation of the author’s PhD thesis, in which he explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced...... when companies have integrated environmental considerations into the design process.In the context of advanced practitioners of environmentally conscious design in the Western European and North American electrical/electronics industry sector, it is shown that:- the timing of environmental decisions...... in the design process is key to environmentally conscious design;- the environmental profile of a product is affected the most in the very early stages of the design process, particularly in the pre-specification stage, where tools for environmentally conscious design decision-making are lacking...

  4. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Marije Van Leeuwen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  5. The merit of synesthesia for consciousness research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, T.M. van; Singer, W.; Nikolic, D.

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant

  6. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We first review the research on the dynamic and rapidly growing field of the studies of synesthesia. We particularly draw attention to the role of semantics in synesthesia, which is important for establishing synesthetic associations in the brain. We then propose that the interplay between semantics and sensory input in synesthesia can be helpful for the study of the neural correlates of consciousness, especially when making use of ambiguous stimuli for inducing synesthesia. Finally, synesthesia-related alterations of brain networks and functional connectivity can be of merit for the study of consciousness.

  7. [Nursing education: integrating gender equity consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Shih, Hsin-Hsin; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Gender sensitivity influences the way a nurse handles the nursing process and can influence both patient care and public perception of the nursing profession. Nurses unaware of the influences of gender are unable to perform holistic nursing, the practice of which centers on patient-centered care. Education is essential to promote gender consciousness. Providing scenario-based education to apply gender consciousness can help nursing students integrate gender and nursing care concepts and improve nursing care quality. In addition to raising attention to this important issue, this article makes comprehensive suggestions on how to apply gender concepts in nursing education. These suggestions include requiring instructors to consider and assess their own gender consciousness in order to enhance positive gender consciousness; reviewing teaching materials to identify and remove content tainted by sexual discrimination, and emphasizing gender education in the nursing education curriculum.

  8. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates whether different religious (mythological) worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs). Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. ...

  9. Tess's Female Consciousness in Tess of the D'Urbervilles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽英

    2016-01-01

    Tess of the D'Urbervilles is the representative work of Thomas Hardy, an outstanding realistic writer in the nineteenth century's literary world. In his work, Hardy has created a new image filled with female consciousness,Tess. This paper just focuses on the study of Tess's female consciousness, from the following aspects: consciousness of self-reliance, consciousness of protest.

  10. Altered states of consciousness in small animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Simon

    2014-11-01

    Impaired states of consciousness can be relatively easily identified, although it can occasionally be difficult to assess whether there is a pure disorder of wakefulness or awareness. Regardless, such impairments represent dysfunction of the brainstem and or cerebrum. Acute and severe impairments of consciousness can require immediate assessment, in part currently performed using the modified Glasgow coma scoring system, and emergency stabilization. The prognosis is always guarded and highly sensitive to the underlying etiology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain, conscious experience and the observing self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baars, Bernard J.; Ramsøy, Thomas; Laureys, Steven

    2003-01-01

    stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the 'first person perspective' on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious events for executive control. Such functions can be viewed...... as properties of the subject, rather than the object, of experience - the 'observing self' that appears to be needed to maintain the conscious state...

  12. The Merit of Synesthesia for Consciousness Research

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Tessa M.; Singer, Wolf; Nikolić, Danko

    2015-01-01

    Synesthesia is a phenomenon in which additional perceptual experiences are elicited by sensory stimuli or cognitive concepts. Synesthetes possess a unique type of phenomenal experiences not directly triggered by sensory stimulation. Therefore, for better understanding of consciousness it is relevant to identify the mental and physiological processes that subserve synesthetic experience. In the present work we suggest several reasons why synesthesia has merit for research on consciousness. We ...

  13. Solvent Immersion Imprint Lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Grate, Jay W.; Kelly, Ryan T.; Konopka, Allan; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Chang, M. T.

    2014-06-21

    The mechanism of polymer disolution was explored for polymer microsystem prototyping, including microfluidics and optofluidics. Polymer films are immersed in a solvent, imprinted and finally brought into contact with a non-modified surface to permanently bond. The underlying polymer-solvent interactions were experimentally and theoretically investigated, and enabled rapid polymer microsystem prototyping. During imprinting, small molecule integration in the molded surfaces was feasible, a principle applied to oxygen sensing. Polystyrene (PS) was employed for microbiological studies at extreme environmental conditions. The thermophile anaerobe Clostridium Thermocellum was grown in PS pore-scale micromodels, revealing a double mean generation lifetime than under ideal culture conditions. Microsystem prototyping through directed polymer dissolution is simple and accessible, while simultaneous patterning, bonding, and surface/volume functionalization are possible in less than one minute.

  14. Role of solvent/non-solvent ratio on microsphere formation using the solvent removal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbee, J; Scott, E; Pattamunuch, P; Chen, S; Mathiowitz, E

    2004-03-01

    The importance of good solvent concentration in the non-solvent mixture and the non-solvent viscosity on the ability to form microspheres using solvent removal process was investigated. The higher the viscosity of the polymer solutions, the higher the concentration of good solvent needed in the nonsolvent mixture to produce microspheres. This finding was due to faster precipitation of the polymer phase. Also, the addition of a model drug, fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin, to the polymer solution (10% poly-L-lactic acid:poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride in methylene chloride) resulted in an overall lower polymer solution viscosity (15.5 cP with fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugated-labelled bovine serum albumin as compared with 18.25 cP for blank polymer at 25 degrees C). Additionally, the effect of good solvent concentration on non-solvent viscosity was evaluated, and the viscosity decreased as the concentration of good solvent increased. The effect of good solvent concentration on the non-solvent mixture on sphere formation was of great importance. Microspheres would not form when the good polymer solvent (methylene chloride) in the non-solvent phase was too low (below 175 ml for poly-L-lactic acid or 150 ml for poly(D,L-lactidco-glycolid)) or was replaced by another good solvent such as ethyl acetate, even though the same viscosity was achieved. It was shown that the concentration of the good solvent in the non-solvent mixture was more of a controlling factor than the viscosity of the non-solvent mixture in microsphere formation and the findings support the conclusion that diffusion is the main controlling parameter in solvent removal.

  15. George Herbert Mead on consciousness: antidote to Cartesian absurdities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willert, Søren

    The article explicates George Herbert Mead's theory of consciousness as presented in Mind, Self and Society. According to Mead, the term consciousness may refer to three different sets of phenomena: (1) the environment as implied by our goal-directed action; Mead names this consciousness aspect...... experience; it is shared by humans and subhuman animals alike; (2) consciousness of environmental experience; Mead names this consciousness aspect awareness; it is exclusively human; (3) the peculiar sensed qualities attaching to consciousness, equalling what is today named qualia. Descartes......-inspired psychology makes the third consciousness aspect all-important. Within Mead's framework for a darwinistically inspired psycholgy, it becomes theoretically insignificant....

  16. The neurophysical basis of mind and consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beichler, James

    2012-04-01

    A living body is just a complex pattern of energetic particle exchanges to physicists when compared to the biochemical processes studied by chemists and biologists. New research has centered more upon the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic characteristics of life. It is easy to model mind and consciousness as the electric and magnetic counterparts of living organisms. Mind is an extremely complex electric scalar field pattern and consciousness is the corresponding magnetic vector potential field pattern. As humans, we may have the most complex and advanced mind and consciousness known, but all living organisms display mind and consciousness at various lower levels than our human mind and consciousness. Mind and consciousness have mistakenly become associated with the brain and no other part of the body because of the dense concentration of neurons in the brain. A strict study of the magnetic vector potential field patterns associated with neural microtubules, neurons and neural nets demonstrates how thoughts and streams of thought originate in the brain and are stored magnetically. Microtubules, which act as magnetic induction coils, are the primary structural bio-unit used for building, storing and retrieving memories in the mind.

  17. What kind of consciousness is minimal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchoubey, Boris; Vogel, Dominik; Lang, Simone; Müller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    A comparison between unitary and non-unitary views on minimal consciousness. First, unitary (all-or-none) and non-unitary (gradual or continuous) models of consciousness are defined as they have been developed in both philosophy and neurophysiology. Then, the implications of these ideas to the notion the minimally conscious state (MCS) are discussed. Review and analysis of theoretical conceptions and empirical data. Both kinds of models are compatible with the actual definitions of MCS. Although unitary views may seem to contradict the description of the MCS in 'Neurology' 2002, the apparent contradiction can easily be solved. Most recent data, particularly those obtained using fMRI and concerning learning, emotional responsiveness and pain and suffering, speak for non-unitary models. Most evidence speaks for non-unitary models of minimal consciousness. If these models are correct, patients with MCS may have, in addition to temporal fluctuations, a lower level of consciousness compared with fully conscious individuals. A still lower level could characterize patients diagnosed as unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS). From this point of view, therefore, the difference between UWS and MCS is gradual rather than qualitative. However, due to methodological limitations of the available studies, the evidence for non-unitary models cannot be regarded as definite.

  18. The function of consciousness in multisensory integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Terry D; Ramsey, Ashley K

    2012-12-01

    The function of consciousness was explored in two contexts of audio-visual speech, cross-modal visual attention guidance and McGurk cross-modal integration. Experiments 1, 2, and 3 utilized a novel cueing paradigm in which two different flash suppressed lip-streams cooccured with speech sounds matching one of these streams. A visual target was then presented at either the audio-visually congruent or incongruent location. Target recognition differed for the congruent versus incongruent trials, and the nature of this difference depended on the probabilities of a target appearing at these respective locations. Thus, even though the lip-streams were never consciously perceived, they were nevertheless meaningfully integrated with the consciously perceived sounds, and participants learned to guide their attention according to statistical regularities between targets and these unconsciously perceived cross-modal cues. In Experiment 4, McGurk stimuli were presented in which the lip-streams were either flash suppressed (4a) or unsuppressed (4b), and the McGurk effect was found to vanish under conditions of flash suppression. Overall, these results suggest a simple yet fundamental principle regarding the function of consciousness in multisensory integration - cross-modal effects can occur in the absence of consciousness, but the influencing modality must be consciously perceived for its information to cross modalities.

  19. Sleep neuroimaging and models of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo eTagliazucchi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Human deep sleep is characterized by reduced or absent sensory activity, responsiveness to stimuli and conscious awareness. Given its ubiquity and reversible nature, it represents an attractive paradigm to study the neural changes which accompany the loss of consciousness in humans. In particular, the deepest stages of sleep can serve as an empirical test for the predictions of theoretical models relating the phenomenology of consciousness with underlying neural activity. A relatively recent shift of attention from the analysis of evoked responses towards spontaneous (or ``resting state'' activity has taken place in the neuroimaging community, together with the development of tools suitable to study distributed functional interactions. In this review we focus on recent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI studies of spontaneous activity during sleep and their relationship with theoretical models for human consciousness generation, considering the global workspace theory, the information integration theory and the dynamical core hypothesis. We discuss the venues of research opened by these results, emphasizing the need to extend the analytic methodology in order to obtain a dynamical picture of how functional interactions change over time and how their evolution is modulated during different conscious states. Finally, we discuss the need to experimentally establish absent or reduced conscious content, even when studying the deepest sleep stages.

  20. Intuitive decisions on the fringes of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark C. Price

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making research often dichotomises between more deliberative, cognitive processes and more heuristic, intuitive and emotional processes. We argue that within this two-systems framework (e.g., Kahneman, 2002 there is ambiguity over how to map the System 1/System 2 axis, and the notion of intuitive processing, onto the distinction between conscious and non-conscious processes. However the convergent concepts of experience-based metacognitive judgements (Koriat, 2007 and of fringe consciousness (Mangan, 1993 can clarify intuitive processing as an informative extit{conscious feeling} without conscious access to the antecedents of the feeling. We stress that these intuitive feelings can be used to guide behaviour in a controlled and contextually sensitive manner that would not be permitted by purely non-conscious influences on behaviour. An outline is provided for how to empirically recognise these intuitive feelings. This is illustrated with an example from research on implicit learning where intuitive feelings may play an important role in peoples' decisions and judgements. Finally we suggest that our approach to understanding intuitive feelings softens rather than reinforces the two-systems dichotomy.

  1. [Recovery of consciousness: process-oriented approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusarova, S B

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally psychological neurorehabilitation of neurosurgical patients is provided subject to availability of clear consciousness and minimal potential to communicate verbally. Cognitive and emotional disorders, problems in social adaptation, neurotic syndromes are normally targets in such cases. We work with patients having survived severe brain damage being in different states of consciousness: vegetative state, minimal state of consciousness, mutism, confusion, posttraumatic Korsaroff syndrom. Psychologist considers recovery of consciousness as the target besides traditional tasks. Construction of communication with patient is central part of such job, where the patient remains unable to contact verbally, yet it is impossible to consider potential aphasia. This is a non-verbal "dialogue" with patient created by psychologist with gradual development and involving other people and objects of environment. Inline with modern neuroscientific achievements demonstrating ability to recognize by patients with severe brain injury (A. Owen, S. Laureys, M. Monti, M. Coleman, A. Soddu, M. Boly and others) we base upon psychological science, on psychotherapeutic approaches containing instruments inevitable to work with patients in altered states of consciousness and creation of non-verbal communication with patient (Jung, Reich, Alexander, Lowen, Keleman, Arnold and Amy Mindell, S. Tomandl, D. Boadella, A. Längle, P. Levin etc). This article will include 15 years of experience to apply Process-oriented approach by A. Mindell to recovery of consciousness of neurosurgical patients based on work with "minimal signals" (micro moves, breath, mimic reactions etc.), principle of feedback, psychosomatic resonance, empathy.

  2. Is Your Gut Conscious? Is an Extraterrestrial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos Post, Jonathan

    2011-10-01

    This paper speculates on questions intending to be taken scientifically rather than metaphysically: "Can the human gut (enteric nervous system) be conscious?"; "Can your immune system think?"; "Could consciousness be coded in DNA?"; "What do we mean when asserting that an Extraterrestrial is Thinking, or is Conscious? We explore through reference to theory, experiment, and computational models by Christof Koch (Caltech), Barbara Wold (Caltech), and Stuart Kauffman (University of Calgary, Tampere University of Technology, Santa Fe Institute). We use a tentative new definition of thinking, designed to be applicable for humans, cetecea, corvids, artificial intelligences, and extraterrestrial intelligences of any substrate (i.e. Life as We Do Not Know It): "Thinking is the occurrence, transformation, and storage in a mind or brain (or simulation thereof) of information-bearing structures (representations) of one kind or another, such as thoughts, concept, percepts, ideas, impressions, notions, rules, schemas, images, phantasms, or subpersonal representations." We use the framework for Consciousness developed by Francis Crick and Christof Koch. We try to describe scientific goals, but discuss Philosophy sufficient to avoid naïve philosophical category errors (thus are careful not to conflate thought, consciousness, and language) Penrose, Hameroff, and Kauffman speculate (differently) that CNS consciousness is a macroscopic quantum phenomenon. Might intestinal, immune system, or genetic regulatory network dynamics exhibit emergent cooperative quantum effects? The speculations are in the context of Evolution by Natural Selection, presumed to operate throughout the Cosmos, and recent work in the foundations of Computational Biology and Quantum Mechanics.

  3. Postprandial hemodynamics in the conscious rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anzueto Hernandez, L.; Kvietys, P.R.; Granger, D.N.

    1986-07-01

    The postprandial intestinal hyperemia was studied in conscious and anesthetized rats using the radioactive microsphere technique. Carbohydrate, protein, lipid, and mixed meals, and the vehicle (Tyrode's solution), were placed in the stomach via a gastrostomy tube. In conscious rats, blood flow increased by 40-80% in the duodenum and jejunum 1 h after either a carbohydrate, lipid, protein, or mixed meal. Tyrode's solution produced a comparable hyperemia. Blood flow in the distal bowel segments (ileum, cecum, and colon) was significantly increased only by Tyrode's solution and the carbohydrate meal. The proximal intestinal hyperemia produced by the mixed meal in conscious animals was significantly attenuated by vagotomy yet unaltered by atropine pretreatment. In contrast to the results obtained from conscious rats, the mixed meal did not significantly alter intestinal blood flow in anesthetized animals. The results of this study indicate that the postprandial intestinal hyperemia is much greater in conscious than anesthetized animals. This difference may result from the higher resting blood flows in the latter group. The hyperemic response in conscious animals may be mediated by the vagus nerve.

  4. Diamex solvent regeneration studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicol, C.; Cames, B.; Margot, L.; Ramain, L. [CEA/VALRHO - site de Marcoule, Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification, DRRV, 30 - Marcoule (France)

    2000-07-01

    The CEA has undertaken the development of the DIAMEX process as the first step in the strategy aiming at recovering minor actinides which could then be transmuted or separately conditioned. The scientific feasibility of this process was demonstrated during counter current hot tests operated in 1993. Then experimental works were conducted, on one hand to optimise the extractant formula, on the other hand to improve the flowsheet. Reference extractant and flowsheet were then chosen, respectively in 1995 and 1996. The next step, still in progress, is the demonstration of the DIAMEX technical feasibility (in 2002); this means that the flowsheet should include solvent regeneration treatments. In this aim, degradation studies were performed to quantify main degradation products, and identify those which could be disturbing in the process. This paper deals with experimental studies performed with intend to propose a regeneration treatment, included in the flowsheet, so that the solvent could be recycled. It comprises: - Quantification of the main degradation products issued from radiolysis or hydrolysis, which are methyl octyl amine (MOA) and carboxylic acids; - Effects of these products on extracting and hydrodynamics performances of the process; - Study of methods able to remove mainly disturbing degradation products. Acidic scrubbing, which are performed in the scrubbing and stripping sections of the DIAMEX process, should allow the quantitative removal of methyl octyl amine. Then basic scrubbings, which were more especially studied, should eliminate at least 80% of carboxylic acids, and part of the cations remaining in the solvent. (authors)

  5. Neural Correlates of Contents and Levels of Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Overgaard, Morten; Overgaard, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the neural substrate of consciousness typically take one of two paths, studying (1) contents or (2) levels of consciousness. It seems obvious to most that these two “paths” are interrelated, yet much less obvious how. This paper gives one suggestion to grasp the interrelation, arguing that conscious levels are determined by conscious contents in a very specific way. It follows from the argument that conscious contents are so-called natural kinds, whereas conscio...

  6. Networks of conscious experience: computational neuroscience in understanding life, death, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisman, Gerry; Koch, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate brain locations appearing to correlate with consciousness, but not being directly responsible for it. Technology reveals that brain activity is associated with consciousness but is not equivalent to it. We examine how consciousness occurs at critical levels of complexity. Conventional explanations portray consciousness as an emergent property of classical computer-like activities in the brain's neural networks. Prevailing views in this camp are that patterns of neural network activities correlate with mental states, that synchronous network oscillations in the thalamus and cerebral cortex temporally bind information, and that consciousness emerges as a novel property of computational complexity among neurons. A hard-wired theory is enigmatic for explaining consciousness because the nature of subjective experience, or 'qualia'- 'inner life' - is a "hard problem" to understand; binding spatially distributed brain activity into unitary objects, and a coherent sense of self, or 'oneness' is difficult to explain as is the transition from pre- to conscious states. Consciousness is non-computable and involves factors that are neither random nor algorithmic - consciousness cannot be simulated; explanations are also needed for free will and for subjective time flow. Convention argues that neurons and their chemical synapses are the fundamental units of information in the brain, and that conscious experience emerges when a critical level of complexity is reached in the brain's neural networks. The basic idea is that the mind is a computer functioning in the brain. In fitting the brain to a computational view, such explanations omit incompatible neurophysiological details, including widespread apparent randomness at all levels of neural processes (is it really noise, or underlying levels of complexity?); glial cells (which account for some 80% of the brain); dendritic-dendritic processing; electrotonic gap junctions; cytoplasmic/cytoskeletal activities; living

  7. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed......, the complex phenomenon of a manufacturing network evolution is observed by combining the analysis of a manufacturing plant and network level. The historical trajectories of manufacturing networks that are presented in the case studies are examined in order to understand and determine the future shape...

  8. Manufacturing network evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Farooq, Sami; Johansen, John

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper examines the effect of changes at the manufacturing plant level on other plants in the manufacturing network and also investigates the role of manufacturing plants on the evolution of a manufacturing network. Design/methodology/approach –The research questions are developed...... by identifying the gaps in the reviewed literature. The paper is based on three case studies undertaken in Danish manufacturing companies to explore in detail their manufacturing plants and networks. The cases provide a sound basis for developing the research questions and explaining the interaction between...... different manufacturing plants in the network and their impact on network transformation. Findings – The paper highlights the dominant role of manufacturing plants in the continuously changing shape of a manufacturing network. The paper demonstrates that a product or process change at one manufacturing...

  9. Solvents in Organic Synthesis: Replacement and Multi-step Reaction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Gómez, Paola Arenas; Folic, Milica

    2008-01-01

    with the principles of green chemistry, highlight the need to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible. One important step in optimizing organic solvent use is the identification of suitable ‘greener' solvents that can help to minimize the environmental, health and safety concerns during...... design and commercial manufacture of chemical products. A method for selecting appropriate ‘greener' solvents for the promotion of a class of organic reactions has been previously developed by Gani et al. This method employs estimates of thermodynamic properties to generate a knowledge base of reaction...

  10. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  11. Occupational solvent exposure and cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbath, E.L.; Glymour, M.M.; Berr, C.; Singh-Manoux, A.; Zins, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Chronic occupational solvent exposure is associated with long-term cognitive deficits. Cognitive reserve may protect solvent-exposed workers from cognitive impairment. We tested whether the association between chronic solvent exposure and cognition varied by educational attainment, a proxy for cognitive reserve. Methods: Data were drawn from a prospective cohort of French national gas and electricity (GAZEL) employees (n = 4,134). Lifetime exposure to 4 solvent types (chlorinated solvents, petroleum solvents, benzene, and nonbenzene aromatic solvents) was assessed using a validated job-exposure matrix. Education was dichotomized at less than secondary school or below. Cognitive impairment was defined as scoring below the 25th percentile on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test at mean age 59 (SD 2.8; 88% of participants were retired at testing). Log-binomial regression was used to model risk ratios (RRs) for poor cognition as predicted by solvent exposure, stratified by education and adjusted for sociodemographic and behavioral factors. Results: Solvent exposure rates were higher among less-educated patients. Within this group, there was a dose-response relationship between lifetime exposure to each solvent type and RR for poor cognition (e.g., for high exposure to benzene, RR = 1.24, 95% confidence interval 1.09–1.41), with significant linear trends (p < 0.05) in 3 out of 4 solvent types. Recency of solvent exposure also predicted worse cognition among less-educated patients. Among those with secondary education or higher, there was no significant or near-significant relationship between any quantification of solvent exposure and cognition. Conclusions: Solvent exposure is associated with poor cognition only among less-educated individuals. Higher cognitive reserve in the more-educated group may explain this finding. PMID:22641403

  12. The neurochemical correlate of consciousness: exploring neurotransmitter systems underlying conscious vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Loon, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    How and where does our brain integrated the information that we get into our eyes into a unifying percept and into a conscious experience? Although different neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) have been proposed, depending on the kind of neural signals recorded, the type of manipulation used,

  13. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R.; Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  14. Measuring the level and content of consciousness during epileptic seizures: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, A E; Mula, M; Servo, S; Strigaro, G; Tota, G; Barbagli, D; Collimedaglia, L; Viana, M; Cantello, R; Monaco, F

    2008-07-01

    Ictal alterations of the level of general awareness and subjective content of consciousness play a pivotal role in the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy, and reflect the pathological involvement of different neurobiological substrates. However, no self-reported measures have been proposed for patients experiencing altered conscious states during seizures. This study describes the development and validation of a new scale for the quantitative assessment of the level and content of ictal consciousness, the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI). The ICI is a 20-item questionnaire generated on the basis of interviews with patients, literature review, and consultation with experts. It was tested on a sample of 110 patients attending three different epilepsy clinics in Northern Italy, who also completed standardized clinical scales. Standard psychometric methods were used to demonstrate that this scale satisfies criteria for acceptability, reliability, and validity. The ICI is proposed as a user-friendly and clinically sound instrument for the measurement of ictal alterations of consciousness in patients with epilepsy.

  15. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R; Mateos, D M; Wennberg, R; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  16. Solvent effects in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Buncel, Erwin

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces the concepts, theory and experimental knowledge concerning solvent effects on the rate and equilibrium of chemical reactions of all kinds.  It begins with basic thermodynamics and kinetics, building on this foundation to demonstrate how a more detailed understanding of these effects may be used to aid in determination of reaction mechanisms, and to aid in planning syntheses. Consideration is given to theoretical calculations (quantum chemistry, molecular dynamics, etc.), to statistical methods (chemometrics), and to modern day concerns such as ""green"" chemistry, where ut

  17. Consciousness, the brain, and spacetime geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, S

    2001-04-01

    What is consciousness? Conventional approaches see it as an emergent property of complex interactions among individual neurons; however these approaches fail to address enigmatic features of consciousness. Accordingly, some philosophers have contended that "qualia," or an experiential medium from which consciousness is derived, exists as a fundamental component of reality. Whitehead, for example, described the universe as being composed of "occasions of experience." To examine this possibility scientifically, the very nature of physical reality must be re-examined. We must come to terms with the physics of spacetime--as described by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and its relation to the fundamental theory of matter--as described by quantum theory. Roger Penrose has proposed a new physics of objective reduction: "OR," which appeals to a form of quantum gravity to provide a useful description of fundamental processes at the quantum/classical borderline. Within the OR scheme, we consider that consciousness occurs if an appropriately organized system is able to develop and maintain quantum coherent superposition until a specific "objective" criterion (a threshold related to quantum gravity) is reached; the coherent system then self-reduces (objective reduction: OR). We contend that this type of objective self-collapse introduces non-computability, an essential feature of consciousness which distinguishes our minds from classical computers. Each OR is taken as an instantaneous event--the climax of a self-organizing process in fundamental spacetime--and a candidate for a conscious Whitehead "occasion of experience." How could an OR process occur in the brain, be coupled to neural activities, and account for other features of consciousness? We nominate a quantum computational OR process with the requisite characteristics to be occurring in cytoskeletal micro-tubules within the brain's neurons. In this model, quantum-superposed states develop in microtubule

  18. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    Addressing three development trends of manufacturing, this thesis aims to explore: (1) facing challenges on manufacturing (globalisation, knowledge-based manufacturing and servitisation of manufacturing), what kinds of roles does manufacturing play within industrial companies; (2) along...... with the trend of globalisation, how do industrial companies develop their global manufacturing networks? These two questions are actually interlinked. On the one hand, facing increasing offshoring and outsourcing of production activities, industrial companies have to understand how to develop their global...... manufacturing networks. On the other hand, ongoing globalisation also brings tremendous impacts to post-industrial economies (e.g. Denmark). A dilemma therefore arises, i.e. whether it is still necessary to keep manufacturing in these post-industrial economies; if yes, what kinds of roles manufacturing should...

  19. Framework for Grid Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈笠; 邓宏; 邓倩妮; 吴振宇

    2004-01-01

    With the development of networked manufacturing, it is more and more imminent to solve problems caused by inherent limitations of network technology, such as heterogeneity, collaboration collision, and decentralized control.This paper presents a framework for grid manufacturing, which neatly combines grid technology with the infrastructure of advanced manufacturing technology.The paper studies grid-oriented knowledge description and acquisition, and constructs a distributed knowledge grid model.The paper also deals with the protocol of node description in collaborative design, and describes a distributed collaborative design model.The protocol and node technology leads to a collaborative production model for grid manufacturing.The framework for grid manufacturing offers an effective and feasible solution for the problems of networked manufacturing.The grid manufacturing will become an advanced distributed manufacturing model and promote the development of advanced manufacturing technologies.

  20. The emergence of consciousness: Science and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagercrantz, Hugo

    2014-10-01

    The newborn human infant is conscious at a minimal level. It is aware of its body, itself and to some extent of the outside world. It recognizes faces and vowels to which it has been exposed. It expresses emotions like joy. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the newborn brain shows highest activity in the somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortex but less activity in association area and the prefrontal cortex as compared with adults. There is an incomplete default mode network which is assumed to be related to consciousness. Although the fetus reacts to pain, maternal speaking, etc., it is probably not aware of this due to the low oxygen level and sedation. Assuming that consciousness is mainly localized in the cortex, consciousness cannot emerge before 24 gestational weeks when the thalamocortical connections from the sense organs are established. Thus the limit of legal abortion at 22-24 weeks in many countries makes sense. It should also be possible to withdraw or withhold life-saving therapy of extremely preterm infants, especially if they are severely brain-damaged. This may also apply to full-term infants with grade III hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, who show no signs of consciousness.

  1. Functional neuroanatomy of disorders of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Perri, Carol; Stender, Johan; Laureys, Steven; Gosseries, Olivia

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms of loss and recovery of consciousness, following severe brain injury or during anesthesia, is changing rapidly. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that patients with chronic disorders of consciousness and subjects undergoing general anesthesia present a complex dysfunctionality in the architecture of brain connectivity. At present, the global hallmark of impaired consciousness appears to be a multifaceted dysfunctional connectivity pattern with both within-network loss of connectivity in a widespread frontoparietal network and between-network hyperconnectivity involving other regions such as the insula and ventral tegmental area. Despite ongoing efforts, the mechanisms underlying the emergence of consciousness after severe brain injury are not thoroughly understood. Important questions remain unanswered: What triggers the connectivity impairment leading to disorders of consciousness? Why do some patients recover from coma, while others with apparently similar brain injuries do not? Understanding these mechanisms could lead to a better comprehension of brain function and, hopefully, lead to new therapeutic strategies in this challenging patient population.

  2. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility: Low Temperature Materials Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, David E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Moon, Ji-Won [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Armstrong, Beth L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Datskos, Panos G. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Duty, Chad E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gresback, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ivanov, Ilia N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jacobs, Christopher B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jellison, Gerald Earle [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jang, Gyoung Gug [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joshi, Pooran C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jung, Hyunsung [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Meyer, III, Harry M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Phelps, Tommy [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) low temperature materials synthesis project was established to demonstrate a scalable and sustainable process to produce nanoparticles (NPs) for advanced manufacturing. Previous methods to chemically synthesize NPs typically required expensive, high-purity inorganic chemical reagents, organic solvents and high temperatures. These processes were typically applied at small laboratory scales at yields sufficient for NP characterization, but insufficient to support roll-to-roll processing efforts or device fabrication. The new NanoFermentation processes described here operated at a low temperature (~60 C) in low-cost, aqueous media using bacteria that produce extracellular NPs with controlled size and elemental stoichiometry. Up-scaling activities successfully demonstrated high NP yields and quality in a 900-L pilot-scale reactor, establishing this NanoFermentation process as a competitive biomanufacturing strategy to produce NPs for advanced manufacturing of power electronics, solid-state lighting and sensors.

  3. Emotion and Consciousness: Ends of a Continuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri I. Alexandrov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest a united concept of consciousness and emotion, based on the systemic cognitive neuroscience perspective regarding organisms as active and goaldirected. We criticize the idea that consciousness and emotion are psychological phenomena having quite different neurophysiological mechanisms. We argue that both characterize a unified systemic organization of behavior, but at different levels. All systems act to achieve intended behavioral results in interaction with their environment. Differentiation of this interaction increases during individual development. Any behavioral act is a simultaneous realization of systems ranking from the least to the most differentiated. We argue that consciousness and emotion are dynamic systemic characteristics that are prominent at the most and least differentiated systemic levels, correspondingly. These levels are created during development. Our theory is based on both theoretical and empirical research and provides a solid framework for experimental work.

  4. Bosman and self-conscious fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meihuizen

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available Bosman, in a number of ways, underlines his fascination with his medium. In this article, an attempt is made to indicate some of the ways in which he does this. Particular attention is paid to Bosman’s use of commentary, his own self-conscious reflections on the text before the reader. Using two stories, “Unto Dust”, and “Old Transvaal Story”, I present the ways in which Bosman’s self-consciousness manifests itself in his art. If he is so adept at undermining illusion, what yet entertains us in the most self-conscious of his texts? It is argued that his fascination with his medium is buttressed by his ability to delude us, which displaces our reliance on illusion.

  5. [Pain as a biological phenomenon of consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, A

    1998-02-11

    Pain has not to be considered a false step of nature. On the contrary, it is an extremely effective warning mechanism through which the individual becomes aware of a danger to its own physical integrity from inside the body or from the environment. Pain therefore belongs to the biological devices for evading bodily danger. The conscious experience of pain is the most sophisticated stage of evolution of warning systems, whose simplest form is represented by an unicellular organism which moves away if it anticipates danger from an environmental state. Similar to all qualia, conscious experience of pain cannot be fully explained in terms of neurophysiological events. Conscious pain is a complex perceptual and affective experience influenced not by the amount of the bodily lesion alone, but also by the whole personality of the sufferer. This often makes surgical, medical and psychological treatment of pain difficult and disappointing.

  6. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  7. Against the View that Consciousness and Attention are Fully Dissociable

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind o...

  8. Phenomenological views on intersubjectivity: towards a reinterpretation of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, Luis Manuel

    2008-06-01

    Intersubjectivity and consciousness are reinterpreted according to the dynamic and relational coordinates of lived experience. Consciousness is not just another property of the subject, but rather the condition itself of his/her own being-in-the-world. The different aspects of consciousness are the moments and movements which constitute its intentional structure. These structures lead us to reinterpret material embodiment, temporality, and intersubjectivity as the "complex" steps taken by consciousness, which in its movements does not turn inward, on itself like a transcendental, reasoning, and self-centred consciousness, but, on the contrary, as an embodied consciousness immersed in others and in the world.

  9. Fractal characterization of neural correlates of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibañez-Molina, A. J.; Iglesias-Parro, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we present a novel experimental paradigm, based on binocular rivalry, to address the study of internally and externally generated conscious percepts. Assuming the nonlinear nature of the EEG signals, we propose the use of fractal dimension to characterize the complexity of the EEG associated with each percept. Data analysis showed significant differences in complexity between the internally and externally generated percepts. Moreover, EEG complexity of auditory and visual percepts was unequal. These results support fractal dimension analyses as a new tool to characterize conscious perception.

  10. A thalamic reticular networking model of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Byoung-Kyong

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract [Background] It is reasonable to consider the thalamus a primary candidate for the location of consciousness, given that the thalamus has been referred to as the gateway of nearly all sensory inputs to the corresponding cortical areas. Interestingly, in an early stage of brain development, communicative innervations between the dorsal thalamus and telencephalon must pass through the ventral thalamus, the major derivative of which is the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN. The TRN occupies a striking control position in the brain, sending inhibitory axons back to the thalamus, roughly to the same region where they receive afferents. [Hypotheses] The present study hypothesizes that the TRN plays a pivotal role in dynamic attention by controlling thalamocortical synchronization. The TRN is thus viewed as a functional networking filter to regulate conscious perception, which is possibly embedded in thalamocortical networks. Based on the anatomical structures and connections, modality-specific sectors of the TRN and the thalamus appear to be responsible for modality-specific perceptual representation. Furthermore, the coarsely overlapped topographic maps of the TRN appear to be associated with cross-modal or unitary conscious awareness. Throughout the latticework structure of the TRN, conscious perception could be accomplished and elaborated through accumulating intercommunicative processing across the first-order input signal and the higher-order signals from its functionally associated cortices. As the higher-order relay signals run cumulatively through the relevant thalamocortical loops, conscious awareness becomes more refined and sophisticated. [Conclusions] I propose that the thalamocortical integrative communication across first- and higher-order information circuits and repeated feedback looping may account for our conscious awareness. This TRN-modulation hypothesis for conscious awareness provides a comprehensive rationale regarding

  11. Brain Endogenous Feedback and Degrees of Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrara-Augustenborg, Claudia; Pereira Jr., Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    positive and negative feedback loops. Variable levels of consciousness are proposed to depend on the degree of resonance between these networks. The resonance can occur in the absence of salient external stimulation and, even when such stimulation occurs, the response of the coupled networks is always......We present a hypothesis to explain how the brain operates to generate different degrees of consciousness. We relate our model to recent evidence from brain morphology and physiology, indicating that the central nervous system contains two parallel networks (neuronal and astroglial) establishing...

  12. Self-consciousness Scale: a Brazilian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, M A; Gomes, W B

    1995-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of a Brazilian version of the Self-consciousness Scale to university students. Factorial structure, subscale intercorrelations, and normative data obtained with 182 subjects are reported. These results suggest that the proposed model of self-consciousness is applicable in the Brazilian culture, although some significant sex differences were found for two of the scales. Reliability tests and the factorial validity of the scale showed that this version still needs refinement to be used as a reliable research tool.

  13. The Unconscious, Self-consciousness, and Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Marraffa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article I argue that (1 introspective self-consciousness is an activity of narrative re-appropriation of the products of the cognitive unconscious; and (2 this activity has an essentially self-defensive character, being ruled by the primary and universal need to construct and protect a subjective identity whose solidity is the ground of the intrapsychic and interpersonal balances of human organism. Finally, in this framework firmly based on psychological sciences, I reconsider John Locke’s link between responsibility and self-consciousness.

  14. Stimulus independence, social cognition and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Jonathan

    2011-06-01

    Abstract A consensus emerging from neuroscience is that certain brain regions show activity correlated with stimulus independent (e.g. private) conscious thought and yet are also implicated in public social processes. The fact that systems supporting social processing also exhibit activity with no obvious perceptual referent, can be seen as support for the framework suggested by Graziano and Kerber (this volume) once it is recognized that the property of stimulus independence is also an important feature of consciousness. Understanding the social basis behind private stimulus independent thought, therefore, may provide an important assessment of the validity of the Graziano and Kerber hypothesis.

  15. Measuring consciousness in coma and related states

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carol; Di; Perri; Aurore; Thibaut; Lizette; Heine; Andrea; Soddu; Athena; Demertzi; Steven; Laureys

    2014-01-01

    Consciousness is a prismatic and ambiguous concept that still eludes any universal definition. Severe acquired brain injuries resulting in a disorder of con-sciousness(DOC) provide a model from which insights into consciousness can be drawn. A number of recent studies highlight the difficulty in making a diagnosis in patients with DOC based only on behavioral assessments. Here we aim to provide an overview of how neuroimaging techniques can help assess patients with DOC. Such techniques are expected to facilitate a more accurate understanding of brain function in states of unconsciousness and to improve the evaluation of thepatient’s cognitive abilities by providing both diagnostic and prognostic indicators.

  16. [An existential-phenomenological approach to consciousness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langle, A

    2014-01-01

    The human beings are characterized as subjects. Their essence is understood as Person. A treatment which does not consider the subjective and the Person would not correspond their essence. For a feeling and autonomous being, consciousness plays a role but cannot fully correspond the being a person. This has a therapeutic impact on the treatment of unconscious patients and gives the treatment a specific access. Some instructions for the therapeutic application of the phenomenological-existential concept and the phenomenological attitude towards unconscious or brain traumatized patients are given. The role of consciousness for being human is briefly reflected from an existential perspective.

  17. PM and Their Staffs: Does Sustainable Manufacturing Mean ’Going Green’?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    solvents Waste paint, solvent  containers, and  paint booth filters Machining  and  Metalworking Cutting oils, lube oils,  and solvents VOC emissions...Support & Maintenance  Concepts & Technologies  • Cost & Manpower Estimates Activities Real Example 12/6/2011 17Sustainable Manufacturing Beryllium  Mirrors

  18. Epic Consciousness: A Pertinent New Unification of an Important Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon M Neppe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available “Consciousness” has traditionally been the most difficult term to describe because it’s conceptualized variably and incompletely between, and even within different specialties. In this theoretical paper, we propose for the first time a detailed new “EPIC Consciousness” classification integrating four is overlapping EPIC “prongs”: Existential, Paradigmatic, Information-meaning and Cybernetic. Each necessarily comes with new terms. E: Existential “distinctions” of Consciousness are further subdivided into “extent, content and impact distinctions” a. Consciousness extent substrate: measurable ordinal Consciousness dimensions are tethered to measurable Space and Time dimensions. b. Consciousness content matrix: This Consciousness container is comparable with mass- energy containers. c. Consciousness impact: Consciousness impacts and influences the “extent” and “content”. P: Paradigmatic levels of Consciousness: Consciousness involves a four-level gradation I. Qualit Consciousness: the most basic consciousness (Qualit level always exists in everything inanimate or animate as everything contains the most fundamental discrete finite physical meaning. Qualits are quanta plus meaning. II. Neurobiological/ Neurological Consciousness: the endpoint nervous system expression of all living (animate beings. They have awareness and responsiveness. III. Psychological Consciousness: involving humans and animals. The psychological is disputably partly separated from the neurological. IV. Higher Consciousness disputably outside the brain: This might involve dreams, meditation, creative, transcendent, psi and altered states, plus mystical traits. V. These four levels are all applicable to living humans. Information converted to meaning: Infinitely large repositories of general information are expressed as direct targeted, specific meaningful information. Cybernetic consciousness communications: This provides a mechanistic input, central

  19. Alternatives to Organic Solvents in Industrial Cleaning Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    cleaning agents in offset printing companies instead of volatile, toxic organic solvents. The present study is based on a project with the aim of defining other industrial processes, where organic solvents used for cleaning or degreasing can be replaced by non-volatile, low-toxic products, which are based...... on esters from fatty acids of vegetable origin (vegetable esters - VE).The study indicates that industrial cleaning/degreasing with organic solvents may be substituted with VEs on metal surfaces and on some coated surfaces, in manufacture of paints and inks, use of paints, use of inks (printing), metal...... industry, and vehicle repair and maintenance. There are, however, other elements that influence the possibility to substitute. The requirements to the resulting surface, depending on the following treatment of the surface. The character of the soilings to be removed. The possible presence of other...

  20. Northwest Manufacturing Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-31

    warehouse. If the batch of lenses is faulty, the manufacturer wants to know ASAP in order to send Visionary Lenses a new batch of lenses. The manufacturer ...increased. • A few years ago, Nike started using pre-consumer Nike Grind – (scrap material from their manufacturing facilities) – in new ...Northwest ( in particular with firms in the manufacturing eco-system of defense supply chains). Special emphasis was placed to increase the

  1. Manufacturing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johannes; Boer, Henrike Engele Elisabeth; Boer, Harry

    This report compares the manufacturing strategies, practices, performances and improvement activities of 39 companies that are representative for the Danish assembly industry with those of 804 companies from 19 other countries. The data supporting this report were collected in 2013 and concern......: • Manufacturing strategies pursued and implemented between 2010 and 2012. • Performance improvements achieved during that period. • Actual manufacturing practices and performances as well as competitive priorities in 2012. • Manufacturing strategies pursued for the years 2010-2012....

  2. Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Stewart W.; Martina, Filomeno; Addison, Adrian C.; Ding, Jialuo; Pardal, Goncalo; Colegrove, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Depositing large components (>10 kg) in titanium, aluminium, steel and other metals is possible using Wire + Arc Additive Manufacturing. This technology adopts arc welding tools and wire as feedstock for additive manufacturing purposes. High deposition rates, low material and equipment costs, and good structural integrity make Wire+Arc Additive Manufacturing a suitable candidate for replacing the current method of manufacturing from solid billets or large forgings, especially with regards to ...

  3. Designing using manufacturing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szecsi, T.; Hoque, A. S. M.

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a design system that enables the composition of a part using manufacturing features. Features are selected from feature libraries. Upon insertion, the system ensures that the feature does not contradict the design-for-manufacture rules. This helps eliminating costly manufacturing problems. The system is developed as an extension to a commercial CAD/CAM system Pro/Engineer.

  4. Solvent-Detergent Treatment of IgM-Enriched Immunoglobulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Pourmokhtar

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Viral safety of human plasma products plays a key role in their safe uses. Solvent- detergent (SD virus-inactivation method has gained widespread popularity in the manufacture of biological products. This treatment which inactivates lipid-enveloped viruses effectively consists of incubation of a plasma protein solution in the presence of a non-volatile organic solvent and a detergent. In this study, IgM-enriched immunoglobulin was incubated at 24 °C for 6 h under slow stirring in the presence of tri(n-butyl phosphate (0.3% w/w as solvent and tween 80 (1% w/w as detergent. After completion of the inactivation process and removal of the solvent-detergent, the ability of SD-treatment to remove Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR virus (a lipid-enveloped virus and Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus (a non-enveloped virus were evaluated by "virus spiking studies" using a scaled down process. Reduction factor of 4 log was obtained for the SD-treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin spiked with IBR virus. No virus inactivation was observed in the SD-treated IgM-enriched immunoglobulin, spiked with Foot-and-Mouth Disease virus. It was concluded that treatment of IgM-enriched immunoglobulin with TNBP-TWEEN 80 may be considered as an efficient lipid-enveloped virus inactivation step in the manufacture of this product.

  5. Porous polymeric membranes with thermal and solvent resistance

    KAUST Repository

    Pulido, B.

    2017-05-30

    Polymeric membranes are highly advantageous over their ceramic counterparts in terms of the simplicity of the manufacturing process, cost and scalability. Their main disadvantages are low stability at temperatures above 200 °C, and in organic solvents. We report for the first time porous polymeric membranes manufactured from poly(oxindolebiphenylylene) (POXI), a polymer with thermal stability as high as 500 °C in oxidative conditions. The membranes were prepared by solution casting and phase inversion by immersion in water. The asymmetric porous morphology was characterized by scanning electronic microscopy. The pristine membranes are stable in alcohols, acetone, acetonitrile and hexane, as well as in aqueous solutions with pH between 0 and 14. The membrane stability was extended for application in other organic solvents by crosslinking, using various dibromides, and the efficiency of the different crosslinkers was evaluated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). POXI crosslinked membranes are stable up to 329 °C in oxidative conditions and showed organic solvent resistance in polar aprotic solvents with 99% rejection of Red Direct 80 in DMF at 70 °C. With this development, the application of polymeric membranes could be extended to high temperature and harsh environments, fields currently dominated by ceramic membranes.

  6. Vocabulary – semantics – consciousness: scientific-analitical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Telegina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article studies relations between vocabulary, words meaning, conceptualization process, thinking, consciousness. Consciousness strategies detection necessitates study of mental vocabulary, expressing mental activity state and processes.

  7. Against the View that Consciousness and Attention are Fully Dissociable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchetti, Giorgio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I will try to show that the idea that there can be consciousness without some form of attention, and high-level top-down attention without consciousness, originates from a failure to notice the varieties of forms that top-down attention and consciousness can assume. I will present evidence that: there are various forms of attention and consciousness; not all forms of attention produce the same kind of consciousness; not all forms of consciousness are produced by the same kind of attention; there can be low-level attention (or preliminary attention), whether of an endogenous or exogenous kind, without consciousness; attention cannot be considered the same thing as consciousness. PMID:22363307

  8. Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT): Manufacturing Initiative Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA supports the Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office (AMNPO). Hosted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) the AMNPO is...

  9. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  10. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of sp

  11. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  12. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  13. Concepts of Cognition and Consciousness: four voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonnie Nardi

    1996-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers theories of cognition and consciousness in four traditions: neuroscience, cognitive science, activity theory and the distributed cognition approach. It is most concerned with social theories of consciousness—activity theory and distributed cognition—but briefly considers biological and computational models as a foil or backdrop against which the social theories stand out more clearly.

  14. Critical Consciousness: Current Status and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Diemer, Matthew A.; Voight, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors consider Paulo Freire's construct of critical consciousness (CC) and why it deserves more attention in research and discourse on youth political and civic development. His approach to education and similar ideas by other scholars of liberation aims to foster a critical analysis of society--and one's status within…

  15. Social Interactions Receive Priority to Conscious Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Junzhu; van Boxtel, Jeroen J A; Lu, Hongjing

    2016-01-01

    Humans are social animals, constantly engaged with other people. The importance of social thought and action is hard to overstate. However, is social information so important that it actually determines which stimuli are promoted to conscious experience and which stimuli are suppressed as invisible? To address this question, we used a binocular rivalry paradigm, in which the two eyes receive different action stimuli. In two experiments we measured the conscious percept of rival actions and found that actions engaged in social interactions are granted preferential access to visual awareness over non-interactive actions. Lastly, an attentional task that presumably engaged the mentalizing system enhanced the priority assigned to social interactions in reaching conscious perception. We also found a positive correlation between human identification of interactive activity and the promotion of socially-relevant information to visual awareness. The present findings suggest that the visual system amplifies socially-relevant sensory information and actively promotes it to consciousness, thereby facilitating inferences about social interactions.

  16. State dissociation, human behavior, and consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahowald, Mark W; Cramer Bornemann, Michel A; Schenck, Carlos H

    2011-01-01

    Sleep is clearly not only a whole-brain or global phenomenon, but can also be a local phenomenon. This accounts for the fact that the primary states of being (wakefulness, NREM sleep, and REM sleep) are not necessarily mutually exclusive, and components of these states may appear in various combinations, with fascinating clinical consequences. Examples include: sleep inertia, narcolepsy, sleep paralysis, lucid dreaming, REM sleep behavior disorder, sleepwalking, sleep terrors, out-of-body experiences, and reports of alien abduction. The incomplete declaration of state likewise has implications for consciousness - which also has fluid boundaries. Fluctuations in the degree of consciousness are likely explained by abnormalities of a "spatial and temporal binding rhythm" which normally results in a unified conscious experience. Dysfunctional binding may play a role in anesthetic states, autism, schizophrenia, and neurodegenerative disorders. Further study of the broad spectrum of dissociated states of sleep and wakefulness that are closely linked with states of consciousness and unconsciousness by basic neuroscientists, clinicians, and members of the legal profession will provide scientific, clinical and therapeutic insights, with forensic implications.

  17. Body consciousness and somaesthetics in music education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer aspekter af Richard Shusterman (2008) Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics herunder bogens relevans for musikpædagogik og specielt Shustermans læsning af Merleau-Pontys fænomenologi. Shustermans definitioner af fire former for intentionalitet...

  18. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  19. Critical Consciousness: A Key to Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amin, Aaliyah; Seider, Scott; Graves, Daren; Tamerat, Jalene; Clark, Shelby; Soutter, Madora; Johannsen, Jamie; Malhotra, Saira

    2017-01-01

    Research has suggested that critical consciousness--the ability to recognize and analyze systems of inequality and the commitment to take action against these systems--can be a gateway to academic motivation and achievement for marginalized students. To explore this approach, the authors studied five urban schools that include critical…

  20. Self-conscious emotions and social functioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooge, de I.E.; Zeelenberg, M.; Breugelmans, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Have you ever felt guilty about hurting a loved one, or been proud after achieving something that you always dreamed of? These emotions, but also embarrassment, shame, and hubris, are called self-conscious emotions. They are a special kind of emotions that cannot be described solely by

  1. Industrial Application Of Environmentally Conscious Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    This book is an adaptation of the author’s PhD thesis, in which he explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced...

  2. Consciousness-Raising, Error Correction and Proofreading

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of developing a consciousness-raising approach in error correction at the sentence level to improve students' proofreading ability. Learners of English in a foreign language environment often rely on translation as a composing tool and while this may act as a scaffold and provide some support, it frequently leads to…

  3. Broadside Ballads: Social Consciousness in Song

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junda, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    This article highlights a group ballad project which is a part of student experiences in Sing and Shout!, a course that integrates academic study with singing and song writing to develop a deeper understanding of problems in society. Students explore the intricacies of song composition and social consciousness drawn from past events that reflect…

  4. Virtual reality and consciousness inference in dreaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J Allan; Hong, Charles C-H; Friston, Karl J

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the notion that the brain is genetically endowed with an innate virtual reality generator that - through experience-dependent plasticity - becomes a generative or predictive model of the world. This model, which is most clearly revealed in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep dreaming, may provide the theater for conscious experience. Functional neuroimaging evidence for brain activations that are time-locked to rapid eye movements (REMs) endorses the view that waking consciousness emerges from REM sleep - and dreaming lays the foundations for waking perception. In this view, the brain is equipped with a virtual model of the world that generates predictions of its sensations. This model is continually updated and entrained by sensory prediction errors in wakefulness to ensure veridical perception, but not in dreaming. In contrast, dreaming plays an essential role in maintaining and enhancing the capacity to model the world by minimizing model complexity and thereby maximizing both statistical and thermodynamic efficiency. This perspective suggests that consciousness corresponds to the embodied process of inference, realized through the generation of virtual realities (in both sleep and wakefulness). In short, our premise or hypothesis is that the waking brain engages with the world to predict the causes of sensations, while in sleep the brain's generative model is actively refined so that it generates more efficient predictions during waking. We review the evidence in support of this hypothesis - evidence that grounds consciousness in biophysical computations whose neuronal and neurochemical infrastructure has been disclosed by sleep research.

  5. Consciousness in SLA: A Modular Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truscott, John

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the place of consciousness in second language acquisition (SLA) is crucial for an understanding of how acquisition occurs. Considerable work has been done on this topic, but nearly all of it assumes a highly non-modular view, according to which language and its development is "nothing special". As this assumption runs…

  6. Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaitl, Dieter; Birbaumer, Niels; Gruzelier, John; Jamieson, Graham A.; Kotchoubey, Boris; Kubler, Andrea; Lehmann, Dietrich; Miltner, Wolfgang H. R.; Ott, Ulrich; Sammer, Gebhard; Strauch, Inge; Strehl, Ute; Wackermann, Jiri; Weiss, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews the current knowledge regarding altered states of consciousness (ASC) (a) occurring spontaneously, (b) evoked by physical and physiological stimulation, (c) induced by psychological means, and (d) caused by diseases. The emphasis is laid on psychological and neurobiological approaches. The phenomenological analysis of the…

  7. Reflective self-awareness and conscious states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Nowak, Markus; Lou, Hans C

    2002-01-01

    A recent meta-analysis has shown precuneus, angular gyri, anterior cingulate gyri, and adjacent structures to be highly metabolically active in support of resting consciousness. We hypothesize that these regions constitute a functional network of reflective self-awareness thought to be a core fun...

  8. Consciousness: A Direct Link with Life's Origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, A N

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Penrose-Hameroff thesis, we are intuitively led to examine an intriguing correspondence of 'induction' (by fields), with the complex phenomenon of (metabolism-sustained) consciousness: Did sequences of associated induction patterns in field-susceptible biomatter have simpler beginnings?

  9. Improving spelling performance and spelling consciousness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cordewener, K.A.H.; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Bosman, A.M.T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of

  10. Improving Spelling Performance and Spelling Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordewener, Kim A. H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Bosman, Anna M. T.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the immediate and sustained effects of three training conditions on both spelling performance and spelling consciousness of 72 third-grade low- and high-skilled spellers. Spellers were assigned to a strategy-instruction, self-correction, or no-correction condition. The role of spelling ability and word characteristic were also…

  11. Cellulose multilayer Membranes manufacture with Ionic liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Livazovic, Sara

    2015-05-09

    Membrane processes are considered energy-efficient for water desalination and treatment. However most membranes are based on polymers prepared from fossil petrochemical sources. The development of multilayer membranes for nanofiltration and ultrafiltration, with thin selective layers of naturally available cellulose has been hampered by the availability of non-aggressive solvents. We propose the manufacture of cellulose membranes based on two approaches: (i) silylation, coating from solutions in tetrahydrofuran, followed by solvent evaporation and cellulose regeneration by acid treatment; (ii) casting from solution in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolum acetate ([C2mim]OAc), an ionic liquid, followed by phase inversion in water. By these methods porous supports could be easily coated with semi-crystalline cellulose. The membranes were hydrophilic with contact angles as low as 22.0°, molecular weight cut-off as low as 3000 g mol-1 with corresponding water permeance of 13.8 Lm−2 h−1 bar−1. Self-standing cellulose membranes were also manufactured without porous substrate, using only ionic liquid as green solvent. This membrane was insoluble in water, tetrahydrofuran, hexane, N,N-dimethylformamide, 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone and N,N-dimethylacetamide.

  12. Manufacturing Planning Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waid, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Manufacturing process, milestones and inputs are unknowns to first-time users of the manufacturing facilities. The Manufacturing Planning Guide aids in establishing expectations for both NASA and non-NASA facility customers. The potential audience for this guide includes both internal and commercial spaceflight hardware/software developers. It is intended to assist their project engineering personnel in manufacturing planning and execution. Material covered includes a roadmap of the manufacturing process, roles and responsibilities of facility and user, major milestones, facility capabilities, and inputs required by the facility. Samples of deliverables, products, and inputs necessary to define test scope, cost, and schedule are included as an appendix to the guide.

  13. Private vs. public self-consciousness and self-discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background We studied the relationships of self-discrepancies with private and public self-consciousness. It was postulated that private self-consciousness is more strongly related to actual–ideal discrepancy than to actual–ought discrepancy, and that the latter is more strongly related to public self-consciousness. Participants and procedure The sample consisted of 71 students aged 19-25, who completed the Self-Consciousness Scale and the DRP procedure for measuring self-...

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  15. Supercritical multicomponent solvent coal extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, W. H.; Fong, W. S.; Pichaichanarong, P.; Chan, P. C. F.; Lawson, D. D. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    The yield of organic extract from the supercritical extraction of coal with larger diameter organic solvents such as toluene is increased by use of a minor amount of from 0.1 to 10% by weight of a second solvent such as methanol having a molecular diameter significantly smaller than the average pore diameter of the coal.

  16. Discussion on advanced manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiankui

    2007-01-01

    Advanced manufacturing consists of continuity of manufacturing,its broad sense,and the core of the manufacturing process.The technology of continuous manufacturing is discussed according to both historical and modern perspectives.The relationship between human development and manufacturing technology is also discussed.Manufacturing is a continuously evolving topic.It is not only the foundation and means of imagination,conception,the science,and the technology of material change,but also the expression of national economy,national defense,and the support industries.The broad sense of manufacturing theory,which extends the concept of manufacturing,is an important development in the 20th century.The sense is analyzed in connection with design,material forming theory,synthesis of manufacturing technology,manufacturing modes,life cycle of product,hardware and sottware,and support environment,etc.At the same time,the core action and the development of the theory and technology of process is also discussed.At the end of this paper,the development directions of mechanical manufacturing science and technology are mentioned.

  17. Self-Consciousness, Self-Report of Aggressiveness, and Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheier, Michael F.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Private self-consciousness consists of attending to one's thoughts, feelings, and motives. Public self-consciousness consists of attending to oneself as a social object. The effect of dispositional self-consciousness on the accuracy of self-reports was studied in research on aggression. (Editor)

  18. Walter Ong, Technology, and the Transformation of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Michael J.

    1996-01-01

    Agrees with Walter Ong that technology can serve as a transformer of consciousness and, hence, of writing. Shows how technology can work dialectically with consciousness or thought. Discusses two of the potential implications of this dialectical view of the technology/consciousness/writing relationship. (TB)

  19. Self-Consciousness and Bias in Social Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelands, Lloyd E.; Stablein, Ralph E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated whether trait differences in self-consciousness would account for egocentric attribution bias in social interaction. Bias was greater for high public self-consciousness. Public self-consciousness had no effect in the Interaction Unimportant Condition where social interaction was not salient. Contrary to prediction, however, the…

  20. Solvent degradation products in nuclear fuel processing solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shook, H.E. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    The Savannah River Plant uses a modified Purex process to recover enriched uranium and separate fission products. This process uses 7.5% tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) dissolved in normal paraffin hydrocarbons for the solvent extraction of a nitric acid solution containing the materials to be separated. Periodic problems in product decontamination result from solvent degradation. A study to improve process efficiency has identified certain solvent degradation products and suggested mitigation measures. Undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and tridecanoic acid were tentatively identified as diluent degradation products in recycle solvent. These long-chain organic acids affect phase separation and lead to low decontamination factors. Solid phase extraction (SPE) was used to concentrate the organic acids in solvent prior to analysis by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). SPE and HPLC methods were optimized in this work for analysis of decanoic acid, undecanoic acid, and lauric acid in solvent. Accelerated solvent degradation studies with 7.5% TBP in normal paraffin hydrocarbons showed that long-chain organic acids and long-chain alkyl butyl phosphoric acids are formed by reactions with nitric acid. Degradation of both tributyl phosphate and hydrocarbon can be minimized with purified normal paraffin replacing the standard grade presently used. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  1. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja; Kjaer, Troels W; Schnitzler, Alfons

    2010-02-01

    A coherent and meaningful percept of the world is essential for human nature. Consequently, much speculation has focused on how this is achieved in the brain. It is thought that all conscious experiences have reference to the self. Self-reference may either be minimal or extended, i.e., autonoetic. In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory). It has been shown with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that a medial paralimbic circuitry is critical for self-reference. This circuitry includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices, connected directly and via thalamus. We here hypothesized that interaction in the circuitry may bind conscious experiences with widely different degrees of self-reference through synchrony of high frequency oscillations as a common neural event. This hypothesis was confirmed with magneto-encephalography (MEG). The observed coupling between the neural events in conscious experience may explain the sense of unity of consciousness and the severe symptoms associated with paralimbic dysfunction.

  2. Panpsychism, pan-consciousness and the non-human turn: Rethinking being as conscious matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel du Toit

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not surprising that in a time of intensified ecological awareness a new appreciation of nature and the inanimate world arises. Two examples are panpsychism (the extension of consciousness to the cosmos and deep incarnation (the idea that God was not only incarnated in human form but also in the non-human world. Consciousness studies flourish and are related to nature, the animal world and inorganic nature. A metaphysics of consciousness emerges, of which panpsychism is a good example. Panpsychism or panconsciousness or speculative realism endows all matter with a form of consciousness, energy and experience. The consciousness question is increasingly linked to the quantum world, which offers some option in bridging mind and reality, consciousness and matter. In this regard Kauffman’s notion of ‘triad’ is referred to as well as the implied idea of cosmic mind. This is related to the notion of ‘deep incarnation’ as introduced by Gregersen. Some analogical links are made between panpsychism and deep incarnation.

  3. Layer manufacturing for in vivo devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savalani, M M; Harris, R A

    2006-05-01

    Traditional in vivo devices fabricated to be used as implantation devices included sutures, plates, pins, screws, and joint replacement implants. Also, akin to developments in regenerative medicine and drug delivery, there has been the pursuit of less conventional in vivo devices that demand complex architecture and composition, such as tissue scaffolds. Commercial means of fabricating traditional devices include machining and moulding processes. Such manufacturing techniques impose considerable lead times and geometrical limitations, and restrict the economic production of customized products. Attempts at the production of non-conventional devices have included particulate leaching, solvent casting, and phase transition. These techniques cannot provide the desired total control over internal architecture and compositional variation, which subsequently restricts the application of these products. Consequently, several parties are investigating the use of freeform layer manufacturing techniques to overcome these difficulties and provide viable in vivo devices of greater functionality. This paper identifies the concepts of rapid manufacturing (RM) and the development of biomanufacturing based on layer manufacturing techniques. Particular emphasis is placed on the development and experimentation of new materials for bio-RM, production techniques based on the layer manufacturing concept, and computer modelling of in vivo devices for RM techniques.

  4. Switchable Polarity Solvents: Are They Green?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaumann, Heinz

    2017-03-01

    Solvents play an incredibly important role in large scale chemical reactions. Switchable polarity solvents may prove to be a class of solvent that offers energy and material efficiencies greater than existing solvents. This paper examines such solvents and their potential in a variety of chemical reactions.

  5. How do the brain's time and space mediate consciousness and its different dimensions? Temporo-spatial theory of consciousness (TTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northoff, Georg; Huang, Zirui

    2017-07-28

    Time and space are the basic building blocks of nature. As a unique existent in nature, our brain exists in time and takes up space. The brain's activity itself also constitutes and spreads in its own (intrinsic) time and space that is crucial for consciousness. Consciousness is a complex phenomenon including different dimensions: level/state, content/form, phenomenal aspects, and cognitive features. We propose a Temporo-spatial Theory of Consciousness (TTC) focusing primarily on the temporal and spatial features of the brain activity. We postulate four different neuronal mechanisms accounting for the different dimensions of consciousness: (i) "temporo-spatial nestedness" of the spontaneous activity accounts for the level/state of consciousness as neural predisposition of consciousness (NPC); (ii) "temporo-spatial alignment" of the pre-stimulus activity accounts for the content/form of consciousness as neural prerequisite of consciousness (preNCC); (iii) "temporo-spatial expansion" of early stimulus-induced activity accounts for phenomenal consciousness as neural correlates of consciousness (NCC); (iv) "temporo-spatial globalization" of late stimulus-induced activity accounts for the cognitive features of consciousness as neural consequence of consciousness (NCCcon). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A modern depleted uranium manufacturing facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagula, T.A.

    1995-07-01

    The Specific Manufacturing Capabilities (SMC) Project located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and operated by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (LMIT) for the Department of Energy (DOE) manufactures depleted uranium for use in the U.S. Army MIA2 Abrams Heavy Tank Armor Program. Since 1986, SMC has fabricated more than 12 million pounds of depleted uranium (DU) products in a multitude of shapes and sizes with varying metallurgical properties while maintaining security, environmental, health and safety requirements. During initial facility design in the early 1980`s, emphasis on employee safety, radiation control and environmental consciousness was gaining momentum throughout the DOE complex. This fact coupled with security and production requirements forced design efforts to focus on incorporating automation, local containment and computerized material accountability at all work stations. The result was a fully automated production facility engineered to manufacture DU armor packages with virtually no human contact while maintaining security, traceability and quality requirements. This hands off approach to handling depleted uranium resulted in minimal radiation exposures and employee injuries. Construction of the manufacturing facility was complete in early 1986 with the first armor package certified in October 1986. Rolling facility construction was completed in 1987 with the first certified plate produced in the fall of 1988. Since 1988 the rolling and manufacturing facilities have delivered more than 2600 armor packages on schedule with 100% final product quality acceptance. During this period there was an annual average of only 2.2 lost time incidents and a single individual maximum radiation exposure of 150 mrem. SMC is an example of designing and operating a facility that meets regulatory requirements with respect to national security, radiation control and personnel safety while achieving production schedules and product quality.

  7. Environment Conscious Ceramics (Ecoceramics): An Eco-Friendly Route to Advanced Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2001-01-01

    Environment conscious ceramics (Ecoceramics) are a new class of materials, which can be produced with renewable natural resources (wood) or wood wastes (wood sawdust). This technology provides an eco-friendly route to advanced ceramic materials. Ecoceramics have tailorable properties and behave like ceramic materials manufactured by conventional approaches. Silicon carbide-based ecoceramics have been fabricated by reactive infiltration of carbonaceous preforms by molten silicon or silicon-refractory metal alloys. The fabrication approach, microstructure, and mechanical properties of SiC-based ecoceramics are presented.

  8. MEASURING MANUFACTURING INNOVATIVENESS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blichfeldt, Henrik; Knudsen, Mette Præst

    2017-01-01

    Globalization and customization increases the pressure on manufacturing companies, and the ability to provide innovativeness is a potential source of competitive advantage. This paper positions the manufacturing entity in the innovation process, and investigates the relation between innovation vers...... technology and organizational concepts. Based on Danish survey data from the European Manufacturing Survey (EMS-2015) this paper finds that there is a relation between innovative companies, and their level of technology and use of organizational concepts. Technology and organizational concepts act...... as manufacturing levers to support the manufacturing and production system to provide innovativeness. The managerial implication lies in building manufacturing capabilities to support the innovative process, by standardization, optimization and creating stability in combination with automation and advanced...

  9. Handbook of organic solvent properties

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Ian

    2012-01-01

    The properties of 72 of the most commonly used solvents are given, tabulated in the most convenient way, making this book a joy for industrial chemists to use as a desk reference. The properties covered are those which answer the basic questions of: Will it do the job? Will it harm the user? Will it pollute the air? Is it easy to handle? Will it pollute the water? Can it be recovered or incinerated? These are all factors that need to be considered at the early stages of choosing a solvent for a new product or process.A collection of the physical properties of most commonly used solvents, their

  10. The Solvent Selection framework: solvents for organic synthesis, separation processes and ionic-organic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Sansonetti, Sascha; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    problems are presented: 1) solvent selection and design for organic synthesis, 2) solvent screening and design of solvent mixtures for pharmaceutical applications and 3) ionic liquids selection and design as solvents. The application of the framework is highlighted successfully through case studies...... focusing on solvent replacement problem in organic synthesis and solvent mixture design for ibuprofen respectively....

  11. Manufacturing ontology through templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacturing industry contains a high volume of knowhow and of high value, much of it being held by key persons in the company. The passing of this know-how is the basis of manufacturing ontology. Among other methods like advanced filtering and algorithm based decision making, one way of handling the manufacturing ontology is via templates. The current paper tackles this approach and highlights the advantages concluding with some recommendations.

  12. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDoux, Joseph E; Brown, Richard

    2017-03-07

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness.

  13. A higher-order theory of emotional consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeDoux, Joseph E.; Brown, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Emotional states of consciousness, or what are typically called emotional feelings, are traditionally viewed as being innately programmed in subcortical areas of the brain, and are often treated as different from cognitive states of consciousness, such as those related to the perception of external stimuli. We argue that conscious experiences, regardless of their content, arise from one system in the brain. In this view, what differs in emotional and nonemotional states are the kinds of inputs that are processed by a general cortical network of cognition, a network essential for conscious experiences. Although subcortical circuits are not directly responsible for conscious feelings, they provide nonconscious inputs that coalesce with other kinds of neural signals in the cognitive assembly of conscious emotional experiences. In building the case for this proposal, we defend a modified version of what is known as the higher-order theory of consciousness. PMID:28202735

  14. Mythology, Weltanschauung, symbolic universe and states of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Malan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates whether different religious (mythological worldviews can be described as alternative and altered states of consciousness (ASCs. Differences between conscious and unconscious motivations for behaviour are discussed before looking at ASCs, Weltanschauung and symbolic universes. Mythology can be described both as Weltanschauung and symbolic universe, functioning on all levels of consciousness. Different Weltanschauungen constitute alternative states of consciousness. Compared to secular worldviews, religious worldviews may be described as ASCs. Thanks to our globalised modern societies, the issue is even more complex, as alternate modernities lead to a symbolic multiverse, with individuals living in a social multiverse.Keyowrds: mythology; Weltanschauung; worldview; symbolic universe; states of consciousness; altered states of consciousness; alternative states of consciousness; symbolic multiverse; social multiverse

  15. The Elementary Field of Consciousness and its Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monendra Grover

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two kinds of relations are generally proposed between consciousness and matter. Firstly matter gives rise to consciousness and secondly consciousness gives rise to matter. The second possibility is explored in the paper. The term consciousness vector has been proposed by the author earlier. In this paper the origin of space, time and matter is discussed in the terms of consciousness vector. It is proposed that every form of the matter has the potential to reach the highest level of consciousness. Other aspects such as disease in biological organisms and Consciousness vector, do the human beings have the capacity to understand the universe? , implications for finearts, ethics, law, development, economics and politics are discussed. Thought Experiments to prove the above hypothesis are also proposed. Finally the future of the universe is discussed.

  16. Consciousness and speech evaluation of 96 patients with craniocerebral injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chuan-jun; WANG Yan-chun; ZHAO Yang; LIU Ning; LIU Yong-jun; DONG Tao

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effective methods for evaluating the consciousness and speech status of patients with special types of cerebral injuries.Methods: Atotal of 96 patients with injury in the language center and in coma were treated with operative and correlated conventional therapies. Then their recovery status of consciousness and speech was observed.Results: All the patients were recovered to consciousness. Sixty-nine patients with aphasia were cured completely, but 7 patients were complicated with incomplete ataxic aphasia, 15 with incomplete sensory aphasia,and 5 with incomplete mixed aphasia.Conclusions: For the patients with injury in the language center, evaluation of the conscious state with GCS scoring system has certain limitations and conscious behaviours are advantageous evidences to evaluate the consciousness recovery of the patients. The patients with conscious disturbance and injury in the language center should be considered to have aphasia.

  17. Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Manufacturing Laboratory at the University of Maryland provides the state of the art facilities for realizing next generation products and educating the...

  18. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  19. Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The U.S. Department of Energy Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides a collaborative, shared infrastructure to...

  20. A hybrid neural network model for consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺杰; 金小刚; 杨建刚

    2004-01-01

    A new framework for consciousness is introduced based upon traditional artificial neural network models. This framework reflects explicit connections between two parts of the brain: one global working memory and distributed modular cerebral networks relating to specific brain functions. Accordingly this framework is composed of three layers,physical mnemonic layer and abstract thinking layer,which cooperate together through a recognition layer to accomplish information storage and cognition using algorithms of how these interactions contribute to consciousness:(1)the reception process whereby cerebral subsystems group distributed signals into coherent object patterns;(2)the partial recognition process whereby patterns from particular subsystems are compared or stored as knowledge; and(3)the resonant learning process whereby global workspace stably adjusts its structure to adapt to patterns' changes. Using this framework,various sorts of human actions can be explained,leading to a general approach for analyzing brain functions.

  1. A hybrid neural network model for consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔺杰; 金小刚; 杨建刚

    2004-01-01

    A new framework for consciousness is introduced based upon traditional artificial neural network models. This framework reflects explicit connections between two parts of the brain: one global working memory and distributed modular cerebral networks relating to specific brain functions. Accordingly this framework is composed of three layers, physical mnemonic layer and abstract thinking layer, which cooperate together through a recognition layer to accomplish information storage and cognition using algorithms of how these interactions contribute to consciousness: (l) the reception process whereby cerebral subsystems group distributed signals into coherent object patterns; (2) the partial recognition process whereby patterns from particular subsystems are compared or stored as knowledge; and (3) the resonant learning process whereby global workspace stably adjusts its structure to adapt to patterns' changes. Using this framework, various sorts of human actions can be explained, leading to a general approach for analyzing brain functions.

  2. Memory, autonoetic consciousness, and the self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitsch, Hans J; Staniloiu, Angelica

    2011-03-01

    Memory is a general attribute of living species, whose diversification reflects both evolutionary and developmental processes. Episodic-autobiographical memory (EAM) is regarded as the highest human ontogenetic achievement and as probably being uniquely human. EAM, autonoetic consciousness and the self are intimately linked, grounding, supporting and enriching each other's development and cohesiveness. Their development is influenced by the socio-cultural-linguistic environment in which an individual grows up or lives. On the other hand, through language, textualization and social exchange, all three elements leak into the world and participate to the dynamic shaping and re-shaping of the cultural scaffolding of the self, mental time traveling and EAM formation. Deficits in self-related processing, autonetic consciousness, emotional processing and mental time traveling can all lead to or co-occur with EAM disturbances, as we illustrate by findings from EAM impairments associated with neurological or psychiatric disorders.

  3. Memory and consciousness in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souchay, C; Moulin, C J A

    2009-06-01

    Human memory can be split into familiarity and recollection processes which contribute to different aspects of memory function. These separate processes result in different experiential states. In this review, we examine how this dominant theoretical framework can explain the subjective experience of people with Alzheimer's disease, the profile of their memory impairments and their inability to reflect on their performance metacognitively. We conclude with a brief overview of the brain regions supporting conscious experience of memory, and propose that the memory and awareness deficits seen in Alzheimer's disease could be conceived of as a deficit in autonoetic consciousness. A future priority for research is to take these robust constructs into research programmes examining rehabilitation and pharmacological intervention.

  4. Akratic Feelings, Empathy and Self-Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mendonça

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is an analysis of the role of akratic feelings on empathy and self-consciousness. It argues that akratic feelings create a meta-emotional platform that allows the installation of a type of empathic process, which simultaneously contributes for self-consciousness. The article shows in what way akratic feelings are crucial to further understand both ourselves and others.The article begins by describing the nature of akratic feelings and the way in which we can find them at various emotional levels. The second part points out how akratic feelings contribute to empathetic processes and their role in the formation of a meta-emotional platform in which people recognize their opacity. Finally, the article points out how this also contributes for self-awareness, and ultimately for a better understanding of emotional processes.

  5. Does Consciousness Collapse the Wave Function

    CERN Document Server

    Bierman, D J

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual replication of the Hall-experiment to test the 'subjective reduction' interpretation of the measurement problem in Quantum Physics is reported. Two improvements are introduced. First the delay between pre-observation and final observation of the same quantum event is increased from a few microseconds in the original experiment to 1 second in this replication. Second, rather than using the observers conscious response as the dependent variable, we use the early brain responses as measured by EEG. These early responses cover a period where the observer is not yet conscious of the quantum event. Results support the 'subjective reduction' hypothesis because significant differences between the brain responses of the final observer are found dependent upon the pre-observer looking or not looking at the quantum event (exact binomial p < 0.02). Alternative 'normal' explanations are discussed and rejected. It is concluded that the present results do justify further research along these lines.

  6. Affective intentionality and self-consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaby, Jan; Stephan, Achim

    2008-06-01

    We elaborate and defend the claim that human affective states ("feelings") are, among other things, self-disclosing. We will show why affective intentionality has to be considered in order to understand human self-consciousness. One specific class of affective states, so-called existential feelings, although often neglected in philosophical treatments of emotions, will prove central. These feelings importantly pre-structure affective and other intentional relations to the world. Our main thesis is that existential feelings are an important manifestation of self-consciousness and figure prominently in human self-understanding. We offer an ordering of four levels of existential feelings and also give considerations in favour of the essential bodily nature of these feelings.

  7. Pediatric oral conscious sedation: changes to come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamed, S F; Reggiardo, P

    1999-11-01

    Recent media attention has focused the public's attention on issues surrounding pediatric oral conscious sedation. Under a law passed in 1998 and taking affect on Jan. 1, 2000, California dentists will be subject to certification and procedural provisions designed to ensure the educational qualification of the provider and the standards under which the procedure is performed. This article discusses the history of concern and regulation regarding sedation of children in the dental office.

  8. Recognition of an Independent Self-Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2009-01-01

    Hegel's concept in the Phenomenology of the Spirit of the "recognition of an independent self-consciousness" is investigated as a point of separation for contemporary philosophy of recognition. I claim that multiculturalism and the theories of recognition (such as Axel Honneth's) based on empirical...... psychology neglect or deny crucial metaphysical aspects of the Hegelian legacy. Instead, I seek to point at an additional, "spiritual", level of recognition, based on the concept of the subject in Lacanian psychoanalysis....

  9. Pain issues in disorders of consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Chatelle, Camille; Thibaut, Aurore; Wythe, John; De Val, Marie Danièle; Laureys, Steven; Schnakers, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Background: The assessment of pain and nociception in non-communicative patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) is a real challenge for clinicians. It is, therefore, important to develop sensitive standardized tools usable at the bedside. Objectives: This review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge about pain processing and assessment in patients with DOC. Methods: A search was performed on PubMed using MeSH terms including vegetative state, unresponsi...

  10. Recognition of an Independent Self-Consciousness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Henrik Jøker

    2009-01-01

    Hegel's concept in the Phenomenology of the Spirit of the "recognition of an independent self-consciousness" is investigated as a point of separation for contemporary philosophy of recognition. I claim that multiculturalism and the theories of recognition (such as Axel Honneth's) based on empiric...... psychology neglect or deny crucial metaphysical aspects of the Hegelian legacy. Instead, I seek to point at an additional, "spiritual", level of recognition, based on the concept of the subject in Lacanian psychoanalysis....

  11. Female consciousness in The Thorn Birds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Miao

    2015-01-01

    Colleen McCullough’s significant novels The Thorn Birds causes a tremendous sensation after its publication. This thesis tries to explore the female protagonist Meggie Cleary: a painful and significant process from suspecting and losing transfers into identification of the female consciousness.Colleen McCullough would like to mold female characters to highlight the heroine’s self-respect, the pursuit of equality and freedom.

  12. Hansen Cleaning Solvent Research Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Environmental regulation will force current baseline  precision cleaning solvent (AK-225) to be phased out starting 2015. We plan to develop  a new...

  13. From affective blindsight to emotional consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeghin, Alessia; de Gelder, Beatrice; Tamietto, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Following destruction or denervation of the primary visual cortex (V1) cortical blindness ensues. Affective blindsight refers to the uncanny ability of such patients to respond correctly, or above chance level, to visual emotional expressions presented to their blind fields. Fifteen years after its original discovery, affective blindsight still fascinates neuroscientists and philosophers alike, as it offers a unique window on the vestigial properties of our visual system that, though present in the intact brain, tend to be unnoticed or even actively inhibited by conscious processes. Here we review available studies on affective blindsight with the intent to clarify its functional properties, neural bases and theoretical implications. Evidence converges on the role of subcortical structures of old evolutionary origin such as the superior colliculus, the pulvinar and the amygdala in mediating affective blindsight and nonconscious perception of emotions. We conclude that approaching consciousness, and its absence, from the vantage point of emotion processing may uncover important relations between the two phenomena, as consciousness may have evolved as an evolutionary specialization to interact with others and become aware of their social and emotional expressions.

  14. Consciousness as recursive, spatiotemporal self-location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Frederic

    2010-07-01

    At the phenomenal level, consciousness arises in a consistently coherent fashion as a singular, unified field of recursive self-awareness (subjectivity) with explicitly orientational characteristics--that of a subject located both spatially and temporally in an egocentrically-extended domain. Understanding these twin elements of consciousness begins with the recognition that ultimately (and most primitively), cognitive systems serve the biological self-regulatory regime in which they subsist. The psychological structures supporting self-located subjectivity involve an evolutionary elaboration of the two basic elements necessary for extending self-regulation into behavioral interaction with the environment: an orientative reference frame which consistently structures ongoing interaction in terms of controllable spatiotemporal parameters, and processing architecture that relates behavior to homeostatic needs via feedback. Over time, constant evolutionary pressures for energy efficiency have encouraged the emergence of anticipative feedforward processing mechanisms, and the elaboration, at the apex of the sensorimotor processing hierarchy, of self-activating, highly attenuated recursively-feedforward circuitry processing the basic orientational schema independent of external action output. As the primary reference frame of active waking cognition, this recursive self-locational schema processing generates a zone of subjective self-awareness in terms of which it feels like something to be oneself here and now. This is consciousness-as-subjectivity.

  15. Mind and consciousness as per j. Krishnamurti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    The present article looks at mind and consciousness from the perspective of the eminent Indian philosopher, Jiddu Krishnamurti. He believed in total awareness as being essential for a free mind. Human beings always learned from their past, and it was important that they looked inwards and freed themselves from self-perpetuated torment. It was also necessary that they avoided repression. The society in which we live should be organic, where, although individuals had no choice but to dwell in that society, it was one where the interests of the individual and society were the same. He also maintained that religion was always the result of past conditioning. A mind should be investigative and scientific. One could not get pleasure without difficulty, for which living in totality, not in segments, was a must. We often dwell on one part of the consciousness and miss its holistic aspect. One must uncover the mind layer by layer to achieve complete growth. Deeper delving into it and a study of J. Krishnamurti's philosophy is a must for the understanding of human consciousness, in a manner that is simple, yet abstract and deep.

  16. Mind and Consciousness as per J. Krishnamurti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash De Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article looks at mind and consciousness from the perspective of the eminent Indian philosopher, Jiddu Krishnamurti. He believed in total awareness as being essential for a free mind. Human beings always learned from their past, and it was important that they looked inwards and freed themselves from self-perpetuated torment. It was also necessary that they avoided repression. The society in which we live should be organic, where, although individuals had no choice but to dwell in that society, it was one where the interests of the individual and society were the same. He also maintained that religion was always the result of past conditioning. A mind should be investigative and scientific. One could not get pleasure without difficulty, for which living in totality, not in segments, was a must. We often dwell on one part of the consciousness and miss its holistic aspect. One must uncover the mind layer by layer to achieve complete growth. Deeper delving into it and a study of J. Krishnamurti′s philosophy is a must for the understanding of human consciousness, in a manner that is simple, yet abstract and deep.

  17. Narrating consciousness: language, media and embodiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayles, N Katherine; Pulizzi, James J

    2010-01-01

    Although there has long been a division in studies of consciousness between a focus on neuronal processes or conversely an emphasis on the ruminations of a conscious self, the long-standing split between mechanism and meaning within the brain was mirrored by a split without, between information as a technical term and the meanings that messages are commonly thought to convey. How to heal this breach has posed formidable problems to researchers. Working through the history of cybernetics, one of the historical sites where Claude Shannon's information theory quickly became received doctrine, we argue that the cybernetic program as it developed through second-order cybernetics and autopoietic theory remains incomplete. In this article, we return to fundamental questions about pattern and noise, context and meaning, to forge connections between consciousness, narrative and media. The thrust of our project is to reintroduce context and narrative as crucial factors in the processes of meaning-making. The project proceeds along two fronts: advancing a theoretical framework within which context plays its property central role; and demonstrating the importance of context by analyzing two fictions, Stanislaw Lem's "His Master's Voice" and Joseph McElroy's "Plus," in which context has been deformed by being wrenched away from normal human environments, with radical consequences for processes of meaning-making.

  18. Postmodern personhood: a matter of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Ben A

    1997-01-01

    The concept of person is integral to bioethical discourse because persons are the proper subject of the moral domain. Nevertheless, the concept of person has played no role in the prevailing formulation of human death because of a purported lack of consensus concerning the essential attributes of a person. Beginning with John Locke's fundamental proposition that person is a 'forensic term', I argue that in Western society we do have a consensus on at least one necessary condition for personhood, and that is the capacity for conscious experience. When we consider the whole brain formulation of death, and the most prominent defense of it by the President's Commission for the Study of Ethical Problems in Medicine and Biomedical and Behavioral Research, we can readily identify the flaws that grow out of the failure to define human death as the permanent loss of the capacity for conscious experience. Most fundamental among these flaws is a definition of human death that reduces persons to the capacity of the brain to regulate purely physiological functioning. Such a formulation would, in theory, apply to any member of the animal kingdom. I suggest that an appropriate concept of death should capture what it is about a particular living being that is so essential to it that the permanent loss of that thing constitutes death. What is essential to being a human being is living the life of a person, which derives from the capacity for conscious experience.

  19. Consciousness and the brain: evolutionary aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, B

    1979-01-01

    Self-reflective consciousness is distinguished from 'simple' awareness and from conscious awareness. Awareness is a fundamental property of living matter as it reacts to environmental stimuli. A hypothesis is advanced to account for the general phenomenon of decussation of nerve fibres in the central nervous system of vertebrates. This feature, the crossing over of nerve fibres to the opposite side of the brain, is interpreted as exemplifying the inherent caution of living forms. The evolution of increasing complexity of structure in spinal cord and brain is a prerequisite for increasing awareness of the environment and for increasing freedom from its constraints. Conscious awareness is manifested in living forms primarily when they are learning to respond either to new stimuli or to internal demands such as breathing and walking. The relegation of learnt activities to the realm of unconscious reflex allows for concentration on new and more complex responses, which leads to further freedom of action. The seeming simplicity of human thinking rests on the increasing complexity of the evolving brain and of appropriate responses learnt during phylogenetic development. The human brain and its thinking functions are basically trustworthy because they are rooted in biological evolution.

  20. Split brain: divided perception but undivided consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Yair; Neville, David A; Otten, Marte; Corballis, Paul M; Lamme, Victor A F; de Haan, Edward H F; Foschi, Nicoletta; Fabri, Mara

    2017-01-24

    In extensive studies with two split-brain patients we replicate the standard finding that stimuli cannot be compared across visual half-fields, indicating that each hemisphere processes information independently of the other. Yet, crucially, we show that the canonical textbook findings that a split-brain patient can only respond to stimuli in the left visual half-field with the left hand, and to stimuli in the right visual half-field with the right hand and verbally, are not universally true. Across a wide variety of tasks, split-brain patients with a complete and radiologically confirmed transection of the corpus callosum showed full awareness of presence, and well above chance-level recognition of location, orientation and identity of stimuli throughout the entire visual field, irrespective of response type (left hand, right hand, or verbally). Crucially, we used confidence ratings to assess conscious awareness. This revealed that also on high confidence trials, indicative of conscious perception, response type did not affect performance. These findings suggest that severing the cortical connections between hemispheres splits visual perception, but does not create two independent conscious perceivers within one brain.

  1. Philosophy Iceberg of the Universe Consciousness Energy (The Theory of the Universe Consciousness Energy Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgii Chuzhyk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We offer an evolutionary and alternative solution to the problem of the Universe. The theory involves the formation of the Universe by means of all the sequences of energies and energy of consciousness with gradual structural wrapping by energy shells recording and accumulating them; formation of the core dispatch centers performing energetic and informational communication with a single rhythm among all space objects that form civilizations. We outline a way of human consciousness formation. The theory explains how the first objectively appeared sparks of human consciousness energy were evolving, accumulating and being recorded, formed the Earth’s noosphere in its core dispatch center. The consciousness energy structure has not yet been discovered and that inhibits the science, which is wary of those who define it as a stream of multi-super large reflection objectively reflecting the highest degree of manifestation of civilization collective creativity, named by John Wheeler as a substance of the information — “It from Bit.” Core dispatching centers of all cosmic objects consciousness energies such as the Earth are combined into the Universe core dispatcher center of which called the Cosmic Consciousness. Many hundreds of billions of years the Cosmic Consciousness absorbed and only recorded the sequences, experience of which ended strictly following the laws of nature, formed a unique quality — for each new sequence by its energetic and informational signal it can highlight, express from its archive the evolution of similar Roadmap, which had been already passed by a similar sequence. The Cosmic Consciousness indirectly provides the most important thing in the Universe — not interfering, it retains all its evolutionary integrity and harmony. All of them constantly and continuously follow and check it through bioinformational communication, without deviation move toward their goal. Life of the Earth civilization is also moving

  2. Applied biotransformations in green solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernáiz, María J; Alcántara, Andrés R; García, José I; Sinisterra, José V

    2010-08-16

    The definite interest in implementing sustainable industrial technologies has impelled the use of biocatalysts (enzymes or cells), leading to high chemo-, regio- and stereoselectivities under mild conditions. As usual substrates are not soluble in water, the employ of organic solvents is mandatory. We will focus on different attempts to combine the valuable properties of green solvents with the advantages of using biocatalysts for developing cleaner synthetic processes.

  3. Measuring consciousness in dreams: the lucidity and consciousness in dreams scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Ursula; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Windt, Jennifer; Frenzel, Clemens; Hobson, Allan

    2013-03-01

    In this article, we present results from an interdisciplinary research project aimed at assessing consciousness in dreams. For this purpose, we compared lucid dreams with normal non-lucid dreams from REM sleep. Both lucid and non-lucid dreams are an important contrast condition for theories of waking consciousness, giving valuable insights into the structure of conscious experience and its neural correlates during sleep. However, the precise differences between lucid and non-lucid dreams remain poorly understood. The construction of the Lucidity and Consciousness in Dreams scale (LuCiD) was based on theoretical considerations and empirical observations. Exploratory factor analysis of the data from the first survey identified eight factors that were validated in a second survey using confirmatory factor analysis: INSIGHT, CONTROL, THOUGHT, REALISM, MEMORY, DISSOCIATION, NEGATIVE EMOTION, and POSITIVE EMOTION. While all factors are involved in dream consciousness, realism and negative emotion do not differentiate between lucid and non-lucid dreams, suggesting that lucid insight is separable from both bizarreness in dreams and a change in the subjectively experienced realism of the dream. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Preserved consciousness in vegetative and minimal conscious states: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian K; Frokjaer, Vibe G; Fabricius, Martin; Møller, Kirsten

    2016-05-01

    Active, passive and resting state paradigms using functional MRI (fMRI) or EEG may reveal consciousness in the vegetative (VS) and the minimal conscious state (MCS). A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prevalence of preserved consciousness in VS and MCS as revealed by fMRI and EEG, including command following (active paradigms), cortical functional connectivity elicited by external stimuli (passive paradigms) and default mode networks (resting state). Studies were selected from multiple indexing databases until February 2015 and evaluated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2. 37 studies were identified, including 1041 patients (mean age 43 years, range 16-89; male/female 2.1:1; 39.5% traumatic brain injuries). MCS patients were more likely than VS patients to follow commands during active paradigms (32% vs 14%; OR 2.85 (95% CI 1.90 to 4.27; pconsciousness more often than active paradigms (38% vs 24%; OR 1.98 (95% CI 1.54 to 2.54; pevaluation. In conclusion, active paradigms may underestimate the degree of consciousness as compared to passive paradigms. While MCS patients show signs of preserved consciousness more frequently in both paradigms, roughly 15% of patients with a clinical diagnosis of VS are able to follow commands by modifying their brain activity. However, there remain important limitations at the single-subject level; for example, patients from both categories may show command following despite negative passive paradigms.

  5. Tracking the processes behind conscious perception: a review of event-related potential correlates of visual consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railo, Henry; Koivisto, Mika; Revonsuo, Antti

    2011-09-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have attempted to discover the processes that underlie conscious visual perception by contrasting ERPs produced by stimuli that are consciously perceived with those that are not. Variability of the proposed ERP correlates of consciousness is considerable: the earliest proposed ERP correlate of consciousness (P1) coincides with sensory processes and the last one (P3) marks postperceptual processes. A negative difference wave called visual awareness negativity (VAN), typically observed around 200 ms after stimulus onset in occipitotemporal sites, gains strong support for reflecting the processes that correlate with, and possibly enable, aware visual perception. Research suggests that the early parts of conscious processing can proceed independently of top-down attention, although top-down attention may modulate visual processing even before consciousness. Evidence implies that the contents of consciousness are provided by interactions in the ventral stream, but indispensable contributions from dorsal regions influence already low-level visual responses.

  6. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  7. Modern manufacturing engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers recent research and trends in Manufacturing Engineering. The chapters emphasize different aspects of the transformation from materials to products. It provides the reader with fundamental materials treatments and the integration of processes. Concepts such as green and lean manufacturing are also covered in this book.

  8. Strategic Roles of Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng

    are accordingly elaborated to address the identified theoretical gaps: • Regarding manufacturing role, the first initial research question is still taken as the starting point, but specific attention is paid on: (1) exploring empirical evidence on the proactive role of manufacturing and investigate how...

  9. Improving Project Manufacturing Coordination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korpivaara Ville

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to develop firms’ project manufacturing coordination. The development will be made by centralizing the manufacturing information flows in one system. To be able to centralize information, a deep user need assessment is required. After user needs have been identified, the existing system will be developed to match these needs. The theoretical background is achieved through exploring the literature of project manufacturing, development project success factors and different frameworks and tools for development project execution. The focus of this research is rather in customer need assessment than in system’s technical expertise. To ensure the deep understanding of customer needs this study is executed by action research method. As a result of this research the information system for project manufacturing coordination was developed to respond revealed needs of the stakeholders. The new system improves the quality of the manufacturing information, eliminates waste in manufacturing coordination processes and offers a better visibility to the project manufacturing. Hence it provides a solid base for the further development of project manufacturing.

  10. Appraising manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2002-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  11. Assessing manufacturing location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2004-01-01

    International location of manufacturing activities is an issue for managers of manufacturing companies as well as public policy-makers. For managers, the issue is relevant because international locations offer opportunities for lowering costs due to productivity improvements. For governments the iss

  12. Optimized manufacturable porous materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...

  13. Coherence in consciousness: paralimbic gamma synchrony of self-reference links conscious experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou, Hans C; Gross, Joachim; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2010-01-01

    . In minimal self-reference subjective experiences are self-aware in the weak sense that there is something it feels like for the subject to experience something. In autonoetic consciousness, consciousness emerges, by definition, by retrieval of memories of personally experienced events (episodic memory......A coherent and meaningful percept of the world is essential for human nature. Consequently, much speculation has focused on how this is achieved in the brain. It is thought that all conscious experiences have reference to the self. Self-reference may either be minimal or extended, i.e., autonoetic......). It has been shown with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) that a medial paralimbic circuitry is critical for self-reference. This circuitry includes anterior cingulate/medial prefrontal and posterior cingulate/medial parietal cortices, connected directly and via thalamus. We here hypothesized...

  14. The effect of solvent grade on thin layer chromatographic analysis of writing inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Julia; Ramotowski, Robert; Nwokoye, Jennie

    2016-09-01

    The effects on the separation of writing ink dyes and the repeatability of the Rf values from using different grades of chemicals used in solvent system I (SSI) and solvent system II (SSII) for thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) ink analysis were studied. Solvent system I consists of a 70:35:30 mixture of ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water. Solvent system II consists of a 50:10:15 mixture of ethanol, water, and n-butanol. Since 1991, the ASTM International Guideline E 1422 has recommended that the purity of solvents should be "reagent grade" and that water quality should be "distilled or equivalent." A total of 25 blue and 25 black inks were selected for analysis. Thirteen of each color ink were ballpoint and the remainder were non-ballpoint. The observations show that there is a solvent grade effect on both the separation and clarity of the ink dyes and the repeatability of their Rf values. These results indicate that the grades and manufacturers of solvents used in solvent systems for thin-layer chromatography must be consistent. This is especially critical for searching TLC plates against those from a large ink library in casework. Overall, the combination of solvents that produced the best results for solvent system I consisted of denatured ethanol, HPLC grade water, and ACS grade ethyl acetate. There was no consensus for the best combination of solvent grades for solvent system II; however, it was shown that different grades did have an effect on the separation of ink components. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Solvent/Non-Solvent Sintering To Make Microsphere Scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, Cato T.; Brown, Justin L.; Nair, Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    A solvent/non-solvent sintering technique has been devised for joining polymeric microspheres to make porous matrices for use as drug-delivery devices or scaffolds that could be seeded with cells for growing tissues. Unlike traditional sintering at elevated temperature and pressure, this technique is practiced at room temperature and pressure and, therefore, does not cause thermal degradation of any drug, protein, or other biochemical with which the microspheres might be loaded to impart properties desired in a specific application. Also, properties of scaffolds made by this technique are more reproducible than are properties of comparable scaffolds made by traditional sintering. The technique involves the use of two miscible organic liquids: one that is and one that is not a solvent for the affected polymer. The polymeric microspheres are placed in a mold having the size and shape of the desired scaffold, then the solvent/non-solvent mixture is poured into the mold to fill the void volume between the microspheres, then the liquid mixture is allowed to evaporate. Some of the properties of the resulting scaffold can be tailored through choice of the proportions of the liquids and the diameter of the microspheres.

  16. Conflict and mutual support between local consciousness and national consciousness disturbance on Chuanxing suoji in 1936

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Dongjie

    2006-01-01

    From the late Qing Dynasty to the Republican period,there was a transition on the understanding of the relationship between China as a state and its localities.Local and national consciousness generally supported each other but were in conflict at times.In this essay the author intends to explore the reasons and influences of the Sichuan people's criticism of the Chuanxing suoji (Rambling Notes on Sichuan) letter written by Chen Hengzhe,and analyze the interplay between local and national consciousness in the early days when the Nanjing government controlled Sichuan.The uproar caused by the article also showed the gap between mainstream intellectuals and peripheral intellectuals.

  17. EEG oscillatory states as neuro-phenomenology of consciousness as revealed from patients in vegetative and minimally conscious states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2012-03-01

    The value of resting electroencephalogram (EEG) in revealing neural constitutes of consciousness (NCC) was examined. We quantified the dynamic repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG microstates in eyes-closed rest in relation to the degree of expression of clinical self-consciousness. For NCC a model was suggested that contrasted normal, severely disturbed state of consciousness and state without consciousness. Patients with disorders of consciousness were used. Results suggested that the repertoire, duration and oscillatory type of EEG microstates in resting condition quantitatively related to the level of consciousness expression in brain-damaged patients and healthy-conscious subjects. Specifically, results demonstrated that (a) decreased number of EEG microstate types was associated with altered states of consciousness, (b) unawareness was associated with the lack of diversity in EEG alpha-rhythmic microstates, and (c) the probability for the occurrence and duration of delta-, theta- and slow-alpha-rhythmic microstates were associated with unawareness, whereas the probability for the occurrence and duration of fast-alpha-rhythmic microstates were associated with consciousness. In conclusion, resting EEG has a potential value in revealing NCC. This work may have implications for clinical care and medical-legal decisions in patients with disorders of consciousness.

  18. Consciousness and working memory: Current trends and research perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velichkovsky, Boris B

    2017-07-27

    Working memory has long been thought to be closely related to consciousness. However, recent empirical studies show that unconscious content may be maintained within working memory and that complex cognitive computations may be performed on-line. This promotes research on the exact relationships between consciousness and working memory. Current evidence for working memory being a conscious as well as an unconscious process is reviewed. Consciousness is shown to be considered a subset of working memory by major current theories of working memory. Evidence for unconscious elements in working memory is shown to come from visual masking and attentional blink paradigms, and from the studies of implicit working memory. It is concluded that more research is needed to explicate the relationship between consciousness and working memory. Future research directions regarding the relationship between consciousness and working memory are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Disrupting posterior cingulate connectivity disconnects consciousness from the external environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbet, Guillaume; Lafargue, Gilles; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; le Bars, Emmanuelle; Bonnetblanc, François; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-04-01

    Neurophysiological and neuroimaging studies including both patients with disorders of consciousness and healthy subjects with modified states of consciousness suggest a crucial role of the medial posteroparietal cortex in conscious information processing. However no direct neuropsychological evidence supports this hypothesis and studies including patients with restricted lesions of this brain region are almost non-existent. Using direct intraoperative electrostimulations, we showed in a rare patient that disrupting the subcortical connectivity of the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) reliably induced a breakdown in conscious experience. This acute phenomenon was mainly characterized by a transient behavioral unresponsiveness with loss of external connectedness. In all cases, when he regained consciousness, the patient described himself as in dream, outside the operating room. This finding suggests that functional integrity of the PPC connectivity is necessary for maintaining consciousness of external environment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Behavioral evaluation of consciousness in severe brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve; Gill-Thwaites, Helen; Andrews, Keith; Laureys, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews the current state of bedside behavioral assessment in brain-damaged patients with impaired consciousness (coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state). As misdiagnosis in this field is unfortunately very frequent, we first discuss a number of fundamental principles of clinical evaluation that should guide the assessment of consciousness in brain-damaged patients in order to avoid confusion between vegetative state and minimally conscious state. The role of standardized behavioral assessment tools is particularly stressed. The second part of this paper reviews existing behavioral assessment techniques of consciousness, showing that there are actually a large number of these scales. After a discussion of the most widely used scale, the Glasgow Coma Scale, we present several new promising tools that show higher sensitivity and reliability for detecting subtle signs of recovery of consciousness in the post-acute setting.

  1. Inheriting the past: Exploring historical consciousness across generations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Clark

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant research into the meaning and operation of historical consciousness, there is still much to be understood about its hereditary function. For example, what does historical inheritance look like? How does it influence our individual and collective historical consciousnesses? And, just as critically, what happens to historical consciousness when history is deliberately withheld, when that inheritance is suspended or severed? As a way into some of these questions about passing on the past, this paper draws on a qualitative research project into historical consciousness in Australia to explore how so-called ‘ordinary people’ see themselves as part of a historical narrative. It reveals that historical inheritance is critical to our historical consciousness, and it notes the profound impact of forgetting on participants, raising important questions about the role of ‘silence’ and ‘absence’ in the formation of historical consciousness.

  2. Self-consciousness in non-communicative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, Steven; Perrin, Fabien; Brédart, Serge

    2007-09-01

    The clinical and para-clinical examination of residual self-consciousness in non-communicative severely brain damaged patients (i.e., coma, vegetative state and minimally conscious state) remains exceptionally challenging. Passive presentation of the patient's own name and own face are known to be effective attention-grabbing stimuli when clinically assessing consciousness at the patient's bedside. Event-related potential and functional neuroimaging studies using such self-referential stimuli are currently being used to disentangle the cognitive hierarchy of self-processing. We here review neuropsychological, neuropathological, electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies using the own name and own face paradigm obtained in conscious waking, sleep, pharmacological coma, pathological coma and related disorders of consciousness. Based on these results we discuss what we currently do and do not know about the functional significance of the neural network involved in "automatic" and "conscious" self-referential processing.

  3. Handbook of green chemistry, green solvents, supercritical solvents

    CERN Document Server

    Anastas, Paul T; Jessop, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Green Chemistry is a vitally important subject area in a world where being as green and environmentally sound as possible is no longer a luxury but a necessity. Its applications include the design of chemical products and processes that help to reduce or eliminate the use and generation of hazardous substances. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises 12 volumes, split into subject-specific sets as follows: Set I: Green Catalysis Set II: Green Solvents Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents Volume 5: Reactions in Water Volume 6: Ionic Liquids

  4. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  5. DOE solvent handbook information sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, A.A.

    1992-05-01

    Solvents and cleaners are used in the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy-Defense Program (DOE-DP) maintenance facilities for removing wax, grease, oil, carbon, machining fluids, solder fluxes, mold releases, and other contaminants before repairing or electroplating parts. Private industry also uses cleaners and degreasers for surface preparation of various metals. Growing environmental and worker safety concerns have brought attention to these solvents and cleaners, most of which are classified as toxic. Tightening government regulations have already excluded the use of some chemicals, and restrict the use of various halogenated hydrocarbons because of their atmospheric-ozone depleting effects, as well as their cancer-related risks. As a result, a program was established to develop an efficient, easily accessible, electronic solvent utilization handbook. This is being accomplished by: (1) identifying solvents (alternatives) that are not currently restricted by government regulations for use DOE-DP facilities, and private industry, (2) evaluating their cleaning performance, (3) evaluating their corrosivity, (4) evaluating their air emissions, (5) evaluating the possibility of recycling or recovering all or portions of the alternative degreasers, (6) testing substitute solvents compatibility with non-metallic materials, (7) inputting all of the data gathered (including previous biodegradability information) into a database, and (8) developing a methodology for efficient, widespread access to the data base information system.

  6. Computer Aided Solvent Selection and Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitrofanov, Igor; Conte, Elisa; Abildskov, Jens

    , millions of tons solvents have to be wasted every year [2]. Therefore, it becomes important to minimize and optimize the use of organic solvents as much as possible, to satisfy the “Green Chemistry Principles” [3]. Another challenge is that currently solvent selection relies very much on previous...... is to develop a systematic framework and implement it as software for selection and design of solvents for many applications including organic synthesis, complex reaction systems and solvent-based separations. The solvent selection framework is based on a combination of knowledge from industrial practice...... identification of solvent candidates using special software ProCAMD and ProPred, which are the implementations of computer-aided molecular techniques. The second consists of assigning the RS-indices following the reaction–solvent and then consulting the known solvent database and identifying the set of solvents...

  7. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...

  8. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  9. Co-evolution of human consciousness and language (revisited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A

    2014-06-01

    This article discusses the view that human consciousness may share aspects of "animal awareness" with other species, but has its unique form because humans possess language. Two ingredients of a theory of the evolution of human consciousness are offered: the view that a précis of intended activity is necessarily formed in the brain of a human that communicates in a human way; and the notion that such a précis underwrites the uniquely human aspect of consciousness.

  10. How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameroff, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Conscious “free will” is problematic because (1) brain mechanisms causing consciousness are unknown, (2) measurable brain activity correlating with conscious perception apparently occurs too late for real-time conscious response, consciousness thus being considered “epiphenomenal illusion,” and (3) determinism, i.e., our actions and the world around us seem algorithmic and inevitable. The Penrose–Hameroff theory of “orchestrated objective reduction (Orch OR)” identifies discrete conscious moments with quantum computations in microtubules inside brain neurons, e.g., 40/s in concert with gamma synchrony EEG. Microtubules organize neuronal interiors and regulate synapses. In Orch OR, microtubule quantum computations occur in integration phases in dendrites and cell bodies of integrate-and-fire brain neurons connected and synchronized by gap junctions, allowing entanglement of microtubules among many neurons. Quantum computations in entangled microtubules terminate by Penrose “objective reduction (OR),” a proposal for quantum state reduction and conscious moments linked to fundamental spacetime geometry. Each OR reduction selects microtubule states which can trigger axonal firings, and control behavior. The quantum computations are “orchestrated” by synaptic inputs and memory (thus “Orch OR”). If correct, Orch OR can account for conscious causal agency, resolving problem 1. Regarding problem 2, Orch OR can cause temporal non-locality, sending quantum information backward in classical time, enabling conscious control of behavior. Three lines of evidence for brain backward time effects are presented. Regarding problem 3, Penrose OR (and Orch OR) invokes non-computable influences from information embedded in spacetime geometry, potentially avoiding algorithmic determinism. In summary, Orch OR can account for real-time conscious causal agency, avoiding the need for consciousness to be seen as epiphenomenal illusion. Orch OR can rescue conscious

  11. On the neural mechanisms subserving consciousness and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eTallon-Baudry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Consciousness, as described in the experimental literature, is a multi-faceted phenomenon, that impinges on other well-studied concepts such as attention and control. Do consciousness and attention refer to different aspects of the same core phenomenon, or do they correspond to distinct functions? One possibility to address this question is to examine the neural mechanisms underlying consciousness and attention. If consciousness and attention pertain to the same concept, they should rely on shared neural mechanisms. Conversely, if their underlying mechanisms are distinct, then consciousness and attention should be considered as distinct entities. This paper therefore reviews neurophysiological facts arguing in favor or against a tight relationship between consciousness and attention. Three neural mechanisms that have been associated with both attention and consciousness are examined (neural amplification, involvement of the fronto-parietal network, and oscillatory synchrony, to conclude that the commonalities between attention and consciousness at the neural level may have been overestimated. Last but not least, experiments in which both attention and consciousness were probed at the neural level point toward a dissociation between the two concepts. It therefore appears from this review that consciousness and attention rely on distinct neural properties, although they can interact at the behavioral level. It is proposed that a "cumulative influence model", in which attention and consciousness correspond to distinct neural mechanisms feeding a single decisional process leading to behavior, fits best with available neural and behavioral data. In this view, consciousness should not be considered as a top-level executive function but should rather be defined by its experiential properties.

  12. Brain Mechanisms of Altered Consciousness in Generalised Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Seri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of the inherent difficulties in achieving a biologically meaningful definition of consciousness, recent neurophysiological studies are starting to provide some insight in fundamental mechanisms associated with impaired consciousness in neurological disorders. Generalised seizures are associated with disruption of the default state network, a functional network of discrete brain areas, which include the fronto-parietal cortices. Subcortical contribution through activation of thalamocortical structures, as well as striate nuclei are also crucial to produce impaired consciousness in generalised seizures.

  13. How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart eHameroff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Conscious ‘free will’ is problematic because 1 brain mechanisms causing consciousness are unknown, 2 measurable brain activity correlating with conscious perception apparently occurs too late for real-time conscious response, consciousness thus being considered ‘epiphenomenal illusion’, and 3 determinism, i.e. our actions and the world around us seem algorithmic and inevitable. The Penrose-Hameroff theory of ‘orchestrated objective reduction’ (‘Orch OR’ identifies discrete conscious moments with quantum computations in microtubules inside brain neurons, e.g. 40 per second in concert with gamma synchrony EEG. Microtubules organize neuronal interiors and regulate synapses. In Orch OR, microtubule quantum computations occur in integration phases in dendrites and cell bodies of integrate-and-fire brain neurons connected and synchronized by gap junctions, allowing entanglement of microtubules among many neurons. Quantum computations in entangled microtubules terminate by Penrose ‘objective reduction’ (‘OR’, a proposal for quantum state reduction and conscious moments linked to fundamental spacetime geometry. Each OR reduction selects microtubule states which can trigger axonal firings, and control behavior. The quantum computations are ‘orchestrated’ by synaptic inputs and memory (thus ‘Orch OR’. If correct, Orch OR can account for conscious causal agency, resolving problem 1. Regarding problem 2, Orch OR can cause temporal non-locality, sending quantum information backward in classical time, enabling conscious control of behavior. Three lines of evidence for brain backward time effects are presented. Regarding problem 3 Penrose OR (and Orch OR invoke non-computable influences from information embedded in spacetime geometry, potentially avoiding algorithmic determinism. In summary, Orch OR can account for real-time conscious causal agency, avoiding the need for consciousness to be seen as epiphenomenal illusion. Orch

  14. Self-consciousness, friendship quality, and adolescent internalizing problems

    OpenAIRE

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on their self-consciousness, internalizing problems, and the quality of their best friendship. Results indicated stronger associations between private self...

  15. Conscious attention, meditation, and bilateral information transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob, Petr; Zimmerman, Elizabeth M; Hamilton, Elizabeth A; Sheftel, Jenna G; Bajo, Stephanie D; Raboch, Jiri; Golla, Megan; Konopka, Lukasz M

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings indicate that conscious attention is related to large-scale information integration of various brain regions, including both hemispheres, that enables integration of parallel distributed modalities of processed information. There is also evidence that the level of information transference related to integration or splitting among brain regions, and between hemispheres, establishes a certain level of efficiency of the information processing. The level of information transference also may have modulatory influences on attentional capacity that are closely linked to the emotional arousal and autonomic response related to a stimulus. These findings suggest a hypothesis that changes in conscious attention, specifically during meditation could be reflected in the autonomic activity as the left-right information transference calculated from bilateral electrodermal activity (EDA). With the aim to compare conscious attention during meditation with other attentional states (resting state, Stroop task, and memory task), we performed bilateral EDA measurement in 7 healthy persons during resting state, Stroop task, neurofeedback memory test, and meditation. The results indicate that the information transference (ie, transinformation) is able to distinguish those attentional states, and that the highest level of the transinformation has been found during attentional processing related to meditation, indicating higher level of connectivity between left and right sides. Calculations other than pointwise transinformation (PTI) performed on EDA records, such as mean skin conductance level or laterality index, were not able to distinguish attentional states. The results suggest that PTI may present an interesting method useful for the assessment of information flow, related to neural functioning, that in the case of meditation may reflect typical integrative changes in the autonomic nervous system related to brain functions and focused attentional processing.

  16. Glycerol based solvents: synthesis, properties and applications

    OpenAIRE

    García, José I.; García-Marín, Héctor; Pires, Elísabet

    2014-01-01

    The most recent advances in the use of glycerol and glycerol derivatives as solvents are reviewed. There are an increasing number of examples of the use of glycerol itself as a reaction medium, solvent-reagent or a dispersive medium for a large variety of applications. In the case of glycerol derivatives, new synthetic methods, physico-chemical properties and application examples as solvents are revised. Recent studies in the field of solvent classification, as well as solvent substitution is...

  17. Chronic disorders of consciousness: role of neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremneva, E.; Sergeev, D.; Zmeykina, E.; Legostaeva, L.; Piradov, M.

    2017-08-01

    Chronic disorders of consciousness are clinically challenging conditions, and advanced methods of imaging for better understanding of diagnosis and prognosis are needed. Recent functional neuroradiological studies utilizing PET and fMRI demonstrated that besides widespread neuronal loss disruption of interconnection between certain cortical networks after the injury may also play the leading role in the development of behaviourally assessed unresponsiveness. Functional and structural connectivity, evaluated by neuroimaging approaches, may correlate with clinical status and may also play prognostic role. Integration of data from various diagnostic modalities is needed for further progress in this area.

  18. Brain function assessment in different conscious states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgoren, Murat; Bayazit, Onur; Kocaaslan, Sibel; Gokmen, Necati; Oniz, Adile

    2010-06-03

    The study of brain functioning is a major challenge in neuroscience fields as human brain has a dynamic and ever changing information processing. Case is worsened with conditions where brain undergoes major changes in so-called different conscious states. Even though the exact definition of consciousness is a hard one, there are certain conditions where the descriptions have reached a consensus. The sleep and the anesthesia are different conditions which are separable from each other and also from wakefulness. The aim of our group has been to tackle the issue of brain functioning with setting up similar research conditions for these three conscious states. In order to achieve this goal we have designed an auditory stimulation battery with changing conditions to be recorded during a 40 channel EEG polygraph (Nuamps) session. The stimuli (modified mismatch, auditory evoked etc.) have been administered both in the operation room and the sleep lab via Embedded Interactive Stimulus Unit which was developed in our lab. The overall study has provided some results for three domains of consciousness. In order to be able to monitor the changes we have incorporated Bispectral Index Monitoring to both sleep and anesthesia conditions. The first stage results have provided a basic understanding in these altered states such that auditory stimuli have been successfully processed in both light and deep sleep stages. The anesthesia provides a sudden change in brain responsiveness; therefore a dosage dependent anesthetic administration has proved to be useful. The auditory processing was exemplified targeting N1 wave, with a thorough analysis from spectrogram to sLORETA. The frequency components were observed to be shifting throughout the stages. The propofol administration and the deeper sleep stages both resulted in the decreasing of N1 component. The sLORETA revealed similar activity at BA7 in sleep (BIS 70) and target propofol concentration of 1.2 microg/mL. The current study

  19. Are Life, Consciousness, and Intelligence Cosmic Phenomena?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostro, Ludwik

    2013-09-01

    First of all the scientific reasons of astrophysics, astronomy and modern astrobiology in favor of the existence of life, consciousness and intelligence in the Universe will be presented and estimated (e.g. the Nobel Laureate Christian de Duve's arguments). The part played in this kind of scientific debate by the Copernicus principle will be stressed from the scientific and philosophical point of view. Since there are also philosophers and theologians who argue in favor of the existence of life in the Universe, their arguments will be shortly presented and estimated as well.

  20. Body consciousness and somaesthetics in music education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holgersen, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer aspekter af Richard Shusterman (2008) Body Consciousness: A Philosophy of Mindfulness and Somaesthetics herunder bogens relevans for musikpædagogik og specielt Shustermans læsning af Merleau-Pontys fænomenologi. Shustermans definitioner af fire former for intentionalitet...... sammenlignes med lignende distinktioner i forbindele med fire grundlæggende former for deltagelse (Holgersen (2002). Mening og deltagelse). Deltagelse kan lige som musikalsk læring anskues i forhold til forskellige niveauer af kropslig bevidsthed, og det diskuteres hvorvidt Merleau-Pontys forståelse af...

  1. Firelight: Rebellion and Awakening of Female Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HU Jiachong

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available "Firelight" is a movie directed by William Nicholson in 1997,the movie through the heroine Elizabeth in order to earn money at the expense of his body to go and the British aristocracy Charlie to carry out a surrogate transaction experience,profound analysis and reflection of the rebellion and awakening of women's consciousness in Vitoria,show the heroine Elizabeth unwilling to succumb to the patriarchal society culture into the "other" status.She is constantly seeking love and respect,finally got the spirit of freedom

  2. The Feminist Consciousness in The Garden Party

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Song-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Feminist movement reaches its climax in the first two decades of the 20th century. There are many female novelists in that time and Mansfield is one of them. Most of her novels are full of feminist consciousness, and The Garden Party is a special one. The characters in the story are different from other story. The author describes how the society and its spokesman Mrs. Sher-idan restrain the nature of Laura in detail. The author uses Laura to hint the current situation of women.

  3. Making CSB+-Tree Processor Conscious

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samuel, Michael; Pedersen, Anders Uhl; Bonnet, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Cache-conscious indexes, such as CSB+-tree, are sensitive to the underlying processor architecture. In this paper, we focus on how to adapt the CSB+-tree so that it performs well on a range of different processor architectures. Previous work has focused on the impact of node size on the performance...... of the CSB+-tree. We argue that it is necessary to consider a larger group of parameters in order to adapt CSB+-tree to processor architectures as different as Pentium and Itanium. We identify this group of parameters and study how it impacts the performance of CSB+-tree on Itanium 2. Finally, we propose...

  4. Conscious Sedation: Emerging Trends in Pediatric Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attri, Joginder Pal; Sharan, Radhe; Makkar, Vega; Gupta, Kewal Krishan; Khetarpal, Ranjana; Kataria, Amar Parkash

    2017-01-01

    Dental fear and anxiety is a common problem in pediatric patients. There is considerable variation in techniques used to manage them. Various sedation techniques using many different anesthetic agents have gained considerable popularity over the past few years. Children are not little adults; they differ physically, psychologically, and emotionally. The purpose of this review is to survey recent trends and concerning issues in the rapidly changing field of pediatric sedation. We will study the topic from the perspective of an anesthesiologist. It will also provide information to practitioners on the practice of conscious sedation in dentistry and will also outline the route of administration, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of various drugs used.

  5. Natural Fabrications Science, Emergence and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Seager, William

    2012-01-01

    The spectacular success of the scientific enterprise over the last four hundred years has led to the promise of an all encompassing vision of the natural world. In this elegant picture, everything we observe is based upon just a few fundamental processes and entities. The almost infinite variety and complexity of the world is thus the product of emergence. But the concept of emergence is fraught with controversy and confusion. This book ponders the question of how emergence should be understood within the scientific picture, and whether a complete vision of the world can be attained that includes consciousness.

  6. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Suzana P; Karunakaran, Madhavan; Pradeep, Neelakanda; Behzad, Ali Reza; Hooghan, Bobby; Sougrat, Rachid; He, Haoze; Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2011-08-16

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values.

  7. From micelle supramolecular assemblies in selective solvents to isoporous membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-08-16

    The supramolecular assembly of PS-b-P4VP copolymer micelles induced by selective solvent mixtures was used to manufacture isoporous membranes. Micelle order in solution was confirmed by cryo-scanning electron microscopy in casting solutions, leading to ordered pore morphology. When dioxane, a solvent that interacts poorly with the micelle corona, was added to the solution, polymer-polymer segment contact was preferential, increasing the intermicelle contact. Immersion in water gave rise to asymmetric porous membranes with exceptional pore uniformity and high porosity. The introduction of a small number of carbon nanotubes to the casting solution improved the membrane stability and the reversibility of the gate response in the presence of different pH values. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Definition of a JA2 equivalent propellant to be produced by continuous solvent-less extrusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manning, T.G.; Leone, J.; Zebregs, M.; Ramlal, D.R.; Driel, C.A. van

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate the manufacturing of a propellant by solvent-less continuous twin screw extrusion processing while maintaining gun performance characteristics of conventional JA-2 propellant. This is elucidated by explicitly researching the relationship between interior ballis

  9. Asymmetric block copolymer membranes with ultrahigh porosity and hierarchical pore structure by plain solvent evaporation

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, H.

    2016-09-14

    Membranes with a hierarchical porous structure could be manufactured from a block copolymer blend by pure solvent evaporation. Uniform pores in a 30 nm thin skin layer supported by a macroporous structure were formed. This new process is attractive for membrane production because of its simplicity and the lack of liquid waste.

  10. SOLVENT-BASED TO WATERBASED ADHESIVE-COATED SUBSTRATE RETROFIT - VOLUME II: PROCESS OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    This volume presents initial results of a study to identify the issues and barriers associated with retrofitting existing solvent-based equipment to accept waterbased adhesives as part of an EPA effort to improve equipment cleaning in the coated and laminated substrate manufactur...

  11. Multiple sclerosis and organic solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, J T; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Rasmussen, K

    1998-01-01

    We investigated a possible causal relation between exposure to organic solvents in Danish workers (housepainters, typographers/printers, carpenters/cabinetmakers) and onset of multiple sclerosis. Data on men included in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Register (3,241 men) were linked with data from......, and butchers. Over a follow-up period of 20 years, we observed no increase in the incidence of multiple sclerosis among men presumed to be exposed to organic solvents. It was not possible to obtain data on potential confounders, and the study design has some potential for selection bias. Nevertheless......, the study does not support existing hypotheses regarding an association between occupational exposure to organic solvents and multiple sclerosis....

  12. Industry 4.0 implies lean manufacturing: Research activities in industry 4.0 function as enablers for lean manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Sanders

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Lean Manufacturing is widely regarded as a potential methodology to improve productivity and decrease costs in manufacturing organisations. The success of lean manufacturing demands consistent and conscious efforts from the organisation, and has to overcome several hindrances. Industry 4.0 makes a factory smart by applying advanced information and communication systems and future-oriented technologies. This paper analyses the incompletely perceived link between Industry 4.0 and lean manufacturing, and investigates whether Industry 4.0 is capable of implementing lean. Executing Industry 4.0 is a cost-intensive operation, and is met with reluctance from several manufacturers. This research also provides an important insight into manufacturers’ dilemma as to whether they can commit into Industry 4.0, considering the investment required and unperceived benefits. Design/methodology/approach: Lean manufacturing is first defined and different dimensions of lean are presented. Then Industry 4.0 is defined followed by representing its current status in Germany. The barriers for implementation of lean are analysed from the perspective of integration of resources. Literatures associated with Industry 4.0 are studied and suitable solution principles are identified to solve the abovementioned barriers of implementing lean. Findings: It is identified that researches and publications in the field of Industry 4.0 held answers to overcome the barriers of implementation of lean manufacturing. These potential solution principles prove the hypothesis that Industry 4.0 is indeed capable of implementing lean. It uncovers the fact that committing into Industry 4.0 makes a factory lean besides being smart. Originality/value: Individual researches have been done in various technologies allied with Industry 4.0, but the potential to execute lean manufacturing was not completely perceived. This paper bridges the gap between these two realms, and identifies

  13. The Role of Consciousness in Human Cognitive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Allakhverdov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of consciousness is examined in the article. It is argued that all the existing approaches to consciousness do not explain the role consciousness plays in human life. An attempt of revealing and describing the principles of the mind’s work is made. Experimental phenomena observed by the author and his followers, particularly, the tendency of previously non-realized ideas not to be realized subsequently, are reviewed. The discussion of these phenomena allows to formulate a novel view on the nature of consciousness.

  14. Altered states of consciousness, dissociation, and dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Kopera, Maciej

    2005-02-01

    In a sample of 71 medical students, dream recall frequency was positively correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness (r = .26) measured by the State of Mind and Consciousness Questionnaire and dissociation (r = .29) measured by the Dissociative Experiences Scale II. A regression analysis, however, yielded neither altered states of consciousness nor dissociation, sex, or age to be significant predictors of dream recall frequency. Among women dream recall frequency was associated with proneness to dissociation; among men it was correlated with proneness to altered states of consciousness.

  15. The neural correlates of altered consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Bagshaw, Andrew P; McCorry, Dougall

    2009-06-01

    Epileptic seizures are characterized by a multifaceted spectrum of alterations in the general level of awareness and/or the subjective contents of consciousness. Complete loss of consciousness occurs when epileptic activity involves both cortical and subcortical structures, as in generalized seizures. On the other hand, simple partial seizures can spare both the level and contents of consciousness. Finally, complex partial seizures associated with medial temporal lobe discharges can selectively impair the patient's subjective experiences with variable degrees of responsiveness. The differences in ictal semiology between patients with epilepsy offer unique avenues for understanding the relationship between pathological brain function and altered conscious states.

  16. Integrated information theory: from consciousness to its physical substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tononi, Giulio; Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Koch, Christof

    2016-07-01

    In this Opinion article, we discuss how integrated information theory accounts for several aspects of the relationship between consciousness and the brain. Integrated information theory starts from the essential properties of phenomenal experience, from which it derives the requirements for the physical substrate of consciousness. It argues that the physical substrate of consciousness must be a maximum of intrinsic cause-effect power and provides a means to determine, in principle, the quality and quantity of experience. The theory leads to some counterintuitive predictions and can be used to develop new tools for assessing consciousness in non-communicative patients.

  17. The quantitative measurement of consciousness during epileptic seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nani, Andrea; Cavanna, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of consciousness is a fundamental element in the classification of epileptic seizures. It is, therefore, of great importance for clinical practice to develop instruments that enable an accurate and reliable measurement of the alteration of consciousness during seizures. Over the last few years, three psychometric scales have been specifically proposed to measure ictal consciousness: the Ictal Consciousness Inventory (ICI), the Consciousness Seizure Scale (CSS), and the Responsiveness in Epilepsy Scale--versions I and II (RES-I and RES-II). The ICI is a self-report psychometric instrument which retrospectively assesses ictal consciousness along the dimensions of the level/arousal and contents/awareness. The CSS has been used by clinicians to quantify the impairment of consciousness in order to establish correlations with the brain mechanisms underlying alterations of consciousness during temporal lobe seizures. The most recently developed observer-rated instrument is the RES-I, which has been used to assess responsiveness during epileptic seizures in patients undergoing video-EEG. The implementation of standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of ictal consciousness can complement clinical observations and contribute to improve accuracy in seizure classification.

  18. Information sharing in the brain indexes consciousness in noncommunicative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jean-Rémi; Sitt, Jacobo D; Faugeras, Frédéric; Rohaut, Benjamin; El Karoui, Imen; Cohen, Laurent; Naccache, Lionel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2013-10-07

    Neuronal theories of conscious access tentatively relate conscious perception to the integration and global broadcasting of information across distant cortical and thalamic areas. Experiments contrasting visible and invisible stimuli support this view and suggest that global neuronal communication may be detectable using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). However, whether global information sharing across brain areas also provides a specific signature of conscious state in awake but noncommunicating patients remains an active topic of research. We designed a novel measure termed "weighted symbolic mutual information" (wSMI) and applied it to 181 high-density EEG recordings of awake patients recovering from coma and diagnosed in various states of consciousness. The results demonstrate that this measure of information sharing systematically increases with consciousness state, particularly across distant sites. This effect sharply distinguishes patients in vegetative state (VS), minimally conscious state (MCS), and conscious state (CS) and is observed regardless of etiology and delay since insult. The present findings support distributed theories of conscious processing and open up the possibility of an automatic detection of conscious states, which may be particularly important for the diagnosis of awake but noncommunicating patients.

  19. The Methodology of Psychological Research of Ecological Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Shmeleva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the methodological principles of the psychological study of ecological consciousness as one of the urgent interdisciplinary problems of XX–XXI century, caused by the aggravation of global ecological problems and the need for the realization of the “sustainable development”ideas. Ecological consciousness is considered as multilayered, dynamic, reflexive element of human consciousness, incorporating multivariate, holistic aspects of interaction of the human being as the H.S. and the Humanity representative with the environment and the Planet. The possibility of the more active introduction of Russian psychology in the process is argued for in connection with the existing conceptual approaches, which compose the methodological basis for ecological consciousness research. Among these approaches are considered: the principles of holistic study of the human being by B. Ananyev, the methodology of system psychological description by V. Gansen and G. Sukhodolsky, the idea of reflexivity of consciousness by S. Rubinstein, the humanitarian- ecological imperative of the development of consciousness by V. Zinchenko, the theory of relations by V. Myasishev, consideration of ecological consciousness as relation to nature by S. Deryabo and V. Yasvin, theories of consciousness by V. Petrenko, V. Allakhverdov and other Russian psychologists. The value component of ecological consciousness is distinguished as the most significant. The possibility of applying the Values’ theory of the by S. Schwartz for studying the ecological values is discussed along with the prognostic potential of the universalism value.

  20. Study of Black Consciousness in A Raisin in The Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehana Kousar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This work explores Black Consciousness in A Raisin in the Sun by Hansberry. Black Consciousness elaborates an awareness of and pride in one’s identity as a black person. It analyzes A Raisin in the Sun by applying the theory of Black Consciousness under the perspective of Fanon. This study analysis the drama at three levels: sense of pride on black culture and identity, struggle against Apartheid and Blacks’ resolution to accept the challenges of White Community. Keywords: Black Consciousness, Apartheid, Identity, Culture, A Raisin in the Sun, cross – cultural studies, diasporic, African Literature

  1. THE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS BETWEEN PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Gil da Silva

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This text address the phenomenon of consciousness of individuals, performing a brief overview of the key elements to understand the process of political consciousness of Physical Education teachers. This is a larger study, which analyzes how is the teachers formation and political engagement, and in the limits of this article, we present the elements for the understanding of expressions of their political consciousness. It seeks to recover the "movement" of consciousness, since it believes that this is not something given and gravel, which can be seen without relating it to their development process, embedded in the history of its formation.

  2. Chronic disorders of consciousness following coma: Part one: medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, John M

    2013-10-01

    Increasing numbers of patients survive traumatic brain injury (TBI) and cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation and are admitted to the ICU in coma. Some of these patients become brain dead; others regain consciousness. Still others become vegetative or minimally conscious, conditions called chronic disorders of consciousness and ultimately are cared for outside the ICU. Comatose patients lack the wakefulness and awareness that distinguish consciousness from unconsciousness. Vegetative patients are awake in that they manifest sleep-wake cycles, but they are unaware of their environment and cannot respond to stimuli. Minimally conscious patients are awake, aware to a limited extent, and somewhat responsive. The diagnosis of the vegetative and minimally conscious states has been based largely on their behavioral and pathologic features, and it has been believed that vegetative patients remain in that condition permanently. Nevertheless, EEG and neuroimaging studies suggest that the traditional diagnostic approach is imprecise. Moreover, clinical investigations have revealed that some vegetative patients can become minimally conscious and that some minimally conscious patients can gain increased awareness. Few therapies for patients with chronic disorders of consciousness have been subjected to randomized trials. Furthermore, although a small number of patients have improved neurologically with or without treatment, their overall prognosis for neurologic recovery remains poor.

  3. Agglomeration of Celecoxib by Quasi Emulsion Solvent Diffusion Method: Effect of Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Maghsoodi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The quasi-emulsion solvent diffusion (QESD has evolved into an effective technique to manufacture agglomerates of API crystals. Although, the proposed technique showed benefits, such as cost effectiveness, that is considerably sensitive to the choice of a stabilizer, which agonizes from a absence of systemic understanding in this field. In the present study, the combination of different solvents and stabilizers were compared to investigate any connections between the solvents and stabilizers. Methods: Agglomerates of celecoxib were prepared by QESD method using four different stabilizers (Tween 80, HPMC, PVP and SLS and three different solvents (methyl acetate, ethyl acetate and isopropyl acetate. The solid state of obtained particles was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The agglomerated were also evaluated in term of production yield, distribution of particles and dissolution behavior. Results: The results showed that the effectiveness of stabilizer in terms of particle size and particle size distribution is specific to each solvent candidate. A stabilizer with a lower HLB value is preferred which actually increased its effectiveness with the solvent candidates with higher lipophilicity. HPMC appeared to be the most versatile stabilizer because it showed a better stabilizing effect compared to other stabilizers in all solvents used. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the efficiency of stabilizers in forming the celecoxib agglomerates by QESD was influenced by the HLB of the stabilizer and lipophilicity of the solvents.

  4. 75 FR 80040 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On November 23, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... vacant position on the Manufacturing Council (Council). The November 23, 2010 notice provided that all...

  5. 75 FR 30781 - Manufacturing Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... International Trade Administration Manufacturing Council AGENCY: International Trade Administration, U.S... Manufacturing Council. SUMMARY: On March 16, 2010, the Department of Commerce's International Trade... the Manufacturing Council (Council). The March 16, 2010 notice provided that all applications must be...

  6. Agile manufacturing concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Steven L.

    1994-03-01

    The initial conceptualization of agile manufacturing was the result of a 1991 study -- chaired by Lehigh Professor Roger N. Nagel and California-based entrepreneur Rick Dove, President of Paradigm Shifts, International -- of what it would take for U.S. industry to regain global manufacturing competitiveness by the early twenty-first century. This industry-led study, reviewed by senior management at over 100 companies before its release, concluded that incremental improvement of the current system of manufacturing would not be enough to be competitive in today's global marketplace. Computer-based information and production technologies that were becoming available to industry opened up the possibility of an altogether new system of manufacturing, one that would be characterized by a distinctive integration of people and technologies; of management and labor; of customers, producers, suppliers, and society.

  7. MEDICAL MANUFACTURING INNOVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosma Sorin Cosmin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of these studies was to improve the design and manufacturing process by selective laser melting, of new medical implants. After manufacturing process, the implants were measured, microscopically and mechanical analyzed. Implants manufactured by AM can be an attractive option for surface coatings to improve the osseointegration process. The main advantages of customized implants made by AM process are: the precise adaptation to the region of implantation, better cosmesis, reduced surgical times and better performance over their generic counterparts. These medical manufacturing changes the way that the surgeons are planning surgeries and engineers are designing custom implant. AM process has eliminated the constraints of shape, size, internal structure and mechanical properties making it possible for fabrication of implants that conform to the physical and mechanical requirements of implantation according to CT images. This article will review some custom implants fabricated in DME using biocompatible titanium.

  8. Manufacturing parabolic mirrors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    The photo shows the construction of a vertical centrifuge mounted on an air cushion, with a precision of 1/10000 during rotation, used for the manufacture of very high=precision parabolic mirrors. (See Annual Report 1974.)

  9. Manufacturing tolerant topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present an extension of the topology optimization method to include uncertainties during the fabrication of macro, micro and nano structures. More specifically, we consider devices that are manufactured using processes which may result in (uniformly) too thin (eroded) or too thick...... (dilated) structures compared to the intended topology. Examples are MEMS devices manufactured using etching processes, nano-devices manufactured using e-beam lithography or laser micro-machining and macro structures manufactured using milling processes. In the suggested robust topology optimization...... approach, under- and over-etching is modelled by image processing-based "erode" and "dilate" operators and the optimization problem is formulated as a worst case design problem. Applications of the method to the design of macro structures for minimum compliance and micro compliant mechanisms show...

  10. Many Manufactured Nanosats Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To achieve the capability to affordably produce scores of nano-spacecraft for envisioned constellation missions, a new manufacturing process is needed to reduce the...

  11. Plasma-aided manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.

    1993-12-01

    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  12. Additively Manufactured Propulsion System

    OpenAIRE

    Dushku, Matthew; Mueller, Paul

    2012-01-01

    New high-performance, carbon-fiber reinforced polymer material allows additive manufacturing to produce pressure vessels capable of high pressures (thousands of pounds per square inch). This advancement in turn allows integral hybrid propulsion which is revolutionary for both CubeSats and additively-manufactured spacecraft. Hybrid propulsion offers simplicity as compared to bipropellant liquid propulsion, significantly better safety compared to solid or monopropellant hydrazine propulsion, an...

  13. Connecting American Manufacturers (CAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    assessments and analyses focused on identifying the sources and criticality of manufacturing variability on high pressure turbine blade performance...to evaluate manufacturing variability as it relates to overall engine performance, whereas General Electric Aviation focused on airflow efficiency...VizSpace’s web crawlers extract opportunities nightly from various Federal, OEM and public and private sites and match and deliver them to suppliers. As a

  14. The consciousness state space (CSS – a unifying model for consciousness and self

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviva eBerkovich-Ohana

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience.Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively. CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature.The CSS dynamics includes two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlaying several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  15. The consciousness state space (CSS)-a unifying model for consciousness and self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich-Ohana, Aviva; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Every experience, those we are aware of and those we are not, is embedded in a subjective timeline, is tinged with emotion, and inevitably evokes a certain sense of self. Here, we present a phenomenological model for consciousness and selfhood which relates time, awareness, and emotion within one framework. The consciousness state space (CSS) model is a theoretical one. It relies on a broad range of literature, hence has high explanatory and integrative strength, and helps in visualizing the relationship between different aspects of experience. Briefly, it is suggested that all phenomenological states fall into two categories of consciousness, core and extended (CC and EC, respectively). CC supports minimal selfhood that is short of temporal extension, its scope being the here and now. EC supports narrative selfhood, which involves personal identity and continuity across time, as well as memory, imagination and conceptual thought. The CSS is a phenomenological space, created by three dimensions: time, awareness and emotion. Each of the three dimensions is shown to have a dual phenomenological composition, falling within CC and EC. The neural spaces supporting each of these dimensions, as well as CC and EC, are laid out based on the neuroscientific literature. The CSS dynamics include two simultaneous trajectories, one in CC and one in EC, typically antagonistic in normal experiences. However, this characteristic behavior is altered in states in which a person experiences an altered sense of self. Two examples are laid out, flow and meditation. The CSS model creates a broad theoretical framework with explanatory and unificatory power. It constructs a detailed map of the consciousness and selfhood phenomenology, which offers constraints for the science of consciousness. We conclude by outlining several testable predictions raised by the CSS model.

  16. Self-consciousness and social anxiety in youth: the Revised Self-Consciousness Scales for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takishima-Lacasa, Julie Y; Higa-McMillan, Charmaine K; Ebesutani, Chad; Smith, Rita L; Chorpita, Bruce F

    2014-12-01

    Despite the established relationship between self-consciousness (SC) and anxiety and depression in adults, there is a paucity of research examining SC in children and adolescents. We therefore sought to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of scores for a revised version of the Self-Consciousness Scales for Children, a measure of SC in youth. The Revised Self-Consciousness Scale for Children (R-SCS-C) was examined in 2 studies using a community sample of children and adolescents. In the 1st study, 1,207 youth (685 girls) ages 7 to 18 completed the R-SCS-C as well as measures of imaginary audience, anxiety, depression, and positive and negative affect. Results of an exploratory factor analysis of the R-SCS-C conducted on a randomly selected subsample (n = 603) supported a 3-factor solution, including the subscales of Public Self-Consciousness, Private Self-Consciousness, and Social Anxiety. A subsequent confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) conducted on the remaining half of the sample (n = 604) revealed that this model fit the data well. Additionally, subsequent multigroup CFAs by gender and age demonstrated good model fit across both gender and younger (ages 7 to 12 years) and older (ages 13 to 18 years) cohorts. In the 2nd study, 245 youth completed the R-SCS-C twice, approximately 2 weeks apart. The R-SCS-C scores in these samples demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity, and test-retest reliability. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  17. New strategic roles of manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Cheng; Johansen, John; Boer, Harry

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to view manufacturing from a new angle, and tries to look beyond fit, focus and trade-offs, approaches which may no longer be sufficient for long-term competitive success. Four cases from different industries are described and used to illustrate and discuss the possibility...... of manufacturing playing new strategic roles. Backward, forward and lateral interactive support are suggested to explicate how manufacturing can realize its new strategic roles. Finally, four new strategic roles of manufacturing are suggested. They are: innovation manufacturing, ramp-up manufacturing, primary...... manufacturing, and service manufacturing....

  18. Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetics Manufacturing Technology Center (EMTC), established in 1994 by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) Manufacturing Technology (ManTech) Program, is Navy...

  19. The first sign of loss of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whinnery, Typ; Forster, Estrella M

    2017-10-01

    The first clinically observable sign of an unconsciousness episode (UNCE) serves as the temporal sequence (kinetics) onset point for neurological events occurring during the loss of consciousness, unconsciousness and recovery of consciousness phases of the UNCE. The initial neurologic signs of 212 individuals exposed to gradual (N=114) and rapid (N=98) onset +Gz acceleration stress, inducing the ischemic LOC phase in 83.3±18.6s and 8.89±1.52s; p0.1 for gradual and rapid onset +Gz-stress, respectively. Cerebral autoregulation may play a role in determination of ischemic UNCE induction and recovery. Five signs: loss of muscle control, eyelid closure, eye fixation, upward eye deviation, and muscular twitching occurred at LOC phase onset. The most frequent initial sign of LOC phase onset was loss of muscle control (84% of the episodes), followed by eye fixation (8.5%), and upward eye deviation (6.1%). Signs play a key role in differential diagnosis of syncopal, epileptic, psychogenic and other causes of UNCEs. Sign kinetics may provide insight into localization of the essential components and networks within the cephalic nervous system associated with UNCEs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Change of inhabitants consciousness on air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, N.; Abe, K.; Komuro, K.; Oda, M.

    1972-11-01

    The consciousness of inhabitants in Isogo Ward, Yokohama City about air pollution was surveyed in 1969 and 1973. A group of industrial factories was partly in operation in 1969 but was in full operation by 1973. Fortunately there was very slight difference in sex ratio, age, occupation, health condition, and smoking habits of the objects between 1969 and 1973. The survey was performed by questionnaires consisting of 43 items. The percentage of positive answers to human impairments in 1969 and 1973 were: 38.7 and 34.2 experience of health damage; 8.1 and 5.4 of eye-irritation; 16.1 and 14.5 of throat-irritation; 5.8 and 13.6 of sneeze; 4.2 and 2.3 of snivel; 9.2 and 10.2 of cough; 3.6 and 17.1 of dyspnea; 5.4 and 7.4 of asthma; and 22.2 and 5.7 of odor. Generally, the largest source of air pollution in this area was auto exhaust followed by factory-exhaust, and the change of inhabitants consciousness about air pollution pointed out the situation. Most inhabitants were pessimistic about the future status of air pollution in the surveys in 1969 and also in 1973.

  1. Consciousness, cognition and brain networks: New perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldana, E M; Valverde, J L; Fábregas, N

    2016-10-01

    A detailed analysis of the literature on consciousness and cognition mechanisms based on the neural networks theory is presented. The immune and inflammatory response to the anesthetic-surgical procedure induces modulation of neuronal plasticity by influencing higher cognitive functions. Anesthetic drugs can cause unconsciousness, producing a functional disruption of cortical and thalamic cortical integration complex. The external and internal perceptions are processed through an intricate network of neural connections, involving the higher nervous activity centers, especially the cerebral cortex. This requires an integrated model, formed by neural networks and their interactions with highly specialized regions, through large-scale networks, which are distributed throughout the brain collecting information flow of these perceptions. Functional and effective connectivity between large-scale networks, are essential for consciousness, unconsciousness and cognition. It is what is called the "human connectome" or map neural networks. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Conscious perception of emotional stimuli: brain mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek G V; Greening, Steven G

    2012-08-01

    Emotional stimuli are thought to gain rapid and privileged access to processing resources in the brain. The structures involved in this enhanced access are thought to support subconscious, reflexive processes. Whether these pathways contribute to the phenomenological experience of emotional visual awareness (i.e., conscious perception) is unclear. In this review, it is argued that subcortical networks associated with the rapid detection of emotionally salient stimuli also play a key role in shaping awareness. This proposal is based on the idea that awareness of visual stimuli should be considered along a continuum, having intermediate levels, rather than as an all-or-none construct. It is also argued that awareness of emotional stimuli requires less input from frontoparietal structures that are often considered crucial for visual awareness. Evidence is also presented that implicates a region of the medial prefrontal cortex, involved in emotion regulation, in modulating amygdala output to determine awareness of emotional visual stimuli; when emotional stimuli are present, the conscious perception of alternative stimuli requires greater regulatory influences from cortical structures. Thus, emotional stimuli are privileged not only for neuronal representation and impact on subconscious processes, but also for awareness, allowing humans to deal flexibly rather than merely reflexively to biologically significant stimuli.

  3. Conscious experience and episodic memory: hippocampus at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Ralf-Peter

    2013-01-01

    If an instance of conscious experience of the seemingly objective world around us could be regarded as a newly formed event memory, much as an instance of mental imagery has the content of a retrieved event memory, and if, therefore, the stream of conscious experience could be seen as evidence for ongoing formation of event memories that are linked into episodic memory sequences, then unitary conscious experience could be defined as a symbolic representation of the pattern of hippocampal neuronal firing that encodes an event memory - a theoretical stance that may shed light into the mind-body and binding problems in consciousness research. Exceedingly detailed symbols that describe patterns of activity rapidly self-organizing, at each cycle of the θ rhythm, in the hippocampus are instances of unitary conscious experience that jointly constitute the stream of consciousness. Integrating object information (derived from the ventral visual stream and orbitofrontal cortex) with contextual emotional information (from the anterior insula) and spatial environmental information (from the dorsal visual stream), the hippocampus rapidly forms event codes that have the informational content of objects embedded in an emotional and spatiotemporally extending context. Event codes, formed in the CA3-dentate network for the purpose of their memorization, are not only contextualized but also allocentric representations, similarly to conscious experiences of events and objects situated in a seemingly objective and observer-independent framework of phenomenal space and time. Conscious perception, creating the spatially and temporally extending world that we perceive around us, is likely to be evolutionarily related to more fleeting and seemingly internal forms of conscious experience, such as autobiographical memory recall, mental imagery, including goal anticipation, and to other forms of externalized conscious experience, namely dreaming and hallucinations; and evidence pointing to

  4. Theoretical approaches to the diagnosis of altered states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boly, Melanie; Massimini, Marcello; Tononi, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Assessing the level of consciousness of noncommunicative brain-damaged patients is difficult, as one has to make inferences based on the patients' behavior. However, behavioral responses of brain-damaged patients are usually limited not only by their cognitive dysfunctions, but also by their frequent motor impairment. For these reasons, it is essential to resort to para-clinical markers of the level of consciousness. In recent years, a number of studies compared brain activity in comatose and vegetative state patients to that in healthy volunteers, and in other conditions of reduced consciousness such as sleep, anesthesia, or epileptic seizures. Despite the increasing amount of experimental results, no consensus on the brain mechanisms generating consciousness has yet been reached. Here, we discuss the need to combine a theoretical approach with current experimental procedures to obtain a coherent, parsimonious explanation for the loss of consciousness in several different conditions, such as coma, vegetative state, sleep, anesthesia, and epileptic seizures. In our view, without a theoretical account of how conscious experience is generated by the brain, it will remain difficult to understand the mechanisms underlying the generation of consciousness, and to predict reliably its presence or absence in noncommunicative brain-damaged patients. In this context, we review current theoretical approaches to consciousness, and how well they fit with current evidence on the neural correlates of experience. Specifically, we emphasize the principled approach provided by the Integrated Information Theory of Consciousness (IITC). We describe the different conditions where the theory predicts markedly reduced states of consciousness, and discuss several technical and conceptual issues limiting its applicability to measuring the level of consciousness of individual patients. Nevertheless, we argue that some of the predictions of the theory are potentially testable using available

  5. Which solvent for olfactory testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, C M; Goodenough, P C; Wolstenholme, C R; Murty, G E

    2004-12-01

    The physical properties of any carrier can deteriorate over time and thus alter the results in any olfactory test. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically potential solvents as a clean odourless carrier for olfactory testing. Sweet almond oil, pure coconut oil, pure peach kernel oil, dipropylene glycol, monopropylene glycol, mineral oil and silicone oil were studied. The experimentation was conducted in two parts. First, an olfactory device was used to conduct air through the solvents on a weekly basis using a cohort of six volunteers to assess the perceived odour of each solvent at weekly intervals. Secondly a cross-reference test was performed using small bottled solutions of phenylethyl-alcohol and 1-butanol in 10-fold dilutions to compare any perceived difference in concentrations over a period of 8 weeks. We concluded that mineral oil is the most suitable carrier for the purpose of olfactory testing, possessing many desirable characteristics of an olfactory solvent, and that silicone oil may provide a suitable alternative for odorants with which it is miscible.

  6. Pairing of Customer’ Satisfaction with Brand Consciousness and Price Sensitivity (A Feminine Study in Pakistan on Beauty Care Products’ selection, Use and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Ulfat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study targets the role of brand consciousness and price sensitivity in relation with satisfaction of females with their selected beauty care products. Data is collected from both working and non-working females via quota sampling primarily and convenience sampling as sub sampling. Responses of 108 females are collected via online Survey. In presented model, Satisfaction is appearing as dependent variable whereas Brand Consciousness and Price Sensitivity are appearing as independent variables. Gathered data is analyzed while using Correlation Coefficient and Multiple Linear Regression. Results indicate a strongest relation of brand consciousness and price sensitivity along with satisfaction and females association with their selected beauty care products. Significance of this research is that manufacturing companies can use its results in order to enhance their marketing related efforts regarding this category of their brands especially with the context of Pakistani females.

  7. Method for analyzing solvent extracted sponge core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellington, W.E.; Calkin, C.L.

    1988-11-22

    For use in solvent extracted sponge core measurements of the oil saturation of earth formations, a method is described for quantifying the volume of oil in the fluids resulting from such extraction. The method consists of: (a) separating the solvent/oil mixture from the water in the extracted fluids, (b) distilling at least a portion of the solvent from the solvent/oil mixture substantially without co-distillation or loss of the light hydrocarbons in the mixture, (c) determining the volume contribution of the solvent remaining in the mixture, and (d) determining the volume of oil removed from the sponge by substracting the determined remaining solvent volume.

  8. Manufacturing of solid dispersions of poorly water soluble drugs by spray drying: formulation and process considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Amrit; Worku, Zelalem Ayenew; Meeus, Joke; Guns, Sandra; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-08-30

    Spray drying is an efficient technology for solid dispersion manufacturing since it allows extreme rapid solvent evaporation leading to fast transformation of an API-carrier solution to solid API-carrier particles. Solvent evaporation kinetics certainly contribute to formation of amorphous solid dispersions, but also other factors like the interplay between the API, carrier and solvent, the solution state of the API, formulation parameters (e.g. feed concentration or solvent type) and process parameters (e.g. drying gas flow rate or solution spray rate) will influence the final physical structure of the obtained solid dispersion particles. This review presents an overview of the interplay between manufacturing process, formulation parameters, physical structure, and performance of the solid dispersions with respect to stability and drug release characteristics.

  9. The Role of Health-Conscious Decisions in Food Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erzsébet Peter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Rural Development in Hungary has set the goal of restoring the competitiveness of the domestic food industry among many others. They would like to contribute to the stable financing by facilitating borrowing loans as well as export financing the enterprises in the food industry. For the period between 2014 and 2020, 500 billion HUF subsidies have been allocated for the technical and technological modernization of businesses, for the increase of input efficiency as well as for research and development and trainings and consultancy. In order to do so it is essential to encourage the demand for Hungarian food products besides insuring workforce with up-to-date expertise and the supportive economic environment. The research mentions consumption figures based on food balances where the balances calculated for various food groups include food products and beverages converted into ingredients. The development of food consumption is negatively affected by the economic recession, the weather influencing cultivation significantly as well as the fall in consumption from private farming. Enterprises put great emphasis on prevention and on the good physical and mental condition of their colleagues with such organization of work that focuses on health since work can be more efficient by this means. The quality of the work environment influences the health condition both directly and indirectly. In case of micro- and small enterprises cafeteria plans as well as the visible elements of corporate culture are much more revealed thus contributing to more health-conscious food consumption in Zala County. In addition to the agricultural support of the sale of domestic food products, the government could stimulate the manufacturing of healthy products of local small-scale producers indirectly by reducing VAT for instance.

  10. Environmental Consciousness, Sustainability, and the Character of Philosophy of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnett, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that education itself, properly understood, is intimately concerned with an individual's being in the world, and therefore is ineluctably environmental. This is guaranteed by the ecstatic nature of consciousness. Furthermore, it is argued that a central dimension of this environment with which ecstatic human consciousness is…

  11. Self-Consciousness, Friendship Quality, and Adolescent Internalizing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowker, Julie C.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    The correlates between public and private self-consciousness and internalizing difficulties were examined during early adolescence. Friendship quality was assessed as a possible moderator of the relation between self-consciousness and maladjustment. One hundred and thirty-seven young adolescents (N = 87 girls; M age = 13.98 years) reported on…

  12. Thinking Ourselves to Liberation?: Advancing Sociopolitical Action in Critical Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Roderick J.; Hipolito-Delgado, Carlos P.

    2015-01-01

    Freire advanced critical consciousness as a tool for the liberation of oppressed communities. Based on his ideas, scholars of theory and practice from myriad disciplines have written about how to advance critical consciousness (CC) among oppressed peoples. We reviewed CC theory and practice articles in scholarly journals with the goal of…

  13. Social Class Dialogues and the Fostering of Class Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meredith

    2015-01-01

    How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…

  14. Ethical consciousness in auditing : a comparison of students and employees

    OpenAIRE

    Rong, Stine Mari Hilmarsen

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis has been to examine the difference in the level of consciousness towards ethics in auditing between students and employees, and further examine if the level of ethical consciousness comply with auditing standards. To examine the level of the different groups, a survey was conducted and distributed. The survey ...

  15. Avian reflex and electroencephalogram responses in different states of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandercock, Dale A; Auckburally, Adam; Flaherty, Derek; Sandilands, Victoria; McKeegan, Dorothy E F

    2014-06-22

    Defining states of clinical consciousness in animals is important in veterinary anaesthesia and in studies of euthanasia and welfare assessment at slaughter. The aim of this study was to validate readily observable reflex responses in relation to different conscious states, as confirmed by EEG analysis, in two species of birds under laboratory conditions (35-week-old layer hens (n=12) and 11-week-old turkeys (n=10)). We evaluated clinical reflexes and characterised electroencephalograph (EEG) activity (as a measure of brain function) using spectral analyses in four different clinical states of consciousness: conscious (fully awake), semi-conscious (sedated), unconscious-optimal (general anaesthesia), unconscious-sub optimal (deep hypnotic state), as well as assessment immediately following euthanasia. Jaw or neck muscle tone was the most reliable reflex measure distinguishing between conscious and unconscious states. Pupillary reflex was consistently observed until respiratory arrest. Nictitating membrane reflex persisted for a short time (reflex is a conservative measure of death in poultry. Using spectral analyses of the EEG waveforms it was possible to readily distinguish between the different states of clinical consciousness. In all cases, when birds progressed from a conscious to unconscious state; total spectral power (PTOT) significantly increased, whereas median (F50) and spectral edge (F95) frequencies significantly decreased. This study demonstrates that EEG analysis can differentiate between clinical states (and loss of brain function at death) in birds and provides a unique integration of reflex responses and EEG activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Convergent Inquiries: Gloria Anzaldua's "Mestiza" Consciousness and Critical Ethnography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Deborah

    Parallels in the thinking of Gloria Anzaldua as expressed in her work "Borderlands/La Frontera: The New Mestiza" (1987) about "mestiza" consciousness and the tasks of critical ethnography are explored. Ethnography, as it shifts toward the new paradigm of critical ethnography, can learn much from the consciousness Anzaldua projects for the mixed…

  17. How Consciousness-Raising Affects Intonation and Facilitates Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation about the relation between a student's conscious awareness of the structure of a sentence and the degree of his/her intonation accuracy as well as his/her reading comprehension. The research was done based on the hypothesis that: "if the students are made conscious of the infrastructure of lengthy…

  18. Consciousness as a definition of death: its appeal and complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, C

    1999-10-01

    A new formulation of death proposed in this study is based on the basic physiopathological mechanisms of consciousness generation in human beings. Two physiological components control conscious behavior: arousal and awareness (content of consciousness). We cannot simply differentiate and locate arousal as a function of the ascending reticular activating system and awareness as a function of the cerebral cortex. Substantial interconnections among the brainstem, subcortical structures and the neocortex, are essential for subserving and integrating both components of human consciousness. Therefore, consciousness does not bear a simple one-to-one relationship with higher or lower brain structures, because the physical substratum for consciousness is based on anatomy and physiology throughout the brain. This new account of human death is based on the irreversible loss of consciousness because it provides the key human attributes and the highest level of control in the hierarchy of integrating functions within the organism. The notion of consciousness as the ultimate integrative function is more consistent with the biologically-based systems than the more philosophically-based notions of personhood.

  19. Information Literacy Research: Dimensions of the Emerging Collective Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes the information literacy research territory represented by the emerging collective consciousness of its researchers. Proposes five dimensions of the collective consciousness and uses them to: reveal the character of the information literacy research territory which is in early stages of construction; show how different research approaches…

  20. States of Consciousness and State-Specific Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tart, Charles T.

    1972-01-01

    Proposes the development of state-specific sciences" to overcome the problems of scientifically studying altered states of consciousness induced by drugs or meditation from the paradigm of the ordinary consciousness state. The requirements of good observation, public nature of the observation, logical theorizing, and testing of theories by…